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1

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

2

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

3

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2010-04-01

4

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2011-04-01

5

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

6

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

...2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

7

21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729 Section...Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

8

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2014-04-01

10

21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182...Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

2012-04-01

11

Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and activated charcoal in reducing the toxicity of dietary aflatoxin to mink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mink were fed diets that contained 0, 34, or 102 ppb (µg\\/kg) aflatoxins with or without 0.5% hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) and\\/or 1.0% activated charcoal (AC) for 77 days. Consumption of the diet that contained 34 ppb aflatoxins was lethal to 20% of the mink, while 102 ppb dietary aflatoxins resulted in 100% mortality within 53 days. The addition

R. J. Bonna; R. J. Aulerich; S. J. Bursian; R. H. Poppenga; W. E. Braselton; G. L. Watson

1991-01-01

12

Effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on fescue toxicosis and mineral absorption.  

PubMed

The possibility of supplementing livestock diets with an aluminosilicate to protect them from fescue toxicosis was investigated. An in vitro study showed that hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) removed greater than 90% of the ergotamine from aqueous solutions at pH 7.8 or lower, indicating a high affinity of ergotamine for HSCAS in vitro. Rats fed diets containing tall fescue seed infested (E+) with the endophytic fungus Acremonium coenophialum had lower (P less than .05) feed intakes and weight gains than did rats fed diets containing uninfested (E-) tall fescue seed. When feed intake by rats fed the E- seed diet was limited to that of rats fed the E+ seed diet, weight gains did not differ, but testes weights and serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations were lower (P less than .05 and .10, respectively) in rats receiving E+ seed. Supplementing E+ seed diets with HSCAS did not eliminate effects of E+ seed on intake, PRL, or testes weights. Sheep fed E+ tall fescue hay had higher (P less than .05) rectal temperatures than did sheep fed an equal amount of E- tall fescue hay, but OM and N digestion coefficients did not differ between the two hays. Supplementing E+ hay diets with HSCAS did not eliminate the effect of E+ hay on rectal temperatures. Addition of 2% HSCAS to tall fescue hay diets did not affect apparent absorption by sheep of OM, N, Ca, P, Na, K, or Cu, but it reduced (P less than .05) the apparent absorption of Mg, Mn, and Zn.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1328128

Chestnut, A B; Anderson, P D; Cochran, M A; Fribourg, H A; Gwinn, K D

1992-09-01

13

Generalized structural description of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate hydrate gels: the cross-linked substituted tobermorite model.  

PubMed

Structural models for the primary strength and durability-giving reaction product in modern cements, a calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate gel, have previously been based solely on non-cross-linked tobermorite structures. However, recent experimental studies of laboratory-synthesized and alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders have indicated that the calcium-sodium aluminosilicate hydrate [C-(N)-A-S-H] gel formed in these systems can be significantly cross-linked. Here, we propose a model that describes the C-(N)-A-S-H gel as a mixture of cross-linked and non-cross-linked tobermorite-based structures (the cross-linked substituted tobermorite model, CSTM), which can more appropriately describe the spectroscopic and density information available for this material. Analysis of the phase assemblage and Al coordination environments of AAS binders shows that it is not possible to fully account for the chemistry of AAS by use of the assumption that all of the tetrahedral Al is present in a tobermorite-type C-(N)-A-S-H gel, due to the structural constraints of the gel. Application of the CSTM can for the first time reconcile this information, indicating the presence of an additional activation product that contains highly connected four-coordinated silicate and aluminate species. The CSTM therefore provides a more advanced description of the chemistry and structure of calcium-sodium aluminosilicate gel structures than that previously established in the literature. PMID:23534827

Myers, Rupert J; Bernal, Susan A; San Nicolas, Rackel; Provis, John L

2013-04-30

14

Comparison of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and yeast cell wall on counteracting aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to determine the efficacy of 2 types of adsorbents [hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS) vs. a combination of clay and yeast cell wall] in preventing aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 275 one-day-old birds were randomly divided into 11 treatments, with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The 11 treatments included 3 diets without any adsorbent containing either 0, 1, or 2 mg/kg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) plus 8 additional treatments employing 2 dietary levels of AFB1 (1 or 2 mg/kg), 2 different adsorbents [Solis (SO) and MTB-100 (MTB)], and 2 different levels of each absorbent (0.1 and 0.2%) in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Solis is a mixture of different HSCAS and MTB is a combination of clay and yeast cell wall. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the 21-d study period. Body weight gain and feed intake were depressed and relative liver weight was increased in chicks fed AFB1 compared with the positive control (P<0.05). Severe liver damage was observed in chicks fed 2 mg/kg of AFB1 with lesions consistent with aflatoxicosis, including fatty liver and vacuolar degeneration. Serum glucose, albumin, total protein, Ca, P, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were reduced by AFB1 (P<0.05). The addition of either SO or MTB ameliorated the negative effects of 1 mg/kg of AFB1 on growth performance and liver damage (P<0.05). However, supplemental MTB failed to diminish the negative effects of 2 mg/kg of AFB1, whereas SO was more effective compared with MTB at 2 mg/kg of AFB1 (P<0.05). These data indicate that the HSCAS product effectively ameliorated the negative effect of AFB1 on growth performance and liver damage, whereas the yeast cell wall product was less effective especially at the higher AFB1 concentration. PMID:20852106

Zhao, J; Shirley, R B; Dibner, J D; Uraizee, F; Officer, M; Kitchell, M; Vazquez-Anon, M; Knight, C D

2010-10-01

15

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.  

PubMed

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium. PMID:16531035

Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

2006-01-01

16

Efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks.  

PubMed

A 3-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (TMP), containing a known level of curcumin, and a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS; Improved Milbond-TX, IMTX, an adsorbent, Milwhite Inc., Houston, TX) to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) in broiler chicks. Four pen replicates of 5 chicks each were assigned to each of 7 dietary treatments, which included the basal diet not containing TMP, HSCAS, or AFB(1) (control); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% food grade TMP that contained 1.48% total curcuminoids (74 mg/kg); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% TMP and 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1); basal diet supplemented with 0.5% HSCAS and 1.0 mg/kgAFB(1); and basal diet supplemented with 0.5% TMP, 0.5% HSCAS, and 1.0 mg/kg AFB(1). The addition of TMP to the AFB(1) diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved the weight gain of chicks, and the addition of HSCAS to the AFB(1) diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved feed intake and weight gain, and reduced relative liver weight. The addition of TMP or HSCAS and TMP with HSCAS ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB(1) on some of the serum chemistry parameters (total protein, albumin, cholesterol, calcium). Further, decreased antioxidant functions in terms of level of peroxides, superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidant concentration in liver homogenate due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of TMP, HSCAS, or both. The reduction in the severity of hepatic microscopic lesions due to supplementation of the AFB(1) diet with TMP and HSCAS demonstrated the protective action of the antioxidant and adsorbent used in the present study. PMID:18493001

Gowda, N K S; Ledoux, D R; Rottinghaus, G E; Bermudez, A J; Chen, Y C

2008-06-01

17

Electronic structure calculations of calcium silicate hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Many phases in the calcium-silicate-hydrate system can develop in cement exposed over long periods of time to temperatures above 25 C. As a consequence, chemical reactions involving these phases can affect the relative humidity and water chemistry of a radioactive waste repository that contains significant amounts of cement. In order to predict and simulate these chemical reactions, the authors are developing an internally consistent database of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrate structures. The results of first principles electronic structure calculations on two such phases, wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) and xonotlite (Ca{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 17}(OH){sub 2}), are reported here. The calculated ground state properties are in very good agreement with experiment, providing equilibrium lattice parameters within about 1--1.4% of the experimentally reported values. The roles of the different types of oxygen atoms, which are fundamental to understanding the energetics of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrates are briefly discussed in terms of their electronic state densities. The good agreement with experiment for the lattice parameters and the consistency of the electronic density of states features for the two structures demonstrate the applicability of these electronic structure methods in calculating the fundamental properties of these phases.

Sterne, P.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Meike, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-11-01

18

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS  

E-print Network

Sodium-calcium interactions under salinity stress 205 CHAPTER 10 SODIUM-CALCIUM INTERACTIONS UNDER SALINITY STRESS G.R. CRAMER Department of Biochemistry, Mail Stop 200 University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 USA cramer@unr.edu Abstract There are a wide range of responses of plants to salinity which involve

Cramer, Grant R.

19

Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates  

SciTech Connect

The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

Le Saout, Gwenn, E-mail: gwenn.le-saout@mines-ales.fr [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hori, Akihiro [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany)] [DENKA Chemicals GmbH, Wehrhahn-Center, Cantadorstr. 3, D-40211 Duesseldorf (Germany); Higuchi, Takayuki [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan)] [Denki Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha (DENKA), Omi, Itoigawa, Niigata, 949-0393 (Japan); Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2013-01-15

20

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2014-04-01

21

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2013-04-01

22

21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. 180...37 Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin. ...additives saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium...

2012-04-01

23

The nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanostructure of C-S-H, the principle binding phase of hydrated cements in concrete, is examined through classical and spectroscopic methods such as solubility, 29Si MAS NMR, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). A more comprehensive understanding of the nanostructure is proposed. The central finding of this thesis is that variations in Ca/Si ratio, silicate structure, and Ca-OH content of C-S-H are systematically related to previously undiscovered variations in solubility in the CaO-SiO2-H 2O system at room temperature. These relationships show how C-S-H resembles disordered forms of the calcium silicate hydrate minerals 1.4-nm tobermorite [Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·8H 2O] and jennite [Ca9(Si6O18)(OH) 6·8H2O]. For example, in solids lacking Ca-OH groups, the structure resembles a purely tobermorite-like structure, which, when equilibrated in aqueous solutions saturated in Ca(OH)2, has a Ca/Si ratio of 1.5 and a minimum mean silicate chain length of 2; with increasing Ca-OH contents, the structure becomes increasingly jennite-like while showing higher Ca/Si ratios and higher mean chain lengths at saturation in Ca(OH)2. These relationships appear to reconcile the broad variations in the literature. 29Si NMR on concrete specimens aged 43--96 years show that the mean silicate chain length of C-S-H gel ultimately converges to a value of 5. With supporting evidence from chemical analysis and from high Ca-OH contents measured by INS, it is concluded that C-S-H gel formed in Ca3SiO5 pastes eventually equilibrates to a purely jennite-like structure. A Ca/Si ratio of 1.2 in C-S-H gel marks the composition at which Ca-OH groups are eliminated (or introduced) and below which spontaneous silicate polymerization occurs. Leaching studies on cement pastes show that when C-S-H is decalcified below Ca/Si ˜ 1.2, the induced silicate polymerization occurring in situ leads to macroscopic polymerization shrinkage. Cement pastes blended with high contents of mineral additions may be more susceptible to this mechanism. SANS measurements on leached Ca3SiO5 and cement pastes show dramatic variations in surface area with Ca/Si ratio. These variations are attributed to transformations between low- and high-density morphologies of C-S-H.

Chen, Jeffrey J.

24

Sodium phosphate-derived calcium phosphate cements  

SciTech Connect

Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) were synthesized by the acid-base reaction between sodium phosphate, NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] or -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n], as the acid solution, and calcium aluminate cements (CAC) as the base reactant at 25 C. The extent of reactivity of -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] with CAC was much higher than that of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 4], thereby resulting in a compressive strength of > 20 MPa. Sodium calcium orthophosphate (SCOP) salts as amorphous reaction products were responsible for the development of this strength. When this CPC specimen as exposed in an autoclave, in-situ amorphous [r arrow] crystal conversions, such as SCOP [r arrow] hydroxyapatite (HOAp), and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] [center dot] xH[sub 2]O [r arrow] [gamma]-AlOOH, occurred at [approx] 100 C, while the rate of reaction of the residual CAC with the phosphate reactant was increasingly accelerated by hydrothermal catalysis. Based upon this information, the authors prepared lightweight CPC specimens by hydrothermally treating a low-density cement slurry (1.28 g/cc) consisting of CAC powder, -(-NaPO[sub 3]-)-[sub n] solution, and mullite-hollow microspheres. The characteristics of the autoclaved lightweight specimens were a compressive strength of > 9.0 MPa, water permeability of [approx] 5.0 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] milli darcy, and a low rate of alkali carbonation. The reasons for such a low carbonation rate reflected the presence of a minimum amount of residual CAC, in conjunction with the presence of HOAp and [gamma]-AlOOH phases that are unsusceptible to wet carbonation.

Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1995-01-01

25

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2010-04-01

26

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2011-04-01

27

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2012-04-01

28

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

... 2014-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2014-04-01

29

21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. 573.280...Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate. Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate may be...

2013-04-01

30

75 FR 39025 - Determination That ACTONEL (Risendronate Sodium) Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tablets, 75 Milligrams, and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (Risendronate Sodium and Calcium Carbonate (Copackaged)) Tablets, 35 Milligrams...Tablets, 75 milligrams (mg), and ACTONEL WITH CALCIUM (risendronate sodium and calcium...

2010-07-07

31

The role of calcium ions and lignosulphonate plasticiser in the hydration of cement  

SciTech Connect

Experiments involving equilibrium dialysis, conductivity, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been carried out to investigate the role of calcium ions and polymeric plasticisers in cement/admixture hydration. Results from a study of lignosulphonic acid, sodium salt, acetate as a plasticiser shows that a plasticiser has dual role; one mainly as a kinetic inhibitor (poison) in cement hydration mechanism and the other as a dispersant. Evidence of a weak Ca{sup 2+} binding to lignosulphonate sulphonic moieties was found at low ionic strengths of 0.1 M using ITC. No evidence of formal Ca{sup 2+} binding to lignosulphonate sulphonic acid moieties was found using equilibrium dialysis at higher ionic strength of 1 M (ionic strengths of 0.4 M are typically found in Portland cement pore solution), as is often suggested in cement/admixture literature.

Grierson, L.H.; Knight, J.C.; Maharaj, R

2005-04-01

32

Uptake of chloride and carbonate ions by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning of old nuclear reactors may produce waste streams containing chlorides and carbonates, including radioactive {sup 36}Cl{sup -} and {sup 14}CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Their insolubilization by calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate was investigated. Carbonates were readily depleted from the solution, giving at thermodynamic equilibrium monocarboaluminate, monocarboaluminate + calcite, or calcite only, depending on the initial ratio between the anion and calcium monosulfoaluminate hydrate. Chloride ions reacted more slowly and were precipitated as Kuzel's salt, Kuzel's and Friedel's salts, or Friedel's salt only. Rietveld refinement of X-Ray powder diffraction patterns was successfully used to quantify the phase distributions, which were compared to thermodynamic calculations. Moreover, analysing the lattice parameters of Kuzel's salt as a function of its chloride content showed the occurrence of a restricted solid solution towards the sulfate side with general formula 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xCaCl{sub 2}{center_dot}(1 - x)CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}(12 - 2x){center_dot}H{sub 2}O (0.36 {<=} x {<=} 0.50).

Mesbah, Adel [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cau-dit-Coumes, Celine, E-mail: celine.cau-dit-coumes@cea.fr [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Renaudin, Guillaume [Clermont Universite, ENSCCF, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France); Frizon, Fabien [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA DEN/DTCD/SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Leroux, Fabrice [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6002, F-63177 Aubiere (France)

2012-08-15

33

Order and disorder in calcium-silicate-hydrate.  

PubMed

Despite advances in the characterization and modeling of cement hydrates, the atomic order in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H), the binding phase of cement, remains an open question. Indeed, in contrast to the former crystalline model, recent molecular models suggest that the nanoscale structure of C-S-H is amorphous. To elucidate this issue, we analyzed the structure of a realistic simulated model of C-S-H, and compared the latter to crystalline tobermorite, a natural analogue of C-S-H, and to an artificial ideal glass. The results clearly indicate that C-S-H appears as amorphous, when averaged on all atoms. However, an analysis of the order around each atomic species reveals that its structure shows an intermediate degree of order, retaining some characteristics of the crystal while acquiring an overall glass-like disorder. Thanks to a detailed quantification of order and disorder, we show that, while C-S-H retains some signatures of a tobermorite-like layered structure, hydrated species are completely amorphous. PMID:24908022

Bauchy, M; Qomi, M J Abdolhosseini; Ulm, F-J; Pellenq, R J-M

2014-06-01

34

Order and disorder in calcium-silicate-hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite advances in the characterization and modeling of cement hydrates, the atomic order in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H), the binding phase of cement, remains an open question. Indeed, in contrast to the former crystalline model, recent molecular models suggest that the nanoscale structure of C-S-H is amorphous. To elucidate this issue, we analyzed the structure of a realistic simulated model of C-S-H, and compared the latter to crystalline tobermorite, a natural analogue of C-S-H, and to an artificial ideal glass. The results clearly indicate that C-S-H appears as amorphous, when averaged on all atoms. However, an analysis of the order around each atomic species reveals that its structure shows an intermediate degree of order, retaining some characteristics of the crystal while acquiring an overall glass-like disorder. Thanks to a detailed quantification of order and disorder, we show that, while C-S-H retains some signatures of a tobermorite-like layered structure, hydrated species are completely amorphous.

Bauchy, M.; Qomi, M. J. Abdolhosseini; Ulm, F.-J.; Pellenq, R. J.-M.

2014-06-01

35

Order and disorder in calcium–silicate–hydrate  

SciTech Connect

Despite advances in the characterization and modeling of cement hydrates, the atomic order in Calcium–Silicate–Hydrate (C–S–H), the binding phase of cement, remains an open question. Indeed, in contrast to the former crystalline model, recent molecular models suggest that the nanoscale structure of C–S–H is amorphous. To elucidate this issue, we analyzed the structure of a realistic simulated model of C–S–H, and compared the latter to crystalline tobermorite, a natural analogue of C–S–H, and to an artificial ideal glass. The results clearly indicate that C–S–H appears as amorphous, when averaged on all atoms. However, an analysis of the order around each atomic species reveals that its structure shows an intermediate degree of order, retaining some characteristics of the crystal while acquiring an overall glass-like disorder. Thanks to a detailed quantification of order and disorder, we show that, while C–S–H retains some signatures of a tobermorite-like layered structure, hydrated species are completely amorphous.

Bauchy, M., E-mail: bauchy@mit.edu [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); MIT-CNRS Joint Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Qomi, M. J. Abdolhosseini; Ulm, F.-J. [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Pellenq, R. J.-M. [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); MIT-CNRS Joint Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Centre Interdisciplinaire des Nanosciences de Marseille, CNRS and Aix-Marseille University, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2014-06-07

36

Surface reactivity/stability and hydration of calcium silicate phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies on synthetic calcium silicate structures revealed important mechanisms to tune the reactivity of various cement phases. Interaction of water with dicalcium silicate (C2S-belite) and tricalcium silicate (C3S-alite), dominant phases in Portland Cement, are the most important and anticipated reactions. In this work, using first-principles calculations, a fundamental understanding of how water pressure affects the reactivity of C3S and C2S phases is provided. In order to understand the hydration of different phases, as a first step the surface energetics of all lower index orientations are calculated and the stability/reactivity of the surfaces are determined. Taking into account the most and least energetic surfaces of the C3S phase, detailed analyses are carried out in order to understand the induction period in hydration. Surface transformation from highly reactive C3S to low reactive C2S revealed that upon increasing the water pressure, the surface with C2S character becomes energetically more favorable. Reduction of the surface energy is more intense in the case of proton exchange of surface Ca atoms. Our calculations suggest that these processes are the most probable mechanisms underlying the rapid decrease in reactivity in alite hydration.

Durgun, Engin; Ataca, Can; Jennings, Hamlin M.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

2013-03-01

37

Sodium-calcium exchange and calcium-calcium exchange in internally dialyzed squid giant axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The influx and efflux of calcium (as45Ca) and influx of sodium (as24Na) were studied in internally dialyzed squid giant axons. The axons were poisoned with cyanide and ATP was omitted from the dialysis fluid. The internal ionized Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was controlled with Ca-EGTA buffers. With [Ca2+]i>0.5 µm,45Ca efflux was largely dependent upon external Na and Ca. The Na0-dependent

M. P. Blaustein; J. M. Russell

1975-01-01

38

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2010-04-01

39

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2014-04-01

40

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2011-04-01

41

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2013-04-01

42

21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification...polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a device...

2012-04-01

43

Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); León-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain) [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

2013-12-15

44

Sodium sulfate heptahydrate: a synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction study of an elusive metastable hydrated salt   

E-print Network

We describe an unusual application of synchrotron energy-dispersive diffraction with hard X-rays to obtain structural information on metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate. This hydrate was often mentioned in nineteenth ...

Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher

2008-01-01

45

A model for the microstructure of calcium silicate hydrate in cement paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed for the structure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) as it is formed during the hydration of Portland cement. One purpose of the model is to move toward an ability to evaluate the microstructure quantitatively, so that it can be related to properties on the one hand and processing on the other hand. It is a hypothesis

Hamlin M. Jennings

2000-01-01

46

Electrochemical characteristics of uranium ions in calcium chloride hydrate melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox reactions of tetravalent uranium ion in calcium chloride hexahydrate CaCl2·6H2O melt ([CaCl2] = 6.9 M) were studied electrochemically and spectrophotometrically. Cyclic voltammograms in CaCl2·6H2O melt containing UCl4 were measured with a pyro-graphite carbon working electrode. A cathodic peak corresponding to the reduction of U4+ to U3+ was observed, and it was found to be controlled by the diffusion of U4+ in the melt. Although the concentration of H+ in the melt was negligible, the redox reaction of U4+ was observed without the disturbance of hydrolysis. The formal potential of the U4+|U3+ couple was determined to be -0.483 ± 0.005 V vs. NHE. The diffusion coefficient of U4+ in CaCl2·6H2O melt was determined to be 1.5 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at 300 K. The anodic peak in the voltammogram was attributable to the oxidation of U4+ to UO22+, which was identified by using a technique based on the combination of electrolysis and spectrophotometry. Influences of the water content on chemical status of uranium ions in CaCl2 hydrate melts were studied.

Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Nagai, T.; Shirai, O.; Sato, N.; Yamana, H.

2010-03-01

47

Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases  

SciTech Connect

The compressibilities of two AFm phases (straetlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies.

Moon, Ju-hyuk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Oh, Jae Eun [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan Metropolitan City, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE Scotland (United Kingdom); Clark, Simon M. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA20015 (United States); Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2011-06-15

48

Synthesis and single crystal structure refinement of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica  

SciTech Connect

A sodium brittle mica with the ideal composition [Na{sub 4}]{sup inter}[Mg{sub 6}]{sup oct}[Si{sub 4}Al{sub 4}]{sup tet}O{sub 20}F{sub 4} was synthesized via melt synthesis in a gas tight crucible. This mica is unusual inasmuch as the known mica structure holds only room for two interlayer cations per unit cell and inasmuch as it readily hydrates despite the high layer charge while ordinary micas and brittle micas are non-swelling. The crystal structure of one-layer hydrate sodium brittle mica was determined and refined from single crystal X-ray data. Interlayer cations reside at the center of the distorted hexagonal cavities and are coordinated by the three inner basal oxygen atoms. The coordination of the interlayer cation is completed by three interlayer water molecules residing at the center of the interlayer region. The relative position of adjacent 2:1-layers thus is fixed by these octahedrally coordinated interlayer cations. Pseudo-symmetry leads to extensive twinning. In total five twin operations generate the same environment for the interlayer species and are energetically degenerate. - Graphical abstract: The sodium brittle mica has been successfully synthesized by melt synthesis and the crystal structure of the one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt synthesis yielded coarse grained sodium brittle mica which showed little disorder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium brittle mica hydrated completely to the state of one-layer hydrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of one-layer hydrate of sodium brittle mica could therefore be determined and refined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrangement of upper and lower tetrahedral sheet encompassing interlayer cation were clarified.

Kalo, Hussein; Milius, Wolfgang [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Braeu, Michael [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany)] [BASF Construction Chemicals GmbH, 83308 Trostberg (Germany); Breu, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Breu@uni-bayreuth.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie I, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2013-02-15

49

Hydration Status Regulates Sodium Flux and Inflammatory Pathways through Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) in the Skin.  

PubMed

Although it is known that the inflammatory response that results from disruption of epithelial barrier function after injury results in excessive scarring, the upstream signals remain unknown. It has also been observed that epithelial disruption results in reduced hydration status and that the use of occlusive dressings that prevent water loss from wounds decreases scar formation. We hypothesized that hydration status changes sodium homeostasis and induces sodium flux in keratinocytes, which result in activation of pathways responsible for keratinocyte-fibroblast signaling and ultimately lead to activation of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations in epithelial barrier function lead to increased sodium flux in keratinocytes. We identified that sodium flux in keratinocytes is mediated by epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and causes increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate fibroblast via the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway. Similar changes in signal transduction and sodium flux occur by increased sodium concentration, which simulates reduced hydration, in the media in epithelial cultures or human ex vivo skin cultures. Blockade of ENaC, prostaglandin synthesis, or PGE2 receptors all reduce markers of fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. In addition, employing a validated in vivo excessive scar model in the rabbit ear, we demonstrate that utilization of either an ENaC blocker or a COX-2 inhibitor results in a marked reduction in scarring. Other experiments demonstrate that the activation of COX-2 in response to increased sodium flux is mediated through the PIK3/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that ENaC responds to small changes in sodium concentration with inflammatory mediators and suggest that the ENaC pathway is a potential target for a strategy to prevent fibrosis. PMID:25371970

Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zeitchek, Michael; Cooper, Garry; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Qureshi, Hannan A; Zhong, Aimei; Porterfield, Marshall D; Galiano, Robert D; Surmeier, D James; Mustoe, Thomas A

2015-03-01

50

Potassium bicarbonate, but not sodium bicarbonate, reduces urinary calcium excretion and improves calcium balance in healthy men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium bicarbonate, but not sodium bicarbonate, reduces urinary calcium excretion and improves calcium balance in healthy men. Previous studies demonstrated that the administration of NaHCO3 or sodium citrate had either only a small effect to reduce urinary Ca excretion or no effect, but that potassium citrate significantly reduced urinary Ca excretion. In order to further evaluate and compare the effects

Jacob Lemann; Richard W Gray; Joan A Pleuss

1989-01-01

51

Quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering on hydrated calcium silicate pastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the inverse geometry spectrometer QENS at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source of the Argonne National Laboratory, we collected quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of hydrated tricalcium and dicalcium silicate, the main components of ordinary Portland cement. Data were obtained at different curing time, from a few hours to several months. Both the quasielastic and inelastic spectra have been analyzed at the same time according to the relaxing cage model, which is a model developed to describe the dynamics of water at supercooled temperatures. Short-time and long-time dynamics of hydration water in hydrated cement pastes as a function of the curing time have been simultaneously obtained. The results confirm the findings reported in previous experiments showing that it is possible to fit consistently the quasielastic and inelastic spectra giving insights on the effect of the curing time on the short-time vibrational dynamics of hydration water.

Faraone, Antonio; Fratini, Emiliano; Baglioni, Piero; Chen, Sow-Hsin

2004-08-01

52

Hydration of calcium oxide surface predicted by reactive force field molecular dynamics.  

PubMed

In this work, we present the parametrization of Ca-O/H interactions within the reactive force field ReaxFF, and its application to study the hydration of calcium oxide surface. The force field has been fitted using density functional theory calculations on gas phase calcium-water clusters, calcium oxide bulk and surface properties, calcium hydroxide, bcc and fcc Ca, and proton transfer reactions in the presence of calcium. Then, the reactive force field has been used to study the hydration of the calcium oxide {001} surface with different water contents. Calcium oxide is used as a catalyzer in many applications such as CO(2) sequestration and biodiesel production, and the degree of surface hydroxylation is a key factor in its catalytic performance. The results show that the water dissociates very fast on CaO {001} bare surfaces without any defect or vacancy. The surface structure is maintained up to a certain amount of water, after which the surface undergoes a structural rearrangement, becoming a disordered calcium hydroxyl layer. This transformation is the most probable reason for the CaO catalytic activity decrease. PMID:22316164

Manzano, Hegoi; Pellenq, Roland J M; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Buehler, Markus J; van Duin, Adri C T

2012-03-01

53

Aqueous solutions of calcium ions: hydration numbers and the effect of temperature.  

PubMed

Hydration numbers of calcium ions are determined from extensive measurements of colligative properties of water solutions of calcium salts. The hydration numbers reported refer to the average number of water molecules that are bound sufficiently strongly to calcium ions so as to be removed from the solvent and become part of the solute. Contrary to common descriptions of deviations from ideal behavior for concentrated solutions, ideal behavior is demonstrated when mole fractions are calculated by taking account of such bound water. Measurements over wide concentration and temperature ranges are used to obtain the effect of temperature on the average hydration number of Ca(2+). Freezing point depression measurements yield a hydration number of 12.0 +/- 0.8. Boiling point elevations yield 6.7 +/- 0.6. Consistent with this, vapor pressure measurements from 0 to 200 degrees C show a gradual decrease in hydration number with increasing temperature, with a value of 5.0 at 200 degrees C. PMID:16853671

Zavitsas, Andreas A

2005-11-01

54

Accelerated growth of calcium silicate hydrates: Experiments and simulations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the usefulness of isothermal calorimetry in cement analytics, without any further computations this brings only little information on the nucleation and growth of hydrates. A model originally developed by Garrault et al. is used in this study in order to simulate hydration curves of cement obtained by calorimetry with different known hardening accelerators. The limited basis set of parameters used in this model, having a physical or chemical significance, is valuable for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying in the acceleration of C-S-H precipitation. Alite hydration in presence of four different types of hardening accelerators was investigated. It is evidenced that each accelerator type plays a specific role on one or several growth parameters and that the model may support the development of new accelerators. Those simulations supported by experimental observations enable us to follow the formation of the C-S-H layer around grains and to extract interesting information on its apparent permeability.

Nicoleau, Luc, E-mail: luc.nicoleau@basf.com

2011-12-15

55

Morphological forms of tobermorite in hydrothermally treated calcium silicate hydrate gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of the calcium silicate hydrate phase, tobermorite, generally thought to be the bonding phase in ordinary portland cement, was studied. Tobermorite was hydrothermally synthesized at pH 12.6 at 150 C. The powder was characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. Modeling of the morphology was performed using the SHAPE and ATOMS programs. Two morphologies were produced: fibers and platelets.

Nelson S. Bell; Sridhar Venigalla; Petra M. Gill; James H. Adair

1996-01-01

56

Progress in understanding the structure and thermodynamics of calcium silicate hydrates  

SciTech Connect

A program has been designed to support the prediction of cement degradation and the chemistry of water in contact with cement, over extended periods of time (e.g., 10,000 y). This multidisciplinary experimental and computer modeling investigation is intended to characterize the structural and thermodynamic properties of crystalline phases found in cement at elevated temperature. Many of these crystalline phases my be hydrated. The hydration state of these phases must be known to the interpret experimentally obtained thermodynamic data, to evaluate the stability of hydrated phases and to estimate long-term water availability, such as would be required for prediction of the radioactive-waste repository`s lifetime. The parts of the program associated with assessing and predicting dehydration/ rehydration behavior are described in this paper. (1) identification of phases present in standardized grout mixtures exposed to elevated temperatures; (2) mechanistic and thermodynamic analysis of the hydration/ dehydration behavior of hydrated calcium silicates as a function of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity; and (3) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated calcium silicates.

Meike, A.; Bruton, C.J.; Viani, B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Onofrei, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

1994-02-01

57

Effect of Na and Al on the phase composition and morphology of autoclaved calcium silicate hydrates ? ? This paper was originally submitted to Advanced Cement Based Materials. The paper was received at the Editorial Office of Cement and Concrete Research on 5 November 1998 and accepted in final form on 16 July 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrated materials were synthesized at 160–240°C in hydrothermal conditions. The series of samples with differing CaO\\/SiO2 ratios and doped with NaOH and Al(OH)3 (used as Na- and Al-bearing compounds) were produced, yielding materials consisting of the ill-crystallized calcium silicate hydrates and\\/or more crystalline calcium silicate phases. Generally, in the presence of sodium ions the acceleration of reactions leads to

Wieslawa NocuÒ-Wczelik

1999-01-01

58

Solid-state characterization and transformation of various creatine phosphate sodium hydrates.  

PubMed

Creatine phosphate sodium (CPS) salt is a first-line cardiovascular drug for severe diastolic heart failure. The drug exists in different hydrate forms. The marketed drug form was determined as CPS·4.5H2 O (H1); however, the reference standard was supplied as CPS·6H2 O (H2). In this work, we present two newly identified hydrate forms: a thermodynamically stable low hydrate form, CPS·1.5H2 O (H3), and a pressure-sensitive transit form, CPS·7H2 O (H4). The hydrate forms were discovered through a comprehensive solid-state screening experiment and fully characterized using a range of analytical techniques including X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, hot-stage microscopy (HSM), thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability tests revealed that H3 was the most stable hydrate under thermal stimulation. H4 is a pressure-sensitive hydrate and easily transforms to H2 and then H1 upon grinding. The form transformation process was closely monitored using the HSM, variable-temperature XRPD (VT-XRPD), and VT-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Specifically, the transformation of H4 to H1 is characterized in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process. The newly discovered hydrate form H3 has superior physicochemical properties than the marketed forms and is worthy of further development. PMID:25223726

Xu, Yun; Jiang, Linglei; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian-Rong; Mei, Xuefeng

2014-11-01

59

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

SciTech Connect

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

1998-06-01

60

Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney. Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the

Roger A L Sutton; Norman L M Wong; John H Dirks

1979-01-01

61

Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the

I. S. T. Tsong; C. A. Houser; N. A. Yusef; R. F. Messier; W. B. White; J. W. MICHELS

1978-01-01

62

Morphological forms of tobermorite in hydrothermally treated calcium silicate hydrate gels  

SciTech Connect

The morphology of the calcium silicate hydrate phase, tobermorite, generally thought to be the bonding phase in ordinary portland cement, was studied. Tobermorite was hydrothermally synthesized at pH 12.6 at 150 C. The powder was characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. Modeling of the morphology was performed using the SHAPE and ATOMS programs. Two morphologies were produced: fibers and platelets. Computer calculations of equilibrium particle shape suggest that growth occurs on the (110)-type planes for both morphologies.

Bell, N.S.; Venigalla, S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Gill, P.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.; Adair, J.H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Materials Research Lab.

1996-08-01

63

A model for two types of calcium silicate hydrate in the microstructure of Portland cement pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new physical basis for a previously published model for the structure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) as measured by nitrogen sorption is described. This refined model provides a method of predicting the density, the nitrogen accessible gel porosity, and associated surface area of C-S-H in Portland cement pastes. The basis for the model is that C-S-H forms as one

Paul D Tennis; Hamlin M Jennings

2000-01-01

64

Investigation of nanocomposites based on hydrated calcium phosphates and cellulose Acetobacter xylinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites based on two biocompatible compounds, namely, inorganic hydrated calcium phosphates and organic microfibrillar\\u000a ribbons of cellulose Acetobacter xylinum, are prepared by aggregation in an aqueous suspension. The influence of the structural organization of the hydroxyapatite\\u000a and temperature-time conditions on the formation of the composite materials of different compositions is investigated. It\\u000a is revealed that the composite materials are textured

A. K. Khripunov; Yu. G. Baklagina; V. A. Sinyaev; E. S. Shustikova; B. A. Paramanov; D. P. Romanov; R. Yu. Smyslov; A. A. Tkachenko

2008-01-01

65

Type IIc Sodium–Dependent Phosphate Transporter Regulates Calcium Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Primary renal inorganic phosphate (Pi) wasting leads to hypophosphatemia, which is associated with skeletal mineralization defects. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding the type IIc sodium–dependent phosphate transporter lead to hereditary hypophophatemic rickets with hypercalciuria, but whether Pi wasting directly causes the bone disorder is unknown. Here, we generated Npt2c-null mice to define the contribution of Npt2c to Pi homeostasis and to bone abnormalities. Homozygous mutants (Npt2c?/?) exhibited hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels, but they did not develop hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, renal calcification, rickets, or osteomalacia. The increased levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Npt2c?/? mice compared with age-matched Npt2c+/+ mice may be the result of reduced catabolism, because we observed significantly reduced expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D–24-hydroxylase mRNA but no change in 1?-hydroxylase mRNA levels. Enhanced intestinal absorption of calcium (Ca) contributed to the hypercalcemia and increased urinary Ca excretion. Furthermore, plasma levels of the phosphaturic protein fibroblast growth factor 23 were significantly decreased in Npt2c?/? mice. Sodium-dependent Pi co-transport at the renal brush border membrane, however, was not different among Npt2c+/+, Npt2c+/?, and Npt2c?/? mice. In summary, these data suggest that Npt2c maintains normal Ca metabolism, in part by modulating the vitamin D/fibroblast growth factor 23 axis. PMID:19056871

Segawa, Hiroko; Onitsuka, Akemi; Kuwahata, Masashi; Hanabusa, Etsuyo; Furutani, Junya; Kaneko, Ichiro; Tomoe, Yuka; Aranami, Fumito; Matsumoto, Natsuki; Ito, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Li, Minqi; Amizuka, Norio; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

2009-01-01

66

Santaclaraite, a new calcium-manganese silicate hydrate from California.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Santaclaraite, ideally CaMn4(Si5O14(OH))(OH).H2O, occurs as pink and tan veins and masses in Franciscan chert in the Diablo Range, Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties, California. It is associated with four unidentified Mn silicates, Mn-howieite, quartz, braunite, calcite, rhodochrosite, kutnahorite, baryte, harmotome, chalcopyrite and native copper. Santaclaraite is triclinic, space group B1, a 15.633(1), b 7.603(1) , c 12.003(1) A, alpha 109.71(1)o, beta 88.61(1)o, gamma 99.95(1) o, V 1322.0(3) A3; Z = 4. The strongest lines of the X-ray pattern are 7.04(100), 3.003(84), 3.152(80), 7.69(63), 3.847(57) A. Crystals are lamellar to prismatic (flattened on (100)), with good cleavage on (100) and (010); H. 61/2 Dcalc. 3.398 g/cm3, Dmeas. 3.31 (+ or -0.01); optically biaxial negative, alpha 1.681, beta 1.696, gamma 1.708 (all + or - 0.002), 2Valpha 83 (+ or -1)o. Although chemically a hydrated rhodonite, santaclaraite dehydrates to Mn-bustamite at approx 550oC (in air) . Santaclaraite is a five-tetrahedral-repeat single-chain silicate and has structural affinities with rhodonite, nambulite, marsturite, babingtonite and inesite.-J.A.Z.

Erd, R.C.; Ohashi, Y.

1984-01-01

67

Decrease in the transmembrane sodium activity gradient in ferret papillary muscle as a prerequisite to the calcium paradox.  

PubMed Central

Sodium-dependent calcium exchange may be an important mediator of calcium reperfusion damage during the calcium paradox phenomenon. We measured intracellular sodium activity with ion-selective electrodes during a 15-min period of calcium reperfusion in isolated ferret papillary muscles. During the calcium-free period, alpha Nai increased from 9.0 +/- 0.9 to 18.9 +/- 4.3 mM. With reinstitution of calcium there was a significant contracture. The amount of contracture after calcium reinstitution was related to sodium loading during the calcium-free period. We were unable to block sodium entry during the calcium-free period with either nitrendipine, tetrodotoxin, or low concentrations of amiloride. 10(-3) M amiloride or lithium for sodium substitution in the calcium-free period, however, obliterated the increase in alpha Nai activity and the subsequent paradox. These data suggest that sodium loading is a necessary prerequisite for the calcium paradox and that one mechanism of sodium entry is through Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Under these conditions, no increase in the rest force is seen without previous sodium gains, suggesting that sodium-dependent calcium exchange is an important trigger for the calcium reflow, the calcium paradox. PMID:2454951

Guarnieri, T

1988-01-01

68

Integrin-mediated Membrane Blebbing Is Dependent on Sodium-Proton Exchanger 1 and Sodium-Calcium Exchanger 1 Activity*  

PubMed Central

Integrin signaling and membrane blebbing modulate cell adhesion, spreading, and migration. However, the relationship between integrin signaling and membrane blebbing is unclear. Here, we show that an integrin-ligand interaction induces both membrane blebbing and changes in membrane permeability. Sodium-proton exchanger 1 (NHE1) and sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) are membrane proteins located on the bleb membrane. Inhibition of NHE1 disrupts membrane blebbing and decreases changes in membrane permeability. However, inhibition of NCX1 enhances cell blebbing; cells become swollen because of NHE1 induced intracellular sodium accumulation. Our study found that NHE1 induced sodium influx is a driving force for membrane bleb growth, while sodium efflux (and calcium influx) induced by NCX1 in a reverse mode results in membrane bleb retraction. Together, these findings reveal a novel function for NHE1 and NCX1 in membrane blebbing and permeability, and establish a link between membrane blebbing and integrin signaling. PMID:22270364

Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Yu-Sun; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lew, Tien-Shen; Tang, Chih-Yung; Tseng, Wei-Lien; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Lo, Szecheng J.

2012-01-01

69

Composition and density of nanoscale calcium?silicate?hydrate in cement  

SciTech Connect

Although Portland cement concrete is the world's most widely used manufactured material, basic questions persist regarding its internal structure and water content, and their effect on concrete behaviour. Here, for the first time without recourse to drying methods, we measure the composition and solid density of the principal binding reaction product of cement hydration, calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel, one of the most complex of all gels. We also quantify a nanoscale calcium hydroxide phase that coexists with C-S-H gel. By combining small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, and by exploiting the hydrogen/deuterium neutron isotope effect both in water and methanol, we determine the mean formula and mass density of the nanoscale C-S-H gel particles in hydrating cement. We show that the formula, (CaO){sub 1.7}(SiO{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.80}, and density, 2.604 Mg m{sup -3}, differ from previous values for C-S-H gel, associated with specific drying conditions. Whereas previous studies have classified water within C-S-H gel by how tightly it is bound, in this study we classify water by its location - with implications for defining the chemically active (C-S-H) surface area within cement, and for predicting concrete properties.

Allen, Andrew J.; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Jennings, Hamlin M. (NIST); (NWU)

2009-08-26

70

Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission.  

PubMed

The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the phenomena underlying the obsidian hydration dating technique. PMID:17793728

Tsong, I S; Houser, C A; Yusef, N A; Messier, R F; White, W B; Michels, J W

1978-07-28

71

Contrasting interactions of sodium and potassium with H 2 O in haplogranitic liquids and glasses at 200 MPa from hydration–diffusion experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines hydration–diffusion in the metaluminous haplogranite system at 200 MPa H2O and 800–300°C. At 800°C hydration is accompanied by melting and uphill diffusion of sodium from anhydrous glass toward the region of hydration and melting, whereas potassium diffuses away from the hydration front and into anhydrous glass. Silicon and aluminum are simply diluted upon hydration. There is no change

Antonio Acosta-Vigil; David London; George B. Morgan VI

2005-01-01

72

Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of Fluvastatin sodium salt hydrates.  

PubMed

The present study reports the solid-state properties of Fluvastatin sodium salt crystallized from different solvents for comparison with crystalline forms of the commercially available raw material and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) reference standard. Fluvastatin (FLV) samples were characterized by several techniques; such as X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, liquid and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of samples was performed in order to study the influence of crystalline form and other factors on rate and extent of dissolution. Three different forms were found. The commercial raw material and Fluvastatin-Acetonitrile (ACN) were identified as "form I" hydrate, the USP reference standard as "form II" hydrate and an ethanol solvate which presented a mixture of phases. Form I, with water content of 4%, was identified as monohydrate. PMID:23033850

Borgmann, Silvia H M; Bernardi, Larissa S; Rauber, Gabriela S; Oliveira, Paulo R; Campos, Carlos E M; Monti, Gustavo; Cuffini, Silvia L; Cardoso, Simone G

2013-01-01

73

The coexistence of geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate at the early stage of alkaline activation  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the effects of the addition of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of metakaolin (MK) based geopolymers. It was found that it is possible to have geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel forming simultaneously within a single binder. The coexistence of these two phases is dependent on the alkalinity of the alkali activator and the MK / GGBFS mass ratio. It has been found that the formation of CSH gel together with the geopolymeric gel occurs only in a system at low alkalinity. In the presence of high concentrations of NaOH (> 7.5 M), the geopolymeric gel is the predominant phase formed with small calcium precipitates scattered within the binder. The coexistence of the two phases is not observed unless a substantial amount of a reactive calcium source is present initially. It is thought that voids and pores within the geopolymeric binder become filled with the CSH gel. This helps to bridge the gaps between the different hydrated phases and unreacted particles; thereby resulting in the observed increase in mechanical strength for these binders.

Yip, C.K. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Lukey, G.C. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Deventer, J.S.J. van [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)]. E-mail: jannie@unimelb.edu.au

2005-09-01

74

A thermodynamic model of dissolution and precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic incongruent dissolution/precipitation model of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is proposed, assuming a binary nonideal solid solution of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}. Using this model, both dissolution and precipitation of the C-S-H phase, with a continuous change in the Ca / Si ratio of the solid phase, can be predicted. The notable features of the model are its good continuity and simplicity so that calculation can be easily compiled in a calculation code. A series of experiments were carried out. C-S-H precipitates were prepared using two techniques: precipitation by contacting Ca(OH){sub 2} solution with C-S-H gel and hydrolysis in a mixture of Ca and Si solutions. The equilibria in these experiments were predicted well by the proposed model. A calculation using the model also predicted well the dissolution of ordinary Portland cement hydrate with water exchange.

Sugiyama, Daisuke [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)]. E-mail: daisukes@criepi.denken.or.jp; Fujita, Tomonari [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

2006-02-15

75

On the nature of structural disorder in calcium silicate hydrates with a calcium/silicon ratio similar to tobermorite  

SciTech Connect

Four calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) with structural calcium/silicon (Ca/Si) ratios ranging from 0.82 ± 0.02 to 0.87 ± 0.02 were synthesized at room temperature, 50, 80, and 110 °C. Their structure was elucidated by collating information from electron probe micro-analysis, transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A modeling approach specific to defective minerals was used because sample turbostratism prevented analysis using usual XRD refinement techniques (e.g. Rietveld analysis). It is shown that C-S-H with Ca/Si ratio of ? 0.8 are structurally similar to nano-crystalline turbostratic tobermorite, a naturally occurring mineral. Their structure thus consists of sheets of calcium atoms in 7-fold coordination, covered by ribbons of silicon tetrahedra with a dreierketten (wollastonite-like) organization. In these silicate ribbons, 0.42 Si per bridging tetrahedron are missing. Random stacking faults occur systematically between successive layers (turbostratic stacking). Layer-to-layer distance is equal to 11.34 Å. Crystallites have a mean size of 10 nm in the a–b plane, and a mean number of 2.6–2.9 layers stacked coherently along the c* axis.

Grangeon, Sylvain, E-mail: S.Grangeon@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [BRGM, 3, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Claret, Francis; Lerouge, Catherine [BRGM, 3, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [BRGM, 3, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Warmont, Fabienne [CRMD, UMR 6619 – CNRS, 1b rue de la férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [CRMD, UMR 6619 – CNRS, 1b rue de la férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Sato, Tsutomu; Anraku, Sohtaro [Laboratory of Environmental Geology, Research Group of Geoenvironmental/Engineering Division of Solid Waste, Resources and Geoenvironmental/Engineering Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Environmental Geology, Research Group of Geoenvironmental/Engineering Division of Solid Waste, Resources and Geoenvironmental/Engineering Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Numako, Chiya [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-1, Minami-Josanjima, Tokushima, 770-8502 (Japan)] [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-1, Minami-Josanjima, Tokushima, 770-8502 (Japan); Linard, Yannick [ANDRA, Centre de Meuse/Haute Marne, 55290 Bure (France)] [ANDRA, Centre de Meuse/Haute Marne, 55290 Bure (France); Lanson, Bruno [ISTerre, Grenoble University, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)] [ISTerre, Grenoble University, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

2013-10-15

76

Development of a novel calcium phosphate cement composed mainly of calcium sodium phosphate with high osteoconductivity.  

PubMed

Two novel calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have been developed using calcium sodium phosphate (CSP) as the main ingredient. The first of these cements, labeled CAC, contained CSP, ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and anhydrous citric acid, whereas the second, labeled CABC, contained CSP, ?-TCP, ?-TCP, and anhydrous citric acid. Biopex(®)-R (PENTAX, Tokyo, Japan), which is a commercially available CPC (Com-CPC), and OSferion(®) (Olympus Terumo Biomaterials Corp., Tokyo, Japan), which is a commercially available porous ?-TCP, were used as reference controls for analysis. In vitro analysis showed that CABC set in 5.7 ± 0.3 min at 22 °C and had a compressive strength of 86.0 ± 9.7 MPa after 5 days. Furthermore, this material had a compressive strength of 26.7 ± 3.7 MPa after 2 h in physiologic saline. CAC showed a statistically significantly lower compressive strength in the presence of physiologic saline and statistically significantly longer setting times than those of CABC. CABC and CAC exhibited apatite-forming abilities in simulated body fluid that were faster than that of Com-CPC. Samples of the materials were implanted into the femoral condyles of rabbits for in vivo analysis, and subsequent histological examinations revealed that CABC exhibited superior osteoconductivity and equivalent bioresorbability compared with Com-CPC, as well as superior osteoconductivity and bioresorbability compared with CAC. CABC could therefore be used as an alternative bone substitute material. PMID:24671331

Tanaka, Masashi; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Tsukanaka, Masako; Takami, Kimiaki; Motojima, Satoshi; Inoue, Hikaru; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

2014-06-01

77

Anticaries effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate and sodium trimetaphosphate  

PubMed Central

Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. Material and Methods Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25%) and TMP (0.25%) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. Results The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). Conclusions Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one. PMID:22437685

DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; BERGAMASCHI, Maurício; RODRIGUES, Eliana; SASSAKI, Kikue Takebayashi; VIEIRA, Ana Elisa de Mello; MISSEL, Emilene Macario Coimbra

2012-01-01

78

Structure of the calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate phase (Ca2P2O7·H2O): towards understanding the dehydration process in calcium pyrophosphate hydrates.  

PubMed

Calcium pyrophosphate hydrate (CPP, Ca(2)P(2)O(7) · nH2O) and calcium orthophosphate compounds (including apatite, octacalcium phosphate etc.) are among the most prevalent pathological calcifications in joints. Even though only two dihydrated forms of CPP (CPPD) have been detected in vivo (monoclinic and triclinic CPPD), investigations of other hydrated forms such as tetrahydrated or amorphous CPP are relevant to a further understanding of the physicochemistry of those phases of biological interest. The synthesis of single crystals of calcium pyrophosphate monohydrate (CPPM; Ca(2)P(2)O(7) · H2O) by diffusion in silica gel at ambient temperature and the structural analysis of this phase are reported in this paper. Complementarily, data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction on a CPPM powder sample have been fitted to the crystal parameters. Finally, the relationship between the resolved structure for the CPPM phase and the structure of the tetrahydrated calcium pyrophosphate ? phase (CPPT-?) is discussed. PMID:25186358

Gras, Pierre; Ratel-Ramond, Nicolas; Teychéné, Sébastien; Rey, Christian; Elkaim, Erik; Biscans, Béatrice; Sarda, Stéphanie; Combes, Christèle

2014-09-15

79

Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in silk fibroin/sodium alginate hydrogel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As known, silk fibroin-like protein plays a pivotal role during the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals in the nacre sheets. Here, we have prepared silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels to serve as templates for calcium carbonate mineralization. In this experiment, we report an interesting finding of calcium carbonate crystal growth in the silk fibroin/sodium alginate nanofiber hydrogels by the vapor diffusion method. The experimental results indicate calcium carbonate crystals obtained from nanofiber hydrogels with different proportions of silk fibroin/sodium alginate are mixture of calcite and vaterite with unusual morphologies. Time-dependent growth study was carried out to investigate the crystallization process. It is believed that nanofiber hydrogels play an important role in the process of crystallization. This study would help in understanding the function of organic polymers in natural mineralization, and provide a novel pathway in the design and synthesis of new materials related unique morphology and structure.

Ming, Jinfa; Zuo, Baoqi

2014-01-01

80

In situ characterization of elusive salt hydrates. The crystal structures of the heptahydrate and octahydrate of sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

An important intermediate phase in the crystallization of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate is the highly metastable sodium sulfate heptahydrate (Na(2)SO(4).7H(2)O). This has been structurally characterized for the first time by in situ single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure shows that each sodium cation is octahedrally coordinated to water molecules, with a slight distortion due to one of the water molecules being disordered. The hydrated sodium cations are hydrogen-bonded to form a three-dimensional bonded network, which is markedly different from the architecture of one-dimensional bonded chains observed in sodium sulfate decahydrate (mirabilite). This major structural difference explains the reconstructive nature of the transformation observed between the heptahydrate and mirabilite. High-pressure crystallization of a 3.41 mol/kg water aqueous solution of sodium sulfate at 1.54 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell resulted in the formation of a previously unknown sodium sulfate hydrate, which we have determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods to be an octahydrate, Na(2)SO(4).8H(2)O. In this structure the sulfate ions are coordinated directly to sodium ions. This resembles anhydrous sodium sulfate (thenardite) but contrasts with the heptahydrate and decahydrate in which the sodium ions are coordinated exclusively by water molecules. This observation demonstrates how the delicate balance of inter- and intramolecular bonds in the crystal structure can be significantly altered by the application of pressure. PMID:19053442

Oswald, Iain D H; Hamilton, Andrea; Hall, Christopher; Marshall, William G; Prior, Timothy J; Pulham, Colin R

2008-12-31

81

Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate “cement” phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite\\u000a metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization\\u000a several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate\\u000a (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — “cement” phases - i.e., thaumasite,

Francesco Stoppa; Fernando Scordari; Ernesto Mesto; Victor V. Sharygin; Giorgio Bortolozzi

2010-01-01

82

Novel technique for phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs).  

PubMed

A novel technique for phosphorus (P) recovery from aqueous solutions was developed using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs). A-CSHs, which have a high Ca/Si molar ratio of 2.0 or greater, could be synthesized using unlimitedly available, inexpensive materials such as siliceous shale and calcium hydroxide. A-CSHs showed high performance for P recovery from an anaerobic sludge digestion liquor (ASDL) and the synthetic model liquor (s-ASDL) containing 89 mg PO4-P/L. After 20 min mixing, 1.5 g/L A-CSHs could remove approximately 69 and 73% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively. By contrast, autoclaved lightweight concrete particles, which contained crystalline calcium silicate hydrates as a principal component, removed only 10 and 6% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. When A-CSHs were washed with deionized water to remove free Ca(OH)2, P removability was significantly improved (up to 82%) despite the reduction in the amount of Ca(2+) released. Unlike in the case of Ca(OH)2, no significant carbonate inhibition was observed with P removal by A-CSHs. Moreover, P removed by A-CSHs showed better settleability, filterability, and dewaterability than P precipitated with conventional CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2. The present study demonstrated that A-CSHs have great potential as a novel, beneficial material for P recovery and recycling. PMID:23497975

Okano, Kenji; Uemoto, Masahide; Kagami, Jumpei; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Masaya; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao

2013-05-01

83

Selective removal of radio-sodium from neutron-activated materials by retention on hydrated antimony pentoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is presented to remove sodium interferences from neutron-activated materials. The method is based on passage\\u000a of the samples, dissolved in a concentrated acid solution on a column of hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP). The retention\\u000a is quantitative with a maximum capacity of 31 mg Na\\/g HAP. Only tantalum, in addition to sodium, was retained by HAP out of

F. Girardi; E. Sabbioni

1968-01-01

84

Effect of sodium and calcium ingestion on thermoregulation during exercise in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of hypertonic sodium and calcium ingestion on body temperature during exercise in cool and hot environments are investigated. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, sweat rates and arm and leg total blood flows were measured in men during periods of rest, submaximal exercise and recovery at temperatures of 26.5 C and 39.4 C after ingestion of NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. In both environments, higher rectal temperatures are observed after hypertonic sodium ingestion, which is also associated with attenuated blood flow in the extremities, lower sweat rates and slightly higher skin temperature in the heat, indicating significant thermoregulatory responses. Hypertonic calcium and isotonic sodium cause no temperature change, although calcium caused a reduction of blood flow in the extremities.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Van Beaumont, W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Convertino, V. A.; Mangseth, G. R.

1978-01-01

85

{sup 17}O MAS NMR investigation of the structure of calcium silicate hydrate gel  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the structure of hydrothermally synthesized calcium silicate hydrate gel using {sup 17}O MAS NMR at 11.7 T and MAS frequencies up to 12 kHz. The results support the previously proposed defect-tobermorite structural model for C-S-H. At least six O-sites have been identified, two NBO, BO, Ca-OH, Si-OH, and H{sub 2}O. The compositional variation of the relative intensities of the signal for different sites measured by {sup 17}O NMR is consistent with that calculated from {sup 29}Si NMR results for the same samples. The chemical shifts of the NBO and BO sites become more deshielded (more positive) with increasing C/S ratio.

Cong, X.; Kirkpatrick, R.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-06-01

86

Inverse 31P ? 1H NMR cross-polarization in hydrated nanocrystalline calcium hydroxyapatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrated nanocrystalline calcium hydroxyapatite was studied using unconventional solid-state NMR technique with cross-polarization from phosphorus-31 to protons (31P ? 1H CP) under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Two peaks were detected: at 0.0 ppm from structural hydroxyl groups and at 5.4 ppm from water. Their intensities were monitored as a function of the contact time. It was found that there were two types of water adsorbed on the crystal surface: typical strongly bound water and distinct, more mobile water associated with a particular 31P environment capable of fast spin-lattice relaxation in the rotating frame. Relative contents of protons in various material compartments were estimated.

Kolmas, Joanna; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

2012-12-01

87

Calcium reduces the sodium permeability of luminal membrane vesicles from toad bladder. Studies using a fast-reaction apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal membrane is the major mechanism by which the net rate of sodium transport across tight epithelia is varied. Previous evidence has suggested that the permeability of the luminal membrane might be regulated by changes in intracellular sodium or calcium activities. To test this directly, we isolated a fraction of the plasma membrane from the toad urinary bladder, which contains a fast, amiloride-sensitive sodium flux with characteristics similar to those of the native luminal membrane. Using a flow-quench apparatus to measure the initial rate of sodium efflux from these vesicles in the millisecond time range, we have demonstrated that the isotope exchange permeability of these vesicles is very sensitive to calcium. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration is 0.5 microM, well within the range of calcium activity found in cells. Also, the permeability of the luminal membrane vesicles is little affected by the ambient sodium concentration. These results, when taken together with studies on whole tissue, suggest that cell calcium may be an important regulator of transepithelial sodium transport by its effect on luminal sodium permeability. The effect of cell sodium on permeability may be mediated by calcium rather than by sodium itself.

Chase, H.S. Jr.; Al-Awqati, Q.

1983-05-01

88

Dietary Sodium Effects on Bone Loss and Calcium Metabolism During Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acceleration of age-related bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after long-duration missions. Studies in healthy ambulatory individuals have linked high salt (sodium) diets, hypercalciuria, and increased renal stone risk. Dietary salt may modulate bone loss through changes in calcium metabolism and the calcium endocrine system. The research proposed here will determine the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone during simulated space flight. Calcium metabolism will be determined through calcium kinetics studies, endocrine and biochemical measurements; and estimates of the mass, distribution and mechanical properties of bone, in subjects fed low (100 mmol sodium/day) or high (250 mmol sodium/day) levels of dietary salt during 28 days of headdown tilt bedrest. This research addresses the role of dietary salt in the loss of bone and calcium in space flight, and integrates the changes in calcium metabolism with those occurring in other physiologic systems. These data will be critical for both countermeasure development, and in determination of nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight. The potential countermeasures resulting from this research will reduce health risks due to acceleration of age-related osteoporosis and increased risk of renal stone formation..

Smith, Scott M.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Abrams, Steven A.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

89

Hydration kinetics of CA{sub 2} and CA-Investigations performed on a synthetic calcium aluminate cement  

SciTech Connect

Much is already known about the hydration of monocalcium aluminate (CA) in calcium aluminate cements (CACs). CA{sub 2} is known to be weakly hydraulic. Therefore, the hydration kinetics of CA{sub 2} were not of as great interest as those of the hydration of CAC. We were able to show that the hydration of CA{sub 2} begins as soon as the hydration rate of CA has reached its maximum and the first precipitation of C{sub 2}AH{sub 8} has started. The hydration of different CA/CA{sub 2} ratios was analyzed by the G-factor quantification. The individual contributions of the phases CA and CA{sub 2} to the heat flow were calculated based on the amounts dissolved by applying thermodynamic data. The heat flow as calculated from XRD data was then compared with the measured heat flow. It obtained a good consistency between the two. The very pronounced influence of CA{sub 2} during hydration of CAC can be clearly demonstrated.

Klaus, S.R., E-mail: klaus@geol.uni-erlangen.de; Neubauer, J., E-mail: juergen.neubauer@gzn.uni-erlangen.de; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F., E-mail: friedlinde.goetz@gzn.uni-erlangen.de

2013-01-15

90

Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

2012-12-01

91

Unique extraction behavior of americium and curium in a system of TBP and calcium nitrate hydrate melt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extraction of Am(III) and Cm(III) between tri-n-butyl phosphate solution and molten calcium nitrate hydrate Ca(NO3)2·RH2O was investigated radiochemically. In the range of water content R = 3.5-8.0, the distribution ratio was found to increase with the decrease of water activity. The dependence of the distribution ratios on the water activity in the hydrate melt changes at around log aH2O = -0.4, which corresponds to R = 5.0. The extraction behavior of Am(III) and Cm(III) was systematically discussed with the reported data of trivalent lanthanides.

Okude, G.; Fujii, T.; Uehara, A.; Sekimoto, S.; Minato, K.; Yamana, H.

2010-03-01

92

Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, and Potassium Release during Decomposition of Some Organic Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of organic residues might be appropriate in maintaining long-term nutrient requirements of crops. We investigated under laboratory conditions the dynamics of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) release during decomposition of eight plant residues and two manures over 12 weeks of incubation at 25 C. During the processes of decomposition, these nutrients were extracted by

Faranak Ranjbar; Mohsen Jalali

2012-01-01

93

Parabrachial lesions in rats disrupt sodium appetite induced by furosemide but not by calcium deprivation.  

PubMed

An appetite for CaCl2 and NaCl occurs in young rats after they are fed a diet lacking Ca or Na, respectively. Bilateral lesions of the parabrachial nuclei (PBN) disrupt normal taste aversion learning and essentially eliminate the expression of sodium appetite. Here we tested whether similar lesions of the PBN would disrupt the calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2 or NaCl. Controls and rats with PBN lesions failed to exhibit a calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for CaCl2. Nevertheless, both groups did exhibit a significant calcium-deprivation-induced appetite for 0.5M NaCl. Thus, while damage to the second central gustatory relay in the PBN disrupts the appetite for 0.5M NaCl induced by furosemide, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and polyethylene glycol, the sodium appetite induced by dietary CaCl2 depletion remains intact. PMID:25540931

Grigson, P S; Colechio, E M; Power, M L; Schulkin, J; Norgren, R

2015-03-01

94

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

95

Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate in cementitious systems : chemomechanical correlations, extreme temperature behavior, and kinetics and morphology of in-situ formation  

E-print Network

Concrete, the second most used material on the planet, is a multi-scale heterogeneous material. A fundamental component known as Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate which forms from the reaction between cement and water is the binding ...

Jagannathan, Deepak

2013-01-01

96

27Al and 29Si solid-state NMR characterization of calcium-aluminosilicate-hydrate.  

PubMed

Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main constituent of hydrated cement paste and determines its cohesive properties. Because of the environmental impact of cement industry, it is more and more common to replace a part of the clinker in cement by secondary cementitious materials (SCMs). These SCMs are generally alumina-rich and as a consequence some aluminum is incorporated into the C-S-H. This may have consequences on the cohesion and durability of the material, and it is thus of importance to know the amount and the location of Al in C-S-H and what the parameters are that control these features. The present paper reports the (29)Si and (27)Al MAS NMR analyses of well-characterized C-A-S-H samples (C-S-H containing Al). These samples were synthesized using an original procedure that successfully leads to pure C-A-S-H of controlled compositions in equilibrium with well-characterized solutions. The (27)Al MAS NMR spectra were quantitatively interpreted assuming a tobermorite-like structure for C-A-S-H to determine the aluminum location in this structure. For this purpose, an in-house written software was used which allows decomposing several spectra simultaneously using the same constrained spectral parameters for each resonance but with variable intensities. The hypothesis on the aluminum location in the C-A-S-H structure determines the proportion of each silicon site. Therefore, from the (27)Al NMR quantitative results and the chemical composition of each sample, the intensity of each resonance line in the (29)Si spectra was set. The agreement between the experimental and calculated (29)Si MAS NMR spectra corroborates the assumed C-A-S-H structure and the proposed Al incorporation mechanism. The consistency between the results obtained for all compositions provides another means to assess the assumptions on the C-A-S-H structure. It is found that Al substitutes Si mainly in bridging positions and moderately in pairing positions in some conditions. Al in pairing site is observed only for Ca/(Si+Al) ratios greater than 0.95 (equivalent to 4 mmol.L(-1) of calcium hydroxide). Finally, the results suggest that penta and hexa-coordinated aluminum are adsorbed on the sides of the C-A-S-H particles. PMID:22277014

Pardal, Xiaolin; Brunet, Francine; Charpentier, Thibault; Pochard, Isabelle; Nonat, André

2012-02-01

97

Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system  

PubMed Central

Crystal structures are presented for two dihydrate polymorphs (DH-I and DH-II) of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium (S)-naproxen. The structure of DH-I is determined from twinned single crystals obtained by solution crystallization. DH-II is obtained by solid-state routes, and its structure is derived using powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C and 23Na MAS NMR, and molecular modelling. The validity of both structures is supported by dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations. The structures of DH-I and DH-II, and in particular their relationships to the monohydrate (MH) and anhydrate (AH) structures, provide a basis to rationalize the observed transformation pathways in the sodium (S)-naproxen anhydrate–hydrate system. All structures contain Na+/carboxylate/H2O sections, alternating with sections containing the naproxen molecules. The structure of DH-I is essentially identical to MH in the naproxen region, containing face-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings, whereas the structure of DH-II is comparable to AH in the naproxen region, containing edge-to-face arrangements of the naphthalene rings. This structural similarity permits topotactic transformation between AH and DH-II, and between MH and DH-I, but requires re-organization of the naproxen molecules for transformation between any other pair of structures. The topotactic pathways dominate at room temperature or below, while the non-topotactic pathways become active at higher temperatures. Thermochemical data for the dehydration processes are rationalized in the light of this new structural information. PMID:25295174

Bond, Andrew D.; Cornett, Claus; Larsen, Flemming H.; Qu, Haiyan; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

2014-01-01

98

Influence of calcium sulfate state and fineness of cement on hydration of Portland cements using electrical measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of calcium sulfate state and fineness of cement on hydration of Portland cement was studied using electrical\\u000a resistivity measurement. The bulk resistivity curve of the paste from the abnormal cement mainly with hemihydrate had a characteristic\\u000a abnormal peak and rapid increase in early period. The resistivity measurement technique can be used to discriminate abnormal\\u000a setting. For normal cement

Wei Xiaosheng; Li Zongjin; Xiao Lianzhen; Thong Wangfai

2006-01-01

99

Calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very high temperature, Ca-rich alkaline magma intruded an argillite formation at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy, producing cordierite-tridymite metamorphism in the country rocks. An intense Ba-rich sulphate-carbonate-alkaline hydrothermal plume produced a zone of mineralization several meters thick around the igneous body. Reaction of hydrothermal fluids with country rocks formed calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), i.e., tobermorite-afwillite-jennite; calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (CASH) — "cement" phases - i.e., thaumasite, strätlingite and an ettringite-like phase and several different species of zeolites: chabazite-Ca, willhendersonite, gismon-dine, three phases bearing Ca with the same or perhaps lower symmetry of phillipsite-Ca, levyne-Ca and the Ca-rich analogue of merlinoite. In addition, apophyllite-(KF) and/or apophyllite-(KOH), Ca-Ba-carbonates, portlandite and sulphates were present. A new polymorph from the pyrrhotite group, containing three layers of sphalerite-type structure in the unit cell, is reported for the first time. Such a complex association is unique. Most of these minerals are specifically related to hydration processes of: (1) pyrometamorphic metacarbonate/metapelitic rocks (natural analogues of cement clinkers); (2) mineralization between intrusive stocks and slates; and (3) high-calcium, alkaline igneous rocks such as melilitites and foidites as well as carbonatites. The Colle Fabbri outcrop offers an opportunity to study in situ complex crystalline overgrowth and specific crystal chemistry in mineral phases formed in igneous to hydrothermal conditions.

Stoppa, F.; Scordari, F.; Mesto, E.; Sharygin, V. V.; Bortolozzi, G.

2010-06-01

100

The Effect of Sodium Alginate on the Absorption of Strontium and Calcium in Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

The effect of sodium alginate on the gastrointestinal absorption of the tracers strontium-85 and calcium-47 was investigated in 19 human subjects. The tracers were administered orally with 100 mg. of a calcium carrier—calcium chloride. At the same time, sodium alginate was given in a commercial jelly. The sevenday per cent retentions of tracers were measured with a whole-body counter. After one month, the experiments were repeated without alginate so that each subject acted as his own control. Fifteen volunteers were given 1.5 g. of alginate, two were given 3.0 g. and two 0.3 g. 1.5 g. of alginate reduced the absorption of strontium by a factor of two with no significant effect on calcium absorption. The smaller dose of alginate (0.3 g.) appeared to have no effect on strontium or calcium absorption and the larger dose (3.0 g.) had no greater effect than the 1.5 g. dose. PMID:5955715

Harrison, Joan; McNeill, K. G.; Phil, D.; Janiga, A.

1966-01-01

101

NALCN Ion Channels Have Alternative Selectivity Filters Resembling Calcium Channels or Sodium Channels  

PubMed Central

NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE) or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE). NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE) and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE) -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K)-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG+ impermeant and blockable with 10 µM Gd3+ ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2):371-83. PMID:23383067

Senatore, Adriano; Monteil, Arnaud; van Minnen, Jan; Smit, August B.; Spafford, J. David

2013-01-01

102

NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels.  

PubMed

NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE) or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE). NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE) and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE) -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K)-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG(+) impermeant and blockable with 10 µM Gd(3+) ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2):371-83. PMID:23383067

Senatore, Adriano; Monteil, Arnaud; van Minnen, Jan; Smit, August B; Spafford, J David

2013-01-01

103

Nanostructured calcium silicate hydrate seeds accelerate concrete hardening: a combined assessment of benefits and risks.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology creates new possibilities to control and improve material properties for civil infrastructure. Special focus in this area is put on Portland cement and gypsum. Together their annual production is by far larger than for any other material worldwide. Nanomodification of these materials can be done during the few hours between dissolution and hardening, especially by nucleation of the re-crystallization with suitable colloids. Here we report first results in homogeneous seeding of the precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates within a real Portland cement composition. The occupational safety during the production phase and during mixing of concrete paste is addressed in detail by in vivo testing. We perform 5-day inhalation with 21-day recovery in rats and analyze organ-specific toxicity and 71 endpoints from bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and blood. In BALF parameters, no test-related changes were observed, indicating the generally low toxicity of the test material. Some mild lesions were observed in larynx level. In the lungs, all animals of the 50 mg/m³ concentration group revealed a minimal to mild increase in alveolar macrophages, which recovered back to control level. PMID:22466068

Bräu, Michael; Ma-Hock, Lan; Hesse, Christoph; Nicoleau, Luc; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Wiench, Karin; Landsiedel, Robert; Wohlleben, Wendel

2012-07-01

104

Preparation of nanosized sulfur particles from aqueous solutions of calcium and sodium polysulfides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of nanosized sulfur from solutions of calcium and sodium polysulfides was considered. Via measuring the optical\\u000a density of dilute aqueous solutions of the polysulfides the sulfur hydrosol particle size was studied in relation to the storage\\u000a time and viscosity of the solutions. It was found that the sulfur nanoparticle size can be controlled by varying the viscosity\\u000a of solution

I. A. Messalimov; L. F. Abdrakipova; A. N. Khusainov; A. G. Mustafin

2009-01-01

105

Involvement of the sodium-calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3) in ziram-induced calcium dysregulation and toxicity.  

PubMed

Ziram is a dimethyldithiocarbamate fungicide which can cause intraneuronal calcium (Ca(2+)) dysregulation and subsequently neuronal death. The signaling mechanisms underlying ziram-induced Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis and neurotoxicity are not fully understood. NCX3 is the third isoform of the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) family and plays an important role in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis in excitable cells. We previously generated a mouse model deficient for the sodium-calcium exchanger 3 and showed that NCX3 is protective against ischemic damage. In the present study, we aim to examine whether NCX3 exerts a similar role against toxicological injury caused by the pesticide ziram. Our data show baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells stably transfected with NCX3 (BHK-NCX3) are more susceptible to ziram toxicity than cells transfected with the empty vector (BHK-WT). Increased toxicity in BHK-NCX3 was associated with a rapid rise in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]i induced by ziram. Profound mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP depletion were also observed in BHK-NCX3 cells following treatment with ziram. Lastly, primary dopaminergic neurons lacking NCX3 (NCX3(-/-)) were less sensitive to ziram neurotoxicity than wildtype control dopaminergic neurons. These results demonstrate that NCX3 genetic deletion protects against ziram-induced neurotoxicity and suggest NCX3 and its downstream molecular pathways as key factors involved in ziram toxicity. Our study identifies new molecular events through which pesticides (e.g. ziram) can lead to pathological features of degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and indicates new targets to slow down neuronal degeneration. PMID:25284465

Jin, J; Lao, A J; Katsura, M; Caputo, A; Schweizer, F E; Sokolow, S

2014-12-01

106

Toward a microscopic understanding of the calcium-silicate-hydrates/water interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates (C-S-H) are the main binding phases in most concrete which is the primarily used composite construction material in the world. However, a big lack is cleaving between the actual knowledge about C-S-H, compared to what could be reached using state-of-the-art technologies of modern research. In this article, the formation of a C-S-H phase on a native oxide covered silicon wafer is investigated by means of in-situ attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) and ex-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The total thickness of the C-S-H phase is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to be 3 nm. The formation appears to be reversible depending on the environment pH value and can be performed at room temperature. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, it is shown that the C-S-H phase in the presence of water will change its chemical composition in order to reach the thermodynamic ground state of the system. This change is achieved by a metal-proton exchange reaction. The stoichiometry of these metal-proton exchange reactions is nearly independent of the environment pH value. Electrokinetic measurements yield isoelectric points of 2.0 and 2.6 for the native oxide covered silicon wafer (SiO2) and the C-S-H phase. This is consistent with a predominance of Si-O sites at the C-S-H/water interface.

Ebbert, Christoph; Grundmeier, Guido; Buitkamp, Nadine; Kröger, Alexander; Messerschmidt, Florian; Thissen, Peter

2014-01-01

107

Hydration sequence of swelling clays: evolutions of specific surface area and hydration energy.  

PubMed

In order to identify the key steps and the driving force for the hydration process of swelling clays, the water adsorption isotherms and enthalpies were measured on monoionic montmorillonite samples saturated with alkali or calcium ions, and on bi-ionic samples saturated with a sodium-calcium mixture. The specific surface area evolution along the hydration process was determined using a recent interpretation of the experimental adsorption isotherms of swelling solids. Results are interpreted in structural terms. Compared with additional data from sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA), the results confirm experimentally that the hydration of Li- and Na-montmorillonite is mainly a cation-controlled process, in contrast with the hydration of Cs samples in which the cation contribution to hydration is negligible, as we have already demonstrated using electrostatic calculations or conductivity measurements. PMID:19303602

Salles, Fabrice; Douillard, Jean-Marc; Denoyel, Renaud; Bildstein, Olivier; Jullien, Michel; Beurroies, Isabelle; Van Damme, Henri

2009-05-15

108

Ternary phase behaviour and vesicle formation of a sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate/1-decanol/water system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase behaviour of a system composed of amino acid-based surfactant (sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate), 1-decanol and deionised water was investigated for vesicle formation. Changing the molar ratio of the amphiphiles, two important aggregate structures were observed in the aqueous corner of the phase diagram. Two different sizes of microemulsions were found at two amphiphile-water boundaries. A stable single vesicle lobe was found for 1?2 molar ratios in 92 wt% water with vesicles approximately 100 nm in size and with high zeta potential value. Structural variation arises due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions among the ionic headgroups of the surfactants and the hydration forces due to adsorbed water onto monolayer's. The balance of these two forces determines the aggregate structures. Analysis was followed by the molecular geometrical structure. These findings may have implications for the development of drug delivery systems for cancer treatments, as well as cosmetic and food formulations.

Akter, Nasima; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan

2011-08-01

109

Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaOfree and SO3 in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash

C Freidin

1998-01-01

110

Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family.  

PubMed

We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Q(f) at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Q(f)=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Q(f) for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q(f) leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) ? M0 (nonselective channel) ? L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) ? M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Q(f)(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca(2+)/Na(+) valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls. PMID:24329301

Kaufman, I; Luchinsky, D G; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

2013-11-01

111

Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Qf at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Qf=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Qf for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Qf leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) ? M0 (nonselective channel) ? L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) ? M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Qf(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca2+/Na+ valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

Kaufman, I.; Luchinsky, D. G.; Tindjong, R.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

2013-11-01

112

A calcium prerinse required to form calcium fluoride in plaque from a sodium fluoride rinse.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine whether a calcium (Ca) prerinse used before a 228 µg/g (ppm) fluoride (F) rinse would induce the formation of 'calcium fluoride-like' (CaF2-like) deposits in human dental plaque. Sixty minutes after the use of the Ca prerinse/F rinse, plaque samples were collected from 10 volunteers, homogenized, and split into 2 aliquots. The plaque mass from one aliquot was then extracted with a 'plaque-like' solution that extracted all the CaF2-like deposits. The total F in both aliquots was then determined and compared. The results demonstrated that, as in previous studies, the Ca prerinse induced large increases in plaque fluid and total plaque F. However, unlike previous results without the Ca prerinse, 30% of the plaque F deposits were CaF2 or CaF2-like. Given that maintaining an elevated F concentration in the vicinity of a developing lesion may play an important role in the cariostatic effect of this ion, and the potential advantages of CaF2-like deposits as an F source, these results suggest that a Ca prerinse may increase the cariostatic effect of topical agents. PMID:24401761

Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

2014-01-01

113

Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium) may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF). Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last minute of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible) and 13 did not (R, resistant). The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-week exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running; S n?=?9; R n?=?8) or 10-week sedentary (S n?=?14; R n?=?5) groups. At the end of the 10-week period, the exercise?+?ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P?calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction. PMID:21423413

Kukielka, Monica; Holycross, Bethany J.; Billman, George E.

2010-01-01

114

Hot alkali carbonation of sodium metaphosphate modified fly ash/calcium aluminate blend hydrothermal cements  

SciTech Connect

Sodium metaphosphate-modified fly ash/calcium aluminate blend (SFCB) cements were prepared by autoclaving for 1 day at 300 C and their resistance was evaluated in a highly concentrated Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 300 C. The hydroxyapatite and analcime phases formed in the autoclaved SFCB cements played an essential role in conferring resistance to the degradation of cements caused by alkali carbonation. Although the carbonating reaction of the analcime phase led to the formation of cancrinite, this analcime cancrinite transformation did not show any influence on the changes in the mechanical and physical properties of the cements. Additionally, there was no formation of the water-soluble calcium bicarbonate in the cements exposed for 28 days. Contrarily, the conventional class G cement systems were very vulnerable to a hot alkali carbonation. The major reason for the damage caused by carbonation of the cements was the fact that the xonotlite phase formed in the 300{degree} autoclaved cements was converted into two carbonation products, calcite and pectolite. Furthermore, the reaction between calcite and carbonic acid derived from Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} led to the formation of water-soluble calcium bicarbonate, thereby causing the alteration of dense structures into porous ones and the loss of strength of cements.

Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Energy Efficiency and Conservation Div.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Energy Efficiency and Conservation Div.

1996-11-01

115

ORM-10103: a significant advance in sodium-calcium exchanger pharmacology?  

PubMed

The sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is an electrogenic transporter that is widely expressed in different tissues. In the heart, the NCX plays important roles in calcium ion homeostasis, excitation-contraction coupling and the electrophysiological properties of cardiac myocytes. Precise determination of the roles of the NCX has somewhat been hampered by a lack of selective small molecule inhibitors. In this issue of the BJP, Jost and colleagues present data on a new NCX inhibitor, ORM-10103, which has submicromolar EC50 values against cardiac forward and reverse exchange activity. The compound exhibits improved selectivity over existing small molecule NCX inhibitors and, in particular, appears to be without effect on L-type calcium channels at high concentrations. ORM-10103 could therefore have significant value for studies of the (patho)physiological roles of the NCX in the heart. Further pharmacological studies are required to investigate the actions of ORM-10103 on cardiac cells and tissues and to determine its effects on non-cardiac NCX isoforms. PMID:23848255

Terracciano, C M; Hancox, J C

2013-10-01

116

Accelerated microstructural evolution of a calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phase in pozzolanic pastes using fine siliceous sources: Comparison with historic pozzolanic mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional pozzolanic mortars such as those from Rhodes, Greece, or Hagia Sophia, Turkey, revealed the presence of a calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) binding phase. This phase, which is similar to that found in ordinary Portland cement (OPC), is produced under the pozzolanic reaction of slaked lime with fine reactive siliceous sources at temperatures

A. Moropoulou; A. Cakmak; K. C. Labropoulos; R. Van Grieken; K. Torfs

2004-01-01

117

The mechanism of vapor phase hydration of calcium oxide: implications for CO2 capture.  

PubMed

Lime-based sorbents are used for fuel- and flue-gas capture, thereby representing an economic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Their use involves cyclic carbonation/calcination which results in a significant conversion reduction with increasing number of cycles. To reactivate spent CaO, vapor phase hydration is typically performed. However, little is known about the ultimate mechanism of such a hydration process. Here, we show that the vapor phase hydration of CaO formed after calcination of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals is a pseudomorphic, topotactic process, which progresses via an intermediate disordered phase prior to the final formation of oriented Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. The strong structural control during this solid-state phase transition implies that the microstructural features of the CaO parent phase predetermine the final structural and physicochemical (reactivity and attrition) features of the product hydroxide. The higher molar volume of the product can create an impervious shell around unreacted CaO, thereby limiting the efficiency of the reactivation process. However, in the case of compact, sintered CaO structures, volume expansion cannot be accommodated in the reduced pore volume, and stress generation leads to pervasive cracking. This favors complete hydration but also detrimental attrition. Implications of these results in carbon capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. PMID:25233236

Kud?acz, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

2014-10-21

118

Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1988-01-01

119

Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution  

SciTech Connect

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

2009-12-15

120

Chemical composition studies on some aquatic macrophytes in three scottish lochs. II. Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and iron levels in seven species of freshwater macrophytes (Juncus effusus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Carex rostrata Stokes, Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmberg, Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm., Polygonum amphibium L. and Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Pallas) in three Scottish lochs of different trophic levels were studied during 1975 and the results obtained were compared with similar studies

Y. B. Ho

1979-01-01

121

Comparison of serum fluoride levels after administration of monofluorophosphate-calcium carbonate or sodium fluoride: differences in peak serum concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride salts are widely used in Europe in the treatment of established osteoporosis with crush fractures for their ability to increase trabecular bone mass. However, in the United States fluorides are still regarded as an experimental drug. In a prospective, randomized study we compared the fluoride pharmacokinetics of enteric-coated sodium fluoride and disodium monofluorophosphate calcium carbonate (MFP-Ca) over the period

L. Erlacher; H. Teufelsbauer; P. Bernecker; P. Pietschmann; M. Weissel

1994-01-01

122

Combination of sodium chlorite and calcium propionate reduces enzymatic browning and microbial population of fresh-cut ‘Granny Smith’ apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tissue browning and microbial growth are the main concerns associated with fresh-cut apples. In this study, effects of sodium chlorite (SC) and calcium propionate (CP), individually and combined, on quality and microbial population of apple slices were investigated. ‘Granny Smith’ apple slices, dipp...

123

Removal of methyl orange from aqueous solutions through adsorption by calcium aluminate hydrates.  

PubMed

Methyl orange (MO) is a kind of anionic dye and widely used in industry. In this study, tricalcium aluminate hydrates (Ca-Al-LDHs) are used as an adsorbent to remove methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solutions. The resulting products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (MIR), thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD results indicated that the MO molecules were successfully intercalated into the tricalcium aluminate hydrates, with the basal spacing of Ca-Al-LDH expanding to 2.48 nm. The MIR spectrum for CaAl-MO-LDH shows obvious bands assigned to the N=N, N=H stretching vibrations and S=O, SO3(-) group respectively, which are considered as marks to assess MO(-) ion intercalation into the interlayers of LDH. The overall morphology of CaAl-MO-LDH displayed a "honey-comb" like structure, with the adjacent layers expanded. PMID:24863763

Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Qian, Guangren; Wu, Daishe; Frost, Ray L

2014-07-15

124

Reporting sodium channel activity using calcium flux: pharmacological promiscuity of cardiac nav1.5.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 ?M, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions. PMID:25422141

Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Li, Min

2015-02-01

125

Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France) [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Clare, Jeffrey J. [Eaton Pharma Consulting, Eaton Socon, Cambridgeshire PE19 8EF (United Kingdom)] [Eaton Pharma Consulting, Eaton Socon, Cambridgeshire PE19 8EF (United Kingdom); Debanne, Dominique [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France) [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France); Alcaraz, Gisele, E-mail: gisele.alcaraz@univmed.fr [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France) [INSERM U641, Institut Jean Roche, Marseille F-13344 (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Medecine Secteur Nord, IFR 11, Marseille F-13344 (France)

2011-07-29

126

Intracellular calcium and its sodium-independent regulation in voltage-clamped snail neurones.  

PubMed Central

1. We have used both Ca(2+)-sensitive microelectrodes and fura-2 to measure the intracellular free calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i or its negative log, pCai) of snail neurones voltage clamped to -50 or -60 mV. Using Ca(2+)-sensitive microelectrodes, [Ca2+]i was found to be approximately 174 nM and pCai, 6.76 +/- 0.09 (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 11); using fura-2, [Ca2+]i was approximately 40 nM and pCai, 7.44 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10). 2. Depolarizations (1-20 s) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+, indicating that the rise in [Ca2+]i was due to Ca2+ influx through voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. 3. Caffeine (10-20 mM) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. The effects of caffeine on [Ca2+]i could be prevented by ryanodine. 4. Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, caused a small increase in resting [Ca2+]i and slowed the rate of recovery from Ca2+ loads following 20 s depolarizations. 5. Neither replacement of extracellular sodium with N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG), nor loading the cells with intracellular sodium, had any effect on resting [Ca2+]i or the rate of recovery of [Ca2+]i following depolarizations. 6. The mitochondrial uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCmP) caused a small gradual rise in resting [Ca2+]i. Removal of extracellular sodium during exposure to CCmP had no further effect on [Ca2+]i. 7. Intracellular orthovanadate caused an increase in resting [Ca2+]i and prevented the full recovery of [Ca2+]i following small Ca2+ loads, but removal of extracellular sodium did not cause a rise in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that there is no Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger present in the cell body of these neurones and that [Ca2+]i is maintained by an ATP-dependent Ca2+ pump. Images Figure 1 PMID:7623274

Kennedy, H J; Thomas, R C

1995-01-01

127

X-ray diffraction: a powerful tool to probe and understand the structure of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates.  

PubMed

X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were calculated and compared to literature data with the aim of investigating the crystal structure of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main binding phase in hydrated Portland cement pastes. Published XRD patterns from C-S-H of Ca/Si ratios ranging from ~ 0.6 to ~ 1.7 are fully compatible with nanocrystalline and turbostratic tobermorite. Even at a ratio close or slightly higher than that of jennite (Ca/Si = 1.5) this latter mineral, which is required in some models to describe the structure of C-S-H, is not detected in the experimental XRD patterns. The 001 basal reflection from C-S-H, positioned at ~ 13.5 Å when the C-S-H structural Ca/Si ratio is low (< 0.9), shifts towards smaller d values and sharpens with increasing Ca/Si ratio, to reach ~ 11.2 Å when the Ca/Si ratio is higher than 1.5. Calculations indicate that the sharpening of the 001 reflection may be related to a crystallite size along c* (i.e. a mean number of stacked layers) increasing with the C-S-H Ca/Si ratio. Such an increase would contribute to the observed shift of the 001 reflection, but fails to quantitatively explain it. It is proposed that the observed shift could result from interstratification of at least two tobermorite-like layers, one having a high and the other a low Ca/Si ratio with a basal spacing of 11.3 and 14 Å, respectively. PMID:24056355

Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Linard, Yannick; Chiaberge, Christophe

2013-10-01

128

X-ray diffraction: a powerful tool to probe and understand the structure of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates  

PubMed Central

X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were calculated and compared to literature data with the aim of investigating the crystal structure of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main binding phase in hydrated Portland cement pastes. Published XRD patterns from C-S-H of Ca/Si ratios ranging from ??0.6 to ??1.7 are fully compatible with nanocrystalline and turbostratic tobermorite. Even at a ratio close or slightly higher than that of jennite (Ca/Si = 1.5) this latter mineral, which is required in some models to describe the structure of C-S-H, is not detected in the experimental XRD patterns. The 001 basal reflection from C-S-H, positioned at ??13.5?Å when the C-S-H structural Ca/Si ratio is low (< 0.9), shifts towards smaller d values and sharpens with increasing Ca/Si ratio, to reach ??11.2?Å when the Ca/Si ratio is higher than 1.5. Calculations indicate that the sharpening of the 001 reflection may be related to a crystallite size along c* (i.e. a mean number of stacked layers) increasing with the C-S-H Ca/Si ratio. Such an increase would contribute to the observed shift of the 001 reflection, but fails to quantitatively explain it. It is proposed that the observed shift could result from interstratification of at least two tobermorite-like layers, one having a high and the other a low Ca/Si ratio with a basal spacing of 11.3 and 14?Å, respectively. PMID:24056355

Grangeon, Sylvain; Claret, Francis; Linard, Yannick; Chiaberge, Christophe

2013-01-01

129

Stable anode performance of vanadium oxide hydrate semi-microspheres and their graphene based composite microspheres in sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

A simple and versatile method for preparation of new crystalline vanadium oxide hydrate semi-microspheres is developed via a simple hydrothermal route, which are tested as a novel high-energy anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The enhancement of electrochemical performance for the vanadium oxide hydrate electrode is offered by addition of graphene. The graphene-based vanadium oxide hydrate microsphere composite shows a high discharge capacity of 336.1 mA h g(-1) for the second cycle between a 0.05-3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 10 mA g(-1). A reversible capacity of 303.1 mA h g(-1) is retained after 20 cycles. PMID:25357230

Fei, Hailong; Li, Zhiwei; Feng, Wenjing; Liu, Xin

2015-01-01

130

Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization

2009-05-15

131

Effect of temperature on the microstructure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)  

SciTech Connect

Temperature affects the properties of concrete through its effect on the hydration of cement and its associated microstructural development. This paper focuses on the modifications to C-S-H induced by isothermal curing between 5 and 60 °C. The results show that as the temperature increases (within the range studied) the C/S ratio of C-S-H changes only slightly, with a higher degree of polymerisation of silicate chains, but there is a significant decrease in its bound water content and an increase of apparent density of 25%. This increase seems to come from a different packing of C-S-H at the nanoscale. As a consequence of these changes, the microstructure of the cement paste is much coarser and porous, which explains the lower final strengths obtained by curing at elevated temperatures. -- Highlights: •C-S-H structure studied at the atomic level •Multiple analytical techniques used •Studies conducted at temperatures above and below normal temperatures.

Gallucci, E., E-mail: gallucci.emmanuel@ch.sika.com; Zhang, X.; Scrivener, K.L.

2013-11-15

132

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

133

The three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structures in the ammonium and sodium salt hydrates of 4-aminophenylarsonic acid.  

PubMed

The structures of two hydrated salts of 4-aminophenylarsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid), namely ammonium 4-aminophenylarsonate monohydrate, NH4(+)·C6H7AsNO3(-)·H2O, (I), and the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[(4-aminophenylarsonato-?O)diaquasodium]-?-aqua], [Na(C6H7AsNO3)(H2O)3]n, (II), have been determined. In the structure of the ammonium salt, (I), the ammonium cations, arsonate anions and water molecules interact through inter-species N-H...O and arsonate and water O-H...O hydrogen bonds, giving the common two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (010). These layers are extended into three dimensions through bridging hydrogen-bonding interactions involving the para-amine group acting both as a donor and an acceptor. In the structure of the sodium salt, (II), the Na(+) cation is coordinated by five O-atom donors, one from a single monodentate arsonate ligand, two from monodentate water molecules and two from bridging water molecules, giving a very distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment. The water bridges generate one-dimensional chains extending along c and extensive interchain O-H...O and N-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions link these chains, giving an overall three-dimensional structure. The two structures reported here are the first reported examples of salts of p-arsanilic acid. PMID:25093350

Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

2014-08-15

134

Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are there differences in the regulation and/or activity of SOS1 in plants differing in their adaptation to salinity?

Schumaker, Karen S [Professor] [Professor

2013-10-24

135

Structural Insight into the Ion-Exchange Mechanism of the Sodium/Calcium Exchanger  

SciTech Connect

Sodium/calcium (Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}) exchangers (NCX) are membrane transporters that play an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} for cell signaling. We demonstrated the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+}-exchange function of an NCX from Methanococcus jannaschii (NCX{_}Mj) and report its 1.9 angstrom crystal structure in an outward-facing conformation. Containing 10 transmembrane helices, the two halves of NCX{_}Mj share a similar structure with opposite orientation. Four ion-binding sites cluster at the center of the protein: one specific for Ca{sup 2+} and three that likely bind Na{sup +}. Two passageways allow for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} access to the central ion-binding sites from the extracellular side. Based on the symmetry of NCX{_}Mj and its ability to catalyze bidirectional ion-exchange reactions, we propose a structure model for the inward-facing NCX{_}Mj.

Liao, Jun; Li, Hua; Zeng, Weizhong; Sauer, David B.; Belmares, Ricardo; Jiang, Youxing (UTSMC)

2012-06-19

136

Preparation, crystal structures and rapid hydration of P2- and P3-type sodium chromium antimony oxides  

SciTech Connect

Two new Na{sub x}[Cr{sub (1+x)/2}Sb{sub (1-x)/2}]O{sub 2} compounds have been prepared by solid-state reactions in argon. Their structures have been determined by the X-ray Rietveld method. Both new phases together with NaCrO{sub 2}-based solid solution comprise brucite-like layers of edge-shared (Cr,Sb)O{sub 6} octahedra but differ by packing mode of the layers and coordination of the interlayer Na{sup +} ions. A P3 phase exists at x{approx}0.5-0.58. It is rhombohedral (R3-bar m), a=2.966, c=16.937 A at x{approx}0.58, with 29% Na{sup +} occupancy of trigonal prisms. A P2 phase exists at x{approx}0.6-0.7. It is hexagonal (P6{sub 3}/mmc), a=2.960, c=11.190 A at x{approx}0.7, with 37% and 33% Na{sup +} occupancy of two non-equivalent trigonal prisms. Both P2 and P3 phases rapidly absorb moisture in air; packing mode is preserved, the a parameter changes slightly but c increases by 24-25%. Very high sodium ion conductivity is predicted for both P2 and P3 anhydrous phases. -- Graphical Abstract: Polyhedral presentation of layered structures of Na{sub x}[Cr{sub (1+x)/2}Sb{sub (1-x)/2}]O{sub 2}. (Cr,Sb)O{sub 6} octahedra are green. Part of the sodium prisms are open to show short distances between sodium sites which cannot be occupied simultaneously. Display Omitted highlights: > Two new layered Na{sub x}[Cr{sub (1+x)/2}Sb{sub (1-x)/2}]O{sub 2} phases, P2 and P3, have been prepared in argon. > Interlayer O-O distances are larger than in Na{sub x}(M,Ti)O{sub 2} analogs (M=Cr,Ni,Li). > As a result, both rapidly hydrate in air with c-axis expansion of 24-25%. > Bottleneck radii are also larger, and this predicts very high Na{sup +}-ion conductivity.

Pospelov, A.A. [Southern Federal University, 7 ul. Zorge, Rostov-na-Donu 344090 (Russian Federation); Nalbandyan, V.B., E-mail: vbn@sfedu.r [Southern Federal University, 7 ul. Zorge, Rostov-na-Donu 344090 (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

137

Belite cements: modifications of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel by alkaline hydrothermal activation  

SciTech Connect

The C-S-H gel of two types of fly ash belite cements (FABC) are studied at a nanoscale (1 to 100 nm (39.4 to 3940 nin.)) by means of the specific surface area and pore-size distribution, which were measured by the sorption isotherms of nitrogen gas and the BET method. The two belite cements were fabricated by the hydro-thermal-calcination route of Class C fly ash in NaOH 1M solution (FABC-2-N) and demineralized water (FABC-2-W). Two differentiated zones in the pore-size distribution of the C-S-H gel at similar to 12 and similar to 3 nm (similar to 473 and similar to 118 nin.) with different influences in the mechanical strength were produced. The proportion of both zones depends on the age of hydration and type of belite cement. At early ages, the C-S-H gel of FABC-2-N develops both zones in a greater proportion than those of FABC-2-W. At later ages, the behavior is opposite: the C-S-H gel of FABC-2-W develops high proportion of pores of 3 nin (118 nm.) of diameter. Important quantitative correlations were found among these nanostructure characteristics of the C-S-H gel and macrostructural engineering property.

Guerrero, A.; Goni, S.; Dolado, J.S. [CSIC, Eduardo Torroja Inst. Construct. Sci., Madrid (Spain)

2009-03-15

138

Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

Josephine Lutz

139

Compressibility of hydrated and anhydrous sodium silicate-based liquids and glasses, as analogues for natural silicate melts, by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical formalism was tested on compressibility studies of water, before applying it to the high pressure-temperature compressibility studies of hydrated and anhydrous sodium silicate-based liquids and glasses. The hypersonic sound velocity, refractive index and attenuation coefficient obtained using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy technique were in agreement with literature data. From the measured sound velocities, the pressure dependence of the bulk moduli and density of liquid water were calculated, using Vinet equation of state. The formalism was extended to the Brillouin scattering studies of the elastic properties of alkaline-calcium silica hydrogels and float glass, which exhibits a dramatic increase in the pressure dependence of longitudinal velocity and a discontinuity in the compressibility at about 6 GPa. It is demonstrated that an apparent second-order transition to a new amorphous phase can form via the abrupt onset of a new compressional mechanism, which may be triggered by a shift in polymerization of the glass or an onset of a change in coordination of silicon. Brillouin scattering measurements were carried out on an aqueous solution of Na2O-2SiO2 and anhydrous Na2O-2SiO 2 glass and liquid at high P-T conditions. The "modified" platelet scattering geometry has allowed a determination of the longitudinal velocity independently from refractive index, and hence the adiabatic compressibility and density of liquids as a function of pressure and temperature. The observed increase in density of the melt and glass phases formed at high P-T conditions is likely associated with structural effects. The large values of KS' of the liquid phase illustrate that the means of compaction of the liquid differs substantially from that of the glass, and that the liquid is able to access a wider range of compaction mechanisms. The measured bulk modulus of Na2O-2SiO2 aqueous solution is closer to values of silicate melts than to that of end-member water at high pressures. Thus, water-rich silica-bearing solutions present at depth are likely to be difficult to seismically distinguish from anhydrous silicate melts based solely upon their sound velocities. The data on water-bearing compounds allow the pressure dependence of the partial molar volume of water to be assessed to upper mantle depths.

Tkachev, Sergey Nikolayevich

140

Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

2014-06-01

141

Synthesis and hydration behavior of calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18}) cement  

SciTech Connect

Calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18}) cements were prepared by solid state reaction and polymeric precursor methods, and their phase evolution, morphology, and hydration behavior were investigated. In polymeric precursor method, a nearly single phase Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} was obtained at relatively lower temperature (1200 °C) whereas in solid state reaction, a small amount of CaZrO{sub 3} coexisted with Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} even at higher temperature (1400 °C). Unexpectedly, Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} synthesized by polymeric precursor process was the large-sized and rough-shaped powder. The planetary ball milling was employed to control the particle size and shape. The hydration behavior of Ca{sub 7}ZrAl{sub 6}O{sub 18} was similar to that of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} (C3A), but the hydration products were Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}·6H{sub 2}O (C3AH6) and several intermediate products. Thus, Zr (or ZrO{sub 2}) stabilized the intermediate hydration products of C3A.

Kang, Eun-Hee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jun-Sang [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Hye; Choi, Sung-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seong-Hyeon, E-mail: shhong@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15

142

Gd3+ and calcium sensitive, sodium leak currents are features of weak membrane-glass seals in patch clamp recordings.  

PubMed

The properties of leaky patch currents in whole cell recording of HEK-293T cells were examined as a means to separate these control currents from expressed sodium and calcium leak channel currents from snail NALCN leak channels possessing both sodium (EKEE) and calcium (EEEE) selectivity filters. Leak currents were generated by the weakening of gigaohm patch seals by artificial membrane rupture using the ZAP function on the patch clamp amplifier. Surprisingly, we found that leak currents generated from the weakened membrane/glass seal can be surprisingly stable and exhibit behavior that is consistent with a sodium leak current derived from an expressible channel. Leaky patch currents differing by 10 fold in size were similarly reduced in size when external sodium ions were replaced with the large monovalent ion NMDG+. Leaky patch currents increased when external Ca2+ (1.2 mM) was lowered to 0.1 mM and were inhibited (>40% to >90%) with 10 µM Gd3+, 100 µM La3+, 1 mM Co2+ or 1 mM Cd2+. Leaky patch currents were relatively insensitive (<30%) to 1 mM Ni2+ and exhibited a variable amount of block with 1 mM verapamil and were insensitive to 100 µM mibefradil or 100 µM nifedipine. We hypothesize that the rapid changes in leak current size in response to changing external cations or drugs relates to their influences on the membrane seal adherence and the electro-osmotic flow of mobile cations channeling in crevices of a particular pore size in the interface between the negatively charged patch electrode and the lipid membrane. Observed sodium leak conductance currents in weak patch seals are reproducible between the electrode glass interface with cell membranes, artificial lipid or Sylgard rubber. PMID:24945283

Boone, Adrienne N; Senatore, Adriano; Chemin, Jean; Monteil, Arnaud; Spafford, J David

2014-01-01

143

Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium is a mineral that is an essential part of bones and teeth. The heart, nerves, and blood-clotting systems also need calcium ... as well as the calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products ...

144

Effects of Sodium and Hydrogen Flourides on the Metabolism of Flourine, Calcium, and Phosphorus in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats given 4 mg. fluoride\\/kg.\\/day for eight days excreted more calcium and phosphorus and retained less than the controls. In bone ash from rats given different fluoride doses for 40 days the calcium and phosphorus were maximal after a total dose of about 250 ?g. fluoride\\/rat, but fell to subnormal levels after higher doses. The calcium and phosphorus levels in

P. Macuch; J. Kortus; G. Balazova; J. Mayer

1968-01-01

145

Calpain cleavage and inactivation of the sodium calcium exchanger-3 occur downstream of A? in Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by pathological deposits of ?-amyloid (A?) in senile plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) comprising hyperphosphorylated aggregated tau, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Substantial evidence indicates that disrupted neuronal calcium homeostasis is an early event in AD that could mediate synaptic dysfunction and neuronal toxicity. Sodium calcium exchangers (NCXs) play important roles in regulating intracellular calcium, and accumulating data suggests that reduced NCX function, following aberrant proteolytic cleavage of these exchangers, may contribute to neurodegeneration. Here, we show that elevated calpain, but not caspase-3, activity is a prominent feature of AD brain. In addition, we observe increased calpain-mediated cleavage of NCX3, but not a related family member NCX1, in AD brain relative to unaffected tissue and that from other neurodegenerative conditions. Moreover, the extent of NCX3 proteolysis correlated significantly with amounts of A?1–42. We also show that exposure of primary cortical neurons to oligomeric A?1–42 results in calpain-dependent cleavage of NCX3, and we demonstrate that loss of NCX3 function is associated with A? toxicity. Our findings suggest that A? mediates calpain cleavage of NCX3 in AD brain and therefore that reduced NCX3 activity could contribute to the sustained increases in intraneuronal calcium concentrations that are associated with synaptic and neuronal dysfunction in AD. PMID:23919677

Atherton, Joe; Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Bondulich, Marie; Croft, Cara L; Garwood, Claire J; Chhabra, Resham; Wray, Selina; Jeromin, Andreas; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy

2014-01-01

146

Axonal protection achieved by blockade of sodium/calcium exchange in a new model of ischemia in vivo  

PubMed Central

Ischemic white matter injury has been relatively little studied despite its importance to the outcome of stroke. To aid such research a new rat model has been developed in vivo and used to assess whether blockade of the sodium/calcium exchanger is effective in protecting central axons from ischemic injury. Vasoconstrictive agent endothelin-1 was injected into the rat spinal cord to induce ischemia. KB-R7943 or SEA0400 was administered systemically to block the operation of the sodium/calcium exchanger. Endothelin-1 caused profound reduction of local blood perfusion and resulted in a prompt loss of axonal conduction. Whereas recovery of conduction following vehicle administration was only to 10.5 ± 9% of baseline (n = 8) 4.5 h after endothelin-1 injection, recovery following KB-R7943 (30 mg/kg, i.a.) administration was increased to 35 ± 9% of baseline (n = 6; P < 0.001). SEA0400 (30 mg/kg, i.a.) was also protective (33.2 ± 6% of baseline, n = 4; P < 0.001). Neither drug improved conduction by diminishing the severity of the ischemia. The protective effect of KB-R7943 persisted for at least 3 days after ischemia, as it improved axonal conduction (76.3 ± 11% for KB-R7943 vs. 51.0 ± 19% for vehicle; P < 0.01) and reduced lesion area (55.6 ± 15% for KB-R7943 vs. 77.9 ± 9% for vehicle; P < 0.01) at this time. In conclusion, a new model of white matter ischemia has been introduced suitable for both structural and functional studies in vivo. Blocking the sodium/calcium exchanger protects central axons from ischemic injury in vivo. PMID:22564441

Bei, Fengfeng; Smith, Kenneth J.

2012-01-01

147

Surfactant effects on gas hydrate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micellar solutions were found to increase gas hydrate formation rate and alter formation mechanism for ethane and natural gas hydrates. A critical micellar concentration (CMC) of sodium dodecyl sulfate water solution was found to be 242 ppm at hydrate-forming conditions, where CMC was best determined by hydrate induction time. At surfactant concentrations above the CMC, hydrate formation rates in a

Y. Zhong; R. E. Rogers

2000-01-01

148

Calcium-ion-induced stabilization of the protease from Bacillus cereus WQ9-2 in aqueous hydrophilic solvents: effect of calcium ion binding on the hydration shell and intramolecular interactions.  

PubMed

The neutral protease WQ from Bacillus cereus is stable in various aqueous organic mixtures, with the exception of those containing acetonitrile (ACN) and dimethylformamide (DMF). The stability of the enzyme in aqueous hydrophilic solvents was dramatically enhanced with the addition of calcium ions, with the degree of improvement in the half-life relative to different solutions ranging from fourfold to more than 70-fold. Studies of the kinetic constants showed that calcium ions induced slight conformational changes in the active site of the enzyme in aqueous ACN. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this stabilizing effect by employing a combination of biophysical techniques and molecular dynamics simulation. In aqueous ACN, the intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that the addition of calcium ions induced a relatively compact conformation and maintained both the native-like microenvironment near the tryptophan residues and the secondary structure. Alternatively, homology modeling confirmed the location of four calcium-ion-binding sites in the enzyme, and molecular dynamics simulation revealed that three other calcium ions were bound to the surface of the enzyme. Calcium ions, known as a type of kosmotrope, can strongly bond with water molecules, thus aiding in the formation of the regional hydration shell required for the maintenance of enzyme activity. In addition, the introduction of calcium ions resulted in the formation of additional ionic interactions, providing propitious means for protein stabilization. Thus, the stronger intramolecular interactions were also expected to contribute partially to the enhanced stability of the enzyme in an aqueous organic solvent. PMID:23322168

Xu, Jiaxing; Zhuang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Su, Long; He, Bingfang

2013-02-01

149

Determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in total parenteral nutrition formulations by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

A simple method based on capillary electrophoresis with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C(4)D) was developed for the determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in parenteral nutrition formulations. A hydro-organic mixture, consisting of 100 mM Tris-acetate buffer at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), was selected as the background electrolyte. The applied voltage was 30 kV, and sample injection was performed in hydrodynamic mode. All analyses were carried out in a fused silica capillary with an internal diameter of 50 microm and a total length of 64.5 cm. Under these conditions, complete separation between all cations was achieved in less than 4 min. The CE-C(4)D method was validated, and trueness values between 98.6% and 101.8% were obtained with repeatability and intermediate precision values of 0.4-1.3% and 0.8-1.8%, respectively. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for controlling potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in parenteral nutrition formulations and successfully applied in daily quality control at the Geneva University Hospitals. PMID:20172679

Nussbaumer, Susanne; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Bouchoud, Lucie; Rudaz, Serge; Bonnabry, Pascal; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

2010-10-10

150

Synthesis and nano-mechanical characterization of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) made with 1.5 CaO/SiO{sub 2} mixture  

SciTech Connect

In this study, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is synthesized and characterized. C-S-H slurry was made with calcium oxide (CaO) to micro-silica (SiO{sub 2}) mixture ratio of 1.5 and enough deionized water. The slurry was continuously mixed for 7 days, then the excess water was removed. Two methods of drying were implemented: one method used the standard d-dry technique and the other was equilibrated to 11% relative humidity (RH). The dried powders were characterized using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRDA), and {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The stoichiometric formulas of synthetic C-S-H powders dried to d-dry and 11% RH in this study were approximated as C{sub 1.2}SH{sub 0.7} and C{sub 1.2}SH{sub 2.4} respectively. The powders were then compacted to create specimens with porosities similar to C-S-H in hydrated cement. The specimens underwent nanoindentation to mechanically characterize C-S-H. The experiments provide insight on the nanoscale mechanical characteristics of C-S-H.

Foley, Emmy M. [Arizona Public Service, Wintersburg, AZ 85354 (United States)] [Arizona Public Service, Wintersburg, AZ 85354 (United States); Kim, Jung J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Reda Taha, M.M., E-mail: mrtaha@unm.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, MSC01 1070, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States)

2012-09-15

151

Influence of Pyrethroid Insecticides on Sodium and Calcium Influx in Neocortical Neurons  

EPA Science Inventory

Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Using murine neocortical neurons in primary culture, we have compared the ability of 11 structurally diverse pyrethroid insecticides to evoke Na+ ...

152

Influence of various calcium intakes on calcium-oxalate crystalluria in rats on sodium-oxalate diet.  

PubMed

Forty adult male Wistar rats were placed in metabolic cages on a Ca-deficient diet (0.1%) for 7 days and then on a Ca-deficient, Na-oxalate (NaOx) enriched diet (20 mg/100 g) for another 14 days. The animals were subdivided into three groups receiving three different types of mineral water: group I (n = 13), Badoit (Ca 222 mg/l); group II (n = 14), Contrexéville (Ca 467 mg/l); and group III (n = 13), Evian (Ca 78 mg/l). Another series of 25 rats (group I, n = 9; group II, n = 8; group III, n = 8) underwent the same study protocol, except that they received a normal Ca diet (1%). On the low-Ca diet, urinary Ca-Ox monohydrate (COM) crystals were observed only under the Na-Ox diet, with a mean crystal number significantly greater in group III (16.7 +/- 4.5 crystals/mm3) than in group I or II rats (2.5 +/- 1.5 or 4.1 +/- 1.5 crystals/mm3, respectively). Urinary Ca concentrations decreased in all groups (P < 0.001) under the Na-Ox diet, while urinary oxalate concentrations increased in all groups (P < 0.001). On the normal Ca diet, COM crystal excretion was observed only with the Na-Ox-enriched diet, but in this case feeding the Na-Ox diet did not modify urinary oxalate excretion. Ca/Ox ratio was significantly lower under 0.1% Ca diet than under normal Ca diet, related with the type and the number of crystals observed, demonstrating that assessment of crystalluria can provide an index of disease severity. Moreover, the hardness of the drinking water influences urinary COM crystal excretion only under a low-Ca, oxalate-rich diet, suggesting that the total calcium intake rather than the water calcium content is an important factor in the occurrence of Ca-Ox nephrolithiasis. PMID:7800206

da Silva, S L; Hennequin, C; Droz, D; Bader, C; Daudon, M; Drüeke, T; Lacour, B

1994-01-01

153

Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.  

PubMed

L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate acted as a nitrosation inhibitor in several food and cosmetic product studies. No compound-related clinical signs or gross or microscopic pathological effects were observed in either mice, rats, or guinea pigs in short-term studies. Male guinea pigs fed a control basal diet and given up to 250 mg Ascorbic Acid orally for 20 weeks had similar hemoglobin, blood glucose, serum iron, liver iron, and liver glycogen levels compared to control values. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice were fed diets containing up to 100,000 ppm Ascorbic Acid for 13 weeks with little toxicity. Chronic Ascorbic Acid feeding studies showed toxic effects at dosages above 25 mg/kg body weight (bw) in rats and guinea pigs. Groups of male and female rats given daily doses up to 2000 mg/kg bw Ascorbic Acid for 2 years had no macro- or microscopically detectable toxic lesions. Mice given Ascorbic Acid subcutaneous and intravenous daily doses (500 to 1000 mg/kg bw) for 7 days had no changes in appetite, weight gain, and general behavior; and histological examination of various organs showed no changes. Ascorbic Acid was a photoprotectant when applied to mice and pig skin before exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The inhibition of UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity was also noted. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate administration immediately after exposure in hairless mice significantly delayed skin tumor formation and hyperplasia induced by chronic exposure to UV radiation. Pregnant mice and rats were given daily oral doses of Ascorbic Acid up to 1000 mg/kg bw with no indications of adult-toxic, teratogenic, or fetotoxic effects. Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Ascorbate were not genotoxic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems, consistent with the antioxidant properties of these chemicals. In the presence of certain enzyme systems or metal ions, evidence of genotoxicity was seen. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted a 2-year oral carcinogenesis bioassay of Ascorbic Acid (25,000 and 50,000 ppm) in F344/N ra

Elmore, Amy R

2005-01-01

154

Intraoral evaluation of mineralization of cosmetic defects by a toothpaste containing calcium, fluoride, and sodium bicarbonate.  

PubMed

New dual-phase fluoride toothpastes that contain soluble calcium, phosphate, and baking soda have recently been introduced into the market. These toothpastes are designed to fill in small surface defects in tooth enamel and thereby enhance tooth esthetics such as gloss. This two-part study was designed to assess these superficial mineralizing effects from using one of these products compared with an experimental calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free formulation and a conventional fluoride toothpaste using an intraoral model. Enamel specimens with 4 types of defects were mounted into an intraoral appliance and placed in the mouths of volunteers for 1 month. The four types of defects were whitening toothpaste abrasion, coarse abrasion, natural dimpling, and acid etching. Before and after intraoral exposure, scanning electron microscope photographs of the specimens were made. The surface microhardness of the acid-etched specimens also was determined. The volunteers brushed their specimens twice daily with one of three randomly assigned toothpastes. The toothpastes were a two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste; an experimental, two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free toothpaste; and a conventional toothpaste. Only the calcium-containing toothpastes showed unequivocal signs of mineral deposition into surface defects, leading to smoothing of the enamel. All three products significantly increased the hardness of the etched enamel, presumably because of fluoride. However, only the two calcium-containing toothpastes gave significantly greater hardness increases than the conventional toothpaste; the specimens treated with a conventional toothpaste were indistinguishable from those treated with saliva. PMID:15645904

Litkowski, Leonard J; Quinlan, Kathleen B; Ross, David R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Winston, Anthony; Charig, Andrew; Flickinger, Mark; Vorwerk, Linda

2004-09-01

155

Effect of dietary moisture and sodium content on urine composition and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy miniature schnauzers and labrador retrievers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this series of studies was to evaluate two possible feeding strategies as methods for reducing the risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) formation in two breeds of healthy dog. The studies compared the effect of dietary moisture (Study 1) and dietary sodium (Na), (Study 2) on urine composition of labrador retrievers (LR) and miniature schnauzers (MS). A nutritionally

A. E Stevenson; W. K Hynds; P. J Markwell

2003-01-01

156

Calcium.  

PubMed

This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of this volume many components of the overall circuitry will be described. The reader should try to marry these into the overall activity of the cell for on top of molecular biology there is the cooperative system molecular biology of cells. To give an analogy, whereas much can be understood from the analysis of the properties of single-isolated water molecules, even examining their interaction in ice, this study alone cannot lead to an appreciation of the melting or boiling points of bulk water. PMID:11833348

Williams, Robert J P

2002-01-01

157

Molecular dynamics modeling of the interface between surface functionalized graphitic structures and calcium-silicate-hydrate: interaction energies, structure, and dynamics.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale energetic, structural, and dynamic properties of the interface between surface functionalized graphitic structures and calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H). The 9 A tobermorite structure was used as a model for C-S-H, the main building block ("the glue") that hold a cementitious matrix together. Six types of carbon surface structures were investigated: a pristine graphite plane and five graphite planes functionalized with hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), carboxylate (COO(-), deprotonated carboxyl), carbonyl (CO), and amine (NH(2)) groups. Results demonstrated the dominant role of electrostatic forces in the interfacial interactions and indicated that the polarity of the functional group can be used as an indicator of affinity to C-S-H. MD simulations revealed that an optimal number of polar oxygen containing groups may exist for efficient graphitic structure/cement interaction and emphasized the mediating role of Ca(2+) counterions in the interfacial interactions. PMID:18486142

Sanchez, F; Zhang, L

2008-07-15

158

Sodium nitrate particles: physical and chemical properties during hydration and dehydration, and implications for aged sea salt aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments probing the phase and behavior of NaNO3 particles at different relative humidities, important for elucidating the role these particles play in the chemistry and radiative properties of marine regions, are presented. Changes in NaNO3 particles during hydration were studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and conventional SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM\\/EDX). Mixtures of NaNO3 and

Rachel C. Hoffman; Alexander Laskin; Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

2004-01-01

159

Sodium helps our body balance fluid levels and maintain hydration. Each person's sodium requirement varies but one thing we do know is that Americans are consuming  

E-print Network

be Caused by Lack of Sleep? 2 Oral Health and Nutrition in Older Adults 3 Don't Sabotage Your Healthy Sodium (mg) 1 cup canned soup 1,000 1 large slice of pizza 900 1 hot dog 500 1 hamburger 500 1 apple 1 1

Garfunkel, Eric

160

Multiparametric Flow System for the Automated Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Large-Volume Parenteral Solutions and Concentrated Hemodialysis Solutions  

PubMed Central

A multiparametric flow system based on multicommutation and binary sampling has been designed for the automated determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. The goal was to obtain a computer-controlled system capable of determining the four metals without extensive modifications. The system involved the use of five solenoid valves under software control, allowing the establishment of the appropriate flow conditions for each analyte, that is, sample size, dilution, reagent addition, and so forth. Detection was carried out by either flame atomic emission spectrometry (sodium, potassium) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (calcium, magnesium). The influence of several operating parameters was studied. Validation was carried out by analyzing artificial samples. Figures of merit obtained include linearity, accuracy, precision, and sampling frequency. Linearity was satisfactory: sodium, r 2 >0.999 ( 0.5 – 3.5 g/L), potassium, r 2 >0.996 (50–150 mg/L), calcium, r 2 >0.999 (30–120 mg/L), and magnesium, r 2 >0.999 (20–40 mg/L). Precision ( s r , %, n=5 ) was better than 2.1 %, and accuracy (evaluated through recovery assays) was in the range of 99.8 %– 101.0 % (sodium), 100.8 – 102.5 % (potassium), 97.3 %– 101.3 % (calcium), and 97.1 %– 99.8 % (magnesium). Sampling frequencies ( h ?1 ) were 70 (sodium), 75 (potassium), 70 (calcium), and 58 (magnesium). According to the results obtained, the use of an automated multiparametric system based on multicommutation offers several advantages for the quality control of large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. PMID:17671619

Pistón, Mariela; Dol, Isabel

2006-01-01

161

Histrionicotoxins: Effects on binding of radioligands for sodium, potassium, and calcium channels in brain membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of eight histrionicotoxins and two synthetic analogs inhibit binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin B to sites on voltage dependent sodium channels in brain membranes. Perhydrohistrionicotoxin (IC50 0.33 µM) and octahydrohistrionicotoxin (IC50 1.2 µM) are comparable in activities to potent local anesthetics. Histrionicotoxin (IC50 17 µM) and the other histrionicotoxins are much less potent. The histrionicotoxins also inhibit binding of [3H]phencyclidine

T. Lovenberg; J. W. Daly

1986-01-01

162

The effect of calcium and sodium lactates on growth from spores of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens in a 'sous-vide' beef goulash under temperature abuse.  

PubMed

The effect of calcium and sodium lactates on growth from spores of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens at three different concentrations (0, 1.5 and 3% w/w) and at different temperatures (10, 15 and 20 degrees C for B. cereus and 15, 20 and 25 degrees C for C. perfringens) was investigated, using beef goulash as a model system for pasteurised vacuum-packaged convenience foods. Calcium lactate at a level of 3% reduced the pH values of the samples from 6.0 to 5.5. No B. cereus growth was observed at 10 degrees C, but after 7 days at an incubation temperature of 15 degrees C, cell number increased by 1 log cfu/g in the control samples. At this temperature, lactates were seen to be effective at inhibiting growth. Calcium lactate was more inhibitory than sodium lactate as the growth of B. cereus was inhibited at 1.5 and 3% concentrations at 20 degrees C, respectively. Growth of C. perfringens was arrested in the presence of 1.5% calcium lactate at all storage temperatures, whereas growth was inhibited by 3% sodium lactate only at 15 degrees C. PMID:11205943

Aran, N

2001-01-22

163

State-dependent inter-repeat contacts of exceptionally conserved asparagines in the inner helices of sodium and calcium channels.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels play key roles in the physiology of excitable cells. The alpha-1 subunit of these channels folds from a polypeptide chain of four homologous repeats. In each repeat, the cytoplasmic halves of the pore-lining helices contain exceptionally conserved asparagines. Such conservation implies important roles, which are unknown. Mutations of the asparagines affect activation and inactivation gating as well as the action of pore-targeting ligands, including local anesthetics and steroidal agonists batrachotoxin and veratridine. In the absence of the open-channel structures, underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we modeled the pore module of Cav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels and their mutants in the open and closed states using the X-ray structures of potassium and sodium channels as templates. The energy of each model was Monte Carlo-minimized. The asparagines do not face the pore in the modeled states. In the open-channel models, the asparagine residue in a given repeat forms an inter-repeat H-bond with a polar residue, which is typically nine positions downstream from the conserved asparagine in the preceding repeat. The H-bonds, which are strengthened by surrounding hydrophobic residues, would stabilize the open channel and shape the open-pore geometry. According to our calculation, the latter is much more sensitive to mutations of the asparagines than the closed-pore geometry. Rearrangement of inter-repeat contacts may explain effects of these mutations on the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation and action of pore-targeting ligands. PMID:24728659

Tikhonov, Denis B; Bruhova, Iva; Garden, Daniel P; Zhorov, Boris S

2015-02-01

164

The effect of cations on the amidase activity of human tissue kallikrein: 1-linear competitive inhibition by sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. 2-linear mixed inhibition by aluminium.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of D-valyl-L-leucyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide by human tissue kallikrein (hK1) was studied in the absence and in the presence of increasing concentrations of the following chloride salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and aluminium. The data indicate that the inhibition of hK1 by sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium is linear competitive and that divalent cations are more potent inhibitors of hK1 than univalent cations. However the inhibition of hK1 by aluminium cation is linear mixed, with the cation being able to bind to both the free enzyme and the ES complex. This cation was the best hK1 inhibitor. Aluminium is not a physiological cation, but is a known neurotoxicant for animals and humans. The neurotoxic actions of aluminium may relate to neuro-degenerative diseases. PMID:15558947

De Sousa, Marinez Oliveira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; De Souza Figueiredo, Amintas Fabiano

2004-08-01

165

Conditional knockout of smooth muscle sodium calcium exchanger type-1 lowers blood pressure and attenuates Angiotensin II-salt hypertension.  

PubMed

The functions of smooth muscle sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) in the vasculature are controversial and poorly understood. To determine the possible roles of NCX in the vascular phenotype and function, we developed a novel mouse model (SM-NCX1 KO) in which the smooth muscle-specific NCX type-1 (NCX1) was conditionally knocked out using tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP recombination technique. SM-NCX1 KO mice exhibit significantly lower blood pressure and attenuated angiotensin II (Ang II)-salt-induced hypertension (measured by radio telemetry and intra-arterial catheterization). Isolated, pressurized mesenteric small resistance arteries from SM-NCX1 KO mice, compared to control arteries, were characterized by the following: (1) ~90% reduced NCX1 protein expression; (2) impaired functional responses to (i) acute NCX inhibition by SEA0400 or SN-6, (ii) NCX activation by low [Na(+)]o, and (iii) Na(+) pump inhibition by ouabain; (3) attenuated myogenic reactivity; and (4) attenuated vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine but not Ang II. These results provided direct evidence that arterial NCX1 normally mediates net Ca(2+) influx that helps maintain basal vascular tone in small resistance arteries and blood pressure under physiological conditions. Importantly, NCX1 contributes to blood pressure elevation in Ang II-salt hypertension, possibly by regulating ?-adrenergic receptor activation. PMID:25626872

Wang, Youhua; Chen, Ling; Li, Meng; Cha, Helen; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Zhang, Jin

2015-01-01

166

Photoresponsive Ion Extraction/Release Systems: Dynamic Ion Optodes for Calcium and Sodium Based on Photochromic Spiropyran  

PubMed Central

Photoresponsive ion extraction/release systems (PRIONERS) represent a highly interesting tool for the localized and time-controlled chemical perturbation of biological materials. We report here on our first results on phototriggered calcium and sodium exchanging materials. Such materials exist in two distinct states (“on” and “off”), depending on the wavelength of illumination. We used a combination of spectroscopic and electrochemical methods to obtain a better understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the triggered ion-exchange reaction upon activation of the photoactive compound. The driving force for the ion exchange is the light-induced acidity change of the chromoionophore. Activation with UV light generates a species in the membrane with an increased pKa. Protons are pulled into the membrane, and at the same time, ions are expelled. The selectivity of the system is determined by the employed ionophore. In contrast to photoresponsive ionophore-based systems, the concept presented here is applicable for virtually any ion of interest for which an ionophore exists. PMID:23387291

2013-01-01

167

Regulation of intestinal electroneutral sodium absorption and the brush border Na+/H+ exchanger by intracellular calcium.  

PubMed

The intestinal electroneutral Na(+) absorptive processes account for most small intestinal Na(+) absorption in the period between meals and also for the great majority of the increase in ileal Na(+) absorption that occurs postprandially. In most diarrheal diseases, there is inhibition of neutral NaCl absorption. Elevated levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) are known to inhibit NaCl absorption and involve multiple components of the Ca(2+) signaling pathway. The BB Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 accounts for most of the recognized digestive changes in neutral NaCl absorption, as well as most of the changes in Na(+) absorption that occur in diarrheal diseases. Previous studies have examined several aspects of Ca(2+) regulation of NHE3 activity. These include phosphorylation, protein trafficking, and multiprotein complex formation. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated the role of the NHERF family of PDZ domain-containing proteins in Ca(2+) regulation of NHE3 activity, thereby adding a new level of complexity to understanding Ca(2+)-dependent inhibition of Na(+) absorption. In this article, we will review the current understanding of (1) Ca(2+) signaling events in intestinal epithelial cells; (2) Ca(2+) regulation of intestinal electroneutral sodium absorption, which includes NHE3; and (3) the role of the NHERF family of PDZ domain-containing proteins in Ca(2+) regulation of NHE3 activity. We will also present new data on using advanced imaging showing rapid BB NHE3 endocytosis in response to elevated [Ca(2+)](i). PMID:19538312

Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

2009-05-01

168

Blockade of the sodium calcium exchanger exhibits anticonvulsant activity in a pilocarpine model of acute seizures in rats  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) may contribute to the etiology of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Here we further investigated the role of NCX in the etiology of seizures by quantifying the effects of KB-R7943 and SN-6, potent inhibitors of the reverse mode of NCX subtypes 3 (NCX3) and 1 (NCX1), respectively, on the occurrence of acute seizures and status epilepticus induced by intraperitoneal administration of pilocarpine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Pretreatment with KB-R7943 significantly reduced the incidence of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus in 22–56% of treated animals. In the remaining animals that exhibited seizures, KB-R7943 pretreatment delayed the onset of seizures and status epilepticus, and reduced seizure severity. Delayed onset of seizures and reduced seizure severity also were seen following pretreatment with SN-6. These findings suggest that altered NCX activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of pilocarpine-induced seizures and status epilepticus. PMID:20888801

Martinez, Yuris; N’Gouemo, Prosper

2010-01-01

169

Crystallization and aggregation behaviors of calcium carbonate in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

An anionic surfactant interacts strongly with a polymer molecule to form a self-assembled structure, due to the attractive force of the hydrophobic association and electrostatic repulsion. In this crystallization medium, the surfactant-stabilized inorganic particles adsorbed on the polymer chains, as well as the bridging effect of polymer molecules, controlled the aggregation behavior of colloidal particles. In this presentation, the spontaneous precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was conducted from the aqueous systems containing a water-soluble polymer (poly(vinylpyrrolidone), PVP) and an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). When the SDS concentrations were lower than the onset of interaction between PVP and SDS, the precipitated CaCO3 crystals were typically hexahedron-shaped calcite; the increasing SDS concentration caused the morphologies of CaCO3 aggregates to change from the flower-shaped calcite to hollow spherical calcite, then to solid spherical vaterite. These results indicate that the self-organized configurations of the polymer/surfactant supramolecules dominate the morphologies of CaCO3 aggregates, implying that this simple and versatile method expands the morphological investigation of the mineralization process. PMID:16853360

Shen, Qiang; Wei, Hao; Wang, Liancheng; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Zhiqing; Wang, Dujin; Xu, Guiying; Xu, Duanfu

2005-10-01

170

Effect of Sodium and Calcium Carbonates on Milk Production and Composition of Milk, Blood, and Rumen Contents of Cows Fed Grain Ad Libitum with Restricted Roughage1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Six cows were used in a Latin square design consisting of three periods of 28 days each and three treatments, grain plus sodium bicarbonate (1 lb\\/day), grain plus calcium carbonate (0.6 lb\\/day), and grain alone. Roughage was restricted to 2 lb hay\\/day and grain was fed ad libitum. Similarly, two groups of five cows each were used in a

R. S. Emery; L. D. Brown; J. W. Thomas

1964-01-01

171

Ultrathin calcium silicate hydrate nanosheets with large specific surface areas: synthesis, crystallization, layered self-assembly and applications as excellent adsorbents for drug, protein, and metal ions.  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost solution synthesis is reported for low-crystalline 1.4 nm tobermorite-like calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of ~2.8 nm and with a large specific surface area (SSA), via a reaction-rate-controlled precipitation process. The BET SSA of the CSH ultrathin nanosheets can reach as high as 505 m(2) g(-1) . The CSH ultrathin nanosheets have little cytotoxicity and can be converted to anhydrous calcium silicate (ACS) ultrathin nanosheets with a well preserved morphology via a heat treatment process. The crystallinity of CSH ultrathin nanosheets can be improved by solvothermal treatment in water/ethanol binary solvents or a single solvent of water, producing well-crystalline 1.1 nm tobermorite-like CSH nanobelts or nanosheets. CSH ultrathin nanosheets acting as building blocks can self-assemble into layered nanostructures via three different routes. The CSH ultrathin nanosheets are investigated as promising adsorbents for protein (hemoglobin, Hb), drug (ibuprofen, IBU), and metal ions (Cr(3+) , Ni(2+) , Cu(2+) , Zn(2+) , Cd(2+) , Pb(2+) ). The highest adsorbed percentages of Hb and IBU are found to be 83% and 94%, respectively. The highest adsorption capacities of Hb and IBU are found to be as high as 878 milligram Hb per gram CSH and 2.2 gram IBU per gram CSH, respectively. The ppm level metal ions can be totally adsorbed from aqueous solution in just a few minutes. Thus, the CSH ultrathin nanosheets are a promising candidate as excellent adsorbents in the biomedical field and for waste water treatment. Several empirical laws are summarized based on the adsorption profiles of Hb and IBU using CSH ultrathin nanosheets as the adsorbent. Furthermore, the ACS ultrathin nanosheets as adsorbents for Hb protein and IBU drug are investigated. PMID:23585365

Wu, Jin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Feng

2013-09-01

172

Effect of 10% sodium ascorbate on the calcium: Phosphorus ratio of enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide: An in vitro quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study assessed quantitatively the calcium and phosphorous loss from the enamel surface following bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and reversal with 10% sodium ascorbate using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Materials and Methods: Eight non-carious, freshly extracted human permanent maxillary central incisors without any visible defects were used. Each specimen was bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by light and reversed with sodium ascorbate antioxidant gel. The calcium and phosphorous content in weight percent of sound, bleached and reversed enamel was acquired using EDAX. The Ca/P ratio was calculated from the obtained data. One-way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc Tukey test was used for comparing the Ca/P ratio of sound, bleached and reversed enamel. Results: All the samples subjected to bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide showed a statistically significant decrease in the Ca/P ratio as compared with samples in which no bleaching procedure was performed (P-value < 0.01). The striking finding was that there was a significant increase in the Ca/P ratio on application of sodium ascorbate antioxidant gel when compared with the bleached enamel (P-value < 0.01). Conclusion: The authors concluded that 35% hydrogen peroxide causes a significant decrease in the Ca/P ratio. This decrease in the Ca/P ratio can be restored by the application of 10% sodium ascorbate antioxidant gel. PMID:22114425

Poorni, Saravanan; Kumar, R. Anil; Shankar, P.; Indira, Rajamani; Ramachandran, S.

2010-01-01

173

Molecular basis of calpain cleavage and inactivation of the sodium-calcium exchanger 1 in heart failure.  

PubMed

Cardiac sodium (Na(+))-calcium (Ca(2+)) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is central to the maintenance of normal Ca(2+) homeostasis and contraction. Studies indicate that the Ca(2+)-activated protease calpain cleaves NCX1. We hypothesized that calpain is an important regulator of NCX1 in response to pressure overload and aimed to identify molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of calpain binding and cleavage of NCX1 in the heart. NCX1 full-length protein and a 75-kDa NCX1 fragment along with calpain were up-regulated in aortic stenosis patients and rats with heart failure. Patients with coronary artery disease and sham-operated rats were used as controls. Calpain co-localized, co-fractionated, and co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1 in rat cardiomyocytes and left ventricle lysate. Immunoprecipitations, pull-down experiments, and extensive use of peptide arrays indicated that calpain domain III anchored to the first Ca(2+) binding domain in NCX1, whereas the calpain catalytic region bound to the catenin-like domain in NCX1. The use of bioinformatics, mutational analyses, a substrate competitor peptide, and a specific NCX1-Met(369) antibody identified a novel calpain cleavage site at Met(369). Engineering NCX1-Met(369) into a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site revealed that specific cleavage at Met(369) inhibited NCX1 activity (both forward and reverse mode). Finally, a short peptide fragment containing the NCX1-Met(369) cleavage site was modeled into the narrow active cleft of human calpain. Inhibition of NCX1 activity, such as we have observed here following calpain-induced NCX1 cleavage, might be beneficial in pathophysiological conditions where increased NCX1 activity contributes to cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25336645

Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Hodne, Kjetil; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Lunde, Ida Gjervold; Dalhus, Bjørn; Lunde, Marianne; Kvaløy, Heidi; Louch, William Edward; Tønnessen, Theis; Sjaastad, Ivar; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

2014-12-01

174

Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

1984-04-01

175

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Structure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates. I. Ca 4+ xSi 6O 14+2 x(OH) 4-2 x(H 2O) 2(0 ? x? 1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics has been used to simulate the structure of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) having Ca/Si ratios of 0.66 and 0.83. In the absence of labile calcium, silicon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shows that the tetrahedral chains move closer together than predicted by the tobermorite model initially adopted. This proximity may lead to bridging between the chains. In the presence of labile calcium, there is a partial rupture of the chains, as seen with NMR. The instability of the bridging tetrahedra in the initial structure causes this rupture. The dissociation of a water molecule releases the oxygen necessary for the reaction. The rupture of the chains creates two new types of tetrahedra in the structure (Q1(2H) and Q1(1H)).

Faucon, P.; Delaye, J. M.; Virlet, J.

1996-11-01

176

Early age hydration of calcium sulfoaluminate (synthetic ye'elimite, C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}) in the presence of gypsum and varying amounts of calcium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect

Suspensions of synthetic ye'elimite (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}) in a saturated gypsum (CS{sup ¯}H{sub 2}) and calcium hydroxide (CH) solution were examined in-situ in a wet cell by soft X-ray transmission microscopy and ex-situ by scanning electron microscopy. The most voluminous hydration product observed was ettringite. Ettringite commonly displayed acicular, filiform, reticulated, and stellate crystal habits. Additionally, pastes with C{sub 4}A{sub 3}S{sup ¯}, 15% CS{sup ¯}H{sub 2}, and varying amounts of CH were prepared and examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and isothermal calorimetry. The XRD experiments showed that increasing CH content caused more solid solution (SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}/OH{sup ?}) AFm phases to form at early ages (< 1 d) and more monosulfate to form at later ages (> 1 d). Calorimetry indicated that the increased production of solid solution AFm was accompanied with an increase in the initial (< 30 min) rate of heat evolution, and increasing CH generally reduced the time till the second maximum rate of heat evolution due to the formation of ettringite and monosulfate.

Hargis, Craig W. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchheim, Ana Paula [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)] [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gartner, Ellis M. [Lafarge Centre de Recherche, St. Quentin Fallavier, Isere (France)] [Lafarge Centre de Recherche, St. Quentin Fallavier, Isere (France)

2013-06-15

177

Insight into elastic behavior of calcium silicate hydrated oxide (C-S-H) under pressure and composition effect  

SciTech Connect

The present work relates to the study of structural and elastic properties of Tobermorite 11 A as a function of external pressure and composition in terms of calcium to silicon ratio. Basing on the lattice dynamics method, the main aim of this work is precisely to shed light, for the first time, on the high pressure structural phase transition in Tobermorite 11 A and the possible correlation with some elastic quantities. In order to check the transferability of the potentials used we have, additionally, performed a single calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT) for a pressure of 15 GPa in the case of Ca/Si = 1. The variation of the unit cell parameters with pressure indicates that Tobermorite 11 A undergoes a structural instability around 15 GPa along b-axis and around 20 GPa along a-axis which is confirmed from our calculations of X-Rays diffraction patterns at various pressure values. We have also observed the anisotropic character of the Tobermorite structure for both cases (Ca/Si = 1 and Ca/Si = 0.83). Our results show that around 20 GPa an important change appears in the elastic behaviour of Tobermorite. As pressure increases the calculated elastic quantities for Ca/Si = 1 became closer to those evaluated for Ca/Si = 0.83, which may stimulate further experimental and theoretical research on the matter.

Zaoui, Ali, E-mail: azaoui@polytech-lille.fr

2012-02-15

178

Hydrate detection  

SciTech Connect

Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

1992-01-01

179

Hydrate detection  

SciTech Connect

Project objectives were: (1) to create methods of analyzing gas hydrates in natural sea-floor sediments, using available data, (2) to make estimates of the amount of gas hydrates in marine sediments, (3) to map the distribution of hydrates, (4) to relate concentrations of gas hydrates to natural processes and infer the factors that control hydrate concentration or that result in loss of hydrate from the sea floor. (VC)

Dillon, W.P.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

1992-06-01

180

Crystallization of calcium oxalate in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Quantitative assessment of the effect of the surfactant on crystal growth and aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative treatment of the influence of sodium dodecyl sulphate, (Na(C12H25SO4)2; NaDS) on the crystal growth and aggregation of calcium oxalates in spontaneously precipitating system is given. The experiments\\u000a are carried out under the conditions close to those in urine of stone-formers (310 K, pH=6.5, ionic strength I=0.3 mol dm?3, molar ratio c\\u000a init (Ca)\\/c\\u000a init (C2O4)=33.3). The formation of

D. Škrti?; N. Filipovi?-Vincekovi?

181

Hydration-Coupled Dynamics in Proteins Studied by Neutron Scattering and NMR: The Case of the Typical EF-Hand Calcium-Binding Parvalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of hydration on the internal dynamics of a typical EF-hand calciprotein, parvalbumin, was investigated by incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (IQNS) and solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy using the powdered protein at different hydration levels. Both approaches establish an increase in protein dynamics upon progressive hydration above a threshold that only corresponds to partial coverage of the protein surface by the

Jean-Marc Zanotti; Marie-Claire Bellissent-Funel; Joseph Parello

1999-01-01

182

Trace Element Analysis as an Exploration Tool for Unconfined Class 2 Hydrate Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrate system analysis, analogous to hydrocarbon system analysis, is based on confirming significant gas flux, suitable thickness of hydrate stability zone, and suitably porous and permeable hydrate 'trap' beds in which economically significant hydrate crystallization may take place. Unconfined Class 2 hydrate deposits, which form by crystallization of dissolved natural gas in more porous and permeable sediments whose pore fluids may vent from the seafloor carry the dissolved rejected material. Analysis of superficial pore or vent water may provide a sensitive means of suggesting whether the water was once associated with hydrate crystallization. The rejection of dissolved ions and compounds during carbon dioxide hydrate precipitation on a chilled surface was determined to quantify the reject rate of specific materials from the hydrate matrix. Seawater and seawater doped with boric acid (H3BO3, MW 61.83 g/mol) and sodium borate decahydrate (Na2B4O7*10H2O, MW 381.37 g/mol) were used as crystallization solvents. Initial boron concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 27mg/L. Hydrate formation occurred with significant rejection of boron from the hydrate matrix, increasing the concentration in the crystallizing fluid. The initial boron concentration level did not affect the rejection efficiency, determined by comparing the initial concentration of boron to the concentration in the hydrate melt water. In addition to boron, naturally occurring calcium and magnesium concentration levels were also studied and showed a similar concentration reduction. Our experiments have shown that non-ionic dissolved species that occur in sediment pore water, in which hydrate may form, are rejected and concentrated during hydrate formation. The measurement of NaCl may provide a clue to the water having once been involved in subjacent hydrate formation, but other species that do not have additional crystallization opportunities in the sediment may be better clues to the extent of a hydrate formation. Identification of characteristic indicators of hydrate system participation would allow rapid sampling and analysis of seafloor water samples to be used as an exploration tool.

Johnson, A. D.; Max, M. P.; Osegovic, J. P.; Brazel, L.; Tatro, S.

2007-12-01

183

Populus euphratica Displays Apoplastic Sodium Accumulation, Osmotic Adjustment by Decreases in Calcium and Soluble Carbohydrates, and Develops Leaf Succulence under Salt Stress1[W  

PubMed Central

Populus euphratica Olivier is known to exist in saline and arid environments. In this study we investigated the physiological mechanisms enabling this species to cope with stress caused by salinity. Acclimation to increasing Na+ concentrations required adjustments of the osmotic pressure of leaves, which were achieved by accumulation of Na+ and compensatory decreases in calcium and soluble carbohydrates. The counterbalance of Na+/Ca2+ was also observed in mature leaves from field-grown P. euphratica trees exposed to an environmental gradient of increasing salinity. X-ray microanalysis showed that a primary strategy to protect the cytosol against sodium toxicity was apoplastic but not vacuolar salt accumulation. The ability to cope with salinity also included maintenance of cytosolic potassium concentrations and development of leaf succulence due to an increase in cell number and cell volume leading to sodium dilution. Decreases in apoplastic and vacuolar Ca2+ combined with suppression of calcineurin B-like protein transcripts suggest that Na+ adaptation required suppression of calcium-related signaling pathways. Significant increases in galactinol synthase and alternative oxidase after salt shock and salt adaptation point to shifts in carbohydrate metabolism and suppression of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria under salt stress. PMID:16299175

Ottow, Eric A.; Brinker, Monika; Teichmann, Thomas; Fritz, Eberhard; Kaiser, Werner; Brosché, Mikael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

2005-01-01

184

ELECTROPHORESIS OF BACTERIA AS INFLUENCED BY HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION AND THE PRESENCE OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM SALTS  

PubMed Central

1. We have confirmed the results of earlier workers particularly of Northrop and De Kruif in regard to the following points: (a) the general tendency of the bacterial cell when suspended in distilled water near the zone of neutrality to move toward the anode of an electrical field; (b) the fact that the migration of bacterial cells in the electrical field is a function of the reaction of the menstruum. The curve obtained by plotting velocity of migration against pH passes through an isoelectric point at about pH 3.0, at greater acidity the direction of migration becomes reversed (toward the cathode) and in still more acid solution (pH = 1.0) again disappears; while at reactions less acid than pH 3.0 the velocity is toward the anode and increases with increasing alkalinity; (c) the fact that neutral salts depress the velocity of migration, calcium salts being much more effective than sodium salts of the same concentration. 2. We further find: (a) that on the extreme alkaline side of the curve of velocity of migration plotted against pH a maximum value is reached at about pH 10 with a fall at about pH 12.0 which in many experiments reaches an isopotential point; (b) that the depressing effect of salts is accompanied by a general shifting of the curve of migration velocity so that a maximum velocity (of course absolutely less than that manifest in the absence of salts) appears at about pH 7.0 and an abolition of velocity at pH 9.0 to 10.0; (c) that an apparent "antagonistic" effect is indicated between CaCl2 and NaCl, the presence of a certain concentration of the latter salt diminishing to a slight but definite degree the depressing effect produced by the former; (d) that heat-killed bacterial cells exhibit essentially the same curve of migration velocity as that of the living cells; (e) that bacterial spores exhibit the same general curve of migration velocity as vegetative cells, although the actual velocity is apparently slightly less. 3. All of the observed phenomena appear to be in accord with the assumption that marked differences in dielectric constants did not appear under the conditions studied and if this assumption be granted the results are in accord with the fundamental postulates of the Donnan equilibrium as applied to the explanation of the origin of potential difference between a bacterial cell and its enveloping menstruum. It is possible but not at all certain that the phenomenon of antagonism may require the introduction of additional assumptions for its explanation. Professor Donnan and other investigators have clearly understood the importance of applying the concept of membrane equilibria in the elucidation of physiological phenomena. Our findings add to the numerous vindications favoring this view and emphasize the importance of further study of membrane equilibria in bacterial suspensions. We have pointed out that certain potential differences between bacteria and their menstrua are apparently associated with some of the phenomena of viability. Viability and potential differences may, however, under certain conditions vary quite independently as evidenced by the fact that normal rates of migration are demonstrable after the cells have been killed by heat. Thus, considerable caution must be exercised in relating the existence of these charges to the metabolism of the cell. PMID:19872061

Winslow, C.-E. A.; Falk, I. S.; Caulfield, M. F.

1923-01-01

185

The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste and sodium fluoride mouthwash on the prevention of dentine erosion: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The purpose was to compare the effect of 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste on prevention of dentin erosion. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 36 sound premolar teeth were ground flat and polished with abrasive discs. Half the polished surfaces were covered with tape to maintain a reference surface. Samples were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A was pretreated with tooth mousse (TM) 4 times a day for 5 days. Group B was pretreated with 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash 4 times a day for 5 days. Group C was considered as the control group with no pretreatment. In the next step, the samples were exposed to Coca-Cola 4 times a day for 3 days. After each erosive cycle, the samples were rinsed with deionized water and stored in artificial saliva. The surface loss was determined using profilometry. Results: The erosion in both Groups A and B was less than the control group. The surface loss in mouthwash group was significantly lower than in the control group. Erosion in TM group was more than the mouthwash group and less than the control group. Conclusion: Sodium fluoride mouthwash is more effective for prevention of dentin erosion. PMID:24944448

Moezizadeh, Maryam; Alimi, Azar

2014-01-01

186

Circadian Models of Serum Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium Concentrations in Healthy Individuals and Their Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations at Individual Level  

PubMed Central

In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa

2013-01-01

187

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates  

E-print Network

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these ...

Ulm, Franz-Josef

188

Terahertz spectroscopy of concrete for evaluating the critical hydration level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concrete, a mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, sand and filler material (if any), is widely used in the construction industry. Cement, mainly composed of Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) reacts readily with water, a process known as hydration. The hydration process forms a solid material known as hardened cement paste which is mainly composed of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. To quantify the critical hydration level, an accurate and fast technique is highly desired. However, in conventional XRD technique, the peaks of the constituents of anhydrated and hydrated cement cannot be resolved properly, where as Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has low penetration depth and hence cannot be used to determine the hydration level of thicker concrete samples easily. Further, MIR spectroscopy cannot be used to effectively track the formation of Calcium Hydroxide, a key by-product during the hydration process. This paper describes a promising approach to quantify the hydration dynamics of cement using Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. This technique has been employed to track the time dependent reaction mechanism of the key constituents of cement that react with water and form the products in the hydrated cement, viz., C-S-H, Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. This study helps in providing an improved understanding on the hydration kinetics of cement and also to optimise the physio-mechanical characteristics of concrete.

Dash, Jyotirmayee; Ray, Shaumik; Nallappan, Kathirvel; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

2014-03-01

189

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

190

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

191

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

192

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

193

Double cross-polarization MAS NMR in the assignment of abundant-spin resonances: 19F-{29Si}-19F FBCP/MAS NMR of fluoride ions incorporated in calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new version of the double cross-polarization MAS NMR experiment, which transfers polarization Forth and Back (FBCP) between high- and low-? spin nuclei, is presented. The pulse sequence is demonstrated by 19F-{29Si}-19F and 19F-{13C}-19F FBCP NMR spectra of a mixture of cuspidine (Ca4Si2O7F2) and Teflon (-CF2-)n. The experiment is useful for assignment of the high-? spin resonances, as demonstrated by 19F-{29Si}-19F FBCP NMR of a fluoride-containing calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, where the 19F resonance from fluoride ions incorporated in the interlayer structure of the C-S-H phase is identified.

Tran, Thuan T.; Bildsøe, Henrik; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Jørgen

2012-08-01

194

Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets  

DOEpatents

A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01

195

Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

1987-05-01

196

TRPM8 and Nav1.8 sodium channels are required for transthyretin-induced calcium influx in growth cones of small-diameter TrkA-positive sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a peripheral neuropathy caused by the extracellular accumulation and deposition of insoluble transthyretin (TTR) aggregates. However the molecular mechanism that underlies TTR toxicity in peripheral nerves is unclear. Previous studies have suggested that amyloidogenic proteins can aggregate into oligomers which disrupt intracellular calcium homeostasis by increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane to extracellular calcium. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of TTR on calcium influx in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Results Levels of intracellular cytosolic calcium were monitored in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from embryonic rats using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fluo4. An amyloidogenic mutant form of TTR, L55P, induced calcium influx into the growth cones of DRG neurons, whereas wild-type TTR had no significant effect. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies confirmed that the L55P TTR contained oligomeric species of TTR. The effect of L55P TTR was decreased by blockers of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), as well as by blockers of Nav1.8 voltage-gated sodium channels and transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channels. siRNA knockdown of TRPM8 channels using three different TRPM8 siRNAs strongly inhibited calcium influx in DRG growth cones. Conclusions These data suggest that activation of TRPM8 channels triggers the activation of Nav1.8 channels which leads to calcium influx through VGCC. We suggest that TTR-induced calcium influx into DRG neurons may contribute to the pathophysiology of FAP. Furthermore, we speculate that similar mechanisms may mediate the toxic effects of other amyloidogenic proteins such as the ?-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21375738

2011-01-01

197

Comparison of a dual-phase fluoride toothpaste containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate with a regular fluoride toothpaste on calculus formation.  

PubMed

This clinical study compared the effect on dental calculus formation of a dual-phase fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate, calcium, and phosphate with that of a regular dentifrice using a short-term clinical model in which calculus formation was facilitated. A total of 87 adult volunteers completed this study, which was a double-blind, parallel-group design, consisting of 2-week pretrial and trial periods separated by a washout period. A partial-mouth technique was used wherein the lower anterior teeth were protected from brushing by a custom-fitted toothshield, which doubled as an applicator for an undiluted dentifrice, twice daily. Calculus was measured on the labial/lingual surfaces of six lower anterior teeth by the Volpe-Manhold Index (V-MI). Subjects used a non-tartar-control dentifrice during the pretrial period to determine calculus formation rates, and these V-MI scores were used as baseline data for random allocation to either a control or test product for the trial period. Subjects who were accepted into the study, based on existing tartar deposits, readily formed calculus during the pretrial period using the toothshield method. During the trial period, subjects who were assigned the test dentifrice had comparable amounts of calculus accumulation to those who used the control dentifrice. However, subjects in the test dentifrice group had significantly lower (16%) calculus scores on lingual surfaces than those in the control group. Intragroup comparisons of V-MI data from the pretrial period with those from the trial period provided similar overall results to the comparisons between groups. This study demonstrated that a dual-phase baking soda dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate did not increase calculus accumulation relative to a regular dentifrice when used by adults with a propensity for developing calculus. PMID:15645907

Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Ghassemi, Annahita

2004-09-01

198

Cement & Concrete Science Conference: Leeds, 2009 Hydration of alite containing aluminium  

E-print Network

Cement & Concrete Science Conference: Leeds, 2009 Hydration of alite containing aluminium Begarin in cement is tricalcium silicate which leads during its hydration to the nucleation and growth of calcium silicate hydrate (referred to C-S-H (CaO)x-SiO2-(H2O)y). The development of this hydrate around the cement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Bioactive effects of a calcium/sodium phosphosilicate on the resin-dentine interface: a microtensile bond strength, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated, through microtensile bond strength (?TBS) testing, the bioactive effects of a calcium/sodium phosphosilicate (BAG) at the resin-dentine interface after 6 months of storage in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were also performed. Three bonding protocols were evaluated: (i) RES-Ctr (no use of BAG), (ii) BAG containing adhesive (BAG-AD), and (iii) BAG/H (3) PO (4) before adhesive (BAG-PR). The dentin-bonded specimens were prepared for ?TBS testing, which was carried out after 24 h or 6 months of storage in PBS. Scanning electron microscopy ultramorphology analysis was performed after debonding. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological and nanoleakage changes induced by PBS storage. High ?TBS values were achieved in all groups after 24 h of storage in PBS. Subsequent to 6 months of storage in PBS the specimens created using the BAG-AD bonding approach still showed no significant reduction in ?TBS. Moreover, specimens created using the BAG-AD or the BAG-PR approach showed an evident reduction of nanoleakage after prolonged storage in PBS. The use of BAG-containing adhesive may enhance the durability of the resin-dentine bonds through therapeutic/protective effects associated with mineral deposition within the bonding interface and a possible interference with collagenolytic enzyme activity (matrix metalloproteinases) responsible for the degradation of the hybrid layer. PMID:22813227

Profeta, Andrea C; Mannocci, Francesco; Foxton, Richard M; Thompson, Ian; Watson, Timothy F; Sauro, Salvatore

2012-08-01

200

Determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by using a microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric method after closed-vessel microwave digestion: method validation.  

PubMed

This paper describes a validation process in compliance with the NFIEN ISO/IEC 17025 standard for the determination of the macrominerals calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by microsampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry after closed-vessel microwave digestion. The French Standards Commission (Agence Francaise de Normalisation) standards NF V03-110, NF EN V03-115, and XP T-90-210 were used to evaluate this method. The method was validated in the context of an analysis of the 1322 food samples of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Several performance criteria (linearity, LOQ, specificity, trueness, precision under repeatability conditions, and intermediate precision reproducibility) were evaluated. Furthermore, the method was monitored by several internal quality controls. The LOQ values obtained (25, 5, 8.3, and 8.3 mg/kg for Ca, Mg, Na, and K, respectively) were in compliance with the needs of the TDS. The method provided accurate results as demonstrated by a repeatability CV (CVr) of < 7% and a reproducibility CV (CVR) of < 12% for all the elements. Therefore, the results indicated that this method could be used in the laboratory for the routine determination of these four elements in foodstuffs with acceptable analytical performance. PMID:21313817

Chekri, Rachida; Noël, Laurent; Vastel, Christelle; Millour, Sandrine; Kadar, Ali; Guérin, Thierry

2010-01-01

201

Tunable color temperature solid state white light source using flux grown phosphor crystals of Eu3+, Dy3+ and Tb3+ activated calcium sodium molybdenum oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state light sources with dynamically tunable color temperature in the range of 3000-6000 K with chromaticity coordinates lying on the Planckian black body curve has been designed using mixtures of narrow emissions at 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm. These respective emissions lines were generated by individual phosphor crystals of trivalent rare earth (RE3+) species, europium (Eu3+), dysprosium (Dy3+) and terbium (Tb3+) activated calcium sodium molybdenum oxide (Ca1-2xNaxMoO4:RE3+x), when excited by near-ultra-violet (NUV) light emitting diode (LED) with emission wavelength of 380 nm. Highly luminescent crystals of these compounds have been grown from molten solutions (flux) of molybdenum (VI) oxide. The flux grown crystals exhibit emission intensity 2-4 times more than phosphor powders of the same compounds synthesized by traditional solid-state reactions. An optimum flux to solute ratio of 2.5 and solute dissolution temperature of 1100 °C resulted in the largest size crystals.

Khanna, A.; Dutta, P. S.

2014-11-01

202

Emissions of alkaline elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium from open sources in the contiguous United States  

SciTech Connect

Models of dust emissions by wind erosion (including winds associated with regional activity as well as dust devils) and vehicular disturbances of unpaved roads were developed, calibrated, and used to estimate alkaline dust emissions from elemental soil and road composition data. Emissions from tillage of soils were estimated form the work of previous researchers. The area of maximum dust production by all of those sources is the area of the old Dust Bowl' of the 1930s (the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma, eastern New Mexico and Colorado, and western Kansas). The areas of maximum alkaline dust production are the arid southwest, the Dust Bowl,' and the midwestern-mideastern states from Iowa to Pennsylvania. Our calculations show that calcium is the dominant alkaline element produced by open sources' (sources too great in extent to be controlled by enclosure or ducting). Although the largest dust mass source is wind erosion (by winds associated with regional activity and convective activity), the largest producer of the alkaline component is road dust because the abundance of alkaline materials in road coverings (which include crushed limestone) is significantly higher than for soils. Comparing the above estimated sources of alkaline material with inventories of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions by previous investigators gives the rough approximation that alkaline emission rates are of the order of the SO[sub 2] + NO[sub x] emissions in the western United States and that they are much smaller than SO[sub 2] + NO[sub x] in the eastern United States. This approximation is substantiated by data on Ca/(SO[sub 4] + NO[sub 3]) for wet deposition for National Atmospheric Deposition Program sites. 53 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Gillette, D.A. (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)); Stensland, G.J.; Williams, A.L.; Barnard, W.; Gatz, D. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Sinclair, P.C. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)); Johnson, T.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1992-12-01

203

Osteoblastic differentiation under controlled bioactive ion release by silica and titania doped sodium-free calcium phosphate-based glass.  

PubMed

Sodium-free phosphate-based glasses (PGs) doped with both SiO2 and TiO2 (50P2O5-40CaO-xSiO2-(10-x)TiO2, where x=10, 7, 5, 3, and 0mol%) were developed and characterised for controlled ion release applications in bone tissue engineering. Substituting SiO2 with TiO2 directly increased PG density and glass transition temperature, indicating a cross-linking effect of Ti on the glass network which was reflected by significantly reduced degradation rates in an aqueous environment. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of Ti(P2O7) in crystallised TiO2-containing PGs, and nuclear magnetic resonance showed an increase in Q(1) phosphate species with increasing TiO2 content. Substitution of SiO2 with TiO2 also reduced hydrophilicity and surface energy. In biological assays, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts effectively adhered to the surface of PG discs and the incorporation of TiO2, and hence higher stability of the PG network, significantly increased cell viability and metabolic activity indicating the biocompatibility of the PGs. Addition of SiO2 increased ionic release from the PG, which stimulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells upon ion exposure. The incorporation of 3mol% TiO2 was required to stabilise the PG network against unfavourable rapid degradation in aqueous environments. However, ALP activity was greatest in PGs doped with 5-7mol% SiO2 due to up-regulation of ionic concentrations. Thus, the properties of PGs can be readily controlled by modifying the extent of Si and Ti doping in order to optimise ion release and osteoblastic differentiation for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24945606

Shah Mohammadi, Maziar; Chicatun, Florencia; Stähli, Christoph; Muja, Naser; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

2014-09-01

204

40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721.2076 Protection...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS...

2012-07-01

205

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum  

E-print Network

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Sodium Silicate, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite1 This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium

Ahmad, Sajjad

206

Use of calcium, potassium, and sodium lactates to control germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores during chilling of injected pork.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during abusive chilling regimes was investigated by the incorporation of lactates of calcium (CaL), potassium (KL) and sodium (NaL) in injected pork. Lactates (Ca, K, or Na) were incorporated into injected pork samples at four different concentrations (1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 4.8%), along with a no-lactate control. A three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores was inoculated into the product (injected pork) to obtain a final spore population of ca. 2.0-2.5 log(10)CFU/g. Chilling of injected pork (control) from 54.4 to 7.2 degrees C within 6.5, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 h exponential chill rates resulted in C. perfringens population increases of 0.49, 2.40, 4.02, 5.03, 6.24, and 6.30 log(10)CFU/g, respectively. Addition of CaL at 1.0% or KL and NaL > or = 2.0% to injected pork was able to control C. perfringens germination and outgrowth to <1 logCFU/g, meeting the USDA-FSIS performance standard. However, extension of chilling rates beyond 9.0 h (up to 21 h) required addition of CaL ( > or = 2.0%), KL or NaL ( > or = 3.0%) to meet the stabilization performance standard. In general, CaL was more effective compared to KL or NaL for all the chilling regimes, in reducing the potential risk of C. perfringens germination and outgrowth. PMID:17613365

Reddy Velugoti, Padmanabha; Rajagopal, Lakshman; Juneja, Vijay; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

2007-01-01

207

Identification of the sodium-calcium exchanger as the major ricin-binding glycoprotein of bovine rod outer segments and its localization to the plasma membrane  

SciTech Connect

After neuraminidase treatment the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger of bovine rod outer segments was found to specifically bind Ricinus communis agglutinin. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of ricin-binding proteins purified from rod outer segment membranes by lectin affinity chromatography revealed the existence of two major polypeptides of M{sub r} 215K and 103K, the former of which was found to specifically react with PMe 1B3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the 230-kDa non-neuraminidase-treated Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger. Reconstitution of the ricin affinity-purified exchanger into calcium-containing liposomes revealed that neuraminidase treatment had no significant effect on the kinetics of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange activation by sodium. The authors further investigated the density of the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger in disk and plasma membrane preparations using Western blotting, radioimmunoassays, immunoelectron microscopy, and reconstitution procedures. The results indicate that the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger is localized in the rod photoreceptor plasma membrane and is absent or present in extremely low concentrations in disk membranes, as they have previously shown to be the case for the cGMP-gated cation channel. Previous reports describing the existence of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange activity in rod outer segment disk membrane preparations may be due to the fusion of plasma membrane components and/or the presence of contaminating plasma membrane vesicles.

Reid, D.M.; Molday, R.S. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Friedel, U.; Cook, N.J. (Max-Planck Institut fur Biophysik, Frankfurt (West Germany))

1990-02-13

208

Effects of a Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize treated with sodium metabisulphite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide in diets for female piglets.  

PubMed

Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) contaminated maize was hydrothermally treated in the presence of sodium metabisulphite (SBS), methylamine and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and included into diets for female piglets to evaluate effects on performance, organ weights, development of hyperestrogenism, serum biochemical parameters, stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and toxin residues in serum. For this purpose, both uncontaminated maize (CON) and Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize (FUS) were included into diets either untreated (-) or treated (+) according to a 2 by 2-factorial design. One-hundred female weaned piglets were assigned to one of the four treatment groups (n = 25) CON-, CON+, FUS- and FUS+ with DON/ZEN concentrations of 0.43/0.03, 0.04/0.0, 3.67/0.32 and 0.36/0.08 mg per kg diet, respectively. After a feeding period of 27 days, 20 piglets (n = 5) were slaughtered. Performance parameters such as feed intake, live weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio remained unaffected by the treatments. Uterus weights were significantly reduced in group FUS+ compared to FUS- (p = 0.028), while visceral organ weights were not influenced. Vulva width in relation to body weight was highest in group FUS- at the end of the trial, while hydrothermal treatment significantly reduced the parameter (p < 0.01). The highest toxin and toxin metabolite concentrations in serum were detected in group FUS-, whereas ingestion of diet FUS+ reduced the concentrations to the level of the control groups. Serum biochemical and haematological parameters were mainly within the given reference ranges and showed no treatment-related alterations. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected. An effective detoxification of maize by hydrothermal treatment in the presence of SBS, methylamine and Ca(OH)2 could be demonstrated by means of serum toxin analyses. No undesired side effects of the treated-feed stuff or the chemicals themselves on the health of piglets were detected. PMID:23859352

Rempe, Inga; Brezina, Ulrike; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven

2013-08-01

209

Effectiveness of a calcium sodium phosphosilicate containing prophylaxis paste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately and 4 weeks after a single application: a double-blind randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Aims The aim of this single-site, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 3-arm parallel study was to determine the effectiveness of a prophylaxis paste containing 15% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS; NovaMin®) with and without fluoride in reducing dentine hypersensitivity immediately after a single application and 28 days following dental scaling and root planing. Materials & Methods Overall, 151 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects received a scaling and root planing procedure followed by a final prophylaxis step using one of three different prophylaxis pastes: Test-A (15% NovaMin® and NaF), Test-B (15% NovaMin®) and a control. Dentine hypersensitivity was assessed by tactile stimulus (Yeaple Probe®) and by air blast (Schiff scale) at baseline, immediately after and 28 days after a prophylaxis procedure. One hundred and forty-nine subjects completed the study. Results Subjects having received the test prophylaxis pastes showed statistically lower (anova, p < 0.05) dentine hypersensitivity compared with the control group immediately after the prophylaxis procedure (Yeaple Probe®: Test-A = 20.9 ± 12.6, Test-B = 22.7 ± 12.9, Control=11.2 ± 3.1; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.1 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.1 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7) and after 28 days (Yeaple probe: Test-A = 21.5 ± 11.9, Test-B = 20.6 ± 11.3, Control = 11.8 ± 6.0; Schiff score: Test-A = 1.0 ± 0.6, Test-B = 1.0 ± 0.6, Control = 2.0 ± 0.7). Conclusions In conclusion, the single application of both fluoridated and non-fluoridated prophylaxis pastes containing 15% CSPS (NovaMin®) provided a significant reduction of dentine hypersensitivity up to at least 28 days. PMID:23414245

Neuhaus, Klaus W; Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Mongiello, Kimberly A; Simonton, Thomas C; Clark, Courtney E; Proskin, Howard M; Seemann, Rainer

2013-01-01

210

Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p?0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p?0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p?0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p?0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

2002-06-01

211

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the...

2010-04-01

212

Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na?S?O?) and calcium chloride (CaCl?) on changes in NH?(+)?N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg?¹, UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O? and UN+CaCl? and incubated at 22°C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH?? disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO??-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH?(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO??-N kg?¹ was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg?¹) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O?, and UN+CaCl?, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na?S?O? proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

2011-03-01

213

Normal pregnancy: mechanisms underlying the paradox of a ouabain-resistant state with elevated endogenous ouabain, suppressed arterial sodium calcium exchange, and low blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS) raise blood pressure (BP) via vascular sodium calcium exchange (NCX1.3) and transient receptor-operated channels (TRPCs). Circulating CTS are superelevated in pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. However, their significance in normal pregnancy, where BP is low, is paradoxical. Here we test the hypothesis that vascular resistance to endogenous ouabain (EO) develops in normal pregnancy and is mediated by reduced expression of NCX1.3 and TRPCs. We determined plasma and adrenal levels of EO and the impact of exogenous ouabain in pregnancy on arterial expression of Na+ pumps, NCX1.3, TRPC3, and TRPC6 and BP. Pregnant (embryonic day 4) and nonpregnant rats received infusions of ouabain or vehicle. At 14–16 days, tissues and plasma were collected for blotting and EO assay by radioimmunoassay (RIA), liquid chromatography (LC)-RIA, and LC-multidimensional mass spectrometry (MS3). BP (?8 mmHg; P < 0.05) and NCX1.3 expression fell (aorta ?60% and mesenteric artery ?30%; P < 0.001) in pregnancy while TRPC expression was unchanged. Circulating EO increased (1.14 ± 0.13 nM) vs. nonpregnant (0.6 ± 0.08 nM; P < 0.05) and was confirmed by LC-MS3 and LC-RIA. LC-MS3 revealed two previously unknown isomers of EO; one increased ?90-fold in pregnancy. Adrenal EO but not isomers were increased in pregnancy. In nonpregnant rats, similar infusions of ouabain raised BP (+24 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.001). In ouabain-infused rats, impaired fetal and placental growth occurred with no BP increase. In summary, normal pregnancy is an ouabain-resistant state associated with low BP, elevated circulating levels of EO, two novel steroidal EO isomers, and increased adrenal mass and EO content. Ouabain raises BP only in nonpregnant animals. Vascular resistance to the chronic pressor activity of endogenous and exogenous ouabain is mediated by suppressed NCX1.3 and reduced sensitivity of events downstream of Ca2+ entry. The mechanisms of EO resistance and the impaired fetal and placental growth due to elevated ouabain may be important in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and preeclampsia (PE). PMID:22245773

Jacobs, Brandiese E.; Liu, Yong; Pulina, Maria V.; Golovina, Vera A.

2012-01-01

214

The growth and chemical composition of soybeans as influenced by varying sulphur applications, varying soluble salts and varying calcium: sodium ratios  

E-print Network

Salt?a and CatciumxSodium Ratto on the Yield of Toyex Yield of Recta SAlt Tet?1 Yield Of Scybeane ~ s e ~ X s ~ ~ y ~ ~ ~ 13 The Effect of t, he Combinatione of Sulphur' Soluble SaLtex and CalsiumxSodium Ratio on the Tt?ld of Tepefy Yield cf Routes...

Peters, Doyle Burne

2012-06-07

215

Olefin hydration  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for the hydration of olefins to alcohols is described wherein the improvement comprises contacting said olefins with the catalytic composition comprising a perfluorinated ion-exchange polymer containing sulfonic acid groups supported on an inert carrier wherein said carrier comprises calcined shot coke with a mean pore diameter of about 1,000 Angstroms in the presence of water at a temperature of from about 180 C to about 250 C.

Butt, M.H.D.; Waller, F.J.

1993-08-03

216

Role of a novel maintained low-voltage-activated inward current permeable to sodium and calcium in pacemaking of insect neurosecretory neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among ionic currents underlying neuronal pacemaker activity, low-threshold-activated calcium currents contribute to setting the threshold for spike firing. In the insect central nervous system, dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons are capable of generating spontaneous electrical activity. It has previously been shown that two distinct (transient and maintained) low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents are responsible for the generation of the pacemaker potential.

Antoine Defaix; Bruno Lapied

2005-01-01

217

Identifying inhibitors of hydrate formation rate with viscometric experiments  

SciTech Connect

Inhibiting the rate of hydrate formation with low concentration additives is an economically and environmentally attractive alternative to prevention of hydrates with large doses of methanol. Here, a method for screening possible rate inhibitors is described. In the method, a viscometer is used to follow the development of hydrate formation for water-THF solutions and for water-gas solutions at conditions favoring hydrate formation. The method was applied to about 30 different chemicals, plus binary combinations of many of these chemicals. The best chemical additives included BASF F-127, Mirawet ASC, Surfynol-465, sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS), Mirataine CBS with polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP), and SDS with PVP.

Kalbus, J.S.; Christiansen, R.L.; Sloan, D. Jr.

1995-12-31

218

Inhibition of reverse-mode sodium-calcium exchanger activity and apoptosis by levosimendan in human cardiomyocyte progenitor cell-derived cardiomyocytes after anoxia and reoxygenation.  

PubMed

Levosimendan, a known calcium sensitizer with positive inotropic and vasodilating properties, might also be cardioprotective during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) insult. Its effects on calcium homeostasis and apoptosis in I/R injury remain unclear. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is a critical mediator of calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes, with reverse-mode NCX activity responsible for intracellular calcium overload and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes during I/R. We probed effects and underlying mechanisms of levosimendan on apoptosis and NCX activity in cultured human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CPC)-derived cardiomyocytes undergoing anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R), simulating I/R in vivo. Administration of levosimendan decreased apoptosis of CPC-derived cardiomyocytes induced by A/R. The increase in reverse-mode NCX activity after A/R was curtailed by levosimendan, and NCX1 was translocated away from the cell membrane. Concomitantly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response induced by A/R was attenuated in CPC-derived cardiomycytes treated with NCX-targeted siRNA or levosimendan, with no synergistic effect between treatments. Results indicated levosimendan inhibited reverse-mode NCX activity to protect CPC-derived cardiomyocytes from A/R-induced ER stress and cell death. PMID:24498266

Li, Ping-Chun; Yang, Ya-Chi; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Kao, Lung-Sen; Lin, Ching-Yuang

2014-01-01

219

Co-Localization of Sodium Channel Na[v]1.6 and the Sodium--Calcium Exchanger at Sites of Axonal Injury in the Spinal Cord in EAE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Axonal degeneration contributes to the development of non-remitting neurological deficits and disability in multiple sclerosis, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie axonal loss in multiple sclerosis are not clearly understood. Studies of white matter axonal injury have demonstrated that voltage-gated sodium channels can provide a route for…

Craner, Matthew J.; Hains, Bryan C.; Lo, Albert C.; Black, Joel A.; Waxman, Stephen G.

2004-01-01

220

Pilot investigation of the hydrating effects of topical acne medications.  

PubMed

Topical therapies are effective in managing acne vulgaris but are associated with local adverse effects such as irritation and dryness. This 4-week pilot study compared skin hydration in 36 healthy adult women randomized to treatment with 1 of 4 topical therapies: 2 different (jar and tube) clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5% gels, sodium sulfacetamide 10% lotion, or over-the-counter (OTC) moisturizing cream. Subjects treated with OTC moisturizer or sodium sulfacetamide exhibited decreased water loss, increased water retention, similar or improved levels of skin hydration, and decreased desorption rates. In contrast, subjects treated with jar or tube clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide had increased water loss, decreased water retention, decreased hydration, and increased desorption rates. Skin dryness decreased slightly in the moisturizer group. No serious adverse events occurred. Overall, the OTC moisturizer had the best skin hydration profile. Sodium sulfacetamide demonstrated some moisturizing characteristics, and no clinically relevant differences were noted between jar and tube clindamycin/benzoyl peroxide gels. PMID:17763612

Zhen, Yaxian; Stoudemayer, Marianne; Vamvakias, George; Kligman, Albert M

2007-08-01

221

Calcium supplements  

MedlinePLUS

... The two main forms of calcium pills are: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium carbonate do not cost ...

222

Effect of calcium ion (cross-linker) concentration on porosity, surface morphology and thermal behavior of calcium alginates prepared from algae ( Undaria pinnatifida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alginic acid and metal (sodium) alginates was prepared from fresh algae using hot extraction method. Calcium alginates are also prepared from sodium alginate by varying calcium ion (calcium chloride) concentrations. FTIR spectra indicate that alginic acid is converted into metal alginate. Surface morphology as well as total intrusion volume, porosity (%) and pore size distribution changes by changing calcium ion

Tara Sankar Pathak; Jung-Ho Yun; Joonbae Lee; Ki-Jung Paeng

2010-01-01

223

The healthy newborn hydration model: a new model for understanding newborn hydration immediately after birth.  

PubMed

The normal small volume of breast milk produced in the first 2 days following birth may raise concerns about adequate hydration in breast-fed newborns. These concerns are further magnified when breast-fed infants lose ?7% of their birth weight within 2 days postnatally. Weight loss following birth is presumably mostly water loss that could result in hypohydration and subsequent hypernatremic dehydration. However, excess fluid loss immediately following birth is a normal and necessary process. Furthermore, newborns exposed to excess fluid intake during labor may need to lose ?7% of birth weight in the first 2 days following birth in order to achieve euhydration. Normal newborn fluid loss following birth confounds the use of weight loss as the sole measure of newborn hydration. We thus propose the healthy newborn hydration model that highlights the normalcy of newborn weight loss immediately following birth and the healthy newborn's compensatory mechanisms for preserving adequate hydration. We also recommend the use of serum sodium to measure intravascular osmolarity in addition to monitoring weight loss to obtain a more comprehensive newborn hydration assessment. Research is necessary in healthy newborns to identify relationships among fluids received in utero, newborn weight loss, and hydration, as evaluated with laboratory measures, in the first 2 days following birth. This information will guide clinicians in correctly identifying newborns with inadequate hydration who are in need of supplementary fluids versus newborns with adequate hydration for whom exclusive breast-feeding can be supported and encouraged. PMID:25504955

Mulder, Pamela J; Gardner, Sue E

2015-01-01

224

Combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates.  

PubMed

Despite its ubiquitous presence in the built environment, concrete's molecular-level properties are only recently being explored using experimental and simulation studies. Increasing societal concerns about concrete's environmental footprint have provided strong motivation to develop new concrete with greater specific stiffness or strength (for structures with less material). Herein, a combinatorial approach is described to optimize properties of cement hydrates. The method entails screening a computationally generated database of atomic structures of calcium-silicate-hydrate, the binding phase of concrete, against a set of three defect attributes: calcium-to-silicon ratio as compositional index and two correlation distances describing medium-range silicon-oxygen and calcium-oxygen environments. Although structural and mechanical properties correlate well with calcium-to-silicon ratio, the cross-correlation between all three defect attributes reveals an indentation modulus-to-hardness ratio extremum, analogous to identifying optimum network connectivity in glass rheology. We also comment on implications of the present findings for a novel route to optimize the nanoscale mechanical properties of cement hydrate. PMID:25248305

Abdolhosseini Qomi, M J; Krakowiak, K J; Bauchy, M; Stewart, K L; Shahsavari, R; Jagannathan, D; Brommer, D B; Baronnet, A; Buehler, M J; Yip, S; Ulm, F-J; Van Vliet, K J; Pellenq, R J-M

2014-01-01

225

Combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates  

PubMed Central

Despite its ubiquitous presence in the built environment, concrete’s molecular-level properties are only recently being explored using experimental and simulation studies. Increasing societal concerns about concrete’s environmental footprint have provided strong motivation to develop new concrete with greater specific stiffness or strength (for structures with less material). Herein, a combinatorial approach is described to optimize properties of cement hydrates. The method entails screening a computationally generated database of atomic structures of calcium-silicate-hydrate, the binding phase of concrete, against a set of three defect attributes: calcium-to-silicon ratio as compositional index and two correlation distances describing medium-range silicon-oxygen and calcium-oxygen environments. Although structural and mechanical properties correlate well with calcium-to-silicon ratio, the cross-correlation between all three defect attributes reveals an indentation modulus-to-hardness ratio extremum, analogous to identifying optimum network connectivity in glass rheology. We also comment on implications of the present findings for a novel route to optimize the nanoscale mechanical properties of cement hydrate. PMID:25248305

Abdolhosseini Qomi, M.J.; Krakowiak, K.J.; Bauchy, M.; Stewart, K.L.; Shahsavari, R.; Jagannathan, D.; Brommer, D.B.; Baronnet, A.; Buehler, M.J.; Yip, S.; Ulm, F.-J; Van Vliet, K.J.; Pellenq, R.J-.M.

2014-01-01

226

Combinatorial molecular optimization of cement hydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its ubiquitous presence in the built environment, concrete’s molecular-level properties are only recently being explored using experimental and simulation studies. Increasing societal concerns about concrete’s environmental footprint have provided strong motivation to develop new concrete with greater specific stiffness or strength (for structures with less material). Herein, a combinatorial approach is described to optimize properties of cement hydrates. The method entails screening a computationally generated database of atomic structures of calcium-silicate-hydrate, the binding phase of concrete, against a set of three defect attributes: calcium-to-silicon ratio as compositional index and two correlation distances describing medium-range silicon-oxygen and calcium-oxygen environments. Although structural and mechanical properties correlate well with calcium-to-silicon ratio, the cross-correlation between all three defect attributes reveals an indentation modulus-to-hardness ratio extremum, analogous to identifying optimum network connectivity in glass rheology. We also comment on implications of the present findings for a novel route to optimize the nanoscale mechanical properties of cement hydrate.

Abdolhosseini Qomi, M. J.; Krakowiak, K. J.; Bauchy, M.; Stewart, K. L.; Shahsavari, R.; Jagannathan, D.; Brommer, D. B.; Baronnet, A.; Buehler, M. J.; Yip, S.; Ulm, F.-J.; van Vliet, K. J.; Pellenq, R. J.-. M.

2014-09-01

227

[Setting characteristics of calcia-bonded investments by hydration].  

PubMed

Calcium oxide (CaO) slurry mixed with water hardens and expands by hydration. The authors used this setting characteristic as a binder of zirconia-refractory investments. If a mixed slurry was placed in air, unreacted residual calcia powders absorbed water and reverted to calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2). This resulted in a large setting expansion that continued for several days. A carbon dioxide (CO2) gas atmosphere controlled this expansion of calcia. When mixed slurry was placed in a carbon dioxide gas atmosphere, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was formed and prevented the further hydration of unreacted calcium oxide. Thus setting expansion values were controlled. The combined expansion of setting and thermal expansion, in CaO-CO2-bonded zirconia investments, was about 1.5-2.5%. On the whole, calcium oxide is expected to be a good binder for high temperature dental casting refractory. PMID:2491167

Nishimura, F; Watari, F; Nomoto, S

1989-07-01

228

Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

Nechay, Bohdan R.

1989-01-01

229

Various sodium salts, potassium salts, a calcium salt and an ammonium salt induced ornithine decarboxylase and stimulated DNA synthesis in rat stomach mucosa.  

PubMed

Studies were made on the possible tumor-promoting activities of various salts of food additives in the glandular stomach mucosa of F344 male rats after their administration by gastric intubation. Up to 100-fold increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach with maxima after 8 h were observed after administration of sodium acetate at doses of 3.68-13.6 mmol/kg body weight, sodium L-ascorbate at doses of 8.55-17.1 mmol/kg body weight, Na2CO3 at doses of 4.73-14.2 mmol/kg body weight, sodium L-glutamate at doses of 12.8-17.1 mmol/kg body weight, sodium sorbate at doses of 8.92-17.1 mmol/kg body weight and (NH4)2SO4 at doses of 7.56-20.1 mmol/kg body weight. Increases of up to 100-fold in ODC activity with maxima after 16 h were also observed after intubation of KCl at doses of 10.1-22.0 mmol/kg body weight, K2SO3 at doses of 2.84-8.45 mmol/kg body weight, K2S2O5 at doses of 2.25-6.75 mmol/kg body weight and CaCl2 at doses of 2.0-4.08 mmol/kg body weight. Sodium acetate at a dose of 11.0 mmol/kg body weight, KCl at a dose of 20.1 mmol/kg body weight, K2S2O5 at a dose of 5.40 mmol/kg body weight and CaCl2 at a dose of 3.4 mmol/kg body weight induced up to 10-fold increase in DNA synthesis in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach with maxima after 16-24 h. These results suggest that these salts of food additives may, like NaCl, have tumor-promoting activities in the pyloric mucosa of rat stomach. PMID:2502518

Furihata, C; Yamakoshi, A; Takezawa, R; Matsushima, T

1989-05-01

230

[Arterial pressure in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis].  

PubMed

Hypertension and calcium nephrolithiasis show some common features, such as the high prevalence of hypercalciuria and of elevated urinary sodium excretion. 28 patients with idiopathic calcium stone disease and 17 normals were studied: all the subjects were evaluated for the mean arterial pressure, and for the metabolic risk factors for calcium stone disease. The mean arterial pressure proved to be higher in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis than in normals. In normals the mean arterial pressure showed a direct relationship with the urinary calcium, while in the group of stone patients it had a direct relationship with the urinary sodium excretion. The lack of relationship between the mean arterial pressure and calcium excretion, in patients with calcium stones, suggests an impaired tubular calcium handling in such patients. PMID:8036556

Vagelli, G; Calabrese, G; Mazzotta, A; Pratesi, G; Gonella, M

1994-03-01

231

Striking a Balance: Less Sodium (Salt), More Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

Striking a Balance: Less Sodium (Salt), More Potassium Updated:Oct 7,2014 In your battle against high blood pressure, sodium (salt) ... and calcium and magnesium. Potassium also affects the balance of fluids in your body. So talk to ...

232

Phase transitions in biogenic amorphous calcium carbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological calcium carbonate exists in both crystalline phases and amorphous phases. Compared with crystalline calcium carbonate, such as calcite, aragonite and vaterite, the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is unstable. Unlike geological calcium carbonate crystals, crystalline sea urchin spicules (99.9 wt % calcium carbonate and 0.1 wt % proteins) do not present facets. To explain this property, crystal formation via amorphous precursors was proposed in theory. And previous research reported experimental evidence of ACC on the surface of forming sea urchin spicules. By using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), we studied cross-sections of fresh sea urchin spicules at different stages (36h, 48h and 72h after fertilization) and observed the transition sequence of three mineral phases: hydrated ACC ? dehydrated ACC ? biogenic calcite. In addition, we unexpectedly found hydrated ACC nanoparticles that are surrounded by biogenic calcite. This observation indicates the dehydration from hydrated ACC to dehydrated ACC is inhibited, resulting in stabilization of hydrated ACC nanoparticles. We thought that the dehydration was inhibited by protein matrix components occluded within the biomineral, and we designed an in vitro assay to test the hypothesis. By utilizing XANES-PEEM, we found that SM50, the most abundant occluded matrix protein in sea urchin spicules, has the function to stabilize hydrated ACC in vitro.

Gong, Yutao

233

Hydration of obsidian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration of obsidian is studied by measuring hydrogen concentration profiles of natural samples hydrated at 90°C, using the 15N resonance nuclear reaction method. The results of this study are well reproduced by the interdiffusion model of Doremus. The importance of the non-amorphous phase of obsidian is discussed. It is pointed out that the precision methods of measuring hydration profiles

T. Laursen; W. A. Lanford

1978-01-01

234

Calcium Carbonate  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

235

Hypertension and renal calcium transport.  

PubMed

Calcium homeostasis is altered in hypertensive patients. Indeed several investigators have reported that sodium-sensitive hypertension is associated with hypercalciuria. On the other hand, an independent clinical association exists between the occurrence of urolithiasis and hypertension, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved in stone formation by high blood pressure have not been so far clarified. To understand this association, it is obvious that we should analyze the effect of hypertension on the transport proteins involved in the renal calcium handling. In the kidney, the tubular reabsorption of calcium may proceed through transcellular and paracellular routes. At variance with the proximal tubule, along the distal segment, calcium transport is entirely sodium independent and occurs via the transcellular pathway. In particular, transcellular calcium reabsorption proceeds through a well-controlled sequence of events consisting of luminal calcium entry via the epithelial calcium channel (TRPV5), cytosolic diffusion of calcium bound to calbindin-D28K, and basolateral extrusion of calcium through the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA). It is highly likely that these proteins may be altered in hypertensive disease thus justifying and explaining the reported hypercalciuria. Experiments in hypertensive strains of animals exhibiting hypercalciuria may help to solve this puzzle. PMID:21170867

Petrazzuolo, Oriana; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Capasso, Giovambattista

2010-01-01

236

Modeling and simulation of cement hydration kinetics and microstructure development  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to model and simulate the highly complex cement hydration process over the past 40 years are reviewed, covering different modeling approaches such as single particle models, mathematical nucleation and growth models, and vector and lattice-based approaches to simulating microstructure development. Particular attention is given to promising developments that have taken place in the past few years. Recent applications of molecular-scale simulation methods to understanding the structure and formation of calcium-silicate-hydrate phases, and to understanding the process of dissolution of cement minerals in water are also discussed, as these topics are highly relevant to the future development of more complete and fundamental hydration models.

Thomas, Jeffrey J., E-mail: jthomas39@slb.com [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biernacki, Joseph J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN (United States); Bullard, Jeffrey W. [Materials and Construction Research Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bishnoi, Shashank [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India); Dolado, Jorge S. [Center for Nanomaterials Application in Construction, LABEIN-Tecnalia, Bilbao (Spain); Scherer, George W. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Luttge, Andreas [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-12-15

237

Gas hydrate and humans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

Kvenvolden, K.A.

2000-01-01

238

CONTROL OF SOX EMISSIONS BY IN-FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION: CARBONATES VS HYDRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper provides high-temperature isothermal data on SO2 capture by calcium-based sorbents, obtained in a dispersed-phase reactor for limestones, dolomites, hydrated calcitic limes, and hydrated dolomitic limes as a function of Ca/S molar ratio, temperature, and SO2 partial pre...

239

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

240

Determination of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, and zinc in fortified food products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.  

PubMed

A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry in order to modernize AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved extension of the scope to all food matrixes (including infant formula), optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed- or open-vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proven through a successful RT using experienced independent food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD, and HorRat values) regarding SLVs and RTs. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an extended updated version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula. PMID:22468357

Poitevin, Eric

2012-01-01

241

The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage  

PubMed Central

The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

2013-01-01

242

Effects of Ibandronate Sodium, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, on Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Osteoclast Precursor Cells (RAW 264.7).  

PubMed

Ibanonate sodium (Iban), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is recognized to reduce skeletal complications through an inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, how this drug interacts with ion channels in osteoclasts and creates anti-osteoclastic activity remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of Iban and other related compounds on ionic currents in the osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cells. Iban suppressed the amplitude of whole-cell K(+) currents (I K) in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 28.9 ?M. The I K amplitude was sensitive to block by TRAM-34 and Iban-mediated inhibition of I K was reversed by further addition of DCEBIO, an activator of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKCa) channels. Intracellular dialysis with Iban diminished I K amplitude and further addition of ionomycin reversed its inhibition. In 17?-estradiol-treated cells, Iban-mediated inhibition of I K remained effective. In cell-attached current recordings, Iban applied to bath did not modify single-channel conductance of IKCa channels; however, it did reduce channel activity. Iban-induced inhibition of IKCa channels was voltage-dependent. As IKCa-channel activity was suppressed by KN-93, subsequent addition of Iban did not further decrease the channel open probability. Iban could not exert any effect on inwardly rectifying K(+) current in RAW 264.7 cells. Under current-clamp recordings, Iban depolarized the membrane of RAW 264.7 cells and DCEBIO reversed Iban-induced depolarization. Iban also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated migration of RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, the inhibition by Iban of IKCa channels would be an important mechanism underlying its actions on the functional activity of osteoclasts occurring in vivo. PMID:25362532

Wu, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Yan-Ming; Liao, Yu-Kai

2014-11-01

243

Origins of hydration lubrication.  

PubMed

Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4-1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication. PMID:25585501

Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

2015-01-01

244

Methane Hydrate Field Program  

SciTech Connect

This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report. • Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report • Methane Hydrate Workshop Report • Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan • Final Scientific/Technical Report

None

2013-12-31

245

Origins of hydration lubrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why is friction in healthy hips and knees so low? Hydration lubrication, according to which hydration shells surrounding charges act as lubricating elements in boundary layers (including those coating cartilage in joints), has been invoked to account for the extremely low sliding friction between surfaces in aqueous media, but not well understood. Here we report the direct determination of energy dissipation within such sheared hydration shells. By trapping hydrated ions in a 0.4–1 nm gap between atomically smooth charged surfaces as they slide past each other, we are able to separate the dissipation modes of the friction and, in particular, identify the viscous losses in the subnanometre hydration shells. Our results shed light on the origins of hydration lubrication, with potential implications both for aqueous boundary lubricants and for biolubrication.

Ma, Liran; Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

2015-01-01

246

Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact ?s1-casein than ?-casein was detected, and the ratio of ?s1-casein (f121-199) to ?s1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ?10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid concentration in the cheese increased when NSLAB numbers were high. Few other trends in organic acid concentration were observed as a function of Na content. PMID:24913647

McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

2014-08-01

247

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2013-04-01

248

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2014-04-01

249

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2012-04-01

250

21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...you have [in bold type] [bullet] 1 a sodium-restricted diet”. The warnings in §§ 201.64(c), 201.70(c...in alphabetical order, e g., a calcium or sodium restricted diet. 1 See § 201 .66(b)(4) of this chapter for...

2011-04-01

251

Ultrafine calcium aerosol: Generation and use of a sorbent for sulfur in coal combustion. Volume 2, Economics: Final report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using calcium-hydroxide powder sorbent in a commercial power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) application. The cost analysis methodology found herein is a direct application of the one found in the January 1986 report, ``Economic Evaluation of Dry-Injection Flue Gas Desulfurization Technology by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The EPRI study addresses the economic issue of installing a dry-injection FGD system on a 1000 MW (2-500 MW units) power plant using sodium-rich powder sorbents derived from nahcolite and trona ores. In this report`s treatment, the calcium-based derivatives of hydrated limestone are compared directly to nahcolite and trona for both low and high sulfur coals. This type of evaluation is allowable due to the similar material handling properties of 1/4 inch hydrated limestone in comparison to those properties for nahcolite and trona. Thus, this report repeats the EPRI cost analysis for a slightly modified limestone-based FGD design. Note that the calculation methodology is not discussed, in this report as it has already been outlined in the EPRI study. Instead, Appendices A and B contain copies of the calculation spreadsheets based on the EPRI method for the hydrated limestone system.

Alam, M.K.; Nahar, N.U.; Stewart, G.D.; Prudich, M.E. [comps.] [Ohio Coal Research Center, Athens, OH (United States)

1991-11-01

252

Vibrational spectra of the two hydrates of strontium oxalate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared and Raman spectra of the two hydrates of strontium oxalate, SrC2O4?H2O and SrC2O4?2H2O, were recorded and discussed on the basis of their structural peculiarities and in comparison with the spectra of the related calcium oxalates and other previously investigated metallic oxalates.

D'Antonio, Maria C.; Torres, María M.; Palacios, Daniel; González-Baró, Ana C.; Baran, Enrique J.

2015-02-01

253

Vibrational spectra of the two hydrates of strontium oxalate.  

PubMed

The infrared and Raman spectra of the two hydrates of strontium oxalate, SrC2O4?H2O and SrC2O4?2H2O, were recorded and discussed on the basis of their structural peculiarities and in comparison with the spectra of the related calcium oxalates and other previously investigated metallic oxalates. PMID:25238188

D'Antonio, Maria C; Torres, María M; Palacios, Daniel; González-Baró, Ana C; Baran, Enrique J

2015-02-25

254

Sodium Test  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium levels? 1. What is the recommended dietary salt intake? The Food and Nutrition Board recommends a ... of sodium are often processed food to which salt is added during preparation, such as cheeses, soups, ...

255

Gas Hydrates Burning  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An image of gas hydrates burning. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

256

Mallik Gas Hydrate Sample  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sample of gas hydrates collected from Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

257

Calcium measurements with electron probe X-ray and electron energy loss analysis.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a broad survey of the rationale for electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) and the various methods for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information on the distribution and amount of elements, particularly calcium, in cryopreserved cells and tissues. Essential in an introductory consideration of microanalysis in biological cryosections is the physical basis for the instrumentation, fundamentals of X-ray spectrometry, and various analytical modes such as static probing and X-ray imaging. Some common artifacts are beam damage and contamination. Inherent pitfalls of energy dispersive X-ray systems include Si escape peaks, doublets, background, and detector calibration shifts. Quantitative calcium analysis of thin cryosections is carried out in real time using a multiple least squares fitting program on filtered X-ray spectra and normalizing the calcium peak to a portion of the continuum. Recent work includes the development of an X-ray imaging system where quantitative data can be retrieved off-line. The minimum detectable concentration of calcium in biological cryosections is approximately 300 mumole kg dry weight with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 A. The application of electron energy loss (EELS) techniques to the detection of calcium offers the potential for greater sensitivity and spatial resolution in measurement and imaging. Determination of mass thickness with EELS can facilitate accurate calculation of wet weight concentrations from frozen hydrated and freeze-dried specimens. Calcium has multiple effects on cell metabolism, membrane transport and permeability and, thus, on overall cell physiology or pathophysiology. Cells can be rapidly frozen for EPXMA during basal or altered functional conditions to delineate the location and amount of calcium within cells and the changes in location and concentration of cations or anions accompanying calcium redistribution. Recent experiments in our laboratory document that EPXMA in combination with other biochemical and electrophysiological techniques can be used to study, for example, sodium and calcium compartmentation in cultured cardiac cells. Such analyses can also be used to clarify the role of calcium in anoxic renal cell injury and to evaluate proposed ionic defects in cells of individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:2190819

LeFurgey, A; Ingram, P

1990-01-01

258

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation  

E-print Network

Jejunal calcium permeability in laying hens during egg formation Y. NYS, P. MONGIN Station de to water, calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride was measured in the immature pullet and then in the laying hen before and during egg-shell calcification by an in vivo perfusion procedure. Jejunal calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Calcium tartrate gel.  

PubMed

A method for preparation of a gel for chromatography has been developed. The adsorbent is calcium tartrate treated with potassium phosphate. By changing the temperature of synthesis (10-65 degrees C) and concentration of the salts (calcium chloride and sodium potassium tartrate) from 0.3 to 3.0 M, we have been able to prepare adsorbent crystals of definite sizes in the range 35-200 microns. In all cases, for synthesis of adsorbent, the Ca2+/K+Na+ ratio was greater than 1. After treatment of calcium tartrate crystals with 0.075-1.5 M potassium phosphate at 80-100 degrees C and pH 8.5-9.0, an appropriate chromatographic adsorbent was prepared. The chromatographic properties of calcium tartrate gel have been studied. The adsorbent permits flow rates of 25-150 ml/h, depending on the particle size. The capacity of calcium tartrate gel for binding BSA, RNA, and DNA was similar to that of Tiselius' hydroxyapatite (A. Tiselius, S. Hjerten, O. Levin (1956) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 65, 132-155). The spheric shape of gel particles permits uniform and compact packing of adsorbent under the conditions of column chromatography. PMID:2757203

Akhrem, A A; Drozhdenyuk, A P

1989-05-15

260

Hydrothermal formation of the calcium silicate hydrates, tobermorite (Ca 5Si 6O 16(OH) 2·4H 2O) and xonotlite (Ca 6Si 6O 17(OH) 2): an in situ synchrotron study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been employed to study the hydrothermal formation of crystalline tobermorite and xonotlite. Alkoxide gels of tobermorite composition with varying aluminium contents (Al\\/(Al+Si)=0 to 0.15) were reacted with a saturated calcium hydroxide solution at temperatures varying from 190°C to 310°C on the saturated vapour pressure curve. Reaction products consisted of tobermorite, xonotlite or

S Shaw; S. M Clark; C. M. B Henderson

2000-01-01

261

Hydration rate of obsidian.  

PubMed

The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years. PMID:17782901

Friedman, I; Long, W

1976-01-30

262

Alternative Splicing of an Insect Sodium Channel Gene Generates Pharmacologically Distinct Sodium Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian voltage-gated sodium channel genes. However, the functional significance of alterna- tive splicing of

Jianguo Tan; Zhiqi Liu; Yoshiko Nomura; Alan L. Goldin; Ke Dong

2002-01-01

263

Effects of Halogen Ions on Phase Equilibrium of Methane Hydrate in Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of halogen ions extracted from sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, sodium bromide, and sodium iodide and their concentrations on methane hydrate phase equilibrium conditions in porous media were investigated experimentally using an orthogonal test method at a pressure of 8 MPa. The experimental results showed that the equilibrium temperature of methane hydrate decreased when halogen ions were added. The equilibrium temperature decreased with the increase of halogen ion concentrations. The influence of the sources of the halogens ion to the methane hydrate equilibrium temperature were insensitive according to variance analysis, which could be explained by about the same mean ionic activity coefficient (a dimensionless coefficient relates the activity to a measured concentration) of sodium fluoride, sodium chloride, sodium bromide, and sodium iodide. The experimental measurements were also in close agreement with the thermodynamic model of Song et al. (J. Nat. Gas Chem. 19, 241 (2010)), in which the mechanical equilibrium of force between the interfaces in a hydrate-liquid-vapor system was considered.

Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen; Liu, Yu; Lam, Wei-Haur; Li, Qingping; Yu, Xichong

2012-05-01

264

Vocal Fold Surface Hydration: A review  

PubMed Central

Vocal fold surface liquid homeostasis contributes to optimal vocal physiology. In this paper we review emerging evidence that vocal fold surface liquid is maintained in part by salt and water fluxes across the epithelium. Based on recent immunolocalization and electrophysiological findings, we describe a transcellular pathway as one mechanism for regulating superficial vocal fold hydration. We propose that the pathway includes the sodium-potassium pump, sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter, epithelial sodium channels, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channels, and aquaporin water channels. By integrating knowledge of the regulating mechanisms underlying ion and fluid transport with observations from hydration challenges and treatments using in vitro and in vivo studies, we provide a theoretical basis for understanding how environmental and behavioral challenges and clinical interventions may modify vocal fold surface liquid composition. We present converging evidence that clinical protocols directed at facilitating vocal fold epithelial ion and fluid transport may benefit healthy speakers, those with voice disorders, and those at risk for voice disorders. PMID:19111440

Leydon, Ciara; Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Falciglia, Danielle Lodewyck; Atkins, Christopher; Fisher, Kimberly V.

2009-01-01

265

Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

2012-01-01

266

Redox Regulation of Sodium and Calcium Handling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: In heart failure (HF), contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias result from disturbed intracellular Ca handling. Activated stress kinases like cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which are known to influence many Ca-regulatory proteins, are mechanistically involved. Recent Advances: Beside classical activation pathways, it is becoming increasingly evident that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can directly oxidize these kinases, leading to alternative activation. Since HF is associated with increased ROS generation, ROS-activated serine/threonine kinases may play a crucial role in the disturbance of cellular Ca homeostasis. Many of the previously described ROS effects on ion channels and transporters are possibly mediated by these stress kinases. For instance, ROS have been shown to oxidize and activate CaMKII, thereby increasing Na influx through voltage-gated Na channels, which can lead to intracellular Na accumulation and action potential prolongation. Consequently, Ca entry via activated NCX is favored, which together with ROS-induced dysfunction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum can lead to dramatic intracellular Ca accumulation, diminished contractility, and arrhythmias. Critical Issues: While low amounts of ROS may regulate kinase activity, excessive uncontrolled ROS production may lead to direct redox modification of Ca handling proteins. Therefore, depending on the source and amount of ROS generated, ROS could have very different effects on Ca-handling proteins. Future Directions: The discrimination between fine-tuned ROS signaling and unspecific ROS damage may be crucial for the understanding of heart failure development and important for the investigation of targeted treatment strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1063–1077. PMID:22900788

Wagner, Stefan; Rokita, Adam G.; Anderson, Mark E.

2013-01-01

267

New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

Kenney, M.E.

1996-02-28

268

Impaired renal calcium absorption in mice lacking calcium channel ß3 subunits  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice lacking calcium channel ß3 subunits (CaVß3) were used to determine the involvement of a multimeric calcium channel in mediating stimulated renal calcium absorption. We measured the ability of calcium channel ß3 subunit-null (CaVß3?/?) and wild-type (CaVß3+/+) mice to increase renal calcium absorption in response to the calcium-sparing diuretic chlorothiazide (CTZ). Control rates of fractional sodium excretion were comparable in CaVß3?/? and CaVß3+/+ mice and CTZ increased sodium excretion similarly in both groups. CTZ enhanced calcium absorption only in wild-type CaVß3+/+ mice. This effect was specific for diuretics acting on distal tubules because both CaVß3?/? and CaVß3+/+ mice responded comparably to furosemide. The absence of ß3 subunits resulted in compensatory increases of TrpV5 calcium channels, the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase, NCX1 Na/Ca exchanger protein, and calbindin-D9k but not calbindin-D28k. We conclude that TrpV5 mediates basal renal calcium absorption and that a multimeric calcium channel that includes CaVß3 mediates stimulated calcium transport. PMID:19767875

Bernardo, José F.; Magyar, Clara E.; Sneddon, W. Bruce; Friedman, Peter A.

2010-01-01

269

Characterization of high-calcium fly ash and its influence on ettringite formation in portland cement pastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-calcium Class C fly ashes derived from Powder River Basin coal are currently used as supplementary cementing materials in portland cement concrete. These fly ashes tend to contain significant amounts of sulfur, calcium, and aluminum, thus they are potential sources of ettringite. Characterization of six high-calcium fly ashes originating from Powder River Basin coal have been carried out. The hydration

Jody Kathleen Tishmack

1999-01-01

270

Improved evidence for the existence of an intermediate phase during hydration of tricalcium silicate  

SciTech Connect

Tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) with a very small particle size of approximately 50 nm has been prepared and hydrated for a very short time (5 min) by two different modes in a paste experiment, using a water/solid-ratio of 1.20, and by hydration as a suspension employing a water/solid-ratio of 4000. A phase containing uncondensed silicate monomers close to hydrogen atoms (either hydroxyl groups or water molecules) was formed in both experiments. This phase is distinct from anhydrous tricalcium silicate and from the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, commonly identified as the hydration product of tricalcium silicate. In the paste experiment, approximately 79% of silicon atoms were present in the hydrated phase containing silicate monomers as determined from {sup 29}Sileft brace{sup 1}Hright brace CP/MAS NMR. This result is used to show that the hydrated silicate monomers are part of a separate phase and that they cannot be attributed to a hydroxylated surface of tricalcium silicate after contact with water. The phase containing hydrated silicate monomers is metastable with respect to the C-S-H phase since it transforms into the latter in a half saturated calcium hydroxide solution. These data is used to emphasize that the hydration of tricalcium silicate proceeds in two consecutive steps. In the first reaction, an intermediate phase containing hydrated silicate monomers is formed which is subsequently transformed into C-S-H as the final hydration product in the second step. The introduction of an intermediate phase in calculations of the early hydration of tricalcium silicate can explain the presence of the induction period. It is shown that heterogeneous nucleation on appropriate crystal surfaces is able to reduce the length of the induction period and thus to accelerate the reaction of tricalcium silicate with water.

Bellmann, Frank, E-mail: frank.bellmann@uni-weimar.d [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Damidot, Denis [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedexi (France); Moeser, Bernd [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Skibsted, Jorgen [Instrument Center for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-06-15

271

Optimizing the calcium content of a copolymer acrylamide gel matrix for dark-grown seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A copolymer acrylamide acrylate gel was investigated as the sole root matrix for dark-grown seedlings of soybean (Glycine max Merr. 'Century 84'). Increasing Ca2+ in the hydrating solution of the hydrogel from 1 to 10 mM decreased its water-holding capacity from 97 to 46 mL g-1, yet water potential of the medium remained high, sufficient for normal plant growth at all Ca2+ concentrations tested. Elongation rate of dark-grown soybean seedlings over a 54-hour period was 0.9, 1.5, and 1.8 mm h-1 with 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mM Ca2+, respectively, but did not increase with further increases in Ca2+ concentration. Further study revealed that Na+ was released from the hydrogel medium and was taken up by the seedlings as Ca2+ increased in the medium. In dry hypocotyl tissue, sodium content correlated negatively with calcium content. Despite the presence of Na+ in the hydrogel, seedling growth was normal when adequate Ca2+ was added in the hydrating solution. Acrylamide hydrogels hold good potential as a sole growth matrix for short-term experiments with dark-grown seedlings without irrigation.

Myers, P. N.; Mitchell, C. A.

1998-01-01

272

Sodium Bicarbonate  

MedlinePLUS

... is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate ... doctor immediately: severe headache nausea vomit that resembles coffee grounds loss of appetite irritability weakness frequent urge ...

273

HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

2002-11-01

274

Impact of admixtures on the hydration kinetics of Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

Most concrete produced today includes either chemical additions to the cement, chemical admixtures in the concrete, or both. These chemicals alter a number of properties of cementitious systems, including hydration behavior, and it has been long understood by practitioners that these systems can differ widely in response to such chemicals. In this paper the impact on hydration of several classes of chemicals is reviewed with an emphasis on the current understanding of interactions with cement chemistry. These include setting retarders, accelerators, and water reducing dispersants. The ability of the chemicals to alter the aluminate-sulfate balance of cementitious systems is discussed with a focus on the impact on silicate hydration. As a key example of this complex interaction, unusual behavior sometimes observed in systems containing high calcium fly ash is highlighted.

Cheung, J., E-mail: Josephine.H.Cheung@grace.com [W.R. Grace, 62 Whittemore Avenue, Cambridge MA 02140 (United States); Jeknavorian, A. [W.R. Grace, 62 Whittemore Avenue, Cambridge MA 02140 (United States); Roberts, L. [Roberts Consulting Group LLC, 44 Windsor Avenue, Acton MA 01720 (United States); Silva, D. [W.R. Grace, 62 Whittemore Avenue, Cambridge MA 02140 (United States)

2011-12-15

275

Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw

2006-06-30

276

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six – Surprising Foods that Add the ...

277

Calcium - ionized  

MedlinePLUS

... before the test. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if ... decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins.

278

Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of the hydration of tricalcium silicate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-elastic neutron scattering provides a direct measure of the amount of water bound during the hydration of tricalcium silicate, the principal component of Portland cement. This can be used to follow the progress of the reaction as a function of time. To examine the effect of temperature on the process measurements were made on samples held at fixed temperatures ranging from 5 to 40 degrees C. The results show at least three different stages of the hydration reaction. The early stage appears to be controlled by surface reactivity, the late stage by diffusion through the calcium silicate hydrate gel.

Livingston, Richard A.; Neumann, Daniel A.; FitzGerald, Stephen; Rush, Jack J.

1997-02-01

279

Calcium Hydroxylapatite  

PubMed Central

Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

2015-01-01

280

Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

Young, Jay A.

2004-01-01

281

A thermodynamic approach to the hydration of sulphate-resisting Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic approach is used to model changes in the hydrate assemblage and the composition of the pore solution during the hydration of calcite-free and calcite-containing sulphate-resisting Portland cement CEM I 52.5 N HTS. Modelling is based on thermodynamic data for the hydration products and calculated hydration rates for the individual clinker phases, which are used as time-dependent input parameters. Model predictions compare well with the composition of the hydrate assemblage as observed by TGA and semi-quantitative XRD and with the experimentally determined compositions of the pore solutions. The calculations show that in the presence of small amounts of calcite typically associated with Portland cement, C-S-H, portlandite, ettringite and calcium monocarbonate are the main hydration products. In the absence of calcite in the cement, however, siliceous hydrogarnet instead of calcium monocarbonate is observed to precipitate. The use of a higher water-to-cement ratio for the preparation of a calcite-containing cement paste has a minor effect on the composition of the hydrate assemblage, while it significantly changes the composition of the pore solution. In particular, lower pH value and higher Ca concentrations appear that could potentially influence the solubility and uptake of heavy metals and anions by cementitious materials.

Lothenbach, Barbara [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch; Wieland, Erich [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Laboratory for Waste Management, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

282

Characteristics of a hydrated, alginate-based delivery system for cultivation of the button mushroom.  

PubMed

The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms. PMID:16348774

Romaine, C P; Schlagnhaufer, B

1992-09-01

283

Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

284

Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis (Pseudogout)  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

285

Calcium depletion of synaptosomes after morphine treatment.  

PubMed Central

It was confirmed that morphine administration in vivo produced a selective decrease in the calcium content of synaptosomal fractions prepared from rat cerebral cortices. This effect was prevented by naloxone. 2 After morphine or naloxone, there were no changes in the sodium, potassium and magnesium contents of any of the seven subcellular fractions tested. 3 Since the selective calcium loss was found to occur from fractions similar to those reported to exhibit opiate receptor binding, it is concluded that calcium may play a role in the action of narcotic agonist drugs. PMID:963340

Cardenas, H L; Ross, D H

1976-01-01

286

Effects of salts on preparation and use of calcium silicates for flue gas desulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

High surface area calcium silicate hydrates that are highly reactive with SO[sub 2] can be made by slurrying fly ash and lime in water at elevated temperatures for several hours. This concept is the basis for the ADVACATE (ADVAnced siliCATE) process for flue gas desulfurization. This paper examines the impact of salts on such a system. Two low calcium fly

Kurt K. Kind; P. D. Wassermann; Gary T. Rochelle

1994-01-01

287

[Formulation of calcium carbonate tablets with various binding substances].  

PubMed

The test results of calcium carbonate tablets, made of different binding substances (microcrystal cellulose, gelatin, 7pp sodium carboxymethylcellulose and starch) were presented. The content of calcium-carbonate in tablets as well as varying, solidity, prodigality and aptness to decay was determined. The best properties were observed in tablets made with starch. PMID:9214090

Gazikalovi?, E; Obrenovi?, D; Nidzovi?, Z; Toski?-Radojici?, M

1996-01-01

288

Calcium in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... with calcium and prevent it from being absorbed. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Calcium is also found in many multivitamin-mineral supplements. The amount varies depending on the. supplement. Dietary supplements may contain only calcium or calcium with other ...

289

Nutrition, Hydration & Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is a NFL sponsored, National Science Foundation funded program intended to teach students about scientific concepts by using the popular sport of Football. Each lesson is accompanied by an informative and fast paced video. In this lesson, athletic trainers from the Pittsburgh Steelers explain what NFL players must do to stay hydrated and replenish the essential nutrients needed to maintain good health during rigorous practices.

2010-01-01

290

Methane Clathrate Hydrate Prospecting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of prospecting for methane has been devised. The impetus for this method lies in the abundance of CH4 and the growing shortages of other fuels. The method is intended especially to enable identification of subpermafrost locations where significant amounts of methane are trapped in the form of methane gas hydrate (CH4(raised dot)6H2O). It has been estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey that the total CH4 resource in CH4(raised dot) 6H2O exceeds the energy content of all other fossil fuels (oil, coal, and natural gas from non-hydrate sources). Also, CH4(raised dot)6H2O is among the cleanest-burning fuels, and CH4 is the most efficient fuel because the carbon in CH4 is in its most reduced state. The method involves looking for a proxy for methane gas hydrate, by means of the combination of a thermal-analysis submethod and a field submethod that does not involve drilling. The absence of drilling makes this method easier and less expensive, in comparison with prior methods of prospecting for oil and natural gas. The proposed method would include thermoprospecting in combination with one more of the other non-drilling measurement techniques, which could include magneto-telluric sounding and/or a subsurface-electrical-resistivity technique. The method would exploit the fact that the electrical conductivity in the underlying thawed region is greater than that in the overlying permafrost.

Duxbury, N.; Romanovsky, V.

2003-01-01

291

A new aluminium-hydrate species in hydrated Portland cements characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Recent {sup 27}Al MAS NMR studies of hydrated Portland cements and calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases have shown a resonance from Al in octahedral coordination, which cannot be assigned to the well-known aluminate species in hydrated Portland cements. This resonance, which exhibits the isotropic chemical shift {delta} {sub iso} = 5.0 ppm and the quadrupole product parameter P {sub Q} = 1.2 MHz, has been characterized in detail by {sup 27}Al MAS and {sup 27}Al{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} CP/MAS NMR for different hydrated white Portland cements and C-S-H phases. These experiments demonstrate that the resonance originates from an amorphous or disordered aluminate hydrate which contains Al(OH){sub 6} {sup 3-} or O {sub x}Al(OH){sub 6-x} {sup (3+x)-} units. The formation of the new aluminate hydrate is related to the formation of C-S-H at ambient temperatures, however, it decomposes by thermal treatment at temperatures of 70-90 {sup o}C. From the experiments in this work it is proposed that the new aluminate hydrate is either an amorphous/disordered aluminate hydroxide or a calcium aluminate hydrate, produced as a separate phase or as a nanostructured surface precipitate on the C-S-H phase. Finally, the possibilities of Al{sup 3+} for Ca{sup 2+} substitution in the principal layers and interlayers of the C-S-H structure are discussed.

Andersen, Morten Daugaard [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jakobsen, Hans J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Skibsted, Jorgen [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Department of Chemistry, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: jskib@chem.au.dk

2006-01-15

292

Rapid gas hydrate formation process  

DOEpatents

The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

2013-01-15

293

Effects of hydration on laser soldering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser welding with albumin-based tissue solder has been investigated as an alternative to surgical suturing. Many surgical procedures require the soldered tissues to be in a hydrated environment. We have studied the effects of hydration on laser soldered rat dermis and baboon articular cartilage in vitro. The solder is composed of human serum albumin, sodium hyaluronate and indocyanine green. We used a micro-pipette to deposit 2 (mu) l of solder on each tissue specimen. An 808 nm cw laser beam with irradiance of 27 W/cm2 was scanned 4 times over the same solder area at a constant speed of 0.84 mm/sec. After photo-coagulation, each tissue specimen was cut into two halves at the center of the solder, perpendicular to the direction of the scanning laser beam. One half was reserved as control while the other half was soaked in phosphate buffered saline for a designated hydration period. The hydration periods were 1 hr, 1, 2, and 7 days. All tissue specimens were fixed in glutaraldahyde, then prepared for scanning electron microcopy analysis. For most of the specimens, there was non-uniform coagulation across the thickness of the solder. Closer to the laser beam, the upper solder region formed a more dense coagulum. While the region closer to solder-tissue interface, the solder aggregated into small globules. This non-uniform coagulation was likely caused by non-uniform energy distribution during photocoagulation. The protein globules and coagulum seem to be responsible for the solder attachment from the specimen surface. However, we have noted that the solder detached from the cartilage substrate as early as after 1 hr of hydration. On the other hand, the solder attached to the dermis much better than to cartilage. This may be explained by the difference in surface roughness of the two tissue types. The dermal layer of the skin is composed of collagen matrix which may provide a better entrapment of the solder than the smooth surface of articular cartilage.

Chan, Eric K.; Brown, Dennis T.; Kovach, Ian S.; Welch, Ashley J.

1997-05-01

294

STRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the production of calcium hydroxides with surface areas of 6-74 sq m/g, in an attempt to develop more reactive sorbents for SO2 capture during furnace injection. It was found that adding alcohol to the water of hydration yielded hydroxides with surface areas u...

295

Project Calcium  

SciTech Connect

Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

1992-09-01

296

Water and sodium balance in space.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that fluid balances and body fluid regulation in microgravity (microG) differ from those on Earth (Drummer et al, Eur J Physiol 441:R66-R72, 2000). Arriving in microG leads to a redistribution of body fluid-composed of a shift of fluid to the upper part of the body and an exaggerated extravasation very early in-flight. The mechanisms for the increased vascular permeability are not known. Evaporation, oral hydration, and urinary fluid excretion, the major components of water balance, are generally diminished during space flight compared with conditions on Earth. Nevertheless, cumulative water balance and total body water content are stable during flight if hydration, nutritional energy supply, and protection of muscle mass are at an acceptable level. Recent water balance data disclose that the phenomenon of an absolute water loss during space flight, which has often been reported in the past, is not a consequence of the variable microG. The handling of sodium, however, is considerably affected by microG. Sodium-retaining endocrine systems, such as renin-aldosterone and catecholamines, are much more activated during microG than on Earth. Despite a comparable oral sodium supply, urinary sodium excretion is diminished and a considerable amount of sodium is retained-without accumulating in the intravascular space. An enormous storage capacity for sodium in the extravascular space and a mechanism that allows the dissociation between water and sodium handling likely contribute to the fluid balance adaptation in weightlessness. PMID:11532707

Drummer, C; Norsk, P; Heer, M

2001-09-01

297

The evolution of the biochemistry of calcium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of the calcium (Ca) ion does not appear of great interest, but it has been an essential element in biological evolution. Initially, procaryotic cells treated it as an intracellular poison rejecting it together with sodium and chloride ions. The resulting functions of Ca apart from being pumped out of cells were on the cell exterior, assisting such activities

Robert J. P. Williams

2007-01-01

298

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate  

E-print Network

Original article Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate; accepted 19 November 1999) Abstract --Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

78 FR 37536 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2013-06-21

300

75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal Advisory...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2010-03-04

301

78 FR 26337 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2013-05-06

302

77 FR 40032 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. The Federal...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2012-07-06

303

76 FR 59667 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office...This notice announces a meeting of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee. Federal Advisory...of the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to...

2011-09-27

304

Sodium silicate-based, alkali-activated slag mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) with sodium silicate gave clinker-free binders, with high strength and early strength development, although set times were short and somewhat variable. Isothermal calorimetry detected three heat evolution peaks (wetting, gelation of activator and bulk reaction of slag). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed no crystalline products. Hydration was investigated by scanning electron microscopy

A. R Brough; A Atkinson

2002-01-01

305

A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements  

SciTech Connect

A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Kinrade, Stephen D., E-mail: stephen.kinrade@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

2013-06-15

306

Observation directe de la croissance d'hydrosilicate de calcium sur des surfaces d'alité et de silice par microscopie à force atomique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct observation of the growth of calcium silicate hydrates, the tricalcium silicate hydration products, at the solid-solution interface were performed by atomic force microscopy. The covering of the surface of alite or silica by a three-dimensional oriented aggregation of nano particles of calcium silicate hydrate is always observed whatever the sample. All observations and quantifications made on calcium silicate growth at the submicronic level are in agreement with the data deduced from the study of the system evolution at the macroscopic level.

Gauffinet, Sandrine; Finot, Éric; Lesniewska, Eric; Nonat, André

1998-08-01

307

Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime-fly ash pastes confirmed that fly ash mortar or concrete mixes forming more monosulfate than ettringite before exposure to sulfates would offer poor sulfate resistance and vice versa. During quantitative Rietveld analysis carried out for determining ettringite, monosulfate and gypsum formed in the fly ash pastes, it was observed that fly ash mixtures showing more ettringite after exposures to sulfates, give poor sulfate resistance. A good relationship between the amounts of ettringite formed and expansions of mortar specimens in the ASTM C 1012 test was found.

Dhole, Rajaram

308

Dysbalance of Astrocyte Calcium under Hyperammonemic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Increased brain ammonium (NH4+/NH3) plays a central role in the manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex syndrome associated with neurological and psychiatric alterations, which is primarily a disorder of astrocytes. Here, we analysed the influence of NH4+/NH3 on the calcium concentration of astrocytes in situ and studied the underlying mechanisms of NH4+/NH3-evoked calcium changes, employing fluorescence imaging with Fura-2 in acute tissue slices derived from different regions of the mouse brain. In the hippocampal stratum radiatum, perfusion with 5 mM NH4+/NH3 for 30 minutes caused a transient calcium increase in about 40% of astrocytes lasting about 10 minutes. Furthermore, the vast majority of astrocytes (?90%) experienced a persistent calcium increase by ?50 nM. This persistent increase was already evoked at concentrations of 1–2 mM NH4+/NH3, developed within 10–20 minutes and was maintained as long as the NH4+/NH3 was present. Qualitatively similar changes were observed in astrocytes of different neocortical regions as well as in cerebellar Bergmann glia. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase resulted in significantly larger calcium increases in response to NH4+/NH3, indicating that glutamine accumulation was not a primary cause. Calcium increases were not mimicked by changes in intracellular pH. Pharmacological inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels, sodium-potassium-chloride-cotransporters (NKCC), the reverse mode of sodium/calcium exchange (NCX), AMPA- or mGluR5-receptors did not dampen NH4+/NH3-induced calcium increases. They were, however, significantly reduced by inhibition of NMDA receptors and depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Taken together, our measurements show that sustained exposure to NH4+/NH3 causes a sustained increase in intracellular calcium in astrocytes in situ, which is partly dependent on NMDA receptor activation and on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Our study furthermore suggests that dysbalance of astrocyte calcium homeostasis under hyperammonemic conditions is a widespread phenomenon, which might contribute to the disturbance of neurotransmission during HE. PMID:25153709

Haack, Nicole; Dublin, Pavel; Rose, Christine R.

2014-01-01

309

Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.  

PubMed

Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)?: PO??P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater. PMID:25176490

Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

2014-01-01

310

Calcium and bone disease  

PubMed Central

Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

2013-01-01

311

Mallik Gas Hydrates Test Well  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A test-well for collecting gas hydrates in Mallik, Canada. Gas hydrates are naturally-occurring “ice-like” combinations of natural gas and water that have the potential to provide an immense resource of natural gas from the world’s oceans and polar regions....

312

Acute kidney injury associated with metamizole sodium ingestion.  

PubMed

Metamizole sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been widely used in the last 100 years. Its efficacy as an analgesic and antipyretic is unquestionable. Only few cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by metamizole sodium were reported in the medical literature. We report 11 adult patients with AKI that resulted from metamizole sodium ingestion. The data suggest a good prognosis in these cases of AKI. Renal biopsies, corticosteroids treatment, or renal replacement therapy seem to be not necessary. Hydration was sufficient to ensure spontaneous recovery. PMID:21446784

Hassan, Kamal; Khazim, Khalid; Hassan, Fadi; Hassan, Shadi

2011-01-01

313

Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is characterized by basal silt- to sand-rich clay dominated stratigraphic units. The upper most debris flow at Site UBGH2-5 extends into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone and IR core scans indicate that this section contains some amount of gas hydrate. The UBGH2 LWD and coring program also confirmed the occurrence of numerous volcaniclastic and siliciclastic sand reservoirs that were deposited as part of local to basin-wide turbidite events. Gas hydrate saturations within the turbidite sands ranged between 60-80 percent. In 2009, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Joint Industry Project (JIP) drilled seven wells at three sites, finding gas hydrate at high concentration in sands in four wells, with suspected gas hydrate at low to moderate saturations in two other wells. In the northern GOM, high sedimentation rates in conjunction with salt tectonism, has promoted the formation of complex seafloor topography. As a result, coarse-grained deposition can occur as gravity-driven sedimentation traversing the slope within intra-slope "ponded" accommodation spaces.

Collett, T. S.

2012-12-01

314

Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study of constrained water in hydrated cement pastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cement has been used for centuries as a cost-effective construction material. However much of the materials science of cement hydration including the bonding and interaction of water with the cement hydration product (C-S-H) remains unknown. Because C-S-H is amorphous it is difficult to determine the amount of C-S-H formed from the hydration of the mainly crystalline cement phases. Researchers have estimated the extent of cement hydration from the amount of bound water - determined by measuring the amount of water held under defined conditions (generally temperatures). Furthermore, cement is often used for the conditioning of low-level radioactive waste and its durability is the subject of a number of studies. The interaction of water with calcium silicate hydrate is one of the prime factors for controlling the stability of the cement paste. QENS has already been used to monitor the hydration of tricalcium silicate during the first 42 days of hydration as a function of water to cement ratio. However it is well known that the model tricalcium silicate does not always mimic the hydration of commercial cement, and as far as we are aware our recent QENS studies are the first to use commercially available cement materials. In our investigation using the time-of-flight instrument NEAT (? E = 30 and 98 ?eV), a range of quasi-elastic (QE) broadening was observed on various cement paste hydrated for more than 28 days with different levels of hydration. In a first approximation the QE broadening can be explained in terms of unbounded and bounded water.

Bordallo, H. N.; Desmedt, A.; Herwig, K. W.; Aldridge, L.

2003-03-01

315

Synthesis, hydrothermal stability and thermal reaction behavior of nepheline hydrate i (NH I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The field of formation of nepheline hydrate I (NH I) was investigated under mild hydrothermal conditions (473 K for 5 d) using low temperature reaction of kaolinite. Therefore alkaline transformation in 2-, 4-, and 6 molar NaOH solutions was performed to investigate the influence of sodium hydroxide on the phase formation process controlled by kinetics under mild reaction conditions.

Josef-Christian Buhl

2005-01-01

316

Intracellular calcium measurements with arsenazo III during cyclic AMP injections into molluscan neurons.  

PubMed

Injections of cyclic adenosine monophosphate into molluscan neurons often produce a transient membrane depolarization. By using the calcium indicator dye arsenazo III, it was found that cyclic nucleotide injections into neurons of Archidoris montereyensis resulted in elevation of internal calcium concentrations. However, this was demonstrated to be a secondary consequence of an induced increase in membrane sodium permeability, and not due to any direct effect of cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cellular calcium influx or internal calcium regulating processes. PMID:6297009

Hockberger, P; Connor, J A

1983-02-18

317

Study of ethane hydrate formation kinetics using the chemical affinity model with and without presence of surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we examine ethane hydrate formation kinetics with and without the presence of various surfactants. Firstly, the influences of stirring rate and initial pressure without the presence of surfactants are studied. The effects of four surfactants containing Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitanmonopalmitate (Tween® 40), and TritonX-100 (TX-100) on ethane hydrate formation kinetics were experimentally investigated. Then the chemical affinity model is applied to model the ethane hydrate formation kinetics with and without surfactants. The kinetic parameters of the chemical affinity model were computed for the ethane hydrate formation with and without surfactants. We will see that the results of the modeling are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Karimi, Reza; Varaminian, Farshad; Izadpanah, Amir A.

2014-12-01

318

Calcium and Vitamin D  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

319

Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

2005-02-01

320

Antiangiogenic activities of bemiparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium, nadroparin calcium and tinzaparin sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe low-molecular-weight heparins have been demonstrated to have antiangiogenic effects in various assays. We aimed to demonstrate and compare the antiangiogenic effects of four types of commercially available low-molecular weight heparins in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model.

Omer Tamer Dogan; Zubeyde Akin Polat; Oguz Karahan; Kursat Epozturk; Ahmet Altun; Ibrahim Akkurt; Ali Cetin

2011-01-01

321

A new hydrate form of diflunisal precipitated from a microemulsion system.  

PubMed

Three microemulsion systems were applied as solvents for polymorph screening of seven active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): carbamazepine, piroxicam, sulfaguanidine, nitrofurantoin, theophylline, quercetin, and diflunisal. All the recrystallized compounds were examined by using powder X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, elemental analysis, Karl Fischer titration and dissolution rate. A new crystal form of diflunisal hydrate was discovered by the cooling method of recrystallization in a water-in-oil microemulsion system, composed of water, alkane and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate. The new hydrate form of diflunisal was characterized and confirmed to be a stoichiometry of diflunisal:water of 1:1. The other two microemulsion systems were able to convert the anhydrous diflunisal Form I to Form III. The dissolution rate of diflunisal hydrate is unexpectedly much higher than that of anhydrous ones (Forms I and III). All the other six APIs (carbamazepine, piroxicam, sulfaguanidine, nitrofurantoin, theophylline and quercetin) recrystallized from the microemulsion systems were all converted into hydrate form. PMID:23624616

Sung, Hsuan-Lei; Fan, Yueh-Lin; Yeh, Kimberly; Chen, Yen-Fu; Chen, Li-Jen

2013-09-01

322

Calcium Collage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 11-14 of PDF), learners cut out pictures from magazines of foods that help make bones strong and glue the pictures to a paper bone. The lesson plan includes information about various activities - including physical exercise as well as diet - that lead to healthy bones. It also includes a list of foods that provide calcium to strengthen bones, including dairy products, spinach, and tofu. The paper bones can be cut out of construction paper prior to the activity.

2012-06-26

323

Free gas in the regional hydrate stability zone: Implications for hydrate distribution and fracturing behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that hydrate distribution and fracture genesis in the hydrate stability zone are largely governed by the phase of methane supply. In systems where methane is supplied primarily as free gas, hydrate saturation increases upwards in the hydrate stability zone, and fractures nucleate in the middle of the stability zone where hydrate saturation is highest. In systems where methane

H. Daigle; B. Dugan

2010-01-01

324

Physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the occurrence and distribution of gas hydrates and their effects on acoustic and thermal measurements in ocean sediments, the authors have conducted a program of experimental research to study thermal conductivity and acoustic wave velocity in hydrates and sediments containing hydrate. The most significant result of these studies is that the formation of hydrate tends

Robert D. Stoll; George M. Bryan

1979-01-01

325

Water, Hydration and Health  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

2010-01-01

326

Calcium source (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

327

Get Enough Calcium  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity > Nutrition > Get Enough Calcium Get Enough Calcium The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... January 06, 2015 The Basics Your body needs calcium to build strong bones when you are young ...

328

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

329

Hydrates represent gas source, drilling hazard  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates look like ordinary ice. However, if a piece of such ice is put into warm water its behavior will be different from the ordinary melting of normal ice. In contrast, gas hydrates cause bubbles in the warm water, which indicates the high content of gas in the hydrate crystals. The presence of four components is required: gas itself, water, high pressure, and low temperature. The paper discusses how hydrates form, hydrates stability, South Caspian hydrates, and hydrates hazards for people, ships, pipelines, and drilling platforms.

Bagirov, E. [Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); Lerche, I. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1997-12-01

330

Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water  

E-print Network

We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2014-12-08

331

Sodium and Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

... the Nutrition Facts label. Use the percent Daily Value (% DV) to help limit your sodium intake—5% ... Food Amount Range of Sodium Content (mg)% Daily Value (% DV) * for Sodium Breads, all types 1 oz ...

332

Sodium nitroprusside suppresses male fertility in vitro.  

PubMed

Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide donor involved in the regulation of the motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, and acrosome reaction (AR) of spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the molecular basis for the effects of sodium nitroprusside on different processes in spermatozoa and its consequences on subsequent oocyte fertilization and embryo development. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (1, 10, and 100 ?M) for 90 min. Our results showed that sodium nitroprusside inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics in a dose-dependent manner by significantly enhancing intracellular iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreasing Ca(2+), and adenosine triphosphate levels in spermatozoa. Moreover, short-term exposure of spermatozoa to sodium nitroprusside increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins involved in PKA-dependent regulation of intracellular calcium levels, which induced a robust AR. Finally, sodium nitroprusside significantly decreased the rates of fertilization and blastocyst formation during embryo development. Based on these results, we propose that sodium nitroprusside increases ROS production and precocious AR may alter overall sperm physiology, leading to poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. PMID:25180787

Rahman, M S; Kwon, W-S; Lee, J-S; Kim, J; Yoon, S-J; Park, Y-J; You, Y-A; Hwang, S; Pang, M-G

2014-11-01

333

In-situ early-age hydration study of sulfobelite cements by synchrotron powder diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Eco-friendly belite calcium sulfoaluminate (BCSA) cement hydration behavior is not yet well understood. Here, we report an in-situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study for the first hours of hydration of BCSA cements. Rietveld quantitative phase analysis has been used to establish the degree of reaction (?). The hydration of a mixture of ye'elimite and gypsum revealed that ettringite formation (? ? 70% at 50 h) is limited by ye'elimite dissolution. Two laboratory-prepared BCSA cements were also studied: non-active-BCSA and active-BCSA cements, with ?- and ??{sub H}-belite as main phases, respectively. Ye'elimite, in the non-active-BCSA system, dissolves at higher pace (? ? 25% at 1 h) than in the active-BCSA one (? ? 10% at 1 h), with differences in the crystallization of ettringite (? ? 30% and ? ? 5%, respectively). This behavior has strongly affected subsequent belite and ferrite reactivities, yielding stratlingite and other layered phases in non-active-BCSA. The dissolution and crystallization processes are reported and discussed in detail. -- Highlights: •Belite calcium sulfoaluminate cements early hydration mechanism has been determined. •Belite hydration strongly depends on availability of aluminum hydroxide. •Orthorhombic ye’elimite dissolved at a higher pace than cubic one. •Ye’elimite larger reaction degree yields stratlingite formation by belite reaction. •Rietveld method quantified gypsum, anhydrite and bassanite dissolution rates.

Álvarez-Pinazo, G.; Cuesta, A.; García-Maté, M.; Santacruz, I.; Losilla, E.R. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Málaga, Campus Teatinos S/N., 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Málaga, Campus Teatinos S/N., 29071 Málaga (Spain); Sanfélix, S.G. [Unidad Técnica de Investigación de Materiales, AIDICO, Avda. Benjamín Franklin, 17 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)] [Unidad Técnica de Investigación de Materiales, AIDICO, Avda. Benjamín Franklin, 17 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Fauth, F. [CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain)] [CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Málaga, Campus Teatinos S/N., 29071 Málaga (Spain) [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Málaga, Campus Teatinos S/N., 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); De la Torre, A.G., E-mail: mgd@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Málaga, Campus Teatinos S/N., 29071 Málaga (Spain)

2014-02-15

334

OBSERVED GAS HYDRATE MORPHOLOGIES IN MARINE SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale morphology of gas hydrate is important for understanding the formation of gas hydrate deposits, for estimating the concentrations of gas hydrate from geophysical data, and for predicting their response to climate change or commercial production. The recent use of borehole pressure coring tools has allowed marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments to be recovered with centimeter to sub-millimeter gas hydrate structures preserved

Melanie Holland; Peter Schultheiss; John Roberts; Matthew Druce

335

Calcium carbonate overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Calcium carbonate is an ingredient that is commonly found in antacids (for heartburn) and some dietary supplements. Calcium carbonate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

336

Crystallization of a polymorphic hydrate system.  

PubMed

Nitrofurantoin can form two monohydrates, which have the same chemical composition and molar ratio of water, but differ in the crystal arrangements. The two monohydrates (hydrates I and II) could be produced independently via evaporative crystallization, where supersaturation and solvent composition were both found to have an effect. Hydrate I showed much slower crystallization than hydrate II. During cooling crystallization, the nucleation and growth of hydrate II was again dominant, consuming all supersaturation and leading to no hydrate I formation. Seeding of hydrate I during cooling crystallization was also applied, but the hydrate I seeds were not able to initiate its nucleation rather than dissolving into crystallizing solution. Although solubility tests revealed that hydrate II is more stable than hydrate I due to its lower solubility (110 +/- 4 and 131 +/- 12 microg/mL for hydrates II and I, respectively), this difference is rather small. Therefore, the small free energy difference between the two hydrates, together with the slow crystallization of hydrate I, both lead to a hindrance of hydrate I formation. Furthermore, the crystal structure of hydrate II demonstrated a higher H-bonding extent than hydrate I, suggesting its more favorable crystallization. This is in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:19569226

Tian, F; Qu, H; Louhi-Kultanen, M; Rantanen, J

2010-02-01

337

Deep water cycle: Mantle hydration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fate of water that enters the mantle within subducting slabs is unclear. Laboratory experiments indicate that subducted crust can transport large amounts of water into the deep Earth, and the lower mantle may become more hydrated over time.

Nishi, Masayuki

2015-01-01

338

Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration  

Cancer.gov

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

339

Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?  

PubMed

Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

1973-05-18

340

Obsidian Hydration: A New Paleothermometer  

SciTech Connect

The natural hydration of obsidian was first proposed as a dating technique for young geological and archaeological specimens by Friedman and Smith (1960), who noted that the thickness of the hydrated layer on obsidian artifacts increases with time. This approach is, however, sensitive to temperature and humidity under earth-surface conditions. This has made obsidian hydration dating more difficult, but potentially provides a unique tool for paleoclimatic reconstructions. In this paper we present the first successful application of this approach, based on combining laboratory-based experimental calibrations with archaeological samples from the Chalco site in the Basin of Mexico, dated using stratigraphically correlated 14C results and measuring hydration depths by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resultant data suggest, first, that this approach is viable, even given the existing uncertainties, and that a cooling trend occurred in the Basin of Mexico over the past 1450 yr, a result corroborated by other paleoclimatic data.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Riciputi, Lee R [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Elam, J. Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2006-01-01

341

Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

1973-01-01

342

Calorimetric study of calcium aluminate cement blended with flue gas desulfurization gypsum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of by-product gypsum is an important alternative in concrete design. In present experiment, conduction calorimetry\\u000a was applied to investigate the early hydration of calcium aluminate cement (CAC)\\/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum paste,\\u000a supplemented with the determination of setting times and analysis of hydrates by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that\\u000a different profiles of heat evolution rate were

Baohong Guan; Wenbin Lou; Qingqing Ye; Hailu Fu; Zhongbiao Wu

2009-01-01

343

Protein Hydration in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of protein hydration in aqueous solution show that there are two qualitatively different types of hydration sites. A well-defined, small number of water molecules in the interior of the protein are in identical locations in the crystal structure and in solution, and their residence times are in the range from about 10-2 to 10-8

Gottfried Otting; Edvards Liepinsh; Kurt Wuthrich

1991-01-01

344

Carbonation Behavior of Pure Cement Hydrates under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Conditions - 12199  

SciTech Connect

Carbonation of cement-based waste forms using a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) is a developing technology for the waste immobilization of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes. However, the detail carbonation behaviors of cement matrices under the SCCO{sub 2} condition are unknown, since cement matrices forms very complex phases. In this study, in order to clarify the crystal phases, we synthesized pure cement hydrate phases as each single phases; portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}), ettringite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 12}.26H{sub 2}O), and calcium silicate hydrate (n CaO---m SiO{sub 2} ---x H{sub 2}O), using suspensions containing a stoichiometric mixture of chemical regents, and performed carbonation experiments using an autoclave under supercritical condition for carbon dioxide. The XRD results revealed both the carbonate phases and co-product phases depending on the initial hydrate phases; gypsum for Ettringite, amorphous or crystalline silica for calcium silicate hydroxide. Thermogravimetric analysis was also performed to understand carbonation behaviors quantitatively. According to the experimental results, it was found that the major reaction was formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) in all cases. However, the behaviors of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} content were quietly different: Portlandite was most reactive for carbonation under SCCO{sub 2} conditions, and the CO{sub 2} content per one molar CaO was ranged from 0.96 ? 0.98. In the case of Ettringite, the experiment indicates partial decomposition of ettringite phase during carbonation. Ettringite was comparatively stable even under the SCCO{sub 2} conditions. Therefore, a part of ettringite remained and formed similar phases after the ettringite carbonation. The CO{sub 2} content for ettringite showed almost constant values around 0.86 ? 0.87. In the case of calcium silicate hydrate, the carbonation behavior was significantly influenced by the condition of SCCO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} content for the calcium silicate hydrate had values that ranged from 0.51 ? 1.01. The co-products of the carbonation were gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}) for ettringite, silica gel (SiO{sub x}) and silica (SiO{sub 2}) for calcium silicate hydrate, which also contributed to the densification of the particles. The production of co-products enhanced the change to their morphology after the carbonation. (authors)

Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 464-8603 (Japan); Sawada, Kayo [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 464-8603 (Japan); Hertz, Audrey; Charton, Frederic [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, DTCD/SPDE/L2ED, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Frizon, Fabien [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, DTCD/SPDE/LFSM, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Brouno, Fournel [CEA, DEN, Marcoule, DTCD, BP 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2012-07-01

345

Immobilization hypercalcaemia responding to intravenous pamidronate sodium therapy.  

PubMed Central

A 16 year old male developed symptomatic hypercalcaemia of immobilization on day 47 following a diving accident which had resulted in incomplete C4 tetraplegia. Following initial reduction in serum calcium with salmon calcitonin 100 U/day, symptomatic hypercalcaemia recurred. A single dose of 30 mg pamidronate sodium, given intravenously, caused serum calcium to fall within 48 hours. Initial mild, asymptomatic hypocalcaemia was followed by a return to sustained normocalcaemia. No major adverse reaction was encountered, and if further clinical experience confirms its efficacy, pamidronate sodium will warrant consideration as first-line therapy for immobilization hypercalcaemia. PMID:2594602

McIntyre, H. D.; Cameron, D. P.; Urquhart, S. M.; Davies, W. E.

1989-01-01

346

Immobilization hypercalcaemia responding to intravenous pamidronate sodium therapy.  

PubMed

A 16 year old male developed symptomatic hypercalcaemia of immobilization on day 47 following a diving accident which had resulted in incomplete C4 tetraplegia. Following initial reduction in serum calcium with salmon calcitonin 100 U/day, symptomatic hypercalcaemia recurred. A single dose of 30 mg pamidronate sodium, given intravenously, caused serum calcium to fall within 48 hours. Initial mild, asymptomatic hypocalcaemia was followed by a return to sustained normocalcaemia. No major adverse reaction was encountered, and if further clinical experience confirms its efficacy, pamidronate sodium will warrant consideration as first-line therapy for immobilization hypercalcaemia. PMID:2594602

McIntyre, H D; Cameron, D P; Urquhart, S M; Davies, W E

1989-04-01

347

Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The  

E-print Network

Update on Calcium Signaling Calcium Signaling through Protein Kinases. The Arabidopsis Calcium protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network. Calcium is a ubiquitous

Sheen, Jen

348

Effect of Total and Partial Substitution of Sodium Chloride on the Quality of Cheddar Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was manufactured to give 1.6% residual sodium chloride or equivalent amounts (ionic strength basis) of magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, or 1:1 mixtures of sodium chloride and the chloride salt of magnesium, calcium, or potassium from two split batches of curd. Sensory evalua- tion after 4 mo ripening at 4°C showed that cheese salted solely with magnesium

E. Fitzgerald; J. Buckley

1985-01-01

349

Morphology study of methane-propane clathrate hydrates on the bubble surface in the presence of SDS or PVCap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of methane-propane hydrate crystal growth on the surface of gas bubble in pure water were investigated using optical microscope and compared with those in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or poly-N-vinylcaprolactam (PVCap). Most of morphology works in literature mainly focused on the hydrate crystal growth at the gas/water interface or surface of water droplets. However, this study monitors crystal growth at the bubble surface. In the case of pure water, smooth hydrate film was formed initially and the film surface on the bubble became rough as experiment proceeded. It was also observed that the hydrate crystals developed as the dendritic shape from the surface of hydrate film. In the presence of SDS, drastic changes in morphology were observed in that smoke-like crystals appeared from the top of the bubble. Besides, the gas bubble was not fully covered by hydrate film when the SDS concentration increased. In the PVCap solution, seed-like or small spot of hydrate crystals occurred sparsely on the bubble surface and spread out the whole surface as experiment progressed. The experimental results showed that the presence of SDS or PVCap affect morphological characteristics of methane-propane hydrate crystal on the surface of gas bubble.

Lee, So Young; Kim, Hyoung Chan; Lee, Ju Dong

2014-09-01

350

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates.  

PubMed

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this "liquid stone" gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm(3)) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)(1.65)(SiO2)(H2O)(1.75), also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

Pellenq, Roland J-M; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J; Buehler, Markus J; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2009-09-22

351

A realistic molecular model of cement hydrates  

PubMed Central

Despite decades of studies of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), the structurally complex binder phase of concrete, the interplay between chemical composition and density remains essentially unexplored. Together these characteristics of C-S-H define and modulate the physical and mechanical properties of this “liquid stone” gel phase. With the recent determination of the calcium/silicon (C/S = 1.7) ratio and the density of the C-S-H particle (2.6 g/cm3) by neutron scattering measurements, there is new urgency to the challenge of explaining these essential properties. Here we propose a molecular model of C-S-H based on a bottom-up atomistic simulation approach that considers only the chemical specificity of the system as the overriding constraint. By allowing for short silica chains distributed as monomers, dimers, and pentamers, this C-S-H archetype of a molecular description of interacting CaO, SiO2, and H2O units provides not only realistic values of the C/S ratio and the density computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of water adsorption at 300 K. The model, with a chemical composition of (CaO)1.65(SiO2)(H2O)1.75, also predicts other essential structural features and fundamental physical properties amenable to experimental validation, which suggest that the C-S-H gel structure includes both glass-like short-range order and crystalline features of the mineral tobermorite. Additionally, we probe the mechanical stiffness, strength, and hydrolytic shear response of our molecular model, as compared to experimentally measured properties of C-S-H. The latter results illustrate the prospect of treating cement on equal footing with metals and ceramics in the current application of mechanism-based models and multiscale simulations to study inelastic deformation and cracking. PMID:19805265

Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Kushima, Akihiro; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Buehler, Markus J.; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2009-01-01

352

Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and its influence on the rheology, zeta potential, and microstructure of various cement and hydrate phases.  

PubMed

In this study the influence of polycarboxylate-based polyelectrolytes on the particle interaction among tricalcium silicate (C(3)S, main clinker phase), calcium silicate hydrates (CSH), and calcium aluminate sulfate hydrates (ettringite) (main hydration phases) has been examined. These phases are the constituents of major concern during early hydration of cement suspensions. The results of zeta potential measurements on single mineral phase experiments show that the phases C(3)S and CSH are positively charged in synthetic pore solution (liquid phase of hydrating cement suspension), whereas the ettringite is negatively charged. Due to these opposite charges, ettringite crystals should coagulate with CSH phases and/or deposit on surfaces of the much larger C(3)S clinker particles. This behavior was proven by cryo-microscopic analysis of high-pressure frozen cement suspensions, which illustrates the consequences of colloidal mechanisms on the microstructure of early cement suspensions. Furthermore, it is shown that the polyelectrolytes have a much higher adsorption affinity to ettringite surfaces (hydrate phase) compared to silicate surfaces. However, the results from rheology experiments reveal that the presence of polyelectrolytes has a strong impact on the suspension properties of all investigated mineral phases by decreasing yield stress and plastic viscosity. From the results it can be concluded that the ettringite is the dominant mineral phase in terms of the state of dispersion which includes particle-particle and particle-polyelectrolyte interaction in the bulk cement system. PMID:18502439

Zingg, Anatol; Winnefeld, Frank; Holzer, Lorenz; Pakusch, Joachim; Becker, Stefan; Gauckler, Ludwig

2008-07-15

353

PYRETHROID INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN TRANSCRIPTION OF CALCIUM RESPONSIVE AND IMMEDIATE EARLY GENES IN VIVO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple molecular targets for pyrethroid insecticides have been evaluated in in vitro preparations, including but not limited to voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs), voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), GABAergic receptors, ATPases and mitochondrial respiratory chai...

354

Glassy dynamics of water in hydrated cement paste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the state of the hydration water in cement and the ways to control it are likely to be the keys to the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In this study we investigate the diffusional dynamics of water molecules in hydrated tri-calcium silicate, a major component in ordinary Portland cement. The spectra of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen atoms were measured using a high-resolution chopper spectrometer having an energy resolution of 28 ?eV. The spectra were analyzed by using two different methods: (i) an explicit dynamical model, recently proposed by us, taking into account the existence of two types of water: ``immobile water'', presumably water bound inside the colloidal particle component of the cement paste, and ``glassy water'', water imbedded in the gel-like component filling the spaces between the colloidal particles, and (ii) a new method in which we analyze the susceptibility function in the frequency domain instead of dealing with the dynamic structure factor as in (i). We extract three important parameters: the Q-independent fraction of immobile water p;the Q-independentstretch exponent ? (or b) and the Q-dependentaverage relaxation time ? (or 1/?p) of the glassy water. Both methods account very well for the cement hydration process, but the second method is intuitively more appealing and simpler.

Baglioni, P.; Fratini, E.; Chen, S.-H.

355

Comparison of stromal hydration techniques for clear corneal cataract incisions: conventional hydration versus anterior stromal pocket hydration.  

PubMed

Anterior stromal pocket hydration was compared with conventional hydration for preventing wound leak after 2.8 mm uniplanar clear corneal incisions (CCIs) in patients having routine cataract surgery. Conventional hydration involves hydration of the lateral walls of the main incision with visible whitening of the stroma. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique involves creation of an additional supraincisional stromal pocket overlying the main incision, which is then hydrated instead of the main incision. Sixty-six eyes of 48 patients were included in the data analysis with 33 assigned to each study group. The anterior stromal pocket hydration technique was significantly better than conventional hydration in preventing wound leak due to direct pressure on the posterior lip of the incision. PMID:22624890

Mifflin, Mark D; Kinard, Krista; Neuffer, Marcus C

2012-06-01

356

EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

2006-06-01

357

Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1992-01-01

358

Compact apparatus for photogeneration of hydrated electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flash-photolysis instrument generates hydrated electrons and studies their reactions. It has a three-dimensional, multiple-reaction cell and the capacity to produce up to .1 micromole hydrated electron in a single 40 microsec light pulse.

Hart, E.; Schmidt, K.

1970-01-01

359

Polymorphs and hydrates of acyclovir.  

PubMed

Acyclovir (ACV) has been commonly used as an antiviral for decades. Although the crystal structure of the commercial form, a 3:2 ACV/water solvate, has been known since 1980s, investigation into the structure of anhydrous ACV has been limited. Here, we report the characterization of four anhydrous forms of ACV and a new hydrate in addition to the known hydrate. Two of the anhydrous forms appear as small needles and are stable to air exposure, whereas the third form is morphologically similar but quickly absorbs water from the atmosphere and converts back to the commercial form. The high-temperature modification is achieved by heating anhydrous form I above 180 °C. The crystal structures of anhydrous form I and a novel hydrate are reported for the first time. PMID:21280051

Lutker, Katie M; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Xu, Jiadi; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Matzger, Adam J

2011-03-01

360

Sedimentological Control on Hydrate Saturation Distribution in Arctic Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain size variations along with the relative rates of fluid phases migrating into the zone of hydrate stability, plays an important role in gas-hydrate distribution and its morphologic characteristics. In the Arctic, strata several meters thick containing large saturations of gas hydrate are often separated by layers containing small but nonzero hydrate saturations. Examples are Mt. Elbert, Alaska and Mallik,

J. Behseresht; Y. Peng; S. L. Bryant

2010-01-01

361

Hydrate problems in deepwater flowlines  

SciTech Connect

In the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), the ambient temperature below about 100 meters water depth (the thermocline), is as low as 44 F. The hydrate formation temperature for natural gas at the reservoir pressures encountered in the deeper waters of the GOM is substantially higher than the 44 F ambient temperature. In fact, below about 1,500 foot water depth, naturally occurring gas hydrates are present as ice-like lenses just below the sea floor. Classic dehydration is not possible. The injection of dew point depressants such as methanol or glycol is possible. Insulation is also a possibility. As an example of one selection process for deriving a workable solution to hydrate prevention/control in deepwater flow lines from subsea completions, this paper examines the approach taken to select the solution to the hydrate formation problems on Enserch`s Mississippi Canyon Block MC 441 Field Development Project. The project involved connecting dual flow lines from each well at two 3-well templates in about 1,525 feet of water to a shallow water production facilities platform located m 380 feet of water. Calculations indicated that the gas temperature in an uninsulated flow line would fall to ambient temperature in less than 1 mile from the wellhead. Considering that the platform was located about 3 and 6 miles from the two subsea well templates, and that free water would occur, hydrates were expected to be formed in the flow lines if nothing was done. Various possible hydrate control/prevention methods, including some of those currently in use in the North Sea, were investigated. The method chosen as the cost effective solution for the MC441 field development is a combination of low Cost open cell insulation around the six flow lines in a casing and methanol injection at the wellhead/manifold.

Wang, X.; Bomba, J.G. [R.J. Brown and Associates, Houston, TX (United States). Division of Kvaerner Earl and Wright

1994-12-31

362

Theoretical study of the dimerization of calcium carbonate in aqueous solution under natural water conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First principles calculations have been used to investigate the condensation reactions of hydrated calcium bicarbonate monomers in a simulated aqueous environment. The reaction pathway for the calcium bicarbonate dimerization process has been computed at the density functional theory-PBE level with the COSMO dielectric continuum model to simulate the hydrated environment. The results indicate that calcium bicarbonate dimers form via an associative mechanism: the first step involves a sevenfold calcium bicarbonate intermediate followed by the loss of one water molecule from the first coordination shell of calcium. Both steps are characterised by a low energy barrier of approximately 2 kcal mol -1, suggesting that the dimerization process is not kinetically hindered in aqueous solution. However, the Gibbs free energies for the condensation reactions to form the calcium bicarbonate dimers and the species Ca(HCO 3) 2(H 2O) 4, Ca(HCO 3) 3(H 2O) 3- and Ca 2(HCO 3)(H 2O) 103+, computed using the PBE and mPW1B95 density functional theory levels for the gas-phase component and the UAHF-CPCM solvation model for the hydration contribution, are all positive, which indicates that the formation of these early calcium bicarbonate clusters is thermodynamically unfavourable in aqueous solutions. Our calculations therefore suggest that the oligomerization of calcium carbonate is not spontaneous in water, at the conditions considered in our simulations, i.e. T = 298 K and neutral pH, which indicates that the nucleation of calcium carbonate cannot occur through a homogeneous process when calcium-bicarbonate ion pairs are the major source of CaCO 3 in the aqueous environment.

Di Tommaso, Devis; de Leeuw, Nora H.

2009-09-01

363

Gas Hydrate and Pore Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many efforts have been devoted to quantify excess pore pressures related to gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments below the BSR using several approaches. Dissociation of gas hydrates in proximity of the BSR, in response to a change in the physical environment (i.e., temperature and/or pressure regime), can liberate excess gas incrising the local pore fluid pressure in the sediment, so decreasing the effective normal stress. So, gas hydrate dissociation may lead to excess pore pressure resulting in sediment deformation or failure, such as submarine landslides, sediment slumping, pockmarks and mud volcanoes, soft-sediment deformation and giant hummocks. Moreover, excess pore pressure may be the result of gas hydrate dissociation due to continuous sedimentation, tectonic uplift, sea level fall, heating or inhibitor injection. In order to detect the presence of the overpressure below the BSR, we propose two approachs. The fist approach models the BSR depth versus pore pressure; in fact, if the free gas below the BSR is in overpressure condition, the base of the gas hydrate stability is deeper with respect to the hydrostatic case. This effect causes a discrepancy between seismic and theoretical BSR depths. The second approach models the velocities versus gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and pore pressure, considering the approximation of the Biot theory in case of low frequency, i.e. seismic frequency. Knowing the P and S seismic velocity from seismic data analysis, it is possibile to jointly estimate the gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and the pore pressure regime. Alternatively, if the S-wave velocity is not availbale (due to lack of OBS/OBC data), an AVO analysis can be performed in order to extract information about Poisson ratio. Our modeling suggests that the areas characterized by shallow waters (i.e., areas in which human infrastructures, such as pipelines, are present) are significantly affected by the presence of overpressure condition. Moreover, the knoweledge of seismic velocities can be considered an powerful tool to detect the overpressure in case that the pore pressure is equal to the hydrostatic pressure plus the 50% of the difference between the lithostatic and the hydrostatic pressure. In conclusions, an accurate analysis of the BSR nature and the pore pressure are required to improve the reliability of the gas-phase estimation for different target, such as gas hydrate and free gas exploitations and environmental studies.

Tinivella, Umberta; Giustiniani, Michela

2014-05-01

364

Hydration of highly charged ions  

PubMed Central

Based on a series of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulations, the broad spectrum of structural and dynamical properties of hydrates of trivalent and tetravalent ions is presented, ranging from extreme inertness to immediate hydrolysis. Main group and transition metal ions representative for different parts of the periodic system are treated, as are 2 threefold negatively charged anions. The results show that simple predictions of the properties of the hydrates appear impossible and that an accurate quantum mechanical simulation in cooperation with sophisticated experimental investigations seems the only way to obtain conclusive results. PMID:22298911

Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K.H.; Randolf, Bernhard R.; Rode, Bernd M.

2011-01-01

365

Heated fly ash/hydrated lime slurries for SO[sub 2] removal in spray dryer absorbers  

SciTech Connect

Coal fly ashes have been slurried with quicklime at elevated temperatures to determine their reactivity with SO[sub 2] in a minipilot spray dryer. Bench-scale experimental results indicate that this hydration process greatly increases the total surface area of the solids. Minipilot-scale spray dryer tests reveal that the slurry reaction step can significantly increase calcium utilization and SO[sub 2] removal of these fly ash/quicklime sorbents, depending on the type of fly ash used. One type of fly ash showed considerably better reactivity in the spray dryer tests. This enhancement is considered due to the presence of calcium silica hydrate material formed from the reaction between calcium and the alumina silicate found in the fly ashes and the difference in reactivity due to the type of calcium silica hydrate material formed. The benefit, however, decreases with the calcium feed rate. Pozzolanic strength tests were performed on the fly ashes used, and the measured unconfined compressive strengths followed the reactivity results in the spray dryer; the most reactive fly ash possessed the highest pozzolanic activity.

Sanders, J.F.; Keener, T.C.; Wang, J. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

1995-01-01

366

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

367

Recent Insights into the Structure and Mechanism of the Sodium Pump  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sodium pump (or Na-K-ATPase) is essential to the function of animal cells. Publication of the related calcium pump (SERCA) structure together with several recent results from a variety of approaches allow us to propose a mechanistic model to answer the question: "How does the sodium pump pump?"

J. -D. Horisberger (University of Lausanne Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

2004-12-01

368

Time-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering study of the hydration of tricalcium silicate: Effects of CaCl 2 and sucrose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering coupled with hydration modeling enabled the interpretation of the hydration processes in a triclinic form of tricalcium silicate when calcium chloride and sucrose were added. Calcium chloride increases the rate of product formation and causes a less dense product to form. Sucrose was investigated at two concentrations. With increasing amount of sucrose, the retardation time and the length of the nucleation and growth period increase, and the product density decreases. The rate of nucleation and growth of products is not linearly dependent on the amount of sucrose added, a result attributed to complexation with Ca 2+ at higher concentrations.

Peterson, Vanessa K.; Garci Juenger, Maria C.

2006-11-01

369

Microsolvation and hydration enthalpies of CaC?O?(H?O) n (n=0-16) and C?O?²?(H?O) n (n=0-14): an ab initio study.  

PubMed

We studied hydrated calcium oxalate and its ions at the restricted Hartree-Fock RHF/6-31G* level of theory. Performing a configurational search seems to improve the fit of the HF/6-31G* level to experimental data. The first solvation shell of calcium oxalate contains 13 water molecules, while the first solvation shell of oxalate ion is formed by 14 water molecules. The first solvation shell of Ca(II) is formed by six water molecules, while the second shell contains five. At 298.15 K, we estimate the asymptotic limits (infinite dilution) of the total standard enthalpies of hydration for Ca(II), oxalate ion and calcium oxalate as -480.78, -302.78 and -312.73 kcal mol(-1), resp. The dissociation of hydrated calcium oxalate is an endothermic process with an asymptotic limit of +470.84 kcal mol(-1). PMID:23232865

Rosas-García, Victor M; del Carmen Sáenz-Tavera, Isabel; Rodríguez-Herrera, Verónica Janeth; Garza-Campos, Benjamín Raymundo

2013-04-01

370

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

371

Diclofenac sodium overdose  

MedlinePLUS

Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally ...

372

Gemini near-infrared observations of Europa's Hydrated Surface Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Europa is a highly dynamic icy moon of Jupiter. It is thought the moon harbors a subsurface ocean, with the potential to sustain life, with Europa being a key target of ESA's forthcoming Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JUICE) mission. However, much is not known concerning the chemistry of the subsurface ocean. The surface is dominated by water ice, with a hydrated non-ice material component providing the distinctive albedo contrasts seen at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These non-ice materials are concentrated at disrupted surface regions, providing a diagnostic probe for the chemistry and characteristics of the liquid ocean beneath. Leading but potentially competing theories on the composition of these hydrated non-ice materials suggest either sulfuric acid-water mixtures (Carlson et al., 1999) or hydrated magnesium/sodium salts (McCord et al., 1999). Recent reanalysis of Galileo-NIMS observations suggest a mixture of both - hydrated salts are present at all longitudes but the sulfuric acid hydrates are localized on the trailing side. We present preliminary analysis of new ground-based Gemini disk-resolved spectroscopy of Europa using the Near-Infrared Integrated Field Spectrometer (NIFS), taken in late 2011, at H (1.49 - 1.80 ?m) and K bands (1.99 - 2.40 ?m) with spectral resolving powers of ~ 5300. At these NIR wavelengths, with spectral resolution much better than Galileo-NIMS, the spectral absorption and continuum characteristics of these ice and non-ice materials can be separated out. In addition, the spatial resolution potentially allows identification of localized materials whose signature would be diluted in disk-integrated spectra. These observations of the trailing hemisphere use Altair adaptive optics to achieve spatial resolutions of 0.1" (~310 km per pixel) or better, potentially leading to better identification of the non-ice materials and their spatial distributions. References Carlson, R.W., R.E. Johnson, and M.S. Anderson 1999. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle. Science 286, 97-99. McCord, T. et al. 1999. Hydrated salt minerals on Europa's surface from the Galileo Near- Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) investigation. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11827

Tsang, C.; Spencer, J. R.; Grundy, W. M.; Dalton, J. B.

2012-12-01

373

Attraction between hydrated hydrophilic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to common knowledge, hydrophilic surfaces repel via hydration forces while hydrophobic surfaces attract, but mounting experimental evidence suggests that also hydrophilic surfaces can attract. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations at prescribed water chemical potential we study the crossover from hydration repulsion to hydrophobic attraction for planar polar surfaces of varying stiffness and hydrogen-bonding capability. Rescaling the partial charges of the polar surface groups, we cover the complete spectrum from very hydrophobic surfaces (characterized by contact angles ? ? 135°) to hydrophilic surfaces exhibiting complete wetting (? = 0°). Indeed, for a finite range ?adh < ? < 90°, we find a regime where hydrophilic surfaces attract at sub-nanometer separation and stably adhere without intervening water. The adhesive contact angle ?adh depends on surface type and lies in the range 65° < ?adh < 80°, in good agreement with experiments. Analysis of the total number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) formed by water and surface groups rationalizes this crossover between hydration repulsion and hydrophilic attraction in terms of a subtle balance: Highly polar surfaces repel because of strongly bound hydration water, less polar hydrophilic surfaces attract because water-water HBs are preferred over surface-water HBs. Such solvent reorganization forces presumably underlie also other important phenomena, such as selective ion adsorption to interfaces as well as ion pair formation.

Kandu?, Matej; Schneck, Emanuel; Netz, Roland R.

2014-08-01

374

Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows.  

PubMed

Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago. PMID:17768978

Friedman, I

1968-02-23

375

Hydration rind dates rhyolite flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydration of obsidian has been used to date rhyolite flows, containing obsidian or porphyritic glass, at Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake Highlands) and Mono Lake, California. The method is simple and rapid and can be used to date flows that erupted between 200 and approximately 200,000 years ago.

Friedman, I.

1968-01-01

376

Relative bioavailability of calcium from calcium formate, calcium citrate, and calcium carbonate  

E-print Network

Published Abstract: Calcium is an essential nutrient required in substantial amounts, but many diets are deficient in calcium making supplementation necessary or desirable. The objective of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Fisher, D. H.

2005-06-01

377

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-01-01

378

Gas hydrate reservoir characteristics and economics  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the DOE-funded USGS Gas Hydrate Program is to assess the production characteristics and economic potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The objectives of this project for FY-1992 will include the following: (1) Utilize industry seismic data to assess the distribution of gas hydrates within the nearshore Alaskan continental shelf between Harrison Bay and Prudhoe Bay; (2) Further characterize and quantify the well-log characteristics of gas hydrates; and (3) Establish gas monitoring stations over the Eileen fault zone in northern Alaska, which will be used to measure gas flux from destabilized hydrates.

Collett, T.S.; Bird, K.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Lee, Myung W.

1992-06-01

379

Hydration of the DNA bases is local.  

PubMed Central

Ordered hydration sites were determined for the nucleotide bases in B-type conformations using the crystal structure data on 14 B-DNA decamer structures. A method of density representation was extended so that positions, occupancies, and distributions of the hydration sites were predicted around a B-DNA double helix by a method analogous to crystallographic refinement. The predicted hydration sites correctly reproduce the main features of hydration around the B-DNA dodecamer. In contrast to the previous observations, the newly available crystal data show the same extent of hydration of guanine and adenine, and of cytosine and thymine. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:8599672

Schneider, B; Berman, H M

1995-01-01

380

Spooky sodium balance.  

PubMed

Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake. However, careful balance studies oftentimes conflict with this view and long-term studies suggest that TBNa fluctuates independent of intake or body weight. We recently performed the opposite experiment in that we fixed sodium intake for several weeks at three levels of sodium intake and collected all urine made. We found weekly (circaseptan) patterns in sodium excretion that were inversely related to aldosterone and directly to cortisol. TBNa was not dependent on sodium intake but instead exhibited far longer (? monthly) infradian rhythms independent of extracellular water, body weight, or blood pressure. The findings are consistent with our ideas on tissue sodium storage and its regulation that we developed on the basis of animal research. We are implementing (23)Na-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to pursue open questions on sodium balance in patients. Our findings could be relevant to therapeutic strategies for hypertension and target-organ damage. PMID:24107854

Titze, Jens; Dahlmann, Anke; Lerchl, Kathrin; Kopp, Christoph; Rakova, Natalia; Schröder, Agnes; Luft, Friedrich C

2014-04-01

381

Physical activity, hydration and health.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences. PMID:24972459

Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

2014-01-01

382

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, T.S.

1998-01-01

383

RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE CALCIUM CHANNEL STRUCTURE Structural basis for a pH-sensitive calcium leak across,3 Wayne A. Hendrickson,1,2,4,5 Qun Liu1,4 * Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor­1 (hBI-1) is an antiapoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak

Napp, Nils

384

Crystallization of calcium hydroxide in the presence of sulphonated melamine formaldehyde superplasticizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium hydroxide (portlandite) is one of the main solid constituents of hydrated Portland cement. It is not present in dry Portland cement clinker, but develops during the course of setting and strength gain, mainly as the tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate phases of clinker react with water. The mechanism of its formation is clear. Within a few seconds of mixing

V. T. Yilmaz; F. P. Glasser

1991-01-01

385

Empirical force fields for complex hydrated calcio-silicate layered materials.  

PubMed

The use of empirical force fields is now a standard approach in predicting the properties of hydrated oxides which are omnipresent in both natural and engineering applications. Transferability of force fields to analogous hydrated oxides without rigorous investigations may result in misleading property predictions. Herein, we focus on two common empirical force fields, the simple point charge ClayFF potential and the core-shell potential to study tobermorite minerals, the most prominent family of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates that are complex hydrated oxides. We benchmark the predictive capabilities of these force fields against first principles results. While the structural information seem to be in close agreement with DFT results, we find that for higher order properties such as elastic constants, the core-shell potential quantitatively improves upon the simple point charge model, and shows a larger degree of transferability to complex materials. In return, to remedy the deficiencies of the simple point charge potential for hydrated calcio-silicates, we suggest using both structural data and elasticity data for potential calibration, a new force field potential, CSH-FF. This re-parameterized version of ClayFF is then applied to simulating an atomistic model of cement (Pellenq et al., PNAS, 2009). We demonstrate that this force field improves the predictive capabilities of ClayFF, being considerably less computational intensive than the core-shell model. PMID:21069228

Shahsavari, Rouzbeh; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz-Josef

2011-01-21

386

Hydrated calcareous oil-shale ash as potential filter media for phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The P-retention in hydrated calcareous ash sediment from oil-shale burning thermal power plants in Estonia was studied. Batch experiments indicate good (up to 65 mg P g(-1)) P-binding capacity of the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment, with a removal effectiveness of 67-85%. The high phosphorus sorption potential of hydrated oil-shale ash is considered to be due to the high content of reactive Ca-minerals, of which ettringite Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and portlandite Ca(OH)2 are the most important. The equilibrium dissolution of ettringite provides free calcium ions that act as stable nuclei for phosphate precipitation. The precipitation mechanism of phosphorus removal in hydrated ash plateau sediment is suggested by Ca-phosphate formation in batch experiments at different P-loadings. Treatment with a P-containing solution causes partial-to-complete dissolution of ettringite and portlandite, and precipitation of Ca-carbonate and Ca-phosphate phases, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)-EDS studies. Thus, the hydrated oil-shale ash sediment can be considered as a potential filtration material for P removal in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. PMID:17959214

Kaasik, Ago; Vohla, Christina; Mõtlep, Riho; Mander, Ulo; Kirsimäe, Kalle

2008-02-01

387

Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate-saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate-bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Cortes, D.D.; Martin, A.I.; Yun, T.S.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

2009-01-01

388

Single-Crystal Calcium Hexaboride Nanowires: Synthesis and  

E-print Network

tantalum crucible,21 by carbothermal reduction of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and boron carbide (B4C) at 1400 sputtering,26 laser ablation,27,30,31 and chemical vapor deposition (CVD).28,29,32 Chromium boride (CrB) nanorods were synthesized by reaction of chromium trichloride (CrCl3) and B powders in molten sodium at 650

389

Original article Acid gelation of colloidal calcium phosphate-  

E-print Network

of 45% total Ca and 30% total phosphorus, to an increase in sodium content and pH of milk, to lower, especially for -casein. The pH value at which the milk sample begins to gel increased for low mineral of acid gels. colloidal calcium phosphate / CCP / acid milk gel / dialysis ­ 90 °C 10 min pH

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Sodium Diffusion through Aluminum-Doped Zeolite BEA System: Effect of Water Solvation Hyungjun Kim, Wei-Qiao Deng, and William A. Goddard, III*  

E-print Network

Sodium Diffusion through Aluminum-Doped Zeolite BEA System: Effect of Water Solvation Hyungjun Kim To investigate the effect of hydration on the diffusion of sodium ions through the aluminum-doped zeolite BEA absorption into aluminosilicate zeolite structure under various conditions of vapor pressure and temperature

Goddard III, William A.

391

In vitro studies of calcium phosphate silicate bone cements.  

PubMed

A novel calcium phosphate silicate bone cement (CPSC) was synthesized in a process, in which nanocomposite forms in situ between calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The cement powder consists of tricalcium silicate (C(3)S) and calcium phosphate monobasic (CPM). During cement setting, C(3)S hydrates to produce C-S-H and calcium hydroxide (CH); CPM reacts with the CH to precipitate HAP in situ within C-S-H. This process, largely removing CH from the set cement, enhances its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The testing results of cell culture confirmed that the biocompatibility of CPSC was improved as compared to pure C(3)S. The results of XRD and SEM characterizations showed that CPSC paste induced formation of HAP layer after immersion in simulated body fluid for 7 days, suggesting that CPSC was bioactive in vitro. CPSC cement, which has good biocompatibility and low/no cytotoxicity, could be a promising candidate as biomedical cement. PMID:23114635

Zhou, Shuxin; Ma, Jingzhi; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Ruse, N Dorin; Yang, Quanzu; Troczynski, Tom

2013-02-01

392

Effects of solvent and alkaline earth metals on the heat-induced precipitation process of sodium caseinate.  

PubMed

The precipitation temperatures of sodium caseinate in H(2)O and D(2)O in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) were investigated through fluorescence, turbidity and conductivity experiments. As for the ability of the divalent cations (1-17.5mM) to induce the precipitation process in H(2)O, the sequence Ba(2+) ? Ca(2+)>Mg(2+)>Sr(2+) was found. Remarkably, while at low salt concentrations (<10mM) precipitation temperatures (T(Ps)) were found to change significantly depending on the specific cation, at higher concentrations (>10mM) the differences among the different cations were greatly reduced. By fitting these results with a modified Jones-Dole equation, we confirmed that the less hydrated ions possess a greater capacity to induce precipitation. In D(2)O, the order of ion ability to induce caseinate precipitation was Ba(2+)>Ca(2+)>Sr(2+)>Mg(2+). The different hydrophobicity between D(2)O and H(2)O was shown to affect significantly the T(Ps) of caseinate in the presence of calcium, strontium and barium. PMID:23017422

Lopez, Francesco; Cuomo, Francesca; Nostro, Pierandrea Lo; Ceglie, Andrea

2013-01-01

393

The Properties and Characteristics of Concretes Containing Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) and Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of precipitated calcium carbonate as a means for enhancing the mechanical and environmental favorability of concretes containing synthetic lightweight aggregates (SLA), which are comprised of recycled mixed plastic and fly ash. Compressive strength tests show that 2% calcium carbonate additions are able to mitigate strength decreases induced by SLA as well as decrease concrete density when compared to NWA concretes. SLA concretes containing 5% calcium carbonate do not show the same trend. Instead, strength decreases and density increases are observed. Furthermore, increases in aluminum trisulphate (AFt) phase mineralization are observed through scanning electron microscopy. Results suggest that calcium carbonate additions increase early hydration and stabilize AFt minerals thaumasite and ettringite throughout hydration. It is proposed that increased AFt phase mineralization causes reductions in concrete density. However, a limit to this relationship was observed as additions of greater than 2% calcium carbonate exceed the potential for increased hydration, causing a threshold effect that resulted in calcium carbonate acting as filler, which increases density. Improved mechanical properties and the ability to stabilize waste plastics, fly ash, and CO2 emissions make the use of 2% calcium carbonate in conjunction with SLA a favorable alternative to ordinary concretes.

Ramos, Matthew J.

394

Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy shows a sparingly hydrated interface and low counterion mobility in triflate micelles.  

PubMed

The properties of ionic micelles are affected by the nature of the counterion. Specific ion effects can be dramatic, inducing even shape and phase changes in micellar solutions, transitions apparently related to micellar hydration and counterion binding at the micellar interface. Thus, determining the hydration and dynamics of ions in micellar systems capable of undergoing such transitions is a crucial step in understanding shape and phase changes. For cationic micelles, such transitions are common with large organic anions as counterions. Interestingly, however, phase separation also occurs for dodecyltrimethylammonium triflate (DTATf) micelles in the presence of sodium triflate (NaTf). Specific ion effects for micellar solutions of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), bromide (DTAB), methanesulfonate (DTAMs), and triflate (DTATf) were studied with dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), a technique capable of monitoring hydration and counterion dynamics of micellar aggregates. In comparison to DTAB, DTAC, and DTAMs, DTATf micelles were found to be considerably less hydrated and showed reduced counterion mobility at the micellar interface. The obtained DTATf and DTAMs data support the reported central role of the anion's -CF3 moiety with respect to the properties of DTATf micelles. The reduced hydration observed for DTATf micelles was rationalized in terms of the higher packing of this surfactant compared to that of other DTA-based systems. The decreased mobility of Tf(-) anions condensed at the DTATf interface strongly suggests the insertion of Tf(-) in the micellar interface, which is apparently driven by the strong hydrophobicity of -CF3. PMID:23899188

Lima, Filipe S; Chaimovich, Hernan; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Buchner, Richard

2013-08-13

395

Macroscopic investigation of water volume effects on interfacial dynamic behaviors between clathrate hydrate and water.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of the water volume on the interfacial dynamics between cyclopentane (CP) hydrate and water droplet in a CP/n-decane oil mixture. The adhesion force between CP hydrate and various water droplets was determined using the z-directional microbalance. Through repetition of precise measurements over several cycles from contact to detachment, we observed abnormal wetting behaviors in the capillary bridge during the retraction process when the water drop volume is larger than 100 ?L. With the increase in water droplet volumes, the contact force between CP hydrate and water also increases up to 300 ?L. However, there is a dramatic reduction of increasing rate in the contact forces over 300 ?L of water droplet. With the addition of the surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) to the water droplet, the contact force between CP hydrate and solution droplet exhibits a lower value and a transition volume of the contact force comes with a smaller solution volume of 200 ?L. The water volume effects on the liquid wetting of the probe and the size of capillary bridges provide important insight into hydrate growth and aggregation/agglomeration in the presence of free water phase inside gas/oil pipelines. PMID:23590620

Cha, Minjun; Couzis, Alexander; Lee, Jae W

2013-05-14

396

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, Timothy S.

1998-01-01

397

Alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloy implants.  

PubMed

As an alternative technique for calcium phosphate coating on titanium alloys, we propose to functionalize the metal surface with anionic bath containing chlorides of palladium or silver as activators. This new deposition route has several advantages such as controlled conditions, applicability to complex shapes, no adverse effect of heating, and cost effectiveness. A mixture of hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate hydrate is deposited on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Calcium phosphate coating is built faster compared with the one by Simulated Body Fluid. Cell morphology and density are comparable to the control one; and the results prove no toxic compound is released into the medium during the previous seven days of immersion. Moreover, the cell viability is comparable with cells cultivated with the virgin medium. These experimental treatments allowed producing cytocompatible materials potentially applicable to manufacture implantable devices for orthopedic and oral surgeries. PMID:24646569

Le, Van Quang; Pourroy, Geneviève; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Mohammed, Hadeer I; Carradò, Adele

2014-01-01

398

Canadian Initiatives to Prevent Hypertension by Reducing Dietary Sodium  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is the leading risk for premature death in the world. High dietary sodium is an important contributor to increased blood pressure and is strongly associated with other important diseases (e.g., gastric cancer, calcium containing kidney stones, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity). The average dietary sodium intake in Canada is approximately 3400 mg/day. It is estimated that 30% of hypertension, more than 10% of cardiovascular events and 1.4 billion dollars/year in health care expenses are caused by this high level of intake in Canada. Since 2006, Canada has had a focused and evolving effort to reduce dietary sodium based on actions from Non Governmental Organizations (NGO), and Federal and Provincial/Territorial Government actions. NGOs initiated Canadian sodium reduction programs by developing a policy statement outlining the health issue and calling for governmental, NGO and industry action, developing and disseminating an extensive health care professional education program including resources for patient education, developing a public awareness campaign through extensive media releases and publications in the lay press. The Federal Government responded by striking a Intersectoral Sodium Work Group to develop recommendations on how to implement Canada’s dietary reference intake values for dietary sodium and by developing timelines and targets for foods to be reduced in sodium, assessing key research gaps with funding for targeted dietary sodium based research, developing plans for public education and for conducting evaluation of the program to reduce dietary sodium. While food regulation is a Federal Government responsibility Provincial and Territorial governments indicated reducing dietary sodium needed to be a priority. Federal and Provincial Ministers of Health have endorsed a target to reduce the average consumption of sodium to 2300 mg/day by 2016 and the Deputy Ministers of Health have tasked a joint committee to review the recommendations of the Sodium Work Group and report back to them. PMID:22254122

Campbell, Norm R. C.; Willis, Kevin J.; L’Abbe, Mary; Strang, Robert; Young, Eric

2011-01-01

399

Molecular Structure of Acyclovir hydrate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acyclovir hydrate is used in the treatment of shingles and herpes simplex virus and as well as other types of herpes viral infections. This may help people co-infected with HIV and herpes simplex live longer. High dose acyclovir is used to treat hairy leukoplakia, a viral infection which usually shows up on both sides of the tongue. Possible side effects of this therapeutic substance are stomach pain, headache, nausea and/or hair-loss.

2002-09-12

400

Natural Gas Hydrates Estimation Using Seismic Inversion and Rock Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrate drilling worldwide indicates that the formation of gas hydrates in shallow sediments tends to increase P- and S-wave velocities of the hosting rocks. Rock physics models of gas hydrates provide the links between velocity anomalies and gas hydrate concentration. In this abstract, we evaluate the numerical predictions of some of the major rock physics models of gas hydrates

N. Dutta; J. Dai; R. Kleinberg; H. Xu

2005-01-01

401

Gas hydrates: Technology status report  

SciTech Connect

In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility for expanding the knowledge base and for developing methods to recover gas from hydrates. These are ice-like mixtures of gas and water where gas molecules are trapped within a framework of water molecules. This research is part of the Unconventional Gas Recovery (UGR) program, a multidisciplinary effort that focuses on developing the technology to produce natural gas from resources that have been classified as unconventional because of their unique geologies and production mechanisms. Current work on gas hydrates emphasizes geological studies; characterization of the resource; and generic research, including modeling of reservoir conditions, production concepts, and predictive strategies for stimulated wells. Complementing this work is research on in situ detection of hydrates and field tests to verify extraction methods. Thus, current research will provide a comprehensive technology base from which estimates of reserve potential can be made, and from which industry can develop recovery strategies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

402

Dielectric response of hydrated proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study dipolar susceptibility of hydrated proteins, representing the average dipole moment induced at the hydrated protein by a uniform external field. This parameter shows remarkable variation among proteins. We find a negative value of the dipolar susceptibility for some proteins, which implies a dia-electric dipolar response and negative dielectrophoresis. Such proteins, even though carrying significant permanent dipole moments, repel from the electric field. This outcome is the result of a negative cross-correlation between the protein and water dipoles, compensating for the positive variance of the intrinsic protein dipole in the overall dipolar susceptibility. We therefore suggest that the dipolar response of proteins in solution is strongly affected by the coupling of the protein surface charge to the hydration water. The protein-water dipolar cross-correlations are long-ranged, extending approximately 2 nm from the protein surface into the bulk. A similar correlation length of about 1 nm is found for the electrostatic potential. The model is applied to the analysis of light absorption by protein solutions in the THz window of radiation. Here we also find significant deviations of the absorption coefficient from the predictions of traditional theories.

Matyushov, Dmitry

2013-03-01

403

ORNL 2010-G01024/jcn UT-B ID 200701977  

E-print Network

hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, potassium phosphate, and sodium aluminate. Researchers improved such as potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, lime, limestone, magnesium is composed of calcium aluminate cement, phenolic resin, hydratable alumina, and an organic polymer binder

404

Development of Alaskan gas hydrate resources  

SciTech Connect

The research undertaken in this project pertains to study of various techniques for production of natural gas from Alaskan gas hydrates such as, depressurization, injection of hot water, steam, brine, methanol and ethylene glycol solutions through experimental investigation of decomposition characteristics of hydrate cores. An experimental study has been conducted to measure the effective gas permeability changes as hydrates form in the sandpack and the results have been used to determine the reduction in the effective gas permeability of the sandpack as a function of hydrate saturation. A user friendly, interactive, menu-driven, numerical difference simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of natural gas hydrates in porous media with variable thermal properties. A numerical, finite element simulator has been developed to model the dissociation of hydrates during hot water injection process.

Kamath, V.A.; Sharma, G.D.; Patil, S.L.

1991-06-01

405

Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths  

E-print Network

118 Calcium is incorporated into the calcium carbonate matrix of otoliths and into the calcium). In addition to calcium, trace elements, such as strontium, are also incorporated into the calcified components valence) allow strontium ions to act as replace- ments for calcium during the pro- cess of calcification

406

Complexation of the sodium cation with sodium ionophore III: Experimental and theoretical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using extraction experiments and ?-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Na+(aq) + A-(aq) + 1(nb) ? 1·Na+(nb) + A-(nb) occurring in the two-phase water - nitrobenzene system (A- = picrate, 1 = sodium ionophore III; aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was determined as log Kex (1·Na+, A-) = 1.5 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1·Na+ complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 °C: log ?nb (1·Na+) = 6.7 ± 0.1. Finally, applying quantum mechanical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the nonhydrated 1·Na+ and hydrated 1·Na+·2H2O cationic complex species were derived. In both of these complexes, the “central” cation Na+ is bound by four bonding interactions to the corresponding four oxygen atoms of the parent ligand 1. Besides, in the case of 1·Na+·2H2O complex, the considered hydrated structure is stabilized by two water molecules bound to the “central” sodium cation.

Makrlík, Emanuel; Kví?ala, Jaroslav; Va?ura, Petr

2014-06-01

407

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

408

Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review  

SciTech Connect

Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2010-01-01

409

Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).  

SciTech Connect

Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

2008-01-01

410

Global hydration kinetics of tricalcium silicate cement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider a number of measurements for the overall hydration kinetics of tricalcium silicate pastes having an initial water to cement weight ratio close to 0.5. We find that the time dependent ratio of hydrated and unhydrated silica mole numbers can be well characterized by two power laws in time, x/(1-x)~(t/t×)?. For early times thydration (?=5/2) and for later times t>t× a parabolic behavior (?=1/2). The crossover time is estimated as t×~16 h. We interpret these results in terms of a global second-order rate equation indicating that (a) hydrates catalyze the hydration process for thydration for t>t×, and (c) the value of the associated rate constant is of magnitude 6×10-7-7×10-6 l mol-1 s-1. We argue, by considering that the hydration process actually occurs via diffusion limited precipitation, that the exponents ?=5/2 and ?=1/2 directly indicate a preferentially platelike hydrate microstructure. This is essentially in agreement with experimental observations of cellular hydrate microstructures for this class of materials.

Tzschichholz, F.; Zanni, H.

2001-07-01

411

Catastrophic growth of gas hydrates in the presence of kinetic hydrate inhibitors.  

PubMed

The effect of the concentration of kinetic hydrate inhibitors, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and polyvinylcaprolactam (PVCap) on the onset and growth of synthetic natural gas hydrates is investigated by measuring the hydrate onset time and gas consumption rate. Although the hydrate onset time is extended by increasing the concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 wt % for both PVP and PVCap, the growth rate of hydrates shows that the different tendency depends on the type of kinetic hydrate inhibitor and its concentration. For PVCap solution, the hydrate growth was slow for more than 1000 min after the onset at the concentration of 0.5 and 1.5 wt %. However, the growth rate becames almost 8 times faster at the concentration of 3.0 wt %, representing the catastrophic growth of hydrate just after the hydrate onset. (13)C NMR spectra of hydrates formed at 3.0 wt % of PVP and PVCap indicate the existence of both structures I and II. Cage occupancy of methane in large cages of structure II decreases significantly when compared to that for pure water. These results suggest that increasing the concentration of KHI up to 3.0 wt % may induce the earlier appearance of catastrophic hydrate growth and the existence of metastable structure I; thus, there needs to be an upper limit for using KHI to manage the formation of gas hydrates. PMID:24295438

Cha, Minjun; Shin, Kyuchul; Seo, Yutaek; Shin, Ju-Young; Kang, Seong-Pil

2013-12-27

412

Three-dimensional distribution of gas hydrate beneath southern Hydrate Ridge: constraints from ODP Leg 204  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large uncertainties about the energy resource potential and role in global climate change of gas hydrates result from uncertainty about how much hydrate is contained in marine sediments. During Leg 204 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) to the accretionary complex of the Cascadia subduction zone, we sampled the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) from the seafloor to its base

A. M. Tréhu; Philip E. Long; M. E. Torres; G. Bohrmann; F. R. Rack; T. S. Collett; D. S. Goldberg; A. V. Milkov; M. Riedel; P. Schultheiss; N. L. Bangs; S. R. Barr; W. S. Borowski; G. E. Claypool; Mark E. Delwiche; G. R. Dickens; E. Gracia; G. Guerin; M. Holland; Jerry E. Johnson; Y.-J. Lee; C.-S. Liu; X. Su; B. Teichert; H. Tomaru; M. Vanneste; M. Watanabe; Jill L. Weinberger

2004-01-01

413

Analysis of Sonic Velocity in an Active Gas Hydrate System, Hydrate Ridge, Offshore Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the best recognized and most intuitive influence of gas hydrate on its host sediment is the change in its mechanical and elastic properties. This is identified through an increase in acoustic velocity, which is partially responsible for one of the most distinct signatures of gas hydrate presence, the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR). The unstable nature of gas hydrate

G. Guerin; D. Goldberg; T. S. Collett

2004-01-01

414

Assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) with downhole electrical resistivity logs on Hydrate Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downhole logging program on Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204 was designed to obtain the data needed to assess the occurrence and concentration of gas hydrates beneath Hydrate Ridge off the northwest coast of the United States. During Leg 204, logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools were deployed at eight of the nine sites cored on Hydrate Ridge. The LWD tools used

T. Collett; D. Goldberg; G. Guerin; S. Barr

2003-01-01

415

Effective hydration temperature of obsidian: a diffusion theory analysis of time-dependent hydration rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimate of effective hydration temperature (EHT) is needed for chronological use of obsidian hydration data. This paper describes a method for calculating EHT by the practicing archaeologist, replacing three techniques that are in general use today: estimates based on mean temperature, numerical integration of models of diurnal and annual temperature variations, and use of temperature cells. The hydration (or

Alexander K. Rogers

2007-01-01

416

Dynamical interrogation of the hydration cage of bromine in single crystal clathrate hydrates versus water  

E-print Network

Dynamical interrogation of the hydration cage of bromine in single crystal clathrate hydrates of bromine clathrate hydrates and on bromine dissolved in water. In all cases, excitation into the B of 290 fs, is significantly reduced due to the larger cages and the looser fit around bromine

Apkarian, V. Ara

417

Divacancy superstructures in thermoelectric calcium-doped sodium cobaltate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have grown single crystals of NaxCayCoO2 and determined their superstructures as a function of composition using neutron and x-ray diffraction. Inclusion of Ca2+ stabilizes a single superstructure across a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. The superstructure in the Na+ layers is based on arrays of divacancy clusters with Ca2+ ions occupying the central site, and it has an ideal concentration Na4/7Ca1/7CoO2. Previous measurements of the thermoelectric properties on this system are discussed in light of this superstructure. Na4/7Ca1/7CoO2 corresponds to the maximum in thermoelectric performance of this system.

Porter, D. G.; Roger, M.; Gutmann, M. J.; Uthayakumar, S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.; Pandiyan, M. S.; Goff, J. P.

2014-08-01

418

The system water-sodium oxide-silicon dioxide at 200, 250, and 300??  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies were made of the H2O-Na2O-SiO2 system at its vapor pressure at 200, 250, and 300??. Three different sodium trisilicate hydrates were encountered in the investigation. At 300??, Na2Si3O7??5H2O is found: at 250??, Na2Si3O7??6H2O; and at 200??, Na2Si3O7??11H2O. The liquid immiscibility previously reported to exist in the system was found to be a quenching phenomenon caused by the decomposition of the hydrates to unstable, supersaturated, viscous liquids. Under conditions where equilibrium is maintained, as temperature is lowered, the hydrates decompose to quartz, sodium disilicate, and liquid. The retrograde solubility of sodium disilicate and its tendency to form supersaturated solutions during heating from 25 to 250?? account for higher solubilities reported by others than were found in this study. The solubility of sodium disilicate in water is 26% at 200??, 9% at 250??, and 5% at 300??. Sodium metasilicate solubility is 38% at 200?? and 34% at 250??; this compound is incongruently soluble at 300??.

Rowe, J.J.; Fournier, R.O.; Morey, G.W.

1967-01-01

419

Methane hydrate research at NETL: Research to make methane production from hydrates a reality  

SciTech Connect

Research is underway at NETL to understand the physical properties of methane hydrates. Five key areas of research that need further investigation have been identified. These five areas, i.e. thermal properties of hydrates in sediments, kinetics of natural hydrate dissociation, hysteresis effects, permeability of sediments to gas flow and capillary pressures within sediments, and hydrate distribution at porous scale, are important to the production models that will be used for producing methane from hydrate deposits. NETL is using both laboratory experiments and computational modeling to address these five key areas. The laboratory and computational research reinforce each other by providing feedback. The laboratory results are used in the computational models and the results from the computational modeling is used to help direct future laboratory research. The data generated at NETL will be used to help fulfill The National Methane Hydrate R&D Program of a “long-term supply of natural gas by developing the knowledge and technology base to allow commercial production of methane from domestic hydrate deposits by the year 2015” as outlined on the NETL Website [NETL Website, 2005. http://www.netl.doe.gov/scngo/Natural%20Gas/hydrates/index.html]. Laboratory research is accomplished in one of the numerous high-pressure hydrate cells available ranging in size from 0.15 mL to 15 L in volume. A dedicated high-pressure view cell within the Raman spectrometer allows for monitoring the formation and dissociation of hydrates. Thermal conductivity of hydrates (synthetic and natural) at a certain temperature and pressure is performed in a NETL-designed cell. Computational modeling studies are investigating the kinetics of hydrate formation and dissociation, modeling methane hydrate reservoirs, molecular dynamics simulations of hydrate formation, dissociation, and thermal properties, and Monte Carlo simulations of hydrate formation and dissociation.

Taylor, C.E.; Link, D.D.; English, N.

2007-03-01

420

Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability  

E-print Network

. 2.4 (data from Milkov and Sassen, 2003) shows the pressure and temperature conditions that can lead to a typical offshore hydrate deposit in Gulf of Mexico. 12 Fig. 2.4. Hydrate stability zone in offshore environments. The “methane-water-hydrate... stability in hydrate bearing sediments during different perturbations. I analyzed extensive data collected from the literature on the types of sediments where hydrates have been found during various offshore expeditions. To better understand the hydrate...

Grover, Tarun

2008-10-10

421

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

422

Renal Failure and Nephrocalcinosis Associated With Oral Sodium Phosphate Bowel Cleansing Clinical Patterns and Renal Biopsy Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

c Acute renal failure (ARF) is rarely reported after bowel preparation with sodium phosphate. We report a patient with mild Crohn disease (in remission), without history of renal disease, and with normal baseline renal function, who developed ARF 14 days after bowel preparation for colonoscopy with oral sodium phosphate. A renal biopsy showed multifocal calcium phosphate deposition in the re-

Gulfiliz Gonlusen; Hulya Akgun; Atilla Ertan; Juan Olivero; Luan D. Truong

423

Survival of Bifidobacterium longum Immobilized in Calcium Alginate Beads in Simulated Gastric Juices and Bile Salt Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel

KI-YONG LEE; TAE-RYEON HEO

2000-01-01

424

Thermophysical properties of sodium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

1969-01-01

425

The effects of REV5901 on intracellular calcium signalling in freshly isolated bovine articular chondrocytes.  

PubMed

REV5901 is an inhibitor of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) a mechanotransduction pathway regulating cell volume in response to hypotonicity, with protective properties upon chondrocyte trauma impact in situ. As the mechanism of action of REV5901 is unknown and changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) have been linked to REV5901-loading, we investigated the effects of REV5901 on a known calcium signalling pathway. Upon REV5901 loading, there was significant increase in [Ca2+]i reaching 37.97 ± 5.67%, above basal levels which was reduced to 27.86 ± 3.15% in the presence of 2 mmol/l EGTA. In the presence of U73122 or neomycin there was a decrease in calcium with inhibition factors (I.F.) of 0.39 ± 0.09 and 0.37 ± 0.08, respectively, whereas rottlerin abolished the REV5901-induced [Ca2+]i rise. The role of calcium channels in contributing to the REV5901-induced calcium rise was investigated whereby the calcium rise was inhibited in the absence of extracellular sodium and by the addition of Gd3+ and Ruthenium red. These data show a phospholipase C?3-dependent release of calcium from intracellular stores as well as a sodium calcium exchanger-mediated influx in response to REV5901 loading, suggesting a potential role for calcium signalling in mediating the action of REV5901 in chondrocytes. PMID:23047943

Qusous, Ala; Parker, Eleanor; Ali, Niwa; Mohmand, Sajid G; Kerrigan, Mark J P

2012-09-01

426

Article original Hydratation des micelles de casine  

E-print Network

15 septembre 1999) Abstract -- Casein micelle solvation and fractal structure of milk aggregatesArticle original Hydratation des micelles de caséine et structure fractale des agrégats et des gels the fractal theory. A relationship is observed between the hydration of casein particles, the structure

Boyer, Edmond

427

Gas hydrates in the ocean environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A GAS HYDRATE, also known as a gas clathrate, is a gas-bearing, icelike material. It occurs in abundance in marine sediments and stores immense amounts of methane, with major implications for future energy resources and global climate change. Furthermore, gas hydrate controls some of the physical properties of sedimentary deposits and thereby influences seafloor stability.

Dillon, William P.

2002-01-01

428

Gas Hydrates Research Project in Japan  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from AIST, JOGMEC, Georgia Tech, and the USGS prepare to analyze pressure cores as part of a multi-year gas hydrates research project in Japan. This photo shows the pressure core storage chambers, which contain hydrate-bearing sediment samples obtained from the Nankai Trough offshore Japa...

429

The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material, together with calcium carbonate and base-exchange minerals in a formation is, therefore, sufficient to account for the occurrence in it of high sodium bicarbonate waters. ?? 1950.

Foster, M.D.

1950-01-01

430

High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)  

MedlinePLUS

... the levels of several hormones. When blood calcium levels are low, your parathyroid glands (four pea-sized glands in your neck) secrete a hormone called parathyroid hormone (Pth). Pth helps your bones ... also important in keeping calcium levels in the normal range. Vitamin D, which is ...

431

METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST  

SciTech Connect

Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the revolutionary and new Arctic Drilling Platform in search of gas hydrate and free gas accumulations at depths of approximately 1200 to 2500 ft MD. A secondary objective was the gas-charged sands of the uppermost Campanian interval at approximately 3000 ft. Summary results of geophysical analysis of the well are presented in this report.

Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

2005-02-01

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In-situ characterization of gas hydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates are a dynamic reservoir in the marine carbon cycle and a periodically large and focussed source of methane probably constituting the largest carbon reservoir on earth. Therefore an important issue in gas hydrate research is the need for better tools to remotely estimate the volume and stability conditions of marine gas hydrate in the near sub-surface. It is also crucial to precisely determine the hydrate stability conditions in the near sub-surface, where gas hydrates are most susceptible to dissolution under changing P/T conditions. Our knowledge about the occurrence, spatial distribution, and life-cycle of gas hydrates in marine sediments is mainly derived from indirect geophysical and geochemical evidence. In a few instances gas hydrates have also been directly observed and sampled at the sea floor. For regional or global estimates of