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Sample records for hydrated sodium calcium

  1. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  4. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  5. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  8. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  9. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  10. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. Generalized structural description of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate hydrate gels: the cross-linked substituted tobermorite model.

    PubMed

    Myers, Rupert J; Bernal, Susan A; San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John L

    2013-04-30

    Structural models for the primary strength and durability-giving reaction product in modern cements, a calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel, have previously been based solely on non-cross-linked tobermorite structures. However, recent experimental studies of laboratory-synthesized and alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders have indicated that the calcium-sodium aluminosilicate hydrate [C-(N)-A-S-H] gel formed in these systems can be significantly cross-linked. Here, we propose a model that describes the C-(N)-A-S-H gel as a mixture of cross-linked and non-cross-linked tobermorite-based structures (the cross-linked substituted tobermorite model, CSTM), which can more appropriately describe the spectroscopic and density information available for this material. Analysis of the phase assemblage and Al coordination environments of AAS binders shows that it is not possible to fully account for the chemistry of AAS by use of the assumption that all of the tetrahedral Al is present in a tobermorite-type C-(N)-A-S-H gel, due to the structural constraints of the gel. Application of the CSTM can for the first time reconcile this information, indicating the presence of an additional activation product that contains highly connected four-coordinated silicate and aluminate species. The CSTM therefore provides a more advanced description of the chemistry and structure of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate gel structures than that previously established in the literature. PMID:23534827

  12. Comparison of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and yeast cell wall on counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Shirley, R B; Dibner, J D; Uraizee, F; Officer, M; Kitchell, M; Vazquez-Anon, M; Knight, C D

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the efficacy of 2 types of adsorbents [hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS) vs. a combination of clay and yeast cell wall] in preventing aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 275 one-day-old birds were randomly divided into 11 treatments, with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The 11 treatments included 3 diets without any adsorbent containing either 0, 1, or 2 mg/kg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) plus 8 additional treatments employing 2 dietary levels of AFB1 (1 or 2 mg/kg), 2 different adsorbents [Solis (SO) and MTB-100 (MTB)], and 2 different levels of each absorbent (0.1 and 0.2%) in a 222 factorial arrangement. Solis is a mixture of different HSCAS and MTB is a combination of clay and yeast cell wall. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the 21-d study period. Body weight gain and feed intake were depressed and relative liver weight was increased in chicks fed AFB1 compared with the positive control (P<0.05). Severe liver damage was observed in chicks fed 2 mg/kg of AFB1 with lesions consistent with aflatoxicosis, including fatty liver and vacuolar degeneration. Serum glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca, P, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were reduced by AFB1 (P<0.05). The addition of either SO or MTB ameliorated the negative effects of 1 mg/kg of AFB1 on growth performance and liver damage (P<0.05). However, supplemental MTB failed to diminish the negative effects of 2 mg/kg of AFB1, whereas SO was more effective compared with MTB at 2 mg/kg of AFB1 (P<0.05). These data indicate that the HSCAS product effectively ameliorated the negative effect of AFB1 on growth performance and liver damage, whereas the yeast cell wall product was less effective especially at the higher AFB1 concentration. PMID:20852106

  13. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. . E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-07-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  14. Ab Initio Studies of Calcium Carbonate Hydration.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Berganza, Josue A; Diao, Yijue; Pamidighantam, Sudhakar; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M

    2015-11-25

    Ab initio simulations of large hydrated calcium carbonate clusters are challenging due to the existence of multiple local energy minima. Extensive conformational searches around hydrated calcium carbonate clusters (CaCO3nH2O for n = 1-18) were performed to find low-energy hydration structures using an efficient combination of Monte Carlo searches, density-functional tight binding (DFTB+) method, and density-functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level, or Mller-Plesset perturbation theory at the MP2 level. This multilevel optimization yields several low-energy structures for hydrated calcium carbonate. Structural and energetics analysis of the hydration of these clusters revealed a first hydration shell composed of 12 water molecules. Bond-length and charge densities were also determined for different cluster sizes. The solvation of calcium carbonate in bulk water was investigated by placing the explicitly solvated CaCO3nH2O clusters in a polarizable continuum model (PCM). The findings of this study provide new insights into the energetics and structure of hydrated calcium carbonate and contribute to the understanding of mechanisms where calcium carbonate formation or dissolution is of relevance. PMID:26505205

  15. Efficiency of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of graded levels of aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Horn, N; Applegate, T J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) adsorbent to ameliorate the adverse effects of 0.5 to 2 mg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg in broiler chicks. The study consisted of 8 dietary treatments, including 4 concentrations of AFB1 (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) with or without HSCAS (0.5%) fed to 8 replicate cages per diet (6 males chicks per cage) from 0 to 21 d of age. Cumulative feed intake, BW gain (P < 0.0001), and G:F (P = 0.004) of birds fed the 2 mg of AFB1/kg of diet were significantly lower in comparison with birds fed 0 to 1 mg of AFB1/kg. Relative liver weight was increased in the 2 mg of AFB1/kg group (P < 0.0001). Dietary HSCAS improved cumulative BW gain (main effect P = 0.06), particularly from 14 to 21 d of age (P = 0.037). Dietary HSCAS also reversed the increase in relative liver weight for birds fed AFB1 (P = 0.019). Dietary AFB1 negatively affected major serum parameters (albumin, total protein, globulin, phosphorus, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, and creatine phosphokinase), whereas supplementation with HSCAS partially alleviated the affected serum biochemistry. In addition, serum complement activity and liver gene expression were negatively affected by 2 mg of AFB1/kg. The HSCAS supplement increased the liver expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05). Results from this study indicate that dietary supplementation with HSCAS can effectively improve BW gain and partially ameliorate aflatoxicosis for broiler chicks fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. PMID:24894529

  16. Aggregation of Calcium Silicate Hydrate Nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Delhorme, Maxime; Labbez, Christophe; Turesson, Martin; Lesniewska, Eric; Woodward, Cliff E; Jönsson, Bo

    2016-03-01

    We study the aggregation of calcium silicate hydrate nanoplatelets on a surface by means of Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations at thermodynamic equilibrium. Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main component formed in cement and is responsible for the strength of the material. The hydrate is formed in early cement paste and grows to form platelets on the nanoscale, which aggregate either on dissolving cement particles or on auxiliary particles. The general result is that the experimentally observed variations in these dynamic processes generically called growth can be rationalized from interaction free energies, that is, from pure thermodynamic arguments. We further show that the surface charge density of the particles determines the aggregate structures formed by C-S-H and thus their growth modes. PMID:26859614

  17. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-09-01

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C3S, C2S) and aluminates (C3A, C4AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm-1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXD) that characterize how additives affect both the hydrated microstructure development and the original grain size. In particular, SPs alter the morphology of the hydrated phases, which no longer grow with the classic fibrillar structure on the grain surface, but nucleate in solution as globular structures. All this information converges in a quantitative, and at molecular level, description of the mechanisms involved in the setting process of one of the materials most widely used by human beings.

  18. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    SciTech Connect

    Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Hori, Akihiro; Higuchi, Takayuki; Winnefeld, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  19. The nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeffrey J.

    The nanostructure of C-S-H, the principle binding phase of hydrated cements in concrete, is examined through classical and spectroscopic methods such as solubility, 29Si MAS NMR, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). A more comprehensive understanding of the nanostructure is proposed. The central finding of this thesis is that variations in Ca/Si ratio, silicate structure, and Ca-OH content of C-S-H are systematically related to previously undiscovered variations in solubility in the CaO-SiO2-H 2O system at room temperature. These relationships show how C-S-H resembles disordered forms of the calcium silicate hydrate minerals 1.4-nm tobermorite [Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·8H 2O] and jennite [Ca9(Si6O18)(OH) 6·8H2O]. For example, in solids lacking Ca-OH groups, the structure resembles a purely tobermorite-like structure, which, when equilibrated in aqueous solutions saturated in Ca(OH)2, has a Ca/Si ratio of 1.5 and a minimum mean silicate chain length of 2; with increasing Ca-OH contents, the structure becomes increasingly jennite-like while showing higher Ca/Si ratios and higher mean chain lengths at saturation in Ca(OH)2. These relationships appear to reconcile the broad variations in the literature. 29Si NMR on concrete specimens aged 43--96 years show that the mean silicate chain length of C-S-H gel ultimately converges to a value of 5. With supporting evidence from chemical analysis and from high Ca-OH contents measured by INS, it is concluded that C-S-H gel formed in Ca3SiO5 pastes eventually equilibrates to a purely jennite-like structure. A Ca/Si ratio of 1.2 in C-S-H gel marks the composition at which Ca-OH groups are eliminated (or introduced) and below which spontaneous silicate polymerization occurs. Leaching studies on cement pastes show that when C-S-H is decalcified below Ca/Si ˜ 1.2, the induced silicate polymerization occurring in situ leads to macroscopic polymerization shrinkage. Cement pastes blended with high contents of mineral additions may be more susceptible to this mechanism. SANS measurements on leached Ca3SiO5 and cement pastes show dramatic variations in surface area with Ca/Si ratio. These variations are attributed to transformations between low- and high-density morphologies of C-S-H.

  20. Thermal stability of sodium salt hydrates for solar energy storage applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.K.; Jotshi, C.K.; Kumar, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Thermal stability of salt hydrates of sodium cation namely sodium hydroxide monohydrate, sodium acetate trihydrate, sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, sodium carbonate decahydrate, sodium sulfate decahydrate and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate has been evaluated at elevated temperatures using thermogravimetric technique. The energy of activation of dehydration of these salt hydrates have been reported. A new criterion based upon the ratio of percent water loss and energy of activation has been reported to determine the relative thermal stability of sodium salt hydrates.

  1. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  2. Incorporation of calcium salts into xanthan gum matrices: hydration, erosion and drug release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Groves, Emma; Chaw, Cheng Shu

    2015-01-01

    Xanthan gum (XG), a hydrophilic biopolymer with modified release properties, was used to produce directly compressed matrix tablets containing a model drug, sodium p-aminosalicylate. Three formulations were prepared, each containing a different calcium dihydrate salt: calcium chloride, calcium sulfate or dibasic calcium phosphate. The aim of the investigation was to relate the calcium ion content and solubility of the calcium salt to the in vitro drug release profile of the xanthan matrices. Tablet hydration, erosion and drug release were determined in distilled water using the British Pharmacopoeia (BP) paddle method. The data showed that the overall drug release was the greatest with addition of calcium sulfate, followed by calcium chloride and dibasic calcium phosphate. The chloride salt formulation displayed the greatest percentage erosion due to rapid mass loss during the initial phase, followed by those with sulfate or phosphate salts. As xanthan gel viscosity increased and drug release was also found to be lower, it can be concluded that drug release is influenced by the solubility of the salt present in the formulation, since these parameters determine the viscosity and structure of the gel layer. PMID:25371230

  3. Radiolysis and photolysis of sodium sulfate crystalline hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenchurina, A. R.; Sal'keeva, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    The thermal treatment of sodium sulfate was found to affect its optical and luminescent properties when activated with trivalent rare-earth ions. The influence of crystal water molecules on radiation processes in sodium sulfate was studied. The interactions of atomic hydrogen with ions and radicals were calculated by the semiempirical MNDO quantum-chemical method. The hydrogen atom was found to form stable complexes with all ions and radicals. The ions and radicals of the sulfate subsystem play the role of traps for hydrogen atoms and escape recombination, giving rise to recombination luminescence at 150 K during UV excitation of the crystalline hydrate.

  4. Sodium Removal from Hanford Waste Simulants Using Hydrated Antimony Pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.L.

    1999-11-18

    Sodium has been removed from each of the three Hanford waste simulants with Hydrated Antimony Pentoxide (HAP) to facilitate technetium measurement by ICP-MS. Technetium was successfully measured in simulants A and B with small dilutions of the simulants (10x). Matrix interference, probably due to organic components, prevented the accurate measurement of Tc in simulant C. HAP has been used for the selective removal of sodium from samples prior to radiochemical analysis.1-4 The analytical development section of SRTC has successfully used HAP to remove sodium from a simulated sample matrix of a SRS waste tank.5 This sample pretreatment method eliminated signal suppression caused by the 5 molar sodium matrix without affecting the concentration of Pt, Ru, and Re as measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). With this initial success, we decided to investigate the use of HAP to remove sodium from the three Hanford waste matrices prior to ICP-MS analysis of technetium. The results of this investigation are summarized in this report.

  5. Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, Adel; Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine; Frizon, Fabien

    2012-08-15

    Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

  6. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  11. Characterization and numerical modeling of calcium silicate hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Priscilla C.

    The microstructure of cement-based materials determines most of their macroscale properties, such as strength, permeability, drying shrinkage, and creep. As new types of cementitious materials are developed, it becomes increasingly important to develop predictive models that connect the microstructure of concrete to its macroscale behavior. Calcium silicate hydrate (C--S--H), the primary hydration product of cement, is responsible for most of the cohesive properties and durability of hardened concrete. This thesis demonstrates that by modeling the complex and variable nanostructure of C--S--H, it becomes possible to predict macroscale properties of cement and concrete. C--S--H can be viewed from the perspective of both colloidal science and granular mechanics. This thesis examines first the effect of humidity and drying rate on C--S--H morphology using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Micrographs indicate that the fibrillar structure commonly seen in an electron microscope is suppressed by drying cement paste very slowly. This characteristic, combined with experimental results from the literature, suggests that C--S--H is a discrete or particulate material. Using this information, a numerical model of C--S--H is introduced as an assemblage of discrete particles. Created using a self-designed autocatalytic growth algorithm, the model includes nanoscale material properties such as elastic modulus, particle friction, and cohesive surface charge. As nanoindentation simulations show, macroscale properties of hardened cement paste, notably its elastic indentation modulus and hardness, are quantitatively predicted by this model.

  12. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G.; León-Reina, L.; Aranda, M.A.G.; CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona ; Santacruz, I.

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Mechanical behavior of a composite interface: Calcium-silicate-hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palkovic, Steven D.; Moeini, Sina; Yip, Sidney; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2015-07-01

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) is a conceptual procedure historically used to assess shear behavior of defect-free crystalline structures through molecular dynamics or density functional theory simulations. We apply the GSF technique to the spatially and chemically complex quasi-layered structure of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the fundamental nanoscale binder within cementitious materials. A failure plane is enforced to calculate the shear traction-displacement response along a composite interface containing highly confined water molecules, hydroxyl groups, and calcium ions. GSF simulations are compared with affine (homogeneous) shear simulations, which allow strain to localize naturally in response to the local atomic environment. Comparison of strength and deformation behavior for the two loading methods shows the composite interface controls bulk shear deformation. Both models indicate the maximum shear strength of C-S-H exhibits a normal-stress dependency typical of cohesive-frictional materials. These findings suggest the applicability of GSF techniques to inhomogeneous structures and bonding environments, including other layered systems such as biological materials containing organic and inorganic interfaces.

  14. 75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES> Food and Drug Administration Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (Risendronate Sodium and Calcium Carbonate (Copackaged...) is announcing the determination that ACTONEL (risendronate sodium) Tablets, 75 milligrams (mg),...

  15. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A

    2015-05-01

    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 C are -74.50 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water. PMID:25827491

  16. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ju-hyuk; Oh, Jae Eun; Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2011-06-15

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (straetlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies.

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of uranium ions in calcium chloride hydrate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Nagai, T.; Shirai, O.; Sato, N.; Yamana, H.

    2010-03-01

    Redox reactions of tetravalent uranium ion in calcium chloride hexahydrate CaCl26H2O melt ([CaCl2] = 6.9 M) were studied electrochemically and spectrophotometrically. Cyclic voltammograms in CaCl26H2O melt containing UCl4 were measured with a pyro-graphite carbon working electrode. A cathodic peak corresponding to the reduction of U4+ to U3+ was observed, and it was found to be controlled by the diffusion of U4+ in the melt. Although the concentration of H+ in the melt was negligible, the redox reaction of U4+ was observed without the disturbance of hydrolysis. The formal potential of the U4+|U3+ couple was determined to be -0.483 0.005 V vs. NHE. The diffusion coefficient of U4+ in CaCl26H2O melt was determined to be 1.5 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 300 K. The anodic peak in the voltammogram was attributable to the oxidation of U4+ to UO22+, which was identified by using a technique based on the combination of electrolysis and spectrophotometry. Influences of the water content on chemical status of uranium ions in CaCl2 hydrate melts were studied.

  18. Effect of sodium gluconate on the solubility of calcium lactate.

    PubMed

    Phadungath, C; Metzger, L E

    2011-10-01

    Calcium and lactate are present in excess of their solubility in Cheddar cheese. Consequently, calcium lactate crystals (CLC) are a common defect in Cheddar cheese. A novel approach for preventing CLC is the addition of sodium gluconate. Sodium gluconate has the potential to increase the solubility of calcium and lactate by forming soluble complexes with calcium and lactate ions, and preventing them from being available for the formation of CLC. The objective of this study was to determine if sodium gluconate could increase the solubility of calcium lactate (CaL(2)). Seven CaL(2) solutions (5.31% wt/wt) with 7 levels of sodium gluconate (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4% wt/wt) were made in triplicate. Solutions were stored at 7 C for 21 d, and were visually inspected for CLC formation. Subsequently, they were filtered to remove CLC and the supernatant was analyzed for lactic acid and gluconic acid by HPLC and for calcium by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The visual inspection demonstrated that CLC were formed in the solution with 0% gluconate after the first day of storage and CLC continued to accumulate over time. A minute amount of CLC was also visible in the solution with 0.5% gluconate after 21 d of storage, whereas CLC were not visible in the other solutions. The HPLC results indicated a higher concentration of calcium and lactic acid in the filtrate from the solutions containing added gluconate. Thus, sodium gluconate can increase the solubility of CaL(2). PMID:21943735

  19. Incompatibility of ceftriaxone sodium with calcium-containing products.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yuka; Tokuyama, Emi; Yoshida, Miyako; Uchida, Takahiro

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incompatibility of ceftriaxone with calcium-containing products, which had been the subject of an ALERT issued by the FDA. The influence of calcium ion concentration, storage temperature and shaking on the appearance and quantity of insoluble microparticles in mixtures of the two was examined using a light obscuration particle counter and a stereomicroscope. Appropriate volumes of 2% (w/v) calcium chloride solution were added to ceftriaxone sodium for injection (10 mg/ml) to make solutions with final calcium ion concentrations of 0.5-2.5 mmol/l, and stored at 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, or 30 degrees C. The number of insoluble microparticles increased on storage when the calcium ion concentration of the sample was > or =2 mmol/l; it exceeded the permissible range at all temperatures by 1 h. The microparticles had a greater diameter at higher temperatures, although fewer microparticles were observed. The weight of precipitate increased as a function of both the calcium ion concentration and the temperature. The number of microparticles was also significantly increased by shaking. The number of microparticles in mixtures containing 1000 microg/ml ceftriaxone was significantly increased, even though concentrations of calcium ion was 1.25 mmol/l. Overall, not only calcium ion concentration, but storage temperature and shaking affected the extent of precipitation of ceftriaxone with calcium. PMID:19881211

  20. Intrinsic differences in atomic ordering of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrates in conventional and alkali-activated cements

    SciTech Connect

    White, Claire E.; Daemen, Luke L.; Hartl, Monika; Page, Katharine

    2015-01-15

    The atomic structures of calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) and calcium (–sodium) aluminosilicate hydrate (C–(N)–A–S–H) gels, and their presence in conventional and blended cement systems, have been the topic of significant debate over recent decades. Previous investigations have revealed that synthetic C–S–H gel is nanocrystalline and due to the chemical similarities between ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based systems and low-CO{sub 2} alkali-activated slags, researchers have inferred that the atomic ordering in alkali-activated slag is the same as in OPC–slag cements. Here, X-ray total scattering is used to determine the local bonding environment and nanostructure of C(–A)–S–H gels present in hydrated tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S), blended C{sub 3}S–slag and alkali-activated slag, revealing the large intrinsic differences in the extent of nanoscale ordering between C–S–H derived from C{sub 3}S and alkali-activated slag systems, which may have a significant influence on thermodynamic stability, and material properties at higher length scales, including long term durability of alkali-activated cements.

  1. Identification of binding peptides on calcium silicate hydrate: a novel view on cement additives.

    PubMed

    Picker, Andreas; Nicoleau, Luc; Nonat, Andr; Labbez, Christophe; Clfen, Helmut

    2014-02-01

    Phage display experiments on industrially important calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main hydration product of ordinary Portland cement, suggest fundamentally different specific binding motifs compared to hitherto existing commercial cement additives. According to that, a strong and specific adsorbing additive on C-S-H should have three features which are a negative charge, H-bond formers (especially amide functions) and a hydrophobic part. PMID:24535972

  2. Quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering on hydrated calcium silicate pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraone, Antonio; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2004-08-01

    Using the inverse geometry spectrometer QENS at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source of the Argonne National Laboratory, we collected quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of hydrated tricalcium and dicalcium silicate, the main components of ordinary Portland cement. Data were obtained at different curing time, from a few hours to several months. Both the quasielastic and inelastic spectra have been analyzed at the same time according to the relaxing cage model, which is a model developed to describe the dynamics of water at supercooled temperatures. Short-time and long-time dynamics of hydration water in hydrated cement pastes as a function of the curing time have been simultaneously obtained. The results confirm the findings reported in previous experiments showing that it is possible to fit consistently the quasielastic and inelastic spectra giving insights on the effect of the curing time on the short-time vibrational dynamics of hydration water.

  3. Mass density and water content of saturated never-dried calcium silicate hydrates.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Julio C; Trtik, Pavel; Diaz, Ana; Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Raabe, Jörg; Bunk, Oliver; Menzel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) are the most abundant hydration products in ordinary Portland cement paste. Yet, despite the critical role they play in determining mechanical and transport properties, there is still a debate about their density and exact composition. Here, the site-specific mass density and composition of C-S-H in hydrated cement paste are determined with nanoscale resolution in a nondestructive approach. We used ptychographic X-ray computed tomography in order to determine spatially resolved mass density and water content of the C-S-H within the microstructure of the cement paste. Our findings indicate that the C-S-H at the border of hydrated alite particles possibly have a higher density than the apparent inner-product C-S-H, which is contrary to the common expectations from previous works on hydrated cement paste. PMID:25794183

  4. Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica

    SciTech Connect

    Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang; Braeu, Michael; Breu, Josef

    2013-02-15

    A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

  5. Accelerated growth of calcium silicate hydrates: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoleau, Luc

    2011-12-15

    Despite the usefulness of isothermal calorimetry in cement analytics, without any further computations this brings only little information on the nucleation and growth of hydrates. A model originally developed by Garrault et al. is used in this study in order to simulate hydration curves of cement obtained by calorimetry with different known hardening accelerators. The limited basis set of parameters used in this model, having a physical or chemical significance, is valuable for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying in the acceleration of C-S-H precipitation. Alite hydration in presence of four different types of hardening accelerators was investigated. It is evidenced that each accelerator type plays a specific role on one or several growth parameters and that the model may support the development of new accelerators. Those simulations supported by experimental observations enable us to follow the formation of the C-S-H layer around grains and to extract interesting information on its apparent permeability.

  6. Enhanced growth of methane-propane clathrate hydrate crystals with sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, and sodium hexadecyl sulfate surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoslim, Jeffry; Linga, Praveen; Englezos, Peter

    2010-12-01

    In the present study the effect of three commercially available anionic surfactants on the hydrate growth from a gas mixture of 90.5 mol% methane/9.5 mol% propane mixture was investigated. The surfactants used were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), and sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS). The morphology of the growing crystals and the gas consumption were observed during the experiments. The results showed that in the presence of surfactants, branches of porous fibre-like crystals were formed instead of dendritic crystals formed in the absence of any additive. In addition, extensive hydrate crystal growth on the crystallizer walls and a "mushy" hydrate layer instead of a thin crystal film appeared at the gas/water interface. Finally, the addition of SDS with concentration range between 242 and 2200 ppm (Δ T=13.1 K) was found to increase the mole consumption for hydrate formation by approximately 14 times compared to pure water. This increase is related to the change in hydrate morphology, whereby a more porous hydrate forms with enhanced water/gas contacts.

  7. Aqueous solutions of calcium ions: hydration numbers and the effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2005-11-01

    Hydration numbers of calcium ions are determined from extensive measurements of colligative properties of water solutions of calcium salts. The hydration numbers reported refer to the average number of water molecules that are bound sufficiently strongly to calcium ions so as to be removed from the solvent and become part of the solute. Contrary to common descriptions of deviations from ideal behavior for concentrated solutions, ideal behavior is demonstrated when mole fractions are calculated by taking account of such bound water. Measurements over wide concentration and temperature ranges are used to obtain the effect of temperature on the average hydration number of Ca(2+). Freezing point depression measurements yield a hydration number of 12.0 +/- 0.8. Boiling point elevations yield 6.7 +/- 0.6. Consistent with this, vapor pressure measurements from 0 to 200 degrees C show a gradual decrease in hydration number with increasing temperature, with a value of 5.0 at 200 degrees C. PMID:16853671

  8. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin... Certain Food Additives § 180.37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. The food additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin may...

  9. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin... Certain Food Additives § 180.37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. The food additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin may...

  10. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin... Certain Food Additives § 180.37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. The food additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin may...

  11. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin... Certain Food Additives § 180.37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. The food additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin may...

  12. Synaptosomal calcium influx is activated by sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Jope, R.S.; Lally, K.M.

    1988-03-15

    Neuronal calcium channels can be modulated by changes in membrane potential or by activation of channel-associated receptors. The latter may be modulated by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. NaF, which activates guanine nucleotide binding proteins, caused a large stimulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ uptake by synaptosomes prepared from rat brain. Stimulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx by NaF (i) was apparent in media containing either 5 mM-K+ or 50 mM-K+, (ii) was slower than the fast-phase of voltage-dependent /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx but continued for a longer period of time than did depolarization-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ influx, and (iii) was not mimicked or modified by a number of drugs, including ouabain, dinitrophenol, sodium azide or sodium vanadate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NaF activates a guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with receptor-coupled calcium channels, resulting in stimulation of calcium influx.

  13. Tracking Drug Loading Capacities of Calcium Silicate Hydrate Carrier: A Comparative X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structures Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wu, Jin; Yiu, Yun-Mui; Hu, Yongfeng; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2015-08-01

    Mesoporous spheres of calcium silicate hydrate (MS-CSH) have been prepared by an ultrasonic method. Following an earlier work in which we have revealed the interactions between ibuprofen (IBU) and CSH carriers with different morphologies by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) analysis. In the present investigation, two new drug molecules, alendronate sodium (ALN) and gentamicin sulfate (GS), were incorporated into MS-CSH, and their drug loading capacities (DLCs) were measured using thermogravimetric analysis to establish the relationship between drug-carrier interactions and DLCs. The XANES spectra clearly indicate that acidic functional groups of the drug molecules linked to the active sites (Ca-OH and Si-OH groups) of MS-CSH on the surface by electrostatic interactions. In addition, it is found that the stoichiometric ratio of Ca(2+) ions of CSH carriers and the functional groups of drug molecules may significantly influence the DLCs. PMID:26162602

  14. Crystal chemistry and structure refinement of five hydrated calcium borates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.R.; Appleman, D.E.; Christ, C.L.

    1964-01-01

    The crystal structures of the five known members of the series Ca2B6O11??xH2O (x = 1, 5, 5, 7, 9, and 13) have been refined by full-matrix least-squares techniques, yielding bond distances and angles with standard errors of less than 0??01 A?? and 0??5??, respectively. The results illustrate the crystal chemical principles that govern the structures of hydrated borate compounds. The importance of hydrogen bonding in the ferroelectric transition of colemanite is confirmed by more accurate proton assignments. ?? 1964.

  15. Effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin on the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Tawashi, R; Cousineau, M; Sharkawi, M

    1980-09-01

    We induced the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in rat kidney by intraperitoneal administration of 4-hydroxy-L-proline or sodium oxalate and studied the amounts and size distribution characteristics of the deposited crystals. Intravenous administration of sodium copper chlorophyllin inhibited the deposition and growth of calcium oxalate crystals induced by 4-hydroxy-L-proline or sodium oxalate. This finding may be of importance in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:7053081

  16. Controlling local packing and growth in calcium-silicate-hydrate gels.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2014-02-28

    We investigate the development of gels under out-of-equilibrium conditions, such as calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gels that form during cement hydration and are the major factor responsible for cement mechanical strength. We propose a new model and numerical approach to follow the gel formation upon precipitation and aggregation of nano-scale colloidal hydrates, whose effective interactions are consistent with forces measured in experiments at fixed lime concentrations. We use Grand Canonical Monte Carlo to mimic precipitation events during Molecular Dynamics simulations, with their rate corresponding to the hydrate production rate set by the chemical environment. Our results display hydrate precipitation curves that indeed reproduce the acceleration and deceleration regime typically observed in experiments and we are able to correctly capture the effect of lime concentration on the hydration kinetics and the gel morphology. Our analysis of the evolution of the gel morphology indicates that the acceleration is related to the formation of an optimal local crystalline packing that allows for large, elongated aggregates to grow and that is controlled by the underlying thermodynamics. The defects produced during precipitation favor branching and gelation that end up controlling the deceleration. The effects on the mechanical properties of C-S-H gels are also discussed. PMID:24652466

  17. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide). PMID:26867107

  18. The control by internal calcium of membrane permeability to sodium and potassium

    PubMed Central

    Romero, P. J.; Whittam, R.

    1971-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the relationship between the concentration of internal calcium and the permeability of human red cell membranes to sodium and potassium. 2. Fresh red cells contain very little calcium, but after being depleted of ATP by ageing they took up calcium from Ringer solution. The entry was unaffected by external sodium and potassium but was markedly pH dependent. When supplied with energy, calcium-loaded cells actively extruded calcium by a saturable process which was also unaffected by the distribution of sodium and potassium across the membranes. The activity of the calcium pump was sufficient to maintain the low internal concentration found under physiological conditions. 3. Raising internal calcium in metabolically poor cells caused a loss of cell potassium which was greater than the concomitant sodium gain. These changes were reversed when ATP was supplied. External calcium had no effect. The increase in permeability to sodium and potassium was enhanced by the simultaneous addition of fluoride, and, even more so, of iodoacetate. These inhibitors had no effect on membrane permeability unless calcium was also present. Inosine potentiated the action of fluoride and iodoacetate in causing potassium loss, by allowing more calcium to enter the cells. 4. The results suggest that the permeability of human red cell membranes to sodium and potassium is regulated by internal calcium, which in turn is controlled by a calcium pump that utilizes ATP. PMID:4996367

  19. Santaclaraite, a new calcium-manganese silicate hydrate from California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erd, Richard C.; Ohashi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Santaclaraite, ideally CaMn4(Si5O14(OH))(OH).H2O, occurs as pink and tan veins and masses in Franciscan chert in the Diablo Range, Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties, California. It is associated with four unidentified Mn silicates, Mn-howieite, quartz, braunite, calcite, rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, baryte, harmotome, chalcopyrite and native copper. Santaclaraite is triclinic, space group B1, a 15.633(1), b 7.603(1) , c 12.003(1) A, alpha 109.71(1)o, beta 88.61(1)o, gamma 99.95(1) o, V 1322.0(3) A3; Z = 4. The strongest lines of the X-ray pattern are 7.04(100), 3.003(84), 3.152(80), 7.69(63), 3.847(57) A. Crystals are lamellar to prismatic (flattened on (100)), with good cleavage on (100) and (010); H. 61/2 Dcalc. 3.398 g/cm3, Dmeas. 3.31 (+ or -0.01); optically biaxial negative, alpha 1.681, beta 1.696, gamma 1.708 (all + or - 0.002), 2Valpha 83 (+ or -1)o. Although chemically a hydrated rhodonite, santaclaraite dehydrates to Mn-bustamite at approx 550oC (in air) . Santaclaraite is a five-tetrahedral-repeat single-chain silicate and has structural affinities with rhodonite, nambulite, marsturite, babingtonite and inesite.-J.A.Z.

  20. Dynamic behavior of hydration water in calcium-silicate-hydrate gel: a quasielastic neutron scattering spectroscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Fratini, Emiliano; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Baglioni, Piero; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-12-01

    The translational dynamics of hydration water confined in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel was studied by quasielastic neutron scattering spectroscopy in the temperature range from 280 to 230 K. The stretch exponent ?, the self-diffusion constant D, the average translational relaxation time {?}, and the temperature dependence of confinement radius ? extracted from the elastic fraction of immobile water molecules p(Q) were obtained from the analyses of the low-Q spectra according to the relaxing cage model. Measurements were made using C-S-H of three different water contents, 10%, 17%, and 30%. Among the three samples of C-S-H gel with different water contents, the values of ? decrease with increasing water contents, while ? increases. The values of D and {?} are insensitive to temperature for the two lower water contents, as opposed to the 30% case where a slight variation is observed. The trend for violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation is only visible in the case of 30% water content. PMID:23367956

  1. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  2. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  3. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  5. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  6. Calcium disodium hexathiodiphosphate(IV) octahydrate

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Claus; Gjikaj, Mimoza

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, CaNa2(P2S6)8H2O, were obtained by adding calcium hydroxide to an aqueous solution of Na4(P2S6)6H2O. The structure is isotypic with that of its strontium analogue and consists of one Ca2+ cation, two Na+ cations, one-half of a centrosymmetric (P2S6)4? anion with staggered confirmation and four water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure can be described as being built up from layers of cations and anions extending parallel to (101). Within a layer, each CaO8 polyhedron is connected via edge-sharing to two NaO4S2 octahedra and to one NaO2S4 octaedron. The NaO4S2 octahedra are, in turn, linked with two (P2S6)4? anions through common corners. Various OH?S hydrogen-bonding interactions lead to cohesion of adjacent layers. The Ca2+ and one Na+ cation are situated on a twofold rotation axis and the second Na+ cation is situated on an inversion centre. PMID:21588077

  7. Calcium disodium hexa-thio-diphosphate(IV) octa-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Claus; Gjikaj, Mimoza

    2010-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, CaNa(2)(P(2)S(6))8H(2)O, were obtained by adding calcium hydroxide to an aqueous solution of Na(4)(P(2)S(6))6H(2)O. The structure is isotypic with that of its strontium analogue and consists of one Ca(2+) cation, two Na(+) cations, one-half of a centrosymmetric (P(2)S(6))(4-) anion with staggered confirmation and four water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure can be described as being built up from layers of cations and anions extending parallel to (101). Within a layer, each CaO(8) polyhedron is connected via edge-sharing to two NaO(4)S(2) octa-hedra and to one NaO(2)S(4) octa-edron. The NaO(4)S(2) octa-hedra are, in turn, linked with two (P(2)S(6))(4-) anions through common corners. Various O-H?S hydrogen-bonding inter-actions lead to cohesion of adjacent layers. The Ca(2+) and one Na(+) cation are situated on a twofold rotation axis and the second Na(+) cation is situated on an inversion centre. PMID:21588077

  8. Small molecules targeting sodium and calcium channels for neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Bear, Brian; Asgian, Juliana; Termin, Andreas; Zimmermann, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    Neuropathic pain is a chronic disease, which impacts millions of individuals worldwide. The condition is currently treated with several drugs that provide pain relief that is inconsistent and complicated by CNS or cardiovascular (CV) side effects. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are of particular interest as targets for neuropathic pain because they control electrical signals in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Recent research has demonstrated that the expression of voltage-gated ion channels changes significantly under conditions of neuropathic pain in rodents and humans. Selective modulation of the channels involved in the pathology of the disease, while sparing the channels that are essential for normal nociception, offers promising opportunities for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent developments of small molecules that target VGSCs and VGCCs. PMID:19562650

  9. Composition and density of nanoscale calcium-silicate-hydrate in cement.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Thomas, Jeffrey J; Jennings, Hamlin M

    2007-04-01

    Although Portland cement concrete is the world's most widely used manufactured material, basic questions persist regarding its internal structure and water content, and their effect on concrete behaviour. Here, for the first time without recourse to drying methods, we measure the composition and solid density of the principal binding reaction product of cement hydration, calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel, one of the most complex of all gels. We also quantify a nanoscale calcium hydroxide phase that coexists with C-S-H gel. By combining small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, and by exploiting the hydrogen/deuterium neutron isotope effect both in water and methanol, we determine the mean formula and mass density of the nanoscale C-S-H gel particles in hydrating cement. We show that the formula, (CaO)1.7(SiO2)(H2O)1.80, and density, 2.604 Mg m(-3), differ from previous values for C-S-H gel, associated with specific drying conditions. Whereas previous studies have classified water within C-S-H gel by how tightly it is bound, in this study we classify water by its location-with implications for defining the chemically active (C-S-H) surface area within cement, and for predicting concrete properties. PMID:17384634

  10. Composition and density of nanoscale calcium-silicate-hydrate in cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Andrew J.; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2007-04-01

    Although Portland cement concrete is the world's most widely used manufactured material, basic questions persist regarding its internal structure and water content, and their effect on concrete behaviour. Here, for the first time without recourse to drying methods, we measure the composition and solid density of the principal binding reaction product of cement hydration, calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel, one of the most complex of all gels. We also quantify a nanoscale calcium hydroxide phase that coexists with C-S-H gel. By combining small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, and by exploiting the hydrogen/deuterium neutron isotope effect both in water and methanol, we determine the mean formula and mass density of the nanoscale C-S-H gel particles in hydrating cement. We show that the formula, (CaO)1.7(SiO2)(H2O)1.80, and density, 2.604Mgm-3, differ from previous values for C-S-H gel, associated with specific drying conditions. Whereas previous studies have classified water within C-S-H gel by how tightly it is bound, in this study we classify water by its location-with implications for defining the chemically active (C-S-H) surface area within cement, and for predicting concrete properties.

  11. Type IIc SodiumDependent Phosphate Transporter Regulates Calcium Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Hiroko; Onitsuka, Akemi; Kuwahata, Masashi; Hanabusa, Etsuyo; Furutani, Junya; Kaneko, Ichiro; Tomoe, Yuka; Aranami, Fumito; Matsumoto, Natsuki; Ito, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Li, Minqi; Amizuka, Norio; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Primary renal inorganic phosphate (Pi) wasting leads to hypophosphatemia, which is associated with skeletal mineralization defects. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding the type IIc sodiumdependent phosphate transporter lead to hereditary hypophophatemic rickets with hypercalciuria, but whether Pi wasting directly causes the bone disorder is unknown. Here, we generated Npt2c-null mice to define the contribution of Npt2c to Pi homeostasis and to bone abnormalities. Homozygous mutants (Npt2c?/?) exhibited hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels, but they did not develop hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, renal calcification, rickets, or osteomalacia. The increased levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Npt2c?/? mice compared with age-matched Npt2c+/+ mice may be the result of reduced catabolism, because we observed significantly reduced expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D24-hydroxylase mRNA but no change in 1?-hydroxylase mRNA levels. Enhanced intestinal absorption of calcium (Ca) contributed to the hypercalcemia and increased urinary Ca excretion. Furthermore, plasma levels of the phosphaturic protein fibroblast growth factor 23 were significantly decreased in Npt2c?/? mice. Sodium-dependent Pi co-transport at the renal brush border membrane, however, was not different among Npt2c+/+, Npt2c+/?, and Npt2c?/? mice. In summary, these data suggest that Npt2c maintains normal Ca metabolism, in part by modulating the vitamin D/fibroblast growth factor 23 axis. PMID:19056871

  12. The coexistence of geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate at the early stage of alkaline activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, C.K.; Lukey, G.C.; Deventer, J.S.J. van . E-mail: jannie@unimelb.edu.au

    2005-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the effects of the addition of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metakaolin (MK) based geopolymers. It was found that it is possible to have geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel forming simultaneously within a single binder. The coexistence of these two phases is dependent on the alkalinity of the alkali activator and the MK / GGBFS mass ratio. It has been found that the formation of CSH gel together with the geopolymeric gel occurs only in a system at low alkalinity. In the presence of high concentrations of NaOH (> 7.5 M), the geopolymeric gel is the predominant phase formed with small calcium precipitates scattered within the binder. The coexistence of the two phases is not observed unless a substantial amount of a reactive calcium source is present initially. It is thought that voids and pores within the geopolymeric binder become filled with the CSH gel. This helps to bridge the gaps between the different hydrated phases and unreacted particles; thereby resulting in the observed increase in mechanical strength for these binders.

  13. Impact of hydration state and molecular oxygen on the chemical stability of levothyroxine sodium.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mazen Lee; Engen, William; Morris, Kenneth R

    2015-05-01

    Levothyroxine sodium is an important medication used primarily for treating patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine sodium tablets have been recalled many times since their 1955 introduction to the US market. These recalls resulted from the failure of lots to meet their content uniformity and potency specifications. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the chemical stability of levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate is compromised upon exposing the dehydrated substance to molecular oxygen. The impact of temperature, oxygen and humidity storage conditions on the stability of solid-state levothyroxine sodium was examined. After exposure to these storage conditions for selected periods of time, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantify the formation of impurities. The results showed that levothyroxine sodium samples degraded significantly over a 32-day test period when subjected to dry conditions in the presence of molecular oxygen. However, dehydrated samples remained stable when oxygen was removed from the storage chamber. Furthermore, hydrated samples were stable in the presence of oxygen and in the absence of oxygen. These results reveal conditions that will degrade levothyroxine sodium pentahydrate and elucidate measures that can be taken to stabilize the drug substance. PMID:24295156

  14. On the nature of structural disorder in calcium silicate hydrates with a calcium/silicon ratio similar to tobermorite

    SciTech Connect

    Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Lerouge, Catherine; Warmont, Fabienne; Sato, Tsutomu; Anraku, Sohtaro; Linard, Yannick

    2013-10-15

    Four calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) with structural calcium/silicon (Ca/Si) ratios ranging from 0.82 0.02 to 0.87 0.02 were synthesized at room temperature, 50, 80, and 110 C. Their structure was elucidated by collating information from electron probe micro-analysis, transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A modeling approach specific to defective minerals was used because sample turbostratism prevented analysis using usual XRD refinement techniques (e.g. Rietveld analysis). It is shown that C-S-H with Ca/Si ratio of ? 0.8 are structurally similar to nano-crystalline turbostratic tobermorite, a naturally occurring mineral. Their structure thus consists of sheets of calcium atoms in 7-fold coordination, covered by ribbons of silicon tetrahedra with a dreierketten (wollastonite-like) organization. In these silicate ribbons, 0.42 Si per bridging tetrahedron are missing. Random stacking faults occur systematically between successive layers (turbostratic stacking). Layer-to-layer distance is equal to 11.34 . Crystallites have a mean size of 10 nm in the ab plane, and a mean number of 2.62.9 layers stacked coherently along the c* axis.

  15. Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: Evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.

    PubMed

    Censi, Roberta; Rascioni, Riccardo; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen particles by liquid nitrogen and by the grinding forces that created a close contact between water and drug. The simultaneous disruption of the crystals, occurring during grinding, and their close contact with water molecules promoted the conversion in higher hydrates. Under the Method D, it was possible to highlight a certain tendency to hydration probably due to a rearrangement of water already present into the hydrates, but results were substantially different from Method B. Thus, summarizing, the different SN forms behave differently under different grinding and environmental conditions. PMID:25796350

  16. Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission.

    PubMed

    Tsong, I S; Houser, C A; Yusef, N A; Messier, R F; White, W B; Michels, J W

    1978-07-28

    The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the phenomena underlying the obsidian hydration dating technique. PMID:17793728

  17. Hydration Status and Sodium Balance of Endurance Runners Consuming Postexercise Supplements of Varying Nutrient Content.

    PubMed

    Pryor, J Luke; Johnson, Evan C; Del Favero, Jeffery; Monteleone, Andrew; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Rodriguez, Nancy R

    2015-10-01

    Postexercise protein and sodium supplementation may aid recovery and rehydration. Preserved beef provides protein and contains high quantities of sodium that may alter performance related variables in runners. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a commercial beef product postexercise on sodium and water balance. A secondary objective was to characterize effects of the supplementation protocols on hydration, blood pressure, body mass, and running economy. Eight trained males (age = 22 3 y, VO2max = 66.4 4.2 mlkg-1min-1) completed three identical weeks of run training (6 runwk-1, 45 6 minrun-1, 74 5% HRR). After exercise, subjects consumed either, a beef nutritional supplement (beef jerky; [B]), a standard recovery drink (SRD), or SRD+B in a randomized counterbalanced design. Hydration status was assessed via urinary biomarkers and body mass. No main effects of treatment were observed for 24 hr urine volume (SRD, 1.7 0.5; B, 1.8 0.6; SRD+B, 1.4 0.4 Ld-1), urine specific gravity (1.016 0.005, 1.018 0.006, 1.017 0.006) or body mass (68.4 8.2, 68.3 7.7, 68.2 8.1 kg). No main effect of treatment existed for sodium intake-loss (-713 1486; -973 1123; -980 1220 mgd-1). Mean arterial pressure (81.0 4.6, 81.1 7.3, 83.8 5.4 mm Hg) and average exercise running economy (VO2: SRD, 47.9 3.2; B, 47.2 2.6; SRD+B, 46.2 3.4 mlkg-1min-1) was not affected. Urinary sodium excretion accounted for the daily sodium intake due to the beef nutritional supplement. Findings suggest the commercial beef snack is a viable recovery supplement following endurance exercise without concern for hydration status, performance decrements, or cardiovascular consequences. PMID:25811075

  18. Structure of the calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate phase (Ca2P2O7H2O): towards understanding the dehydration process in calcium pyrophosphate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Gras, Pierre; Ratel-Ramond, Nicolas; Teychn, Sbastien; Rey, Christian; Elkaim, Erik; Biscans, Batrice; Sarda, Stphanie; Combes, Christle

    2014-09-01

    Calcium pyrophosphate hydrate (CPP, Ca(2)P(2)O(7) nH2O) and calcium orthophosphate compounds (including apatite, octacalcium phosphate etc.) are among the most prevalent pathological calcifications in joints. Even though only two dihydrated forms of CPP (CPPD) have been detected in vivo (monoclinic and triclinic CPPD), investigations of other hydrated forms such as tetrahydrated or amorphous CPP are relevant to a further understanding of the physicochemistry of those phases of biological interest. The synthesis of single crystals of calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate (CPPM; Ca(2)P(2)O(7) H2O) by diffusion in silica gel at ambient temperature and the structural analysis of this phase are reported in this paper. Complementarily, data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction on a CPPM powder sample have been fitted to the crystal parameters. Finally, the relationship between the resolved structure for the CPPM phase and the structure of the tetrahydrated calcium pyrophosphate ? phase (CPPT-?) is discussed. PMID:25186358

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates synthesised by reactive milling

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Leon . E-mail: l.black@shu.ac.uk; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Stemmermann, Peter; Schild, Dieter

    2006-06-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyse a series of mechanochemically synthesised, nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The samples, with Ca/Si ratios of 0.2 to 1.5, showed structural features of C-S-H(I). XPS analysis revealed changes in the extent of silicate polymerisation. Si 2p, Ca 2p and O 1s spectra showed that, unlike for the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases studied previously, there was no evidence of silicate sheets (Q{sup 3}) at low Ca/Si ratios. Si 2p and O 1s spectra indicated silicate depolymerisation, expressed by decreasing silicate chain length, with increasing C/S. In all spectra, peak narrowing was observed with increasing Ca/Si, indicating increased structural ordering. The rapid changes of the slope of FWHM of Si 2p, {delta} {sub Ca-Si} and {delta} {sub NBO-BO} as function of C/S ratio indicated a possible miscibility gap in the C-S-H-solid solution series between C/S 5/6 and 1. The modified Auger parameter ({alpha}') of nanocrystalline C-S-H decreased with increasing silicate polymerisation, a trend already observed studying crystalline C-S-H. Absolute values of {alpha}' were shifted about - 0.7 eV with respect to crystalline phases of equal C/S ratio, due to reduced crystallinity.

  20. Calcium transient and sodium-calcium exchange current in human versus rabbit sinoatrial node pacemaker cells.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Arie O; van Borren, Marcel M G J; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, focusing on the relative importance of the "membrane clock" and the "Ca(2+) clock" in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, I f , which is also known as the "funny current" or "pacemaker current," or the Ca(2+) clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, I NaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal's "Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology," we present a numerical reconstruction of I f and I NaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, I f , and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)] i ) that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller I f , a weaker [Ca(2+)] i transient, and a smaller I NaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, I NaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas I f is smaller in human than in rabbit cells. PMID:23606816

  1. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  2. An insight into hydration structure of sodium glycinate from ab initio quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Wei, Zhichao; Liu, Bo

    2015-09-01

    The hydration structure of sodium glycinate (Na(+)GL(-)) is probed by the Monte-Carlo multiple minimum (MCMM) method combined with quantum mechanical (QM) calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. In the gas phase, the energy of [Na(+)GL(-)]? is more than 30 kJ mol(-1) higher than [Na(+)GL(-)]?. With higher degrees of hydration, our results indicate that the most stable conformers of [Na(+)GL(-)]?(H2O)8 were derived from [Na(+)GL(-)]? instead of [Na(+)GL(-)]?. The stable conformers determined by the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) also show that [Na(+)GL(-)]? is more stable than [Na(+)GL(-)]? in the liquid phase. By analyzing the hydration process, waterwater hydrogen bonding interaction will be more preferable than ionwater interaction as the number of water molecules increases. According to the electronic density at the bond critical point on the Na-X bonds (X?=?O1, O2, N) in the low-energy conformers, Na(+)GL(-) will be dissociated as Na(+) and GL(-) in the bulk water, which is not predicted by the CPCM model. The structure features and the charge redistribution of Na(+)GL(-) will provide a physical explanation for the weakening Na-O1 interaction. PMID:26271732

  3. Novel technique for phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs).

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Uemoto, Masahide; Kagami, Jumpei; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Masaya; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao

    2013-05-01

    A novel technique for phosphorus (P) recovery from aqueous solutions was developed using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs). A-CSHs, which have a high Ca/Si molar ratio of 2.0 or greater, could be synthesized using unlimitedly available, inexpensive materials such as siliceous shale and calcium hydroxide. A-CSHs showed high performance for P recovery from an anaerobic sludge digestion liquor (ASDL) and the synthetic model liquor (s-ASDL) containing 89mg PO4-P/L. After 20min mixing, 1.5g/L A-CSHs could remove approximately 69 and 73% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively. By contrast, autoclaved lightweight concrete particles, which contained crystalline calcium silicate hydrates as a principal component, removed only 10 and 6% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. When A-CSHs were washed with deionized water to remove free Ca(OH)2, P removability was significantly improved (up to 82%) despite the reduction in the amount of Ca(2+) released. Unlike in the case of Ca(OH)2, nosignificant carbonate inhibition was observed with P removal by A-CSHs. Moreover, Premoved by A-CSHs showed better settleability, filterability, and dewaterability than Pprecipitated with conventional CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2. The present study demonstrated that A-CSHs have great potential as a novel, beneficial material for P recovery and recycling. PMID:23497975

  4. Effect of calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on in vitro nucleation of human gall bladder bile.

    PubMed Central

    Neithercut, W D

    1989-01-01

    The effect of increasing the calcium, magnesium and sodium concentration in gall bladder bile samples from 21 patients with gall stones and nine controls on the in vitro rate of formation of cholesterol microcrystals and numbers of cholesterol microcrystals formed was examined. Addition of these cations to raise the mean maximum concentration of calcium ions to 19.8 mmol/l, of magnesium ions to 20 mmol/l and sodium ions to 998 mmol/l did not trigger nucleation in control bile samples or samples from patients with gall stones. Increasing the mean concentration of calcium ions to 8.6 mmol/l and of sodium to 320 mmol/l increased the numbers of cholesterol monohydrate crystals/0.1 mm3 counted by light polarisation phase contrast microscopy at the time of nucleation in samples from patients with gall stones from a median of 2 (range 1-10) in control portions to 18 (range 2-128) for calcium ions and 10 (range 2-141) for sodium ions (p less than 0.001). Calcium and magnesium ions were more effective than sodium ions, and calcium ions could increase crystal numbers at concentrations found in samples from patients with gall stones, median 4.6 mmol/l (range 2.7-16.9 mmol/l). The concentrations of calcium and magnesium present in bile may therefore influence the rate of development of gall stones. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2731760

  5. Growth retardation of weddellite (calcium oxalate dihydrate) by sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Tawashi, R; Cousineau, M

    1980-09-01

    We studied the growth of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals (weddellite) in simulated urine and its transformation into the more stable monohydrate (whewellite). Sodium copper chlorophyllin in a concentration of 100 microgram per ml inhibited the growth of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals in simulated urine. The size distribution parameters of the dihydrate crystals in the presence and absence of chlorophyllin suggest that soluble chlorophyllin could be of clinical significance in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:7437122

  6. Predictive Mechanical Characterization of Macro-Molecular Material Chemistry Structures of Cement Paste at Nano Scale - Two-phase Macro-Molecular Structures of Calcium Silicate Hydrate, Tri-Calcium Silicate, Di-Calcium Silicate and Calcium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Espinosa, Ingrid Marcela

    Concrete is a hierarchical composite material with a random structure over a wide range of length scales. At submicron length scale the main component of concrete is cement paste, formed by the reaction of Portland cement clinkers and water. Cement paste acts as a binding matrix for the other components and is responsible for the strength of concrete. Cement paste microstructure contains voids, hydrated and unhydrated cement phases. The main crystalline phases of unhydrated cement are tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and di-calcium silicate (C2S), and of hydrated cement are calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). Although efforts have been made to comprehend the chemical and physical nature of cement paste, studies at molecular level have primarily been focused on individual components. Present research focuses on the development of a method to model, at molecular level, and analysis of the two-phase combination of hydrated and unhydrated phases of cement paste as macromolecular systems. Computational molecular modeling could help in understanding the influence of the phase interactions on the material properties, and mechanical performance of cement paste. Present work also strives to create a framework for molecular level models suitable for potential better comparisons with low length scale experimental methods, in which the sizes of the samples involve the mixture of different hydrated and unhydrated crystalline phases of cement paste. Two approaches based on two-phase cement paste macromolecular structures, one involving admixed molecular phases, and the second involving cluster of two molecular phases are investigated. The mechanical properties of two-phase macromolecular systems of cement paste consisting of key hydrated phase CSH and unhydrated phases C3S or C2S, as well as CSH with the second hydrated phase CH were calculated. It was found that these cement paste two-phase macromolecular systems predicted an isotropic material behavior. Also, these systems exhibited a high bulk modulus, compared to the elastic modulus. These results are an indication and concur with the high compression strength of cement paste seen at engineering length scale. In addition, the bulk modulus of two-phase systems consisting of hydrated CSH and unhydrated C3S or C2S was found to increase with higher levels of unhydrated components. The interaction energies of two-phase cement paste molecular structures studied in the present work were calculated, showing that a higher interaction is attained when the two phases are admixed as small components instead of cluster of phases. Finally, the mechanical behavior under shear deformation was predicted by using a quasi-static deformation method and analyzed for a representative two-phase (CSH and C2S) macromolecular structure of cement paste.

  7. Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in silk fibroin/sodium alginate hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

    2014-01-01

    As known, silk fibroin-like protein plays a pivotal role during the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the nacre sheets. Here, we have prepared silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels to serve as templates for calcium carbonate mineralization. In this experiment, we report an interesting finding of calcium carbonate crystal growth in the silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels by the vapor diffusion method. The experimental results indicate calcium carbonate crystals obtained from nanofiber hydrogels with different proportions of silk fibroin/sodium alginate are mixture of calcite and vaterite with unusual morphologies. Time-dependent growth study was carried out to investigate the crystallization process. It is believed that nanofiber hydrogels play an important role in the process of crystallization. This study would help in understanding the function of organic polymers in natural mineralization, and provide a novel pathway in the design and synthesis of new materials related unique morphology and structure.

  8. Effect of dietary calcium and sodium on potassium requirement for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Erdman, R A; Hemken, R W; Bull, L S

    1980-04-01

    In two experiments we studied the effect of dietary calcium and sodium on the potassium allowance of .7 to .8% for lactating cows. In Experiment 1, 12 first-lactation cows in midlactation were fed three diets containing .52, .77, and 1.04% potassium with four dietary calcium concentrations .50, .69, .87, and 1.03%. Increasing dietary potassium from .52 to 1.04 increased intake of dry feed as a function of body weight. With rations containing 17% coarsely ground fiber, increasing dietary calcium up to 1.03% increased intake and milk production 1.3 kg per day and 1.6 kg per day linearly. In Experiment 2, 16 cows in midlactation were fed rations with two potassium (.42 and .84%) and with two sodium concentrations (.31 and .52%). Increasing dietary potassium increased dry matter intake 1.2 kg per day while dietary sodium had no effect on intake. Potassium had no effect, but increasing sodium decreased fat-corrected milk 1.7 kg per day. Of potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium in serum, potassium was the element most consistently affected in both experiments. Increasing dietary potassium to .77 and .84% increased serum potassium. Dietary calcium and sodium had little effect on potassium required for lactating cows. PMID:7189759

  9. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; de Menezes, Risia Cristina E.; Temteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Oliveira, Maria Alice A.; Asakura, Leiko; Costa, Emília Chagas; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r) Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal). RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal), protein (18.2g) and calcium (207.6mg) consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g). CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers. PMID:25119750

  10. Characterization of white Portland cement hydration and the C-S-H structure in the presence of sodium aluminate by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Joergen

    2004-05-01

    The effects of hydrating a white Portland cement (wPc) in 0.30 and 0.50 M solutions of sodium aluminate (NaAlO{sub 2}) at 5 and 20 deg. C are investigated by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NaAlO{sub 2} accelerates the hydration of alite and belite and results in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases with longer average chain lengths of SiO{sub 4}/AlO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The C-S-H phases are investigated in detail and it is shown that the Al/Si ratio for the chains of tetrahedra is quite constant during the time studied for the hydration (6 h to 2 years) but increases for higher concentration of the NaAlO{sub 2} solution. The average chain lengths of 'pure' silicate and SiO{sub 4}/AlO{sub 4} tetrahedra demonstrate that Al acts as a linker for the silicate chains, thereby producing aluminosilicate chains with longer average chain lengths. Finally, it is shown that NaAlO{sub 2} reduces the quantity of ettringite and results in larger quantities of monosulfate and a calcium aluminate hydrate phase.

  11. Interaction grand potential between calcium-silicate-hydrate nanoparticles at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Bonnaud, Patrick A; Labbez, Christophe; Miura, Ryuji; Suzuki, Ai; Miyamoto, Naoto; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Miyamoto, Akira; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2016-02-11

    Calcium-silicate-hydrate (or C-S-H), an inosilicate, is the major binding phase in cement pastes and concretes and a porous hydrated material made up of a percolated and dense network of crystalline nanoparticles of a mean apparent spherical diameter of ∼5 nm that are each stacks of multiple C-S-H layers. Interaction forces between these nanoparticles are at the origin of C-S-H chemical, physical, and mechanical properties at the meso- and macroscales. These particle interactions and the resulting properties may be affected significantly by nanoparticle density and environmental conditions such as the temperature, relative humidity, or concentration of chemical species in the bulk solution. In this study, we combined grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and an extension of the mean force integration method to derive the pair potentials. This approach enables realistic simulation of the physical environment surrounding the C-S-H particles. We thus constructed the pair potentials for C-S-H nanoparticles of defined chemical stoichiometry at 10% relative humidity (RH), varying the relative crystallographic orientations at a constant particle density of ρpart ∼ 2.21 mmol L(-1). We found that cohesion between nanoparticles is affected strongly by both the aspect ratio and the crystallographic misorientation of interacting particles. This method and the findings underscore the importance of accounting for relative dimensions and orientation among C-S-H nanoparticles in descriptions of physical and simulated multiparticle aggregates or mesoscale systems. PMID:26866999

  12. Effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianhong; Sun, Xuehui; Sang, Guifeng

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possible effects of repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia on hepatocellular system in rats. Thirty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (group A), chloral hydrate group (group B) and pentobarbital sodium group (group C). Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione s transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level as well as serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) were determined. Liver histopathological examinations were performed at termination. Furthermore, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and caspase-3 activity were also evaluated. The SOD, GSH-Px, GST and CAT activities significantly decreased but TBARS levels increased in group B and C compared with group A. Hepatic injury was evidenced by a significant increase in serum ALT, AST and ALP activities in group B and C, which also confirmed by the histopathological alterations. Moreover, administration of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium could induce certain hepatic apoptosis accompanied by the upregulated Bax expression, the downregulated Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and the increase of caspase-3 activity. Repeated high dosage of chloral hydrate and pentobarbital sodium anesthesia could produce hepatotoxicity. PMID:26379846

  13. Phosphoprotein staining for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fluorescent reagent morin hydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Hwang, Sun-Young; Cong, Wei-Tao; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2013-04-01

    A fluorescence-based stain with 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (morin hydrate, MH) was designed to stain phosphoproteins in one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Al(3+) was applied as a "fixed bridge," providing an efficient energy transfer channel between phosphoprotein and MH, to produce a strong fluorescent complex for the determination of phosphoprotein. As little as 62.5ng of ?-casein (7 or 8 phosphates) and ?-casein (5 phosphates), 125ng of ovalbumin (2 phosphates), and ?-casein (1 phosphate) could be visualized with a wide linear dynamic range. In comparison with conventional methods, MH stain is a time-saving method that takes just 90min. It also has good compatibility with routine protein stainings such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue R (CBBR) and SYPRO Ruby for total protein analysis. PMID:23274386

  14. Interaction of Nanostructured Calcium Silicate Hydrate with Ibuprofen Drug Molecules: X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) Study at the Ca, Si and O K-edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X. X.; Sham, T. K.; Zhu, Y. J.; Hu, Y. F.

    2013-04-01

    Mesoporous calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) nanostructure has been proven to be bioactive and biocompatible, and has a bright future in the application of bone treatment among other applications. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is a powerful tool for the study of the interactions of calcium silicate hydrates with drug molecules because it is element specific and it probes the unoccupied electronic states. Herein, we report the use of the calcium, silicon and oxygen K-edge XANES spectroscopy to identify how drug molecules interact with different groups in calcium silicate hydrate mesoporous nano-carriers with different morphologies. Significant changes are observed in XANES spectra after drug loading into the calcium silicate hydrate system, especially at the Si and O K-edge. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. The potential of calcium silicate hydrate as a carrier of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-09-01

    Calcium silicate nanostructured materials are promising drug carriers owing to their excellent biocompatibility, good bioactivity and high drug-loading capacity. In recent years, studies have been carried out on the synthesis of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) nanostructured materials with desirable sizes and morphologies and their applications in drug delivery, where very interesting results and important insights have been documented. This editorial is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on the research on CSH nanostructured materials as drug carriers; rather, it presents representative examples: i) mesoporous microspheres; ii) ultrathin nanosheets; iii) iron oxide/CSH core/shell nanocomposites; and iv) CSH/block copolymer nanocomposites, and important results obtained in the study of CSH drug delivery systems for ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug. These results show that the nanostructured CSH materials with specially designed architectures as IBU carriers have ultrahigh drug-loading capacity and sustainable drug release properties; thus, they are promising drug carriers for IBU. In addition, a new drug release kinetics has been found in the nanostructured CSH drug delivery systems. Most recently, new insight has been gained by tracking the behavior of these drug delivery systems on the molecular level using synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. PMID:24857363

  16. Glassy nature of water in an ultraconfining disordered material: the case of calcium-silicate-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mostafa; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Yildiz, Bilge

    2011-03-01

    We present the structural and dynamic nature of water ultraconfined in the quasi-two-dimensional nanopores of the highly disordered calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the major binding phase in cement. Our approach is based on classical molecular simulations. We demonstrate that the C-S-H nanopore space is hydrophilic, particularly because of the nonbridging oxygen atoms on the disordered silicate chains which serve as hydrogen-bond acceptor sites, directionally orienting the hydrogen atoms of the interfacial water molecules toward the calcium-silicate layers. The water in this interlayer space adopts a unique multirange structure: a distorted tetrahedral coordination at short range up to 2.7 , a disordered structure similar to that of dense fluids and supercooled phases at intermediate range up to 4.2 , and persisting spatial correlations through dipole-dipole interactions up to 10 . A three-stage dynamics governs the mean square displacement (MSD) of water molecules, with a clear cage stage characteristic of the dynamics in supercooled liquids and glasses, consistent with its intermediate-range structure identified here. At the intermediate time scales corresponding to the ?-relaxation of glassy materials, coincident with the cage stage in MSD, the non-Gaussian parameter indicates a significant heterogeneity in the translational dynamics. This dynamic heterogeneity is induced primarily because of the heterogeneity in the distribution of hydrogen bond strengths. The strongly attractive interactions of water molecules with the calcium silicate walls serve to constrain their motion. Our findings have important implications on describing the cohesion and mechanical behavior of cement from its setting to its aging. PMID:21294516

  17. Effect of sodium and calcium ingestion on thermoregulation during exercise in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Van Beaumont, W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of hypertonic sodium and calcium ingestion on body temperature during exercise in cool and hot environments are investigated. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, sweat rates and arm and leg total blood flows were measured in men during periods of rest, submaximal exercise and recovery at temperatures of 26.5 C and 39.4 C after ingestion of NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. In both environments, higher rectal temperatures are observed after hypertonic sodium ingestion, which is also associated with attenuated blood flow in the extremities, lower sweat rates and slightly higher skin temperature in the heat, indicating significant thermoregulatory responses. Hypertonic calcium and isotonic sodium cause no temperature change, although calcium caused a reduction of blood flow in the extremities.

  18. Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-12-01

    The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

  19. Interaction grand potential between calcium-silicate-hydrate nanoparticles at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnaud, Patrick A.; Labbez, Christophe; Miura, Ryuji; Suzuki, Ai; Miyamoto, Naoto; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Miyamoto, Akira; van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium-silicate-hydrate (or C-S-H), an inosilicate, is the major binding phase in cement pastes and concretes and a porous hydrated material made up of a percolated and dense network of crystalline nanoparticles of a mean apparent spherical diameter of ~5 nm that are each stacks of multiple C-S-H layers. Interaction forces between these nanoparticles are at the origin of C-S-H chemical, physical, and mechanical properties at the meso- and macroscales. These particle interactions and the resulting properties may be affected significantly by nanoparticle density and environmental conditions such as the temperature, relative humidity, or concentration of chemical species in the bulk solution. In this study, we combined grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and an extension of the mean force integration method to derive the pair potentials. This approach enables realistic simulation of the physical environment surrounding the C-S-H particles. We thus constructed the pair potentials for C-S-H nanoparticles of defined chemical stoichiometry at 10% relative humidity (RH), varying the relative crystallographic orientations at a constant particle density of ρpart ~ 2.21 mmol L-1. We found that cohesion between nanoparticles is affected strongly by both the aspect ratio and the crystallographic misorientation of interacting particles. This method and the findings underscore the importance of accounting for relative dimensions and orientation among C-S-H nanoparticles in descriptions of physical and simulated multiparticle aggregates or mesoscale systems.Calcium-silicate-hydrate (or C-S-H), an inosilicate, is the major binding phase in cement pastes and concretes and a porous hydrated material made up of a percolated and dense network of crystalline nanoparticles of a mean apparent spherical diameter of ~5 nm that are each stacks of multiple C-S-H layers. Interaction forces between these nanoparticles are at the origin of C-S-H chemical, physical, and mechanical properties at the meso- and macroscales. These particle interactions and the resulting properties may be affected significantly by nanoparticle density and environmental conditions such as the temperature, relative humidity, or concentration of chemical species in the bulk solution. In this study, we combined grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations and an extension of the mean force integration method to derive the pair potentials. This approach enables realistic simulation of the physical environment surrounding the C-S-H particles. We thus constructed the pair potentials for C-S-H nanoparticles of defined chemical stoichiometry at 10% relative humidity (RH), varying the relative crystallographic orientations at a constant particle density of ρpart ~ 2.21 mmol L-1. We found that cohesion between nanoparticles is affected strongly by both the aspect ratio and the crystallographic misorientation of interacting particles. This method and the findings underscore the importance of accounting for relative dimensions and orientation among C-S-H nanoparticles in descriptions of physical and simulated multiparticle aggregates or mesoscale systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08142d

  20. [Influence of isoptin on the anticoagulant effect of the sodium and calcium salts of heparin].

    PubMed

    Ushkalova, E A; Kremneva, V F; Shcheglova, N V

    1988-01-01

    It was found that in buffer medium isoptin at concentrations of 0.025-0.0015 mg/ml failed to interact with heparin calcium. In experiments on rabbits isoptin (0.05-0.1 mg/kg) was shown to exert no effect on the time of whole blood coagulation, the time of recalcification and thrombin time and to produce no changes in the anticoagulant effect of heparin calcium but to increase the effect of heparin sodium. PMID:3410026

  1. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  2. Thermodynamic behaviour of sodium and calcium based sorbents in the emission control of waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Verdone, Nicola; De Filippis, Paolo

    2004-02-01

    The dry treatment of flue gas produced by incineration processes is discussed thermodynamically. The study investigates the theoretical limits achieved by sodium and calcium based sorbents in the removal of the pollutant species HCl, NOx and SO2. Calculations were performed varying the temperature and the molar ratio between the amount of the injected alkaline sorbent and the content of the pollutant gaseous species in the flue gas. Results show that sodium cation based sorbents are more efficient than calcium based ones in the whole investigated temperature range (100-600 degrees C). The higher effectiveness of sodium based sorbents is particularly remarkable towards hydrogen chloride, whose concentration can always be reduced below the values set by the environmental regulations. Possible improvements in the treatment efficiency of combustion fumes obtainable with sodium based sorbents can be mainly summarised in a lower concentration of HCl in the treated gas and in a partial reduction of NOx concentration. PMID:14637355

  3. Formation of hydroxyapatite in soils using calcium citrate and sodium phosphate for control of strontium migration.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Sanchez, Charles Anthony; Zhao, Hongting; Salas, Fred Manuel; Hasan, Mahmoud A.; Holt, Kathleen Caroline

    2003-08-01

    {sup 90}Sr contamination is a major problem at several U.S. sites. At some sites, {sup 90}Sr has migrated deep underground making site remediation difficult. In this paper, we describe a novel method for precipitation of hydroxyapatite, a strong sorbent for {sup 90}Sr, in soil. The method is based on mixing a solution of calcium citrate and sodium phosphate in soil. As the indigenous soil microorganisms mineralize the citrate, the calcium is released and forms hydroxyapatite. Soil, taken from the Albuquerque desert, was treated with a sodium phosphate solution or a sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. TEM and EDS were used to identify hydroxyapatite with CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} substitutions, with a formula of (Ca{sub 4.8}Na{sub 0.2})[(PO{sub 4}){sub 2.8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 0.2}](OH), in the soil treated with the sodium phosphate/calcium citrate solution. Untreated and treated soils were used in batch sorption experiments for Sr uptake. Average Sr uptake was 19.5, 77.0 and 94.7% for the untreated soil, soil treated with sodium phosphate, and soil with apatite, respectively. In desorption experiments, the untreated soil, phosphate treated soil and apatite treated soil released an average of 34.2, 28.8 and 4.8% respectively. The results indicate the potential of forming apatite in soil using soluble reagents for retardation of radionuclide migration.

  4. Dietary Sodium Effects on Bone Loss and Calcium Metabolism During Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Abrams, Steven A.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The acceleration of age-related bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after long-duration missions. Studies in healthy ambulatory individuals have linked high salt (sodium) diets, hypercalciuria, and increased renal stone risk. Dietary salt may modulate bone loss through changes in calcium metabolism and the calcium endocrine system. The research proposed here will determine the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone during simulated space flight. Calcium metabolism will be determined through calcium kinetics studies, endocrine and biochemical measurements; and estimates of the mass, distribution and mechanical properties of bone, in subjects fed low (100 mmol sodium/day) or high (250 mmol sodium/day) levels of dietary salt during 28 days of headdown tilt bedrest. This research addresses the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone and calcium in space flight, and integrates the changes in calcium metabolism with those occurring in other physiologic systems. These data will be critical for both countermeasure development, and in determination of nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight. The potential countermeasures resulting from this research will reduce health risks due to acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and increased risk of renal stone formation..

  5. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability of luminal membrane vesicles from toad bladder. Studies using a fast-reaction apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, H.S. Jr.; Al-Awqati, Q.

    1983-05-01

    Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal membrane is the major mechanism by which the net rate of sodium transport across tight epithelia is varied. Previous evidence has suggested that the permeability of the luminal membrane might be regulated by changes in intracellular sodium or calcium activities. To test this directly, we isolated a fraction of the plasma membrane from the toad urinary bladder, which contains a fast, amiloride-sensitive sodium flux with characteristics similar to those of the native luminal membrane. Using a flow-quench apparatus to measure the initial rate of sodium efflux from these vesicles in the millisecond time range, we have demonstrated that the isotope exchange permeability of these vesicles is very sensitive to calcium. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration is 0.5 microM, well within the range of calcium activity found in cells. Also, the permeability of the luminal membrane vesicles is little affected by the ambient sodium concentration. These results, when taken together with studies on whole tissue, suggest that cell calcium may be an important regulator of transepithelial sodium transport by its effect on luminal sodium permeability. The effect of cell sodium on permeability may be mediated by calcium rather than by sodium itself.

  6. Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V.; Bortolozzi, G.

    2010-06-01

    Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strtlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

  7. A novel titania/calcium silicate hydrate hierarchical coating on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Liu, Xujie; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Zhang, Ranran; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2015-10-01

    Recently, surface micron/nano-topographical modifications have attracted a great deal of attention because it is capable of mimicking the hierarchical characteristics of bone. In the current work, a novel titania/calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) bi-layer coating with hierarchical surface topography was successfully prepared on titanium substrate through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequent hydrothermal treatment (HT). MAO treatment could lead to a micron-scale topographical surface with numerous crater-like protuberances. The subsequent HT process enables the in situ nucleation and growth of CSH nanoplates on MAO-fabricated titania surface. The nucleation of CSH nanoplates is considered to follow a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. Compared to MAO-fabricated coating with single-scale surface topography, MAO-HT-fabricated coating with hierarchical surface topography exhibits enhanced hydrophilicity, fibronectin adsorption and initial MG-63 cell attachment. The process of cell-material interactions is considered to be triggered by surface properties of the coated layer and indirectly mediated by protein adsorption on coating surface. These results suggest that MAO-HT treatment is an efficient way to prepare coatings with hierarchical surface topography on titanium surface, which is essential for altering protein adsorption and initial cell attachment. PMID:26196089

  8. Endotoxin removal using a synthetic adsorbent of crystalline calcium silicate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John P; Wang, Qun; Smith, Timothy R; Hurst, William E; Sulpizio, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    A synthetic adsorbent of crystalline calcium silicate hydrate, the product LRA by Advanced Minerals Corp., has been studied for endotoxin removal from aqueous solutions. This adsorbent removes endotoxin effectively, and the removal is greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte such as NaCl, Tris-HCl, or Na2HPO4. It has an endotoxin removal capacity as high as 6 million endotoxin units (EU) per gram. Its endotoxin removal kinetics is fast, and for instance, over 99.9% endotoxin in a 5000 EU/mL solution was removed by mixing for 2 min at an adsorbent usage of 10 g/L. Using the chromatographic column method to treat a 5000 EU/mL solution, an endotoxin log-reduction factor of 6.2 was achieved with a single pass. This adsorbent also demonstrated significantly better performance when compared to many commonly used endotoxin removal agents, such as ActiClean Etox Endotoxin Removal Resin, Affi-Prep Polymyxin Support, Detroxi-Gel Endotoxin Removing Gel, Q Sepharose Fast Flow Media, and Sigma Endotoxin Removal Solution. Furthermore, it demonstrated a high selective removal of endotoxin from a solution of lambda DNA. This adsorbent provides opportunities for developing disposable, scaleable, and cost-effective methods for endotoxin reduction in many biotechnological and pharmaceutical processes. PMID:16080705

  9. Calcium silicate hydrates investigated by solid-state high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Meducin, Fabienne . E-mail: meducin@cnrs-orleans.fr; Bresson, Bruno; Lequeux, Nicolas; Noirfontaine, Marie-Noelle de; Zanni, Helene

    2007-05-15

    This work focuses on phases formed during cement hydration under high pressure and temperature: portlandite Ca(OH){sub 2} (CH); hillebrandite Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({beta}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H); jaffeite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6} (tricalcium silicate hydrate); {alpha}-C{sub 2}SH Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} ({alpha}-dicalcium silicate hydrate); xonotlite Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 6}O{sub 17})(OH){sub 2} and kilchoanite Ca{sub 6}(SiO{sub 4})(Si{sub 3}O{sub 10}). Portlandite and hillebrandite were synthesized and characterised by high resolution solid-state {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In addition, information from the literature concerning the last five phases was gathered. In certain cases, a schematic 3D-structure could be determined. These data allow identification of the other phases present in a mixture. Their morphology was also observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  10. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  11. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  12. Evidence that sodium deprivation influences vitamin D dependent rat renal calcium binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Pansini, A.R.; Christakos, S.

    1983-10-01

    In order to provide some insight concerning the role of renal calcium binding protein (CaBP) in the functioning of the mammalian kidney, the response of renal CaBP to dietary alterations was examined. Three week old rats were fed diets deficient in calcium, phosphorus or sodium supplemented with vitamin D for a four week period. The specific activity of renal CaBP in the 28,000 M/sub r/ region was found to increase four fold in rats fed the low phosphorus diet and two fold in rats fed the low calcium diet when compared to rats fed the control diet. Renal CaBP/mg protein from rats fed the low sodium diet decreased 50% from the control values. Changes in renal CaBP were confirmed by polyacrylamide gel analysis of the 28,000 M/sub r/ fraction by densitometric tracing using a purified CaBP marker. The greater response to dietary phosphorus restriction suggests that renal CaBP may be regulated by a mechanism different from that of intestinal CaBP. The decrease in renal CaBP in rats fed the low sodium diet suggests for the first time that sodium is required for vitamin D dependent distal tubular calcium transport processes.

  13. Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydratehydrate system

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Andrew D.; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H.; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydratehydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information. PMID:25295174

  14. Relevance of rheological properties of sodium alginate in solution to calcium alginate gel properties.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M; Boni, Riccardo L; Buckner, Ira S; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J; Block, Lawrence H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions' rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate's use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of which was available in ten batches. Cylindrical gel samples were prepared from each of the gels and subjected to compression to fracture on an Instron Universal Testing Machine, equipped with a 1-kN load cell, at a cross-head speed of 120 mm/min. Among the grades with similar % G, (grades 1, 3, and 4), there is a significant correlation between deformation work (L(E)) and apparent viscosity (?(app)). However, the results for the partial correlation analysis for all six grades of sodium alginate show that L(E) is significantly correlated with % G, but not with the rheological properties of the sodium alginate solutions. Studies of the ten batches of one grade of sodium alginate show that ?(app) of their solutions did not correlate with L(E) while tan ? was significantly, but minimally, correlated to L(E). These results suggest that other factors--polydispersity and the randomness of guluronic acid sequencing--are likely to influence the mechanical properties of the resultant gels. In summary, the rheological properties of solutions for different grades of sodium alginate are not indicative of the resultant gel properties. Inter-batch differences in the rheological behavior for one specific grade of sodium alginate were insufficient to predict the corresponding calcium alginate gel's mechanical properties. PMID:21437788

  15. Selective Measurement of Calcium and Sodium Ion Conductance Using Sub-Micropipette Probes with Ion Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao Long; Takami, Tomohide; Son, Jong Wan; Kawai, Tomoji; Park, Bae Ho

    2012-02-01

    Selective ion currents in aqueous calcium chloride and sodium chloride solutions with concentrations of up to 1.0 M were observed with sub-micropipettes in which poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films containing ionophores selectively filtered cations. Calcium bis[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl] phosphate (HDOPP-Ca) and bis[(12-crown-4)methyl]-2-dodecyl-2-methylmalonate [bis(12-crown-4)] were used as the ionophores to filter calcium and sodium ions, respectively. The selective ion current was observed using a low-current detection system developed from scanning tunneling microscopy. The approximate linear relationship between the ion concentration and ion current suggests that the sub-micropipette probe can be used to detect the intracellular local concentration of a specific ion up to 1.0 M.

  16. Parabrachial lesions in rats disrupt sodium appetite induced by furosemide but not by calcium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Grigson, P S; Colechio, E M; Power, M L; Schulkin, J; Norgren, R

    2015-03-01

    An appetite for CaCl2 and NaCl occurs in young rats after they are fed a diet lacking Ca or Na, respectively. Bilateral lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) disrupt normal taste aversion learning and essentially eliminate the expression of sodium appetite. Here we tested whether similar lesions of the PBN would disrupt the calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2 or NaCl. Controls and rats with PBN lesions failed to exhibit a calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2. Nevertheless, both groups did exhibit a significant calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for 0.5M NaCl. Thus, while damage to the second central gustatory relay in the PBN disrupts the appetite for 0.5M NaCl induced by furosemide, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and polyethylene glycol, the sodium appetite induced by dietary CaCl2 depletion remains intact. PMID:25540931

  17. Development of montelukast sodium loaded niosomal carriers by film hydration technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Awasthi, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize montelukast sodium loaded niosomal drug carrier systems. The vesicles were prepared by film hydration technique using different surfactants. The optimized formulation was selected on the basis of results obtained from drug entrapment, morphology and in vitro drug release studies, and further evaluated for possible drug-excipient interaction, thermal behavior and drug physical state, before and after formulation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis methods, respectively. The morphological characterization of vesicles was done using Transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system was used for elemental and dimensional analysis of developed vesicles. The vesicle surface charge was determined using zeta potential measurements. The results suggested that the optimized formulation had small size (1036.01 nm) and high drug entrapment (72.202.10%). No chemical interaction was observed between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that Span 60 is a good nonionic surfactant for vesicle formulation. After 3 months storage at 2-8C, the optimized formulation preserved stability in terms of formulation colour, drug amount and percent drug release. After 3 months, flocculation occured and hard cake was not formed on the settlement of vesicles. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the designed vesicles could enhance drug entrapment, reduce the initial burst release of drug and modulate the drug release. PMID:25910042

  18. Effect of sodium chloride on hydration structures of PMEA and P(MPC-r-BMA).

    PubMed

    Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    The hydration structures of two different types of biomaterials, i.e., poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and a random copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate (P(MPC-r-BMA)), were investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of the addition of sodium chloride to liquid water in contact with the surfaces of the polymer films were examined. The neutral polymer of PMEA was easily dehydrated by NaCl addition, whereas the zwitterionic polymer of P(MPC-r-BMA) was hardly dehydrated. More specifically, nonfreezing water having a strong interaction with the PMEA chain and freezing bound water having an intermediate interaction were hardly dehydrated by contacting with normal saline solution, whereas freezing water having a weak interaction with the PMEA chain was readily dehydrated. In contrast, freezing water in P(MPC-r-BMA) is exchanged for the saline solution contacting with the material surface without dehydration. PMID:25133748

  19. Effect of ether, sodium pentobarbital and chloral hydrate anesthesia on rat plasma metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Arola, L; Palou, A; Remesar, X; Herrera, E; Alemany, M

    1981-12-01

    The effect of ethyl ether, pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) and chloral hydrate anesthesia on the concentrations of glucose, lactate, glycerol, insulin, individual amino acids and urea have been studied in rat plasma, as well as the glycogen content in the animal liver and striated muscle. Control animals were injected with saline solution. Two samples were taken from each animal at 15 and 30 minutes from the beginning of anesthesia. These samples were obtained from the cut tail's tip and from the neck wound produced by beheading the animal. Results show considerable differences between the three sets of animals and their controls as well as in their tail verus neck values. The overall effect of the three anesthetics used were roughly the same in spite of their different actions upon the different parameters studied. This was most marked in the aminograms. Significant changes induced were rather similar in number for all. The metabolite concentration profile in each situation may be used as a reference for possible artifacts induced by any experimental approach using these anesthetics. PMID:7041206

  20. [Sodium, potassium and calcium content in regional dishes consumed in Sonora, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Grijalva Haro, M I; Valencia, M E; Wyatt, J

    1990-06-01

    The content of sodium, potassium and calcium was determined in 15 regional dishes, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Na:K ratio was high in most of the dishes due to the high sodium content and low content of potassium found. The higher sources of the studied minerals were "tortilla de harina" with 1,372.8 mg/100 g of sodium; "chorizo con papas" with 466 mg/100 g of potassium, and "calabacitas con queso" with 244.1 mg/100 g of calcium. Two of the dishes considered as desserts, "capirotada" and "arroz con leche" showed the lowest Na:K ratio (0.66 and 0.81, respectively). PMID:2133188

  1. Imaging of drug loading distributions in individual microspheres of calcium silicate hydrate - an X-ray spectromicroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2015-04-01

    Imaging is one of the most direct and ideal ways to track drug loading distributions in drug carriers on the molecular level, which will facilitate the optimization of drug carriers and drug loading capacities. Herein, we report the mapping of an individual mesoporous calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) microsphere before and after the loading of ibuprofen (IBU) and the interactions between drug carriers and drug molecules simultaneously by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Nanoscaled X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy clearly indicates that IBU is bonded to calcium and silicate sites via carboxylic acid groups. More importantly, STXM has been successfully used to determine the absolute thickness of IBU, revealing its distribution in the CSH microsphere.Imaging is one of the most direct and ideal ways to track drug loading distributions in drug carriers on the molecular level, which will facilitate the optimization of drug carriers and drug loading capacities. Herein, we report the mapping of an individual mesoporous calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) microsphere before and after the loading of ibuprofen (IBU) and the interactions between drug carriers and drug molecules simultaneously by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Nanoscaled X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy clearly indicates that IBU is bonded to calcium and silicate sites via carboxylic acid groups. More importantly, STXM has been successfully used to determine the absolute thickness of IBU, revealing its distribution in the CSH microsphere. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07471h

  2. Simultaneous Sodium and Calcium Imaging from Dendrites and Axons1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dynamic calcium imaging is a major technique of neuroscientists. It can reveal information about the location of various calcium channels and calcium permeable receptors, the time course, magnitude, and location of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) changes, and indirectly, the occurrence of action potentials. Dynamic sodium imaging, a less exploited technique, can reveal analogous information related to sodium signaling. In some cases, like the examination of AMPA and NMDA receptor signaling, measurements of both [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i changes in the same preparation may provide more information than separate measurements. To this end, we developed a technique to simultaneously measure both signals at high speed and sufficient sensitivity to detect localized physiologic events. This approach has advantages over sequential imaging because the preparation may not respond identically in different trials. We designed custom dichroic and emission filters to allow the separate detection of the fluorescence of sodium and calcium indicators loaded together into a single neuron in a brain slice from the hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats. We then used high-intensity light emitting diodes (LEDs) to alternately excite the two indicators at the appropriate wavelengths. These pulses were synchronized with the frames of a CCD camera running at 500 Hz. Software then separated the data streams to provide independent sodium and calcium signals. With this system we could detect [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i changes from single action potentials in axons and synaptically evoked signals in dendrites, both with submicron resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). PMID:26730401

  3. Prediction of incompatibility of ceftriaxone sodium with calcium ions using the ionic product.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yuka; Tokuyama, Emi; Yoshida, Miyako; Uchida, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incompatibility of ceftriaxone sodium with calcium-containing products using the ionic product of precipitation, and the measurement of insoluble microparticles using a light obscuration particle counter. Appropriate volumes of 2% (w/v) calcium chloride solution were added to 0.4-2 mg/ml ceftriaxone isotonic sodium chloride solution, to make solutions with a final calcium ion concentration of 1.25 mmol/l. The solutions were gently agitated and stored at 37 degrees C for 24 h. The number of insoluble microparticles with a diameter less than 10 microm in the mixed sample solution, determined using a light obscuration particle counter, was increased when the ceftriaxone concentration was > or =0.8 mg/ml. The Saturation Index (defined as the ratio of the ionic product to the solubility product constant) of the prepared mixed solution was 1.1. A white precipitate could be observed visually when the ceftriaxone concentration of the sample solution was 7 mg/ml; the Saturation Index of the solution was 9.7. The effect of the calcium source on incompatibility with ceftriaxone sodium was also evaluated. The numbers of insoluble microparticles in sample solutions made by adding calcium chloride to the sample were significantly higher than those made by adding calcium gluconate. These results suggest that ceftriaxone should not be co-administered with calcium-containing products even if no precipitation is observed visually. There will still be insoluble microparticles caused by incompatibility in the sample solution when the Saturation Index of the solution is over 1.0. PMID:20046072

  4. Growth retardation of calcium oxalate by sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, A; Tawashi, R

    1978-01-01

    Earlier reports from our laboratories described the inhibitory effect of Mg++ and pyrophosphate on the dissolution and growth of calcium oxalate. In this report, growth of Ca oxalate in presence of very low concentration of chlorophyllin was followed by the Coulter counter and a multichannel analyser. The effect of chlorophyllin concentration on crystal formation was studied at different levels of supersaturation. A concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml produced a remarkable retardation of the induction period and the growth rate. The findings obtained in this study are discussed in the light of the crystal poisoning theory. Comparison was made between chlorophyllin and other growth inhibitors. PMID:668744

  5. Effects of Hypotonic Saline Loading in Hydrated Dog: Evidence for a Saline-induced Limit on Distal Tubular Sodium Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Richard M.; Abramson, Ruth G.; Kahn, Thomas; Levitt, Marvin F.

    1967-01-01

    We performed studies on dogs under hydrated conditions, utilizing the rate of free water formation (CH2O) as an index of the rate of distal tubular sodium transport. Since CH2O could be progressively increased with no evidence of a maximal rate during loading with hypotonic (2.5%) mannitol, it was concluded that there is no limit on distal tubular sodium transport during mannitol loading. In contrast, during hypotonic (0.45%) saline loading CH2O rose initially, but as urine flow (V) exceeded 25% of the filtered load CH2O attained maximal levels (up to 20% of the filtered load) and remained stable as V increased to 50% of the filtered load. It was concluded that saline loading progressively inhibits proximal sodium reabsorption. Initially, the distal tubule absorbes a large fraction of the proximal rejectate and sodium excretion rises slightly. Eventually, an alteration in distal sodium transport appears which culminates in a maximal rate or transport limit. This distal transport limit provoked by saline loading could not be characterized by a classical Tm as seen with glucose and does not seem to be consequent to high rates of flow through the distal tubule. Regardless of the precise nature of this limit, the major increment in sodium excretion develops during saline loading only after saline alters the capacity of the distal tubule to transport sodium. PMID:6027084

  6. Improved cycling performance of P2-type layered sodium cobalt oxide by calcium substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Masaki; Mizukoshi, Fumikazu; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2015-04-01

    P2-type Na2/3-xCaxCoO2 is synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction. The substituted calcium ions occupy the sodium ion layer and eliminate the lattice mismatches of the two phases in Na2/3-xCaxCoO2. Several voltage steps typically observed in the voltage profiles of NaxCoO2 are mostly disappeared associated with the expansion of single-phase regions, because the substituted calcium ions hinder the ordering of sodium ions and vacancies. Furthermore the Na2/3-xCaxCoO2 shows improved cycling performance especially at high charging-discharging rate. During the cycling test, the calcium-free Na0.74CoO2 shows phase separation to form an inactive sodium poor phase, while the Na5/8Ca1/24CoO2 maintained the single phase, suggesting that the calcium substitution suppress the structural change of the P2-type NaxCoO2 to prevent the phase separation, resulting in the improved cycling performance.

  7. Effect of calcium/sodium ion exchange on the osmotic properties and structure of polyelectrolyte gels.

    PubMed

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the main findings of a long-term research program exploring the consequences of sodium/calcium ion exchange on the macroscopic osmotic and elastic properties, and the microscopic structure of representative synthetic polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate, (polyacrylic acid)) and biopolymer gels (DNA). A common feature of these gels is that above a threshold calcium ion concentration, they exhibit a reversible volume phase transition. At the macroscopic level, the concentration dependence of the osmotic pressure shows that calcium ions influence primarily the third-order interaction term in the Flory-Huggins model of polymer solutions. Mechanical tests reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unaffected by the presence of calcium ions, indicating that ion bridging does not create permanent cross-links. At the microscopic level, small-angle neutron scattering shows that polyacrylic acid and DNA gels exhibit qualitatively similar structural features in spite of important differences (e.g. chain flexibility and chemical composition) between the two polymers. The main effect of calcium ions is that the neutron scattering intensity increases due to the decrease in the osmotic modulus. At the level of the counterion cloud around dissolved macroions, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering measurements made on DNA indicate that divalent ions form a cylindrical sheath enveloping the chain, but they are not localized. Small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering provide complementary information on the structure and interactions in polymer solutions and gels. PMID:26614803

  8. NALCN Ion Channels Have Alternative Selectivity Filters Resembling Calcium Channels or Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Senatore, Adriano; Monteil, Arnaud; van Minnen, Jan; Smit, August B.; Spafford, J. David

    2013-01-01

    NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE) or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE). NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE) and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE) -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K)-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG+ impermeant and blockable with 10 M Gd3+ ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2):371-83. PMID:23383067

  9. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Adriano; Monteil, Arnaud; van Minnen, Jan; Smit, August B; Spafford, J David

    2013-01-01

    NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE) or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE). NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE) and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE) -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K)-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG(+) impermeant and blockable with 10 M Gd(3+) ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2):371-83. PMID:23383067

  10. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During previous studies, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. During this study, activated carbons were prepared from three coals representing high-sodium, low-sodium--low-calcium, and high-calcium compositions in two steps, an initial char formation followed by mild activation with steam to avoid excessive burnout. This set of carbons was characterized with respect to physical and chemical properties. The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) nitrogen adsorption isotherms gave relatively low surface areas (ranging from 245 to 370 m{sup 2}/g). The lowest-BET area was obtained for the high-sodium carbon, which can be attributed to enlargement of micropores as a result of sodium-catalyzed gasification reaction of the carbon structure. This hypothesis is consistent with the scanning electron microscopy microprobe analyses, which show that in both the coal and the activated carbon from this coal, the sodium is distributed over both the carbon structure and the mineral particles. Thus it is initially associated with carboxylate groups on the coal and then as sodium oxide or other active form in close proximity to the carbon and is, therefore, readily available for catalysis of gasification. Humate adsorption isotherms for the high-sodium carbon gave superior results as defined by very high intercepts in modified Freundlich plots. Thus the high-sodium carbon will be considerably more effective in reducing the humate concentration for a given carbon dosage. Analysis of adsorption isotherms indicated the results were consistent with the hypothesis that only the larger pores are effective for binding the large humate molecules, and that the larger pores developed during activation of the high-sodium char give the appropriate macropore structure for humate binding. Toluene adsorption isotherms indicated that the high-calcium carbon and the low-calcium, low-sodium carbon were superior to the high-sodium carbon for small molecules in aqueous solution, but not as effective as a Calgon F-400 commercial activated carbon. This is consistent with the low-BET surface areas observed for the lignite-derived carbons, and thus there are a lower number of sites for binding the smaller toluene molecule in these carbons.

  11. Nematode Sodium Calcium Exchangers: A Surprising Lack of Transport

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishal; O’Halloran, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are low-affinity, high-capacity transporters that rapidly transport calcium against a gradient of Na+ ions. Na+/Ca2+ exchangers are divided into three groups based upon substrate specificity: Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCX), Na+/Ca2+/K+ exchangers (NCKX), and Ca2+/cation exchangers (NCLX). In mammals, there are three NCX genes, five NCKX genes, and a single NCLX gene. The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains 10 Na+/Ca2+ exchanger genes: three NCX, five NCLX, and two NCKX genes. In a previous study, we characterized the structural and taxonomic specializations within the family of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers across the phylum Nematoda and observed a complex picture of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger evolution across diverse nematode species. We noted multiple cases of putative gene gain and loss and, most surprisingly, did not detect members of the NCLX type of exchangers within subsets of nematode species. In this commentary, we discuss these findings and speculate on the functional outcomes and physiology of these observations. Our data highlight the importance of studying diverse systems in order to get a deeper understanding of the evolution and regulation of Ca2+ signaling critical for animal function. PMID:26848260

  12. Pore solution in alkali-activated slag cement pastes. Relation to the composition and structure of calcium silicate hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Puertas, F.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Blanco-Varela, M.T

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between the composition of pore solution in alkali-activated slag cement (AAS) pastes activated with different alkaline activator, and the composition and structure of the main reaction products, has been studied. Pore solution was extracted from hardened AAS pastes. The analysis of the liquids was performed through different techniques: Na, Mg and Al by atomic absorption (AA), Ca ions by ionic chromatography (IC) and Si by colorimetry; pH was also determined. The solid phases were analysed by XRD, FTIR, solid-state {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al NMR and BSE/EDX. The most significant changes in the ionic composition of the pore solution of the AAS pastes activated with waterglass take place between 3 and 24 h of reaction. These changes are due to the decrease of the Na content and mainly to the Si content. Results of {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and FTIR confirm that the activation process takes place with more intensity after 3 h (although at this age, Q{sup 2} units already exist). The pore solution of the AAS pastes activated with NaOH shows a different evolution to this of pastes activated with waterglass. The decrease of Na and Si contents progresses with time. The nature of the alkaline activator influences the structure and composition of the calcium silicate hydrate formed as a consequence of the alkaline activation of the slag. The characteristic of calcium silicate hydrate in AAS pastes activated with waterglass is characterised by a low structural order with a low Ca/Si ratio. Besides, in this paste, Q{sup 3} units are detected. The calcium silicate hydrate formed in the pastes activated with NaOH has a higher structural order (higher crystallinity) and contains more Al in its structure and a higher Ca/Si ratio than those obtained with waterglass.

  13. In situ X-ray pair distribution function analysis of accelerated carbonation of a synthetic calcium-silicate-hydrate gel

    SciTech Connect

    Morandeau, Antoine E.; White, Claire E.

    2015-04-21

    Calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H) gel is the main binder component in hydrated ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste, and is known to play a crucial role in the carbonation of cementitious materials, especially for more sustainable alternatives containing supplementary cementitious materials. However, the exact atomic structural changes that occur during carbonation of C–S–H gel remain unknown. Here, we investigate the local atomic structural changes that occur during carbonation of a synthetic calcium–silicate–hydrate gel exposed to pure CO₂ vapour, using in situ X-ray total scattering measurements and subsequent pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. By analysing both the reciprocal and real-space scattering data as the C–S–H carbonation reaction progresses, all phases present during the reaction (crystalline and non-crystalline) have been identified and quantified, with the results revealing the emergence of several polymorphs of crystalline calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite) in addition to the decalcified C–S–H gel. Furthermore, the results point toward residual calcium being present in the amorphous decalcified gel, potentially in the form of an amorphous calcium carbonate phase. As a result of the quantification process, the reaction kinetics for the evolution of the individual phases have been obtained, revealing new information on the rate of growth/dissolution for each phase associated with C–S–H gel carbonation. Moreover, the investigation reveals that the use of real space diffraction data in the form of PDFs enables more accurate determination of the phases that develop during complex reaction processes such as C–S–H gel carbonation in comparison to the conventional reciprocal space Rietveld analysis approach.

  14. Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Coinserted Hydrated Sodium and Potassium Molybdenum Bronzes: Their Characterization and Selective Preparation of Purple, Blue, and Red Molybdenum Bronzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Noriyuki; Manago, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Eda, Kazuo

    2001-06-01

    We succeeded in synthesizing the hydrogen coinserted hydrated potassium molybdenum bronzes (HKBz) with the 8- and 6-coordination structures by a direct new reduction method. By this method, the 8-coordination type was obtained. According to NMR results, the behavior of protons in the 8-coordination type was different from those in the 6-coordination type. We obtained the single phase of purple sodium molybdenum bronze when hydrogen coinserted hydrated sodium bronze (HNaBz) controlled the content of hydrogen, and sodium was heated in nitrogen. Also, we obtained the blue and red potassium bronzes by heating HKBz and controlling the contents of hydrogen and potassium.

  15. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples. PMID:26255668

  16. Ternary phase behaviour and vesicle formation of a sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate/1-decanol/water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Nasima; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan

    2011-08-01

    The phase behaviour of a system composed of amino acid-based surfactant (sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate), 1-decanol and deionised water was investigated for vesicle formation. Changing the molar ratio of the amphiphiles, two important aggregate structures were observed in the aqueous corner of the phase diagram. Two different sizes of microemulsions were found at two amphiphile-water boundaries. A stable single vesicle lobe was found for 1∶2 molar ratios in 92 wt% water with vesicles approximately 100 nm in size and with high zeta potential value. Structural variation arises due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions among the ionic headgroups of the surfactants and the hydration forces due to adsorbed water onto monolayer's. The balance of these two forces determines the aggregate structures. Analysis was followed by the molecular geometrical structure. These findings may have implications for the development of drug delivery systems for cancer treatments, as well as cosmetic and food formulations.

  17. Calcium sodium phosphosilicate had some benefit on dentine hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Freda, Nicolas M; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesMedline (via Pubmed), Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. Search strategy was limited to articles published in English and Chinese. No restriction applied to date of publication and a supplemental manual search was conducted by reviewing the reference lists for related paper and articles. Grey literature was also searched in ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Research Register, OpenGrey and the WHO's international clinical Trial Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials in humans with DH that compared topical CSPS in any modality and any concentration to a negative (placebo) control. The primary outcome was the DH pain response to routine activities or to thermal, tactile, evaporative or electrical stimuli, and the secondary outcome was the side effect of CSPS use including discomfort, oral hygiene deterioration or dental staining.Data extraction and synthesisStudy selection, data extraction and risk bias assessment were carried out in duplicate by two calibrated reviewers. Any disagreement was resolved via discussion after consulting a third reviewer. Mean differences (MDs) and standard deviations (SDs) were used to summarise data in studies with continuous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. Meta-analysis was performed when similarities were found among the included studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) System's Profiler was used to assess the quality of the body of the evidence.ResultsEleven trials were included comparing CSPS with a negative control. Four articles that focused on post-periodontal therapy were extracted as an independent analysis group. CSPS was used in topical administration with concentrations ranging from 2.5%-15%. Follow-up times ranged from 15 days to eight weeks. DH pain was elicited by tactile, evaporative or thermal stimuli. A 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) was the most commonly used for measurements. Five studies revealed a low risk of bias, one study had a high risk of bias and five studies had an unclear risk of bias. Seven of the studies were regarded as having a potential conflict of interest.For the primary outcome (DH) Subjects in the DH group (four studies) showed that toothpaste containing 5% CSPS was favoured compared with a negative control at almost every time point, however one study did not report a significant difference between these treatments at two weeks.The results from the from the grey literature (two studies) did not show significant differences between the CSPS and control groups and the results were not in agreement with the other studies.Another study observed effects of both 2.5% and 7.5% CSPS-containing toothpaste: 7.5% CSPS was more effective at relieving DH than a negative control, whereas no significant difference was found between 2.5% and the negative controls.For the secondary outcome (adverse events): six studies did not observe adverse reactions. The remaining studies reported minor adverse events, although most were not orally related.Toothpaste containing 5% CSPS versus negative control: the 5% CSPS-containing toothpaste showed a better desensitising effect at both two and six weeks regardless of the applied stimuli (evaporative, two weeks: MD = -0.68; 95% CIs = -1.15, -0. 20; I2 = 59%; evaporative, six weeks: MD = -1.69; 95% CIs = -1.86, -1.52; I2 = 42%; thermal, two weeks: MD = -0.59; 95% CIs = -1.33, 0.14; I2 = 84%; and thermal, six weeks: MD = -1.70; 95% CIs = -2.17, -1.23;I2 = 72%). The quality of evidence was categorised as 'moderate'.Prophylaxis paste containing 15% CSPS versus negative control: prophylaxis paste containing 15% CSPS showed a better desensitising effect on post-periodontal therapy DH pain than a negative control, immediately after prophylaxis and at four weeks, as determined using evaporative or tactile stimuli, and the results showed relatively low heterogeneity (evaporative, immediate: MD = -0.87; 95% CIs = -1.23, -0.51; I2 = 0%; evaporative, four weeks: MD = -0.93; 95% CIs = -1.11, -0.75; I2 = 41%; tactile, immediate: MD = -9.59; 95%CIs = -12.17, -7.01; I2 = 55%; and tactile, four weeks: MD = -8.34; 95% CIs = -10.87, -5.80; I2 =0%). The quality of evidence was classified as 'low'.The two studies that assessed patients' self-assessments of dentine sensitivity were not pooled because of clinical heterogeneity.ConclusionsThe majority of the studies included in the review found that sodium phosphosilicate was more effective than negative control at alleviating dentine hypersensitivity, used either as toothpaste to alleviate DH or as a prophylaxis paste to treat post-periodontal therapy DH. The review found moderate quality of evidence that 5% CSPS-containing toothpaste is effective for use as an at-home treatment to relieve DH. There is low quality evidence that prophylaxis paste containing 15% CSPS is favoured over a negative control at reducing post-periodontal therapy hypersensitivity. It remains unclear whether concentrations of more than 5% CSPS have increased risk of side effects. The results are based on a small number of clinical trials. Seven of the studies were industry or partially industry-sponsored. PMID:27012568

  18. Corrosion resistance of inconel 690 to sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, and sodium meta silicate at 900 and 1100{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1997-01-29

    Corrosive attack of Inconel 690 coupons was not observed following 3 day exposure tests to calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, and sodium meta silicate at 900 {degrees}C. However, melt line attack was evident on coupons exposed to sodium meta silicate and sodium carbonate tested for 3 days at 1100 {degrees}C. In addition, intergranular attack (IGA), approximately 0.67 mils/day, was observed on the Inconel 690 coupon exposed to calcium carbonate at 1100 {degrees}C. Calcium carbonate did not completely remove the glass coating at 950 {degrees}C. In fact, it was comparable to the results obtained by exposing a glass coated coupon at 950 {degrees}C in air. Therefore, calcium carbonate is not recommended for cleaning the DWPF melter pour spout. Both sodium carbonate and sodium meta silicate appear to remove most of the glass. However, these cleaning agents will remain on the metal surface following exposure at 950 {degrees}C resulting in very rough surface and a potential for corrosive attack when heated to 1100 {degrees}C.

  19. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, I.; Luchinsky, D. G.; Tindjong, R.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Qf at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Qf=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Qf for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Qf leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Qf(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca2+/Na+ valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

  20. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, I; Luchinsky, D G; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Q(f) at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Q(f)=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Q(f) for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q(f) leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Q(f)(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca(2+)/Na(+) valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls. PMID:24329301

  1. Insecticidal arylalkylbenzhydrolpiperidines: novel inhibitors of voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium channels in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Leong, D; Bloomquist, J R; Bempong, J; Dybas, J A; Kinne, L P; Lyga, J W; Marek, F L; Nicholson, R A

    2001-10-01

    Using preparations derived from whole mouse brain, we have demonstrated that insecticidal arylalkylbenzhydrolpiperidines inhibit the depolarization of synaptoneurosomes as measured by rhodamine 6G fluorescence and block 22Na+ uptake into synaptosomes, when veratridine is used as the activator. These insecticides also have the ability to potently displace the binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate ([3H]BTX-B) to neuronal sodium channels in a concentration-dependent manner. The study compounds can be classified as competitive inhibitors of radioligand binding, since they decrease the affinity of [3H]BTX-B for site 2 without affecting the concentration of sites labelled by this radioligand. Our kinetic analyses revealed that at its IC50, the 4-carbomethoxyaminobenzyl-piperidine analogue reduces the rate of association of [3H]BTX-B with site 2, whereas higher concentrations were required to accelerate dissociation of the [3H]BTX-B:sodium channel complex. These results indicate an ability to interact with both non-activated and persistently activated states of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel, but higher affinity for the former. Such a profile also implies that inhibition of [3H]BTX-B binding to site 2 occurs via an allosteric mechanism. In addition, arylalkylbenzhydrolpiperidines interact with presynaptic voltage-sensitive calcium channels, since we demonstrate that they inhibit increases in [free Ca++] and 45Ca++ uptake when evoked by high KC1 concentration in mouse brain synaptosomal preparations. Such effects generally occur at concentrations that are higher than those required to inhibit sodium channels. Blockade of sodium and calcium channels may therefore contribute to the in vivo neurological effects observed in rodents exposed to these insecticides. PMID:11695181

  2. [Comparative evaluation of the anticoagulant activity of the sodium and calcium salts of heparin, isolated from swine intestinal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Ushkalova, E A; Kremneva, V F; Ovchinnikova, L K; Shcheglova, N V

    1989-01-01

    During in vitro experiments it was shown that at intravenous administration to rabbits and dogs in a dose of 100 IU/kg the anticoagulant effect of mucosal heparin sodium was greater than that of heparin calcium. At subcutaneous administration to rabbits in a dose of 750 IU/kg calcium heparin exhibited a stable and even anticoagulant effect for 12 hours. Mucosal sodium heparin administered subcutaneously caused marked peaks of hypocoagulation and rebound effect. At subcutaneous injection sodium heparin action duration was 10 hours. PMID:2792354

  3. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sodium excretion is associated with intrarenal oxidative stress. The present study evaluated whether oxidative stress caused by high sodium (HS) may be involved in calcium oxalate crystal formation. Male rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet. Normal-sodium and HS diets were achieved by providing drinking water containing 0.3% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet with 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HP) for 7 and 42 days to induce hyperoxaluria and/or calcium oxalate deposition. Compared to normal sodium, HS slightly increased calcium excretion despite diuresis; however, the result did not reach statistical significance. HS did not affect the hyperoxaluria, hypocalciuria or supersaturation caused by HP; however, it increased calcium oxalate crystal deposition soon after 7 days of co-treatment. Massive calcium oxalate formation and calcium crystal excretion in HS+HP rats were seen after 42 days of treatment. HP-mediated hypocitraturia was further exacerbated by HS. Moreover, HS aggravated HP-induced renal injury and tubular damage via increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney indicated exaggerated oxidative stress. Interestingly, this redox imbalance was associated with reduced renal osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein expression (via increased excretion) and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1 upregulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a HS diet induces massive crystal formation in the hyperoxaluric kidney; this is not due to increased urinary calcium excretion but is related to oxidative injury and loss of anticrystallization defense. PMID:26241473

  4. High Sodium-Induced Oxidative Stress and Poor Anticrystallization Defense Aggravate Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation in Rat Hyperoxaluric Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced sodium excretion is associated with intrarenal oxidative stress. The present study evaluated whether oxidative stress caused by high sodium (HS) may be involved in calcium oxalate crystal formation. Male rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet. Normal-sodium and HS diets were achieved by providing drinking water containing 0.3% and 3% NaCl, respectively. Rats were fed a sodium-depleted diet with 5% hydroxyl-L-proline (HP) for 7 and 42 days to induce hyperoxaluria and/or calcium oxalate deposition. Compared to normal sodium, HS slightly increased calcium excretion despite diuresis; however, the result did not reach statistical significance. HS did not affect the hyperoxaluria, hypocalciuria or supersaturation caused by HP; however, it increased calcium oxalate crystal deposition soon after 7 days of co-treatment. Massive calcium oxalate formation and calcium crystal excretion in HS+HP rats were seen after 42 days of treatment. HP-mediated hypocitraturia was further exacerbated by HS. Moreover, HS aggravated HP-induced renal injury and tubular damage via increased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Increased urinary malondialdehyde excretion, in situ superoxide production, NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase expression and activity, and decreased antioxidant enzyme expression or activity in the HS+HP kidney indicated exaggerated oxidative stress. Interestingly, this redox imbalance was associated with reduced renal osteopontin and Tamm-Horsfall protein expression (via increased excretion) and sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter NaDC-1 upregulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that a HS diet induces massive crystal formation in the hyperoxaluric kidney; this is not due to increased urinary calcium excretion but is related to oxidative injury and loss of anticrystallization defense. PMID:26241473

  5. Sodium and potassium salts of dichloroisocyanuric acid and their hydrates as antimicrobials agents studied by 35Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, A.; Brycki, B.; Kaczmarek, M.; Poleshchuk, O. Kh.; Ostafin, M.; Nogaj, B.

    2006-06-01

    The electronic structure of dichloroisocyanuric acid derivatives was analysed by 35Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Here we concentrate our attention on three different factors: type of metallic substituent (sodium and potassium), temperature of the sample (liquid nitrogen and room) and degree of hydration (an amount of water molecules attached to analysed compounds). In particular, all the variations in 35Cl-NQR frequencies upon hydration of salts containing sodium and potassium ions are explained as a consequence of H-bonds formation and accompanied effects of charge redistribution. Our studies can be useful in searching for the derivatives of dichloroisocyanuric acid revealing higher antimicrobial activity.

  6. The Effect of Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate on Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Mei, Li; Yao, Liang; Tian, Jinhui; Li, Huang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS) in treating dentin hypersensitivity (DH) and to compare this effect to that of a negative (placebo) control. Materials and Methods Several databases, including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, were searched to identify relevant articles published through January 2015; grey literature (i.e., academic literature that is not formally published) was also searched. Two authors performed data extraction independently and jointly using data collection forms. The primary outcome was the DH pain response to routine activities or to thermal, tactile, evaporative, or electrical stimuli, and the secondary outcome was the side effects of CSPS use. Each study was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk bias. Meta-analysis of studies with the same participant demographics, interventions, controls, assessment methods and follow-up periods was performed. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation System was used to assess the quality of the evidence and the risk of bias across studies. Results Meta-analysis demonstrated that toothpaste containing 5% CSPS was more effective than the negative control at relieving dentin sensitivity, with the level of evidence classified as “moderate”. In addition, prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate was favored over the negative control at reducing post-periodontal therapy hypersensitivity, with the level of evidence categorized as “low”. Only two studies reported side effects of CSPS use. Conclusions The majority of studies found that calcium sodium phosphosilicate was more effective than the negative control at alleviating DH. Because strong evidence is scarce, high-quality, well-designed clinical trials are required in the future before definitive recommendations can be made. PMID:26544035

  7. Neuroprotective activity of stiripentol with a possible involvement of voltage-dependent calcium and sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Verleye, Marc; Buttigieg, Dorothe; Steinschneider, Rmy

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of data has shown that recurrent epileptic seizures may be caused by an excessive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain. Glutamatergic overstimulation results in massive neuronal influxes of calcium and sodium through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainic acid glutamate subtype receptors and also through voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. These persistent and abnormal sodium and calcium entry points have deleterious consequences (neurotoxicity) for neuronal function. The therapeutic value of an antiepileptic drug would include not only control of seizure activity but also protection of neuronal tissue. The present study examines the in vitro neuroprotective effects of stiripentol, an antiepileptic compound with ?-aminobutyric acidergic properties, on neuronal-astroglial cultures from rat cerebral cortex exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or to glutamate (40?M for 20?min), two in vitro models of brain injury. In addition, the affinity of stiripentol for the different glutamate receptor subtypes and the interaction with the cell influx of Na(+) and of Ca(2+) enhanced by veratridine and NMDA, respectively, are assessed. Stiripentol (10-100?M) included in the culture medium during OGD or with glutamate significantly increased the number of surviving neurons relative to controls. Stiripentol displayed no binding affinity for different subtypes of glutamate receptors (IC50 ?>?100?M) but significantly blocked the entry of Na(+) and Ca(2+) activated by veratridine and NMDA, respectively. These results suggest that Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels could contribute to the neuroprotective properties of sitiripentol. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26511438

  8. The mechanism of vapor phase hydration of calcium oxide: implications for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Kudłacz, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2014-10-21

    Lime-based sorbents are used for fuel- and flue-gas capture, thereby representing an economic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Their use involves cyclic carbonation/calcination which results in a significant conversion reduction with increasing number of cycles. To reactivate spent CaO, vapor phase hydration is typically performed. However, little is known about the ultimate mechanism of such a hydration process. Here, we show that the vapor phase hydration of CaO formed after calcination of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals is a pseudomorphic, topotactic process, which progresses via an intermediate disordered phase prior to the final formation of oriented Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. The strong structural control during this solid-state phase transition implies that the microstructural features of the CaO parent phase predetermine the final structural and physicochemical (reactivity and attrition) features of the product hydroxide. The higher molar volume of the product can create an impervious shell around unreacted CaO, thereby limiting the efficiency of the reactivation process. However, in the case of compact, sintered CaO structures, volume expansion cannot be accommodated in the reduced pore volume, and stress generation leads to pervasive cracking. This favors complete hydration but also detrimental attrition. Implications of these results in carbon capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. PMID:25233236

  9. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate. PMID:26647147

  10. Human water, sodium, and calcium regulation during space flight and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, S. E.; Seagrave, R. C.

    2000-05-01

    When one is exposed to microgravity, fluid which is normally pooled in the lower extremities is redistributed headward and weight bearing bones begin to demineralize due to reduced mechanical stresses. The kidney, which is the primary regulator of body fluid volume and composition, responds to the fluid shift and bone demineralization by increasing the urinary output of water, sodium, and calcium. This research involves developing a mathematical description of how water and electrolytes are internally redistributed and exchanged with the environment during space flight. This model consequently involves kidney function and the associated endocrine system. The model agrees well with actual data, including that a low sodium diet can prevent bone demineralization. Therefore, assumptions made to develop the model are most likely valid. Additionally, various levels of activity are also considered in the model since exercise may help to eliminate some of the undesired effects of space flight such as muscle atrophy and bone demineralization.

  11. Human water, sodium, and calcium regulation during space flight and exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, S. E.; Seagrave, R. C.

    When one is exposed to microgravity, fluid which is normally pooled in the lower extremities is redistributed headward and weight bearing bones begin to demineralize due to reduced mechanical stresses. The kidney, which is the primary regulator of body fluid volume and composition, responds to the fluid shift and bone demineralization by increasing the urinary output of water, sodium, and calcium. This research involves developing a mathematical description of how water and electrolytes are internally redistributed and exchanged with the environment during space flight. This model consequently involves kidney function and the associated endocrine system. The model agrees well with actual data, including that a low sodium diet can prevent bone demineralization. Therefore, assumptions made to develop the model are most likely valid. Additionally, various levels of activity are also considered in the model since exercise may help to eliminate some of the undesired effects of space flight such as muscle atrophy and bone demineralization.

  12. Calcium-43 chemical shift and electric field gradient tensor interplay: a sensitive probe of structure, polymorphism, and hydration.

    PubMed

    Widdifield, Cory M; Moudrakovski, Igor; Bryce, David L

    2014-07-14

    Calcium is the 5th most abundant element on earth, and is found in numerous biological tissues, proteins, materials, and increasingly in catalysts. However, due to a number of unfavourable nuclear properties, such as a low magnetogyric ratio, very low natural abundance, and its nuclear electric quadrupole moment, development of solid-state (43)Ca NMR has been constrained relative to similar nuclides. In this study, 12 commonly-available calcium compounds are analyzed via(43)Ca solid-state NMR and the information which may be obtained by the measurement of both the (43)Ca electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift tensors (the latter of which are extremely rare with only a handful of literature examples) is discussed. Combined with density functional theory (DFT) computations, this 'tensor interplay' is, for the first time for (43)Ca, illustrated to be diagnostic in distinguishing polymorphs (e.g., calcium formate), and the degree of hydration (e.g., CaCl22H2O and calcium tartrate tetrahydrate). For Ca(OH)2, we outline the first example of (1)H to (43)Ca cross-polarization on a sample at natural abundance in (43)Ca. Using prior knowledge of the relationship between the isotropic calcium chemical shift and the calcium quadrupolar coupling constant (CQ) with coordination number, we postulate the coordination number in a sample of calcium levulinate dihydrate, which does not have a known crystal structure. Natural samples of CaCO3 (aragonite polymorph) are used to show that the synthetic structure is present in nature. Gauge-including projector augmented-wave (GIPAW) DFT computations using accepted crystal structures for many of these systems generally result in calculated NMR tensor parameters which are in very good agreement with the experimental observations. This combination of (43)Ca NMR measurements with GIPAW DFT ultimately allows us to establish clear correlations between various solid-state (43)Ca NMR observables and selected structural parameters, such as unit cell dimensions and average Ca-O bond distances. PMID:24874995

  13. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-07-01

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  14. Magnesium, potassium, sodium and calcium in post-mortem vitreous humour from humans.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J G; Benomran, F; Watson, A A; Harland, W A

    1985-01-01

    Levels of magnesium, potassium, sodium and calcium in post-mortem vitreous humour from human controls, fire fatalities and drowning victims have been determined. The effects of time-related internal changes, external environmental parameters and different causes of death are evaluated. Despite the positive correlation and marked increase of potassium and, to a lesser extent, of magnesium and calcium with the length of the post-mortem interval, individual biological variability severely limits the usefulness of predictions of post-mortem interval based on electrolyte metal data. At best, there is only a 2/3 chance of a prediction being within 12 h of the true value. Vitreous humour metal concentrations are affected by external influences, such as the elevated temperatures of fires which increase the rate of release of intracellular magnesium and potassium. In cases where drowning is suspected, establishment or exclusion of this cause of death is not possible on the basis of vitreous humour electrolyte metal data because of possible post-immersion diffusion across the permeable membrane of the eyeball. It appears, however, that magnesium in salt-water cases and sodium in fresh-water cases are related, albeit erratically, to the length of the immersion period. PMID:3988191

  15. Clinical efficacy evaluation of calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate on surface-enamel smoothness and gloss.

    PubMed

    Muoz, Carlos A; Stephens, Joni A; Proskin, Howard M; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2004-09-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effectiveness of a fluoride dentifrice containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate for improving surface-enamel smoothness and gloss relative to a commercially available fluoride and silica-containing dentifrice. Balancing for baseline surface-enamel roughness and gloss, 113 healthy adult volunteers who met the inclusion criterion for daily acidic drink consumption were randomized to receive 1 of the 2 products. Subjects brushed their teeth using the assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for 1 minute twice daily for 3 months. Surface-enamel roughness and gloss were evaluated at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of brushing twice daily. Within-treatment comparisons showed longitudinal improvement by the test dentifrice in tooth-surface roughness and gloss at the 1-month and 3-month examinations. After 3 months of use, the test dentifrice exhibited a highly significant improvement in gloss (23.4%, P < .0001) and surface roughness (13.7%, P < .0001) over baseline. The control dentifrice showed no significant improvement longitudinally in either parameter. Between-group comparisons adjusted for baseline demonstrated a significantly (P < .0001) greater improvement in tooth-surface roughness and gloss for the test dentifrice. The results indicate that the fluoride dentifrice containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate is effective in improving tooth-surface smoothness and gloss with regular use. PMID:15645905

  16. Hot alkali carbonation of sodium metaphosphate modified fly ash/calcium aluminate blend hydrothermal cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium metaphosphate-modified fly ash/calcium aluminate blend (SFCB) cements were prepared by autoclaving for 1 day at 300 C and their resistance was evaluated in a highly concentrated Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 300 C. The hydroxyapatite and analcime phases formed in the autoclaved SFCB cements played an essential role in conferring resistance to the degradation of cements caused by alkali carbonation. Although the carbonating reaction of the analcime phase led to the formation of cancrinite, this analcime cancrinite transformation did not show any influence on the changes in the mechanical and physical properties of the cements. Additionally, there was no formation of the water-soluble calcium bicarbonate in the cements exposed for 28 days. Contrarily, the conventional class G cement systems were very vulnerable to a hot alkali carbonation. The major reason for the damage caused by carbonation of the cements was the fact that the xonotlite phase formed in the 300{degree} autoclaved cements was converted into two carbonation products, calcite and pectolite. Furthermore, the reaction between calcite and carbonic acid derived from Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} led to the formation of water-soluble calcium bicarbonate, thereby causing the alteration of dense structures into porous ones and the loss of strength of cements.

  17. Establishment of drug delivery system nanocapsulated with an antioxidant (+)-catechin hydrate and sodium meta borate chelator against sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Arpita; Chanda, Soumen; Bandyopadhyay, Bidyut; Das, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress a major cause of fluoride induced toxicity and mitochondrial impairment in common in experimental rats during chronic exposure of fluoride. Attempts have been made in the present experiment to diminish oxidative damage, combined therapy with (+)-catechin hydrate (an antioxidant) and sodium meta borate (chelator) were used. Fluoride intoxication in rats was performed by using 13mg/kg NaF and both antioxidant CH and chelator SMB were used at a concentration of 8.98?M/kg body weight. Mixture of CH and SMB in free or in PLGA nanocapsule encapsulated form were prepared. The efficacies of those formulations were tested in combating free radical mediated oxidative insult produced by sodium fluoride (NaF). The amalgamated therapy used in this experiment was shown to reduce fluoride levels in liver, brain and kidney from 9.5, 5.5, 6.3?g/g to 4.6, 2, 2.6?g/g, respectively. Our result indicated that the combined chelator and antioxidant therapy in nanocapsulated drug delivery system could provide a projection in combating fluoride induced mitochondrial impairment in rat model. PMID:26653744

  18. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  19. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  20. Calcium sulfoaluminate (Ye'elimite) hydration in the presence of gypsum, calcite, and vaterite

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Craig W.; Telesca, Antonio; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2014-11-15

    Six calcium sulfoaluminate-based cementitious systems composed of calcium sulfoaluminate, calcite, vaterite, and gypsum were cured as pastes and mortars for 1, 7, 28 and 84 days. Pastes were analyzed with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Mortars were tested for compressive strength, dimensional stability and setting time. Furthermore, pastes with a water/cementitious material mass ratio of 0.80 were tested for heat evolution during the first 48 h by means of isothermal conduction calorimetry. It has been found that: (1) both calcite and vaterite reacted with monosulfoaluminate to give monocarboaluminate and ettringite, with vaterite being more reactive; (2) gypsum lowered the reactivity of both carbonates; (3) expansion was reduced by calcite and vaterite, irrespective of the presence of gypsum; and (4) both carbonates increased compressive strength in the absence of gypsum and decreased compressive strength less in the presence of gypsum, with vaterite's action more effective than that of calcite.

  1. X-ray diffraction: a powerful tool to probe and understand the structure of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Linard, Yannick; Chiaberge, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were calculated and compared to literature data with the aim of investigating the crystal structure of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main binding phase in hydrated Portland cement pastes. Published XRD patterns from C-S-H of Ca/Si ratios ranging from ??0.6 to ??1.7 are fully compatible with nanocrystalline and turbostratic tobermorite. Even at a ratio close or slightly higher than that of jennite (Ca/Si = 1.5) this latter mineral, which is required in some models to describe the structure of C-S-H, is not detected in the experimental XRD patterns. The 001 basal reflection from C-S-H, positioned at ??13.5? when the C-S-H structural Ca/Si ratio is low (< 0.9), shifts towards smaller d values and sharpens with increasing Ca/Si ratio, to reach ??11.2? when the Ca/Si ratio is higher than 1.5. Calculations indicate that the sharpening of the 001 reflection may be related to a crystallite size along c* (i.e. a mean number of stacked layers) increasing with the C-S-H Ca/Si ratio. Such an increase would contribute to the observed shift of the 001 reflection, but fails to quantitatively explain it. It is proposed that the observed shift could result from interstratification of at least two tobermorite-like layers, one having a high and the other a low Ca/Si ratio with a basal spacing of 11.3 and 14?, respectively. PMID:24056355

  2. Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C.

    2009-12-15

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

  3. SMALL-SCALE PILOT EVALUATION OF CALCIUM- AND SODIUM-BASED SORBENTS FOR DRY SO2 REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a 100 cu m/h pilot facility (consisting of a spray dryer, a sorbent injection system, a duct section, and a pulse-jet baghouse or cyclone separator) used for testing the reaction at low temperature between various calcium- and sodium-based sorbents and SO2 in ...

  4. Reporting sodium channel activity using calcium flux: pharmacological promiscuity of cardiac Nav1.5.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Li, Min

    2015-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 μM, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions. PMID:25422141

  5. Reporting Sodium Channel Activity Using Calcium Flux: Pharmacological Promiscuity of Cardiac Nav1.5

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 ?M, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions. PMID:25422141

  6. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 ; Alcaraz, Gisele; Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  7. Atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of calcium, magnesium and potassium in leaf samples after decomposition with molten sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Adelantado, J V; Martinez, V P; Garcia, A P; Reig, F B

    1991-09-01

    The decomposition of standard leaf samples of varied origin and nature by fusion with sodium hydroxide in an open system has been studied. The use of sodium nitrate as an auxiliary agent facilitated the mineralization of most of the samples. The solutions obtained were analysed for calcium, magnesium and potassium by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is fast and quite precise, with absolute standard deviations of 0.04-0.13, 0.002-0.03 and 0.04-0.12% for calcium, magnesium and potassium contents of O.8-5.0, 0.13-0.48 and 0.36-2.2% respectively. The limits of detection (mug/ml) in the determination step were 0.10 for calcium, 0.011 for magnesium, and 0.09 for potassium. PMID:18965244

  8. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. We hypothesize that the sodium and calcium content of the coal plays a significant role in the development of pore structures and pore-size distribution, ultimately producing activated carbon products that have greater sorption capacity for specific contaminants, depending on molecular size.

  9. Effect of temperature on the microstructure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)

    SciTech Connect

    Gallucci, E. Zhang, X.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2013-11-15

    Temperature affects the properties of concrete through its effect on the hydration of cement and its associated microstructural development. This paper focuses on the modifications to C-S-H induced by isothermal curing between 5 and 60 °C. The results show that as the temperature increases (within the range studied) the C/S ratio of C-S-H changes only slightly, with a higher degree of polymerisation of silicate chains, but there is a significant decrease in its bound water content and an increase of apparent density of 25%. This increase seems to come from a different packing of C-S-H at the nanoscale. As a consequence of these changes, the microstructure of the cement paste is much coarser and porous, which explains the lower final strengths obtained by curing at elevated temperatures. -- Highlights: •C-S-H structure studied at the atomic level •Multiple analytical techniques used •Studies conducted at temperatures above and below normal temperatures.

  10. Composition-solubility-structure relationships in calcium (alkali) aluminosilicate hydrate (C-(N,K-)A-S-H).

    PubMed

    Myers, Rupert J; L'Hpital, Emilie; Provis, John L; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2015-08-14

    The interplay between the solubility, structure and chemical composition of calcium (alkali) aluminosilicate hydrate (C-(N,K-)A-S-H) equilibrated at 50 C is investigated in this paper. The tobermorite-like C-(N,K-)A-S-H products are more crystalline in the presence of alkalis, and generally have larger basal spacings at lower Ca/Si ratios. Both Na and K are incorporated into the interlayer space of the C-(N,K-)A-S-H phases, with more alkali uptake observed at higher alkali and lower Ca content. No relationship between Al and alkali uptake is identified at the Al concentrations investigated (Al/Si ? 0.1). More stable C-(N,K-)A-S-H is formed at higher alkali content, but this factor is only significant in some samples with Ca/Si ratios ?1. Shorter chain lengths are formed at higher alkali and Ca content, and cross-linking between (alumino)silicate chains in the tobermorite-like structure is greatly promoted by increasing alkali and Al concentrations. The calculated solubility products do not depend greatly on the mean chain length in C-(N,K-)A-S-H at a constant Ca/(Al + Si) ratio, or the Al/Si ratio in C-(N,K-)A-S-H. These results are important for understanding the chemical stability of C-(N,K-)A-S-H, which is a key phase formed in the majority of cements and concretes used worldwide. PMID:26134354

  11. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. ... vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified products, including orange juice, soy and rice drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations ...

  12. SIK1 is part of a cell sodium-sensing network that regulates active sodium transport through a calcium-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Sjstrm, Mattias; Stenstrm, Karin; Eneling, Kristina; Zwiller, Jean; Katz, Adrian I.; Takemori, Hiroshi; Bertorello, Alejandro M.

    2007-01-01

    In mammalian cells, active sodium transport and its derived functions (e.g., plasma membrane potential) are dictated by the activity of the Na+,K+-ATPase (NK), whose regulation is essential for maintaining cell volume and composition, as well as other vital cell functions. Here we report the existence of a salt-inducible kinase-1 (SIK1) that associates constitutively with the NK regulatory complex and is responsible for increases in its catalytic activity following small elevations in intracellular sodium concentrations. Increases in intracellular sodium are paralleled by elevations in intracellular calcium through the reversible Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, leading to the activation of SIK1 (Thr-322 phosphorylation) by a calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase. Activation of SIK1 results in the dephosphorylation of the NK ?-subunit and an increase in its catalytic activity. A protein phosphatase 2A/phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) complex, which constitutively associates with the NK ?-subunit, is activated by SIK1 through phosphorylation of PME-1 and its dissociation from the complex. These observations illustrate the existence of a distinct intracellular signaling network, with SIK1 at its core, which is triggered by a monovalent cation (Na+) and links sodium permeability to its active transport. PMID:17939993

  13. Intracellular calcium and its sodium-independent regulation in voltage-clamped snail neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, H J; Thomas, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. We have used both Ca(2+)-sensitive microelectrodes and fura-2 to measure the intracellular free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i or its negative log, pCai) of snail neurones voltage clamped to -50 or -60 mV. Using Ca(2+)-sensitive microelectrodes, [Ca2+]i was found to be approximately 174 nM and pCai, 6.76 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 11); using fura-2, [Ca2+]i was approximately 40 nM and pCai, 7.44 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10). 2. Depolarizations (1-20 s) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, indicating that the rise in [Ca2+]i was due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. 3. Caffeine (10-20 mM) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. The effects of caffeine on [Ca2+]i could be prevented by ryanodine. 4. Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, caused a small increase in resting [Ca2+]i and slowed the rate of recovery from Ca2+ loads following 20 s depolarizations. 5. Neither replacement of extracellular sodium with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG), nor loading the cells with intracellular sodium, had any effect on resting [Ca2+]i or the rate of recovery of [Ca2+]i following depolarizations. 6. The mitochondrial uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCmP) caused a small gradual rise in resting [Ca2+]i. Removal of extracellular sodium during exposure to CCmP had no further effect on [Ca2+]i. 7. Intracellular orthovanadate caused an increase in resting [Ca2+]i and prevented the full recovery of [Ca2+]i following small Ca2+ loads, but removal of extracellular sodium did not cause a rise in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that there is no Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger present in the cell body of these neurones and that [Ca2+]i is maintained by an ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump. Images Figure 1 PMID:7623274

  14. Preparation, crystal structures and rapid hydration of P2- and P3-type sodium chromium antimony oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pospelov, A.A.; Nalbandyan, V.B.

    2011-05-15

    Two new Na{sub x}[Cr{sub (1+x)/2}Sb{sub (1-x)/2}]O{sub 2} compounds have been prepared by solid-state reactions in argon. Their structures have been determined by the X-ray Rietveld method. Both new phases together with NaCrO{sub 2}-based solid solution comprise brucite-like layers of edge-shared (Cr,Sb)O{sub 6} octahedra but differ by packing mode of the layers and coordination of the interlayer Na{sup +} ions. A P3 phase exists at x{approx}0.5-0.58. It is rhombohedral (R3-bar m), a=2.966, c=16.937 A at x{approx}0.58, with 29% Na{sup +} occupancy of trigonal prisms. A P2 phase exists at x{approx}0.6-0.7. It is hexagonal (P6{sub 3}/mmc), a=2.960, c=11.190 A at x{approx}0.7, with 37% and 33% Na{sup +} occupancy of two non-equivalent trigonal prisms. Both P2 and P3 phases rapidly absorb moisture in air; packing mode is preserved, the a parameter changes slightly but c increases by 24-25%. Very high sodium ion conductivity is predicted for both P2 and P3 anhydrous phases. -- Graphical Abstract: Polyhedral presentation of layered structures of Na{sub x}[Cr{sub (1+x)/2}Sb{sub (1-x)/2}]O{sub 2}. (Cr,Sb)O{sub 6} octahedra are green. Part of the sodium prisms are open to show short distances between sodium sites which cannot be occupied simultaneously. Display Omitted highlights: > Two new layered Na{sub x}[Cr{sub (1+x)/2}Sb{sub (1-x)/2}]O{sub 2} phases, P2 and P3, have been prepared in argon. > Interlayer O-O distances are larger than in Na{sub x}(M,Ti)O{sub 2} analogs (M=Cr,Ni,Li). > As a result, both rapidly hydrate in air with c-axis expansion of 24-25%. > Bottleneck radii are also larger, and this predicts very high Na{sup +}-ion conductivity.

  15. Burst pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node in sodiumcalcium exchanger knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Angelo G.; Zhang, Rui; Zaini, Audrey; Giani, Jorge F.; Kang, Jeanney; Lamp, Scott T.; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Goldhaber, Joshua I.

    2015-01-01

    In sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, electrogenic sodiumcalcium exchange (NCX) is the dominant calcium (Ca) efflux mechanism. However, the role of NCX in the generation of SAN automaticity is controversial. To investigate the contribution of NCX to pacemaking in the SAN, we performed optical voltage mapping and high-speed 2D laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) of Ca dynamics in an ex vivo intact SAN/atrial tissue preparation from atrial-specific NCX knockout (KO) mice. These mice lack P waves on electrocardiograms, and isolated NCX KO SAN cells are quiescent. Voltage mapping revealed disorganized and arrhythmic depolarizations within the NCX KO SAN that failed to propagate into the atria. LSCM revealed intermittent bursts of Ca transients. Bursts were accompanied by rising diastolic Ca, culminating in long pauses dominated by Ca waves. The L-type Ca channel agonist BayK8644 reduced the rate of Ca transients and inhibited burst generation in the NCX KO SAN whereas the Ca buffer 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA AM) did the opposite. These results suggest that cellular Ca accumulation hinders spontaneous depolarization in the NCX KO SAN, possibly by inhibiting L-type Ca currents. The funny current (If) blocker ivabradine also suppressed NCX KO SAN automaticity. We conclude that pacemaker activity is present in the NCX KO SAN, generated by a mechanism that depends upon If. However, the absence of NCX-mediated depolarization in combination with impaired Ca efflux results in intermittent bursts of pacemaker activity, reminiscent of human sinus node dysfunction and tachy-brady syndrome. PMID:26195795

  16. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Burst pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node in sodium-calcium exchanger knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Angelo G; Zhang, Rui; Zaini, Audrey; Giani, Jorge F; Kang, Jeanney; Lamp, Scott T; Philipson, Kenneth D; Goldhaber, Joshua I

    2015-08-01

    In sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, electrogenic sodium-calcium exchange (NCX) is the dominant calcium (Ca) efflux mechanism. However, the role of NCX in the generation of SAN automaticity is controversial. To investigate the contribution of NCX to pacemaking in the SAN, we performed optical voltage mapping and high-speed 2D laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) of Ca dynamics in an ex vivo intact SAN/atrial tissue preparation from atrial-specific NCX knockout (KO) mice. These mice lack P waves on electrocardiograms, and isolated NCX KO SAN cells are quiescent. Voltage mapping revealed disorganized and arrhythmic depolarizations within the NCX KO SAN that failed to propagate into the atria. LSCM revealed intermittent bursts of Ca transients. Bursts were accompanied by rising diastolic Ca, culminating in long pauses dominated by Ca waves. The L-type Ca channel agonist BayK8644 reduced the rate of Ca transients and inhibited burst generation in the NCX KO SAN whereas the Ca buffer 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA AM) did the opposite. These results suggest that cellular Ca accumulation hinders spontaneous depolarization in the NCX KO SAN, possibly by inhibiting L-type Ca currents. The funny current (If) blocker ivabradine also suppressed NCX KO SAN automaticity. We conclude that pacemaker activity is present in the NCX KO SAN, generated by a mechanism that depends upon If. However, the absence of NCX-mediated depolarization in combination with impaired Ca efflux results in intermittent bursts of pacemaker activity, reminiscent of human sinus node dysfunction and "tachy-brady" syndrome. PMID:26195795

  18. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stomach acid (a condition more common in people older than 50) absorb calcium citrate more easily than calcium carbonate. Other forms of calcium in supplements and fortified foods include gluconate, lactate, and phosphate. Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes no more than 500 mg at one ...

  19. Addition of sodium hyaluronate and the effect on performance of the injectable calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Kai, Dan; Li, Dongxiao; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-08-01

    An injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) with porous structure and excellent anti-washout ability was developed in the study. Citric acid and sodium bicarbonate were added into the CPC powder consisting of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) to form macro-pores, then different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) solution, as liquid phase, was added into the cement to investigate its effect on CPC's performance. The prepared CPCs were tested on workability (injectable time and setting time), mechanical strength, as well as anti-washout ability. The experimental results showed that addition of NaHA not only enhanced the anti-washout ability of the CPC dramatically but also improve its other properties. When NaHA concentration was 0.6 wt%, the injectable time elongated to 15.7 +/- 0.6 min, the initial and final setting times were respectively shorten to 18.3 +/- 1.2 and 58.7 +/- 2.1 min, and the compressive strength were increased to 18.78 +/- 1.83 MPa. On the other hand, Addition of NaHA showed little effect on porous structure of the CPC and enhanced its bioactivity obviously, which was confirmed by the apatite formation on its surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In conclusion, as an in situ shaped injectable biomaterials, the CPC with appropriate addition of NaHA would notably improve its performance and might be used in minimal invasive surgery for bone repair or reconstruction. PMID:19291369

  20. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, Karen S

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are there differences in the regulation and/or activity of SOS1 in plants differing in their adaptation to salinity?

  1. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobermorite. Rate constants for tobermorite growth were found to be k = 0.6 (± 0.1) × 10-5 s-1 for a solution:solid of 10:1 and 1.6 (± 0.8) × 10-4 s-1 for a solution:solid of 5:1 (batch mode; T = 150°C). This data indicates that reaction rates for tobermorite growth are faster when the solution volume is reduced by half, suggesting that rates are dependent on solution saturation and that the Gibbs free energy is the reaction driver. However, calculated solution saturation indexes for Al-CSH and tobermorite differ by less than one log unit, which is within the measured uncertainty. Based on this data, we consider both heterogeneous nucleation as the thermodynamic driver and internal restructuring as possible mechanistic pathways for growth. We also use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the site symmetry and bonding environment of Al and Si in a reacted tobermorite sample. We find two [4]Al coordination structures at δiso = 59.9 ppm and 66.3 ppm with quadrupolar product parameters (PQ) of 0.21 MHz and 0.10 MHz (± 0.08) from 27Al 3Q-MAS NMR and speculate on the Al occupancy of framework sites by probing the protonation environment of Al metal centers using 27Al{1H}CP-MAS NMR. PMID:19144195

  2. Molecular Modeling of Ammonium, Calcium, Sulfur, and Sodium Lignosulphonates in Acid and Basic Aqueous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Valencia, P. J.; Bolívar Marinez, L. E.; Pérez Merchancano, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lignosulphonates (LS), also known as lignin sulfonates or sulfite lignin, are lignins in sulfonated forms, obtained from the "sulfite liquors," a residue of the wood pulp extraction process. Their main utility lies in its wide range of properties, they can be used as additives, dispersants, binders, fluxing, binder agents, etc. in fields ranging from food to fertilizer manufacture and even as agents in the preparation of ion exchange membranes. Since they can be manufactured relatively easy and quickly, and that its molecular size can be manipulated to obtain fragments of very low molecular weight, they are used as transport agents in the food industry, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and drug development, and as molecular elements for the treatment of health problems. In this paper, we study the electronic structural and optical characteristics of LS incorporating ammonium, sulfur, calcium, and sodium ions in acidic and basic aqueous media in order to gain a better understanding of their behavior and the very interesting properties exhibit. The studies were performed using the molecular modeling program HyperChem 5 using the semiempirical method PM3 of the NDO Family (neglect of differential overlap), to calculate the structural properties. We calculated the electronic and optical properties using the semiempirical method ZINDO / CI.

  3. Structural Insight into the Ion-Exchange Mechanism of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jun; Li, Hua; Zeng, Weizhong; Sauer, David B.; Belmares, Ricardo; Jiang, Youxing

    2012-06-19

    Sodium/calcium (Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}) exchangers (NCX) are membrane transporters that play an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} for cell signaling. We demonstrated the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}-exchange function of an NCX from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX{_}Mj) and report its 1.9 angstrom crystal structure in an outward-facing conformation. Containing 10 transmembrane helices, the two halves of NCX{_}Mj share a similar structure with opposite orientation. Four ion-binding sites cluster at the center of the protein: one specific for Ca{sup 2+} and three that likely bind Na{sup +}. Two passageways allow for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} access to the central ion-binding sites from the extracellular side. Based on the symmetry of NCX{_}Mj and its ability to catalyze bidirectional ion-exchange reactions, we propose a structure model for the inward-facing NCX{_}Mj.

  4. Poisson-Fermi Modeling of the Ion Exchange Mechanism of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Hsieh, Hann-Jeng; Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-03-17

    The ion exchange mechanism of the sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) crystallized by Liao et al. in 2012 is studied using the Poisson-Fermi theory developed by Liu and Eisenberg in 2014. A cycle of binding and unbinding is proposed to account for the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange function of the NCX molecule. Outputs of the theory include electric and steric fields of ions with different sizes, correlations of ions of different charges, and polarization of water, along with number densities of ions, water molecules, and interstitial voids. We calculate the electrostatic and steric potentials of the four binding sites in NCX, i.e., three Na(+) binding sites and one Ca(2+) binding site, with protein charges provided by the software PDB2PQR. The energy profiles of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions along their respective Na(+) and Ca(2+) pathways in experimental conditions enable us to explain the fundamental mechanism of NCX that extrudes intracellular Ca(2+) across the cell membrane against its chemical gradient by using the downhill gradient of Na(+). Atomic and numerical details of the binding sites are given to illustrate the 3 Na(+):1 Ca(2+) stoichiometry of NCX. The protein NCX is a catalyst. It does not provide (free) energy for transport. All energy for transport in our model comes from the ions in surrounding baths. PMID:26906748

  5. Effects of Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite on the Setting Time of Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement

    PubMed Central

    Frough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Shakouie, Sahar; Rahimi, Saeed; Salem Milani, Amin; Ranjbar, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether adding 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement would affect its setting time (ST), or not. Methods and Materials: In this study, the setting time of CEM cement was evaluated in three groups (n=9) as follows: group 1; CEM cement, group 2; CEM cement+2% CHX and group 3; CEM cement+2.6% NaOCl. Then the mean values of ST were calculated and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate the normal distribution of data. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean ST for groups 1, 2 and 3 were 105, 120 and 220 min, respectively. There was a significant increase in the duration of ST in group 3 (NaOCl) in comparison with the two other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: NaOCl significantly increased the ST of CEM cement, whereas chlorhexidine did not alter the ST. PMID:26213537

  6. Formation of leadhillite and calcium lead silicate hydrate (C-Pb-S-H) in the solidification/stabilization of lead contaminants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongjin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the structure of Pb-doped solidified waste forms (SWF) for assessment of lead fixation. A large quantity of lead precipitates produced during the S/S, based upon the results of cement-water solution analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis/electron dispersive spectroscopy investigations, have been shown to be principally leadhillite (lead carbonate sulfate hydroxide, Pb(4)SO(4)(CO(3))(2)(OH)(2)), lead carbonate hydroxide hydrate (3PbCO(3).2Pb(OH)(2).H(2)O) and two other unidentified lead salts. In the long curing, the lead species dissolved from the lead precipitates are fixed into the cement matrix, forming a gelling calcium lead silicate hydrate during cement-based solidification. On leaching the lead precipitates such as leadhillite were markedly dissolved/released and some dissolved lead species were adsorbed to silicate-rich surface of leached SWF with the subsequent formation of mainly amorphous gel of calcium lead silicate hydrate. PMID:16934855

  7. Dual inhibition of sodium-mediated proton and calcium efflux triggers non-apoptotic cell death in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Harley, William; Floyd, Candace; Dunn, Tamara; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tsung-Yu; Hegde, Manu; Palandoken, Hasan; Nantz, Michael H.; Leon, Leonardo; Carraway, K L; Lyeth, Bruce; Gorin, Fredric A.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant glioma cells maintain an elevated intracellular pH (pHi) within hypoxic-ischemic tumor microenvironments through persistent activation of sodium-proton transport (McLean et al., 2000). Amiloride has been reported to selectively kill human malignant glioma cell lines but not primary astrocytes (Hegde et al., 2004). While amiloride reduces pHi of malignant gliomas by inhibiting isoform 1 of sodium-proton exchange (NHE1), direct acidification was shown to be cytostatic rather than cytotoxic. At cytotoxic concentrations, amiloride has multiple drug targets including inhibition of NHE1 and sodium calcium exchange. Amiloride's glioma cytotoxicity can be explained, at least in part, by dual inhibition of NHE1 and of Na+-dependent calcium efflux by isoform 1.1 of the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1.1) , which increases [Ca2+]i and initiates glioma cell demise. As a result of persistent NHE1 activity, cytosolic free levels of sodium ([Na+]i) in U87 and C6 glioma cells are elevated 3-fold, as compared with normal astrocytes. Basal cytosolic free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) also are increased 5-fold. 2?, 4?-dichlorobenzamil (DCB) inhibits the sodium-dependent calcium transporter (NCX1.1) much more potently than NHE1. DCB was employed in a concentration-dependent fashion in glioma cells to selectively inhibit the forward mode of NCX1.1 at ?1uM, while dually inhibiting both NHE1 and NCX1.1 at ?20uM. DCB (1uM) was not cytotoxic to glioma cells, while DCB (20?M) further increased basal elevated levels of [Ca2+]i in glioma cells that was followed by cell demise. Cariporide and SEA0400 are more specific inhibitors of NHE1 and NCX1.1 than amiloride or DCB, respectively. Individually, Cariporide and SEA0400 are not cytotoxic, but in combination induced glioma cell death. Like amiloride, the combination of Cariporide and SEA0400 produced glioma cell death in the absence of demonstrable caspase-activation. PMID:20869350

  8. Selectivity filters and cysteine-rich extracellular loops in voltage-gated sodium, calcium, and NALCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Robert F.; Guan, W.; Zhorov, Boris S.; Spafford, J. David

    2015-01-01

    How nature discriminates sodium from calcium ions in eukaryotic channels has been difficult to resolve because they contain four homologous, but markedly different repeat domains. We glean clues from analyzing the changing pore region in sodium, calcium and NALCN channels, from single-cell eukaryotes to mammals. Alternative splicing in invertebrate homologs provides insights into different structural features underlying calcium and sodium selectivity. NALCN generates alternative ion selectivity with splicing that changes the high field strength (HFS) site at the narrowest level of the hourglass shaped pore where the selectivity filter is located. Alternative splicing creates NALCN isoforms, in which the HFS site has a ring of glutamates contributed by all four repeat domains (EEEE), or three glutamates and a lysine residue in the third (EEKE) or second (EKEE) position. Alternative splicing provides sodium and/or calcium selectivity in T-type channels with extracellular loops between S5 and P-helices (S5P) of different lengths that contain three or five cysteines. All eukaryotic channels have a set of eight core cysteines in extracellular regions, but the T-type channels have an infusion of 412 extra cysteines in extracellular regions. The pattern of conservation suggests a possible pairing of long loops in Domains I and III, which are bridged with core cysteines in NALCN, Cav, and Nav channels, and pairing of shorter loops in Domains II and IV in T-type channel through disulfide bonds involving T-type specific cysteines. Extracellular turrets of increasing lengths in potassium channels (Kir2.2, hERG, and K2P1) contribute to a changing landscape above the pore selectivity filter that can limit drug access and serve as an ion pre-filter before ions reach the pore selectivity filter below. Pairing of extended loops likely contributes to the large extracellular appendage as seen in single particle electron cryo-microscopy images of the eel Nav1 channel. PMID:26042044

  9. Selectivity filters and cysteine-rich extracellular loops in voltage-gated sodium, calcium, and NALCN channels.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Robert F; Guan, W; Zhorov, Boris S; Spafford, J David

    2015-01-01

    How nature discriminates sodium from calcium ions in eukaryotic channels has been difficult to resolve because they contain four homologous, but markedly different repeat domains. We glean clues from analyzing the changing pore region in sodium, calcium and NALCN channels, from single-cell eukaryotes to mammals. Alternative splicing in invertebrate homologs provides insights into different structural features underlying calcium and sodium selectivity. NALCN generates alternative ion selectivity with splicing that changes the high field strength (HFS) site at the narrowest level of the hourglass shaped pore where the selectivity filter is located. Alternative splicing creates NALCN isoforms, in which the HFS site has a ring of glutamates contributed by all four repeat domains (EEEE), or three glutamates and a lysine residue in the third (EEKE) or second (EKEE) position. Alternative splicing provides sodium and/or calcium selectivity in T-type channels with extracellular loops between S5 and P-helices (S5P) of different lengths that contain three or five cysteines. All eukaryotic channels have a set of eight core cysteines in extracellular regions, but the T-type channels have an infusion of 4-12 extra cysteines in extracellular regions. The pattern of conservation suggests a possible pairing of long loops in Domains I and III, which are bridged with core cysteines in NALCN, Cav, and Nav channels, and pairing of shorter loops in Domains II and IV in T-type channel through disulfide bonds involving T-type specific cysteines. Extracellular turrets of increasing lengths in potassium channels (Kir2.2, hERG, and K2P1) contribute to a changing landscape above the pore selectivity filter that can limit drug access and serve as an ion pre-filter before ions reach the pore selectivity filter below. Pairing of extended loops likely contributes to the large extracellular appendage as seen in single particle electron cryo-microscopy images of the eel Nav1 channel. PMID:26042044

  10. Synthesis and hydration behavior of calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18}) cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eun-Hee; Yoo, Jun-Sang; Kim, Bo-Hye; Choi, Sung-Woo; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2014-02-15

    Calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18}) cements were prepared by solid state reaction and polymeric precursor methods, and their phase evolution, morphology, and hydration behavior were investigated. In polymeric precursor method, a nearly single phase Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} was obtained at relatively lower temperature (1200 C) whereas in solid state reaction, a small amount of CaZrO{sub 3} coexisted with Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} even at higher temperature (1400 C). Unexpectedly, Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} synthesized by polymeric precursor process was the large-sized and rough-shaped powder. The planetary ball milling was employed to control the particle size and shape. The hydration behavior of Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} was similar to that of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} (C3A), but the hydration products were Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}6H{sub 2}O (C3AH6) and several intermediate products. Thus, Zr (or ZrO{sub 2}) stabilized the intermediate hydration products of C3A.

  11. Activation of the sodium pump blocks the growth hormone-induced increase in cytosolic free calcium in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gaur, S; Yamaguchi, H; Goodman, H M

    2000-02-01

    GH promptly increases cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in freshly isolated rat adipocytes. Adipocytes deprived of GH for 3 h or longer are incapable of increasing [Ca2+]i in response to GH, but instead respond in an insulin-like manner. Insulin blocks the GH-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in GH-replete cells and stimulates the sodium pump (i.e. Na+/K+-ATPase), thereby hyperpolarizing the cell membrane. Blockade of the Na+/K+-ATPase with 100 microM ouabain reversed these effects of insulin and enabled GH to increase [Ca2+]i in GH-deprived adipocytes. Both insulin and GH activated the sodium pump in GH-deprived adipocytes, as indicated by increased uptake of 86Rb+. Decreasing availability of intracellular Na+ by blockade of Na+/K+/ 2Cl- symporters or Na+/H+ antiporters abolished the effects of both hormones on 86Rb+ uptake and enabled both GH and insulin to increase [Ca2+]i in GH-deprived adipocytes. The data suggest that hormonal stimulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity interferes with activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels by either membrane hyperpolarization or some unknown interaction between the sodium pump and calcium channels. PMID:10650930

  12. Cytotoxicity of endodontic irrigants containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from mouse L929 cell line.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Srgio Valmor; Barroso, Cristiane Maria Sodr; Ruiz, Patrcia Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of root canal irrigating solutions containing calcium hydroxide and sodium lauryl sulphate on fibroblasts derived from L929 cell line. Saturated calcium hydroxide aqueous solution (CH), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and SLS associated with calcium hydroxide (HCT20) were diluted with sterile distilled water at 50%, 20%, 10% and 5% concentrations. Minimum essential medium (MEM) served as the control group. The cytotoxicity of the solutions was evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblast cell line, at 4 and 24 h of contact time by the 51Cr radiotracer method. Data were compared and statistical inferences were made with the chi-square test. In all analysis, significance level was set at 5%. CH and HCT20 showed toxicity at 50% concentration, while at concentrations lower than 50% these solutions showed cell tolerance. SLS was cytotoxic at all concentrations. In conclusion, the association of calcium hydroxide and SLS (HCT20) combines the beneficial properties of these solutions and was not harmful to the fibroblast cell line, seeming to be a suitable endodontic irrigating solution. PMID:19738943

  13. Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  14. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent ... send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods ...

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans. PMID:25875592

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Molecular Mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 Response to Sodium Lactate and Calcium Lactate during Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that ‘ATP-binding cassette transporters’ were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and ‘amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism’ was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of ‘glycolysis/gluconeogenesis’ genes but positive effect on the expression of ‘citrate cycle (TCA cycle)’ genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of ‘glycolysis/gluconeogenesis’ genes and had minor influence on ‘citrate cycle (TCA cycle)’ genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans. PMID:25875592

  17. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is a mineral that is an essential part of bones and teeth. The heart, nerves, and blood-clotting systems also need calcium ... as well as the calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products ...

  18. In vitro enamel remineralization by low-fluoride toothpaste with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Edo; Danelon, Marcelle; Freire, Isabelle Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 gF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 gF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 gF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%?Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %?Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p<0.05). The mineral gain (%SH and %?Z) was higher for toothpastes diluted in saliva (p<0.05), except for the 450 gF/g dentifrice with Cacit/TMP (p>0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite. PMID:23969915

  19. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  20. Calcium rapidly down-regulates human renal epithelial sodium channels via a W-7-sensitive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Robins, Gerard G; Sandle, Geoffrey I

    2014-08-01

    Increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) inhibit renal sodium (Na(+)) absorption in cortical collecting ducts, but the precise mechanism is unclear. We, therefore, studied the effects of raising intracellular Ca(2+) (using 10 µmol/L A23187, a Ca(2+) ionophore) on wild-type and Liddle-mutated human epithelial Na(+) channels (hENaC) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using the dual-electrode voltage clamp technique. A23187 decreased amiloride-sensitive Na(+) current by 55% in oocytes expressing wild-type hENaC, an effect prevented by co-exposure to 50 μmol/L W-7 (to inhibit the Ca(2+)/calmodulin complex). By contrast, co-exposure to 50 μmol/L calphostin (to inhibit protein kinase C) or 5 μmol/L KN-62 (to inhibit Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) had no effect on the decrease in amiloride-sensitive Na(+) current elicited by A23187 alone. Whereas A23187 reduced amiloride-sensitive Na(+) current in oocytes expressing wild-type hENaC, it had no similar effect in those expressing Liddle-mutated hENaCs, suggesting that the activity of individual Na(+) channels in situ was unchanged by the rise in intracellular Ca(2+). These data suggest that the A23187-induced rise in intracellular Ca(2+) inhibited wild-type hENaC through a W-7-sensitive mechanism, which likely reflected enhanced removal of Na(+) channels from the cell membrane by endocytosis. We, therefore, propose that Na(+) absorption in cortical collecting duct cells is inhibited by Ca(2+), possibly when complexed with calmodulin. PMID:24980981

  1. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  2. Electron Solvation in Liquid Ammonia: Lithium, Sodium, Magnesium, and Calcium as Electron Sources.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-03-10

    A free electron in solution, known as a solvated electron, is the smallest possible anion. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms serve as electron donors in solvents that mediate outer-sphere electron transfer. We report herein ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of lithium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium in liquid ammonia at 250 K. By analyzing the electronic properties and the ionic and solvation structures and dynamics, we systematically characterize these metals as electron donors and ammonia molecules as electron acceptors. We show that the solvated metal strongly modifies the properties of its solvation shells and that the observed effect is metal-specific. Specifically, the radius and charge exhibit major impacts. The single solvated electron present in the alkali metal systems is distributed more uniformly among the solvent molecules of each metal's two solvation shells. In contrast, alkaline earth metals favor a less uniform distribution of the electron density. Alkali and alkaline earth atoms are coordinated by four and six NH3 molecules, respectively. The smaller atoms, Li and Mg, are stronger electron donors than Na and Ca. This result is surprising, as smaller atoms in a column of the periodic table have higher ionization potentials. However, it can be explained by stronger electron donor-acceptor interactions between the smaller atoms and the solvent molecules. The structure of the first solvation shell is sharpest for Mg, which has a large charge and a small radius. Solvation is weakest for Na, which has a small charge and a large radius. Weak solvation leads to rapid dynamics, as reflected in the diffusion coefficients of NH3 molecules of the first two solvation shells and the Na atom. The properties of the solvated electrons established in the present study are important for radiation chemistry, synthetic chemistry, condensed-matter charge transfer, and energy sources. PMID:26886153

  3. Selective inhibition of sodiumcalcium exchanger by SEA-0400 decreases early and delayed afterdepolarization in canine heart

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Zsolt A; Virg, Lszl; Tth, Andrs; Biliczki, Pter; Acsai, Kroly; Bnysz, Tams; Nnsi, Pter; Papp, Julius Gy; Varr, Andrs

    2004-01-01

    The sodiumcalcium exchanger (NCX) was considered to play an important role in arrhythmogenesis under certain conditions such as heart failure or calcium overload. In the present study, the effect of SEA-0400, a selective inhibitor of the NCX, was investigated on early and delayed afterdepolarizations in canine ventricular papillary muscles and Purkinje fibres by applying conventional microelectrode techniques at 37C. The amplitude of both early and delayed afterdepolarizations was markedly decreased by 1 ?M SEA-0400 from 26.62.5 to 14.81.8 mV (n=9, P<0.05) and from 12.51.7 to 5.91.4 mV (n=3, P<0.05), respectively. In enzymatically isolated canine ventricular myocytes, SEA-0400 did not change significantly the L-type calcium current and the intracellular calcium transient, studied using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique and Fura-2 ratiometric fluorometry. It is concluded that, through the reduction of calcium overload, specific inhibition of the NCX current by SEA-0400 may abolish triggered arrhythmias. PMID:15504749

  4. Comparison between original and generic versions of ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection: compatibility with calcium-containing product.

    PubMed

    Tange, Mio; Yoshida, Miyako; Nakai, Yuka; Uchida, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the compatibility of ROCEPHINE® Intravenous, the original manufacturer's ceftriaxone sodium preparation for injection, and seven generic versions thereof, with various calcium chloride injection 2%. The influence of calcium ion concentration, storage time and shaking strength on the appearance and quantity of insoluble microparticles in mixed solutions was examined using a light obscuration particle counter. In all products, the observed number of insoluble microparticles was proportional to the calcium ion concentration, storage time and shaking strength after the addition of calcium chloride solution. In several of the generic products, the number of insoluble microparticles was significantly higher than those of the original product, while in others it was lower. We evaluated the quality of the original and 7 generic preparations, measured the content of impurity and pH of the various ceftriaxone solutions, as impurity content and pH of solution are possible factor affecting compatibility. Three impurities were found in all products. The impurity content of several generic products, as estimated from their peak area on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was significantly lower than that of the original product. pH of solution was difference between products. Although it was difficult that impurity and pH of solution verify critical factor affecting compatibility. The results show that there are differences in the appearance of insoluble microparticles between the original product and seven generic products, when calcium chloride injection 2% solution is added to the product. PMID:22466725

  5. Effect of biomedical organic compounds on the setting reaction of calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Ye, Jiandong; Gao, Chengying; Yu, Long; Wang, Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of biomedical organic compounds (starch, sodium alginate, chitosan and gelatin) on the hydration of calcium phosphates was studied using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and XPS analysis. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was prepared by a mechanochemical route and mixed with biomedical organic compounds. A solidification reaction occurred between ACP and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD); the hydration product was poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite (HA). During the setting reaction of ACP and DCPD, the presence of biomedical organic compounds had an effect on the hydration product: the bonding energies of the primary elements (Ca, P) in the hydration product (HA) were changed; also different hydration morphologies, self-setting properties, rheological properties and mechanical strength of the cement were obtained. This work will allow advances in the synthesis of bionic composite calcium phosphate cement (CPC). PMID:19811895

  6. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: towards a Unified View on Physiological Calcium Regulation of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    PubMed Central

    VanPetegem, Filip; Lobo, Paolo A.; Ahern, ChristopherA.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) underlie the upstroke of the action potential in the excitable tissues of nerve and muscle. After opening, NaVs rapidly undergo inactivation, a crucial process through which sodium conductance is negatively regulated. Disruption of inactivation by inherited mutations is an established cause of lethal cardiac arrhythmia, epilepsy, or painful syndromes. Intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) modulate sodium channel inactivation, and multiple players have been suggested in this process, including the cytoplasmic NaV C-terminal region including two EF-hands and an IQ motif, the NaV domain III-IV linker, and calmodulin. Calmodulin can bind to the IQ domain in both Ca2+-bound and Ca2+-free conditions, but only to the DIII-IV linker in a Ca2+-loaded state. The mechanism of Ca2+ regulation, and its composite effect(s) on channel gating, has been shrouded in much controversy owing to numerous apparent experimental inconsistencies. Herein, we attempt to summarize these disparate data and propose a novel, to our knowledge, physiological mechanism whereby calcium ions promote sodium current facilitation due to Ca2+ memory at high-action-potential frequencies where Ca2+ levels may accumulate. The available data suggest that this phenomenon may be disrupted in diseases where cytoplasmic calcium ion levels are chronically high and where targeted phosphorylation may decouple the Ca2+ regulatory machinery. Many NaV disease mutations associated with electrical dysfunction are located in the Ca2+-sensing machinery and misregulation of Ca2+-dependent channel modulation is likely to contribute to disease phenotypes. PMID:23283222

  7. Trichloroethylene decomposition and in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products by calcium oxides prepared from hydrated limes.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Yoshimi; Iwata, Goichi; Choh, Kyaw; Kubota, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Hitoki

    2011-10-01

    A comparison of CaOs produced by calcining two types of hydrated lime and calcium carbonate was made for decomposition of trichloroethylene and in-situ dry sorption of the decomposed Cl-products using a lab-scale gas flow type tubular packed bed reactor. About 20 mg of CaO sample was mixed with about 2 g of Al2O3 particles and packed in the reactor and allowed to react with a flowing standard gas containing 500 ppm of C2HCl3 (N2 balance) at 673 and 873 K, under the condition that the reaction of CaO with C2HCl3 might be completed within a few hours. It was found that no thermal decomposition of C2HCl3 at or below 673 K was observed in a reactor packed only with Al2O3 particles. However, a considerable amount of decomposition of C2HCl3 was obtained in a reactor packed with CaO and Al2O3, even at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 673 K, decomposition of 0.42 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.53 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. At 873 K, about 46% of C2HCl3 was thermally decomposed. The total amount of C2HCl3 decomposed in CaO-Al2O3 particle bed at 873 K became nearly twice larger than that at 673 K. For 1 mol of CaO prepared by calcining highly reactive Ca(OH)2 at 873 K, decomposition of 0.59 mol of C2HCl3 and in-situ absorption product of 0.67 mol of CaCl2 were obtained. Small amounts of C2Cl2, C2Cl4, CCl4, etc. were detected during decomposition of C2HCl3 at 673 and 873 K. It was recognized that the data on decomposition of C2HCl3 as well as in-situ dry sorption of Cl-products in CaO particle bed were correlated with specific surface area of the CaO employed. PMID:21821273

  8. A study of factors influencing hydration of sodium hyaluronate from compressibility and high-precision densimetric measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A; Gormally, J; Wyn-Jones, E; Wedlock, D J; Phillips, G O

    1983-01-01

    A study of the factors influencing the hydration of the biopolymer hyaluronic acid was made by compressibility and density measurements. The factors investigated were the hydration changes on glycosidic bond formation, and also the influence of counterion type, solution ionic strength and temperature. The results indicate that, with this biopolymer, the hydration of the glucuronate residue is significantly more than that of the N-acetylglucosamine residue, and further that the biopolymer is less hydrated than the sum of its component monosaccharide residues. Change of the counterion salt form of this polyelectrolyte from univalent to bivalent counterion type (Na+ to Ca2+) leads to a small though significant increase in the total hydration sheath surrounding the polymer. An increase in the background ionic strength of the solvent leads to a quantifiable lowering of the hydration of the polymer at physiological ionic strength compared with its value in salt-free aqueous solution. A decrease in hydration with increase in temperature in the range 20-50 degrees C is the opposite of previous reports, and was observed when the polymer was dissolved both in pure water and in 0.15 M-NaCl. PMID:6615441

  9. Gd3+ and calcium sensitive, sodium leak currents are features of weak membrane-glass seals in patch clamp recordings.

    PubMed

    Boone, Adrienne N; Senatore, Adriano; Chemin, Jean; Monteil, Arnaud; Spafford, J David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of leaky patch currents in whole cell recording of HEK-293T cells were examined as a means to separate these control currents from expressed sodium and calcium leak channel currents from snail NALCN leak channels possessing both sodium (EKEE) and calcium (EEEE) selectivity filters. Leak currents were generated by the weakening of gigaohm patch seals by artificial membrane rupture using the ZAP function on the patch clamp amplifier. Surprisingly, we found that leak currents generated from the weakened membrane/glass seal can be surprisingly stable and exhibit behavior that is consistent with a sodium leak current derived from an expressible channel. Leaky patch currents differing by 10 fold in size were similarly reduced in size when external sodium ions were replaced with the large monovalent ion NMDG+. Leaky patch currents increased when external Ca2+ (1.2 mM) was lowered to 0.1 mM and were inhibited (>40% to >90%) with 10 M Gd3+, 100 M La3+, 1 mM Co2+ or 1 mM Cd2+. Leaky patch currents were relatively insensitive (<30%) to 1 mM Ni2+ and exhibited a variable amount of block with 1 mM verapamil and were insensitive to 100 M mibefradil or 100 M nifedipine. We hypothesize that the rapid changes in leak current size in response to changing external cations or drugs relates to their influences on the membrane seal adherence and the electro-osmotic flow of mobile cations channeling in crevices of a particular pore size in the interface between the negatively charged patch electrode and the lipid membrane. Observed sodium leak conductance currents in weak patch seals are reproducible between the electrode glass interface with cell membranes, artificial lipid or Sylgard rubber. PMID:24945283

  10. Gd3+ and Calcium Sensitive, Sodium Leak Currents Are Features of Weak Membrane-Glass Seals in Patch Clamp Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Chemin, Jean; Monteil, Arnaud; Spafford, J. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of leaky patch currents in whole cell recording of HEK-293T cells were examined as a means to separate these control currents from expressed sodium and calcium leak channel currents from snail NALCN leak channels possessing both sodium (EKEE) and calcium (EEEE) selectivity filters. Leak currents were generated by the weakening of gigaohm patch seals by artificial membrane rupture using the ZAP function on the patch clamp amplifier. Surprisingly, we found that leak currents generated from the weakened membrane/glass seal can be surprisingly stable and exhibit behavior that is consistent with a sodium leak current derived from an expressible channel. Leaky patch currents differing by 10 fold in size were similarly reduced in size when external sodium ions were replaced with the large monovalent ion NMDG+. Leaky patch currents increased when external Ca2+ (1.2 mM) was lowered to 0.1 mM and were inhibited (>40% to >90%) with 10 M Gd3+, 100 M La3+, 1 mM Co2+ or 1 mM Cd2+. Leaky patch currents were relatively insensitive (<30%) to 1 mM Ni2+ and exhibited a variable amount of block with 1 mM verapamil and were insensitive to 100 M mibefradil or 100 M nifedipine. We hypothesize that the rapid changes in leak current size in response to changing external cations or drugs relates to their influences on the membrane seal adherence and the electro-osmotic flow of mobile cations channeling in crevices of a particular pore size in the interface between the negatively charged patch electrode and the lipid membrane. Observed sodium leak conductance currents in weak patch seals are reproducible between the electrode glass interface with cell membranes, artificial lipid or Sylgard rubber. PMID:24945283

  11. Calcium-ion-induced stabilization of the protease from Bacillus cereus WQ9-2 in aqueous hydrophilic solvents: effect of calcium ion binding on the hydration shell and intramolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiaxing; Zhuang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Su, Long; He, Bingfang

    2013-02-01

    The neutral protease WQ from Bacillus cereus is stable in various aqueous organic mixtures, with the exception of those containing acetonitrile (ACN) and dimethylformamide (DMF). The stability of the enzyme in aqueous hydrophilic solvents was dramatically enhanced with the addition of calcium ions, with the degree of improvement in the half-life relative to different solutions ranging from fourfold to more than 70-fold. Studies of the kinetic constants showed that calcium ions induced slight conformational changes in the active site of the enzyme in aqueous ACN. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this stabilizing effect by employing a combination of biophysical techniques and molecular dynamics simulation. In aqueous ACN, the intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that the addition of calcium ions induced a relatively compact conformation and maintained both the native-like microenvironment near the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure. Alternatively, homology modeling confirmed the location of four calcium-ion-binding sites in the enzyme, and molecular dynamics simulation revealed that three other calcium ions were bound to the surface of the enzyme. Calcium ions, known as a type of kosmotrope, can strongly bond with water molecules, thus aiding in the formation of the regional hydration shell required for the maintenance of enzyme activity. In addition, the introduction of calcium ions resulted in the formation of additional ionic interactions, providing propitious means for protein stabilization. Thus, the stronger intramolecular interactions were also expected to contribute partially to the enhanced stability of the enzyme in an aqueous organic solvent. PMID:23322168

  12. Synthesis and nano-mechanical characterization of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) made with 1.5 CaO/SiO{sub 2} mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Emmy M.; Kim, Jung J.; Reda Taha, M.M.

    2012-09-15

    In this study, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is synthesized and characterized. C-S-H slurry was made with calcium oxide (CaO) to micro-silica (SiO{sub 2}) mixture ratio of 1.5 and enough deionized water. The slurry was continuously mixed for 7 days, then the excess water was removed. Two methods of drying were implemented: one method used the standard d-dry technique and the other was equilibrated to 11% relative humidity (RH). The dried powders were characterized using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRDA), and {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The stoichiometric formulas of synthetic C-S-H powders dried to d-dry and 11% RH in this study were approximated as C{sub 1.2}SH{sub 0.7} and C{sub 1.2}SH{sub 2.4} respectively. The powders were then compacted to create specimens with porosities similar to C-S-H in hydrated cement. The specimens underwent nanoindentation to mechanically characterize C-S-H. The experiments provide insight on the nanoscale mechanical characteristics of C-S-H.

  13. Prophylactic and therapeutic properties of a sodium citrate preparation in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis: randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Rodgers, Allen L

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of a hitherto untested preparation containing sodium citrate in the management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In this study, a host of calcium oxalate kidney stone risk factors was investigated using a randomised, placebo controlled, "within-patient" clinical trial. The trial involved four groups of subjects: healthy male controls, healthy female controls , calcium oxalate stone-forming males and calcium oxalate stone-forming females. There were 30 subjects in each group. Twenty subjects in each group ingested the preparation containing sodium citrate and ten subjects in each group ingested a placebo for 7 days. Collection of 24 h urines were carried out at baseline, at day 7 and day 10 (i.e. 3 days after suspension of drug/placebo ingestion). These were analysed for biochemical and physicochemical risk factors. They were also tested for their inhibitory properties in crystallization experiments. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Key risk factors were significantly and beneficially altered across all groups after ingestion of the preparation. The pH and urinary citrate excretion increased while urinary oxalate and calcium excretions decreased, as did relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate and uric acid. In addition, inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization increased. Beneficial carryover effects were observed for some risk factors. The results of this study have demonstrated, for the first time, that a sodium citrate-containing preparation favourably alters the risk factors for calcium oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:15871014

  14. Calpain cleavage and inactivation of the sodium calcium exchanger-3 occur downstream of Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Joe; Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Bondulich, Marie; Croft, Cara L; Garwood, Claire J; Chhabra, Resham; Wray, Selina; Jeromin, Andreas; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by pathological deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) in senile plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) comprising hyperphosphorylated aggregated tau, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Substantial evidence indicates that disrupted neuronal calcium homeostasis is an early event in AD that could mediate synaptic dysfunction and neuronal toxicity. Sodium calcium exchangers (NCXs) play important roles in regulating intracellular calcium, and accumulating data suggests that reduced NCX function, following aberrant proteolytic cleavage of these exchangers, may contribute to neurodegeneration. Here, we show that elevated calpain, but not caspase-3, activity is a prominent feature of AD brain. In addition, we observe increased calpain-mediated cleavage of NCX3, but not a related family member NCX1, in AD brain relative to unaffected tissue and that from other neurodegenerative conditions. Moreover, the extent of NCX3 proteolysis correlated significantly with amounts of Aβ1–42. We also show that exposure of primary cortical neurons to oligomeric Aβ1–42 results in calpain-dependent cleavage of NCX3, and we demonstrate that loss of NCX3 function is associated with Aβ toxicity. Our findings suggest that Aβ mediates calpain cleavage of NCX3 in AD brain and therefore that reduced NCX3 activity could contribute to the sustained increases in intraneuronal calcium concentrations that are associated with synaptic and neuronal dysfunction in AD. PMID:23919677

  15. Aqueous solubility diagrams for cementitious waste stabilization systems. 4. A carbonation model for Zn-doped calcium silicate hydrate by Gibbs energy minimization.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Dmitrii A; Kersten, Michael

    2002-07-01

    A thermodynamic Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) solid solution-aqueous solution (SSAS) equilibrium model was used to determine the solubility of Zn from calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) phases doped with 0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10% Zn at a unity (Ca+Zn)/Si molar ratio. Both the stoichiometry and standard molar Gibbs energy (G(o)298) of the Zn-bearing end-member in the ideal ternary Zn-bearing calcium silicate hydrate (CZSH) solid solution were determined by a "dual-thermodynamic" (GEM-DT) estimation technique. The SSAS model reproduces a complex sequence of reactions suggested to occur in a long-term weathering scenario of cementitious waste forms at subsurface repository conditions. The GEM model of CZSH leaching at several Zn loadings and solid/water (s/w) ratios in a C02-free system showed that, upon complete dissolution of portlandite and calcium zincate phases at decreasing s/w < 0.01 mol x kg(H2O)(-1), the total dissolved concentrations Si(aq), Ca(aq), and Zn(aq) are controlled by a CZSH solid solution of changing composition, with a trough-like Znaq drop by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Carbonation was simulated in another GEM model run series by CO2 titration of the system with initial s/w approximately 0.9 mol/kg(H2O). Formation of (Ca,Zn)-CO3 nonideal solid solution was predicted already at early reaction stage in the presence of both portlandite and calcium zincate hydrate phases. Upon their disappearance, pH, Zn(aq), C(aq), and fCO2 were predicted to change due to the incongruent dissolution of two concurrent CZSH-I and CZSH-II solid solutions, until the total re-partitioning of Ca and Zn into a carbonate solid solution coexisting with amorphous silica at fCO2 > 0.1 bar. Along this solid-phase transition, dissolved Zn(aq) concentrations follow a highly nonlinear trend. The model results predict that at low to moderate Zn loading (< or = 1% per mole Si), CZSH-type compounds can efficiently immobilize Zn in the near field of a cement-stabilized waste repository. PMID:12144269

  16. Differential effects of lipid-soluble toxins on sodium channels and L-type calcium channels in frog ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Furue, T; Yakehiro, M; Seyama, I

    1997-03-01

    The effect of grayanotoxin I (GTX I), veratridine and aconitine with either an external or internal concentration of 100 microM on L-type calcium (Ca) channels was studied using the whole cell patch clamp and internal dialysis methods. The experimental conditions for the modification of sodium (Na) channels induced by the internal application of these toxins was determined by showing sustained inward currents with depolarizing repetitive pulses. These toxins failed to generate any change in Ca channels under the same experimental protocol as for Na channels. However, external application of these toxins caused a moderate block of the Ca channels without changing the kinetics. PMID:9114566

  17. Actions of a hydrogen sulfide donor (NaHS) on transient sodium, persistent sodium, and voltage-gated calcium currents in neurons of the subfornical organ.

    PubMed

    Kuksis, Markus; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously found gasotransmitter that has been implicated in a variety of beneficial physiological functions. This study was performed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying actions of H2S previously observed in subfornical organ (SFO), where H2S acts to regulate blood pressure through a depolarization of the membrane and an overall increase in the excitability of SFO neurons. We used whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in the voltage-clamp configuration to analyze the effect of 1 mM NaHS, an H2S donor, on voltage-gated potassium, sodium, and calcium currents. We observed no effect of NaHS on potassium currents; however, both voltage-gated sodium currents (persistent and transient) and the N-type calcium current had a depolarized activation curve and an enhanced peak-induced current in response to a series of voltage-step and ramp protocols run in the control and NaHS conditions. These effects were not responsible for the previously observed depolarization of the membrane potential, as depolarizing effects of H2S were still observed following block of these conductances with tetrodotoxin (5 μM) and ω-conotoxin-GVIA (100 nM). Our studies are the first to investigate the effect of H2S on a variety of voltage-gated conductances in a single brain area, and although they do not explain mechanisms underlying the depolarizing actions of H2S on SFO neurons, they provide evidence of potential mechanisms through which this gasotransmitter influences the excitability of neurons in this important brain area as a consequence of the modulation of multiple ion channels. PMID:26180118

  18. Stimulus secretion coupling in cultured chromaffin cells. Dependency on external sodium and on dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Boarder, M R; Marriott, D; Adams, M

    1987-01-01

    Stimulus secretion in response to acetylcholine (or nicotine) in adrenal chromaffin cells involves calcium influx and is tetrodotoxin insensitive. The mechanism by which activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) leads to calcium influx is not clear, and the requirement for external sodium is controversial. We report that when bovine chromaffin cells are continuously perfused in the absence of sodium, secretion of catecholamines in response to 3 X 10(-5) M nicotine is not impaired. Also, secretion stimulated by this concentration of nicotine is not potently and stereospecifically inhibited by the (+)- and (-)-isomers of nicardipine. At a concentration of (+)-nicardipine (10(-7) M) which inhibits most of the release stimulated by 50 mM potassium, the response to 3 X 10(-5) M nicotine remains; however, the dose-response curve to nicotine is shifted slightly to the left. The results are discussed with respect to models of stimulus secretion coupling in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. PMID:2432901

  19. Phylogeny unites animal sodium leak channels with fungal calcium channels in an ancient, voltage-insensitive clade.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J; Hillis, David M; Zakon, Harold H

    2012-12-01

    Proteins in the superfamily of voltage-gated ion channels mediate behavior across the tree of life. These proteins regulate the movement of ions across cell membranes by opening and closing a central pore that controls ion flow. The best-known members of this superfamily are the voltage-gated potassium, calcium (Ca(v)), and sodium (Na(v)) channels, which underlie impulse conduction in nerve and muscle. Not all members of this family are opened by changes in voltage, however. NALCN (NA(+) leak channel nonselective) channels, which encode a voltage-insensitive "sodium leak" channel, have garnered a growing interest. This study examines the phylogenetic relationship among Na(v)/Ca(v) voltage-gated and voltage-insensitive channels in the eukaryotic group Opisthokonta, which includes animals, fungi, and their unicellular relatives. We show that NALCN channels diverged from voltage-gated channels before the divergence of fungi and animals and that the closest relatives of NALCN channels are fungal calcium channels, which they functionally resemble. PMID:22821012

  20. Crystallisation of calcium oxalate dihydrate in normal urine in presence of sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    PubMed

    Tawashi, R; Cousineau, M; Denis, G

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for the growth of calcium oxalate dihydrate in normal urine. Soluble chlorophyllin, at a concentration of 20 microgram/ml inhibited the crystallisation and the growth kinetics of the dihydrate crystals. The inhibitory capacity of chlorophyllin was compared with previous results. Data obtained suggest that the food and drug colourant chlorophyllin might be useful in the treatment of calcium oxalate stone disease. PMID:7179609

  1. Characterization of cytolytic neutrophil activation in vitro by amorphous hydrated calcium phosphate as a model of biomaterial inflammation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Felicity C; Taheri, Amir; Dann, Sophie C; Dye, Julian F

    2011-03-01

    Calcium ions are utilized in biomolecular biomaterial design for osteomimetic scaffolds and as divalent cross-linking agents, typically for gelation of alginates, stabilisation of protein structure (e.g., fibrinogen) and enzyme activation (e.g., thrombin). Biological interactions with defined calcium phosphates (e.g., hydroxyapatite) are exploited for osteogenesis, although crystalline calcium phosphates (e.g., calcium pyrophosphate) stimulate inflammation. We found that the calcium concentration used in the manufacture of prototype dermal scaffolds made from fibrin/alginate composite was related to the inflammatory infiltration during in vivo integration. In investigating a cause for this inflammatory response, we have identified and characterized a cytolytic inflammatory effect of amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP) formed in physiological solutions, relevant to biomaterial biocompatibility. Isolated human neutrophils (N?) were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline with CaCl(2) ranging 2.5-20 mM total calcium. N? activation was assessed by morphology and integrin-?2 (CD18a) expression. Mediator release (N?-elastase, IL-8, and TNF?) was measured from both N? and whole blood cultures plus CaCl(2). CaP exposure increased CD18a expression over 1 h (maximal at 10 mM calcium/ phosphate) with concurrent phagocytosis, cytolysis, and N?-elastase release. CaCl(2) induced expression of IL-8 and TNF? in whole blood cultures. These results suggest that CaP formed from the resorption of calcium-containing biomaterials could induce inflammation and accelerate biomaterial degradation, driving further CaP release. This demonstrates a novel mechanism for biomaterial-induced inflammation. The in vitro system described could aid preclinical evaluation of novel biomaterial inflammatory potential. PMID:21254387

  2. Solid-state {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR characterization of hydrates formed in calcium aluminate-silica fume mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, P.; Rivas Mercury, J.M.

    2008-08-15

    Partially deuterated Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub y}(OH){sub 12-4y}-Al(OH){sub 3} mixtures, prepared by hydration of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} (C{sub 3}A), Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} (C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) and CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CA) phases in the presence of silica fume, have been characterized by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize anhydrous and fully hydrated samples. In hydrated compounds, Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and Al(OH){sub 3} phases were detected. From the quantitative analysis of {sup 27}Al NMR signals, the Al(OH){sub 3}/Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} ratio was deduced. The incorporation of Si into the katoite structure, Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3-x}(OH){sub 4x}, was followed by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopies. Si/OH ratios were determined from the quantitative analysis of {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR components associated with Al(OH){sub 6} and Al(OSi)(OH){sub 5} environments. The {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy was also used to quantify the unreacted silica and amorphous calcium aluminosilicate hydrates formed, C-S-H and C-A-S-H for short. From {sup 29}Si NMR spectra, the amount of Si incorporated into different phases was estimated. Si and Al concentrations, deduced by NMR, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron data, indicate that only a part of available Si is incorporated in katoite structures. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron micrograph of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-microsilica mixture hydrated at 90 deg. C for 31 days showing a cubic Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2.0{+-}}{sub 0.2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 0.9{+-}}{sub 0.2}(OH){sub 1.8} crystal surrounded by unreacted amorphous silica spheres.

  3. Semaphorin3A facilitates axonal transport through a local calcium signaling and tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masayuki; Yamashita, Naoya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Akira; Shouji, Masayuki; Usui, Hiroshi; Goshima, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a secreted factor that navigates axons and dendrites of developing neurons, facilitates axonal transport. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying Sema3A-induced facilitation and its functional implications. Here we show that Sema3A induces facilitation of axonal transport via local calcium signaling in growth cone. The facilitation of axonal transport was blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated sodium channels (tetrodotoxin, TTX), L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, and ryanodine receptor (RyR). Sema3A evoked intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in growth cone by local application of Sema3A to growth cone. Sema3A also activated RyR in growth cone as well as cell body. Notably, TTX suppressed Sema3A-induced RyR activation in cell body but not in growth cone. Our results identify a novel mechanism of Sema3A-induced axonal transport, and further suggest that Sema3A-induced local calcium signaling in growth cone is propagated to cell body in a TTX-sensitive manner. PMID:22575508

  4. Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

  5. Molecular dynamics modeling of the interface between surface functionalized graphitic structures and calcium-silicate-hydrate: interaction energies, structure, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, F; Zhang, L

    2008-07-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale energetic, structural, and dynamic properties of the interface between surface functionalized graphitic structures and calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H). The 9 A tobermorite structure was used as a model for C-S-H, the main building block ("the glue") that hold a cementitious matrix together. Six types of carbon surface structures were investigated: a pristine graphite plane and five graphite planes functionalized with hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), carboxylate (COO(-), deprotonated carboxyl), carbonyl (CO), and amine (NH(2)) groups. Results demonstrated the dominant role of electrostatic forces in the interfacial interactions and indicated that the polarity of the functional group can be used as an indicator of affinity to C-S-H. MD simulations revealed that an optimal number of polar oxygen containing groups may exist for efficient graphitic structure/cement interaction and emphasized the mediating role of Ca(2+) counterions in the interfacial interactions. PMID:18486142

  6. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of this volume many components of the overall circuitry will be described. The reader should try to marry these into the overall activity of the cell for on top of molecular biology there is the cooperative system molecular biology of cells. To give an analogy, whereas much can be understood from the analysis of the properties of single-isolated water molecules, even examining their interaction in ice, this study alone cannot lead to an appreciation of the melting or boiling points of bulk water. PMID:11833348

  7. The hydrothermal decomposition of calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate to katoite hydrogarnet and beta-anhydrite: An in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Meller, Nicola; Kyritsis, Konstantinos; Hall, Christopher

    2009-10-15

    We apply in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the transformation of calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}(SO{sub 4}).14H{sub 2}O [monosulfate-14] to hydrogarnet Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} on the saturated water vapor pressure curve up to 250 deg. C. We use an aqueous slurry of synthetic ettringite Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 12}.26H{sub 2}O as the starting material; on heating, this decomposes at about 115 deg. C to form monosulfate-14 and bassanite CaSO{sub 4}.0.5H{sub 2}O. Above 170 deg. C monosulfate-14 diffraction peaks slowly diminish in intensity, perhaps as a result of loss of crystallinity and the formation of an X-ray amorphous meta-monosulfate. Hydrogarnet nucleates only at temperatures above 210 deg. C. Bassanite transforms to beta-anhydrite (insoluble anhydrite) at about 230 deg. C and this transformation is accompanied by a second burst of hydrogarnet growth. The transformation pathway is more complex than previously thought. The mapping of the transformation pathway shows the value of rapid in-situ time-resolved synchrotron diffraction. - Graphical abstract: We use in-situ synchrotron diffraction to observe the decomposition of layer compound calcium monosulfoaluminate 14-hydrate (left) to form hydrogarnet (right)and beta-anhydrite under hydrothermal conditions.

  8. Intraoral evaluation of mineralization of cosmetic defects by a toothpaste containing calcium, fluoride, and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Leonard J; Quinlan, Kathleen B; Ross, David R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Winston, Anthony; Charig, Andrew; Flickinger, Mark; Vorwerk, Linda

    2004-09-01

    New dual-phase fluoride toothpastes that contain soluble calcium, phosphate, and baking soda have recently been introduced into the market. These toothpastes are designed to fill in small surface defects in tooth enamel and thereby enhance tooth esthetics such as gloss. This two-part study was designed to assess these superficial mineralizing effects from using one of these products compared with an experimental calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free formulation and a conventional fluoride toothpaste using an intraoral model. Enamel specimens with 4 types of defects were mounted into an intraoral appliance and placed in the mouths of volunteers for 1 month. The four types of defects were whitening toothpaste abrasion, coarse abrasion, natural dimpling, and acid etching. Before and after intraoral exposure, scanning electron microscope photographs of the specimens were made. The surface microhardness of the acid-etched specimens also was determined. The volunteers brushed their specimens twice daily with one of three randomly assigned toothpastes. The toothpastes were a two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste; an experimental, two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free toothpaste; and a conventional toothpaste. Only the calcium-containing toothpastes showed unequivocal signs of mineral deposition into surface defects, leading to smoothing of the enamel. All three products significantly increased the hardness of the etched enamel, presumably because of fluoride. However, only the two calcium-containing toothpastes gave significantly greater hardness increases than the conventional toothpaste; the specimens treated with a conventional toothpaste were indistinguishable from those treated with saliva. PMID:15645904

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or microscopic pathological effects were observed in either mice, rats, or guinea pigs in short-term studies. Male guinea pigs fed a control basal diet and given up to 250 mg Ascorbic Acid orally for 20 weeks had similar hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum iron, liver iron, and liver glycogen levels compared to control values. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were fed diets containing up to 100,000 ppm Ascorbic Acid for 13 weeks with little toxicity. Chronic Ascorbic Acid feeding studies showed toxic effects at dosages above 25 mg/kg body weight (bw) in rats and guinea pigs. Groups of male and female rats given daily doses up to 2000 mg/kg bw Ascorbic Acid for 2 years had no macro- or microscopically detectable toxic lesions. Mice given Ascorbic Acid subcutaneous and intravenous daily doses (500 to 1000 mg/kg bw) for 7 days had no changes in appetite, weight gain, and general behavior; and histological examination of various organs showed no changes. Ascorbic Acid was a photoprotectant when applied to mice and pig skin before exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The inhibition of UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity was also noted. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate administration immediately after exposure in hairless mice significantly delayed skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronic exposure to UV radiation. Pregnant mice and rats were given daily oral doses of Ascorbic Acid up to 1000 mg/kg bw with no indications of adult-toxic, teratogenic, or fetotoxic effects. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate were not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems, consistent with the antioxidant properties of these chemicals. In the presence of certain enzyme systems or metal ions, evidence of genotoxicity was seen. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted a 2-year oral carcinogenesis bioassay of Ascorbic Acid (25,000 and 50,000 ppm) in F344/N ra

  10. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... But your parents were right to make you drink milk when you were little. It's loaded with calcium, a mineral vital for building strong bones and teeth. Why Do I Need ... who smoke or drink soda, caffeinated beverages, or alcohol may get even ...

  11. Interactions of Organic Additives with Ionic Crystal Hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi-Milhofer, H.; Sikiri?, M.; Tunik, L.; Filipovi?-Vincekovi?, N.; Garti, N.

    The interactions of two groups of hydrated model crystals, calcium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate (DCPD) vs. octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) vs. calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) with different organic additives are considered. DCPD precipitates as platelet-like crystals with the dominant faces shielded by hydrated layers and charged lateral faces. In the second system COM has charged surfaces, while all faces of COD are covered with layers containing water molecules. The organic molecules tested include negatively charged, flexible and rigid small and macromolecules (glutamic and aspartic acid, citrate, hexaammonium polyphosphate, phytate and polyaspartate) and anionic surfactants (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS, sodium diisooctyl sulfosuccinate, AOT, sodium cholate NaC and disodium oleoamido PEG-2 sulfosuccinate, PEG). Two types of effects have been demonstrated: (1) Effect on crystal growth morphology: Flexible organic molecules with high charge density and anionic surfactants affected the growth morphology of DCPD and COM by selectively interacting with the charged lateral faces while rigid molecules (phytate, polyaspartate) specifically recognized the dominant (010) face of DCPD due to structural and stereochemical compatibility. (2) Effect on phase composition: Anionic surfactants at concentrations above the cmc promoted growth of OCP and COD respectively by selectively adsorbing at, and inhibiting growth oif nuclei of DCPD and/or COM, which were dominant in the respective control systems. The effect was especially pronounced in the calcium oxalate precipitation system, where in some cases complete reversal of the phase composition occurred. The important role of the hydrated layer, as part of the structure of the investigated crystal hydrates, in the above crystal additive interactions is discussed.

  12. Axonal protection achieved by blockade of sodium/calcium exchange in a new model of ischemia in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Fengfeng; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic white matter injury has been relatively little studied despite its importance to the outcome of stroke. To aid such research a new rat model has been developed in vivo and used to assess whether blockade of the sodium/calcium exchanger is effective in protecting central axons from ischemic injury. Vasoconstrictive agent endothelin-1 was injected into the rat spinal cord to induce ischemia. KB-R7943 or SEA0400 was administered systemically to block the operation of the sodium/calcium exchanger. Endothelin-1 caused profound reduction of local blood perfusion and resulted in a prompt loss of axonal conduction. Whereas recovery of conduction following vehicle administration was only to 10.5 ± 9% of baseline (n = 8) 4.5 h after endothelin-1 injection, recovery following KB-R7943 (30 mg/kg, i.a.) administration was increased to 35 ± 9% of baseline (n = 6; P < 0.001). SEA0400 (30 mg/kg, i.a.) was also protective (33.2 ± 6% of baseline, n = 4; P < 0.001). Neither drug improved conduction by diminishing the severity of the ischemia. The protective effect of KB-R7943 persisted for at least 3 days after ischemia, as it improved axonal conduction (76.3 ± 11% for KB-R7943 vs. 51.0 ± 19% for vehicle; P < 0.01) and reduced lesion area (55.6 ± 15% for KB-R7943 vs. 77.9 ± 9% for vehicle; P < 0.01) at this time. In conclusion, a new model of white matter ischemia has been introduced suitable for both structural and functional studies in vivo. Blocking the sodium/calcium exchanger protects central axons from ischemic injury in vivo. PMID:22564441

  13. Chitosan-coated mesoporous microspheres of calcium silicate hydrate: environmentally friendly synthesis and application as a highly efficient adsorbent for heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Wu, Jin; Zheng, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Xin-Yu; Lu, Bing-Qiang; Chen, Feng

    2014-03-15

    Chitosan-coated calcium silicate hydrate (CSH/chitosan) mesoporous microspheres formed by self-assembly of nanosheets have been synthesized in aqueous solution under ambient conditions without using any toxic surfactant or organic solvent. The method reported herein has advantages of simplicity, low cost and being environmentally friendly. The BET specific surface area of CSH/chitosan mesoporous microspheres is measured to be as high as ~356 m(2) g(-1), which is considerably high among calcium silicate materials. The as-prepared CSH/chitosan mesoporous microspheres are promising adsorbent and exhibit a quick and highly efficient adsorption behavior toward heavy metal ions of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Cr(3+), Pb(2+) Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics can be well fitted by the pseudo second-order model. The maximum adsorption amounts of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) on CSH/chitosan mesoporous microspheres are extremely high, which are 406.6, 400, 796, 425 and 578 mg/g, respectively. The CSH/chitosan adsorbent exhibits the highest affinity for Pb(2+) ions among five heavy metal ions. The adsorption capacities of the CSH/chitosan adsorbent toward heavy metal ions are relatively high compared with those reported in the literature. PMID:24461837

  14. Incorporation of zinc into calcium silicate hydrates, Part I: formation of C-S-H(I) with C/S=2/3 and its isochemical counterpart gyrolite

    SciTech Connect

    Stumm, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.stumm@itc-wgt.fzk.de; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Black, Leon; Stemmermann, Peter; Nueesch, Rolf

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the incorporation of zinc into both nanocrystalline and crystalline calcium silicate hydrates with starting C/S ratios of 2/3 (0.66). Zinc was added replacing calcium in the starting mixtures [Zn/(Zn+Ca)=0-1/4; 0-10 wt.% Zn], and the resultant phases were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In both groups of samples, increasing zinc content led to gradual structural changes, until eventually a second phase was formed. Zinc was incorporated to similar limits in both sets of samples. The thermal stability of the structures increased to a certain zinc content, beyond which there was structural destabilisation. Zinc incorporation is possible up to {approx}6 wt.%. Our observations strongly indicate similar zinc incorporation mechanisms in both sample series, namely incorporation of zinc into the interlayer of C-S-H(I) and the X-sheet of gyrolite for nanocrystalline and crystalline samples, respectively.

  15. The Polarized Effect of Intracellular Calcium on the Renal Epithelial Sodium Channel Occurs as a Result of Subcellular Calcium Signaling Domains Maintained by Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Thai, Tiffany L; Yu, Ling; Galarza-Paez, Laura; Wu, Ming Ming; Lam, Ho Yin Colin; Bao, Hui Fang; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Ma, He-Ping; Liu, Bingchen; Eaton, Douglas C

    2015-11-27

    The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) provides regulated sodium transport in the distal nephron. The effects of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) on this channel are only beginning to be elucidated. It appears from previous studies that the [Ca(2+)]i increases downstream of ATP administration may have a polarized effect on ENaC, where apical application of ATP and the subsequent [Ca(2+)]i increase have an inhibitory effect on the channel, whereas basolateral ATP and [Ca(2+)]i have a stimulatory effect. We asked whether this polarized effect of ATP is, in fact, reflective of a polarized effect of increased [Ca(2+)]i on ENaC and what underlying mechanism is responsible. We began by performing patch clamp experiments in which ENaC activity was measured during apical or basolateral application of ionomycin to increase [Ca(2+)]i near the apical or basolateral membrane, respectively. We found that ENaC does indeed respond to increased [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion, with apical increases being inhibitory and basolateral increases stimulating channel activity. In other epithelial cell types, mitochondria sequester [Ca(2+)]i, creating [Ca(2+)]i signaling microdomains within the cell that are dependent on mitochondrial localization. We found that mitochondria localize in bands just beneath the apical and basolateral membranes in two different cortical collecting duct principal cell lines and in cortical collecting duct principal cells in mouse kidney tissue. We found that inhibiting mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i uptake destroyed the polarized response of ENaC to [Ca(2+)]i. Overall, our data suggest that ENaC is regulated by [Ca(2+)]i in a polarized fashion and that this polarization is maintained by mitochondrial [Ca(2+)]i sequestration. PMID:26451045

  16. Calcium Alginate-Neusilin US2 Nanocomposite Microbeads for Oral Sustained Drug Delivery of Poor Water Soluble Drug Aceclofenac Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Mallappa, Manjanna Kolammanahalli; Kesarla, Rajesh; Banakar, Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate and investigate the calcium alginate- (CA-) Neusilin US2 nanocomposite microbeads containing preconcentrate of aceclofenac sodium (ACF-Na) liquid microemulsion (L-ME) for enhancement of oral bioavailability. The preconcentrate L-ME is prepared by using Labrafac PG, Labrasol, and Span 80 as oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant, respectively. The solid CA nanocomposite microbeads of L-ME prepared by microemulsification internal gelation technique using sodium alginate (SA) gelling agent, Neusilin US2 as adsorbent, and calcium chloride as crosslinking agent. L-ME has good thermodynamic stability; globule size was found to be 32.4 nm with polydispersity index 0.219 and −6.32 mV zeta potential. No significant interactions of excipients, drug in the formulations observed by FT-IR, DSC and XPRD. The concentration of SA and Neusilin US2 influences the flow properties, mean particle size, mechanical strength, drug entrapment efficiency, and percentage of drug release. All the formulations show minimum drug release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) pH 1.2 for initial 2 h, maximum drug release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 6 h, followed by sustaining in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) of pH 7.4 up to 12 h. The interaction of SA with Neusilin US2 creates a thick thixotropic gel network structure which acts as barrier to control the release of drug in the alkaline pH environment. Neusilin US2 is a novel filler used to convert L-ME into solid nanocomposite microbeads to enhance dissolution rate of poor water soluble drugs sustaining the drug release for prolonged period of time. PMID:25802761

  17. Changes in Sodium, Calcium, and Magnesium Ion Concentrations That Inhibit Geobacillus Biofilms Have No Effect on Anoxybacillus flavithermus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Somerton, B.; Lindsay, D.; Palmer, J.; Brooks, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of varied sodium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations in specialty milk formulations on biofilm formation by Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus. The numbers of attached viable cells (log CFU per square centimeter) after 6 to 18 h of biofilm formation by three dairy-derived strains of Geobacillus and three dairy-derived strains of A. flavithermus were compared in two commercial milk formulations. Milk formulation B had relatively high sodium and low calcium and magnesium concentrations compared with those of milk formulation A, but the two formulations had comparable fat, protein, and lactose concentrations. Biofilm formation by the three Geobacillus isolates was up to 4 log CFU cm−2 lower in milk formulation B than in milk formulation A after 6 to 18 h, and the difference was often significant (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found when biofilm formations by the three A. flavithermus isolates were compared in milk formulations A and B. Supplementation of milk formulation A with 100 mM NaCl significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) Geobacillus biofilm formation after 6 to 10 h. Furthermore, supplementation of milk formulation B with 2 mM CaCl2 or 2 mM MgCl2 significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) Geobacillus biofilm formation after 10 to 18 h. It was concluded that relatively high free Na+ and low free Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations in milk formulations are collectively required to inhibit biofilm formation by Geobacillus spp., whereas biofilm formation by A. flavithermus is not impacted by typical cation concentration differences of milk formulations. PMID:26002898

  18. Use of Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Lactates to Control Germination and Outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens Spores during Chilling of Injected Pork

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by calcium (CaL), potassium (KL) or sodium (NaL) lactate in injected pork during abusive chilling regimes was investigated. Lactates (Ca, K, or Na) were incorporated into injected pork at various concentrations (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and...

  19. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut ‘Granny Smith’ apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. ‘Granny Smith’ apple slices, dipp...

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin irritation study. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate and Sodium Magnesium Silicate caused minimal eye irritation in a Draize eye irritation test. Bentonite caused severe iritis after injection into the anterior chamber of the eyes of rabbits and when injected intralamellarly, widespread corneal infiltrates and retrocorneal membranes were recorded. In a primary eye irritation study in rabbits, Hectorite was moderately irritating without washing and practically nonirritating to the eye with a washout. Rats tolerated a single dose of Zeolite A without any adverse reaction in the eye. Calcium Silicate had no discernible effect on nidation or on maternal or fetal survival in rabbits. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate had neither a teratogenic nor adverse effects on the mouse fetus. Female rats receiving a 20% Kaolin diet exhibited maternal anemia but no significant reduction in birth weight of the pups was recorded. Type A Zeolite produced no adverse effects on the dam, embryo, or fetus in either rats or rabbits at any dose level. Clinoptilolite had no effect on female rat reproductive performance. These ingredients were not genotoxic in the Ames bacterial test system. In primary hepatocyte cultures, the addition of Attapulgite had no significant unscheduled DNA synthesis. Attapulgite did cause significant increases in unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat pleural mesothelial cells, but no significant increase in sister chromosome exchanges were seen. Zeolite particles (<10 microm) produced statistically significant increase in the percentage of aberrant metaphases in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cells collected by peritoneal lavage from exposed mice. Topical application of Magnesium Aluminum Silicate to human skin daily for 1 week produced no adverse effects. Occupational exposure to mineral dusts has been studied extensively. Fibrosis and pneumoconiosis have been documented in workers involved in the mining and processing of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate. Because it has a unique crystalline structure that differs from ingredients addressed in this safety assessment, Talc is not included in this report. PMID:12851164

  1. Bones and Crohns: No benefit of adding sodium fluoride or ibandronate to calcium and vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Jochen; Reinshagen, Max; Herdt, Katharina; Schrter, Christoph; Adler, Guido; von Boyen, Georg BT; von Tirpitz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of calcium and cholecalciferol alone and along with additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in patients with Crohns disease (CD). METHODS: Patients (n =148) with reduced BMD (T-score < -1) were randomized to receive cholecalciferol (1000 IU) and calcium citrate (800 mg) daily alone(group A, n = 32) or along with additional sodium fluoride (25 mg bid) (group B, n = 62) or additional ibandronate (1 mg iv/3-monthly) (group C, n = 54). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal right femur and X-rays of the spine were performed at baseline and after 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 years. Fracture-assessment included visual reading of X-rays and quantitative morphometry of vertebral bodies (T4-L4). RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (83.1%) patients completed the first year for intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety two (62.2%) patients completed the second year and 71 (47.8%) the third year available for per-protocol (PP) analysis. With a significant increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by +0.28 0.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.460, P < 0.01], +0.33 0.49 (95% CI: 0.109-0.558, P < 0.01), +0.43 0.47 (95% CI: 0.147-0.708, P < 0.01) in group A, +0.22 0.33 (95% CI: 0.125-0.321, P < 0.01); +0.47 0.60 (95% CI: 0.262-0.676, P < 0.01), +0.51 0.44 (95% CI: 0.338-0.682, P < 0.01) in group B and +0.22 0.38 (95% CI: 0.111-0.329, P < 0.01), +0.36 0.53 (95% CI: 0.147-0.578, P < 0.01), +0.41 0.48 (95% CI: 0.238-0.576, P < 0.01) in group C, respectively, during the 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 year periods (PP analysis), no treatment regimen was superior in any in- or between-group analyses. In the ITT analysis, similar results in all in- and between-group analyses with a significant in-group but non-significant between-group increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by 0.38 0.46 (group A, P < 0.01), 0.37 0.50 (group B, P < 0.01) and 0.35 0.49 (group C, P < 0.01) was observed. Follow-up in ITT analysis was still 2.65 years. One vertebral fracture in the sodium fluoride group was detected. Study medication was safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate had no benefit over calcium and cholecalciferol alone in managing reduced BMD in CD. PMID:21253392

  2. Sodium pump activity and calcium relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, E.E.; Field, F.P.

    1986-11-01

    The Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump activity was determined in femoral arterial smooth muscle from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats using potassium relaxation and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake as indices. The membrane-stabilizing effect of calcium and its relation to Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump activity also were examined. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats exhibited a greater relaxation in response to potassium addition after contraction with norepinephrine in a low potassium (0.6 mM) Krebs solution. The concentration of potassium required to produce a 50% relaxation was significantly less in DOCA-salt rats. Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was significantly greater at 3, 10, and 20 minutes of /sup 86/Rb incubation in femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the uptake of /sup 86/Rb and time of incubation in both control and DOCA-salt rats. A significant difference in the slopes of the regression lines showed that the rate of uptake was greater in DOCA-salt rats. No difference was observed in ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake. A dose-dependent relaxation in response to increasing concentrations of calcium following contraction to norepinephrine was observed in femoral arteries from control and DOCA-salt rats. The relaxation was directly dependent on the level of extracellular potassium and was blocked by ouabain. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats relaxed to a significantly greater extent in response to calcium at each level of potassium when compared with controls. These results provide further evidence for an increase in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump activity in vascular smooth muscle from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  3. X-ray crystal structure and vibrational spectra of hydrazides and their metal complexes. Part I. Catena-poly[di-?-aqua-(?-maleic hydrazidato- O)sodium] hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzyk-Ociepa, Barbara

    2007-05-01

    The catena-poly[di-?-aqua-(?-maleic hydrazidato- O)sodium] hydrate, [Na(MH) (H 2O) 2] nH 2O is examined using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, space group C2/c, with a = 14.321(4), b = 16.114(5), c = 6.547(1) , ? = 104.11(2) and Z = 4. In title complex, each sodium ion is coordinated by two oxygen atoms of two water molecules, one oxygen atom of the maleic hydrazidato, two oxygen atoms of two water molecules from an adjacent [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] unit and one oxygen atom of the maleic hydrazidato from an adjacent [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] unit too. It is interesting that the sodium ion is not bonded by O-deprotonated oxygen atom but by carbonyl oxygen atom of maleic hydrazidato. The infrared and Raman spectra for maleic hydrazide (MH), its deuterated derivative (MD) and [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] nH 2O are reported. The theoretical wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities have been calculated using density functional (B3LYP) method with the 6-311++G(d,p) for MH and MD and 6-311++G(d,p)/LanL2DZ for [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] nH 2O basis sets. The calculated potential energy distribution has proved to be of great help in assigning the infrared and Raman spectra maleic hydrazide, its deuterated derivative and [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] nH 2O. The isotope replacements were very helpful in correlation of observed bands and of the theoretically calculated normal vibrations. The results from natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses for keto-hydroxy, diketo and dihydroxy forms of MH as well as for the theoretical model of [Na(MH)(H 2O) 2] nH 2O are compared.

  4. High-Power Arctic Lidar for observations of Sodium layer and Calcium Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuerker, R. F.; Foley, J.; Kidd, P.; Wong, A. Y.

    1998-11-01

    The UCLA HIPAS Observatory is located at 64o 54' 22"N, 146o 50' 33" W. It passes under the auroral oval, has a 2.7 m diameter liquid mirror collector (LMT), and two bistatic laser illuminators; a Doubled YAG pumped dye laser and a Doubled (tunable) Alexandrite laser. The first emits 0.1 J - 10 ns pulses at 590nm (Na) at 20 Hz. The second laser emits 0.15 J -10 ns pulses at 393 nm (Ca+) and 391.4 nm (N2) at 10 Hz. New sporadic sodium layers have been observed during the passage of the electrojet and auroras in periods of 20-30 seconds, indicating that sodium is liberated from micrometeors during auroral precipitations. The Laser Induced Fluorescence techniques will be used to observe the acceleration of the Ca+ ions when they are driven by the 80 MW (ERP) 2.85MHz RF array, modulated at the Ca+ ion Cyclotron Frequency. 1. Ionospheric Modifaction and Enviromental Research in the Auroral Region in Plasma Science and the Environment. Publisher: AIP Press, Woodbury, NY. Editors: W. Manheimer, L. Sugiyama, T. Stix; Chapter 3, pgs. 41-75, 1997. Research supported by ONR N00014-96-C-0040

  5. Ultrathin calcium silicate hydrate nanosheets with large specific surface areas: synthesis, crystallization, layered self-assembly and applications as excellent adsorbents for drug, protein, and metal ions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng

    2013-09-01

    A simple and low-cost solution synthesis is reported for low-crystalline 1.4 nm tobermorite-like calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of ~2.8 nm and with a large specific surface area (SSA), via a reaction-rate-controlled precipitation process. The BET SSA of the CSH ultrathin nanosheets can reach as high as 505 m(2) g(-1) . The CSH ultrathin nanosheets have little cytotoxicity and can be converted to anhydrous calcium silicate (ACS) ultrathin nanosheets with a well preserved morphology via a heat treatment process. The crystallinity of CSH ultrathin nanosheets can be improved by solvothermal treatment in water/ethanol binary solvents or a single solvent of water, producing well-crystalline 1.1 nm tobermorite-like CSH nanobelts or nanosheets. CSH ultrathin nanosheets acting as building blocks can self-assemble into layered nanostructures via three different routes. The CSH ultrathin nanosheets are investigated as promising adsorbents for protein (hemoglobin, Hb), drug (ibuprofen, IBU), and metal ions (Cr(3+) , Ni(2+) , Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) , Cd(2+) , Pb(2+) ). The highest adsorbed percentages of Hb and IBU are found to be 83% and 94%, respectively. The highest adsorption capacities of Hb and IBU are found to be as high as 878 milligram Hb per gram CSH and 2.2 gram IBU per gram CSH, respectively. The ppm level metal ions can be totally adsorbed from aqueous solution in just a few minutes. Thus, the CSH ultrathin nanosheets are a promising candidate as excellent adsorbents in the biomedical field and for waste water treatment. Several empirical laws are summarized based on the adsorption profiles of Hb and IBU using CSH ultrathin nanosheets as the adsorbent. Furthermore, the ACS ultrathin nanosheets as adsorbents for Hb protein and IBU drug are investigated. PMID:23585365

  6. Diffusion of sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, and radon in tuff and clinoptilolite under leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikii, N. P.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Lyashko, Yu. V.; Medvedev, D. V.; Medvedeva, E. P.; Uvarov, V. L.; Achkasov, K. V.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear physics methods are used to determine the diffusion coefficients of Na, Ca, Mn, K, and 222Rn in clinoptilolite (Sokirnitsa occurrence, Ukraine) and in natural tuff (Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States) and in tuff irradiated by γ-quanta ( E max = 23 MeV) to a dose of 107 Gy at a leaching temperature of 37°C. The diffusion coefficients of sodium and potassium in clinoptilolite are found to differ considerably: 4 × 10-17 and 2 × 10-20 m2/s, respectively. This indicates the influence of aquacomplexes on the cation transfer. The diffusion coefficient of radon in these materials is determined: in clinoptilolite it equals 2.5 × 10-12 m2/s.

  7. [Pure calcium-sodium alginate dressing. Multicenter evaluation of chronic cutaneous lesions].

    PubMed

    Torres de Castro, O G; Galindo Carlos, A; Torra i Bou, J E

    1997-09-01

    By means of a descriptive, non-comparative study of a series of clinical cases, the authors analyze the behavior of a dressing of pure calcic-sodium alginate with a stabilizing network in the treatment of pressure sores and profusely bleeding and/or infected vascular uclers. Based on the results of their studies, the authors confirm the effectiveness of this dressing under these conditions: no adverse reactions; the shrinking of the lesion in area or degree of severity; if there is tissue debridement accompanied by sloughing and necrotic tissue, the elimination of infection; ease of application and the reduction of the lesions; use as part of a non-daily cure treatment plan. PMID:9385189

  8. Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut "Granny Smith" apples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenqiang; Fan, Xuetong

    2010-03-01

    Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. "Granny Smith" apple slices, dipped for 5 min in CP solutions at 0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) either alone or in combination with 0.05% (w/v) SC, were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C for up to 14 d. Color, firmness, and microflora population were measured at 1, 7, and 14 d of storage. Results showed that CP alone had no significant effect on the browning of cut apples. Even though SC significantly inhibited tissue browning initially, the apple slices turned brown during storage at 10 degrees C. The combination of CP and SC was able to inhibit apple browning during storage. Samples treated with the combination of SC with CP did not show any detectable yeast and mold growth during the entire storage period at 3 degrees C. At 10 degrees C, yeast and mold count increased on apple slices during storage while CP reduced the increase. However, high concentrations of CP reduced the efficacy of SC in inactivating E. coli inoculated on apples. Overall, our results suggested that combination of SC with 0.5% and 1% CP could be used to inhibit tissue browning and maintain firmness while reducing microbial population. Practical Application: Apple slices, which contain antioxidants and other nutrient components, have emerged as popular snacks in food service establishments, school lunch programs, and for family consumption. However, the further growth of the industry is limited by product quality deterioration caused by tissue browning, short shelf-life due to microbial growth, and possible contamination with human pathogens during processing. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop treatments to reduce microbial population and tissue browning of "Granny Smith" apple slices. Results showed that an antimicrobial compound, sodium chlorite, is effective in not only eliminating microbes but also inhibiting tissue browning of apple slices. However, the compound caused tissue softening and its antibrowning effect was short-lived, lasting only for a few days. Combination of the compound with a calcium-containing food additive was able to improve firmness and freshness of apple slices while reducing population of Escherichia coli artificially inoculated on samples and inhibiting the growth of yeast and mold during storage. PMID:20492244

  9. State-dependent inter-repeat contacts of exceptionally conserved asparagines in the inner helices of sodium and calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Bruhova, Iva; Garden, Daniel P; Zhorov, Boris S

    2015-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels play key roles in the physiology of excitable cells. The alpha-1 subunit of these channels folds from a polypeptide chain of four homologous repeats. In each repeat, the cytoplasmic halves of the pore-lining helices contain exceptionally conserved asparagines. Such conservation implies important roles, which are unknown. Mutations of the asparagines affect activation and inactivation gating as well as the action of pore-targeting ligands, including local anesthetics and steroidal agonists batrachotoxin and veratridine. In the absence of the open-channel structures, underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we modeled the pore module of Cav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels and their mutants in the open and closed states using the X-ray structures of potassium and sodium channels as templates. The energy of each model was Monte Carlo-minimized. The asparagines do not face the pore in the modeled states. In the open-channel models, the asparagine residue in a given repeat forms an inter-repeat H-bond with a polar residue, which is typically nine positions downstream from the conserved asparagine in the preceding repeat. The H-bonds, which are strengthened by surrounding hydrophobic residues, would stabilize the open channel and shape the open-pore geometry. According to our calculation, the latter is much more sensitive to mutations of the asparagines than the closed-pore geometry. Rearrangement of inter-repeat contacts may explain effects of these mutations on the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation and action of pore-targeting ligands. PMID:24728659

  10. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  11. Complete Atrial-Specific Knockout of Sodium-Calcium Exchange Eliminates Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Activity

    PubMed Central

    Groenke, Sabine; Larson, Eric D.; Alber, Sarah; Zhang, Rui; Lamp, Scott T.; Ren, Xiaoyan; Nakano, Haruko; Jordan, Maria C.; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Nakano, Atsushi; Proenza, Catherine; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Goldhaber, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker activity in the heart is controversial. The leading candidates are diastolic depolarization by funny current (If) through HCN4 channels (the Membrane Clock hypothesis), depolarization by cardiac Na-Ca exchange (NCX1) in response to intracellular Ca cycling (the "Calcium Clock" hypothesis), and a combination of the two (Coupled Clock). To address this controversy, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate atrial-specific NCX1 KO mice. NCX1 protein was undetectable in KO atrial tissue, including the SAN. Surface ECG and intracardiac electrograms showed no atrial depolarization and a slow junctional escape rhythm in KO that responded appropriately to ?-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulation. Although KO atria were quiescent they could be stimulated by external pacing suggesting that electrical coupling between cells remained intact. Despite normal electrophysiological properties of If in isolated patch clamped KO SAN cells, pacemaker activity was absent. Recurring Ca sparks were present in all KO SAN cells, suggesting that Ca cycling persists but is uncoupled from the sarcolemma. We conclude that NCX1 is required for normal pacemaker activity in murine SAN. PMID:24278453

  12. Midbrain dopaminergic neurons generate calcium and sodium currents and release dopamine in the striatum of pups.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Diana C; Mdzomba, Baya J; Dehorter, Nathalie; Lopez, Catherine; Michel, Franois J; Libersat, Frdric; Hammond, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (mDA neurons) are essential for the control of diverse motor and cognitive behaviors. However, our understanding of the activity of immature mDA neurons is rudimentary. Rodent mDA neurons migrate and differentiate early in embryonic life and dopaminergic axons enter the striatum and contact striatal neurons a few days before birth, but when these are functional is not known. Here, we recorded Ca(2+) transients and Na(+) spikes from embryonic (E16-E18) and early postnatal (P0-P7) mDA neurons with dynamic two-photon imaging and patch clamp techniques in slices from tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP mice, and measured evoked dopamine release in the striatum with amperometry. We show that half of identified E16-P0 mDA neurons spontaneously generate non-synaptic, intrinsically driven Ca(2+) spikes and Ca(2+) plateaus mediated by N- and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Starting from E18-P0, half of the mDA neurons also reliably generate overshooting Na(+) spikes with an abrupt maturation at birth (P0 = E19). At that stage (E18-P0), dopaminergic terminals release dopamine in a calcium-dependent manner in the striatum in response to local stimulation. This suggests that mouse striatal dopaminergic synapses are functional at birth. PMID:22408606

  13. A graphene loading heterogeneous hydrated forms iron based fluoride nanocomposite as novel and high-capacity cathode material for lithium/sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yongqiang; Wang, Xianyou; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Miaoling; Yang, Xiukang; Shu, Hongbo

    2015-06-01

    A graphene loading heterogeneous hydrated forms iron based fluoride (abbreviated as FeF3xH2O/G) nanocomposite is successfully designed and synthesized for the first time by a sol-gel method. It found that the FeF3xH2O nanoparticles distribute randomly on the surface of the graphene, stacking together to form a nanocomposite with high specific surface and abundant mesporous structure. The FeF3xH2O was consisted of FeF33H2O and FeF2.50.5H2O with pyrochlore phase structure and FeF30.33H2O with hexagonal-tungsten-bronze-type structure (HTB). The FeF3xH2O/G was used as cathode materials of rechargeable lithium/sodium batteries, respectively. It has been found that it can deliver a large reversible capacity exceeding 200 mAh g-1 and excellent cyclic performance with a residual capacity of 183 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C and 149 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 1C, especially, an outstanding rate performance exceeding 130 mAh g-1 at 5C in the voltage range of 1.5-4.5 V for Li-ion batteries. Moreover, when FeF3xH2O/G is used as cathode material of Na-ion batteries, it exhibits also a high reversible capacity of 101 mAh g-1 after 30 cycles in the voltage range of 1.0-4.0 V at 0.1C. Therefore, FeF3xH2O/G will a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium/sodium ion batteries.

  14. Calcium H&K and sodium D absorption induced by the interstellar and circumgalactic media of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murga, Maria; Zhu, Guangtun; Mnard, Brice; Lan, Ting-Wen

    2015-09-01

    We map out calcium II and sodium I absorption (Fraunhofer H, K & D lines) induced by both the interstellar medium and the circumgalactic medium of the Milky Way. Our measurements cover more than 9000 deg2 and make use of about 300 000 extragalactic spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present absorption maps for these two species and then compare their distributions to those of neutral hydrogen and dust. We show that the abundance of Na I with respect to neutral hydrogen stays roughly constant in different environments, while that of Ca II decreases with hydrogen column density. Studying how these tracers vary as a function of velocity, we show that, on average, the NNaI/NCaII ratio decreases at higher velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, similar to the local Routly-Spitzer effect but seen on Galactic scale. We show that it is likely caused by higher gas/dust density at lower velocity. Finally, we show that Galactic Ca II and Na I absorption needs to be taken into account for precision photometry and, more importantly, for photometric redshift estimation with star-forming galaxies. Our maps of Ca II and Na I absorption are publicly available.

  15. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-08-15

    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 ?g/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 ?g/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties. PMID:24997263

  16. THE ROLE OF INTRACELLULAR SODIUM (Na+) IN THE REGULATION OF CALCIUM (Ca2+)-MEDIATED SIGNALING AND TOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xian-Min; Groveman, Bradley R; Fang, Xiao-Qian; Lin, Shuang-Xiu

    2010-01-01

    It is known that activated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a major route of excessive calcium ion (Ca2+) entry in central neurons, which may activate degradative processes and thereby cause cell death. Therefore, NMDARs are now recognized to play a key role in the development of many diseases associated with injuries to the central nervous system (CNS). However, it remains a mystery how NMDAR activity is recruited in the cellular processes leading to excitotoxicity and how NMDAR activity can be controlled at a physiological level. The sodium ion (Na+) is the major cation in extracellular space. With its entry into the cell, Na+ can act as a critical intracellular second messenger that regulates many cellular functions. Recent data have shown that intracellular Na+ can be an important signaling factor underlying the up-regulation of NMDARs. While Ca2+ influx during the activation of NMDARs down-regulates NMDAR activity, Na+ influx provides an essential positive feedback mechanism to overcome Ca2+-induced inhibition and thereby potentiate both NMDAR activity and inward Ca2+ flow. Extensive investigations have been conducted to clarify mechanisms underlying Ca2+-mediated signaling. This review focuses on the roles of Na+ in the regulation of Ca2+-mediated NMDAR signaling and toxicity. PMID:21243124

  17. A thermochemical study of glasses and crystals along the joins silica-calcium aluminate and silica-sodium aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Peraudeau, Gilles; McMillan, Paul; Coutures, Jean-Pierre

    1982-11-01

    Enthalpies of solution in molten 2PbO · B 2O 3 at 985 K are reported for series of glasses xCa0.5AlO2-(1- x) SiO2 ( O ≤ x ≤ 0.99) and xNaAlO2-(1- x) SiO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56). The data are compared to values for the corresponding crystalline aluminosilicates and to preliminary data for systems containing KAlO 2 and Mg 0.5AlO 2. The enthalpies of mixing of glasses become more exothermic with increasing basicity of the mono- or divalent oxide. The tendency toward immiscibility on the silica-rich side, indicated by the shape of the heat of mixing curve between x = 0 and x = 0.4, is pronounced in the calcium aluminate system, but not in the sodium aluminate system. The shape of the heat of mixing curve, which is roughly symmetrical about x = 0.5, can be rationalized in terms of glass structure by considering essentially random substitution of Si and Al on a continuous three dimensional tetrahedral framework, with stabilization arising from electrostatic interactions between aluminum and the nonframework cation balancing the destabilizing effects arising from perturbation of the aluminosilicate framework by the nonframework cation. These trends are consistent with the variation of physical properties of aluminosilicate melts.

  18. Voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels mediate Sema3A retrograde signaling that regulates dendritic development.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Naoya; Aoki, Reina; Chen, Sandy; Jitsuki-Takahashi, Aoi; Ohura, Shunsuke; Kamiya, Haruyuki; Goshima, Yoshio

    2016-01-15

    Growing axons rely on local signaling at the growth cone for guidance cues. Semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a secreted repulsive axon guidance molecule, regulates synapse maturation and dendritic branching. We previously showed that local Sema3A signaling in the growth cones elicits retrograde retrograde signaling via PlexinA4 (PlexA4), one component of the Sema3A receptor, thereby regulating dendritic localization of AMPA receptor GluA2 and proper dendritic development. In present study, we found that nimodipine (voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) and tetrodotoxin (TTX; voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker) suppress Sema3A-induced dendritic localization of GluA2 and dendritic branch formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. The local application of nimodipine or TTX to distal axons suppresses retrograde transport of Venus-Sema3A that has been exogenously applied to the distal axons. Sema3A facilitates axonal transport of PlexA4, which is also suppressed in neurons treated with either TTX or nimodipine. These data suggest that voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels mediate Sema3A retrograde signaling that regulates dendritic GluA2 localization and branch formation. PMID:26638837

  19. Conditional knockout of smooth muscle sodium calcium exchanger type‐1 lowers blood pressure and attenuates Angiotensin II‐salt hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhua; Chen, Ling; Li, Meng; Cha, Helen; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Zhang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The functions of smooth muscle sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) in the vasculature are controversial and poorly understood. To determine the possible roles of NCX in the vascular phenotype and function, we developed a novel mouse model (SM‐NCX1 KO) in which the smooth muscle‐specific NCX type‐1 (NCX1) was conditionally knocked out using tamoxifen‐inducible Cre‐loxP recombination technique. SM‐NCX1 KO mice exhibit significantly lower blood pressure and attenuated angiotensin II (Ang II)‐salt‐induced hypertension (measured by radio telemetry and intra‐arterial catheterization). Isolated, pressurized mesenteric small resistance arteries from SM‐NCX1 KO mice, compared to control arteries, were characterized by the following: (1) ~90% reduced NCX1 protein expression; (2) impaired functional responses to (i) acute NCX inhibition by SEA0400 or SN‐6, (ii) NCX activation by low [Na+]o, and (iii) Na+ pump inhibition by ouabain; (3) attenuated myogenic reactivity; and (4) attenuated vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine but not Ang II. These results provided direct evidence that arterial NCX1 normally mediates net Ca2+ influx that helps maintain basal vascular tone in small resistance arteries and blood pressure under physiological conditions. Importantly, NCX1 contributes to blood pressure elevation in Ang II‐salt hypertension, possibly by regulating α‐adrenergic receptor activation. PMID:25626872

  20. Quantitative 31P-NMR spectroscopy for the determination of fosfomycin and impurity A in pharmaceutical products of fosfomycin sodium or calcium.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haipeng; Chen, Hong; Cai, Nian; Zou, Jing; Ju, Xiulian

    2015-06-01

    A quantitative 31P-NMR method for the determination of fosfomycin and impurity A in pharmaceutical products of fosfomycin sodium or calcium has been developed. In this method, coaxial inserts containing trimethyl phosphate are used as external standard. The method is convenient and robust, and gives both high accuracy and precision. It is shown that an accurate determination is possible using different probes and coaxial inserts. PMID:25855198

  1. Suppression subtraction hybridization and northern analysis reveal upregulation of heat shock, trkB, and sodium calcium exchanger genes following global cerebral ischemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Majda, B T; Meloni, B P; Rixon, N; Knuckey, N W

    2001-09-30

    Driver (sham-operated) and tester (ischemic) hippocampal cDNAs were subtracted, and the resulting ischemia-induced upregulated gene expression was verified by northern analysis. cDNAs isolated corresponded to (1) genes known to be upregulated following ischemia, (hsc70, hsp90, hsp105 and trkB) and (2) a gene not previously implicated with cerebral ischemia, sodium calcium exchanger (ncx). Furthermore, upregulation of these genes was demonstrated following preconditioning transient global ischemia. PMID:11589994

  2. Early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate (synthetic ye'elimite, C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}) in the presence of gypsum and varying amounts of calcium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Craig W.; Kirchheim, Ana Paula; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Gartner, Ellis M.

    2013-06-15

    Suspensions of synthetic ye'elimite (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}) in a saturated gypsum (CS{sup ¯}H{sub 2}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) solution were examined in-situ in a wet cell by soft X-ray transmission microscopy and ex-situ by scanning electron microscopy. The most voluminous hydration product observed was ettringite. Ettringite commonly displayed acicular, filiform, reticulated, and stellate crystal habits. Additionally, pastes with C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}, 15% CS{sup ¯}H{sub 2}, and varying amounts of CH were prepared and examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isothermal calorimetry. The XRD experiments showed that increasing CH content caused more solid solution (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/OH{sup −}) AFm phases to form at early ages (< 1 d) and more monosulfate to form at later ages (> 1 d). Calorimetry indicated that the increased production of solid solution AFm was accompanied with an increase in the initial (< 30 min) rate of heat evolution, and increasing CH generally reduced the time till the second maximum rate of heat evolution due to the formation of ettringite and monosulfate.

  3. Insight into elastic behavior of calcium silicate hydrated oxide (C-S-H) under pressure and composition effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zaoui, Ali

    2012-02-15

    The present work relates to the study of structural and elastic properties of Tobermorite 11 A as a function of external pressure and composition in terms of calcium to silicon ratio. Basing on the lattice dynamics method, the main aim of this work is precisely to shed light, for the first time, on the high pressure structural phase transition in Tobermorite 11 A and the possible correlation with some elastic quantities. In order to check the transferability of the potentials used we have, additionally, performed a single calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT) for a pressure of 15 GPa in the case of Ca/Si = 1. The variation of the unit cell parameters with pressure indicates that Tobermorite 11 A undergoes a structural instability around 15 GPa along b-axis and around 20 GPa along a-axis which is confirmed from our calculations of X-Rays diffraction patterns at various pressure values. We have also observed the anisotropic character of the Tobermorite structure for both cases (Ca/Si = 1 and Ca/Si = 0.83). Our results show that around 20 GPa an important change appears in the elastic behaviour of Tobermorite. As pressure increases the calculated elastic quantities for Ca/Si = 1 became closer to those evaluated for Ca/Si = 0.83, which may stimulate further experimental and theoretical research on the matter.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food... GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also known as slaked lime or calcium hydrate. It is produced by the hydration of lime. (b) The...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also known as slaked lime or calcium hydrate. It is produced by the hydration...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also known as slaked lime or calcium hydrate. It is produced by the hydration...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also known as slaked lime or calcium hydrate. It is produced by the hydration...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also known as slaked lime or calcium hydrate. It is produced by the hydration...

  9. Activation of a calcium entry pathway by sodium pyrithione in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Knox, Ronald J; Magoski, Neil S; Wing, David; Barbee, Steven J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2004-09-15

    The ability of sodium pyrithione (NaP), an agent that produces delayed neuropathy in some species, to alter neuronal physiology was accessed using ratiometric imaging of cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in fura PE-filled cultured Aplysia bag cell neurons. Bath-application of NaP evoked a [Ca(2+)](i) elevation in both somata and neurites with an EC(50) of approximately 300 nM and a Hill coefficient of approximately 1. The response required the presence of external Ca(2+), had an onset of 3-5 min, and generally reached a maximum within 30 min. 2-Methyl-sulfonylpyridine, a metabolite and close structural analog of NaP, did not elevate [Ca(2+)](i). Under whole-cell current-clamp recording, NaP produced a approximately 14 mV depolarization of resting membrane potential that was dependent on external Ca(2+). These data suggested that NaP stimulates Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. To minimize the possibility that a change in cytosolic pH was the basis for NaP-induced Ca(2+) entry, bag cell neuron intracellular pH was estimated with the dye 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxy-fluorescein acetoxy methylester. Exposure of the neurons to NaP did not alter intracellular pH. The slow onset and sustained nature of the NaP response suggested that a cation exchange mechanism coupled either directly or indirectly to Ca(2+) entry could underlie the phenomenon. However, neither ouabain, a Na(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitor, nor removal of extracellular Na(+), which eliminates Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger activity, altered the NaP-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. Finally, the possibility that NaP gates a Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel in the plasma membrane was examined. NaP did not appear to activate two major forms of bag cell neuron Ca(2+)-permeable ion channels, as Ca(2+) entry was unaffected by inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels using nifedipine or by inhibition of a voltage-dependent, nonselective cation channel using a high concentration of tetrodotoxin. In contrast, two potential store-operated Ca(2+) entry current inhibitors, SKF-96365 and Ni(2+), attenuated NaP-induced Ca(2+) entry. We conclude that NaP activates a slow, persistent Ca(2+) influx in Aplysia bag cell neurons. PMID:15307146

  10. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  11. Hydrate detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

  12. Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on the calcium: Phosphorus ratio of enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide: An in vitro quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poorni, Saravanan; Kumar, R. Anil; Shankar, P.; Indira, Rajamani; Ramachandran, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The study assessed quantitatively the calcium and phosphorous loss from the enamel surface following bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and reversal with 10% sodium ascorbate using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Materials and Methods: Eight non-carious, freshly extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors without any visible defects were used. Each specimen was bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by light and reversed with sodium ascorbate antioxidant gel. The calcium and phosphorous content in weight percent of sound, bleached and reversed enamel was acquired using EDAX. The Ca/P ratio was calculated from the obtained data. One-way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Tukey test was used for comparing the Ca/P ratio of sound, bleached and reversed enamel. Results: All the samples subjected to bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide showed a statistically significant decrease in the Ca/P ratio as compared with samples in which no bleaching procedure was performed (P-value < 0.01). The striking finding was that there was a significant increase in the Ca/P ratio on application of sodium ascorbate antioxidant gel when compared with the bleached enamel (P-value < 0.01). Conclusion: The authors concluded that 35% hydrogen peroxide causes a significant decrease in the Ca/P ratio. This decrease in the Ca/P ratio can be restored by the application of 10% sodium ascorbate antioxidant gel. PMID:22114425

  13. Treatment of the vertebral crush fracture syndrome with enteric-coated sodium fluoride tablets and calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Nagant de Deuxchaisnes, C; Devogelaer, J P; Depresseux, G; Malghem, J; Maldague, B

    1990-03-01

    A cohort of 101 patients were treated with enteric-coated sodium fluoride tablets and calcium supplements. Vitamin D was also given in supra-physiologic doses in 70% of the cases. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual-photon absorptiometry, increased in a linear fashion up to four years, irrespective of the value of initial BMD and of the underlying condition, be it involutional osteoporosis (the vast majority), glucocorticoid osteoporosis, or even osteogenesis imperfecta. Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) seemed to promote the fluoride-induced increase in lumbar BMD, as did the vitamin D supplements. Of these patients, 17% proved "resistant" to the therapy. There was no way of predicting who would be in this category. Compared with an age- and sex-matched control group, women showed significantly different behavior of their bone mass. In the control group, the losses were highly significant at the lumbar spine and at all three scanning sites of the forearm, as measured by single-photon absorptiometry. In contrast, the fluoride group had a significant gain of BMD at the lumbar spine and changes of BMC at the forearm were not significant. Fluoride thus preserved bone mass at the appendicular skeleton, while increasing it at the axial skeleton. When comparing the patients who received vitamin D supplements and those who did not, there was a significant difference in the appendicular skeleton. The distal forearm in the vitamin D-supplemented group tended to gain, whereas the midforearm lost significant bone mass. The trend was reversed in the group without vitamin D-supplementation, a more favorable pattern. Therefore, vitamin D supplements should not, as a rule, be provided to such patients. The biochemical hallmark of the fluoride-induced changes is a slight rise of the alkaline phosphatase within the normal range. Alkaline phosphatase levels that exceed the upper limit of normal signal a warning that too much fluoride and/or too little calcium supplements are being administered, or that a fluoride-related complication is impending or has occurred (e.g., a stress fracture). Osteosclerosis was achieved in 69% of the cases who had a radiological followup of at least four years (average period of appearance: 1.8 years). Stress fractures in the lower limbs occurred in 17 patients, almost exclusively in females, and appeared on average 2.2 years after initiation of therapy. In this group of stress fractures there was significant cortical bone loss at midforearm.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2187327

  14. Hydration behaviour of some mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides in aqueous sodium gluconate solutions at (288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15)K: volumetric and rheological approach.

    PubMed

    Banipal, Parampaul K; Singh, Vickramjeet; Aggarwal, Neha; Banipal, Tarlok S

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties are very useful in providing valuable information regarding the hydration characteristics of saccharides and play a pivotal role in the study of taste behaviour of saccharides in mixed aqueous solutions. The effects of sodium gluconate and other sodium salts on the hydration behaviour and the basic taste quality of saccharides have been studied from measured apparent molar volumes (V2,?), partial molar volumes (V2()) at infinite-dilution, and viscosity B-coefficients, of eight monosaccharides, six disaccharides and two trisaccharides in (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50)molkg(-1) aqueous sodium gluconate solutions over a temperature range of (288.15-318.15)K and at atmospheric pressure. Partial molar volumes of transfer (?tV2()) and viscosity B-coefficients of transfer (?tB) of saccharides and other parameters such as isobaric expansion coefficients, interaction coefficients (using McMillan-Mayer theory), and dB/dT parameters have also been determined and discussed in terms of solute (saccharide)-cosolute (sodium gluconate) interactions. PMID:25172693

  15. Molecular basis of calpain cleavage and inactivation of the sodium-calcium exchanger 1 in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Hodne, Kjetil; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida Gjervold; Dalhus, Bjrn; Lunde, Marianne; Kvaly, Heidi; Louch, William Edward; Tnnessen, Theis; Sjaastad, Ivar; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac sodium (Na(+))-calcium (Ca(2+)) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is central to the maintenance of normal Ca(2+) homeostasis and contraction. Studies indicate that the Ca(2+)-activated protease calpain cleaves NCX1. We hypothesized that calpain is an important regulator of NCX1 in response to pressure overload and aimed to identify molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of calpain binding and cleavage of NCX1 in the heart. NCX1 full-length protein and a 75-kDa NCX1 fragment along with calpain were up-regulated in aortic stenosis patients and rats with heart failure. Patients with coronary artery disease and sham-operated rats were used as controls. Calpain co-localized, co-fractionated, and co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1 in rat cardiomyocytes and left ventricle lysate. Immunoprecipitations, pull-down experiments, and extensive use of peptide arrays indicated that calpain domain III anchored to the first Ca(2+) binding domain in NCX1, whereas the calpain catalytic region bound to the catenin-like domain in NCX1. The use of bioinformatics, mutational analyses, a substrate competitor peptide, and a specific NCX1-Met(369) antibody identified a novel calpain cleavage site at Met(369). Engineering NCX1-Met(369) into a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site revealed that specific cleavage at Met(369) inhibited NCX1 activity (both forward and reverse mode). Finally, a short peptide fragment containing the NCX1-Met(369) cleavage site was modeled into the narrow active cleft of human calpain. Inhibition of NCX1 activity, such as we have observed here following calpain-induced NCX1 cleavage, might be beneficial in pathophysiological conditions where increased NCX1 activity contributes to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25336645

  16. Genetic control and transgressive segregation of zinc, iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium accumulation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, C A; Boiteux, L S

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea crop, through combining a range of essential minerals with high quality proteins, plays an important role in providing nutritional security to human population living in semi-arid regions. Studies on genetics of biofortification with essential minerals are still quite scarce, and the major objective of the present study was to provide genetic information on development of cowpea cultivars with high seed mineral contents. Genetic parameters heritability and minimum number of genes were estimated for seed accumulation of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na). Generation mean and variance analyses were conducted using contrasting parental lines, F₁, F₂, and backcross populations derived from IT97K-1042-3 x BRS Tapaihum and IT97K-1042-3 x Canapu crosses. High narrow-sense heritability (h²) values were found for accumulation of Fe (65-86%), P (74-77%), and K (77-88%), whereas moderate h(2) values were observed for accumulation of Ca (41-56%), Zn (51-83%), and Na (50-55%) in seeds. Significant additive genetic effects as well as parental mean effects were detected in both crosses for all minerals, whereas epistasis was important genetic component in Zn content. The minimum number of genes controlling the accumulation of minerals ranged from two (K) to 11 (P). Transgressive segregation was observed in F2 populations of both crosses for all minerals analyzed. The results suggest that, although under either oligogenic or polygenic control, the seed content of these six minerals in cowpea can be improved via standard breeding methods largely used for self-pollinated crops. PMID:25729958

  17. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-04-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

  18. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-12-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n=384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting. PMID:26569471

  19. Molecular Basis of Calpain Cleavage and Inactivation of the Sodium-Calcium Exchanger 1 in Heart Failure*

    PubMed Central

    Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Hodne, Kjetil; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida Gjervold; Dalhus, Bjrn; Lunde, Marianne; Kvaly, Heidi; Louch, William Edward; Tnnessen, Theis; Sjaastad, Ivar; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac sodium (Na+)-calcium (Ca2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is central to the maintenance of normal Ca2+ homeostasis and contraction. Studies indicate that the Ca2+-activated protease calpain cleaves NCX1. We hypothesized that calpain is an important regulator of NCX1 in response to pressure overload and aimed to identify molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of calpain binding and cleavage of NCX1 in the heart. NCX1 full-length protein and a 75-kDa NCX1 fragment along with calpain were up-regulated in aortic stenosis patients and rats with heart failure. Patients with coronary artery disease and sham-operated rats were used as controls. Calpain co-localized, co-fractionated, and co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1 in rat cardiomyocytes and left ventricle lysate. Immunoprecipitations, pull-down experiments, and extensive use of peptide arrays indicated that calpain domain III anchored to the first Ca2+ binding domain in NCX1, whereas the calpain catalytic region bound to the catenin-like domain in NCX1. The use of bioinformatics, mutational analyses, a substrate competitor peptide, and a specific NCX1-Met369 antibody identified a novel calpain cleavage site at Met369. Engineering NCX1-Met369 into a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site revealed that specific cleavage at Met369 inhibited NCX1 activity (both forward and reverse mode). Finally, a short peptide fragment containing the NCX1-Met369 cleavage site was modeled into the narrow active cleft of human calpain. Inhibition of NCX1 activity, such as we have observed here following calpain-induced NCX1 cleavage, might be beneficial in pathophysiological conditions where increased NCX1 activity contributes to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25336645

  20. Assessment of Pain Intensity in Patients with Dentin Hypersensitivity After Application of Prophylaxis Paste Based on Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate Formula

    PubMed Central

    Cha?as, Renata; Wjcik-Ch?ci?ska, Ilona; Zamo?ci?ska, Jolanta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background One of many functions of the pulp-dentin complex is sensory function. Acute, situated, receding pain after the cessation of the stimulus action is called dentin pain. Dentin hypersensitivity has been described as one of the most painful and least successfully treated chronic ailments of teeth. The aim of this research was the clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of professional polishing paste containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate formula (NovaMin) in eliminating dentin hypersensitivity after a single application. Material/Methods The study comprised 92 teeth with dentin hypersensitivity diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. The pain reaction of exposed dentine was induced by tactile and dehydrating stimuli, asking patients to assess the severity of pain on the VAS scale. Clinical trial and survey were carried out twice: before and 1 week after the application of the polishing paste. Results After the application of the examined paste, the percentage of teeth reacting with a severe pain to the touch of the probe decreased from 16.3% to 4.3%, and with a moderate pain from 42.4% to 12%. Examination after applying dehydrating stimulus a week after carrying out the application showed a decrease in the proportion of teeth with strong pain from 28.3% to 0% and moderate pain from 38% to 15.2%. The lack of pain increased from 12% to about 50%. Conclusions The use of prophylactic professional paste with NovaMin formula in in-office procedure provides the reduction of dentin hypersensitivity noticeable by 1 week after application. PMID:26429677

  1. Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron in emulsified egg samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ieggli, C V S; Bohrer, D; do Nascimento, P C; de Carvalho, L M; Garcia, S C

    2010-01-15

    In this study, oil-in-water formulations were optimized to determine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron in emulsified egg samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures and allows the calibration to be carried out using aqueous standards. Different oily phases such as corn oil, decyl oleate and octyl stearate were tested, as well as Tween 80, Triton X-100 and Triton 114 were analyzed as surfactants. The optimum type and proportion of formulations were determined and their use depended on the element studied. The emulsion preparation was performed by a conventional method that involves mixing both phases at 60 degrees C by magnetic stirring and phase inversion to change the water-to-oil ratio by increasing the volume of the surfactant-water external phase and correspondingly decreasing the volume of internal phase. The accuracy of the method was further confirmed by determining the metals in a whole egg powder CRM and recoveries ranged from 97.5% for Mg to 102.2% for Na, with relative standard deviations lower than 2.3%. The precision of the procedures was determined through repeatability (intra-day precision) and intermediate precision (inter-day). The repeatability presented RSD values lower than 4.2%. The intermediate precision was evaluated using the RSD and F-test. The RSD values to intermediate precision was lower than 5.3% and the computed F-values were lower than tabulated F-values, indicating no significant difference between the results obtained on different days. The proposed method including, sample emulsification for subsequent metal determination for FAAS, has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical. PMID:20006088

  2. Sequential acquisition of cacophony calcium currents, sodium channels and voltage-dependent potassium currents affects spike shape and dendrite growth during postembryonic maturation of an identified Drosophila motoneuron

    PubMed Central

    Ryglewski, Stefanie; Kilo, Lukas; Duch, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    During metamorphosis the CNS undergoes profound changes to accommodate the switch from larval to adult behaviors. In Drosophila and other holometabolous insects, adult neurons differentiate either from respecified larval neurons, newly born neurons, or are born embryonically but remain developmentally arrested until differentiation during pupal life. This study addresses the latter in the identified Drosophila flight motoneuron 5. In situ patch-clamp recordings, intracellular dye fills and immunocytochemistry address the interplay between dendritic shape, excitability and ionic current development. During pupal life, changes in excitability and spike shape correspond to a stereotyped, progressive appearance of voltage-gated ion channels. High-voltage-activated calcium current is the first current to appear at pupal stage P4, prior to the onset of dendrite growth. This is followed by voltage-gated sodium as well as transient potassium channel expression, when first dendrites grow, and sodium-dependent action potentials can be evoked by somatic current injection. Sustained potassium current appears later than transient potassium current. During the early stages of rapid dendritic growth, sodium-dependent action potentials are broadened by a calcium component. Narrowing of spike shape coincides with sequential increases in transient and sustained potassium currents during stages when dendritic growth ceases. Targeted RNAi knockdown of pupal calcium current significantly reduces dendritic growth. These data indicate that the stereotyped sequential acquisition of different voltage-gated ion channels affects spike shape and excitability such that activity-dependent calcium influx serves as a partner of genetic programs during critical stages of motoneuron dendrite growth. PMID:24620836

  3. Comparative effects of sodium pyrithione evoked intracellular calcium elevation in rodent and primate ventral horn motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Knox, Ronald J; Keen, Kim L; Luchansky, Laurelee; Terasawa, Ei; Freyer, Hugh; Barbee, Steven J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2008-02-01

    Oral administration of sodium pyrithione (NaP) causes hindlimb weakness in rodents, but not in primates. Previous work using Aplysia neurons has demonstrated that NaP produces a persistent influx of Ca(2+) ions across the plasma membrane. To determine whether this also occurs in mammalian neurons and whether this could underlie the inter-species difference between rodents and primates, we have tested the effects of NaP on intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat and monkey motor neurons in vitro. Motor neurons present in spinal cord slices from rhesus monkey embryos (E37 and 56) and from rat E16 were dissected and cultured on glass coverslips. Following 2 weeks (rhesus) or 2-3 days (rat) in culture, neurons were loaded with fura-PE3/AM, and examined for [Ca(2+)](i) changes in response to NaP. Rhesus motor neurons were identified by immunostaining for Islet-1 (MN specific antigen) and neuron specific enolase (NSE). Motor neurons from both species exhibited dose-dependent NaP-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) However, the dose-response curve for the Rhesus motor neurons was significantly shifted to the right of the rat dose-response curve, whereas the overall amplitude of the Ca(2+) rise was similar in both species. As shown previously for the Aplysia neurons, the action of NaP is attenuated by SKF 96365, an inhibitor of store-operated calcium entry. In contrast the action of NaP is unaffected by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, blockers of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) and Na(+) channels, respectively, or by ouabain, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Our results indicate that the NaP-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) is conserved across species and suggest that the toxicological sensitivity of rodent over primate to pyrithione could be due to the enhanced sensitivity of rodent motor neurons to NaP-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. PMID:18053804

  4. Differential effects of ouabain and 2,4-dinitrophenol on contractile tension of and on sodium and calcium efflux from frog heart ventricular strips

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Mara Concepcin; Orrego, F.

    1981-01-01

    1 The efflux, from heart ventricular strips of Rana pipiens, of sodium (22Na) and calcium (45Ca) was measured simultaneously. 2 22Na efflux could be resolved into two first order kinetic components: kI = 0.105 min-1, thought to represent efflux from the extracellular space, and kII = 0.0182 min-1 representing efflux from the cells. 3 45Ca efflux was also resolved into an extracellular component, kI = 0.1216 min-1; and an intracellular one, kII = 0.0102 min-1. 45Ca kII was greatly increased by 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), but unchanged by caffeine. This suggests that it represents a mitochondrial calcium compartment. 4 22Na kII was not changed by DNP. This indicates that, at the time of DNP addition, 22Na was passively bound to undefined intracellular components. 5 Ouabain (10-6 M) decreased 45Ca efflux (kII) initially but at later periods slightly increased it. The former effect is thought to be due to an action at the plasma membrane level, while the latter probably represents an increased exchangeability of mitochondrial calcium. The same effects were always found when ouabain was applied at different times of strip superfusion. 6 Ouabain (0.25 to 4 ?M) did not decrease the kII of 22Na efflux. Kinetic reasons are presented which indicate that, in this preparation, the activity of the sodium pump may be too fast to be measured by means of 22Na efflux, therefore these findings do not necessarily mean that ouabain does not inhibit active sodium transport. 7 The time course of the inotropic effect of ouabain was also studied in ventricular strips of Rana pipiens heart that were stimulated at 0.2 Hz with biphasic, 2 ms pulses of supramaximal intensity, and incubated in Ringer solution containing 1.1 mM calcium, or in `calcium-free' Ringer (residual calcium: 5.2 ?M), or in `calcium-free' Ringer with 0.1 mM of the calcium chelator ethyleneglycol bis (?-aminoethylether) N,N?-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). 8 In Ringer, the inotropic effect of ouabain was already observed at 5-10 s after steroid addition, even with the lowest concentration tested (0.25 ?M), while signs of toxicity appeared only after 15 min in 4 ?M ouabain, the highest concentration used. 9 When the strips were incubated in `calcium-free' Ringer solution, force of contraction decayed to 1-2% of that in 1.1 mM calcium. Addition of 4 ?M ouabain to these hypodynamic strips led to a progressive increase in contractile force of up to 300%, that started after a 50 s latency period. No signs of toxicity were observed. 10 Incubation of the strips in EGTA-Ringer also reduced contractile force to about 2% of that in Ringer, and 4 ?M ouabain also increased force of contraction by approximately the same amount as seen in `calcium-free' Ringer, but the effect began after a 10 min latency period. The concentration of calcium ion (Ca2+) in the extracellular space of strips incubated in EGTA-Ringer, was approximately 800 fold lower than in Ringer, and 60 fold lower than in `calcium-free' Ringer solution. 11 Caffeine (20 mM) induced, in strips previously incubated for 1 h in 4.4 mM calcium Ringer solution plus 10-6 M ouabain, a marked initial contracture, that relaxed spontaneously, and was followed by slow waves of contracture. This was not observed if the strips were incubated, prior to caffeine, in 4.4 mM calcium Ringer without ouabain, or in 1.1 mM calcium Ringer solution that contained 10-6 M ouabain. 12 Based on these findings, a hypothesis that can explain the inotropic effect of cardioactive steroids is presented. PMID:6797495

  5. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). PMID:21645975

  6. Effects of calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate bicarbonate health supplements on the urinary risk factors for kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Allie, Shameez; Rodgers, Allen

    2003-01-01

    We describe a model to illustrate different chemical interactions that can occur in urine following ingestion of individual and combined health supplements. Two types of interactions are defined: synergism and addition. The model was applied to eight healthy males who participated in a study to investigate the chemical interactions between calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate-bicarbonate health supplements on calcium oxalate urinary stone risk factors. Subjects ingested these components individually and in combination for 7 days. Twenty-four-hour urines were collected at baseline and during the final day of supplementation. These were analysed using standard laboratory techniques. Three different chemical interactions, all involving citrate, were identified: magnesium and citrate exerted a synergistic effect on lowering the relative superaturation (RS) of brushite; the same two components produced a synergistic effect on raising pH; finally, calcium and citrate exerted an additive effect on lowering the RS of uric acid. We propose that the novel approach described in this paper allows for the evaluation of individual, additive and synergistic interactions in the assessment of the efficacy of stone-risk reducing preparations. PMID:12636048

  7. The hydration number n of calcium dipicolinate trihydrate, CaDP center dot nH(2)O, and its effect on the IR spectra of sporulated Bacillus bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Williams, Stephen D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Su, Yin-Fong

    2010-05-26

    Previous results have shown a unique "quartet" of peaks in the infrared spectra of the sporulated phase of Bacillus bacteria, the four peaks being observed reproducibly for many different species of Bacillus endospores. We consistently observe peaks at 766, 725, 701, and 659 cm-1 and with the same relative amplitudes, as well as other spore peaks at 1441, 1277, 1015 cm-1. We have previously suggested that the peaks arise from calcium dipicolinate, not the conjugate acid. In this paper we conduct a theoretical and experimental study to show that the IR peaks not only arise from the calcium dipicolinate, a known spore component, but specifically the trihydrate salt, CaDP3H2O. This is shown by calculating the absolute IR intensities of the lone dipicolinate dianion, the calcium salt, as well as the mono-, di- and tri-hydrate salts of calcium dipicolinate. The quartet peaks arise from the crystalline trihydrate salt as we verify both experimentally as well as using quantum chemistry methods. Using a method whereby the calculated intensities are not normalized, only the trihydrate spectrum shows low frequency modes (below 1000 cm-1, including the quartet) having intensities comparable to those of the pyridine ring. The vibrational modes in this part of the spectrum are associated with many internal coordinate motions including contributions from the Ca2+ counterion and the three waters including Ca-O-H bends, H2O-Ca-O torsions and O-C-O bends. Index Headings: Infrared, calcium dipicolinate, Bacillus, Bacteria, Endospores

  8. The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Moezizadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM) 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion. PMID:24944448

  9. Terahertz spectroscopy of concrete for evaluating the critical hydration level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jyotirmayee; Ray, Shaumik; Nallappan, Kathirvel; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2014-03-01

    Concrete, a mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, sand and filler material (if any), is widely used in the construction industry. Cement, mainly composed of Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) reacts readily with water, a process known as hydration. The hydration process forms a solid material known as hardened cement paste which is mainly composed of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. To quantify the critical hydration level, an accurate and fast technique is highly desired. However, in conventional XRD technique, the peaks of the constituents of anhydrated and hydrated cement cannot be resolved properly, where as Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has low penetration depth and hence cannot be used to determine the hydration level of thicker concrete samples easily. Further, MIR spectroscopy cannot be used to effectively track the formation of Calcium Hydroxide, a key by-product during the hydration process. This paper describes a promising approach to quantify the hydration dynamics of cement using Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. This technique has been employed to track the time dependent reaction mechanism of the key constituents of cement that react with water and form the products in the hydrated cement, viz., C-S-H, Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. This study helps in providing an improved understanding on the hydration kinetics of cement and also to optimise the physio-mechanical characteristics of concrete.

  10. Circadian Models of Serum Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium Concentrations in Healthy Individuals and Their Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations at Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa

    2013-01-01

    In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

  11. Pilot-test of the calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) process for the stabilization/solidification of various mercury-contaminated wastes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-12-01

    A pilot-scale calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) plant was designed and manufactured to examine the performance of recently developed stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Hg-contaminated wastes samples generated via various industrial processes in Korea, including municipal, industrial, and medical waste incineration, wastewater treatment, and lime production, were collected and treated using the pilot-scale CNP plant. S/S samples were fabricated according to various operating conditions, including waste type, the dose of the stabilization reagent (Na2S), and the waste loading ratio. Although the performances (Hg leaching value and compressive strength) were reduced as the waste loading ratio increased, most of the S/S samples exhibited Hg leaching values that were below the universal treatment standard limit of 25 ?g L(-1) and compressive strengths that exceeded the criterion of 3.45 MPa. PMID:25169648

  12. Are Habitual Hydration Strategies of Female Rugby League Players Sufficient to Maintain Fluid Balance and Blood Sodium Concentration During Training and Match-Play? A Research Note From the Field.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick; Gray, Michael; O?Hara, John

    2016-03-01

    Jones, B, Till, K, King, R, Gray, M, and O'Hara, J. Are habitual hydration strategies of female rugby league players sufficient to maintain fluid balance and blood sodium concentration during training and match-play? A research note from the field. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 875-880, 2016-Limited data exist on the hydration status of female athletes, with no data available on female rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual hydration status on arrival, sweat loss, fluid intake, sweat Na loss, and blood [Na] during field training and match-play in 10 international female rugby league players. Urine osmolality on arrival to match-play (382 302 mOsmolkg) and training (667 260 mOsmolkg) was indicative of euhydration. Players experienced a body mass loss of 0.50 0.45 and 0.56 0.53% during match-play and training, respectively. During match-play, players consumed 1.21 0.43 kg of fluid and had a sweat loss of 1.54 0.48 kg. During training, players consumed 1.07 0.90 kg of fluid, in comparison with 1.25 0.83 kg of sweat loss. Blood [Na] was well regulated (?-0.7 3.4 and ?-0.4 2.6 mmolL), despite sweat [Na] of 47.8 5.7 and 47.2 6.3 mmolL during match-play and training. The findings of this study show mean blood [Na] that seems to be well regulated despite losses of Na in sweat and electrolyte-free fluid consumption. For the duration of the study, players did not experience a body mass loss (dehydration >2%) indicative of a reduction in exercise performance, thus habitual hydration strategies seem adequate. Practitioners should evaluate the habitual hydration status of athletes to determine whether interventions above habitual strategies are warranted. PMID:26332779

  13. The effect of sulfate activation on the early age hydration of BFS:PC composite cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, N. C.; Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Milestone, N. B.

    2015-09-01

    Blast furnace slag/Portland cement composites are routinely used for immobilising intermediate level nuclear wastes in the UK. Using high cement replacement levels reduces hydration exotherm and lowers pH. Although a lower grout pH will be beneficial in reducing the corrosion of certain encapsulated reactive metals such as aluminium, the degree of slag reaction will also be lower which may result in the formation of less hydration products and which in turn may reduce the capacity to immobilise waste ions. Adding neutral salts such as calcium and sodium sulfate to the composite cement can potentially increase slag activation without significantly altering the pH of the cement matrix. Thus the corrosion of any encapsulated metals would not be affected. This paper describes some of the properties of a hydrated 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement matrix containing added sulfates of calcium and sodium. The findings show that all additives caused an increase in the amount of slag that reacted when cured for up to 28 days. This produced more material able to chemically bind waste ions. Activation with gypsum produced the highest rate of slag reaction.

  14. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    There is a definite need for the US government to provide leadership for research in gas hydrates and to coordinate its activities with academia, industry, private groups, federal agencies, and their foreign counterparts. In response to this need, the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center implemented a gas hydrates R and D program. Understanding the resource will be achieved through: assessment of current technology; characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering; and development of diagnostic tools and methods. Research to date has focused on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for future detailed investigation. Initial research activities involved the development of the Geologic Analysis System (GAS); which will provide, through approximately 30 software packages, the capability to manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. Preliminary mapping of hydrate prospects for the Alaskan North Slope is underway. Geological research includes physical system characterization which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran, consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice base mixtures, and water base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by METC. More recently, a natural hydrate sample from the Gulf of Mexico was also acquired and testing of this sample is currently underway. In addition to the development of GAS, modeling and systems analysis work focused on the development of conceptual gas hydrate production models. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Slurry Consistency and In-situ Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction during the Early Hydration of Portland Cements with Calcium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Jupe, A.C.; Wilkinson, A.P.; Luke, K.; Funkhouser, G.P.

    2008-07-08

    Class A and H oil well cements are compared at 25 and 50 C with 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4% CaCl{sub 2}. Up to 4% CaCl{sub 2} accelerated Class A thickening, but 4% led to slower thickening than 2% for Class H. C{sub 3}S hydration in the two cements responded differently to CaCl{sub 2}. CaCl{sub 2} always accelerated aluminate hydration. For Class A, CaCl{sub 2} accelerated early Ca(OH){sub 2} precipitation, but sometimes reduced the amount at longer times. This may be coupled to C-S-H gel composition changes. For Class H, Ca(OH){sub 2} precipitation changes nonlinearly with CaCl{sub 2} concentration. Ettringite to monosulfate conversion and Friedel's salt formation were sometimes seen.

  16. Mechanisms of potassium- and capsaicin-induced axonal calcitonin gene-related peptide release: involvement of L- and T-type calcium channels and TRPV1 but not sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M J S; Reeh, P W; Sauer, S K

    2008-02-01

    We have previously shown that capsaicin, noxious heat, protons and potassium ions (K(+)) induce a graded, calcium- and receptor-dependent increase of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide (iCGRP) release from isolated rat sciatic axons. Morphological evidence for axonal vesicular exocytosis has also been presented. Here we determine the differential contribution of voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels to high extracellular potassium and capsaicin-induced iCGRP secretion. Blockade of L-type calcium channels significantly decreased the K(+)-induced axonal response (nimodipine (10 microM) by 66% and methoxyverapamil, D600 (50 microM), by 77%). Interestingly, however, D600 was unable to reduce the capsaicin-induced iCGRP release. Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (1 microM), a N-type blocker, and omega-agatoxin TK (0.1 microM), a P/Q-type blocker, had no significant effect. Also the anticonvulsant gabapentin (50 microM and 100 microM), reported to impede calcium channels, was ineffective. Inhibition of low threshold T-type calcium channels by mibefradil (10 microM) significantly reduced potassium (by 47%) but not capsaicin-stimulated iCGRP release. Reduction of total sodium channel conductance by tetrodotoxin (1 microM), lidocaine (10 microM, 50 microM or 500 microM) or by replacement of extracellular sodium with choline-chloride did not result in a reduction of either potassium- or capsaicin-induced axonal iCGRP release. These results suggest that slow depolarization by high extracellular potassium activates axonal low threshold (T-type) as well as high threshold-activated (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channels to mediate iCGRP release, and that capsaicin-induced release is largely dependent on calcium influx through TRPV1. Action potential generation and propagation are not required for axonal release mechanisms. PMID:18178321

  17. Understanding silicate hydration from quantitative analyses of hydrating tricalcium silicates.

    PubMed

    Pustovgar, Elizaveta; Sangodkar, Rahul P; Andreev, Andrey S; Palacios, Marta; Chmelka, Bradley F; Flatt, Robert J; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Silicate hydration is prevalent in natural and technological processes, such as, mineral weathering, glass alteration, zeolite syntheses and cement hydration. Tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5), the main constituent of Portland cement, is amongst the most reactive silicates in water. Despite its widespread industrial use, the reaction of Ca3SiO5 with water to form calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) still hosts many open questions. Here, we show that solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of (29)Si-enriched triclinic Ca3SiO5 enable the quantitative monitoring of the hydration process in terms of transient local molecular composition, extent of silicate hydration and polymerization. This provides insights on the relative influence of surface hydroxylation and hydrate precipitation on the hydration rate. When the rate drops, the amount of hydroxylated Ca3SiO5 decreases, thus demonstrating the partial passivation of the surface during the deceleration stage. Moreover, the relative quantities of monomers, dimers, pentamers and octamers in the C-S-H structure are measured. PMID:27009966

  18. Gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Berecz, E.; Balla-Achs, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the presence of water, particularly at low temperatures, many industrial gas systems under pressure tend to form solid crystalline compounds. These compounds are referred to as gas hydrates, and result from the association of the gas molecules with water. This book draws attention to the theoretical, practical and technological aspects of this interesting and important class of compounds. The topics covered include the structures, properties and thermodynamic characteristics of the gas hydrates, the changes induced in the equilibrium conditions by additives, and the methods and studies relating to the prevention and elimination of hydrate plugs in technological operations with industrial gases. In the discussion of the technological aspects, special emphasis is given to the production and transportation of natural gas and to the application of freon coolants. Such questions as the possibility of the desalination of seawater and the formation of gas hydrates in interplanetary space are also dealt with.

  19. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Jamriska, David

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  20. Comparison of a dual-phase fluoride toothpaste containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate with a regular fluoride toothpaste on calculus formation.

    PubMed

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2004-09-01

    This clinical study compared the effect on dental calculus formation of a dual-phase fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate, calcium, and phosphate with that of a regular dentifrice using a short-term clinical model in which calculus formation was facilitated. A total of 87 adult volunteers completed this study, which was a double-blind, parallel-group design, consisting of 2-week pretrial and trial periods separated by a washout period. A partial-mouth technique was used wherein the lower anterior teeth were protected from brushing by a custom-fitted toothshield, which doubled as an applicator for an undiluted dentifrice, twice daily. Calculus was measured on the labial/lingual surfaces of six lower anterior teeth by the Volpe-Manhold Index (V-MI). Subjects used a non-tartar-control dentifrice during the pretrial period to determine calculus formation rates, and these V-MI scores were used as baseline data for random allocation to either a control or test product for the trial period. Subjects who were accepted into the study, based on existing tartar deposits, readily formed calculus during the pretrial period using the toothshield method. During the trial period, subjects who were assigned the test dentifrice had comparable amounts of calculus accumulation to those who used the control dentifrice. However, subjects in the test dentifrice group had significantly lower (16%) calculus scores on lingual surfaces than those in the control group. Intragroup comparisons of V-MI data from the pretrial period with those from the trial period provided similar overall results to the comparisons between groups. This study demonstrated that a dual-phase baking soda dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate did not increase calculus accumulation relative to a regular dentifrice when used by adults with a propensity for developing calculus. PMID:15645907

  1. Comparative efficacy of dentifrice containing sodium monofluorophosphate + calcium glycerophosphate and non-fluoridated dentifrice: A randomized, double-blind, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Satyawan G.; Deoyani, D; Bhattal, Hiteshwar; Yadav, Renu; Lomba, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices in caries prevention has been well documented and research into various formulations continues for a more effective dentifrice. This study evaluated the anti-caries and anti-plaque efficacy of a dentifrice containing sodium monofluorophosphate (1000 ppm) and calcium glycerophosphate, and compared it with a non-fluoridated dentifrice. Materials and Methods: A total of 595 school children (1215 years) were divided into test (302 children) and control (293 children) groups. The test group used the dentifrice containing sodium monofluorophosphate (1000 ppm) and calcium glycerophosphate, whereas the control group was given a placebo dentifrice. Oral examination for dental caries and plaque assessment was carried out at the start of the study and the children were followed up semiannually up to 18 months. Data were analyzed using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The values for decayed missing filled teeth (DMFT) increased from baseline to 18 month examination from 4.432.03 and 4.672.25 (P=0.175) to 5.842.29 and 5.132.30 (P=0.001) for control and test groups, respectively. Similarly, the increase in decayed missing filled surface (DMFS) values were from 6.424.10 and 7.064.77 (P=0.082) to 8.644.51 and 7.925.07 (P=0.095) for test and control groups, respectively. The mean DMFT and DMFS values increased for both the groups; however, the increase was less in test group as compared to control group. The baseline plaque score reduced from 2.940.72 and 2.910.72 (P=0.679), respectively, for control and test groups to 1.330.46 and 0.910.38 (P<0.001), respectively, at 18 month examination. Conclusion: Results revealed that the test dentifrice was effective in inhibiting the progression of plaque and control of dental caries as compared to the placebo dentifrice. PMID:22363366

  2. Structural changes in cytochrome c oxidase induced by binding of sodium and calcium ions: an ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Amandine; Iwaki, Masayo; Rich, Peter R

    2013-04-17

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+)cations to bovine cytochrome c oxidase in its fully oxidized and partially reduced, cyanide-ligated (a(2+)a3(3+)-CN) (mixed valence) forms. These ions induced distinctly different IR binding spectra, indicating that the induced structural changes are different. Despite this, their binding spectra were mutually exclusive, confirming their known competitive binding behavior. Dissociation constants for Na(+) and Ca(2+) with the oxidized enzyme were 1.2 mM and 11 ?M, respectively and Na(+) binding appeared to involve cooperative binding of two Na(+). Ca(2+) binding induced a large IR spectrum, with prominent amide I/II polypeptide changes, bandshifts assigned to carboxylate and an arginine, and a number of bandshifts of heme a. The Na(+)-induced binding spectrum showed much weaker amide I/II and heme a changes but had similar shifts assignable to carboxylate and arginine residues. Yeast CcO also displayed a calcium-induced IR and UV/visible binding spectra, though of lower intensities. This was attributed to the difficulty in fully depleting Ca(2+) from its binding site, as has been found with bacterial CcOs. The implications of Ca(2+)/Na(+) ion binding are discussed in terms of structure and possible modulation of core catalytic function. PMID:23537388

  3. Hydrothermal treatment of naturally contaminated maize in the presence of sodium metabisulfite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide; effects on the concentration of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Inga; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dnicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium toxin-contaminated ground maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of different combinations of chemicals in order to simultaneously reduce zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations. Treatments were carried out in a laboratory conditioner at 80 C and 17 % moisture. Six different treatments were performed, consisting of 3 doses of methylamine (MMA; 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize) at a constant dose of 5 g sodium metabisulfite (SBS)/kg, either with or without the addition of 20 g calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)/kg. The used maize was contaminated with approximately 45.99 mg DON/kg and 3.46 mg ZEA/kg. Without the addition of Ca(OH)2, DON reductions reached approximately 82% after 1-min treatment and the toxin disappeared nearly completely after 10 min when 2.5 or 5 g MMA were applied. ZEA concentrations were only marginally affected. In the presence of Ca(OH)2, reductions in DON concentrations were lower, but were enhanced by increasing doses of MMA. ZEA concentrations were reduced by 72, 85 and 95% within the first 5 min of the treatment at MMA dosages of 2.5, 5 and 10 g/kg maize, respectively. The application of SBS in combination with a strong alkaline during hydrothermal treatment seems to be a promising approach to simultaneously decontaminate even high amounts of DON and ZEA in ground maize and may contribute to reduce the toxin load of diets. PMID:23536360

  4. Emissions of alkaline elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium from open sources in the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.A. ); Stensland, G.J.; Williams, A.L.; Barnard, W.; Gatz, D. ); Sinclair, P.C. ); Johnson, T.C. )

    1992-12-01

    Models of dust emissions by wind erosion (including winds associated with regional activity as well as dust devils) and vehicular disturbances of unpaved roads were developed, calibrated, and used to estimate alkaline dust emissions from elemental soil and road composition data. Emissions from tillage of soils were estimated form the work of previous researchers. The area of maximum dust production by all of those sources is the area of the old Dust Bowl' of the 1930s (the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma, eastern New Mexico and Colorado, and western Kansas). The areas of maximum alkaline dust production are the arid southwest, the Dust Bowl,' and the midwestern-mideastern states from Iowa to Pennsylvania. Our calculations show that calcium is the dominant alkaline element produced by open sources' (sources too great in extent to be controlled by enclosure or ducting). Although the largest dust mass source is wind erosion (by winds associated with regional activity and convective activity), the largest producer of the alkaline component is road dust because the abundance of alkaline materials in road coverings (which include crushed limestone) is significantly higher than for soils. Comparing the above estimated sources of alkaline material with inventories of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions by previous investigators gives the rough approximation that alkaline emission rates are of the order of the SO[sub 2] + NO[sub x] emissions in the western United States and that they are much smaller than SO[sub 2] + NO[sub x] in the eastern United States. This approximation is substantiated by data on Ca/(SO[sub 4] + NO[sub 3]) for wet deposition for National Atmospheric Deposition Program sites. 53 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  9. Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). These mineral precipitate were reported to form the MTA-dentin interfacial layer which enhances the sealing ability of MTA. Clinically, the use of zinc oxide euginol (ZOE) based materials may retard the setting of MTA. Also, the use of acids or contact with excessive blood should be avoided before complete set of MTA, because these conditions could adversely affect the hydration reaction of MTA. Further studies on the chemical nature of MTA hydration reaction are needed. PMID:23429542

  10. Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seok-Woo

    2012-11-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). These mineral precipitate were reported to form the MTA-dentin interfacial layer which enhances the sealing ability of MTA. Clinically, the use of zinc oxide euginol (ZOE) based materials may retard the setting of MTA. Also, the use of acids or contact with excessive blood should be avoided before complete set of MTA, because these conditions could adversely affect the hydration reaction of MTA. Further studies on the chemical nature of MTA hydration reaction are needed. PMID:23429542

  11. Osteoblastic differentiation under controlled bioactive ion release by silica and titania doped sodium-free calcium phosphate-based glass.

    PubMed

    Shah Mohammadi, Maziar; Chicatun, Florencia; Sthli, Christoph; Muja, Naser; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

    2014-09-01

    Sodium-free phosphate-based glasses (PGs) doped with both SiO2 and TiO2 (50P2O5-40CaO-xSiO2-(10-x)TiO2, where x=10, 7, 5, 3, and 0mol%) were developed and characterised for controlled ion release applications in bone tissue engineering. Substituting SiO2 with TiO2 directly increased PG density and glass transition temperature, indicating a cross-linking effect of Ti on the glass network which was reflected by significantly reduced degradation rates in an aqueous environment. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of Ti(P2O7) in crystallised TiO2-containing PGs, and nuclear magnetic resonance showed an increase in Q(1) phosphate species with increasing TiO2 content. Substitution of SiO2 with TiO2 also reduced hydrophilicity and surface energy. In biological assays, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts effectively adhered to the surface of PG discs and the incorporation of TiO2, and hence higher stability of the PG network, significantly increased cell viability and metabolic activity indicating the biocompatibility of the PGs. Addition of SiO2 increased ionic release from the PG, which stimulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells upon ion exposure. The incorporation of 3mol% TiO2 was required to stabilise the PG network against unfavourable rapid degradation in aqueous environments. However, ALP activity was greatest in PGs doped with 5-7mol% SiO2 due to up-regulation of ionic concentrations. Thus, the properties of PGs can be readily controlled by modifying the extent of Si and Ti doping in order to optimise ion release and osteoblastic differentiation for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24945606

  12. Optimization of growth medium for Sporosarcina pasteurii in bio-based cement pastes to mitigate delay in hydration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah L; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Ferron, Raissa Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation has been identified as a novel method to improve durability and remediate cracks in concrete. One way to introduce microorganisms to concrete is by replacing the mixing water with a bacterial culture in nutrient medium. In the literature, yeast extract often has been used as a carbon source for this application; however, severe retardation of hydration kinetics has been observed when yeast extract is added to cement. This study investigates the suitability of alternative carbon sources to replace yeast extract for microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation in cement-based materials. A combination of meat extract and sodium acetate was identified as a suitable replacement in growth medium for Sporosarcina pasteurii; this alternative growth medium reduced retardation by 75 % (as compared to yeast extract) without compromising bacterial growth, urea hydrolysis, cell zeta potential, and ability to promote calcium carbonate formation. PMID:26795346

  13. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the Federal State of Lower Saxony and industry partner Baker Hughes Celle.

  14. Chloral hydrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloral hydrate ; CASRN 302 - 17 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Chloral hydrate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 00 / 006 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CHLORAL HYDRATE ( CAS No . 302 - 17 - 0 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance w

  16. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

    2002-06-01

    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.67.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p?0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p?0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p?0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p?0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  17. Effects of a Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize treated with sodium metabisulphite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide in diets for female piglets.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Inga; Brezina, Ulrike; Kersten, Susanne; Dnicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminated maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of sodium metabisulphite (SBS), methylamine and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and included into diets for female piglets to evaluate effects on performance, organ weights, development of hyperestrogenism, serum biochemical parameters, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and toxin residues in serum. For this purpose, both uncontaminated maize (CON) and Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize (FUS) were included into diets either untreated (-) or treated (+) according to a 2 by 2-factorial design. One-hundred female weaned piglets were assigned to one of the four treatment groups (n = 25) CON-, CON+, FUS- and FUS+ with DON/ZEN concentrations of 0.43/0.03, 0.04/0.0, 3.67/0.32 and 0.36/0.08 mg per kg diet, respectively. After a feeding period of 27 days, 20 piglets (n = 5) were slaughtered. Performance parameters such as feed intake, live weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio remained unaffected by the treatments. Uterus weights were significantly reduced in group FUS+ compared to FUS- (p = 0.028), while visceral organ weights were not influenced. Vulva width in relation to body weight was highest in group FUS- at the end of the trial, while hydrothermal treatment significantly reduced the parameter (p < 0.01). The highest toxin and toxin metabolite concentrations in serum were detected in group FUS-, whereas ingestion of diet FUS+ reduced the concentrations to the level of the control groups. Serum biochemical and haematological parameters were mainly within the given reference ranges and showed no treatment-related alterations. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected. An effective detoxification of maize by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of SBS, methylamine and Ca(OH)2 could be demonstrated by means of serum toxin analyses. No undesired side effects of the treated-feed stuff or the chemicals themselves on the health of piglets were detected. PMID:23859352

  18. Integration time in a subset of spinal lamina I neurons is lengthened by sodium and calcium currents acting synergistically to prolong subthreshold depolarization.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A; De Koninck, Yves

    2005-05-11

    Lamina I of the spinal dorsal horn plays an important role in processing and relaying nociceptive information to the brain. It comprises physiologically distinct cell types that process information in fundamentally different ways: tonic neurons fire repetitively during stimulation and display prolonged EPSPs, suggesting operation as integrators, whereas single-spike neurons act like coincidence detectors. Using whole-cell recordings from a rat spinal slice preparation, we set out to determine the basis for prolonged EPSPs in tonic cells and the implications for signal processing. Kinetics of synaptic currents could not explain differences in EPSP kinetics. Instead, tonic neurons were found to express a persistent sodium current, I(Na,P), that amplified and prolonged depolarization in response to brief stimulation. Tonic neurons also expressed a persistent calcium current, I(Ca,P), that contributed to prolongation but not to amplification. Simulations using NEURON software demonstrated that I(Na,P) was necessary and sufficient to explain amplification, whereas I(Na,P) and I(Ca,P) acted synergistically to prolong depolarization: initial activation of the slower current (I(Ca,P)) depended on the faster current (I(Na,P)) but maintained activation of the faster current likewise depended on the slower current. Additional investigation revealed that I(Na,P) and I(Ca,P) could dramatically increase integration time (>30x) and thereby encourage temporal summation but at the expense of spike time precision. Thus, by prolonging subthreshold depolarization, intrinsic inward currents allow tonic neurons in spinal lamina I to specialize as integrators that are optimally suited to encode stimulus intensity. PMID:15888650

  19. Identification of the sodium-calcium exchanger as the major ricin-binding glycoprotein of bovine rod outer segments and its localization to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, D.M.; Molday, R.S. ); Friedel, U.; Cook, N.J. )

    1990-02-13

    After neuraminidase treatment the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger of bovine rod outer segments was found to specifically bind Ricinus communis agglutinin. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of ricin-binding proteins purified from rod outer segment membranes by lectin affinity chromatography revealed the existence of two major polypeptides of M{sub r} 215K and 103K, the former of which was found to specifically react with PMe 1B3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the 230-kDa non-neuraminidase-treated Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger. Reconstitution of the ricin affinity-purified exchanger into calcium-containing liposomes revealed that neuraminidase treatment had no significant effect on the kinetics of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange activation by sodium. The authors further investigated the density of the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger in disk and plasma membrane preparations using Western blotting, radioimmunoassays, immunoelectron microscopy, and reconstitution procedures. The results indicate that the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger is localized in the rod photoreceptor plasma membrane and is absent or present in extremely low concentrations in disk membranes, as they have previously shown to be the case for the cGMP-gated cation channel. Previous reports describing the existence of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange activity in rod outer segment disk membrane preparations may be due to the fusion of plasma membrane components and/or the presence of contaminating plasma membrane vesicles.

  20. Olefin hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, M.H.D.; Waller, F.J.

    1993-08-03

    An improved process for the hydration of olefins to alcohols is described wherein the improvement comprises contacting said olefins with the catalytic composition comprising a perfluorinated ion-exchange polymer containing sulfonic acid groups supported on an inert carrier wherein said carrier comprises calcined shot coke with a mean pore diameter of about 1,000 Angstroms in the presence of water at a temperature of from about 180 C to about 250 C.

  1. Comparison of an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method for the determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper and zinc with atomic absorption spectroscopy and flame photometry methods.

    PubMed

    Dipietro, E S; Bashor, M M; Stroud, P E; Smarr, B J; Burgess, B J; Turner, W E; Neese, J W

    1988-08-01

    Serum calcium, magnesium, copper and zinc concentrations obtained from the analysis of 77 serum samples by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are compared with the results obtained using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Similarly, serum sodium and potassium levels from the analysis of the same samples by ICP-AES are compared with the levels obtained by flame photometry. For each metal, we compare the results from both methods with a linear regression program that assumes error in both variables. The regression analysis shows that the ICP-AES method gives slightly higher calcium, copper, and zinc results and lower magnesium results than the AAS methods, and lower sodium and potassium results than the flame photometry method. Except for sodium, the correlation (r) between the results is very high (greater than or equal to 0.958), indicating that the ICP-AES results could be corrected to be equivalent to the atomic absorption or flame photometry results. The ICP-AES has the advantage of requiring less preparation and analysis time, and additional elements could be determined simultaneously in the same sample. PMID:3222695

  2. Hydrated multivalent cations are new class of molten salt mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angell, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    Electrical conductance and activation energy measurements on mixtures of calcium and potassium nitrate show the hydrated form to be a new class of molten salt. The theoretical glass transition temperature of the hydrate varied in a manner opposite to that of the anhydrous system.

  3. Hydrate habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Whoever said there is nothing new under the sun did not delve deeply enough to the bottom of the ocean. There in the Gulf of Mexico, about 150 miles south of New Orleans, scientists have just discovered what could be a new species of centipede—like worms living on or within gas hydrates— mounds of methane ice— rising from the ocean floor.Scientists have previously recognized an association between some bacteria and these hydrates. However, this is the first discovery of a higher life form there.

  4. Effectiveness of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate containing prophylaxis paste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately and 4 weeks after a single application: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Mongiello, Kimberly A; Simonton, Thomas C; Clark, Courtney E; Proskin, Howard M; Seemann, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this single-site, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 3-arm parallel study was to determine the effectiveness of a prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS; NovaMin®) with and without fluoride in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately after a single application and 28 days following dental scaling and root planing. Materials & Methods Overall, 151 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects received a scaling and root planing procedure followed by a final prophylaxis step using one of three different prophylaxis pastes: Test-A (15% NovaMin® and NaF), Test-B (15% NovaMin®) and a control. Dentine hypersensitivity was assessed by tactile stimulus (Yeaple Probe®) and by air blast (Schiff scale) at baseline, immediately after and 28 days after a prophylaxis procedure. One hundred and forty-nine subjects completed the study. Results Subjects having received the test prophylaxis pastes showed statistically lower (anova, p < 0.05) dentine hypersensitivity compared with the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure (Yeaple Probe®: Test-A = 20.9 ± 12.6, Test-B = 22.7 ± 12.9, Control=11.2 ± 3.1; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.1 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.1 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7) and after 28 days (Yeaple probe: Test-A = 21.5 ± 11.9, Test-B = 20.6 ± 11.3, Control = 11.8 ± 6.0; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.0 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.0 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7). Conclusions In conclusion, the single application of both fluoridated and non-fluoridated prophylaxis pastes containing 15% CSPS (NovaMin®) provided a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity up to at least 28 days. PMID:23414245

  5. Protein Phosphatase 1c Associated with the Cardiac Sodium Calcium Exchanger 1 Regulates Its Activity by Dephosphorylating Serine 68-phosphorylated Phospholemman.

    PubMed

    Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Hodne, Kjetil; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Dalhus, Bjørn; Lunde, Per Kristian; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Enger, Ulla Helene; Fuller, William; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2016-02-26

    The sodium (Na(+))-calcium (Ca(2+)) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Serine 68-phosphorylated phospholemman (pSer-68-PLM) inhibits NCX1 activity. In the context of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) regulation, pSer-68-PLM is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 also associates with NCX1; however, the molecular basis of this association is unknown. In this study, we aimed to analyze the mechanisms of PP1 targeting to the NCX1-pSer-68-PLM complex and hypothesized that a direct and functional NCX1-PP1 interaction is a prerequisite for pSer-68-PLM dephosphorylation. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we show that PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) co-localized, co-fractionated, and co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1 in rat cardiomyocytes, left ventricle lysates, and HEK293 cells. Bioinformatic analysis, immunoprecipitations, mutagenesis, pulldown experiments, and peptide arrays constrained PP1c anchoring to the K(I/V)FF motif in the first Ca(2+) binding domain (CBD) 1 in NCX1. This binding site is also partially in agreement with the extended PP1-binding motif K(V/I)FF-X5-8Φ1Φ2-X8-9-R. The cytosolic loop of NCX1, containing the K(I/V)FF motif, had no effect on PP1 activity in an in vitro assay. Dephosphorylation of pSer-68-PLM in HEK293 cells was not observed when NCX1 was absent, when the K(I/V)FF motif was mutated, or when the PLM- and PP1c-binding sites were separated (mimicking calpain cleavage of NCX1). Co-expression of PLM and NCX1 inhibited NCX1 current (both modes). Moreover, co-expression of PLM with NCX1(F407P) (mutated K(I/V)FF motif) resulted in the current being completely abolished. In conclusion, NCX1 is a substrate-specifying PP1c regulator protein, indirectly regulating NCX1 activity through pSer-68-PLM dephosphorylation. PMID:26668322

  6. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provides 200 to 400 mg of calcium. Calcium citrate: This is a more expensive form of calcium. ... common in people over age 50) absorb calcium citrate better than calcium carbonate. Other forms, such as ...

  7. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Baquerizo, Luis G.; Matschei, Thomas; Scrivener, Karen L.; Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions.

  8. Determination of the degree of hydration of a cement in a suspension prepared for impregnation and as one of the components of cellular concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Goryainov, K.E.; Kholomkin, P.G.

    1983-03-20

    It has been determined that the properties of concretes can be improved if the degree of hydration of the cement contained in suspensions used to prepare them is not less than 97% of complete hydration. The required high degree of hydration is achieved with a mixing time of not less than 2 to 8 min and addition of a complex admixture made up of a plasticizer and hardening accelerator 1 min before impregnating the concrete. Good results are obtained in impregnating cellular concretes under 0.05 to 0.2-MPa pressure by using a suspension containing 2 liters of water and up to 0.009 kg complex admixture per kg cement, the admixture containing sodium nitrite, sodium sulfate, and calcium formate, or only 0.003 kg sodium sulfate and up to 0.006 kg of a liquefier, for instance S-3. It is advisable to carry out a hydrothermal treatment with isothermal heating at 150/sup 0/C for 3 h.

  9. Identifying inhibitors of hydrate formation rate with viscometric experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kalbus, J.S.; Christiansen, R.L.; Sloan, D. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Inhibiting the rate of hydrate formation with low concentration additives is an economically and environmentally attractive alternative to prevention of hydrates with large doses of methanol. Here, a method for screening possible rate inhibitors is described. In the method, a viscometer is used to follow the development of hydrate formation for water-THF solutions and for water-gas solutions at conditions favoring hydrate formation. The method was applied to about 30 different chemicals, plus binary combinations of many of these chemicals. The best chemical additives included BASF F-127, Mirawet ASC, Surfynol-465, sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS), Mirataine CBS with polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP), and SDS with PVP.

  10. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-02-23

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C-S-H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C-S-H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C-S-H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C-S-H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C-S-H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  11. Nonenzymatic Transformation of Amorphous CaCO3 into Calcium Phosphate Mineral after Exposure to Sodium Phosphate in Vitro: Implications for in Vivo Hydroxyapatite Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Neufurth, Meik; Huang, Jian; Wang, Kui; Feng, Qingling; Schröder, Heinz C; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-15

    Studies indicate that mammalian bone formation is initiated at calcium carbonate bioseeds, a process that is driven enzymatically by carbonic anhydrase (CA). We show that amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and bicarbonate (HCO3 (-) ) cause induction of expression of the CA in human osteogenic SaOS-2 cells. The mineral deposits formed on the surface of the cells are rich in C, Ca and P. FTIR analysis revealed that ACC, vaterite, and aragonite, after exposure to phosphate, undergo transformation into calcium phosphate. This exchange was not seen for calcite. The changes to ACC, vaterite, and aragonite depended on the concentration of phosphate. The rate of incorporation of phosphate into ACC, vaterite, and aragonite, is significantly accelerated in the presence of a peptide rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. We propose that the initial CaCO3 bioseed formation is driven by CA, and that the subsequent conversion to calcium phosphate/calcium hydroxyapatite (exchange of carbonate by phosphate) is a non-enzymatic exchange process. PMID:25871446

  12. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The technical grade is...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  18. The healthy newborn hydration model: a new model for understanding newborn hydration immediately after birth.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Pamela J; Gardner, Sue E

    2015-01-01

    The normal small volume of breast milk produced in the first 2 days following birth may raise concerns about adequate hydration in breast-fed newborns. These concerns are further magnified when breast-fed infants lose ?7% of their birth weight within 2 days postnatally. Weight loss following birth is presumably mostly water loss that could result in hypohydration and subsequent hypernatremic dehydration. However, excess fluid loss immediately following birth is a normal and necessary process. Furthermore, newborns exposed to excess fluid intake during labor may need to lose ?7% of birth weight in the first 2 days following birth in order to achieve euhydration. Normal newborn fluid loss following birth confounds the use of weight loss as the sole measure of newborn hydration. We thus propose the healthy newborn hydration model that highlights the normalcy of newborn weight loss immediately following birth and the healthy newborn's compensatory mechanisms for preserving adequate hydration. We also recommend the use of serum sodium to measure intravascular osmolarity in addition to monitoring weight loss to obtain a more comprehensive newborn hydration assessment. Research is necessary in healthy newborns to identify relationships among fluids received in utero, newborn weight loss, and hydration, as evaluated with laboratory measures, in the first 2 days following birth. This information will guide clinicians in correctly identifying newborns with inadequate hydration who are in need of supplementary fluids versus newborns with adequate hydration for whom exclusive breast-feeding can be supported and encouraged. PMID:25504955

  19. Combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, M.J.; Krakowiak, K.J.; Bauchy, M.; Stewart, K.L.; Shahsavari, R.; Jagannathan, D.; Brommer, D.B.; Baronnet, A.; Buehler, M.J.; Yip, S.; Ulm, F.-J; Van Vliet, K.J.; Pellenq, R.J-.M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its ubiquitous presence in the built environment, concrete’s molecular-level properties are only recently being explored using experimental and simulation studies. Increasing societal concerns about concrete’s environmental footprint have provided strong motivation to develop new concrete with greater specific stiffness or strength (for structures with less material). Herein, a combinatorial approach is described to optimize properties of cement hydrates. The method entails screening a computationally generated database of atomic structures of calcium-silicate-hydrate, the binding phase of concrete, against a set of three defect attributes: calcium-to-silicon ratio as compositional index and two correlation distances describing medium-range silicon-oxygen and calcium-oxygen environments. Although structural and mechanical properties correlate well with calcium-to-silicon ratio, the cross-correlation between all three defect attributes reveals an indentation modulus-to-hardness ratio extremum, analogous to identifying optimum network connectivity in glass rheology. We also comment on implications of the present findings for a novel route to optimize the nanoscale mechanical properties of cement hydrate. PMID:25248305

  20. Combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, M. J.; Krakowiak, K. J.; Bauchy, M.; Stewart, K. L.; Shahsavari, R.; Jagannathan, D.; Brommer, D. B.; Baronnet, A.; Buehler, M. J.; Yip, S.; Ulm, F.-J.; van Vliet, K. J.; Pellenq, R. J.-. M.

    2014-09-01

    Despite its ubiquitous presence in the built environment, concretes molecular-level properties are only recently being explored using experimental and simulation studies. Increasing societal concerns about concretes environmental footprint have provided strong motivation to develop new concrete with greater specific stiffness or strength (for structures with less material). Herein, a combinatorial approach is described to optimize properties of cement hydrates. The method entails screening a computationally generated database of atomic structures of calcium-silicate-hydrate, the binding phase of concrete, against a set of three defect attributes: calcium-to-silicon ratio as compositional index and two correlation distances describing medium-range silicon-oxygen and calcium-oxygen environments. Although structural and mechanical properties correlate well with calcium-to-silicon ratio, the cross-correlation between all three defect attributes reveals an indentation modulus-to-hardness ratio extremum, analogous to identifying optimum network connectivity in glass rheology. We also comment on implications of the present findings for a novel route to optimize the nanoscale mechanical properties of cement hydrate.

  1. Co-Localization of Sodium Channel Na[v]1.6 and the Sodium--Calcium Exchanger at Sites of Axonal Injury in the Spinal Cord in EAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craner, Matthew J.; Hains, Bryan C.; Lo, Albert C.; Black, Joel A.; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    Axonal degeneration contributes to the development of non-remitting neurological deficits and disability in multiple sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie axonal loss in multiple sclerosis are not clearly understood. Studies of white matter axonal injury have demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels can provide a route for…

  2. Co-Localization of Sodium Channel Na[v]1.6 and the Sodium--Calcium Exchanger at Sites of Axonal Injury in the Spinal Cord in EAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craner, Matthew J.; Hains, Bryan C.; Lo, Albert C.; Black, Joel A.; Waxman, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    Axonal degeneration contributes to the development of non-remitting neurological deficits and disability in multiple sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie axonal loss in multiple sclerosis are not clearly understood. Studies of white matter axonal injury have demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels can provide a route for

  3. Hydration and Chronic Pancreatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Fact Sheet - Hydration and Chronic Pancreatitis by Kathianne Sellers Proper hydration is important in the health of ... fluid needs are 8 cups per day. Kathianne Sellers, R.D., was a nutritionist at the Pancreas ...

  4. A comparative study of antioxidative activity of calcium-D-glucarate, sodium-D-gluconate and D-glucono-1,4-lactone in a human blood platelet model.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    D-glucono-1,4-lactone, sodium D-gluconate and calcium D-glucarate are non-toxic glucose derivatives occurring naturally in fruits and vegetables. Calcium D-glucarate is promoted as an orally bioavailability dietary supplement with potential chemopreventive activity without adverse effects. Despite many commercial applications in pharmaceutical and food industries the potential activity mechanisms of glucarate and gluconate are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of these compounds on blood platelets under oxidative stress conditions and to examine their role in thrombin-induced platelet activation. Platelet activation is essential in haemostasis, tumor progression and allergic and non-allergic inflammation, where reactive oxygen species are involved. The antiplatelet and antioxidative activity was studied in vitro by measuring levels of specific oxidative stress markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, superoxide anion, carbonyl groups, 3-nitrotyrosine, protein and low molecular weight thiols. All tested compounds significantly inhibited thrombin-induced arachidonic peroxidation, O??? production and also platelet protein oxidation/nitration induced by peroxynitrite, which is a strong oxidant formed intravascularly in vivo. Carbonyl group generation, thiol oxidation and nitrotyrosine formation were significantly decreased in the presence of glucose derivatives. The obtained results demonstrate that tested compounds may be helpful in the prevention of excessive platelet activation through the antioxidant mechanisms. Comparative studies indicate the predominant preventive activity of sodium D-gluconate. In general, the consumption of apples or apple juice as well as oranges, grapefruit and cruciferous vegetables, sources of large amounts of tested derivatives, have beneficial effects on platelets under oxidative stress. PMID:20873960

  5. Surfactant effects on SF6 hydrate formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Man Sig; Kim, Young Seok; Englezos, Peter; Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Yang Do

    2009-03-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) has been widely used in a variety of industrial processes, but it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. For this reason, it is necessary to separate or collect it from waste gas streams. One separation method is through hydrate crystal formation. In this study, SF(6) hydrate was formed in aqueous surfactant solutions of 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.20 wt% to investigate the effects of surfactants on the hydrate formation rates. Three surfactants, Tween 20 (Tween), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS), were tested in a semi-batch stirred vessel at the constant temperature and pressures of 276.2 K and 0.78 MPa, respectively. All surfactants showed kinetic promoter behavior for SF(6) hydrate formation. It was also found that SF(6) hydrate formation proceeded in two stages with the second stage being the most rapid. In situ Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the increased gas consumption rate with the addition of surfactant was possibly due to the increased gas filling rate in the hydrate cavity. PMID:19058810

  6. Hydrate characterization research overview

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    Gas hydrate research has been focused primarily on the development of a basic understanding of hydrate formation and dissociation in the laboratory, as well as in the field. Laboratory research on gas hydrates characterized the physical system, which focused on creating methane hydrates samples, tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate samples, consolidated rock samples, frost base mixtures, water/ice-base mixtures, and water-base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of hydrates. As work progressed, areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Guatemala Trench, where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for detailed investigation. The testing of samples and recovered cores from such areas provided information for detection of hydrate formations in the natural environment. Natural gas hydrate samples have been tested for thermal properties, dissociation properties, fracture mechanics, and optical properties. Acoustical properties were investigated both in the laboratory and, as possible, in the field. Sonic velocity and electrical resistivity measurements will continue to be obtained. These activities have been undertaken in hydrate deposits on Alaska`s North Slope, the Gulf of Mexico and the US East coast offshore, as well as other gas hydrate target areas.

  7. Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yutao

    Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC → dehydrated ACC → biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.

  8. Understanding gas hydrate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, Laura; Chanton, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Ian; Martens, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    In order to understand the role gas hydrates play in climate change or their potential as an energy source, we must first understand their basic behaviors. One such behavior not well understood is their dissolution and the factors that control it. Theoretically, hydrates are stable in areas of high pressure, low temperature, moderate salt concentrations, and saturated methane. Yet in nature, we observe hydrate to outcrop seafloor sediments into overlying water that is under-saturated with respect to methane. How do these hydrates not dissolve away? To address this question, we combine both field and laboratory experiments. In the field, we have collected pore-waters directly surrounding gas hydrate outcrops and measured for in situ methane concentrations. This gives us an understanding of the concentration gradients, and thus methane flux, directly from the hydrate to the surrounding environment. From these samples, we found that methane concentrations decreased further from hydrate yet are always under-saturated with respect to methane hydrate. The resulting low methane gradients were then used to calculate low dissolution rates. This result suggests that hydrates are meta-stable in the environment. What controls their apparent meta-stability? We hypothesize that surrounding oils or microbial slimes help protect the hydrate and slow down their dissolution. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments where hydrate was formed at in situ pressure and temperature and the source gas removed; first with no oils, then with oils. Dissolved methane concentrations were then measured in surrounding fluids over time and dissolution rates calculated. To date, both methane and mixed gas hydrate (methane, ethane, and propane) have similar dissolution rates of 0.12 mM/hr. Future experiments will add oils to determine how different hydrate dissolves with such contaminants. This study will further our understanding of factors that control hydrate stability in nature.

  9. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  10. Modeling and simulation of cement hydration kinetics and microstructure development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Biernacki, Joseph J.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Bishnoi, Shashank; Dolado, Jorge S.; Scherer, George W.; Luttge, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    Efforts to model and simulate the highly complex cement hydration process over the past 40 years are reviewed, covering different modeling approaches such as single particle models, mathematical nucleation and growth models, and vector and lattice-based approaches to simulating microstructure development. Particular attention is given to promising developments that have taken place in the past few years. Recent applications of molecular-scale simulation methods to understanding the structure and formation of calcium-silicate-hydrate phases, and to understanding the process of dissolution of cement minerals in water are also discussed, as these topics are highly relevant to the future development of more complete and fundamental hydration models.

  11. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  12. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshandell, Melika

    A significant methane storehouse is in the form of methane hydrates on the sea floor and in the arctic permafrost. Methane hydrates are ice-like structures composed of water cages housing a guest methane molecule. This caged methane represents a resource of energy and a potential source of strong greenhouse gas. Most research related to methane hydrates has been focused on their formation and dissociation because they can form solid plugs that complicate transport of oil and gas in pipelines. This dissertation explores the direct burning of these methane hydrates where heat from the combustion process dissociates the hydrate into water and methane, and the released methane fuels the methane/air diffusion flame heat source. In contrast to the pipeline applications, very little research has been done on the combustion and burning characteristics of methane hydrates. This is the first dissertation on this subject. In this study, energy release and combustion characteristics of methane hydrates were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experimental study involved collaboration with another research group, particularly in the creation of methane hydrate samples. The experiments were difficult because hydrates form at high pressure within a narrow temperature range. The process can be slow and the resulting hydrate can have somewhat variable properties (e.g., extent of clathration, shape, compactness). The experimental study examined broad characteristics of hydrate combustion, including flame appearance, burning time, conditions leading to flame extinguishment, the amount of hydrate water melted versus evaporated, and flame temperature. These properties were observed for samples of different physical size. Hydrate formation is a very slow process with pure water and methane. The addition of small amounts of surfactant increased substantially the hydrate formation rate. The effects of surfactant on burning characteristics were also studied. One finding from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and methane release, some of the water from the dissociated zone needs to be drained. The results

  13. Gas Hydrate Nucleation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, R. E.; Zatsepina, O.; Phelps, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    The onset of gas hydrate nucleation is greatly affected by the thermal history of the water that forms its lattice structure. Hydrate formation experiments were performed in a 72 liter pressure vessel by bubbling carbon dioxide through a 1 liter column at hydrate formation pressures (1.4 to 3.7 MPa) and temperatures (275.0 to 278.0 K) to quantify this effect. They show that when even a fraction ( e. g. 20 %) of the water in which hydrate has formed was recently frozen and thawed, the overpressurization for nucleation was reduced by an average of 50 % versus experiments performed in distilled water. In those experiments where a lower overpressure is present when hydrate nucleated, they tended to form on the surface of bubbles, whereas when a higher amount of overpressure was necessary for hydrate to nucleate, they appeared to form abruptly on bubble surfaces as well as from the bulk liquid phase. In approximation of classical nucleation, hydrate formation could be described as occurring by the spontaneous joining together of arising components of the hydrate lattice. In water that was frozen, and kept at a low temperature (< 275 K), molecular simulation models predict the predominance of water molecules organized as penatmeters, a possible subunit of the hydrate lattice. Our results suggest that in nature, initiation of hydrate formation may be strongly influenced by temperature dependant pre-structuring of water molecules prior to their contact with gas.

  14. Calcium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dietary calcium Decreased levels of vitamin D Magnesium deficiency Increased levels of phosphorus Acute inflammation of the pancreas ( pancreatitis ) Renal failure Urinary calcium levels may be affected by ...

  15. Hydration of hyaluronan polysaccharide observed by IR spectrometry. II. Definition and quantitative analysis of elementary hydration spectra and water uptake.

    PubMed

    Haxaire, K; Maréchal, Y; Milas, M; Rinaudo, M

    2003-01-01

    We recorded a series of spectra of sodium hyaluronan (HA) films that were in equilibrium with their surrounding humid atmosphere. The hygrometry of this atmosphere extended from 0 to 0.97% relative humidity. We performed a quantitative analysis of the corresponding series of hydration spectra that are the difference spectra of the film at a defined hygrometry minus the spectrum of the dried film (hygrometry = 0). The principle of this analysis is to use this series of hydration spectra to define a limited number (four) of "elementary hydration spectra" over which we can decompose all hydration spectra with good accuracy. This decomposition, combined with the measurements of the numbers of H(2)O molecules at the origin in these elementary hydration spectra of the three characteristic vibrational bands of H(2)O, allowed us to calculate the hydration number under different relative humidity conditions. This number compares well with that determined by thermogravimetry. Furthermore, the decomposition defines for each hygrometry value which chemical mechanisms represented by elementary hydration spectra are active. This analysis is pursued by determining for the elementary hydration spectra the number of hydrogen bonds established by each of the four alcohol groups found in each disaccharide repeat unit before performing the same analysis for amide and carboxylate groups. These results are later utilized to discuss the structure of HA at various stages of hydration. PMID:12722111

  16. A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2008-12-08

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early intermolecular interactions stabilizing amelogenin supramolecular assembly and the potential role of calcium ions have been discovered. Two-dimensional 1H-15N spectra were recorded for 15N-labeled amelogenin as a function of increasing Ca2+ concentration starting from monomeric conditions. Evidence for protein-protein interactions were observed between residues E18 and E40 in the N-terminus. At higher Ca2+ concentrations there was concurrent involvement of residues in both the N- (Y12-Q56) and the C-terminus (Q144-T171). Neither specific residues nor their stepwise interaction have previously been identified in the initial stages of nanosphere assembly.

  17. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger from human and chicken retinal cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Prinsen, C F; Szerencsei, R T; Schnetkamp, P P

    2000-02-15

    Light causes a rapid lowering of cytosolic free calcium in the outer segments of both retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. This light-induced lowering of calcium is caused by extrusion via a Na-Ca exchanger located in the rod and cone outer segment plasma membrane and plays a key role in the process of light adaptation. The Na-Ca exchanger in retinal rod outer segment was shown earlier to be a novel Na-Ca+K exchanger (NCKX), and its cDNA was obtained by molecular cloning from several mammalian species. On the other hand, the proper identity of the retinal cone Na-Ca exchanger, in terms of both functional characteristics (e.g., requirement for and transport of potassium) and molecular identity, has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report the molecular cloning, intraretinal localization by in situ hybridization, and initial functional characterization of the chicken and human cone-specific Na-Ca exchangers. In addition we report the chicken rod-specific NCKX. We identified NCKX transcripts in both human and chicken cones and observed strong potassium-dependent Na-Ca exchange activity after heterologous expression of human and chicken cone NCKX cDNAs in cultured insect cells. In situ hybridization in chicken retina showed abundant rod NCKX transcripts only in rod photoreceptors, whereas abundant cone NCKX transcripts were found in most, if not all, cone photoreceptors and also in a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells. A detailed comparison with the previously described retinal rod and brain NCKX cDNAs is presented. PMID:10662833

  18. Origins of hydration lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

  19. Methane Hydrate Field Program

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-31

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

  20. Origins of hydration lubrication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

  1. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A. )

    1987-12-01

    Unidirectional {sup 45}Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J{sup net}{sub Ca}) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J{sup net}{sub Ca} to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J{sup net}{sub Ca} was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J{sup net}{sub Ca} decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J{sup net}{sub Ca} was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue {sup 45}Ca content was {approx equal}30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa.

  2. CONTROL OF SOX EMISSIONS BY IN-FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION: CARBONATES VS HYDRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides high-temperature isothermal data on SO2 capture by calcium-based sorbents, obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO2 partial pre...

  3. Fluoride coatings make effective lubricants in molten sodium environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Coating bearing surfaces with calcium fluoride-barium fluoride film provides effective lubrication against sliding friction in molten sodium and other severe environments at high and low temperatures.

  4. Effect of temperature on hydration kinetics and polymerization of tricalcium silicate in stirred suspensions of CaO-saturated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Steven A. . E-mail: steven.a.grant@usace.army.mil; Boitnott, Ginger E.; Korhonen, Charles J.; Sletten, Ronald S.

    2006-04-15

    Tricalcium silicate was hydrated at 274, 278, 283, 298, and 313 K in stirred suspensions of saturated CaO solutions under a nitrogen-gas atmosphere until the end of deceleratory period. The suspension conductivities and energy flows were measured continuously. The individual reaction rates for tricalcium silicate dissolution, calcium silicate hydrate precipitation, and calcium hydroxide precipitation were calculated from these measurements. The results suggest that the proportion of tricalcium silicate dissolved was determined by the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution and the time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation. The time to very rapid calcium hydroxide precipitation was more sensitive to changes in temperature than was the rate of tricalcium silicate dissolution, so that the proportion of tricalcium silicate hydration dissolved by the deceleratory period increased with decreasing temperature. The average chain length of the calcium silicate hydrate ascertained by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy increased with increasing temperature.

  5. Striatal extracellular dopamine in conscious vs. anesthetized rats: effects of chloral hydrate anesthetic on responses to drugs of different classes.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M E; Mele, A; Pert, A

    1992-11-27

    Many investigations using the microdialysis technique have been performed in anesthetized animals, both in this laboratory and elsewhere. Concern arises with this preparation that the anesthetic may compromise neuronal function, or that it may interact with test drugs affecting neurotransmitter overflow. In addition, in these studies the microdialysis probe typically is introduced into the brain on the day of testing, and data collection commences within an hour or two following probe insertion. It has been suggested that transmitter recovered in the perfusate probably represents leakage due to tissue damage as well as exocytotic release, and may not accurately reflect neuronal responses to the manipulations of interest. Such potential confounds present important implications for the interpretation of data from these studies. The present investigation examined the effects of chloral hydrate anesthetic on (1) basal dopamine (DA) overflow in the anterior striatum, and (2) DA responses to systemically delivered drugs of two different classes known to influence DA activity. Three putative indices of impulse-dependent release were measured: (a) the time course and stability of basal DA overflow over several hours; (b) sodium channel involvement by adding tetrodotoxin (TTX) to the artificial CSF; and (c) calcium channel involvement using magnesium (Mg) in a calcium-free perfusate. Basal DA levels became stable in both conscious and anesthetized preparations by the second hour after probe insertion. Levels of recovered DA overflow in the anterior striata of conscious rats were approximately double those in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. Consistent with other findings, this suggests a general depression of CNS function by chloral hydrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1477724

  6. Role of calcium in volume regulation by dog red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, J C; Gitelman, H J; Glosson, P S; Leonard, D L

    1975-01-01

    Dog red blood cells (RBC) are shown to regulate their volume in anisosmotic media. Extrusion of water from osmotically swollen cells requires external calcium and is associated with net outward sodium movement. Accumulation of water by osmotically shrunken cells is not calcium dependent and is associated with net sodium uptake. Net movements of calcium are influenced by several variables including cell volume, pH, medium sodium concentration, and cellular sodium concentration. Osmotic swelling of cells increases calcium permeability, and this effect is diminished at acid pH. Net calcium flux in either direction between cells and medium is facilitated when the sodium concentrations is low in the compartment from which calcium moves and/or high in the compartment to which calcium moves. The hypothesis is advanced that energy for active sodium extrusion in dog RBC comes from passive, inward flow of calcium through a countertransport mechanism. PMID:234145

  7. Energy efficient hydration process

    SciTech Connect

    Beimesch, W. E.; Hortel, T. C.

    1985-02-05

    A process for hydrating in a spray tower a water-wet mixture of materials, at least one of which is hydratable, which allows the mixture to be easily formed into the desired size and shape and easily and safely dried.

  8. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  9. Mallik Gas Hydrate Sample

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A sample of gas hydrates collected from Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  10. Gas Hydrates Burning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring ice-like combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the worlds oceans and polar regions....

  11. TOUGH-Fx/Hydrate

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-02-01

    TOUGH-Fx/HYORATL can model the non-isothermal gas release. phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat in complex geologic media. The code can simulate production from natural gas hydrate deposits in the subsurtace (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments), as well as laboratory experiments of hydrate dissociation/formation in porous/fractured media. T006H-Fx/HYDRATE vi .0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate Ibmiation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and upmore » to four mass components-- i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dIssociation or formation, phase changes, and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects, and inhibItor-Induced effects.« less

  12. Determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc in fortified food products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in order to modernize AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved extension of the scope to all food matrixes (including infant formula), optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed- or open-vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proven through a successful RT using experienced independent food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD, and HorRat values) regarding SLVs and RTs. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an extended updated version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula. PMID:22468357

  13. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  14. IR manifestation of water intermediates formation with sodium hydroxide and sodium salts in KBr matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinvald, I. I.; Vorotyntsev, V. M.; Vorotyntsev, I. V.; Kalagaev, I. Yu.; Vorotyntsev, A. V.; Salkina, S. V.; Petukhov, A. N.; Spirin, I. A.; Grushevskaya, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    The association of water with sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate in a KBr matrix at room temperature, exhibited by FTIR data, was established. It was found that water intermediates form due to the intermolecular hydrogen bond and can be stabilized in the solid phase. The revealed clusters can exist in several shape of hydrates shell with different geometry and number of involved water molecules.

  15. Calcium/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/c-Src signalling cascade mediates disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM) or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (Ask1) or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation of c-Src. The present study demonstrates that Ca(2+)/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/cSrc signalling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  16. EFFECTS OF pH AND OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM, AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON MUSCULAR ACTIVITY OF THE ISOLATED CROP OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA (ORTHOPTERA)

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, James T.; Tauber, Oscar E.

    1943-01-01

    1. Twenty-five solutions which contained KCl (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 gm. per liter), in combination with CaCl2 (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 gm. per liter), 10.0 gm. of NaCl, and 0.2 gm. of NaHCO3 per liter of solution were tested in order to determine satisfactory KCl/CaCl2 ratios in an insect physiological salt mixture for the maintenance of muscular activity by the isolated crop of the American roach. Satisfactory activity products (0.390 to 0.549) were obtained in seven mixtures with KCl/CaCl2 ratios of 0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.6/0.6, 0.8/0.8, 0.2/0.4, 0.4/0.6, and 0.6/0.8, expressed as gram per liter. These ratios lie between 0.50 and 1.00. In solutions which contained calcium, but no potassium, approximately 50 per cent of the crops exhibited an initial tone increase and were arrested in rigor. See Fig. 2. In solutions which contained potassium, but no calcium, all crops showed an initial loss of tone and arrest in relaxation. See Fig. 2. 2. Seven KCl/CaCl2 ratios (see paragraph 1 above) were tested with eight NaCl concentrations (1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, and 1.8 per cent) at a pH of 8.0. In these mixtures, the ones with KCl/CaCl2 ratios of less than 1.0 produced higher activity products than those with ratios equal to 1.00. The highest average activity product (0.849) was obtained in the solutions with 0.2 gm. of KCl and 0.4 gm. of CaCl2 per liter. 3. Four KCl/CaCl2 ratios (0.2/0.2, 0.4/0.4, 0.2/0.4, and 0.4/0.6 gm. per liter) were tested with 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6 per cent NaCl at a pH of 7.5. When analyzed with data from comparable solutions at a pH of 8.0, it was found that 1.4 per cent NaCl afforded an optimum environment for isolated crop activity. 4. Effects of hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations were studied at pH values of 6.8, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.9. The highest average activity product, 1.011, was produced at a pH of about 8.0. 5. A satisfactory physiological salt solution for the isolated foregut of the American roach, Periplaneta americana, would contain 14.0 gm. of NaCl, 0.4 gm. of CaCl2, 0.2 gm. of KCl, and 0.2 gm. of NaHCO3 per liter of solution. This mixture should have a pH value between 7.8 and 8.2. 6. Durations of crop activity extending over periods as long as 25 hours were quite common, and several crops maintained contractions for more than 30 hours. The greatest longevity was for crop 814, from a female, which continued activity for slightly more than 47 hours. 7. A significant difference between the activity products of the crops from males and the crops from females was recorded. Although there was not a significant difference in the amount of food ingested by males and females, 12 hours after feeding there was more food in the females' crops, and the food progressed more rapidly through the males' crops than through the females'. In addition, crops from the two sexes reacted differently to the effects of day old solutions. This sex difference is apparently related to an inherently increased activity of the crop from the male roach. PMID:19873366

  17. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of carcasses with calcium chloride or a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates on beef display-color stability.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M C; Schoenbeck, J J; Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Loughin, T M; Addis, P B

    2003-03-01

    Hereford x Angus crossbred steers (n = 36) were stunned, exsanguinated, and infused via the carotid artery either with an aqueous solution containing 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphates (MPSC; n = 12) or with 0.3 M CaCl2 (n = 12). The remaining 12 steers served as noninfused controls. At 48 h postmortem, the quadriceps muscles and subcutaneous fat were removed from the carcasses, frozen, and later made into ground beef (18 to 20% fat). The longissimus lumborum (LL), semimembranosus, and psoas major (PM) also were removed, vacuum packaged, aged until 14 d postmortem, and then one steak was sliced from each muscle for visual and instrumental color evaluations. The inside (ISM) and outside (OSM) portions of the SM were evaluated separately. The LL and OSM steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses had a lighter red (P < 0.05) initial appearance than steaks from the other treatments. The LL steaks from noninfused carcasses had the most (P < 0.05) uniform color; the MPSC treatment was intermediate, and the CaCl2 treatment was the most two-toned. Steaks from both infusion treatments had higher (P < 0.05) L* values for the LL, ISM, and OSM muscles compared with noninfused carcasses. In general, the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses had lower (P < 0.05) a* values, saturation indices, and 630 nm to 580 nm reflectance values, and had larger (P < 0.05) hue angles. Infusion with MPSC increased (P < 0.05) hue angles in the LL and OSM. Display color stability was lowest (P < 0.05) for LL steaks from CaCl2-infused carcasses, whereas steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses were lighter red in initial color, but otherwise had display color stability similar to those from noninfused carcasses. No differences (P > 0.05) due to infusion were found for any color traits for the PM muscle and ground beef. Carotid artery vascular infusion of carcasses with CaCl2 resulted in undesirable meat colors, whereas the MPSC solution lightened loin and inside round color in a desirable way, but the color stability was slightly less compared to muscle from noninfused carcasses. Infusion effects were not consistent among muscles, and further research will be needed to determine what caused these differences. PMID:12661647

  18. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid concentration in the cheese increased when NSLAB numbers were high. Few other trends in organic acid concentration were observed as a function of Na content. PMID:24913647

  19. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

  20. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  1. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function. It also helps with muscle contraction, nerve signaling, and blood clotting. This article discusses ...

  2. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be produced through exploratory drilling programs; (2) the tools for gas hydrate detection and characterisation from remote sensing data; (3) the details of gas hydrate reservoir production behaviour through additional, well-monitored and longer duration field tests and (4) the understanding of the potential environmental impacts of gas hydrate resource development. The results of future production tests, in the context of varying market and energy supply conditions around the globe, will be the key to determine the ultimate timing and scale of the commercial production of natural gas from gas hydrates.

  3. Ultrafine calcium aerosol: Generation and use of a sorbent for sulfur in coal combustion. Volume 2, Economics: Final report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M.K.; Nahar, N.U.; Stewart, G.D.; Prudich, M.E.

    1991-11-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using calcium-hydroxide powder sorbent in a commercial power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) application. The cost analysis methodology found herein is a direct application of the one found in the January 1986 report, ``Economic Evaluation of Dry-Injection Flue Gas Desulfurization Technology by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The EPRI study addresses the economic issue of installing a dry-injection FGD system on a 1000 MW (2-500 MW units) power plant using sodium-rich powder sorbents derived from nahcolite and trona ores. In this report`s treatment, the calcium-based derivatives of hydrated limestone are compared directly to nahcolite and trona for both low and high sulfur coals. This type of evaluation is allowable due to the similar material handling properties of 1/4 inch hydrated limestone in comparison to those properties for nahcolite and trona. Thus, this report repeats the EPRI cost analysis for a slightly modified limestone-based FGD design. Note that the calculation methodology is not discussed, in this report as it has already been outlined in the EPRI study. Instead, Appendices A and B contain copies of the calculation spreadsheets based on the EPRI method for the hydrated limestone system.

  4. Molecular silicate and aluminate species in anhydrous and hydrated cements.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Aditya; Smith, Benjamin J; Athens, George L; Edwards, Christopher L; Roberts, Lawrence; Gupta, Vijay; Chmelka, Bradley F

    2010-06-01

    The compositions and molecular structures of anhydrous and hydrated cements are established by using advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy methods to distinguish among different molecular species and changes that occur as a result of cement hydration and setting. One- and two-dimensional (2D) solid-state (29)Si and (27)Al magic-angle spinning NMR methodologies, including T(1)-relaxation-time- and chemical-shift-anisotropy-filtered measurements and the use of very high magnetic fields (19 T), allow resonances from different silicate and aluminate moieties to be resolved and assigned in complicated spectra. Single-pulse (29)Si and (27)Al NMR spectra are correlated with X-ray fluorescence results to quantify the different crystalline and disordered silicate and aluminate species in anhydrous and hydrated cements. 2D (29)Si{(1)H} and (27)Al{(1)H} heteronuclear correlation NMR spectra of hydrated cements establish interactions between water and hydroxyl moieties with distinct (27)Al and (29)Si species. The use of a (29)Si T(1)-filter allows anhydrous and hydrated silicate species associated with iron-containing components in the cements to be distinguished, showing that they segregate from calcium silicate and aluminate components during hydration. The different compositions of white Portland and gray oilwell cements are shown to have distinct molecular characteristics that are correlated with their hydration behaviors. PMID:20455533

  5. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  6. Mechanisms of renal calcium transport.

    PubMed

    Friedman, P A

    2000-01-01

    The kidneys play a key role in the integrated regulation of calcium homeostasis. Calcium absorption takes place throughout the nephron. Proximal tubules, thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop, and distal tubules are the major sites of calcium absorption. The mechanisms of absorption vary significantly from one segment to another, as does the extent of hormonal regulation. At one extreme is the considerable reabsorption by proximal tubules that proceeds primarily, if not entirely, by a paracellular pathway that is not regulated by hormones or drugs. In thick ascending limbs, calcium absorption occurs through a combination of transcellular and paracellular routes. The active, transcellular component is regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin, whereas the passive, paracellular route is governed by the extent of concomitant sodium absorption. At the other extreme is the distal tubule, where calcium absorption is entirely transcellular and is regulated by PTH,1,25[OH(2)] vitamin D(3), calcitonin, and by calcium-sparing drugs such as thiazide-type diuretics. The present review focuses on recent insights into the mechanisms of transcellular calcium movement and highlights the discovery of an epithelial calcium channel, ECaC, that may mediate calcium entry in distal tubules. PMID:11014931

  7. Transformations in methane hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sharma, A.; Burruss, R.C.; Shu, J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed study of pure methane hydrate in a diamond cell with in situ optical, Raman, and x-ray microprobe techniques reveals two previously unknown structures, structure II and structure H, at high pressures. The structure II methane hydrate at 250 MPa has a cubic unit cell of a = 17.158(2) A?? and volume V = 5051.3(13) A??3; structure H at 600 MPa has a hexagonal unit cell of a = 11.980(2) A??, c = 9.992(3) A??, and V = 1241.9(5) A??3. The compositions of these two investigated phases are still not known. With the effects of pressure and the presence of other gases in the structure, the structure II phase is likely to dominate over the known structure I methane hydrate within deep hydrate-bearing sediments underlying continental margins.

  8. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  9. Calcium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corry, Ben; Hool, Livia

    Ion channels underlie the electrical activity of cells. Calcium channels have a unique functional role, because not only do they participate in this activity, they form the means bywhich electrical signals are converted to responses within the cell. Calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm of cells are maintained at a low level, and calcium channels activate quickly such that the opening of ion channels can rapidly change the cytoplasmic environment. Once inside the cell, calcium acts as a "second messenger" prompting responses by binding to a variety of calcium sensitive proteins. Calcium channels are known to play an important role in stimulating muscle contraction, in neurotransmitter secretion, gene regulation, activating other ion channels, controlling the shape and duration of action potentials and many other processes. Since calcium plays an integral role in cell function, and since excessive quantities can be toxic, its movement is tightly regulated and controlled through a large variety of mechanisms.

  10. Vocal Fold Surface Hydration: A review

    PubMed Central

    Leydon, Ciara; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Falciglia, Danielle Lodewyck; Atkins, Christopher; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal fold surface liquid homeostasis contributes to optimal vocal physiology. In this paper we review emerging evidence that vocal fold surface liquid is maintained in part by salt and water fluxes across the epithelium. Based on recent immunolocalization and electrophysiological findings, we describe a transcellular pathway as one mechanism for regulating superficial vocal fold hydration. We propose that the pathway includes the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, epithelial sodium channels, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channels, and aquaporin water channels. By integrating knowledge of the regulating mechanisms underlying ion and fluid transport with observations from hydration challenges and treatments using in vitro and in vivo studies, we provide a theoretical basis for understanding how environmental and behavioral challenges and clinical interventions may modify vocal fold surface liquid composition. We present converging evidence that clinical protocols directed at facilitating vocal fold epithelial ion and fluid transport may benefit healthy speakers, those with voice disorders, and those at risk for voice disorders. PMID:19111440

  11. Vocal fold surface hydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Leydon, Ciara; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Falciglia, Danielle Lodewyck; Atkins, Christopher; Fisher, Kimberly V

    2009-11-01

    Vocal fold surface liquid homeostasis contributes to optimal vocal physiology. In this paper we review emerging evidence that vocal fold surface liquid is maintained in part by salt and water fluxes across the epithelium. Based on recent immunolocalization and electrophysiological findings, we describe a transcellular pathway as one mechanism for regulating superficial vocal fold hydration. We propose that the pathway includes the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, epithelial sodium channels, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channels, and aquaporin water channels. By integrating knowledge of the regulating mechanisms underlying ion and fluid transport with observations from hydration challenges and treatments using in vitro and in vivo studies, we provide a theoretical basis for understanding how environmental and behavioral challenges and clinical interventions may modify vocal fold surface liquid composition. We present converging evidence that clinical protocols directed at facilitating vocal fold epithelial ion and fluid transport may benefit healthy speakers, those with voice disorders, and those at risk for voice disorders. PMID:19111440

  12. Calcium measurements with electron probe X-ray and electron energy loss analysis.

    PubMed Central

    LeFurgey, A; Ingram, P

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a broad survey of the rationale for electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and the various methods for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and amount of elements, particularly calcium, in cryopreserved cells and tissues. Essential in an introductory consideration of microanalysis in biological cryosections is the physical basis for the instrumentation, fundamentals of X-ray spectrometry, and various analytical modes such as static probing and X-ray imaging. Some common artifacts are beam damage and contamination. Inherent pitfalls of energy dispersive X-ray systems include Si escape peaks, doublets, background, and detector calibration shifts. Quantitative calcium analysis of thin cryosections is carried out in real time using a multiple least squares fitting program on filtered X-ray spectra and normalizing the calcium peak to a portion of the continuum. Recent work includes the development of an X-ray imaging system where quantitative data can be retrieved off-line. The minimum detectable concentration of calcium in biological cryosections is approximately 300 mumole kg dry weight with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 A. The application of electron energy loss (EELS) techniques to the detection of calcium offers the potential for greater sensitivity and spatial resolution in measurement and imaging. Determination of mass thickness with EELS can facilitate accurate calculation of wet weight concentrations from frozen hydrated and freeze-dried specimens. Calcium has multiple effects on cell metabolism, membrane transport and permeability and, thus, on overall cell physiology or pathophysiology. Cells can be rapidly frozen for EPXMA during basal or altered functional conditions to delineate the location and amount of calcium within cells and the changes in location and concentration of cations or anions accompanying calcium redistribution. Recent experiments in our laboratory document that EPXMA in combination with other biochemical and electrophysiological techniques can be used to study, for example, sodium and calcium compartmentation in cultured cardiac cells. Such analyses can also be used to clarify the role of calcium in anoxic renal cell injury and to evaluate proposed ionic defects in cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:2190819

  13. Hydrothermal Transformation of the Calcium Aluminum Oxide Hydrates CaAl2O4 . 10H2O and Ca2Al2O. 8H2O to Ca3Al2(OH)12 Investigated by In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen,T.; Christensen, A.; Hanson, J.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrothermal transformation of calcium aluminate hydrates were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction in the temperature range 25 to 170 C. This technique allowed the study of the detailed reaction mechanism and identification of intermediate phases. The material CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O converted to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and amorphous aluminum hydroxide. Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}8H{sub 2}O transformed via the intermediate phase Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}{center_dot}13H{sub 2}O to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and gibbsite, Al(OH){sub 3}. The phase Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}{center_dot}19H{sub 2}O reacted via the same intermediate phase to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and mainly amorphous aluminum hydroxide. The powder pattern of the intermediate phase is reported.

  14. Sodium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePLUS

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Effect of food preservatives on the hydration properties and taste behavior of amino acids: a volumetric and viscometric approach.

    PubMed

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Amanpreet; Gupta, Mehak; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2015-08-15

    Thermodynamic and transport properties of aqueous solutions are very useful in the elucidation of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, which help to understand the hydration and taste behavior of solutes. The densities and viscosities of L-glycine, ?-alanine and L-leucine have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate (NaP) and calcium propionate (CaP) at temperatures 298.15 and 308.15K. From these data, apparent molar volumes (V2,?), viscosity B-coefficients and corresponding transfer parameters (?trV2,?o and ?trB) have been calculated. The dB/dT values suggest that L-glycine and ?-alanine act as structure-breaker, while L-leucine acts as structure-maker both in water and in aqueous solutions of NaP and CaP. The decrease in hydration number and change in taste behavior have also been observed with increasing concentration of the cosolute. PMID:25794759

  17. Natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, E.D. Jr. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on gas clathrates (commonly called hydrates), which are crystalline compounds that occur when water form a cage-like structure around smaller guest molecules. Gas hydrates of interest to the natural gas hydrocarbon industry are composed of water and eight molecules: methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, normal butane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. Hydrate formation is possible in any place where water exists with such molecules - in natural or artificial environments and at temperatures above and below 32{degrees} F when the pressure is elevated. Hydrates are considered a nuisance because they block transmission lines, plug blowout preventers, jeopardize the foundations of deepwater platforms and pipelines, cause tubing and casing collapse, and foul process heat exchangers, valves, and expanders. Common examples of preventive measures are the regulation of pipeline water content, unusual drilling-mud compositions, and large quantities of methanol injection into pipelines. We encounter conditions that encourage hydrate formation as we explore more unusual environments for gas and oil, including deepwater frontiers and permafrost regions.

  18. Ionic modification of calcium phosphate cement viscosity. Part II: hypodermic injection and strength improvement of brushite cement.

    PubMed

    Barralet, J E; Grover, L M; Gbureck, U

    2004-05-01

    Brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements are of great interest as bone replacement materials because they are resorbable in physiological conditions. However, their short setting times, low mechanical strengths and limited injectability limit broad clinical application. In this study, we showed that a significant improvement of these properties of brushite cement could be achieved by the use of sodium citrate or citric acid as setting retardants, such that workable cement pastes with a powder to liquid ratio of up to 5 could be manufactured. The cement used in this study consisted of an equimolar powder mixture of beta-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate hydrate The use of 500 mM-1M retardant solutions as liquid phase enabled initial setting times of 8-12 min. Wet compressive strength were found to be in the range between 12-18 MPa after immersion of uncompacted cement samples in serum for 24 h. A further strength improvement to 32 MPa was obtained by compaction of the cement paste during samples preparation. This is significant because high-temperature processes cannot be used to fabricate hydrated calcium phosphate materials. Cement pastes were injectable through a hypodermic needle at a powder to liquid ratio of 3.3 g/ml when a 1M citric acid was used as liquid phase, thus enabling precise controlled delivery to small defects. PMID:14741635

  19. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  20. New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.E.

    1996-02-28

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

  1. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 23years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5years and more than 50-60% after 10years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  2. Dynamics of protein hydration water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, M.; Emmert, S.; Gulich, R.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.

    2015-09-01

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures, and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range. The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics. In addition, we find indications of a fragile-to-strong transition of hydration water.

  3. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Addist, P B; Schoenbeck, H J; Pullen, M; Katsanidis, E; Yancey, E J

    2003-01-01

    Grain-finished Hereford x Angus steers (n = 36) were assigned to one of three treatmentgroups. Immediately after jugular exsanguination, 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the left carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend (MPSC); 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight with 0.30 M CaCl2 (CaCl2); and 12 steers were exsanguinated conventionally and served as noninfused controls (CON). Declines in pH for three muscles were measured. CaCl2-infused carcasses exhibited extensive muscle contraction at the time of cooler entry. Carcasses were graded at 24 h postmortem and fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were removed, vacuum packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut from the LL and ST for shear force and sensory evaluations. Ground beef was formulated from the QF to contain 20% fat. Steers infused with MPSC and CaCl2 had 4.0 and 2.3% higher dressing percentage points, respectively, than CON steers. Calcium concentrations of the LL muscle for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses, as well as the CON carcasses, were 892.0, 158.9, and 216.6 ppm, respectively. For the TB and longissimus thoracis muscles, pH decline was more rapid for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses than for CON carcasses, but there were no differences in 24-h pH. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were much higher (P < 0.05), and descriptive attribute sensory panel tenderness scores much lower (P < 0.05), for the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses than for MPSC-infused and CON carcasses. Flavor intensity of the LL of CaCl2-infused carcasses was reduced (P < 0.05); however, overall tenderness and flavor of the ST were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CaCl2 infusion. Beef flavor identification, brown-roasted flavor, and bloody/serumy flavor were lowest and soapy/chemical flavor was highest (P < 0.05) for both freshly cooked and warmed-over LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses. There were no distinct meat quality advantages for infusing cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates. Infusion with 0.30 M CaCl2 increased dressing percentage, but caused severe muscle contraction early postmortem, decreased LL tenderness markedly, and reduced flavor of LL steaks and ground beef. PMID:12597386

  4. Poly[[bis{?3-2-[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)(phenyl)methyl]propanedioato}tetrasodium(I)] 7.5-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Meskini, Ihssan; Daoudi, Maria; Daran, Jean-Claude; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Zouihri, Hafid

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title polymer, {[Na4(C15H14N2O4)2]7.5H2O}n, contains two 2-[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)(phenyl)methyl]propanedioate (ppmp) anions, eight water molecules (one located on a twofold rotation axis) and five sodium cations (one located on an inversion center and the other one located on a twofold rotation axis). The carboxylate groups of the ppmp anions and the water molecules bridge the Na cations, forming a two-dimensional polymeric structure. In the structure there are two types of coordination environment around the metal cations: one Na cation is coordinated by five O atoms in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry while the other four Na cations are coordinated by six O atoms in a distorted octahedral geometry. Extensive OH?O and OH?N hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure. The H atoms of one methyl group of the ppmp anion are disordered equally over two positions. PMID:21588089

  5. [Hydration in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Maristany, Cleof Prez-Portabella; Segurola Gurruchaga, Hegoi

    2011-01-01

    Water is an essential foundation for life, having both a regulatory and structural function. The former results from active and passive participation in all metabolic reactions, and its role in conserving and maintaining body temperature. Structurally speaking it is the major contributer to tissue mass, accounting for 60% of the basis of blood plasma, intracellular and intersticial fluid. Water is also part of the primary structures of life such as genetic material or proteins. Therefore, it is necessary that the nurse makes an early assessment of patients water needs to detect if there are signs of electrolyte imbalance. Dehydration can be a very serious problem, especially in children and the elderly. Dehydrations treatment with oral rehydration solution decreases the risk of developing hydration disorders, but even so, it is recommended to follow preventive measures to reduce the incidence and severity of dehydration. The key to having a proper hydration is prevention. Artificial nutrition encompasses the need for precise calculation of water needs in enteral nutrition as parenteral, so the nurse should be part of this process and use the tools for calculating the patient's requirements. All this helps to ensure an optimal nutritional status in patients at risk. Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in clinical practice. On the subject of artificial nutrition and hydration, there isn't yet any unanimous agreement regarding hydration as a basic care. It is necessary to take decisions in consensus with the health team, always thinking of the best interests of the patient. PMID:21428011

  6. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  7. Impact of admixtures on the hydration kinetics of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, J.; Jeknavorian, A.; Roberts, L.; Silva, D.

    2011-12-15

    Most concrete produced today includes either chemical additions to the cement, chemical admixtures in the concrete, or both. These chemicals alter a number of properties of cementitious systems, including hydration behavior, and it has been long understood by practitioners that these systems can differ widely in response to such chemicals. In this paper the impact on hydration of several classes of chemicals is reviewed with an emphasis on the current understanding of interactions with cement chemistry. These include setting retarders, accelerators, and water reducing dispersants. The ability of the chemicals to alter the aluminate-sulfate balance of cementitious systems is discussed with a focus on the impact on silicate hydration. As a key example of this complex interaction, unusual behavior sometimes observed in systems containing high calcium fly ash is highlighted.

  8. CaCl 2 -Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29 Si MAS NMR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Qinfei; Ge, Yong; Geng, Guoqing; Bae, Sungchul; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he effect of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) on tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra and 29 Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L 3,2 -edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C 3 S hydration in the presence of CaCl 2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C 3 S. Based on the Ca L 3,2 -edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl 2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C 3 S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl 2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29 Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl 2 in hydrated C 3 S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups ( Q 2 ) and branch sites ( Q 3 ) in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.« less

  9. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  10. Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw

    2006-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

  11. Computational Study of Phosphate Vibrations as Reporters of DNA Hydration.

    PubMed

    Floisand, D J; Corcelli, S A

    2015-10-15

    The sensitivity of the phosphate asymmetric stretch vibrational frequency to DNA hydration was investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a spectroscopic map relating the vibrational frequency to the electrostatics of its environment. 95% of the phosphate vibrational frequency shift in fully hydrated DNA was due to water within two hydration layers. The phosphate vibration was relatively insensitive to water in the major and minor grooves and to the sodium counterions but was enormously sensitive to water interacting with the DNA backbone. Comparisons to experimental measurements on DNA as a function of relative humidity suggest that one water molecule per phosphate group likely persists at the lowest values of the relative humidity. Finally, the calculated spectral diffusion dynamics show that water in the vicinity of the DNA backbone is slowed by a factor of ?5, in agreement with NMR and solvation dynamics experiments, as well as previous MD simulations. PMID:26722770

  12. Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, P. N.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation.

  13. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  14. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in todays market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  15. Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

  16. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  17. Characteristics of a Hydrated, Alginate-Based Delivery System for Cultivation of the Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Romaine, C. P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.

    1992-01-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms. Images PMID:16348774

  18. Growth of nanofibrous barium carbonate on calcium carbonate seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeijer, Sara J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Barrett, Richard A.; Gower, Laurie B.

    2008-05-01

    Fibrous barium carbonate (BaCO 3/witherite) crystals 50-100 nm in diameter and several microns in length were grown on calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) seeds at temperatures as low as 4 °C. The BaCO 3 fibers were deposited onto calcite rhombs or CaCO 3 films using the polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) process, which was induced with the sodium salt of polyacrylic acid (PAA). The structure and morphology of the resultant fibers were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Fibers were successfully grown on calcite seeds of various morphologies, with a range of barium concentrations, and PAA molecular weight and concentration. Two categories of fibers were grown: straight and twisted. Both types of fibers displayed single-crystalline SAED diffraction patterns, but after examining high-resolution TEM lattice images, it was revealed that the fibers were in fact made up of nanocrystalline domains. We postulate that these nanocrystalline domains are well aligned due to a singular nucleation event (i.e., each fiber propagates from a single nucleation event on the seed crystal) with the nanocrystalline domains resulting from stresses caused by dehydration during crystallization of the highly hydrated precursor phase. These BaCO 3 fibers grown on calcite substrates further illustrate the robustness and non-specificity of the PILP process.

  19. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  20. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  1. Gas hydrates: technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) implemented a gas hydrates R and D program that emphasized an understanding of the resource through (1) an assessment of current technology, (2) the characterization of gas hydrate geology and reservoir engineering, and (3) the development of diagnostic tools and methods. Recovery of natural gas from gas hydrates will be made possible through (1) improved instrumentation and recovery methods, (2) developing the capability to predict production performance, and (3) field verification of recovery methods. Gas hydrates research has focused primarily on geology. As work progressed, areas where gas hydrates are likely to occur were identified, and specific high potential areas were targeted for detailed investigation. A Geologic Analysis System (GAS) was developed. GAS contains approximately 30 software packages and can manipulate and correlate several types of geologic and petroleum data into maps, graphics, and reports. The system also contains all well information currently available from the Alaskan North Slope area. Laboratory research on gas hydrates includes the characterization of the physical system, which focuses on creating synthetic methane hydrates and developing synthetic hydrate cores using tetrahydrofuran (THF), consolidated rock cores, frost base mixtures, water/ice-base mixtures, and water-base mixtures. Laboratory work produced measurements of the sonic velocity and electrical resistivity of these synthetic hydrates. During 1983, a sample from a natural hydrate core recovered from the Pacific coast of Guatemala was tested for these properties by DOE/METC. More recently, natural hydrate samples acquired from the Gulf of Mexico are being tested. Modeling and systems analysis work has focused on the development of GAS and preliminary gas hydrate production models. 23 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. SANITARY DIPS WITH CALCIUM PROPIONATE, CALCIUM CHLORIDE, OR A CALCIUM AMINO ACID CHELATE MAINTAIN QUALITY AND SHELF STABILITY OF HONEYDEW CHUNKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freshly cut honeydew chunks were dipped for 30 seconds in a solution containing 100 uL/L sodium hypochlorite (ClO) without and with a 40 mM concentration of calcium (Ca) propionate, a Ca amino acid chelate formulation (Ca chelate), calcium chloride (CaCl2) or not treated. Respiration and ethylene p...

  3. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  4. Effects of hydration on laser soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Eric K.; Brown, Dennis T.; Kovach, Ian S.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1997-05-01

    Laser welding with albumin-based tissue solder has been investigated as an alternative to surgical suturing. Many surgical procedures require the soldered tissues to be in a hydrated environment. We have studied the effects of hydration on laser soldered rat dermis and baboon articular cartilage in vitro. The solder is composed of human serum albumin, sodium hyaluronate and indocyanine green. We used a micro-pipette to deposit 2 (mu) l of solder on each tissue specimen. An 808 nm cw laser beam with irradiance of 27 W/cm2 was scanned 4 times over the same solder area at a constant speed of 0.84 mm/sec. After photo-coagulation, each tissue specimen was cut into two halves at the center of the solder, perpendicular to the direction of the scanning laser beam. One half was reserved as control while the other half was soaked in phosphate buffered saline for a designated hydration period. The hydration periods were 1 hr, 1, 2, and 7 days. All tissue specimens were fixed in glutaraldahyde, then prepared for scanning electron microcopy analysis. For most of the specimens, there was non-uniform coagulation across the thickness of the solder. Closer to the laser beam, the upper solder region formed a more dense coagulum. While the region closer to solder-tissue interface, the solder aggregated into small globules. This non-uniform coagulation was likely caused by non-uniform energy distribution during photocoagulation. The protein globules and coagulum seem to be responsible for the solder attachment from the specimen surface. However, we have noted that the solder detached from the cartilage substrate as early as after 1 hr of hydration. On the other hand, the solder attached to the dermis much better than to cartilage. This may be explained by the difference in surface roughness of the two tissue types. The dermal layer of the skin is composed of collagen matrix which may provide a better entrapment of the solder than the smooth surface of articular cartilage.

  5. Hydration of small peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyttenbach, Thomas; Liu, Dengfeng; Bowers, Michael T.

    2005-02-01

    The results for the sequential hydration of small peptides (<15 residues) obtained in our group are reviewed and put in perspective with other work published in the literature where appropriate. Our findings are based on hydration equilibrium measurements in a high-pressure drift cell inserted into an electrospray mass spectrometer and on calculations employing molecular mechanics and density functional theory methods. It is found that the ionic functional groups typically present in peptides, the ammonium, guanidinium, and carboxylate groups, are the primary target of water molecules binding to peptides. Whereas the water-guanidinium binding energy is fairly constant at 9 +/- 1 kcal/mol, the water binding energy of an ammonium group ranges from 7 to 15 kcal/mol depending on how exposed the ammonium group is. A five-residue peptide containing an ammonium group is in favorable cases large enough to fully self-solvate the charge, but a pentapeptide containing a guanidinium group is too small to efficiently shield the charge of this much larger ionic group. The water-carboxylate interaction amounts to 13 kcal/mol with smaller values for a shielded carboxylate group. Both water bound to water in a second solvation shell and charge remote water molecules on the surface of the peptide are bound by 7-8 kcal/mol. The presence of several ionic groups in multiply charged peptides increases the number of favorable hydration sites, but does not enhance the water-peptide binding energy significantly. Water binding energies measured for the first four water molecules bound to protonated bradykinin do not show the declining trend typically observed for other peptides but are constant at 10 kcal/mol, a result consistent with a molecule containing a salt bridge with several good hydration sites. Questions regarding peptide structural changes as a function of number of solvating water molecules are discussed. Not much is known at present about the effect of individual water molecules on the conformation of peptides and on the stability of peptide zwitterions.

  6. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePLUS

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  7. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  8. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  9. Project Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

    1992-09-01

    Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

  10. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Hanouna, Guillaume; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Letavernier, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48-0.68%, P = NS). In normal subjects undergoing oral water load test, calcium fractional excretion increased significantly from 1.02% to 2.54% (P < 0.05). Patients affected by SIADH had a high calcium fractional excretion at baseline that remained stable during test from 3.30% to 3.33% (P = NS), possibly resulting from a reduced calcium absorption in renal proximal tubule. In both groups, there was a significant correlation between urine output and calcium renal excretion. In humans, dDAVP decreases calcium fractional excretion in the short term. Conversely, water intake, which lowers AVP concentration, increases calcium fractional excretion. The correlation between urine output and calcium excretion suggests that AVP-related antidiuresis increases calcium reabsorption in collecting ducts. PMID:26620256

  11. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hanouna, Guillaume; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Baud, Laurent; Letavernier, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48–0.68%, P = NS). In normal subjects undergoing oral water load test, calcium fractional excretion increased significantly from 1.02% to 2.54% (P < 0.05). Patients affected by SIADH had a high calcium fractional excretion at baseline that remained stable during test from 3.30% to 3.33% (P = NS), possibly resulting from a reduced calcium absorption in renal proximal tubule. In both groups, there was a significant correlation between urine output and calcium renal excretion. In humans, dDAVP decreases calcium fractional excretion in the short term. Conversely, water intake, which lowers AVP concentration, increases calcium fractional excretion. The correlation between urine output and calcium excretion suggests that AVP-related antidiuresis increases calcium reabsorption in collecting ducts. PMID:26620256

  12. Some thermodynamical aspects of protein hydration water.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-06-01

    We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature. PMID:26049527

  13. Some thermodynamical aspects of protein hydration water

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-06-07

    We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature.

  14. Mallik Gas Hydrates Test Well

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A test-well for collecting gas hydrates in Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

  15. Ductile flow of methane hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas hydrate properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane hydrate is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane hydrate in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the hydrate phase within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If hydrate is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane hydrate implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of hydrate-cemented formations than previously expected.

  16. Bubble migration during hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagapov, V. Sh.; Chiglintseva, A. S.; Rusinov, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    A model of the process of migration of methane bubbles in water under thermobaric conditions of hydrate formation is proposed. The peculiarities of the temperature field evolution, migration rate, and changes in the radius and volume fraction of gas hydrate bubbles are studied. It is shown that, with a constant mass flow of gas from the reservoir bottom, for all parameters of the surfacing gas hydrate disperse system, there is a quasistationary pattern in the form of a "step"-like wave. Depending on the relationship of the initial gas bubble density with the average gas density in the hydrate composition determined by the depth from which bubbles rise to the surface, the final radius of hydrate particles may be larger or smaller than the initial gas bubble radii. It is established that the speed at which gas hydrate inclusions rise to the surface decreases by several times due to an increase in their weight during hydrate formation. The influence of the depth of the water reservoir whose bottom is a gas flow source on the dynamics of hydrate formation is studied.

  17. Hydration and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Murray, Bob

    2007-10-01

    There is a rich scientific literature regarding hydration status and physical function that began in the late 1800s, although the relationship was likely apparent centuries before that. A decrease in body water from normal levels (often referred to as dehydration or hypohydration) provokes changes in cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, metabolic, and central nervous function that become increasingly greater as dehydration worsens. Similarly, performance impairment often reported with modest dehydration (e.g., -2% body mass) is also exacerbated by greater fluid loss. Dehydration during physical activity in the heat provokes greater performance decrements than similar activity in cooler conditions, a difference thought to be due, at least in part, to greater cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain associated with heat exposure. There is little doubt that performance during prolonged, continuous exercise in the heat is impaired by levels of dehydration >or= -2% body mass, and there is some evidence that lower levels of dehydration can also impair performance even during relatively short-duration, intermittent exercise. Although additional research is needed to more fully understand low-level dehydration's effects on physical performance, one can generalize that when performance is at stake, it is better to be well-hydrated than dehydrated. This generalization holds true in the occupational, military, and sports settings. PMID:17921463

  18. Experimental evidence for empty cage methane clathrate hydrates grown using surfactants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey; Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Taborek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Clathrate hydrates are non-stochiometric ice-like crystalline compounds consisting of host water molecules forming a cage-like structure around guest molecules. The guest molecule is necessary for the stability of the hydrate. Surfactants have been shown to greatly enhance the kinetics of hydrate growth, which is important for many applications. We have built custom cells that allow in situ Raman and optical imaging of the growth of methane clathrate hydrates from liquid water. In our studies, above 0C, we observe the formation of solid that precedes the absorption of methane gas required to form clathrate hydrates. Our research shows that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) causes a fundamental change in the growth mechanism of methane hydrates, creating a temporary empty cage clathrate structure. The existence of this transitional state is confirmed by in situ Raman measurements, in situ NMR. We have simultaneously monitored the gas uptake and the NMR signal of the growing hydrate in a high pressure NMR cell. The empty cage solid structure appears to be unique to surfactant assisted hydrate growth, and begins to disappear for low SDS concentrations (<25ppm). Supported by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Allosteric sodium in class A GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Fenalti, Gustavo; Abola, Enrique E.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite their functional and structural diversity, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common mechanism of signal transduction via conformational changes in the seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain. New major insights into this mechanism come from the recent crystallographic discoveries of a partially hydrated sodium ion that is specifically bound in the middle of the 7TM bundle of multiple class A GPCRs. This review discusses the remarkable structural conservation and distinct features of the Na+ pocket in this most populous GPCR class, as well as the conformational collapse of the pocket on receptor activation. New insights help to explain allosteric effects of sodium on GPCR agonist binding and activation, and sodiums role as a potential co-factor in class A GPCR function. PMID:24767681

  20. Ultrafast hydration dynamics of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongping

    2004-03-01

    Hydration dynamics of the water layer at the protein surface is important to protein structure and function. Recent studies of water-protein interactions have merged into a cohesive picture: Biological water molecules are not static but dynamic in nature. Previously limited time resolution did not fully resolve hydration processes. Here, we report our direct mapping of the hydration dynamics at a protein surface. The intrinsic tryptophan residue will be engineered to scan the protein surface by site-directed mutagenesis. Spatial and temporal hydration heterogeneity will for the first time be characterized in both native and molten globule states. Dynamical hydration patterns will be evaluated in terms of the local topography and chemical identity. These results will provide a molecular basis for the understanding of protein-water interactions, a topic central to protein science.

  1. STRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the production of calcium hydroxides with surface areas of 6-74 sq m/g, in an attempt to develop more reactive sorbents for SO2 capture during furnace injection. It was found that adding alcohol to the water of hydration yielded hydroxides with surface areas u...

  2. Hydration mechanisms of two polymorphs of synthetic ye'elimite

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, A.; Álvarez-Pinazo, G.; Peral, I.; Aranda, M.A.G.; De la Torre, A.G.

    2014-09-15

    Ye'elimite is the main phase in calcium sulfoaluminate cements and also a key phase in sulfobelite cements. However, its hydration mechanism is not well understood. Here we reported new data on the hydration behavior of ye'elimite using synchrotron and laboratory powder diffraction coupled to the Rietveld methodology. Both internal and external standard methodologies have been used to determine the overall amorphous contents. We have addressed the standard variables: water-to-ye'elimite ratio and additional sulfate sources of different solubilities. Moreover, we report a deep study of the role of the polymorphism of pure ye'elimites. The hydration behavior of orthorhombic stoichiometric and pseudo-cubic solid-solution ye'elimites is discussed. In the absence of additional sulfate sources, stoichiometric-ye'elimite reacts slower than solid-solution-ye'elimite, and AFm-type phases are the main hydrated crystalline phases, as expected. Moreover, solid-solution-ye'elimite produces higher amounts of ettringite than stoichiometric-ye'elimite. However, in the presence of additional sulfates, stoichiometric-ye'elimite reacts faster than solid-solution-ye'elimite.

  3. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... identified as D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium...

  8. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c), 201.71(c), and 201.72(c) may be combined, if applicable, provided the ingredients are listed in alphabetical order, e.g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1...

  9. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  10. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  13. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  15. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  16. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, T.S.; Wakeley, L.D.; Young, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine.

  17. Inhibition by somatostatin of bovine growth hormone secretion following sodium channel activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bicknell, R J; Schofield, J G

    1981-01-01

    1. Growth hormone secretion, exchangeable cellular sodium and calcium concentrations measured by 22Na and 45Ca incorporation, and efflux of 45Ca were studied in dispersed bovine anterior pituitary cells. 2. Addition of veratridine (100 microM), an activator of sodium channels, increased exchangeable sodium and calcium concentrations in the cells, the efflux of 45Ca from prelabelled cells, and caused a biphasic stimulation of the rate of growth hormone secretion. Secretion of growth hormone was not stimulated when the extracellular calcium was decreased below 0.1 mM. 3. The increases in growth hormone secretion, exchangeable calcium concentration and 45Ca efflux from prelabelled cells caused by veratridine were abolished by addition of the calcium antagonist verapamil (20 microM). Verapamil also reduced the rise in exchangeable sodium caused by veratridine and increased the resting exchangeable sodium concentrations. 4. The peptide somatostatin (1 micrograms/ml) prevented veratridine-stimulated growth hormone secretion but did not inhibit the increases in exchangeable sodium and calcium caused by veratridine. The peptide itself elicited a transient increase in 45Ca efflux and subsequently partially inhibited veratridine-stimulated 45Ca efflux. 5. The data suggest that anterior pituitary cells possess voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Activation of these channels by veratridine may lead to depolarization and increased entry of calcium via potential-dependent calcium channels, which contributes to a rise in cytoplasmic calcium concentration and the subsequent stimulation of growth hormone secretion. We conclude that the calcium antagonist verapamil may also interact with sodium channels, and that the peptide somatostatin may act on growth-hormone-secreting cells either to prevent the rise in cytoplasmic calcium by hyperpolarizing the cells or to decrease the affinity of a population of calcium binding sites in the cells. PMID:6119362

  18. Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhole, Rajaram

    Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime-fly ash pastes confirmed that fly ash mortar or concrete mixes forming more monosulfate than ettringite before exposure to sulfates would offer poor sulfate resistance and vice versa. During quantitative Rietveld analysis carried out for determining ettringite, monosulfate and gypsum formed in the fly ash pastes, it was observed that fly ash mixtures showing more ettringite after exposures to sulfates, give poor sulfate resistance. A good relationship between the amounts of ettringite formed and expansions of mortar specimens in the ASTM C 1012 test was found.

  19. Hydrates represent gas source, drilling hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Bagirov, E.; Lerche, I.

    1997-12-01

    Gas hydrates look like ordinary ice. However, if a piece of such ice is put into warm water its behavior will be different from the ordinary melting of normal ice. In contrast, gas hydrates cause bubbles in the warm water, which indicates the high content of gas in the hydrate crystals. The presence of four components is required: gas itself, water, high pressure, and low temperature. The paper discusses how hydrates form, hydrates stability, South Caspian hydrates, and hydrates hazards for people, ships, pipelines, and drilling platforms.

  20. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. Study of ethane hydrate formation kinetics using the chemical affinity model with and without presence of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Reza; Varaminian, Farshad; Izadpanah, Amir A.

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we examine ethane hydrate formation kinetics with and without the presence of various surfactants. Firstly, the influences of stirring rate and initial pressure without the presence of surfactants are studied. The effects of four surfactants containing Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitanmonopalmitate (Tween 40), and TritonX-100 (TX-100) on ethane hydrate formation kinetics were experimentally investigated. Then the chemical affinity model is applied to model the ethane hydrate formation kinetics with and without surfactants. The kinetic parameters of the chemical affinity model were computed for the ethane hydrate formation with and without surfactants. We will see that the results of the modeling are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Novel hydrated brittle mica: Synthesis, characterization and cation exchange selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidugu, Rajyalakshmi

    Na-4-mica, a novel hydrated brittle mica with theoretical chemical formula of Nasb4Sisb4Alsb4Mgsb6Osb2OFsb4. XHsb2O, with a layer charge of -4 per unit cell, and with an unusually high number (four) of interlayer sodium ions was synthesized from metakaolinite + MgO and magnesium aluminosilicate gel powder at different temperatures and durations in a sodium fluoride melt. Highly crystalline and phase pure Na-4-mica with uniform charge distribution and particle size ranging from 2-5 mum could be economically synthesized from metakaolinite route at 890spC with reaction times varying from 6-24 hours. Almost all the aluminum was present in the tetrahedral sheets leading to a very high layer charge. Unlike the naturally occurring micas, this mica can undergo hydration readily under ambient conditions. Due to the presence of unusually high number (4) of interlayer cations the adjacent layers undergo displacement such that each hexagonal ring acts as an individual cavity enclosing the sodium ion. This interlayer arrangement leads to hydration of the sodium ions upon exposure to air. Sodium ions once hydrated can be readily exchanged with the surrounding ions. The selective cation exchange behavior of this material was evaluated by carrying out a series of experiments. Selective strontium exchange kinetics showed the uptake was slow because of a restricted interlayer spacing as well as somewhat large particle size. Ion exchange isotherms for Cusp{2+},\\ Znsp{2+},\\ Cosp{2+},\\ and\\ Nisp{2+} were obtained and the standard free energy change for the ion exchange equilibria calculated. The selectivity sequence of the above transition metal ions on Na-4-mica was found to be as follows: Cusp{2+}>Znsp{2+}>Cosp{2+}>Nisp{2+}. These selectivity studies suggest that Na-4-mica can have several commercial applications. It can be used in the selective removal of radioactive strontium and divalent heavy metal ions from nuclear waste solutions, and industrial effluents and can also participate in the recovery of metals by their selective uptake from mixed cationic solutions. It can also be used as a barrier to prevent migration of hazardous ions into drinking water.

  3. A new hydrate form of diflunisal precipitated from a microemulsion system.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hsuan-Lei; Fan, Yueh-Lin; Yeh, Kimberly; Chen, Yen-Fu; Chen, Li-Jen

    2013-09-01

    Three microemulsion systems were applied as solvents for polymorph screening of seven active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): carbamazepine, piroxicam, sulfaguanidine, nitrofurantoin, theophylline, quercetin, and diflunisal. All the recrystallized compounds were examined by using powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, elemental analysis, Karl Fischer titration and dissolution rate. A new crystal form of diflunisal hydrate was discovered by the cooling method of recrystallization in a water-in-oil microemulsion system, composed of water, alkane and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. The new hydrate form of diflunisal was characterized and confirmed to be a stoichiometry of diflunisal:water of 1:1. The other two microemulsion systems were able to convert the anhydrous diflunisal Form I to Form III. The dissolution rate of diflunisal hydrate is unexpectedly much higher than that of anhydrous ones (Forms I and III). All the other six APIs (carbamazepine, piroxicam, sulfaguanidine, nitrofurantoin, theophylline and quercetin) recrystallized from the microemulsion systems were all converted into hydrate form. PMID:23624616

  4. Hydrothermal transformation of the calcium aluminum oxide hydrates CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.10H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}.8H{sub 2}O to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Torben R. . E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk; Christensen, Axel Norlund; Hanson, Jonathan C.

    2005-12-15

    The hydrothermal transformation of calcium aluminate hydrates were investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction in the temperature range 25 to 170 deg. C. This technique allowed the study of the detailed reaction mechanism and identification of intermediate phases. The material CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.10H{sub 2}O converted to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and amorphous aluminum hydroxide. Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 5}.8H{sub 2}O transformed via the intermediate phase Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}.13H{sub 2}O to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and gibbsite, Al(OH){sub 3}. The phase Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7}.19H{sub 2}O reacted via the same intermediate phase to Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and mainly amorphous aluminum hydroxide. The powder pattern of the intermediate phase is reported.

  5. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  6. Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Riciputi, Lee R; Cole, David R; Fayek, Mostafa; Elam, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

  7. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

  8. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  9. Effects of calcium chelators on calcium distribution and protein solubility in rennet casein dispersions.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Irene; O' Sullivan, Michael; O' Riordan, Dolores

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of calcium chelating salts on calcium-ion activity (ACa(++)), calcium distribution, and protein solubility in model CaCl2 solutions (50 mmol L(-1)) or rennet casein dispersions (15 g/100 g). Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate at concentrations of 10 and 30 mmol L(-1) and at ratios of 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1 were added to both systems. The CaCl2 system, despite its simplicity, was a good indicator of chelating salt-calcium interactions in rennet casein dispersions. Adding trisodium citrate either alone or as part of a mixed chelating salt system resulted in high levels of dispersed "chelated" calcium; conversely, disodium phosphate addition resulted in lower levels, while the ACa(++) decreased with increasing concentration of both chelating salts. Neither chelating salt produced high levels of soluble protein. Thus calcium chelating salts may play a more subtle role in modulating hydration during manufacture of casein-based matrices than simply solubilising calcium or protein. PMID:26616945

  10. T-type calcium channels contribute to calcium disturbances in brain during hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Odackal, John; Sherpa, Ang D; Patel, Nisha; Colbourn, Robert; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance of calcium homeostasis is implicated in the normal process of aging and brain pathology prevalent in the elderly such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that applying a hyponatremic iso-osmotic (low-NaCl) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to rodent hippocampus causes extracellular calcium to rapidly decrease. Restoring normonatremia after low-NaCl treatment causes a rapid increase in extracellular calcium that overshoots baseline. This study examined the amplitude, timing, and mechanism of these surprising calcium changes. We also tested whether hyponatremia increased calcium entry into brain cells or calcium binding to chondroitin sulfate (CS), a negatively charged constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that may be occupied by sodium during normonatremia. We report three major findings. First we show that CS does not contribute to extracellular calcium changes during low-NaCl treatments. Second, we show that the time to minimum extracellular calcium during low-NaCl treatment is significantly shorter than the time to maximum extracellular calcium in recovery from low-NaCl treatment. Third, we show that the decrease in extracellular calcium observed during hyponatremia is attenuated by ML 218, a highly selective T-type calcium channel blocker. Together these data suggest that calcium rapidly enters cells at the onset of low-NaCl treatment and is extruded from cells when normonatremia is restored. Calcium binding to CS does not significantly contribute to calcium changes in brain during hyponatremia. Differences in timing suggest that extracellular calcium changes during and in recovery from hyponatremia occur by distinct mechanisms or by a multistep process. Finally, partial block of extracellular calcium influx by ML 218 suggests that T-type channels are involved in calcium entering cells during hyponatremia. Given the high prevalence of hyponatremia among elderly patients and the growing understanding of calcium's role in multiple neurologic pathologies, this study promotes a novel approach for studying and potentially preventing the effects of hyponatremia on calcium dysregulation in brain tissue. PMID:26257025

  11. Hydrate formation and growth in pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jong-Won; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Gas hydrates consist of guest gas molecules encaged in water cages. Methane hydrate forms in marine and permafrost sediments. In this study, we use optical, mechanical and electrical measurements to monitor hydrate formation and growth in small pores to better understand the hydrate pore habit in hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate formation in capillary tubes exposes the complex and dynamic interactions between nucleation, gas diffusion and gas solubility. The observation of hydrate growth in a droplet between transparent plates shows that the hydrate shell does not grow homogeneously but advances in the form of lobes that invade the water phase; in fact, the hydrate shell must be discontinuous and possibly cracked to justify the relatively fast growth rates observed in these experiments. Volume expansion during hydrate formation causes water to flow out of menisci; expelled water either spreads on the surface of water-wet substrates and forms a thin hydrate sheet, or remains next to menisci when substrates are oil-wet. Hydrate formation is accompanied by ion exclusion, yet, there is an overall increase in electrical resistance during hydrate formation. Hydrate growth may become salt-limited in trapped water conditions; in this case, aqueous brine and gas CH4 may be separated by hydrate and the three-phase system remains stable within the pore space of sediments.

  12. Crystallization of a polymorphic hydrate system.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Qu, H; Louhi-Kultanen, M; Rantanen, J

    2010-02-01

    Nitrofurantoin can form two monohydrates, which have the same chemical composition and molar ratio of water, but differ in the crystal arrangements. The two monohydrates (hydrates I and II) could be produced independently via evaporative crystallization, where supersaturation and solvent composition were both found to have an effect. Hydrate I showed much slower crystallization than hydrate II. During cooling crystallization, the nucleation and growth of hydrate II was again dominant, consuming all supersaturation and leading to no hydrate I formation. Seeding of hydrate I during cooling crystallization was also applied, but the hydrate I seeds were not able to initiate its nucleation rather than dissolving into crystallizing solution. Although solubility tests revealed that hydrate II is more stable than hydrate I due to its lower solubility (110 +/- 4 and 131 +/- 12 microg/mL for hydrates II and I, respectively), this difference is rather small. Therefore, the small free energy difference between the two hydrates, together with the slow crystallization of hydrate I, both lead to a hindrance of hydrate I formation. Furthermore, the crystal structure of hydrate II demonstrated a higher H-bonding extent than hydrate I, suggesting its more favorable crystallization. This is in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:19569226

  13. Hydrate control in deepwater drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Gas-hydrate formation during deepwater offshore drilling and production is a well-recognized operational hazard. In water depths greater than 1,000 ft, seabed conditions of pressure and temperature become conducive to gas-hydrate formation. In a well-control situation, although the kick fluid leaves the formation at a high temperature, it can cool to seabed temperature with an extended shut-in period. With high enough hydrostatic pressure at the mudline, hydrates could form in the blowout-preventer (BOP) stack and choke and kill lines, as has been observed in field operations. The current practice in deepwater drilling is to suppress the hydrate-formation temperature by use of highly saline drilling fluids formulated from NaCl or other salts. This solution is applicable for the Gulf of Mexico but insufficient for the conditions encountered in Norwegian deep waters. At extreme water depths or extremely low mudline temperatures, this thermodynamic inhibition alone may not be sufficient to prevent hydrate formation. Instead, the use of kinetic inhibitors or crystal modifiers, in conjunction with thermodynamic inhibitors, may allow successful operations in such an environment. The definition of kinetic inhibitors (to distinguish them from the classic thermodynamic inhibitors, such as polar compounds and electrolytes) comes from the effect of the chemicals on the nucleation and growth of natural gas hydrates, both of which are time-dependent, stochastic processes. The paper describes deepwater drilling fluids, polar and surface-active additives, kinetic inhibition and crystal modifiers, laboratory measurements, and test results.

  14. Intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus has received considerable attention in recent years. The evidence has clearly indicated that calcium is absorbed by two processes: active transport and diffusion. Vitamin D appears to affect both processes, and has a significant effect at the brush border of the intestinal cell. Several proposed models to account for the transmural movement of calcium are discussed. The active transport of phosphate is under the control of vitamin D and is located at the brush border region of the intestinal cell. This transport system, like several others, appears to be sodium-dependent and inhibited by ouabain. In-transit phosphate does not mix with the cellular phosphate pool. Emphasized in the presentation is current knowledge of the transport mechanisms and macromolecular changes that potentially account for the stimulatory effect of vitamin D on calcium and phosphate transport.

  15. In-situ early-age hydration study of sulfobelite cements by synchrotron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez-Pinazo, G.; Cuesta, A.; García-Maté, M.; Santacruz, I.; Losilla, E.R.; Fauth, F.; Aranda, M.A.G.; De la Torre, A.G.

    2014-02-15

    Eco-friendly belite calcium sulfoaluminate (BCSA) cement hydration behavior is not yet well understood. Here, we report an in-situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study for the first hours of hydration of BCSA cements. Rietveld quantitative phase analysis has been used to establish the degree of reaction (α). The hydration of a mixture of ye'elimite and gypsum revealed that ettringite formation (α ∼ 70% at 50 h) is limited by ye'elimite dissolution. Two laboratory-prepared BCSA cements were also studied: non-active-BCSA and active-BCSA cements, with β- and α′{sub H}-belite as main phases, respectively. Ye'elimite, in the non-active-BCSA system, dissolves at higher pace (α ∼ 25% at 1 h) than in the active-BCSA one (α ∼ 10% at 1 h), with differences in the crystallization of ettringite (α ∼ 30% and α ∼ 5%, respectively). This behavior has strongly affected subsequent belite and ferrite reactivities, yielding stratlingite and other layered phases in non-active-BCSA. The dissolution and crystallization processes are reported and discussed in detail. -- Highlights: •Belite calcium sulfoaluminate cements early hydration mechanism has been determined. •Belite hydration strongly depends on availability of aluminum hydroxide. •Orthorhombic ye’elimite dissolved at a higher pace than cubic one. •Ye’elimite larger reaction degree yields stratlingite formation by belite reaction. •Rietveld method quantified gypsum, anhydrite and bassanite dissolution rates.

  16. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  17. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  18. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  19. Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation.

    PubMed

    Nys, Y; Mongin, P

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of the upper jejunum to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium permeability was constant throughout egg formation. Thus, the increase of net absorption during shell calcification was not due to enhanced mucosal capacity for calcium translocation, but rather to a better solubilization of calcium carbonate in the upper digestive tract. However, this capacity increased at the onset of egg production, as shown by the difference between immature and mature birds. PMID:7349414

  20. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  1. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  2. Hydration and Temperature in Tennis - A Practical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Competitive tennis is typically played in warm and hot environments. Because hypohydration will impair tennis performance and increases the risk of heat injury, consumption of appropriate fluid levels is necessary to prevent dehydration and enhance performance. The majority of research in this area has focused on continuous aerobic activity - unlike tennis, which has average points lasting less than ten seconds with rest periods dispersed between each work period. For this reason, hydration and temperature regulation methods need to be specific to the activity. Tennis players can sweat more than 2.5 L·h-1 and replace fluids at a slower rate during matches than in practice. Latter stages of matches and tournaments are when tennis players are more susceptible to temperature and hydration related problems. Sodium (Na+) depletion, not potassium (K+), is a key electrolyte in tennis related muscle cramps. However, psychological and competitive factors also contribute. CHO drinks have been shown to promote fluid absorption to a greater degree than water alone, but no performance benefits have been shown in tennis players in short matches. It is advisable to consume a CHO beverage if practice or matches are scheduled longer than 90-120 minutes. Key Points Although substantial research has been performed on temperature and hydration concerns in aerobic activities, there is little information with regard to tennis performance and safety Tennis athletes should be on an individualized hydration schedule, consuming greater than 200ml of fluid every changeover (approximately 15 minutes). Optimum hydration and temperature regulation will reduce the chance of tennis related muscle cramps and performance decrements. PMID:24198676

  3. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is an ingredient that is commonly found in antacids (for heartburn) and some dietary supplements. Calcium carbonate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

  4. Hydration kinetics of cement composites with varying water-cement ratio using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shaumik; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Devi, Nirmala; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2015-03-01

    Cement is mixed with water in an optimum ratio to form concrete with desirable mechanical strength and durability. The ability to track the consumption of major cement constituents, viz., Tri- and Dicalcium Silicates (C3S, C2S) reacting with water along with the formation of key hydration products, viz., Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) which gives the overall strength to the concrete and Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), a hydration product which reduces the strength and durability, using an efficient technique is highly desirable. Optimizing the amount of water to be mixed with cement is one of the main parameters which determine the strength of concrete. In this work, THz spectroscopy has been employed to track the variation in hydration kinetics for concrete samples with different water-cement ratios, viz., 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Results show that for the sample with water-cement ratio of 0.3, significant amount of the C3S and C2S remain unreacted even after the initial hydration period of 28 days while for the cement with water-cement ratio of 0.6, most of the constituents get consumed during this stage. Analysis of the formation of Ca(OH)2 has been done which shows that the concrete sample with water-cement ratio of 0.6 produces the highest amount of Ca(OH)2 due to higher consumption of C3S/C2S in presence of excess water which is not desirable. Samples with water-cement ratio of 0.4 and 0.5 show more controlled reaction during the hydration which can imply formation of an optimized level of desired hydration products resulting in a more mechanically strong and durable concrete.

  5. Pravastatin sodium.

    PubMed

    Al-Badr, Abdullah A; Mostafa, Gamal A E

    2014-01-01

    Pravastatin sodium is an [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitor and is a lipid-regulating drug. This monograph includes the description of the drug: nomenclature, formulae, elemental composition, solubility, appearance, and partition coefficient. The uses and the methods that have been reported for the synthesis of this drug are described. The physical methods that were used to characterize the drug are the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal methods, melting point, and differential scanning calorimetry. This chapter also contains the following spectra of the drug: the ultraviolet spectrum, the vibrational spectrum, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and the mass spectrum. The compendial methods of analysis include the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopoeia methods. Other methods of analysis that are included in this profile are spectrophotometric, electrochemical, polarographic, voltammetric and chromatographic, and immunoassay methods. The chapter also contains the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, stability, and articles that reviewed pravastatin sodium manufacturing, characterization, and analysis. One hundred and sixty-two references are listed at the end of this comprehensive profile. PMID:24794911

  6. Calcium entry via connexin hemichannels in lens epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amritlal; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to hyposmotic solution causes release of ATP from lens cells via hemichannels. Because hemichannel opening feasibly could swamp the cells with calcium, we carried out studies to measure the magnitude of the increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration caused by hemichannel opening. In studies on porcine lens epithelial cells in primary culture, propidium iodide (PI) uptake was measured as an index of hemichannel opening. PI uptake was increased significantly in cells exposed to hyposmotic solution. The PI increase under hyposmotic conditions was suppressed by GAP 27, a connexin inhibitor peptide. In studies on cells loaded with Fura-2, continuous exposure to hyposmotic solution caused a cytoplasmic calcium concentration increase that peaked within ~30 sec then remained elevated at or below the peak response for more than 60 min. The peak calcium concentration was 186 2.3 nM compared to a baseline value of 98.0 1.4 nM. The calcium concentration increased a lot further in cells exposed to A23187 (2.5 M) or the sodium-calcium exchange inhibitor SN-6 (10 M) added after the onset of the calcium rise in hyposmotic solution. The cytoplasmic calcium increase in hyposmotic solution was abolished by GAP 27. Calcium returned to baseline in cells exposed to hyposmotic solution then treated with GAP 27 starting 2 min after the onset of the calcium rise. The calcium increase in hyposmotic solution did not occur when calcium was eliminated from the bathing medium. The responses to hyposmotic and hyperosmotic stress were different. There was no detectable increase in calcium or PI entry in cells exposed to hyperosmotic solution (500 mOsm). In summary, GAP 27-sensitive accumulation of PI by cultured lens epithelium points to connexin hemichannel opening and associated calcium entry. Even though connexins form channels with a large carrying capacity, calcium entry does not increase the cytoplasmic calcium concentration beyond a tolerable physiological range. PMID:25597520

  7. Evolution of iron speciation during hydration of C{sub 4}AF

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; El Mrabet, S.; Masion, A.; Moulin, I.; Briois, V.; Olivi, L.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2006-07-01

    It is now well accepted and demonstrated that calcium silicate, calcium aluminate and calcium sulfo aluminate (ettringite, AFm) phases exhibit a good capability to fix metals and metalloids. Unfortunately the role of minor phases and especially calcium-ferric aluminate phase, shorthand C{sub 4}AF is not well defined. In other systems like in soils or sediments iron phases play a key role in the fixation of pollutant. In cement sorption isotherms, indicated that various metals can be retained by the C{sub 4}AF hydrated products. Therefore the capabilities of those phase to retain heavy metal should not be neglected. Previous investigations have shown that the minerals formed during the hydration of C{sub 4}AF are similar to those formed from C3A (pure tri-calcium aluminate) under comparable conditions. Nevertheless no investigation was conducted at the molecular level and there is still a controversy whether Fe substitutes for Al in the hydrated minerals in whole or in part, or if it forms FeOOH clusters scattered throughout the matrix. In this context we have conducted XAS experiments using synchrotron radiation. It was found that the hydration of C{sub 4}AF forms C{sub 3}AH{sub 6} (hydrogarnet) in which Fe randomly substitutes for Al as well as an amorphous FeOOH phase. Intermediate products like AFm (i.e., an ill organized lamellar phase) are also formed but rapidly evolve to C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}; iron does not seem to be incorporated in the AFm structure.

  8. The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan

    1988-01-01

    The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

  9. Calcium precursors for the production of CaO sorbents for multicycle CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqiang; Low, Nathanael W L; Feng, Bo; Wang, Guoxiong; Diniz da Costa, Joo C

    2010-01-15

    A screening of potential calcium precursors for the production of CaO sorbents for CO(2) capture at high temperature was conducted in this work. The precursors studied include microsized calcium carbonate (CC-CaO), calcium hydroxide (CH-CaO), nanosized (<70 nm) calcium carbonate (CC70 nm-CaO), nanosized (<160 nm) calcium oxide (CaO160 nm-CaO), calcium acetate hydrate (CA-CaO), calcium l-lactate hydrate (CL-CaO), calcium formate (CF-CaO), calcium citrate tetrahydrate (CCi-CaO), and calcium d-gluconate monohydrate (CG-CaO). The capture capability of these sorbents was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) for multiple capture cycles. CG-CaO exhibited the best capacity for capturing CO(2) with a 1-min conversion of 65.9% and a 30-min conversion of 83.8% at the ninth cycle. Subsequently, a further parametric study was conducted to examine the effect of reaction conditions such as reaction temperature (550-750 degrees C) and CO(2) gas concentration (1-15%) on the capture capacity of CG-CaO. The sorbent CG-CaO also showed a much lower decomposition temperature and higher predicted residual conversion after prolonged cycles, compared with CC-CaO. PMID:20030311

  10. Carbonation Behavior of Pure Cement Hydrates under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Conditions - 12199

    SciTech Connect

    Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi; Sawada, Kayo; Hertz, Audrey; Charton, Frederic

    2012-07-01

    Carbonation of cement-based waste forms using a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) is a developing technology for the waste immobilization of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes. However, the detail carbonation behaviors of cement matrices under the SCCO{sub 2} condition are unknown, since cement matrices forms very complex phases. In this study, in order to clarify the crystal phases, we synthesized pure cement hydrate phases as each single phases; portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}), ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 12}.26H{sub 2}O), and calcium silicate hydrate (n CaO---m SiO{sub 2} ---x H{sub 2}O), using suspensions containing a stoichiometric mixture of chemical regents, and performed carbonation experiments using an autoclave under supercritical condition for carbon dioxide. The XRD results revealed both the carbonate phases and co-product phases depending on the initial hydrate phases; gypsum for Ettringite, amorphous or crystalline silica for calcium silicate hydroxide. Thermogravimetric analysis was also performed to understand carbonation behaviors quantitatively. According to the experimental results, it was found that the major reaction was formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in all cases. However, the behaviors of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} content were quietly different: Portlandite was most reactive for carbonation under SCCO{sub 2} conditions, and the CO{sub 2} content per one molar CaO was ranged from 0.96 ? 0.98. In the case of Ettringite, the experiment indicates partial decomposition of ettringite phase during carbonation. Ettringite was comparatively stable even under the SCCO{sub 2} conditions. Therefore, a part of ettringite remained and formed similar phases after the ettringite carbonation. The CO{sub 2} content for ettringite showed almost constant values around 0.86 ? 0.87. In the case of calcium silicate hydrate, the carbonation behavior was significantly influenced by the condition of SCCO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} content for the calcium silicate hydrate had values that ranged from 0.51 ? 1.01. The co-products of the carbonation were gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}) for ettringite, silica gel (SiO{sub x}) and silica (SiO{sub 2}) for calcium silicate hydrate, which also contributed to the densification of the particles. The production of co-products enhanced the change to their morphology after the carbonation. (authors)

  11. Calcination of calcium carbonate and blend therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, W.A.; Dziuk, J.J. Jr.

    1989-05-09

    This patent describes a method for the accelerated calcination of a calcium carbonate material. It comprises: heating the calcium carbonate material to a temperature and for a time sufficient to calcine the material to the degree desired while in the presence of a fused salt catalyst consisting of particles having a size above or below that of the calcium carbonate material; the catalyst comprising at least one fused salt having the formula M{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. CaCO{sub 3}-CaO-H{sub 2}O{sub {ital x}}, wherein M is an alkali metal selected from sodium or potassium and x is 0 to 1 and the salt is formed by fusing M{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} in a molar ratio of about 1:2 to 2:1 when the alkali metal is sodium and about 1:1 to 2:1 when the alkali metal is potassium. This patent also describes a blend adapted to be heated to form CaO. It comprises: a calcium carbonate material and a catalyst consisting of particles having a size above or below that of the calcium carbonate material; the catalyst comprising at least one fused salt having the formula M{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3}CaO-H{sub 2}O{sub {ital x}}.

  12. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  13. A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.

    PubMed

    Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-22

    Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

  14. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  15. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  16. Dissociation heat transfer characteristics of methane hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, V.A.; Holder, G.D.

    1987-02-01

    Knowledge of the interfacial heat transfer phenomenon during the dissociation of gas hydrates is essential in modeling the hydrate dissociation process. Such knowledge has applications in natural gas processing, storage, or transportation; in the drilling and recovery of oil and gas in the presence of gas hydrates; in the desalination of sea water; and in the production of natural gas from hydrate reservoirs. The process of hydrate dissociation is a unique phenomenon in which gas and water are simultaneously produced at the dissociated hydrate surface and play an important role in the mechanism of heat transfer to hydrates. An earlier study of propane hydrate dissociation showed that hydrate dissociation is a heat-transfer-limited process and somewhat similar to the nucleate boiling of liquids. In the present study, heat transfer limitations for methane hydrate dissociation were studied for two reasons. First, a comparison of the results of this study with propane hydrate was desired. Second, the effect of hydrate structure and gas molecule type on the rate of heat transfer during hydrate dissociation was sought.

  17. Effects of hydration on mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Lax, D; Eicher, M; Goldberg, S J

    1993-08-01

    We investigated the effect of hydration on mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Ten subjects with documented diagnosis of MVP were studied before and after oral hydration with 1 L of fluid. Increased weight and cardiac output were present after hydration. Results showed that all 10 subjects with diagnosis of MVP before hydration continued to have MVP after hydration; however, subtle changes were detected, especially on auscultation. Seven of 9 subjects (with cardiac examination recorded before and after hydration) had auscultatory findings of MVP before hydration. No detectable auscultatory change after hydration was present in one subject; in six subjects a loss of either a click or a murmur was detected after hydration. All subjects had echocardiographically detected MVP before hydration; evidence of MVP on two-dimensional or M-mode examination persisted after hydration in all 10 subjects. Minor changes in the echocardiographic examination (M-mode n = 2, Doppler n = 1) were detected in three subjects. Thus we found that hydration of subjects with MVP did not alter the overall diagnosis; however, changes occurred, especially on auscultation. This suggests that alterations in hydration may affect auscultatory expression of MVP and could explain, in part, the variable auscultatory findings in patients with MVP. PMID:8338013

  18. Complex gas hydrate from the Cascadia margin.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Seo, Yu-taek; Lee, Jong-won; Moudrakovski, Igor; Ripmeester, John A; Chapman, N Ross; Coffin, Richard B; Gardner, Graeme; Pohlman, John

    2007-01-18

    Natural gas hydrates are a potential source of energy and may play a role in climate change and geological hazards. Most natural gas hydrate appears to be in the form of 'structure I', with methane as the trapped guest molecule, although 'structure II' hydrate has also been identified, with guest molecules such as isobutane and propane, as well as lighter hydrocarbons. A third hydrate structure, 'structure H', which is capable of trapping larger guest molecules, has been produced in the laboratory, but it has not been confirmed that it occurs in the natural environment. Here we characterize the structure, gas content and composition, and distribution of guest molecules in a complex natural hydrate sample recovered from Barkley canyon, on the northern Cascadia margin. We show that the sample contains structure H hydrate, and thus provides direct evidence for the natural occurrence of this hydrate structure. The structure H hydrate is intimately associated with structure II hydrate, and the two structures contain more than 13 different hydrocarbon guest molecules. We also demonstrate that the stability field of the complex gas hydrate lies between those of structure II and structure H hydrates, indicating that this form of hydrate is more stable than structure I and may thus potentially be found in a wider pressure-temperature regime than can methane hydrate deposits. PMID:17230188

  19. Glassy dynamics of water in hydrated cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, P.; Fratini, E.; Chen, S.-H.

    Understanding the state of the hydration water in cement and the ways to control it are likely to be the keys to the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In this study we investigate the diffusional dynamics of water molecules in hydrated tri-calcium silicate, a major component in ordinary Portland cement. The spectra of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen atoms were measured using a high-resolution chopper spectrometer having an energy resolution of 28 ?eV. The spectra were analyzed by using two different methods: (i) an explicit dynamical model, recently proposed by us, taking into account the existence of two types of water: ``immobile water'', presumably water bound inside the colloidal particle component of the cement paste, and ``glassy water'', water imbedded in the gel-like component filling the spaces between the colloidal particles, and (ii) a new method in which we analyze the susceptibility function in the frequency domain instead of dealing with the dynamic structure factor as in (i). We extract three important parameters: the Q-independent fraction of immobile water p;the Q-independentstretch exponent ? (or b) and the Q-dependentaverage relaxation time ? (or 1/?p) of the glassy water. Both methods account very well for the cement hydration process, but the second method is intuitively more appealing and simpler.

  20. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.