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1

Fireproof Brake Hydraulic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a fireproof two-fluid brake hydraulic system which utilizes nonflammable chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) fluid in a dead ended brake hydraulic system mechanically isolated from the primary MIL-H-5606 hydraulic system was studied. Experim...

S. M. Warren, J. R. Kilner

1981-01-01

2

Fireproof Hydraulic Brake System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fireproof Hydraulic Brake System (FHBS) flight test program verified that the FHBS is a feasible method of eliminating aircraft hydraulic fluid fires ignited by hot brakes. The FHBS uses a new nonflammable hydraulic fluid, chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTF...

M. W. Dillard

1986-01-01

3

Fireproof Hydraulic Brake System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development, and manufacture of a flightworthy two-fluid fireproof hydraulic brake system (FHBS) kit for flight testing on a C/KC-135 has been accomplished. The results of system concepts trade studies, the concept selection procedure and rati...

D. W. Huling, F. H. Hillman

1985-01-01

4

Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system  

DOEpatents

A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

Venkataperumal, Rama R. (Troy, MI); Mericle, Gerald E. (Mount Clemens, MI)

1981-06-02

5

Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system  

SciTech Connect

A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method is disclosed for an electric vehicle. The braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

Mericle, G.E.; Venkataperumal, R.R.

1981-06-02

6

49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section...Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake...

2010-10-01

7

Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a novel hydraulic brake system is proposed in order to increase the reliability of railway brake systems. The reason hydraulic brake systems have not been taken up as a practical railway brake system until now is that the brake pressure control valve inherently has internal leakage and this causes insufficient fail-safe function. Accordingly, We focus on the

Thum Chenvisuwat; Sung-Hwan Park; Ato Kitagawa

2004-01-01

8

Disturbance Control of the Hydraulic Brake in a Wind Turbine  

E-print Network

Disturbance Control of the Hydraulic Brake in a Wind Turbine Frank Jepsen, Anders Søborg brake in a wind turbine. Brake torque is determined by friction coefficient and clamp force; the latter brake is one1 of the two independent brake systems in a wind turbine. As a consequence of the gearing

Yang, Zhenyu

9

Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

1966-01-01

10

Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel hydraulic brake pressure control (BPC) valve for the railway rolling stock was proposed in the part I of this study. As a second report, this paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis and the performance evaluation of the hydraulic brake system using the BPC valve. In order to analyze the behavior of the BPC valve, a simplified transfer function and a nonlinear model of the valve are derived respectively. By use of simple linear model, it is achieved to determine the initial values of essential parameter simply. In addition, it is also achieved to investigate overall dynamic performance of brake system and to evaluate the effect of design parameters through the numerical analysis using detailed nonlinear model. The validity of mathematical models is confirmed by experiments. Finally, the performance of the hydraulic brake system using newly manufactured BPC valve is confirmed with an actual braking device of the E2 series Shinkansen railway.

Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

11

Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel hydraulic brake system is proposed in order to increase the reliability of railway brake systems. The reason hydraulic brake systems have not been taken up as a practical railway brake system until now is that the brake pressure control valve inherently has internal leakage and this causes insufficient fail-safe function. Accordingly, We focus on the development of a hydraulic brake pressure control valve (BPC valve) in this study. By virtue of adopting poppet elements in the valve, the braking force is maintained without internal leakage even when the electric power supply fails. The developed BPC valve includes a built-in pressure feedback mechanism and it enables the pressure control function to be maintained when the pressure transducer is broken. The operating principle and wear compensation methods for poppet elements are also examined in this study. The experimental results verify the linearity of static behavior, the stability, and the performance of the valve in maintaining output pressure.

Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

12

Piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based band brake actuation system for automotive transmission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actuation system of friction elements (such as band brakes) is essential for high quality operations in modern automotive automatic transmissions (in short, ATs). The current band brake actuation system consists of several hydraulic components, including the oil pump, the regulating valve and the control valves. In general, it has been recognized that the current AT band brake actuation system

Gi-Woo Kim; K. W. Wang

2007-01-01

13

Piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based band brake actuation system for automotive transmission control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actuation system of friction elements (such as band brakes) is essential for high quality operations in modern automotive automatic transmissions (in short, ATs). The current band brake actuation system consists of several hydraulic components, including the oil pump, the regulating valve and the control valves. In general, it has been recognized that the current AT band brake actuation system has many limitations. For example, the oil pump and valve body are relatively heavy and complex. Also, the oil pumps induce inherently large drag torque, which affects fuel economy. This research is to overcome these problems of the current system by exploring the utilization of a hybrid type piezo-hydraulic pump device for AT band brake control. This new actuating system integrates a piezo-hydraulic pump to the input of the band brake. Compared with the current systems, this new actuator features much simpler structure, smaller size, and lower weight. This paper describes the development, design and fabrication of the new stand-alone prototype actuator for AT band brake control. An analytical model is developed and validated using experimental data. Performance tests on the hardware and system simulations utilizing the validated model are performed to characterize the new prototype actuator. It is predicted that with increasing of accumulator pressure and driving frequency, the proposed prototype actuating system will satisfy the band brake requirement for AT shift control.

Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

2007-04-01

14

49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment...SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.53 Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake...

2010-10-01

15

Integrative control strategy of regenerative and hydraulic braking for hybrid electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since electric braking involvement, the braking system of an EV, HEV and FCV becomes much more complex than conventional mechanical alone braking system. The target in this hybrid braking system is to recover the braking energy as much as possible and meanwhile maintain a good braking performance for vehicle safety. For this purpose, the control of this braking system is

Liang Chu; Wanfeng Sun; Liang Yao; Yongsheng Zhang; Yang Ou; Wenruo Wei; Minghui Liu; Jun Li

2009-01-01

16

Hydraulic Drivetrain and Regenerative Braking Team 13: Andrew Brown, Karan Desai, Andrew McGrath, Hurst Nuckols, Grant Wilson Adviser: Dr. Andrew Jackson  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Drivetrain and Regenerative Braking Team 13: Andrew Brown, Karan Desai, Andrew Mc Check Valve Suction Line High Pressure Line Case Drain Line/Valve Drain Line Return/Regenerative Braking drivetrain systems, our model incorporates regenerative braking in order to further improve efficiency values

Carpick, Robert W.

17

Automotive Brake Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

18

76 FR 7623 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Brakes; Application for Exemption From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...self-contained, permanently closed hydraulic brake system'' [Emphasis added...FMCSRs to allow the use of automatic hydraulic inertia brake systems (surge brakes...self-contained, permanently closed hydraulic brake system for trailers that...

2011-02-10

19

Studies of regenerative braking in electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally the braking system for a car is based on hydraulic braking technology. However, this traditional braking methodology causes a lot of energy wastage since it produces unwanted heat during braking. Thus, the invention of regenerative braking in electric car has overcome these disadvantages moreover it helps in save energy and provides higher efficiency for a car. In regenerative mode,

M. K. Yoong; Y. H. Gan; G. D. Gan; C. K. Leong; Z. Y. Phuan; B. K. Cheah; K. W. Chew

2010-01-01

20

Combined control of a regenerative braking and antilock braking system for hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) employ both a hydraulic braking system and a regenerative braking system to provide\\u000a enhanced braking performance and energy regeneration. A new design of a combined braking control strategy (CBCS) is presented\\u000a in this paper. The design is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the hydraulic braking system\\u000a work

D. Peng; Y. Zhang; C.-L. Yin; J.-W. Zhang

2008-01-01

21

Modeling and Simulation about an Electric Car's Regenerative Braking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of regenerative braking system of an electric car is studied in the paper. The car's speed, acceleration, the hydraulic accumulator's pressure and volume are simulated with Matlab while the electric car is braking or accelerating from stop. The hydraulic accumulator can absorb all of the braking energy when braking and the energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator can

Zuowu Ding; Dongbiao Zhao; Jianmin Zuo

2007-01-01

22

Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

23

Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

24

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

25

A mathematical model for air brake systems in the presence of leaks  

E-print Network

braking. A passenger car uses a hydraulic braking system, where a brake fluid is employed to transmit the muscular force of the driver[10]. A truck may haul anywhere between 20 to 30 times the weight of a passenger car. To generate braking forces required... to stop a truck, a hydraulic brake system will not be commercially viable. A. Layout of an air brake system A typical brake system layout for a tractor trailer is presented in Fig.1[11]. The air brake system layout is also called as a dual brake circuit...

Ramaratham, Srivatsan

2008-10-10

26

Multidisciplinary design optimization of an automotive magnetorheological brake design  

E-print Network

electronically controlled brake system over a conventional hydraulic brake (CHB) system. The properties is directly proportional to the strength of the applied mag- netic field and (ii) they provide fast response

Park, Edward

27

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

28

Gravity brake  

DOEpatents

A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

Lujan, Richard E. (Santa Fe, NM)

2001-01-01

29

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

Decker, Robert L.

30

Hydrobus, gyrobus use brake-generated energy  

SciTech Connect

M.A.N. of Munich is developing a hydrobus concept, involving hydraulic pressure as the storage medium, and a gyrobus system with flywheel energy storage. Mercedes-Benz is also working on a gyrobus design. The hydraulic storage regenerative-braking design and the flywheel storage in the gyrobus are explained.

Scott, D.

1980-04-01

31

78 FR 21189 - Agency Requests for Approval of a New Information Collection: Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...design requirements for motor vehicle brake fluids and hydraulic system mineral oils. Section 5.2.2 specifies...hydraulic system mineral oils. The information on the label of a container of motor vehicle brake fluid or hydraulic system mineral oil is necessary to...

2013-04-09

32

Give Me a Brake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of how brakes can stop or slow mechanical motion. Learners examine the operation of a bicycle brake and use low cost materials to devise a simple braking system, then work as a team to suggest improvements to current bicycle brake designs.

Ieee

2013-08-30

33

Deployable Brake for Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

1987-01-01

34

Roller Locking Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

Vranish, John M.

1993-01-01

35

Automotive Drum Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know when the first car was built? Do you know who built the first automobile? Would you guess, Henry Ford? Try again. Do you know by what means they used to stop that car? We know the brakes on the vehicles we drive today are quite different from those back in the 1800s. While knowing the history of the automobile is interesting, knowing how they work is also interesting. The automotive brake or to be more specific, the drum brake is what this instruction is designed to review. In this instruction, we will begin by briefly looking at the history of automobile brakes and then learn how drum brakes work. While disk brakes can be easier to understand, are becoming more and more popular, especially on the rear tires, drum brakes, to some can be a challenge. The purpose of this lesson is to provide you with resources and encourage you to search more additional resources that will help you gain a mental moving picture of how the drum brake works. OBJECTIVES: In this instructional module, you will: Know a brief history of automobile brakes. Have a minimum of 8 web resources that provide instructions of drum brakes. Develop a mental moving picture of how drum brakes work. MATERIALS: To complete this learning activity, each student will need: Access to a computer with internet connection capabilities. A strong desire ...

Hjorten, Mr.

2006-02-03

36

Linear eddy current brake for railway vehicles using dynamic braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been put to practical use in Japan. Therefore we proposed using a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. It reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for

Yasuaki Sakamoto; Takayuki Kashiwagi; Takashi Sasakawa; Nobuo Fujii

2008-01-01

37

Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

Cunningham, Larry; And Others

38

Reel safety brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A braking apparatus is described for a tape transport device having two stacked coaxial reels and feelers mounted in proximity to the reels for sensing the tape being wound on each reel. A device is mounted in proximity to adjacent central hubs of the reels to a simultaneously, frictionally engage both hubs and brake both reels. A mechanical actuator is coupled to both feelers and to the brake device. The brake means comprises a pair of rubber shoulders that extend in opposite directions relative to a common axis, and turns about the axis in response to either of the feelers.

Carle, C. E. (inventor)

1976-01-01

39

A New Dynamometer Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism here described belongs to the class of dynamometer brake in which the motive power is transformed into heat in the brake itself. This mechanism was invented by the writer for the purpose of measuring forces in which the two factors, torque and speed, vary within broad limits, the mechanism itself being of simple construction and of still simpler operation.

Segre, Marco

1921-01-01

40

WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS  

SciTech Connect

We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

Tong, H. [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China); Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J. [KIAA and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Song, L. M., E-mail: tonghao@xao.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2013-05-10

41

Braking System for Wind Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

1987-01-01

42

Vehicle brake testing system  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

2002-11-19

43

Apply the Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a dot moving across the screen together with two graphs of the dot's motion. An arrow shows the dot's velocity and marks appear at regular time intervals show the dot's position at different clock readings. The dot moves at a constant velocity until the user presses a button marked "Brake," at which point the dot slows to a stop. Sliders allow the user to change the dot's initial velocity and the braking acceleration.

44

Unidirectional high gain brake stop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

Lang, David J. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

45

30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...surface. (iii) Braking is to be performed using only those braking systems, including auxiliary...conditions. Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes...designed for the power train to be disengaged during braking. (v)...

2010-07-01

46

30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...surface. (iii) Braking is to be performed using only those braking systems, including auxiliary...conditions. Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes...designed for the power train to be disengaged during braking. (v)...

2010-07-01

47

Pneumatic train brake simulation method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of new pneumatic brakes for rail vehicles or improvements of existing ones can be made better or more efficient by the use of a simulation method. This paper gives a general presentation of the author’s modelling methods used for solving problems relating to railway pneumatic brakes. The brake models in this paper (slightly different from those of other

Tadeusz Piechowiak

2009-01-01

48

Modeling and sensitivity analysis of an ABS hydraulic modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The components of the hydraulic modulator of an anti-lock braking system (ABS) are modeled using the bond graph methodology. The analysis includes the solenoid valve, the return pump, and the accumulator. The inputs are the pressure exerted from the brake master cylinder and the commands of the electronic control unit (ECU). The bond graph is analyzed and the state equations,

Sohair F. Rezeka

1994-01-01

49

Experiments with airplane brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report begins by examining the forces on the brake shoes. For the determination of the load distribution over the shoes it was assumed that the brake linings follow Hooke's law, are neatly fitted and bedded in by wear. The assumption of Hooke's law, that is, the proportionality between compression of the lining and the absorption of force, is fulfilled to a certain extent for the loading, as becomes apparent from the load tests described further on. But there is a material discrepancy at unloading. From the load distribution we merely defined the position of the normal force resultant, while for the rest, the effect of the distribution was disregarded in the comparison of the different shoe dispositions.

Michael, Franz

1931-01-01

50

Optimization of parallel regenerative braking control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative braking system is the own system of electric and hybrid electric vehicle. The system can restore the kinetic energy and potential energy, used during start and accelerating, into battery through electrical machine. The total brake force is composed of friction brake force on front axel, friction brake force on rear axel and regenerative brake force when a vehicle equipped

Zhang Jingming; Song Baoyu; Niu Xiaojing

2008-01-01

51

Tether Deployer And Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

1993-01-01

52

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

1983-01-01

53

Model Based Fault Detection of an Electro-Hydraulic Cylinder Phanindra Garimella and Bin Yao  

E-print Network

of the proposed scheme. I. INTRODUCTION Hydraulic systems are widely used in industrial appli- cations because- sion control [3], [4], material testing [5], industrial hydraulic systems [6] and hydraulic brakingModel Based Fault Detection of an Electro-Hydraulic Cylinder Phanindra Garimella and Bin Yao

Yao, Bin

54

Emergency Brake for Tracked Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Caliper brake automatically stops tracked vehicle as vehicle nears end of travel. Bar on vehicle, traveling to right, dislodges block between brake pads. Pads then press against bar, slowing vehicle by friction. Emergencybraking system suitable for elevators, amusement rides and machine tools.

Green, G. L.; Hooper, S. L.

1986-01-01

55

Position control optimization of aerodynamic brake device for high-speed trains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerodynamic braking is a clean and non-adhesion braking, and can be used to provide extra braking force during high-speed emergency braking. The research of aerodynamic braking has attracted more and more attentions in recent years. However, most researchers in this field focus on aerodynamic effects and seldom on issues of position control of the aerodynamic braking board. The purpose of this paper is to explore position control optimization of the braking board in an aerodynamic braking prototype. The mathematical models of the hydraulic drive unit in the aerodynamic braking system are analyzed in detail, and the simulation models are established. Three control functions—constant, linear, and quadratic—are explored. Two kinds of criteria, including the position steady-state error and the acceleration of the piston rod, are used to evaluate system performance. Simulation results show that the position steady state-error is reduced from around 12-2 mm by applying a linear instead of a constant function, while the acceleration is reduced from 25.71-3.70 m/s2 with a quadratic control function. Use of the quadratic control function is shown to improve system performance. Experimental results obtained by measuring the position response of the piston rod on a test-bench also suggest a reduced position error and smooth movement of the piston rod. This implies that the acceleration is smaller when using the quadratic function, thus verifying the effectiveness of control schemes to improve to system performance. This paper proposes an effective and easily implemented control scheme that improves the position response of hydraulic cylinders during position control.

Zuo, Jianyong; Luo, Zhuojun; Chen, Zhongkai

2014-03-01

56

Piecewise polynomial chaos expansion with an application to brake squeal of a linear brake system  

E-print Network

problem 1. Introduction Brake squeal noise is a real problem for the automotive [1, 2] and railway [3Piecewise polynomial chaos expansion with an application to brake squeal of a linear brake system E for a simplified brake system: the stability of a finite element model of a brake is investigated when its friction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses

Yasuaki Sakamoto; Takayuki Kashiwagi; Minoru Tanaka; Hitoshi Hasegawa; Takashi Sasakawa; Nobuo Fujii

2009-01-01

58

Mechanical brake design for passive haptic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a new mechanical brake design to be used in order to limit the motion in low cost and high force passive haptic device design. The designed mechanical brake was inspired from the working principle of a coaster brake used in bicycles. The brake consists of conic surfaces actuated by a DC motor. A leaf spring is added

Serter Yilmaz; E. Ilhan Konukseven; Hakan Gurocak

2011-01-01

59

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...blended braking systems: (1) Loss of power or failure of the...portion of the brake system shall be displayed...pneumatic brakes to be controlled by a conventional...failure-detection system shall compare brake...the controlling power car to...

2012-10-01

60

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...blended braking systems: (1) Loss of power or failure of the...portion of the brake system shall be displayed...pneumatic brakes to be controlled by a conventional...failure-detection system shall compare brake...the controlling power car to...

2010-10-01

61

Regenerative braking strategy for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles to extend their driving range. The control strategy of regenerative braking plays an important role in maintaining the vehicle's stability and recovering energy. In this paper, the main properties that have influence on brake energy regeneration are analyzed. Mathematical model of brake energy regenerating electric vehicles is established. By analyzing the

Jingang Guo; Junping Wang; Binggang Cao

2009-01-01

62

Regenerative braking device  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are several embodiments of a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a plurality of rubber rollers (24, 26) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (14) connectable to the vehicle drivetrain and an output shaft (16) which is drivingly connected to the input shaft by a variable ratio transmission (20). When the transmission ratio is such that the input shaft rotates faster than the output shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy, thereby slowing the vehicle. When the transmission ratio is such that the output shaft rotates faster than the input shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally relaxed to deliver accumulated energy, thereby accelerating or driving the vehicle.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1982-01-12

63

Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

64

Study on braking distance with combination control strategy of permanent magnetic brake system for high speed train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzed the present situation of emergency braking during train high speed movement and the merit and operational characteristic of permanent magnetic brake system were introduced. Considered the characteristic of emergency braking and service braking, the necessity of applying permanent magnetic brake and united brake control was expounded. Based on this, studied the control strategy and united brake flow with the

Ming Yao; Xiao-na Zhang

2011-01-01

65

Variable ratio regenerative braking device  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1981-12-15

66

Slowly braked, rotating neutron stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A slowly braked, rotating neutron star is believed to be a star which rapidly rotates, has no nebula, is nonpulsing, and has a long initial braking time of ten thousand to a million years because of a low magnetic field. Such an object might be observable as an extended weak source of infrared or radio wave radiation due to the scattering of low-frequency strong-wave photons by accelerated electrons. If these objects exist abundantly in the Galaxy, they would act as sources of relatively low-energy cosmic rays. Pulsars (rapidly braked neutron stars) are shown to have difficulties in providing an adequate amount of cosmic-ray matter, making these new sources seem necessary. The possibility that the acceleration mechanism around a slowly braked star may be not a direct acceleration by the strong wave but an acceleration due to plasma turbulence excited by the strong wave is briefly explored. It is shown that white dwarfs may also be slowly braked stars with braking times longer than 3.15 million years.

Sato, H.

1975-01-01

67

Experimental Research on Brake Squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many years experimental researches have been performed in order to get an insight into the issue of brake squeal. This work presents an innovative test setup for analyzing friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. The investigated brake system showed brake squeal issues at certain operating points. The purpose was to analyse the brake system in detail on a test rig. Because the well-known methods of investigation such as laser vibrometer were not possible, the aim was to develop and generate new measuring points, which are close to the contact area of disc and pad. Therefore the brake calliper has been modified; hence the guide are replaced by modified ones. At these pins the friction force can be measured. Because of an optimized shape it is possible to measure the vibration of the friction force. The measured signal correlates with a parallel measured microphone signal. Next the brake disc will be assembled with triaxial accelerometers. Thus it is possible to determine the operating deflection shape of the disc. With the results of this work a new contact algorithm should be developed which can be used e.g. in Finite Element calculations.

Wallner, Daniel; Bernsteiner, Stefan

68

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT IX, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (PART I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OIL FLOW WITHIN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE GENERAL DESCRIPTION, HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS, AND BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT AND OPERATION. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "LEARNING ABOUT THE ALLISON…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

69

29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydraulic brakes at the winch, or electric cranes shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power shall stop the motion and set...operator. Current for operation of electric winches and cranes during the tests shall be taken...

2010-07-01

70

Hydraulic fracturing  

E-print Network

Hydraulic fracturing (also hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking, or fraccing) is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a hydraulically pressurized liquid. Some hydraulic fractures form naturally—certain veins or dikes are examp...

71

49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712...INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL...Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's...

2010-10-01

72

Contactless magnetic brake for automotive applications  

E-print Network

Road and rail vehicles and aircraft rely mainly or solely on friction brakes. These brakes pose several problems, especially in hybrid vehicles: significant wear, fading, complex and slow actuation, lack of fail-safe features, increased fuel...

Gay, Sebastien Emmanuel

2009-05-15

73

Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake Assessment Tools  

E-print Network

Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake Assessment Tools Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Safety Technology Showcase October 14, 2010 Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor #12;Overview · Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) Air Brake System · North American Standard Level-1

74

Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

Edwards, H. B.

1981-01-01

75

Heavy Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT)  

E-print Network

for a real-time on-board brake assessment tool. Test Overview A combination tractor-trailer will be given conditions. A standard FMVSS-121 stopping distance test will be performed prior to the set of braking testsHeavy Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT

76

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in exceeding the allowable stopping distance; (2) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all...operating speed for safe operation of the train using only the friction brake portion of the blended brake with no thermal damage...

2011-10-01

77

Anisothermal modelling applied to brake discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anisothermal elastoviscoplastic three-dimensional model is used in order to predict the response of brake discs mounted on the French TGV (high speed train). The brake disc is subjected simultaneously to mechanical and thermal cyclic loadings by the application of brake pads to the friction surface. This anisothermal law is based on the internal thermodynamic variables and takes into account

R. El Abdi; H. Samrout

1999-01-01

78

Verification of pneumatic railway brake models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article presents a survey of diverse methods for validation of pneumatic train brake modelling. Various experimental measurements of railway pneumatic brakes were made chiefly on a test stand at Pozna? University of Technology; other test stands and some results have been taken from the literature. The measurements, some of them unconventional, were performed on separate pneumatic elements, brake devices,

Tadeusz Piechowiak

2010-01-01

79

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in exceeding the allowable stopping distance; (2) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all...operating speed for safe operation of the train using only the friction brake portion of the blended brake with no thermal damage...

2013-10-01

80

Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

2010-01-01

81

Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel.

Swan, Scott A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

82

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

83

Minimal models for squealing of railway block brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block brakes have been used to brake railway vehicles for approximately 200 years. During the last 40 years, disk brakes have\\u000a replaced the block brakes at passenger cars but block brakes are still used for all freight wagons. One problem of block brakes\\u000a is that they show an enormous tendency to squeal. Although the block brake is a very common and old

Utz von Wagner; Gottfried Spelsberg-Korspeter

2011-01-01

84

49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...activating level that is not less than 50 psi. For vehicles manufactured to conform...activating level that is not less than 60 psi. (4) The governor cut-in pressure shall be not lower than 80 psi, and the cut-out pressure shall be...

2011-10-01

85

49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...activating level that is not less than 50 psi. For vehicles manufactured to conform...activating level that is not less than 60 psi. (4) The governor cut-in pressure shall be not lower than 80 psi, and the cut-out pressure shall be...

2010-10-01

86

49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...activating level that is not less than 50 psi. For vehicles manufactured to conform...activating level that is not less than 60 psi. (4) The governor cut-in pressure shall be not lower than 80 psi, and the cut-out pressure shall be...

2013-10-01

87

49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...activating level that is not less than 50 psi. For vehicles manufactured to conform...activating level that is not less than 60 psi. (4) The governor cut-in pressure shall be not lower than 80 psi, and the cut-out pressure shall be...

2012-10-01

88

Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

Holt, A. C.

1986-01-01

89

Space shuttle wheels and brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

Carsley, R. B.

1985-01-01

90

Falling Magnets and Electromagnetic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slow fall of a rare earth magnet through a copper pipe is a striking example of electromagnetic braking; this remarkable phenomenon has been the subject of a number of scientific paper s [1, 2]. In a pipe having radius R and wall thickness D, the terminal velocity of the falling magnet is proportional to (R?4)/D. It is interesting to ask what happens in the limit as D becomes very large. We report our experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the dependence of the terminal velocity on pipe radius R for large D. [1] Y. Levin, F.L. da Silveira, and F.B. Rizzato, ``Electromagnetic braking: A simple quantitative model''. American Journal of Physics, 74(9): p. 815-817 (2006). [2] J.A. Pelesko, M. Cesky, and S. Huertas, Lenz's law and dimensional analysis. American Journal of Physics, 3(1): p. 37-39. 2005.

Culbreath, Christopher; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

2009-03-01

91

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...been performed. (d) The Class IA brake test shall be performed...service from a location where a Class IA brake test has been performed...operative brakes. (f) A Class IA brake test shall be performed...ensure that: (1) Brake pipe leakage does not exceed 5...

2010-10-01

92

Basics of Automotive Vehicle Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is necessary to have knowledge of the technology correlated with contemporary auto-motive vehicles’ BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a to understand the wheel-tyre to on\\/off-road interface, vehicle dynamics during braking, and the components of a BBW AWB dispulsion\\u000a mechatronic control system. This section examines these issues to enhance the level of that knowledge.

B. T. Fijalkowski

93

Hydraulics Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the WindTech TV project provides a link to lectures created by Jim Pytel for his hydraulics course at Columbia Gorge Community College. The lectures consist of live videos and screen capture style presentations and may be viewed free of charge. Clicking on the video link in the center of the page will lead users to a YouTube page with 31 lectures. Topics include hydraulics math, hydraulic safety, basic hydraulic schematics, viscosity, piston pumps, actuators, troubleshooting and more. These lectures would be extremely useful for technical and community college students taking a fundamental hydraulics course. Flash is required to view the videos.

Pytel, Jim

2013-07-18

94

Analysis of a regenerative braking system for Hybrid Electric Vehicles using an ElectroMechanical Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regenerative braking system of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a key technology that can improve fuel efficiency\\u000a by 20?50%, depending on motor size. In the regenerative braking system, the electronically controlled brake subsystem that\\u000a directs the braking forces into four wheels independently is indispensable. This technology is currently found in the Electronic\\u000a Stability Program (ESP) and in Vehicle

J. K. Ahn; K. H. Jung; D. H. Kim; H. B. Jin; H. S. Kim; S. H. Hwang

2009-01-01

95

PREDICTING RANGES FOR PULSARS' BRAKING INDICES  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical determination of braking indices of pulsars is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study concerning such determination based on a modification of the canonical model, which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles, and on data from the seven pulsars with known braking indices. In order to test the modified model, we predict ranges for the braking indices of other pulsars.

Magalhaes, Nadja S.; Miranda, Thaysa A. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, DCET, Rua Sao Nicolau 210, Diadema, SP 09913-030 (Brazil); Frajuca, Carlos, E-mail: nadjasm@gmail.com [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sao Paulo, R. Pedro Vicente 625, Sao Paulo, SP 01109-010 (Brazil)

2012-08-10

96

Numerical analysis of railway brake disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

A certain number of railway brake discs made of gray cast iron, showed the presence of small cracks only after a few thousand\\u000a kilometers. To investigate main causes of a brake disc failure, numerical analysis was done by using ABAQUS software. Numerical\\u000a analysis resulted from a physical model of heat flux in dependence of braking time. Physical model was applied

Blaž Šamec; Grega Oder; Tone Lerher; Iztok Potr?

2011-01-01

97

A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on

Saeed Abbasi; Jens Wahlström; Lars Olander; Christina Larsson; Ulf Olofsson; Ulf Sellgren

2011-01-01

98

49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Breakaway and emergency braking. 393.43 Section 393.43 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.43 Breakaway and emergency braking. (a)...

2010-10-01

99

49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393.44 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection....

2010-10-01

100

49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Antilock brake systems. 393.55 Section 393.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.55 Antilock brake systems. Link to an...

2010-10-01

101

49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Required brake systems. 393.40 Section 393.40 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

102

49 CFR 393.42 - Brakes required on all wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Brakes required on all wheels. 393.42 Section 393.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.42 Brakes required on all wheels. (a)...

2010-10-01

103

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General...

2010-10-01

104

49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Brakes to be operative. 393.48 Section 393.48 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.48 Brakes to be operative. (a) General...

2010-10-01

105

30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401...Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and...overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable...

2010-07-01

106

ENSC 461 PROJECT: Development of a new hydraulic regenerative energy storage system  

E-print Network

1 ENSC 461 PROJECT: Development of a new hydraulic regenerative energy storage system Assigned batteries, among them is hydraulic regenerative system (HRS). Principle of operation: electricity is used's powertrain during the brake period and the regenerated energy is transferred back to the powertrain

Bahrami, Majid

107

A-REI Braking Distance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose that a particular model of car has a braking distance that can be computed as follows: When the car is traveling at $v$ miles per hour, its bra...

108

Magnetic braking in cool dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors discuss the thermocentrifugal wind theory of Mestel (1968) and Mestel and Spruit (1986). The theory is consistent with the vrot ? t-1/2 law, if the coronal temperature increases with rotation velocity as recent observations suggest. The authors present a generalized form for the braking law using the empirical relation Ro = 0.94 t91/2 for the Rossby number, where t9 is the age in units of 109yr, and discuss the observed deviations from this relation. Theoretical models (involving angular-momentum loss) of contact binaries and cataclysmic variables are also compared with this prediction.

Vilhu, Osmi; Moss, David

1986-11-01

109

Study on regenerative braking of electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the regenerative braking system for electric vehicle (EV) that performs regenerative energy recovery based on analytical deduction of several regenerative braking systems with the microscopic view of pulse width modulation (PWM) driving, a constant regenerative current control scheme is proposed, thereby providing improved performance and the energy recovery efficiency at minimum cost. Experimental results of EV show

Zhang Chuanwei; Bai Zhifeng; Cao Binggang; Li Jingcheng

2004-01-01

110

TMV Technology Capabilities Brake Stroke Monitor  

E-print Network

TMV Technology Capabilities Brake Stroke Monitor Brake monitoring systems are proactive maintenance This technology allows for CMV operators to have knowledge of their steer, drive, and tandem axle group weights setup is required. Current Safety/Enforcement Technologies EOBR (electronic on-board recorder) On

111

Failure analysis of railway brake blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past efforts of the Nigerian Railway Corporation to produce shoe brake blocks locally have proved unsuccessful; the brake blocks produced are defective, and are highly susceptible to brittle (catastrophic) failure. The objective of this work was to undertake failure analysis of locally produced shoe blocks, and to design a metallurgical process to produce efficient ones. To this end, mechanical and

John Ade Ajayi; O. A. Adeleke

1997-01-01

112

49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equals 65.2 percent.) Column 2 is included in the...because certain brake testing devices utilize this...included in the figures in column 4 but is not indicated by the usual brake-testing devices for checking...c) The distances in column 4 and the...

2010-10-01

113

Some wear studies on aircraft brake systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial investigation of worn surfaces in friction pads and steel rotors used in current aircraft brakes was carried out using electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis. It consists of the topographical study and the analysis of chemical element distribution. Based upon this initial examination, two approaches, microscopic and macroscopic have been conducted to interpret and formulate the wear mechanism of the aircraft brake materials. Microscopically, the wear particles were examined. The initiation and growth of surface cracks and the oxidation were emphasized in this investigation. Macroscopically, it has been found that, for the current copper based brake material sliding against 17-22 AS steel in a caliper brake, the surface temperature raised due to frictional heat is nonlinearly proportional to the load applied and slide time with speed at 1750 rpm. The wear of brake materials is then proportional to this temperature and is also a function of the melting temperature for copper.

Ho, T. L.

1975-01-01

114

Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

2011-01-01

115

Hydraulic Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build cars using syringes and water-powered hydraulics. Learners construct the car frame out of cardboard and set up a hydraulic system to raise and lower the car. Use this project to introduce learners to incompressible fluids and Pascal's Principle.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

116

Modeling regenerative braking and storage for vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The fuel savings benefits of regenerative braking and storage for vehicles are often described but not quantified. For example, the federal government and automobile manufacturers are sponsoring a Program for a New Generation of Vehicles (PGNV) with a goal of obtaining a performance of 80 mpg in a family size car. It is typically suggested that such a vehicle will be a hybrid engine and electric drive with regenerative braking. The authors note that while regenerative braking has the potential of saving fuel, it may also do more harm than good as a result of additional weight, less than ideal charge/discharge efficiency on the batteries or storage flywheels and the limited portion of the entire driving cycle when regenerative braking can be utilized. The authors also noted that if regenerative braking can have a net benefit, it would be on a heavy vehicle such as a municipal bus because of the frequent stop and go requirements for both traffic light and passengers. Thus the authors initiated a study of regenerative braking on such a vehicle. The resulting analysis presented in this paper includes data following municipal buses to define the driving cycle, modeling the bus power requirements from weight, aerodynamics and rolling resistance, and then calculating the fuel saving that could result from an ideal regenerative braking system.

Wicks, F.; Donnelly, K. [Union Coll., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

117

Brakes. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 6. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the sixth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Eight units cover: introduction to automotive brake systems; disc and drum brake system components and how they operate; properties of brake fluid and procedures for bleeding the brake system; diagnosing and determining needed repairs on…

Allain, Robert

118

49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...face-to-face relief. (b) A Class II brake test shall be performed...from a terminal or yard where a Class II brake test has been performed...defective. (d) In performing a Class II brake test on a train, a...rear unit indicates that brake pipe pressure changes are...

2010-10-01

119

Electrodynamic braking in high?speed rail transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers electrodynamic braking of trains, which is of particular importance for high?speed railway transport from theoretical and technical perspectives. Braking methods used for high?speed trains should ensure compatibility and redundancy of braking systems. They include a mechanical method (based on adding frictional disks to wheelsets), as well as magnetic braking, which is being currently implemented and based on

Lionginas Liudvinavi?ius; Leonas Povilas Lingaitis

2007-01-01

120

Energy Management for Regenerative Brakes on a DC Feeding System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, regenerative brakes are implemented in trains at DC fed electric railways in Japan. Regenerative braking system converts kinetic energy to electrical energy. And other powering trains at the identical feeding circuit must consume the electrical energy. Therefore, when the electrical loads are not sufficient at feeding circuit, braking trains must squeeze regenerative power. The problem is that such braking

Yuruki Okada; Takafumi Koseki; Satoru Sone

121

Hydraulic calipers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic calipers determine area of annular openings in irregular or concealed passages. With modifications the device could be adapted to investigations of cross-sectional changes in heat flow passages, ducts, conduits, and heat exchanger elements.

Benson, J. A.

1969-01-01

122

Design and experimental characterization of modern helicopters rotor brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demands on helicopter rotor brakes are given by laws and airworthiness regulations. The systems are designed and certified according to airworthiness demands such as JAR 27\\/29 and FAR 27\\/29. The present paper presents the rotor brake systems of commercial and military helicopters. The rotor brake systems include brake discs made out of steel and brake callipers with two-side-activating pistons.

Andreas Podratzky; Horst Bansemir

2007-01-01

123

14 CFR 25.507 - Reversed braking.  

...brake torque, whichever is less. (b) For airplanes with nose wheels, the pitching moment must be balanced by rotational inertia. (c) For airplanes with tail wheels, the resultant of the ground reactions must pass through the center of gravity...

2014-01-01

124

14 CFR 25.507 - Reversed braking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...brake torque, whichever is less. (b) For airplanes with nose wheels, the pitching moment must be balanced by rotational inertia. (c) For airplanes with tail wheels, the resultant of the ground reactions must pass through the center of gravity...

2013-01-01

125

30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.  

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...

2014-07-01

126

30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...

2010-07-01

127

30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...

2013-07-01

128

30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...

2011-07-01

129

30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT...Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...

2012-07-01

130

An engine air-brake integration study  

E-print Network

The feasibility of operating an engine air-brake (EAB) integrated with a pylon duct bifurcation in a realistic aircraft engine environment has been analyzed. The EAB uses variable exit guide vanes downstream of a high ...

Mulchandani, Hiten

2011-01-01

131

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...design process shall include computer modeling or dynamometer simulation of train braking that shows compliance with paragraphs (f...section over the range of equipment operating speeds. A new simulation is required prior to implementing a change in operating...

2013-10-01

132

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...design process shall include computer modeling or dynamometer simulation of train braking that shows compliance with paragraphs (f...section over the range of equipment operating speeds. A new simulation is required prior to implementing a change in operating...

2011-10-01

133

Power-Factor Controller With Regenerative Braking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified power-factor motor-control circuit operates motor as a phase-controlled generator when load attempts to turn at higher than synchronous speed. An induction motor is required to act at times as a brake. Circuit modification allows power-factor controller to save energy in motoring mode and convert automatically to an induction-generator controller in generating, or braking, mode.

Nola, F. J.

1982-01-01

134

Modelling and validation of magnetorheological brake responses using parametric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological brake (MR Brake) is one x-by-wire systems which performs better than conventional brake systems. MR brake consists of a rotating disc that is immersed with Magnetorheological Fluid (MR Fluid) in an enclosure of an electromagnetic coil. The applied magnetic field will increase the yield strength of the MR fluid where this fluid was used to decrease the speed of the rotating shaft. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model to represent MR brake with a test rig. The MR brake model is developed based on actual torque characteristic which is coupled with motion of a test rig. Next, the experimental are performed using MR brake test rig and obtained three output responses known as angular velocity response, torque response and load displacement response. Furthermore, the MR brake was subjected to various current. Finally, the simulation results of MR brake model are then verified with experimental results.

Z, Zainordin A.; A, Abdullah M.; K, Hudha

2013-12-01

135

Active Regenerative Braking: Braking of Induction Machine Traction Drive with Maximum Torque in High Speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of the transmission of the energy to the dc trolley wire during the regenerative braking of the tram drive in case of the braking with increased dc-link voltage. The contribution presents new strategy called \\

Zdenek Peroutka; Karel Zeman; Jiri Flajtingr

2006-01-01

136

Desperately Driven and No Brakes  

PubMed Central

ANDERSEN, S.L. and TEICHER, M.H. Desperately driven and no brakes: Developmental stress exposure and subsequent risk for substance abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2008. Adverse life events are associated with a wide range of psychopathology, including an increased risk for substance abuse. In this review, we focus on the inter-relationship between exposure to adversity and brain development, and relate this to enhanced windows of vulnerability. This review encompasses clinical and preclinical data, drawing evidence from epidemiological studies, morphometric and functional imaging studies, and molecular biology and genetics. The interaction of exposure during a sensitive period and maturational events produces a cascade that leads to the initiation of substance use at younger ages, and increases the likelihood of addiction by adolescence or early adulthood. A stress-incubation/corticolimbic dysfunction model is proposed based on the interplay of stress exposure, development stage, and neuromaturational events that may explain the seeking of specific classes of drugs later in life. Three main factors contribute to this age-based progression of increased drug use: 1) a sensitized stress response system; 2) sensitive periods of vulnerability; and 3) maturational processes during adolescence. Together, these factors may explain why exposure to early adversity increases risk to abuse substances during adolescence. PMID:18938197

Andersen, Susan L.; Teicher, Martin H.

2009-01-01

137

Design of roadway test system for motor vehicle brake performance and its evaluation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service braking test and evaluation are of importance for vehicle braking performance. The vehicle braking performance roadway test system was firstly designed in the paper, whose main instrument was GPS-based VBOX III. Then the systematic vehicle braking performance tests were conducted on the vehicle proving ground. Based on the real straight-line braking test data, two indexes, braking distance and mean

Zhang Xiaolong; Peng Jiankun; Xia Ping

2010-01-01

138

Regenerative Braking Algorithm for a HEV with CVT Ratio Control During Deceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regenerative braking algorithm is proposed to make maximum use of regenerative brake for improvement of fuel consumption. In the regenerative braking algorithm, the regenerative torque is determined by considering the motor capacity, battery SOC and vehicle velocity. The regenerative braking force is calculated from the brake control unit by comparing the demanded brake force(torque) and the motor torque available.

Hoon Yeo; Donghyun Kim; Sungho Hwang; Hyunsoo Kim

139

Airborne wear particles railway research group FEM Simulation of train disc brake behavior  

E-print Network

1 Airborne wear particles railway research group FEM Simulation of train disc brake behavior Background Modern rail vehicles are equipped with disc brakes, block brakes, or both. The figure below shows a modern train disc brake with brake caliper and high speed pads. During braking, a considerable amount

Haviland, David

140

30 CFR 56.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 56.19017 Section 56.19017 Mineral... Hoists § 56.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a...

2011-07-01

141

30 CFR 56.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 56.19017 Section 56.19017 Mineral... Hoists § 56.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a...

2010-07-01

142

49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309 Section 238.309 ...STANDARDS Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment...238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance. (a) General. (1)...

2010-10-01

143

Modeling hydraulic regenerative hybrid vehicles using AMESim and Matlab/Simulink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the overview of the simulation modeling of a hydraulic system with regenerative braking used to improve vehicle emissions and fuel economy. Two simulation software packages were used together to enhance the simulation capability for fuel economy results and development of vehicle and hybrid control strategy. AMESim, a hydraulic simulation software package modeled the complex hydraulic circuit and component hardware and was interlinked with a Matlab/Simulink model of the vehicle, engine and the control strategy required to operate the vehicle and the hydraulic hybrid system through various North American and European drive cycles.

Lynn, Alfred; Smid, Edzko; Eshraghi, Moji; Caldwell, Niall; Woody, Dan

2005-05-01

144

Power conditions and control of a regenerative brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Braking capability is typically accomplished by adding a dynamic\\/resistive brake (DB) module to a standard drive. Regenerating energy is dissipated in the braking resistor creating heat and decreasing the overall efficiency of the drive. To overcome the shortcomings of the DB solution, a regenerative brake (RB) was developed. The RB is a stand-alone, add-on unit to the drive. It operates

Vladimir Blasko

1998-01-01

145

49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...clearance between the brake shoe and the wheel or between... (5) Each brake shoe or pad is securely fastened...leakage will affect service performance; (8) The emergency... (9) Each brake shoe or pad is not below...permits; (14) If the equipment is provided with a...

2010-10-01

146

49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...clearance between the brake shoe and the wheel or between... (5) Each brake shoe or pad is securely fastened...leakage will affect service performance; (8) The emergency... (9) Each brake shoe or pad is not below...permits; (14) If the equipment is provided with a...

2011-10-01

147

49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...clearance between the brake shoe and the wheel or between... (5) Each brake shoe or pad is securely fastened...leakage will affect service performance; (8) The emergency... (9) Each brake shoe or pad is not below...permits; (14) If the equipment is provided with a...

2013-10-01

148

49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...clearance between the brake shoe and the wheel or between... (5) Each brake shoe or pad is securely fastened...leakage will affect service performance; (8) The emergency... (9) Each brake shoe or pad is not below...permits; (14) If the equipment is provided with a...

2012-10-01

149

30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1 Mineral Resources...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1400-1 Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be...

2010-07-01

150

Design Restrictions Ground clearance Brake components cannot contact  

E-print Network

Design Restrictions � Ground clearance � Brake components cannot contact the ground as the wheels applies pressure to the brake shoe and drum which is attached firmly to the wheels, and the rider pads � JB Weld high temperature epoxy Problem Statement Design and prototype a brake system

Provancher, William

151

Regenerative braking system for a hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a regenerative braking system (RBS) for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that performs regenerative energy recovery based on vehicle attributes, thereby providing improved performance, efficiency and reliability at minimal additional cost. A detailed description of the regenerative braking algorithm is presented along with simulation results from a dynamic model of the PHEV exhibiting the regenerative braking

S. R. Cikanek; K. E. Bailey

2002-01-01

152

Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low

Stephane Panier; Philippe Dufrenoy; Pierre Bremond

2003-01-01

153

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2013-10-01

154

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2011-10-01

155

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2010-10-01

156

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2012-10-01

157

30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral Resources...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and...

2014-07-01

158

30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.  

...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral Resources...Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars and...

2014-07-01

159

Many applications require brakes, for instance to decelerate or to  

E-print Network

of applications. Typical examples include cars, robots and bikes. Brakes use a lot of energy to generate a desired vary from bikes to safety brakes on robots and machines, as well as emergency brake systems in trains accelerates reduction of energy consumption like for instance electric motors, use energy when they generate

160

49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equipped with a parking brake system adequate to hold the vehicle... (2) The parking brake system shall, at all times, be capable...applied by either the driver's muscular effort or by spring action...mechanically-held parking brake systems which meet the parking...

2011-10-01

161

49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equipped with a parking brake system adequate to hold the vehicle... (2) The parking brake system shall, at all times, be capable...applied by either the driver's muscular effort or by spring action...mechanically-held parking brake systems which meet the parking...

2010-10-01

162

Hydropneumatic energy reservoir for accumulating the braking energy recovered on a vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Hydropneumatic energy reservoir for accumulating the braking energy recovered on a vehicle by means of a hydrostatic energy recovery-restoration device, combined or not with the vehicle transmission and working between a high-pressure accumulator and a low-pressure accumulator, characterized in that it comprises several oblong cylindrical hydropneumatic accumulators connected hydraulically in parallel and placed side by side inside a single casing of small height, the space included between the said casing and the said accumulators forming the low-pressure accumulator.

Michel, R.

1985-06-04

163

The influence of braking time on heat flow through the friction surfaces of the friction elements of disk brakes for railway vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disk brakes were first introduced on the suburban and urban coaches and high speed freight cars (V > 120 km\\/h) for the following reasons: shoe brakes reached their potential limits, especially at high speeds; the maintenance of disc brakes is cheaper; greater comfort; the friction coefficient of disk brake elements (friction pad and brake disc) presents lower variation in velocity

Liviu Sevastian Bocîi

2011-01-01

164

Development of co-operative control algorithm for parallel HEV with electric booster brake during regenerative braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm for the HEV with an electric booster brake was proposed and its performance was evaluated. A dynamic model for the electric booster brake system was derived to develop the electric booster brake performance simulator and its performance was investigated. In addition, a dynamic model for the 6-speed AT-based hybrid vehicle was

Jungwook Kim; Sungyeon Ko; Gaeun Lee; Hoon Yeo; Pilgu Kim; Hyunsoo Kim

2011-01-01

165

49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards...means of brake valve. The automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

2010-10-01

166

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...means equipment left standing and unmanned in such a manner that the brake system...compressed air (e.g., locomotive or ground air source), prior to leaving equipment...applied on at least one locomotive or vehicle in an unattended locomotive consist...

2010-10-01

167

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...means equipment left standing and unmanned in such a manner that the brake system...compressed air (e.g., locomotive or ground air source), prior to leaving equipment...applied on at least one locomotive or vehicle in an unattended locomotive consist...

2012-10-01

168

Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

169

Coordinated control for regenerative braking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design of regenerative braking system (RBS) for hybrid electric vehicles using hierarchical control structure and method. The hierarchical model is mainly composed of three modules for driver intent identification, energy management and coordinated control based on components control. As a consequence, RBS, a complicated hybrid dynamic system, is successfully decomposed by several simple modules. The control

Zhang Junzhi; Lu Xin; Chen Shanglou; Zhang Pengjun

2008-01-01

170

Cutting vehicle emissions with regenerative braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of vehicle regenerative braking systems as a quick and relatively easy means of achieving higher overall fuel efficiency and lowering carbon emissions. The system involves the installation of an additional electric motor\\/generator in parallel to the vehicle’s internal combustion engine and is used in conjunction with a DCDC converter and ultracapacitor. The system is used

Peter Clarke; Tariq Muneer; Kevin Cullinane

2010-01-01

171

Modeling regenerative braking and storage for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel saving benefits of regenerative braking and storage for vehicles are often described but not quantified. For example, the federal government and automobile manufacturers are sponsoring a Program for a New Generation of Vehicles (PGNV) with a goal of obtaining a performance of 80 mpg in a family size car. It is typically suggested that such a vehicle will

F. Wicks; K. Donnelly

1997-01-01

172

Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes the procedure and data relative to brake fluid tests performed in November and December of 1968 on the following automobiles: (1) Dodge Charger - Chrysler Part 242 1352 - Hi Temp.; (2) Plymouth Sport Fury - Chrysler Part 293 - 3249; (3...

1969-01-01

173

Failure analysis of railway brake blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, failed samples of railway brake blocks were analysed to ascertain the causes of failure. Seven samples of varying charge constituents were produced in a permanent mould. Mechanical tests (hardness, compression and impact), spectroscopic analysis and microstructural investigations were carried out on each sample. Multiple linear regression analysis was then used in correlating the composition with the mechanical

John Ade Ajayi

2002-01-01

174

Experimental investigation of an accelerometer controlled automatic braking system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of an automatic braking system for arresting the motion of an airplane by sensing and controlling braked wheel decelerations. The system was tested on a rotating drum dynamometer by using an automotive tire, wheel, and disk-brake assembly under conditions which included two tire loadings, wet and dry surfaces, and a range of ground speeds up to 70 knots. The controlling parameters were the rates at which brake pressure was applied and released and the Command Deceleration Level which governed the wheel deceleration by controlling the brake operation. Limited tests were also made with the automatic braking system installed on a ground vehicle in an effort to provide a more realistic proof of its feasibility. The results of this investigation indicate that a braking system which utilizes wheel decelerations as the control variable to restrict tire slip is feasible and capable of adapting to rapidly changing surface conditions.

Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

1972-01-01

175

Model-based analysis of the mechanical subsystem of an air brake system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks use an air brake system, often equipped with an S-cam drum brake, to reduce\\u000a their speed and\\/or to stop. With a drum brake system, the clearance between the brake shoe\\/pad and the brake drum may increase\\u000a because of various reasons such as wearing of the brake shoe and\\/or brake drum and drum

D. B. Sonawane; K. Narayan; V. S. Rao; S. C. Subramanian

2011-01-01

176

Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

177

Hydraulic fracturing-1  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available

1990-01-01

178

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes  

SciTech Connect

Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

1995-04-01

179

A novel brake control strategy for electric vehicles based on slip trial method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative braking plays an important role in improving the efficiency of electric vehicles. But excessive regenerative torque may affect the anti-lock brake control. The paper presents a novel brake control strategy for electric vehicles which integrates the regenerative brake control and anti-lock brake control. The strategy is designed based on a novel idea called \\

Zhou Lei; Luo Yugong; Yang Diange; Li Keqiang; Lian Xiaomin

2007-01-01

180

Optimal brake torque distribution for a four-wheeldrive hybrid electric vehicle stability enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle stability control logic for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle is proposed using the regenerative braking of the rear motor and an electrohydraulic brake (EHB). To obtain the optimal brake torque distribution between the regenerative braking and the EHB torque, a genetic algorithm is used. The genetic algorithm calculates the optimal regenerative braking torque and the optimal EHB torque for

D-H Kim; J-M Kim; S-H Hwang; H-S Kim

2007-01-01

181

Analysis of tribological behaviour of pad–disc contact in railway braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of railway braking, improving the performances of friction brake systems requires better knowledge of the local tribological behaviour of pad–disc contact under braking conditions. After analysing the tribological triplet involved in railway braking, this paper focuses on the development of laboratory tests for studying local physical phenomena caused by friction in braking. The aim is to generate

Yannick Desplanques; Olivier Roussette; Gérard Degallaix; Reynald Copin; Yves Berthier

2007-01-01

182

The effect of friction on drum brakes  

SciTech Connect

The boundary element method (BEM) has been developed for a long period of time. Cruse and Wilson developed an isoparametric quadratic element. Rizzo, Cruse, Rizzo and Shippy, and Swedlow and cruse applied the method to various problems. It shows that the BEM can provide a very good analytical result in the linear problem and it can reduce time in preparation of numerical data. Watson and Newcomb pointed out that the pressure distribution on the contact surface of the brake drum and the lining plate do not vary significantly along the axis. The deflection can be reduced by an appropriate design of the web; therefore, two dimensional analysis with the BEM is used in this analysis. Based on the authors` knowledge, this is the first paper to analyze the drum brake by using the BEM. The assumptions are the brake drum to be a rigid body, perfect interface contact between the drum and the shoe, the constant friction coefficient of the friction material and the thermal effect to be neglected. The two dimensional equations are derived based on the Somigliana`s identity. Since there is no shape function and no need of the Jacobin for the coordinate transform, to integrate numerically is easier and to write a computer code is simpler for the constant value element than the second order element. The linear element is inappropriate to treat the comer problem. Using the linear elements or second order elements creates discontinuous phenomena along the irregular boundary. The common nodal point has different normal vector and boundary conditions. It is necessary to have an extra equation to provide a unique solution for the final linear equation. Using the constant value element can get rid of this problem. The effect of the friction on the pressure distribution at the friction interface is studied. The calculated results of the pressure distribution are compared with the available data. The mathematical model can be used as a design tool to predict the performance of drum brakes.

Huang, Y.M.; Shyr, J.S. [National Taiwan Univ. (China)

1995-12-31

183

From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

2011-12-01

184

Asbestos in brakes: exposure and risk of disease.  

PubMed

Asbestos has been incorporated into friction products since the early 1900s. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal in their analysis of the incidence of disease among mechanics servicing brakes. Decomposition of asbestos occurs during the normal usage of the brake due to thermal decomposition into forsterite, although not all asbestos is so converted. Short fibers, below 5 microm in length, are also found in brake products. Several facts are discussed including the toxicity of the remaining asbestos fibers, short asbestos fibers, and the health implications of exposure to forsterite. Control methodologies, when used appropriately, have reduced exposure to asbestos during brake servicing, but have not been able to entirely eliminate exposure to asbestos, thus bring into question the controlled use of asbestos for friction product such as brakes. Even the so called "controlled" use of asbestos containing brakes poses a health risk to workers, users, and their families. PMID:14991849

Lemen, Richard A

2004-03-01

185

Tau as a Potential Control Variable for Visually Guided Braking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

D. N. Lee (1976) described a braking strategy based on optical expansion in which the driver brakes so that the target's time-to-contact declines around a constant slope in the range -0.5 less than or equal to tau less than 0. The present results from a series of braking simulations confirm and extend earlier reports (E. H. Yilmaz & W. H. Warren,…

Rock, Paul B.; Harris, Mike G.

2006-01-01

186

Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

1975-01-01

187

49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems. 232.609 Section 232.609 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER...Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.609 Handling of...

2012-10-01

188

49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems. 232.609 Section 232.609 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER...Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.609 Handling of...

2013-10-01

189

49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems. 232.609 Section 232.609 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER...Electronically Controlled Pneumatic (ECP) Braking Systems § 232.609 Handling of...

2011-10-01

190

The Influence of High Temperature on Braking Influence de la Haute Temperature sur le Freinage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Temperatures encountered in brakes are cited, and the importance of the temperature factor to the behavior of brake materials is discussed. Macroscopic aspects of diminishing braking torque are described for certain thermic stages, i.e., failures known as...

Ricc

1981-01-01

191

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2013-10-01

192

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2011-10-01

193

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2010-10-01

194

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2012-10-01

195

49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...parking brake systems not utilizing the service friction elements, the friction elements of such a system are burnished prior...Parking brake systems utilizing service brake friction materials shall be tested with the IBT ?...

2012-10-01

196

49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...parking brake systems not utilizing the service friction elements, the friction elements of such a system are burnished prior...Parking brake systems utilizing service brake friction materials shall be tested with the IBT...

2013-10-01

197

49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...parking brake systems not utilizing the service friction elements, the friction elements of such a system are burnished prior...Parking brake systems utilizing service brake friction materials shall be tested with the IBT ?...

2011-10-01

198

A study on regenerative braking for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a regenerative braking algorithm is presented and performance of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is investigated.\\u000a The regenerative braking algorithm calculates the available regenerative braking torque by considering the motor characteristics,\\u000a the battery SOC and the CVT speed ratio. When the regenerative braking and the friction braking are applied simultaneously,\\u000a the friction braking torque corresponding to the

Sungwook Jang; Hoon Yeo; Chulsoo Kim; Hyunsoo Kim

2001-01-01

199

Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual regenerative braking force of an integrated starter\\/generator (ISG), which is varied with desired braking deceleration\\u000a and vehicle speed, is calculated based on an analysis of the required deceleration, maximum braking force of ISG, engine braking\\u000a force and state of charge (SOC) of battery. Braking force distribution strategies are presented according to the actual regenerative\\u000a braking force of ISG.

Datong Qin; Ming Ye; Zhenjun Liu

2007-01-01

200

Model and Simulation of a Super-capacitor Braking Energy Recovery System for Urban Railway Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a braking energy recovery system based on super-capacitor was presented. The method use super-capacitor and the conventional braking resistance constitute a new braking unit to realize the regenerative energy recovery, when braking, braking energy will be stored in the super-capacitor by a DC\\/DC converter. meanwhile, the conventional braking resistance still keep in system to ensure the security.

Chen Xiao-li; Yang Jian; Fang Yu

2010-01-01

201

Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

2013-01-01

202

Development of a co-operative control algorithm during regenerative braking for a fuel cell electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a regenerative braking control algorithm was developed for the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) equipped with the front electronic wedge brake (EWB). A regenerative braking control algorithm was proposed for the regenerative braking and friction braking for the front wheels, and for the friction braking for the rear wheels; and a powertrain model of an FCEV composed

Jiweon Ko; Jungwook Kim; Gaeun Lee; Sunggon Byun; Dongyoon Hyun; Hyunsoo Kim

2011-01-01

203

Pulsar Braking Index and Mass Accretion  

E-print Network

I show that the braking index, $N$, a fundamental pulsar experimental quantity, naturally differs from the canonical value of 3 by terms which involve mass accretion. Using the measured values of $N$ for PSR1509-58 and PSR0531+21, I determine that for constant density neutron stars their present mass accretion rates are $(3.10\\pm.51)\\times10^{-5}$ M year$^{-1}$ and $(9.946\\pm.089)\\times10^{-5}$ M year$^{-1}$ respectively, where M is the mass of each pulsar. Finally, I demonstrate that mass accretion removes the outstanding problem of the origin of the big glitches of the Vela Pulsar.

P. D. Morley

1993-11-15

204

Do Si stars undergo any magnetic braking?  

E-print Network

The old question of rotational braking of Ap Si stars is revisited on the empirical side, taking advantage of the recent Hipparcos results. Field stars with various evolutionary states are considered, and it is shown that the loose correlation between their rotational period and their surface gravity is entirely compatible with conservation of angular momentum. No evidence is found for any loss of angular momentum on the Main Sequence, which confirms earlier results based on less reliable estimates of surface gravity. The importance of reliable, fundamental Teff determinations of Bp and Ap stars is emphasized.

P. North

1998-02-23

205

Thermally induced roughness of tread-braked railway wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roughness (corrugation, waviness) on the tread of a rolling railway wheel leads to vibrations in wheels, bogies and superstructure and also in rails, sleepers and roadbed. These vibrating components radiate noise to the surroundings. A lowering of the noise levels from tread-braked freight cars is of utmost importance for the future of rail traffic. The thermomechanical interaction between brake block

T Vernersson

1999-01-01

206

Thermally induced roughness of tread braked railway wheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roughness (corrugation, waviness) on the tread of a rolling railway wheel leads to vibrations in wheels, bogies and superstructure and also in rails, sleepers and roadbed. These vibrating components radiate noise to the surroundings. A lowering of the noise levels from tread braked freight cars is of utmost importance for the future of rail traffic. The thermomechanical interaction between brake

T. Vernersson

1999-01-01

207

Compressed gas system operates semitrailer brakes during winching operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To move van-type semi-trailers into and out of confined spaces, an auxiliary braking system is mounted on a standard dolly converter. Compressed nitrogen is used to actuate the brakes which are used in conjunction with a power winch.

Tupper, W. E.

1964-01-01

208

14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

...substantiated that an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical...arising from the dynamic pitching motion of the airplane due to sudden application of maximum braking force. The airplane is considered...application of maximum braking force as described in...

2014-01-01

209

14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...substantiated that an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical...arising from the dynamic pitching motion of the airplane due to sudden application of maximum braking force. The airplane is considered...application of maximum braking force as described in...

2012-01-01

210

14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...substantiated that an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical...arising from the dynamic pitching motion of the airplane due to sudden application of maximum braking force. The airplane is considered...application of maximum braking force as described in...

2010-01-01

211

14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...substantiated that an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical...arising from the dynamic pitching motion of the airplane due to sudden application of maximum braking force. The airplane is considered...application of maximum braking force as described in...

2013-01-01

212

14 CFR 25.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...substantiated that an effective drag force of 0.8 times the vertical...arising from the dynamic pitching motion of the airplane due to sudden application of maximum braking force. The airplane is considered...application of maximum braking force as described in...

2011-01-01

213

Development of Diagnostic Algorithms for Air Brakes in Trucks  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, we focus on development of algorithms for estimating the severity of air leakage and for predicting the out-of-adjustment of pushrod in an air brake system of heavy commercial vehicles. The leakage of air from the brake system...

Dhar, Sandeep

2011-10-21

214

A pressure control scheme for air brakes in commercial vehicles  

E-print Network

This research is focused on developing a control scheme for regulating the pressure in the brake chamber of an air brake system found in most commercial vehicles like trucks, tractor-trailers and buses. Such a control scheme can be used...

Bowlin, Christopher Leland

2007-04-25

215

Research on control for regenerative braking of electric vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitation of driving range is the key restriction for the development of EV (electric vehicle), and regenerative braking is an effective approach to extend the driving range of electric vehicle. To protect the battery from broken caused by large charging current during regenerative braking, the control strategy that makes the charging current as control object is proposed in this

Binggang Cao; Zhifeng Bai; Wei Zhang

2005-01-01

216

49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that is 100 percent equipped with air dryers and is equipped with PS-68, 26-C, 26-L, PS-90, CS-1, RT-2, RT-5A, GRB-1, CS-2, or 26-R brake systems. (This listing of brake system types is intended to subsume all...

2011-10-01

217

49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...being operated or 32 km/hour (20 mph), whichever is less. (6) Raised lift axles. Brakes on lift axles need not be capable of being operated while the lift axle is raised. However, brakes on lift axles must be capable of being...

2012-10-01

218

49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...being operated or 32 km/hour (20 mph), whichever is less. (6) Raised lift axles. Brakes on lift axles need not be capable of being operated while the lift axle is raised. However, brakes on lift axles must be capable of being...

2011-10-01

219

An experimental investigation of hot spots in railway disc brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermographic measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. Based on

S. Panier; P. Dufrénoy; D. Weichert

2004-01-01

220

Dynamics of railway wagons subjected to braking\\/traction torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

Braking or traction torque is regarded as an important source of wheelset skid and a potential source of derailment risk that adversely affects the safety levels of train operations; therefore, this research examines the effect of braking\\/traction torque to the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of wagons. This paper reports how train operations safety could be adversely affected due to various

Zuoyan Zhang; Manicka Dhanasekar

2009-01-01

221

Damage mechanisms and thermomechanical loading of brake discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at the damage mechanisms of railway disc brakes leading to macroscopic crack occurrence on the friction surface. An analysis of the friction surface of brake discs damaged in service is first carried out to identify two types of cracks. In parallel to this analysis, a numerical simulation is performed in order to determine the thermomechanical loading due

P. Dufrénoy; G. Bodovillé; G. Degallaix

2002-01-01

222

Motion Control of Passive Intelligent Walker Using Servo Brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new intelligent walker based on passive robotics that assists the elderly, handicapped people, and the blind who have difficulty in walking. We developed a prototype of the robot technology walker (RT walker), a passive intelligent walker that uses servo brakes. The RT walker consists of a support frame, two casters, two wheels equipped with servo brakes, and

Yasuhisa Hirata; Asami Hara; Kazuhiro Kosuge

2007-01-01

223

Method and apparatus for braking a derrick winch  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for braking a derrick winch with a winch brake. It comprises: a control lever remotely located from the winch; a servo-control circuit connecting the lever and brake for actuating the brake in response to movement of the lever, and including: a torque motor having a shaft mechanically coupled to the control lever; a brake activating device for actuating the winch brake; a first position transducer for sensing the position of the control lever; a second position transducer for sensing the position of the winch brake; a first force transducer for measuring the force applied to the winch brake; a first comparator; a second comparator. The first comparator being connected to receive signals from the first and second position transducers and to deliver an error signal to the torque motor and to the second comparator. The second comparator being connected to receive signals from the first comparator and from the first force transducer and to deliver an error signal to the actuating device.

Falcon, J.F.

1989-09-12

224

30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404 Section...Mantrips § 75.1404 Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. [Statutory Provisions...locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

2011-07-01

225

30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404 Section...Mantrips § 75.1404 Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. [Statutory Provisions...locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

2010-07-01

226

PROTOBINARY EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY MAGNETIC BRAKING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of stars are in multiple systems, especially binaries. Such objects form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be strongly magnetized. Most previous studies of binary formation have either ignored magnetic fields or focused on the initial core fragmentation into binary seeds. Here I focus on the effects of the magnetic field on the orbital evolution of the protobinary during the main accretion phase, after a pair of stellar seeds have formed. By simulating a 'seed' binary system with the sink particle treatment, we show that magnetic field plays a crucial role in removing the gas angular momentum and shrinking the binary separation. Through magnetic braking, strong magnetic field is very effective in suppressing the formation of circumstellar disks and circumbinary disk along with its spiral arm structures. The magnetic field can also be responsible for the population of the low mass-ratio binaries in the observed distribution. The magnetically-braked material will have equal chance of being accreted onto either binary seed, instead of the preferential accretion onto the secondary when magnetic field is absent. Furthermore, large field mis-alignment helps to produce rotationally-supported circumbinary disks even for relatively strong magnetic fields, by weakening the magnetically-dominated structure close to the binary. Hence to explain the observed properties of binaries, the magnetic effects deserve more careful considerations in the larger context of binary formation in future studies.

Zhao, Bo; Li, Z.; Kratter, K. M.

2014-01-01

227

Protobinary Evolution Driven By Magnetic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of stars are in multiple systems, especially binaries. Such objects form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be strongly magnetized. Most previous studies of binary formation have either ignored magnetic fields or focused on the initial core fragmentation into binary seeds. Here I focus on the effects of the magnetic field on the orbital evolution of the protobinary during the main accretion phase, after a pair of stellar seeds have formed. By simulating a 'seed' binary system with the sink particle treatment, we show that magnetic field plays a crucial role in removing the gas angular momentum and shrinking the binary separation. Through magnetic braking, strong magnetic field is very effective in suppressing the formation of circumstellar disks and circumbinary disk along with its spiral arm structures. The magnetic field can also be responsible for the population of the low mass-ratio binaries in the observed distribution. The magnetically-braked material will have equal chance of being accreted onto either binary seed, instead of the preferential accretion onto the secondary when magnetic field is absent. Furthermore, large field mis-alignment helps to produce rotationally-supported circumbinary disks even for relatively strong magnetic fields, by weakening the magnetically-dominated structure close to the binary. Hence to explain the observed properties of binaries, the magnetic effects deserve more careful considerations in the larger context of binary formation in future studies.

Zhao, Bo; Li, Zhi-Yun

2013-07-01

228

Simulation study of the plasma brake effect  

E-print Network

The plasma brake is a thin negatively biased tether which has been proposed as an efficient concept for deorbiting satellites and debris objects from low Earth orbit. We simulate the interaction with the ionospheric plasma ram flow with the plasma brake tether by a high performance electrostatic particle in cell code to evaluate the thrust. The tether is assumed to be perpendicular to the flow. We perform runs for different tether voltage, magnetic field orientation and plasma ion mass. We show that a simple analytical thrust formula reproduces most of the simulation results well. The interaction with the tether and the plasma flow is laminar when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tether and the flow. If the magnetic field is parallel to the tether, the behaviour is unstable and thrust is reduced by a modest factor. The case when the magnetic field is aligned with the flow can also be unstable, but does not result in notable thrust reduction. We also fix an error in an earlier reference. According to...

Janhunen, Pekka

2014-01-01

229

Engineering report. Part 3: NASA lightweight wheel and brake sub-system. Lightweight brake development. [for application to space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of light weight wheel and brake systems designed to meet the space shuttle type requirements was investigated. The study includes the use of carbon graphite composite and beryllium as heat sink materials and the compatibility of these heat sink materials with the other structural components of the wheel and brake.

Bok, L. D.

1973-01-01

230

Airborne asbestos exposure during light aircraft brake replacement.  

PubMed

Asbestos containing materials are a component of many vehicle brake systems, including those found in some light aircraft. To characterize the asbestos exposure that results from the installation and maintenance of these components, an aircraft fitted with asbestos containing brake pads had brake changes performed while both area and personal air samples were taken. The brake changing process took place in a closed, unventilated aircraft hanger and all operations were performed according to the manufacturer's recommended procedure. Personal air samples did not detect any measurable amount of asbestos fibers during the brake changing or subsequent cleanup procedures. Analysis of personal samples (n=9) using phase contrast microscopy indicated airborne fiber concentrations at or below 0.003f/ml as 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) and less than 0.069f/ml averaged over 28-30min sampling periods. Airborne chrysotile fibers were detected by two area air samples with fiber concentrations remaining at or below 0.0013f/ml over an 8-h TWA. These results indicate that normal brake changing work practices on aircraft with asbestos containing brake pads does not produce a harmful level of asbestos exposure for aircraft mechanics. PMID:19409949

Blake, Charles L; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

2009-08-01

231

The Reliability Modeling and Analysis on Brake System of Medium-low Speed Maglev Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the paper is the reliability of the function of the brake system on Beijing S1 line Medium-low Speed Maglev Train. The construction of the brake system and the working principle of the brake system are analyzed, based on which, the reliability of the emergency brake function is analyzed via FTA method after modeling, then the weakness of

Qinglong Tan; Hongfeng Qi; Jiangsuo Li; Ying Tian

2012-01-01

232

77 FR 46633 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...brakes at the readjustment limit, because those brakes will...to be beyond the adjustment limit--and out of compliance with...brakes have become hot due to operational use * * * The Agency believes...brake is at the adjustment limit. * * * To avoid...

2012-08-06

233

Design and implementation of a regenerative braking system for electric bicycles based on DSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a regenerative braking system for electric bicycle based on DSP. The proposed method is used to adjust the switching sequence of the inverter, so that the braking energy will be returned to charge the battery. With the cooperation of regenerative braking energy recovery technologies and digital signal processor (TMS320LF2407) as the control unit, the regenerative braking energy

Chih-Chiang Hua; Shih-Jyun Kao

2011-01-01

234

Regenerative braking for electric vehicle based on fuzzy logic control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to recycle more energy in the process of regenerative braking, we design a regenerative braking force calculation controller based on fuzzy logic. The sugeno's interface fuzzy logic controller has three-inputs including the driver's brake requirements, vehicle speed and batteries' SOC and one-output which is the regenerative braking force. To ensure charging safety, the influence of batteries' temperature is

Zijian Zhang; Guoqing Xu; Weimin Li; Liang Zheng

2010-01-01

235

Hydraulic core cutting motor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for drilling core cutting from the sidewall of a drill hole wherein the apparatus comprises an elongated housing with a hydraulic operated back-up shoe mounted within the housing for wedging the housing at a selected location in the drill hole and a hydraulic motor with a drilling bit connected thereto for rotation by the hydraulic motor and hydraulic means mounted within the housing and connected to the hydraulic motor for moving the bit into drilling engagement with the sidewall of the drill hole.

Kilmer, L.G.; Carter, J.W.

1987-11-24

236

Effective regenerative braking control for smooth stop of a hybrid electric bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regenerative braking is an important function for a hybrid electric bus with many stop-to-go drive conditions. Yet an accurate nonlinear model for the composite brake system in HEV and a nonlinear model-based control design for a series-parallel hybrid electric bus have not been fully studied. This paper describes the brake system with regenerative braking function, and a special brake pedal

Jie Shu; Weiwei Xiong; Chengliang Yin; Yong Zhang

2008-01-01

237

The braking mode simulation and analysis for high-speed railway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Braking mode of high-speed train is an important factor that affects train velocity and operation safety, the analysis of braking mode is of great significance for high-speed train's speed-up and the improvement of transport capacity. With the research into high-speed railway braking system and relative theories of the calculation analyzed, calculation of braking force, braking distance, and the target-distance mode

Wei ShangGuan; Jing-jing Wang; Hua-Shen Wang; Jian Wang; Si-Hui Li

2011-01-01

238

A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of the regenerative system.

Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

2006-03-01

239

49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND EQUIPMENT; END-OF-TRAIN DEVICES Inspection and Testing Requirements § 232.215...of the train, a 15-psi service brake pipe reduction shall be made; and (3) An inspection shall be made to determine that...

2010-10-01

240

Regenerative braking on bicycles to power LED safety flashers  

E-print Network

This work develops a method for capturing some of the kinetic energy ordinarily lost during braking on bicycles to power LED safety flashers. The system is designed to eliminate: (a) battery changing in popular LED flashers, ...

Collier, Ian M

2005-01-01

241

Modeling of air brakes for onboard diagnostics of heavy trucks  

E-print Network

increase in the commercial vehicles traffic over the past few years, improved preventive and active measures are necessary to minimize commercial vehicle accidents and to enhance the safety of our roadways. The brake system is one of the critical...

Kankanala, Penchala N

2012-06-07

242

View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

243

Performance analysis and comparision of ultracapacitor based regenerative braking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper three types of energy storage system for regenerative braking are presented. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed after the simulation and experimental results are presented. Problems are discussed and the design guidelines are suggested.

Tongzhen Wei; Sibo Wang; Xuhua Gao

2009-01-01

244

16 CFR 1512.5 - Requirements for braking system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...position that is readily accessible to the rider when in a normal riding position. (3) Grip dimension. The grip dimension (maximum outside dimension between the brake hand lever and the handlebars in the plane containing the centerlines...

2010-01-01

245

Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples  

PubMed Central

Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19709720

McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

246

Numerical Analysis of Car Disc Brake Squeal Considering Thermal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction-induced vibration and noise emanating from car disc brakes is a source of considerable discomfort and leads to customer\\u000a dissatisfaction. The high frequency noise above 1 kHz, known as squeal, is most annoying and is very difficult to eliminate.\\u000a It was recently estimated that noise, harshness and vibration (together known as the NVH problem), including disc brake squeal,\\u000a generated warranty

Lijie Li; Huajiang Ouyang; A. R. AbuBakar

247

Asbestos-free brake-lining materials for hydrogenerators  

SciTech Connect

Three different asbestos-free materials currently considered as new lining materials for hydrogenerator brakes were tested and compared to the original asbestos lining. Results show that these substitutes not only vary greatly from the original material in terms of mechanical properties and physical characteristics but also exhibit significantly different performances in braking tests. Consequently, these new materials are not entirely suitable for the intended application.

Lalonde, S.; Lanteigne, J. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

1995-11-01

248

ElectroMechanical Friction Disc, Ring and Drum Brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In an E-M BBW AWB conversion mechatronic control system, electronic control units (ECU) and electrical wiring replace fluidical lines and equipment and E-M actuators replace fluidic pistons. When the driver\\u000a steps on the brake foot pedal, a computer sends information to a control box, which converts the electrical signals into an\\u000a electrical command: the E-M actuators on the brake disc,

B. T. Fijalkowski

249

Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

1973-01-01

250

6. North wall and east end of air brake shop ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. North wall and east end of air brake shop section of roundhouse at center. East end of boiler shop section of roundhouse to the right of air brake shop. East end of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at far right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

251

Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-04-01

252

Frictional characteristics of Al–SiC composite brake discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of light materials such as aluminium matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) in railway braking devices\\u000a is considered. Four quarter?scale discs were produced by the vortex method with two distinct matrices and a SiC reinforcement\\u000a with two different shapes and rates. Continuous braking tests (120 s) were run with organic pads in a dry environment. The\\u000a 390.0

K. Laden; J. D. Guérin; M. Watremez; J. P. Bricout

2000-01-01

253

A diagnostic system for air brakes in commercial vehicles  

E-print Network

, cranes, conveyors, agitators, etc.), paint spraying, marine applications, pneumatic actuators, etc. [29]. One of the major applications of compressed air in the field of transportation has been in the development of the air brake system. In the United..., cranes, conveyors, agitators, etc.), paint spraying, marine applications, pneumatic actuators, etc. [29]. One of the major applications of compressed air in the field of transportation has been in the development of the air brake system. In the United...

Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar Ram

2007-09-17

254

Will the tachyonic universe survive the big brake?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a Friedmann universe filled with a tachyon scalar field, which behaved as dustlike matter in the past, while it is able to accelerate the expansion rate of the Universe at late times. The comparison with type Ia supernovae (SNIa) data allows for evolutions driving the Universe into a Big Brake. Some of the evolutions leading to a Big Brake exhibit a large variation of the equation of state parameter at low redshifts, which is potentially observable with future data, though hardly detectable with present SNIa data. The soft Big Brake singularity occurs at finite values of the scale factor, vanishing energy density and Hubble parameter, but diverging deceleration and infinite pressure. We show that the geodesics can be continued through the Big Brake and that our model universe will recollapse eventually in a Big Crunch. Although the time to the Big Brake strongly depends on the present values of the tachyonic field and of its time derivative, the time from the Big Brake to the Big Crunch represents a kind of invariant time scale for all field parameters allowed by SNIa.

Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Á.; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Gorini, Vittorio; Polarski, David

2010-12-01

255

Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre

2003-04-01

256

The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis is kept in line with the direction of the prevailing wind, as well as pressure to the yaw and high speed shaft brakes. The pitch-change-mechanism hydraulic system provides the actuation to the pitch change mechanism and permits feathering of the blades during an emergency situation. It operates in conjunction with the overall windmill computer system, with the feather control permitting slewing control flow to pass from the servo valve to the actuators without restriction.

Onufreiczuk, S.

1978-01-01

257

Hydraulic fracture design optimization  

SciTech Connect

This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

1992-01-01

258

Hydraulic fracture design optimization  

SciTech Connect

This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

1992-06-01

259

CMV Brake Wear and Performance Test Little is known about the brake  

E-print Network

) is proportional to vehicle weight (Wt) as (Be = Bf/Wt), artificial axle loading can be utilized to bring a lightly loaded vehicle to within 80% of the gross axle weight rating through a hydraulically operated hook

260

Airborne asbestos concentrations associated with heavy equipment brake removal.  

PubMed

Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of this study is to characterize the airborne concentration of asbestos to workers and bystanders from brake wear debris during brake removal from 12 loader/backhoes and tractors manufactured between 1960 and 1980. Asbestos content in brake lining (average 20% chrysotile by polarized light microscopy) and brake wear debris [average 0.49% chrysotile by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] was also quantified. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of mechanics (n = 44) and area samples at bystander (n = 34), remote (n = 22), and ambient (n = 12) locations were collected during 12 brake changes and analyzed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400] and TEM (NIOSH 7402). In addition, the fiber distribution by size and morphology was evaluated according to the International Organization for Standardization method for asbestos. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, the average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM equivalent) were 0.024 f/cc for the mechanic and 0.009 f/cc for persons standing 1.2-3.1 m from the activity during the period of exposure ( approximately 0.5 to 1 h). Considering the time involved in the activity, and assuming three brake jobs per shift, these results would convert to an average 8-h time-weighted average of 0.009 f/cc for a mechanic and 0.006 f/cc for a bystander. The results indicate that (i) the airborne concentrations for worker and bystander samples were significantly less than the current occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f/cc; (ii) approximately 2% of respirable fibers were >20 microm in length; and (iii) approximately 95% of chrysotile in the brake linings degraded in the friction process. The industrial hygiene data presented here should be useful for conducting retrospective and current exposure assessments of individuals, as well as hazard assessments of work activities that involve repairing and replacing asbestos-containing brakes in heavy construction equipment. PMID:19692501

Madl, A K; Gaffney, S H; Balzer, J L; Paustenbach, D J

2009-11-01

261

Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

262

Magnetic braking of T Tauri stars  

E-print Network

We construct models for the rotation rates of T Tauri stars whose spin is regulated by magnetic linkage between the star and a surrounding accretion disc. Our models utilise a time-dependent disc code to follow the accretion process and include the effects of pre-main-sequence stellar evolution. We find that the initial disc mass controls the evolution of the star-disc system. For sufficiently massive discs, a stellar field of $\\sim$ 1 kG is able to regulate the spin rate to the observed values during the classical T Tauri phase. The field then acts to expel the disc and the star spins up at constant angular momentum as a weak-line system. Lower mass discs are ejected at an early epoch and fail to brake the star significantly. We extend the model to close binary systems, and find that the removal of angular momentum from the disc by the secondary significantly prolongs the inner disc lifetime. Such systems should therefore be relatively slow rotators. We also discuss the implications of our model for the spectral energy distributions and variability of T Tauri stars.

P. J. Armitage; C. J. Clarke

1995-12-05

263

Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research vessels. Heretofore, electrically actuated hydraulic pumps have been used for this purpose. By eliminating the demand for electrical energy for pumping, the use of the thermally actuated hydraulic pumps could prolong the intervals between battery charges, thus making it possible to greatly increase the durations of undersea exploratory missions.

Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

2008-01-01

264

Environmentally adapted hydraulic oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison has been carried out between one mineral based hydraulic oil and three environmentally adapted hydraulic oils. Two of these are semi-synthetic oils, i.e. mixtures of vegetable base oil and synthetic esters, and the last is based on synthetic esters only. Technical properties such as viscosity, pour point etc., and chemical properties such as phosphorus and sulphur content etc.

Elisabet Kassfeldt; Göran Dave

1997-01-01

265

HYDRAULIC CONTROL ROD ACTUATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the conceptual feasibility and production ; of a prototype model of a Hydraulic Control Rod Drive Mechanism that utilizes ; primary reactor water as the hydraulic fluid and is sealed within the reactor ; pressure vessel. It is capable of controlling 2300-pound rods such as might be ; used in large pressurized-water reactors. By utilizing

R. B. Hussey; C. F. Cartledge

1963-01-01

266

Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1  

E-print Network

Leaf Hydraulics Lawren Sack1 and N. Michele Holbrook2 1 Department of Botany, University of Hawai influence rates of transpiration and photosynthesis. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) varies more than 65. #12;Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 LEAF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCE

Sack, Lawren

267

An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

1995-11-01

268

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

DOEpatents

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

269

Development of a multilayered wide-ranged torque magnetorheological brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the design of a multilayered magnetorheological brake from modelling to prototyping and characterization. A magnetostatic model intended to provide a specific magnetic flux density over a fluid gap regardless of the dimensions of the fluid surface is proposed. The ferromagnetic path and the coil are dimensioned in consequence. The model needs only three inputs to completely define the brake, i.e. the number of fluid gaps, the inner radius of the smallest fluid gap and the fluid gap depth. The evaluation criteria are defined by the torque density, the controllability and the reactivity, described as a function of the dimensions and the number of fluid gaps. The model has been optimized to improve the torque density. The brake has four fluid gaps and has been built and characterized. The expected torque when the fluid reaches the desired induction is 3.4 N m and the measured torque is 3.6 N m. This represents a relative error of 5.5%. The brake has 60 mm diameter, 39 mm width with a hollow shaft of 12 mm diameter. When exploited up to complete saturation, the measured torque is 5.3 N m with 19 W power consumption. The brake has a torque density of 48.1 kN m-2 and a maximum-to-minimum torque ratio of 176, with 50 ms electromechanical time constant.

Rossa, Carlos; Jaegy, Adrien; Micaelli, Alain; Lozada, José

2014-02-01

270

Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

2014-04-01

271

49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings. 393.45 Section 393.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and...

2010-10-01

272

49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...readjustment limits. (1) The pushrod stroke must not be greater than the values specified...diameter Brake readjustment limit: standard stroke chamber Brake readjustment limit: long stroke chamber 6 4 1/2 in. (114 mm)...

2012-10-01

273

49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...readjustment limits. (1) The pushrod stroke must not be greater than the values specified...diameter Brake readjustment limit: standard stroke chamber Brake readjustment limit: long stroke chamber 6 4 1/2 in. (114 mm)...

2013-10-01

274

49 CFR 229.29 - Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of locomotives with various types of air brake systems shall be conducted...238.309 of this chapter, the air flow method (AFM) indicator shall be...309 of this chapter, the extent of air brake system maintenance and...

2013-10-01

275

49 CFR 229.29 - Air brake system calibration, maintenance, and testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of locomotives with various types of air brake systems shall be conducted...238.309 of this chapter, the air flow method (AFM) indicator shall be...309 of this chapter, the extent of air brake system maintenance and...

2012-10-01

276

49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic brake application, initiation...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and...Systems Standards § 236.502 Automatic brake application,...

2010-10-01

277

49 CFR 236.506 - Release of brakes after automatic application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Release of brakes after automatic application. 236.506 Section 236...SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal...236.506 Release of brakes after automatic application. The automatic...

2010-10-01

278

49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and...brake-pipe pressure reduction during an automatic brake application shall be at a...

2010-10-01

279

Modeling the pneumatic relay valve of an s-cam air brake  

E-print Network

Statistics indicate that defects in brake system contribute significantly to fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles. Hence there is a need for developing preventive and active safety measures for assessing the performance of an air brake system...

Vilayannur Natarajan, Shankar

2005-08-29

280

Arsenic species and leachability in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.)  

E-print Network

Arsenic species and leachability in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake (Pteris June 2002; accepted 9 December 2002 ``Capsule'': Arsenic was predominantly present as inorganic arsenite in the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake. Abstract Arsenic speciation is important

Ma, Lena

281

30 CFR 75.523-3 - Automatic emergency-parking brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contraction of brake parts, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage; and (5) Release only by...contraction of components, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage. (e) The brake...

2011-07-01

282

30 CFR 75.523-3 - Automatic emergency-parking brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contraction of brake parts, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage; and (5) Release only by...contraction of components, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage. (e) The brake...

2013-07-01

283

30 CFR 75.523-3 - Automatic emergency-parking brakes.  

...contraction of brake parts, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage; and (5) Release only by...contraction of components, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage. (e) The brake...

2014-07-01

284

30 CFR 75.523-3 - Automatic emergency-parking brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contraction of brake parts, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage; and (5) Release only by...contraction of components, exhaustion of any non-mechanical source of energy, or leakage. (e) The brake...

2012-07-01

285

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2011-10-01

286

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2013-10-01

287

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2012-10-01

288

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request...may seek modification of the single car air brake test procedures prescribed...decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of any request...

2010-10-01

289

49 CFR 236.506 - Release of brakes after automatic application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Release of brakes after automatic application...OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES...Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.506 Release of brakes after automatic...

2013-10-01

290

49 CFR 236.506 - Release of brakes after automatic application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Release of brakes after automatic application...OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES...Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.506 Release of brakes after automatic...

2012-10-01

291

49 CFR 236.506 - Release of brakes after automatic application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Release of brakes after automatic application...OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES...Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.506 Release of brakes after automatic...

2011-10-01

292

Brake Design-an Object-Oriented Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An object-oriented approach methodology is presented in this work that was applied in developing the computer software for the analysis and design of brakes. This was done using Microsoft Visual Basic (object-oriented) programming language. In designing the software, the various classes of brakes were considered. The mathematical expressions that govern the relationship between force, torque, pressure, heat generated and energy were assembled and carefully programmed. To enhance the ability to visually display and interpret the solutions obtained, graphical features were incorporated in the software. Benchmark problems were used to test the software's robustness, accuracy and efficiency. The results show that the software is highly accurate, efficient and robust. The usage of the software greatly increases the accuracy, and reduces the complexity and time spent in the analysis and design of brakes.

Akpobi, John A.

2011-10-01

293

Regenerative braking device with rotationally mounted energy storage means  

DOEpatents

A regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (30) and an output shaft (32), clutches (50, 56) and brakes (52, 58) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. In a second embodiment the clutches and brakes are dispensed with and the variable ratio transmission is connected directly across the input and output shafts. In both embodiments the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft rotates faster or relative to the output shaft and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft rotates faster or relative to the input shaft.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1982-03-16

294

Development of compacted vermicular graphite cast iron for railway brake discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of employing brake discs as a key component of mechanical brake equipment, the initiation of thermal cracking\\u000a owing to repetitive thermal shock generated during braking may potentially lead to higher maintenance costs, worsened braking\\u000a performance, and greater risk of railway accidents. The purpose of this study is to gain basic data to facilitate application\\u000a of compacted vermicular

Choong-Hwan Lim; Byeong-Choon Goo

2011-01-01

295

Dual hydraulic set packer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic well packer. It comprises: a tubular body mandrel having a longitudinal flow passage; a seal element assembly movably mounted on the tubular body mandrel; an anchor slip assembly supported by the tubular body mandrel; a hydraulic actuator assembly movably mounted onto the tubular body mandrel, the hydraulic actuator assembly including first and second movable force transmitting means engageable with the seal element assembly and the anchor slip assembly, respectively; the first movable force transmitting means having an axial slip pocket; a locking rod slideably received within the slip pocket, the locking rod being connected to the second movable force transmitting means.

Lane, A.R.; Sproul, R.M.

1990-06-05

296

Do supernovae favor tachyonic Big Brake instead of de Sitter?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether a tachyonic scalar field, encompassing both dark energy and dark matter-like features will drive our universe towards a Big Brake singularity or a de Sitter expansion. In doing this it is crucial to establish the parameter domain of the model, which is compatible with type Ia supernovae data. We find the 1? contours and evolve the tachyonic sytem into the future. We conclude, that both future evolutions are allowed by observations, Big Brake becoming increasingly likely with the increase of the positive model parameter k.

Gergely, L. Á.; Keresztes, Z.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Gorini, V.; Moschella, U.

2010-06-01

297

Transient analysis of thermoelastic contact problem of disk brakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles. The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation established and the Von Mises stresses in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory compared to those found in the literature.

Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa

2013-06-01

298

Measuring system of transient temperature distribution on the brake disc rotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system to measure transient temperature distribution on the brake disc rotor at high speed braking has been developed and its measuring principle and configuration are discussed in this paper. This system consists of two revolution sensors and two sets of optical fiber array, photoelectric elements, and microprocessor, which fiber array is so arranged that it faces the brake disc

T. Idogaki; H. Kawai; H. Harada; H. Inoue

1987-01-01

299

About BWI Group BWI is a premier chassis supplier that designs and manufactures brake  

E-print Network

and two sales and service locations are dispersed across Europe, Asia, and North America. Rapid, robust as the power disc brake, the air-adjustable shock absorber, and anti-lock braking for cars and motorcycles. Its&D and production centers in working smoothly together Industry Focus High-end vehicle brake and suspension systems

Fisher, Kathleen

300

Spherical Brake with MR Fluid as Multi Degree of Freedom Actuator for Haptics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored design of a magnetorheological (MR) spherical brake as a multi-DOF actuator. To the best of our knowledge, our design is the first ever multi-DOF spherical brake using MR fluid. The primary goal was to design a compact but powerful brake using the serpentine flux path approach. An optical position measurement system was also designed to eliminate the

Doruk Senkal; Hakan Gurocak

2009-01-01

301

30 CFR 75.523-3 - Automatic emergency-parking brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic emergency-parking brakes. 75.523-3...Equipment-General § 75.523-3 Automatic emergency-parking brakes. ...underground coal mines shall be equipped with automatic emergency-parking brakes in...

2010-07-01

302

76 FR 54721 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation: Brakes; Adjustment Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...brakes at the readjustment limit, because those brakes will...to be beyond the adjustment limit--and out of compliance with...brakes have become hot due to operational use. Based on these fundamental...less than'' the readjustment limit(s), as opposed to the...

2011-09-02

303

Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern)  

E-print Network

Thiol synthesis and arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) Weihua Zhanga in arsenic detoxification. Abstract Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) has potential for phytoremediation to be a supplement. Ã? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Pteris vittata; Chinese brake fern; Thiols

Ma, Lena

304

Power Management Strategy with Regenerative Braking For Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel power management strategy based on regenerative braking is proposed to make optimal power distribution between fuel cell system and batteries in order to improve the utility of braking energy and decrease the power loss for fuel cell electric vehicle. With the integrated regenerative braking strategy, the novel control algorithm takes the charging power loss from regenerated energy into

Yu Shuang; Zhang Junzhi; Wang Lifang

2009-01-01

305

Regenerative braking algorithm for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with continuously variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel regenerative braking algorithm based on continuously variable transmission is proposed to make effective and maximum use of the brake energy in order to improve fuel economy. In the braking torque distribution of the novel regenerative algorithm, the regenerative torque is determined by considering the vehicle velocity, the maximal generation torque and state of the electric motor, the maximal

Wang Feng; Zhong Hu; Mao Xiao-jian; Yang Lin; Zhuo Bin

2007-01-01

306

Regenerative Braking for an Electric Vehicle Using Ultracapacitors and a Buck-Boost Converter  

E-print Network

Regenerative Braking for an Electric Vehicle Using Ultracapacitors and a Buck-Boost Converter Juan situation (regenerative braking), the battery voltage goes up, and then the control needs to activate regenerative braking can be avoided #12;with the help of ultracapacitors. Besides, ultracapacitors allow

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

307

Analysis of compressed air regenerative braking and a thermally enhanced option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a net benefit from regenerative braking is difficult. Various forms of regenerative braking systems have been proposed. They include electric batteries, capacitors, flywheels, and compressed air. Some have been implemented on a limited scale. The benefits of regenerative braking systems are easy to qualitatively describe, but can be challenging to quantify. The potential benefits depend upon obvious things such

F. Wicks; J. Maleszweski; C. Wright; J. Zarybnicky

2002-01-01

308

Dual Mode Vehicle with In-Wheel Motor: Regenerative Braking Optimization  

E-print Network

Dual Mode Vehicle with In-Wheel Motor: Regenerative Braking Optimization G. Le Solliec1*, A. Chasse: Regenerative Braking Optimization -- To meet the growing need for mobility of people and goods while massively the benefit of such an architecture to optimize the regenerative braking while ensuring a safe dynamic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

A global strategy based on experiments and simulations for squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes  

E-print Network

railway brakes. The goal of the present study is to discuss the relevance of the mechanical modeling on industrial railway brakes. This study comes within the scope of a research program AcouFren that is supported noise generated by high power railway disc brakes. 1 Introduction Friction-induced vibration and noise

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

Power Management Control in DC-electrified Railways for Regenerative Braking Systems of Electric Trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most electric trains in DC-electrified railways are presently equipped with regenerative braking system. On braking, traction controller of a train converts kinetic energy to electrical energy during deceleration of the train when other powering trains consume the electrical energy as electrical loads for the regenerating train in the electrical circuit. Therefore, the traction controller of the braking train must

Yuruki OKADA; Takafumi KOSEKI; Kohei HISATOMI

311

49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

2010-10-01

312

49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

2011-10-01

313

49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

2012-10-01

314

49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

2013-10-01

315

Fuzzy logic anti-lock brake system for a limited range coefficient of friction surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the preliminary research on and implementation of a fuzzy logic controller to control wheel slip for an antilock brake system. The dynamics of braking systems are highly nonlinear and time-variant. Simulation was used to derive an initial rule base, which was then tested on an experimental brake system. The rules were further refined by analysis of the data acquired

D. P. Madau; F. Yuan; L. A. Feldkamp

1993-01-01

316

Motion capture of a pad measured with accelerometers during squeal noise in a real brake system  

E-print Network

Brakes - 126 Rue de Stalingrad - 93700 DRANCY - FRANCE Abstract The operating deflection shape of a pad Finite Element model. Keywords: Squeal, brake system, motion capture, operating deflection shape 1 composed of beams on which brake pads were fixed. They measured the operational deflections with a laser

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Portable Hydraulic Powerpack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

1986-01-01

318

Application Study of a Modified Phenolic Resin as Binder for Hybrid Fibers Reinforced Brake Pad for Railroad Passenger-coach Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified phenolic resin was designed and developed in our laboratory to manufacture friction material with high performance. The potential application of the resin as a binder for hybrid-fibers reinforced brake pads for railroad passenger-coach braking was evaluated on a full-scale test bench according to Standard of China Railway Ministry TB\\/T 3118-2005 “The brake lining made of composite materials for

Haiqing Wang; Xingyang Wu; Xujun Liu; Peihong Cong

2011-01-01

319

Electromagnetic brake for a camshaft phase change device  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a phase change device. It comprises a first shaft; an input member supported for rotation on the first shaft; an output member fixed to the first shaft; advancing means interconnecting the input and output members, the advancing means being operative upon axial movement to effect limited relative rotation between the input and output members; drum means supported for rotation on the first shaft and engaged with the advancing means to effect the axial movement of the advancing means when a retarding force is applied to the drum means; and actuating means operable to apply the retarding force; the improvement wherein the actuating means comprises an electromagnetic brake assembly, the electromagnetic brake assembly comprising an annular housing defining pole pieces of the electromagnet, a magnetic coil received in the housing, a nonmagnetic plate member enclosing the housing, friction material adhered to the plate member, a brake disc surface formed on the drum, and means for mounting the housing on the first shaft in juxtaposition with the brake disc surface in a substantially fixed angular position while permitting limited axial movement relative to the disc surface.

Muir, D.J.; Brune, J.E.; Van Deusen, B.K.; Day, J.K.

1991-07-16

320

5. FLOOR 3; SHOWS BRAKE LEVER, BLOCK FORMERLY USED TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. FLOOR 3; SHOWS BRAKE LEVER, BLOCK FORMERLY USED TO RAISE IT AND HOOK WHICH KEPT IT IN THE 'OFF' POSITION; ALSO SEEN ARE THE LARGE BLOCKS SUSPENDED FROM THE CAP FRAME WHICH HOLD THE TRUCK WHEELS TO CENTER THE CAP - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

321

Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide for automatic brakes service is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum is composed of four units. Each unit of instruction may contain some or all of the following components: objective sheet, suggested…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

322

Energy savings through regenerative braking using retrofit converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the benefits and feasibility of retrofitting existing phase controlled DC motor drives in the Queensland Rail coal transport system with PWM rectifier technology. The major benefits of this would be, the replacement of the dynamic brake with a regenerative system and unity power factor operation with a high quality input current waveshape. Test results indicate that very

Frank Flinders; Rajan Mathew; Wardina Oghanna

1995-01-01

323

Electric propulsion and braking system for automotive vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An electric propulsion and braking system which includes a plurality of high-speed, dc commutatorless motors each coupled to a wheel of an automotive vehicle through an associated fixedratio mechanical transmission. Each motor includes a field winding, an armature winding, and a commutation circuit for the armature winding. During propulsion, each commutation circuit is enabled and, during braking, each commutation circuit is disabled. Control of the amount of propulsion and braking is afforded by varying the dc source voltage across each commutation circuit and by varying the field current in each field winding. The dc source voltage across each commutation circuit is varied by connecting the commutation circuits and a plurality of main electrical energy sources in selected series, series/parallel, and parallel combinations. The field current in each field winding is varied by connecting the field windings with an auxiliary electrical energy source in selected series, series/parallel and parallel combinations, and by duty-cycling the selected combination. The various series, series/parallel and parallel combinations are selected by, and the duty-cycling of the selected field winding combination is controlled by, a microprocessor receiving signals representing the magnitude of electrical energy transfer between the main electrical energy sources and the motors, the position of an acceleration pedal, the position of a brake pedal, the velocity of the vehicle, the dc source voltage across each commutation circuit, and the armature voltage across each armature winding.

Preikschat, F.K.

1982-12-14

324

49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Display in real-time in the cab of the...at the grids on the system; and (2) Display...deceleration rate or in real-time in the cab of the... (j) A railroad operating a train with a brake system that includes...

2013-10-01

325

49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Display in real-time in the cab of the...at the grids on the system; and (2) Display...deceleration rate or in real-time in the cab of the... (j) A railroad operating a train with a brake system that includes...

2012-10-01

326

Adaptive Rollover Prevention for Automotive Vehicles with Differential Braking  

E-print Network

center of gravity (CG) position plays an important role for the vehicle dynamics and the vehicle road in the knowledge of it, have to be considered for analyzing vehicle dynamics, and must be accountedAdaptive Rollover Prevention for Automotive Vehicles with Differential Braking Selim Solmaz

Duffy, Ken

327

Determining Vehicle Steering and Braking from Yaw Mark Striations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents equations that relate the orientation and spacing of yaw mark striations to the vehicle braking and steering levels present at the time the striations were deposited. These equations, thus, provide a link between physical evidence deposited on a roadway during a crash (the tire mark striations) and actions taken by the driver during that crash (steering and

Gray Beauchamp; David Hessel; Nathan A. Rose; Stephen J. Fenton; Tilo Voitel

2009-01-01

328

27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

329

Magnetic Braking Revisited: An Activity for "How Science Works"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Curriculum for 14-16 year old students in England contains a mandatory element called "How science works". Included in this material is interpretation of data, collecting data from primary sources, using ICT tools, and developing an argument and drawing conclusions. What follows is an activity, based on magnetic braking, which allows…

Ireson, Gren; Twidle, John

2008-01-01

330

49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...121 on the date of manufacture. Buses, trucks and truck tractors not...or after July 1, 1973. (1) A bus, truck, truck tractor, or a...failure of the brake master cylinder body. (3) A bus is considered to meet the...

2011-10-01

331

Wind braking of magnetars: To understand magnetars' multiwave radiation properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetars are proposed to be peculiar neutron stars powered by their super-strong magnetic field. Observationally, anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters are believed to be magnetar candidates. While more and more multiwave observations of magnetars are available, we see unfortunately an accumulation of failed predictions of the traditional magnetar model. These challenges urge a reconsidering of the magnetar phenomenon. Wind braking of magnetars is one of the alternative modelings. The release of magnetic energy may generate a particle outflow (i.e., particle wind) which results in both an anomalous X-ray luminosity (L_X) and a significantly high spindown rate (\\dot P). In this wind braking scenario, only a strong multipole field is necessary for a magnetar (a strong dipole field is no longer needed). Wind braking of magnetars may help us to understand their multiwave radiation properties, including (1) non-detection of magnetars in the Fermi-LAT observations, (2) timing behaviors of low magnetic field magnetars, (3) nature of anti-glitches, (4) criterion for magnetar radio emission, etc. In the wind braking model of magnetars, timing events of magnetars should always be accompanied by radiative events.

Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.

2014-09-01

332

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection...locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate...the brakes on the last car in the train; and ...operating conditions pose a safety hazard to an inspector...the set and release on cars so equipped....

2012-10-01

333

49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing...previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake...to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from...locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a...

2013-10-01

334

49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing...previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake...to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from...locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a...

2011-10-01

335

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection...locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate...the brakes on the last car in the train; and ...operating conditions pose a safety hazard to an inspector...the set and release on cars so equipped....

2013-10-01

336

49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection, Testing...previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake...to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from...locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a...

2012-10-01

337

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Inspection...locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate...the brakes on the last car in the train; and ...operating conditions pose a safety hazard to an inspector...the set and release on cars so equipped....

2011-10-01

338

Magnetic braking and the period gap of cataclysmic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, if the period gap of cataclysmic binaries is to be understood according to the model of Spruit and Ritter (1983) and Rappaport et al. (1983), the secondary of systems with an orbital period near 3 hours must suffer mass loss on a time scale which is shorter by about a factor of 10 than the Kelvin-Helmholtz time of the secondary in thermal equilibrium. The corresponding mass loss rate must be of the order (1-2) x 10 to the -9th solar mass/yr. It is found that magnetic braking according to Verbunt and Zwaan (1981) can account for such a high mass transfer rate provided the free parameter f in their braking law is f = about 0.6-0.8 (M1/solar mass) to the -1/2. The braking law derived by Patterson (1984), on the other hand, results in mass transfer rates for systems near the upper edge of the gap which are too low to account for the observed width of the gap. Furthermore, in the framework of disk instability models for dwarf nova outbursts, this braking law results in a period distribution of nova-like systems and dwarf novae which is inconsistent with observations.

Ritter, H.

1985-04-01

339

486 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 54, NO. 2, MARCH 2005 Iterative Learning Control of Antilock Braking of  

E-print Network

learning control, regener- ative braking, road vehicle control, road vehicle electric propul- sion, road of regenerative braking [19], and motor control [20]. Antilock braking and traction control of pure electric Control of Antilock Braking of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Chunting Mi, Senior Member, IEEE, Hui Lin

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

340

In regenerative braking system of a HEV, the power electronics are controlled such that the traction motor  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT In regenerative braking system of a HEV, the power electronics are controlled and emission [1]. An important system of hybrid electric vehicles is regenerative braking system (RBS). The RBS braking systems are major concerns. In the area of regenerative braking in HEVs, some studies have been

Vaziri, Ashkan

341

Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in obtaining their estimates of these quantities before and after watching a video recording of a car braking from various initial speeds to a complete stop and subsequent application of mathematical statistics to the obtained sets of students' answers. The results revealed that the difference between the value of the car braking distance estimated before watching the video and the real value of this distance was not caused by a random error but by a systematic error which was due to the incorrect students' conceptions about the car braking process. Watching the video significantly improved the students' estimates of the car braking distance, and we show that in this case, the difference between the estimated value and the real value of the car braking distance was due only to a random error, i.e. the students' conceptions about the car braking process were corrected. Some of the students subsequently performed video analysis of the braking processes of cars of various brands and under various conditions by means of Tracker that gave them exact knowledge of the physical quantities, which characterize a motor vehicle braking. Interviewing some of these students brought very positive reactions to this novel method of learning.

Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

2014-08-01

342

Nonlinear force feedback control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump actuator for automotive transmission shift control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, researchers have investigated the feasibility of utilizing piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based actuation systems for automotive transmission controls. This new concept could eventually reduce the complexity, weight, and fuel consumption of the current transmissions. In this research, we focus on how to utilize this new approach on the shift control of automatic transmissions (AT), which generally requires pressure profiling for friction elements during the operation. To illustrate the concept, we will consider the 1--> 2 up shift control using band brake friction elements. In order to perform the actuation force tracking for AT shift control, nonlinear force feedback control laws are designed based on the sliding mode theory for the given nonlinear system. This paper will describe the modeling of the band brake actuation system, the design of the nonlinear force feedback controller, and simulation and experimental results for demonstration of the new concept.

Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

2008-03-01

343

Guidelines for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of disc brake squeal using simple models of brake systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brake squeal has become of increasing concern to the automotive industry but guidelines on how to confidently predict squeal propensity are yet to be established. While it is standard practice to use the complex eigenvalue analysis to predict unstable vibration modes, there have been few attempts to calculate their acoustic radiation. Here guidelines are developed for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of brake squeal using models of simplified brake systems with friction contact by considering (1) the selection of appropriate elements, contact and mesh; (2) the extraction of surface velocities via forced response; and (3) the calculation of the acoustic response itself. Results indicate that quadratic tetrahedral elements offer the best option for meshing more realistic geometry. A mesh has to be sufficiently fine especially in the contact region to predict mesh-independent unstable vibration modes. Regarding the vibration response, only the direct, steady-state method with a pressurised pad and finite sliding formulation (allowing contact separation) should be used. Comparison of different numerical methods suggest that a obroadband fast multi-pole boundary element method with the Burton-Miller formulation would efficiently solve the acoustic radiation of a full brake system. Results also suggest that a pad lift-off can amplify the acoustic radiation similar to a horn effect. A horn effect is also observed for chamfered pads which are used in practice to reduce the number and strength of unstable vibration modes. These results highlight the importance of optimising the pad shape to reduce acoustic radiation of unstable vibration modes.

Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.; Marburg, S.

2013-04-01

344

TU Delft: Hydraulic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the Dutch reputation for water management, it's no surprise that one of their leading technical institutes, The Technische Universiteit Delft, offers a program in Hydraulic Engineering. The website, in both Dutch and English, describes their program as an attempt "to bridge the gap between basic sciences (fluid mechanics and soil mechanics in particular) and practical engineering applications in the design, construction, maintenance, management and eventually the demolition of hydraulic structures." The Education section of the website posts MSc theses completed by their students. The research section describes current and recently completed research projects and includes a listing of publications, some of which are available to download. The website also has a link to a Hydraulic Engineering portal, which offers various publication databases (some in Dutch only), and the Civil Engineering Knowledge Centre, which provides library access and discussion forums for students and staff of Civil Engineering.

345

What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled and sometimes spilled on the surface. This poster presentation illustrates the under surface process of hydraulic fracking and the distribution flow to the market.

2012-01-01

346

Hydraulics of wells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although the subject of this lecture is supposed to be concerned primarily with the hydraulics of wells, Professor Weers has asked that I also discuss the effects tat geological formations have on the quantity and quality of water available to wells. I will discuss the geology of Colorado in relation to the availability and quality of water with particular reference to the most productive aquifers or water-bearing formations in the State. I will then discuss the hydraulics of wells with the aim of emphasizing the differences between water-table and artesian conditions.

McLaughlin, Thad G.

1955-01-01

347

Shuttle Rudder/Speed Brake Power Drive Unit (PDU) Gear Scuffing Tests With Flight Gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scuffing-like damage has been found on the tooth surfaces of gears 5 and 6 of the NASA space shuttle rudder/speed brake power drive unit (PDU) number 2 after the occurrence of a transient back-driving event in flight. Tests were conducted using a pair of unused spare flight gears in a bench test at operating conditions up to 2866 rpm and 1144 in.-lb at the input ring gear and 14,000 rpm and 234 in.-lb at the output pinion gear, corresponding to a power level of 52 hp. This test condition exceeds the maximum estimated conditions expected in a backdriving event thought to produce the scuffing damage. Some wear marks were produced, but they were much less severe than the scuffing damaged produced during shuttle flight. Failure to produce scuff damage like that found on the shuttle may be due to geometrical variations between the scuffed gears and the gears tested herein, more severe operating conditions during the flight that produced the scuff than estimated, the order of the test procedures, the use of new hydraulic oil, differences between the dynamic response of the flight gearbox and the bench-test gearbox, or a combination of these. This report documents the test gears, apparatus, and procedures, summarizes the test results, and includes a discussion of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Krants, Timothy L.

2005-01-01

348

Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads and tracer data  

E-print Network

Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads; accepted 25 April 2006; published 10 August 2006. [1] In groundwater, hydraulic heads and solute arrival times depend primarily on the hydraulic conductivity field and hydraulic boundary conditions. The spread

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

349

Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From D.B. McWhorterand D. K. Sunda's 1977 Ground-Water Hydrology and Hydraulics, this two page excerpt outlines and details Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. Here, visitors will find illustrations and formula to understand the concept.

2008-02-07

350

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

351

Hydraulic Shutdown Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding switch allows inappropriate control actions to be overridden. Four-pole, double-throw switch added to front panel of controller to disable tracking-error and endpoint-error circuitry yet still retain overload-detection capability. Previously, it was necessary to use adjustable-voltage-level detection equipment connected with cables to hydraulic "dump" or shutdown circuitry in controller.

Fleming, S. T.; Harrington, D. B.

1986-01-01

352

Integration in Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

Sworder, Steven C.

353

Small hydraulic turbine drives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

Rostafinski, W. A.

1970-01-01

354

DSP Controls Hydraulic Axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Advantages are shown by using the DSP for the real time online control of hydraulic axis. The interrupt latency time is the most important factor for equidistant position samples to control the velocity as accurately as possible. The trajectory calculations for the velocity and position are presented as well as their derivation for Scurvatures. The control of the velocity,

Petr Jan Horn

2004-01-01

355

Bohmian quantization of the big-brake singularity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to study the quantum aspects of the big-brake singularity. This is a singularity where the expansion of the universe stops abruptly, with infinity deceleration, caused by the divergence of the pressure of the fluid which describes the matter content of the model. In order to obtain our results, we interpret the quantum solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation obtained from the canonical quantization of the classical model using the de Broglie-Bohm (dBB) quantum theory. Analyzing the Bohmian trajectories, we show that when one approaches the big-brake singularity, the universe still stops expanding, but now with finite deceleration, and initiates a smooth contracting phase. The pressure and the curvature never diverge.

Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes

2014-04-01

356

Aerodynamic fairing/brake for high-speed trains  

SciTech Connect

A dual aerodynamic function assembly for high speed MAGLEV trains having adjacent in-line cars is described comprising: a series of flaps pivotally mounted by means of a hinge to a circumferential segment of a car end, each flap displaceable to a first position covering a gap existing between the car end and a confronting end of an adjacent car thereby serving as a fairing; a second position at an oblique angle to the path of travel thereby creating drag on the train resulting in braking; and means for actuating the flaps to one or the other position; wherein the flaps have rectangular shapes along those lengths of the circumferential segment which are linear; and further wherein the flaps have contoured edges along those lengths of the circumferential segment which are curved so as to create a close edgewise fit to create a more continuous drag braking surface.

Ende, R.E.

1993-06-29

357

Cradle modification for hydraulic ram  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

Koons, B.M.

1995-03-02

358

Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and Braking Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document was prepared to support the primary goals of the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These were recently stated as follows: ''Develop by 2004 the enabling technologies for a class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) which will meet prevailing emission standards. For Class 3-6 trucks operating on an urban driving cycle, develop by 2004 commercially viable vehicles that achieve at least double the fuel economy of comparable current vehicles (1999), and as a research goal, reduce criteria pollutants to 30% below EPA standards. Develop by 2004 the diesel engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of Class 1 and 2 trucks, achieving a 35 % fuel efficiency improvement over comparable gasoline-fueled trucks, while meeting applicable emissions standards.'' The enabling technologies for improving the fuel efficiency of trucks, include not only engine technologies but also technologies involved with lowering the rolling resistance of tires, reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag, improving thermal management, and reducing parasitic frictional losses in drive train components. Opportunities also exist for making better use of the energy that might ordinarily be dissipated during vehicle braking. Braking systems must be included in this evaluation since safety in truck operations is vital, and braking requirements are greater for vehicles having lowered resistance to rolling. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has initiated a program to improve the aerodynamics of heavy vehicles through wind tunnel testing, computational modeling, and on-road evaluations. That activity is described in a separate multi-year plan; therefore, emphasis in this document will be on tires, drive trains, and braking systems. Recent, dramatic fluctuations in diesel fuel prices have emphasized the importance of effecting savings in truck fuel economy by implementing new component designs and materials.

Peter J. Blau

2000-04-26

359

9. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF PRIMARY REDUCING GEARS; NOTE BRAKE WHEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF PRIMARY REDUCING GEARS; NOTE BRAKE WHEEL AND PADS AT RIGHT CENTER BEHIND PRIMARY GEAR; MITER GEAR AT CENTER IS PART OF MECHANISM FOR MANUAL OPERATION OF BRIDGE; FLANGE FOR COUPLING THE NORTH AND SOUTH REDUCTION GEAR TRAINS IS AT CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH BEHIND SOUTH PRIMARY REDUCTION GEAR - East Washington Avenue Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at East Washington Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

360

Simulation study of the plasma-brake effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma brake is a thin, negatively biased tether that has been proposed as an efficient concept for deorbiting satellites and debris objects from low Earth orbit. We simulate the interaction with the ionospheric plasma ram flow with the plasma-brake tether by a high-performance electrostatic particle in cell code to evaluate the thrust. The tether is assumed to be perpendicular to the flow. We perform runs for different tether voltage, magnetic-field orientation and plasma-ion mass. We show that a simple analytical thrust formula reproduces most of the simulation results well. The interaction with the tether and the plasma flow is laminar (i.e. smooth and not turbulent) when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tether and the flow. If the magnetic field is parallel to the tether, the behaviour is unstable and thrust is reduced by a modest factor. The case in which the magnetic field is aligned with the flow can also be unstable, but does not result in notable thrust reduction. We also correct an error in an earlier reference. According to the simulations, the predicted thrust of the plasma brake is large enough to make the method promising for low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite deorbiting. As a numerical example, we estimate that a 5 km long plasma-brake tether weighing 0.055 kg could produce 0.43 mN breaking force, which is enough to reduce the orbital altitude of a 260 kg object mass by 100 km over 1 year.

Janhunen, P.

2014-10-01

361

Fuzzy throttle and brake control for platoons of smart cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additive fuzzy systems can control the velocity and the gap between cars in single-lane platoons. The overall system consists of throttle and brake controllers. We first designed and tested a throttle-only fuzzy system on a validated car model and then with a real car on highway 1–15 in California. We used this controller to drive the “smart” car on the

Hyun Mun Kim; Julie Dickerson; Bart Kosko

1996-01-01

362

Modeling and compound control of disk brake automatic drilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper modeled the disk brake automatic drilling system for the first time and pointed out its characteristics of high-order and time-varying, what's more, it is very sensitive to disturbance. A claasic linear time-invariant controller has insufficiently addressed deep and deviated directional drilling process from the control standpoint. herein, compound control strategies with computer including cascade control and feed-forward control

Wu Shide; Jia LIU; Liu Lin

2010-01-01

363

Influences on nonlinear judder vibrations of railway brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on a joined research project of Knorr-Bremse, Siemens Mobility and the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics. The goal of the project was to analyse the dynamical behaviour of friction brakes for high-speed trains. It was intended to gain insight into possible vibration mechanisms and to assess the potential for lay-out and operation improvements for future light-weight designs.

Andreas Heckmann; Bernhard Kurzeck; Antonio Carrarini; Frank Günther; Kaspar Schroeder-Bodenstein

2010-01-01

364

Hydraulic charcterization of carbonatic rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydraulic conductivity, K(theta), and the water retention, theta(h), are needed to predict the flow of water and solute transport in unsaturated porous media. During recent decades methods have been developed to determine these hydraulic properties for rock. We have developed a methodology, based on Wind's evaporation method for soils, to measure in the laboratory the water retention and hydraulic

M. C. Caputo; A. Basile; R. de Mascellis; J. R. Nimmo; M. Vurro; N. Walsh

2003-01-01

365

Viscous Hydraulic Jumps Submitted by  

E-print Network

Viscous Hydraulic Jumps Submitted by Jeffrey M. Aristoff, Jeffrey D. Leblanc, Annette E. Hosoi, and John W. M. Bush, Massachusetts Institute of Technology We examine the form of the viscous hydraulic of height 2­10 mm. Elegaard et al.1 first demonstrated that the axial symme- try of the viscous hydraulic

Bush, John W.M.

366

Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief historical background of the development of hydraulic fracturing models for use in the petroleum and other industries. We discuss scaling laws and the propagation regimes that control the growth of hydraulic fractures from the laboratory to the field scale. We introduce the mathematical equations and boundary conditions that govern the hydraulic fracturing process, and discuss numerical

J. Adachi; E. Siebrits; A. Peirce; J. Desroches

2007-01-01

367

Water Resources: Hydraulics and Hydrology  

E-print Network

Water Resources: Hydraulics and Hydrology Interview with Margaret S. Petersen #12;This manuscript RESOURCES: HYDRAULICS AND HYDROLOGY #12;Approved for public release distribution IS unlimited. #12;Preface The United States Army Corps of Engineers significantly contributed to hydraulic and hydrologic engineering

US Army Corps of Engineers

368

SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?  

SciTech Connect

We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2012-05-20

369

Predictive control of hydraulic winch motion control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic winch is widely used in field of engineering mechanism. Motion control is an important application for hydraulic winch. The hydraulic winch is a mechanism with heavy load and big inertia. The response speed of hydraulic winch deeply affects the controlling precision when the hydraulic winch is in motion control to track a definite motion. Feedforward control of hydraulic winch

Zhou Entao; Yang Wenlin; Lin Junzhe

2009-01-01

370

A novel concept for regenerative braking of PWM-VSI drives employing a loss-free braking resistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simple circuit for feeding back the braking energy from the DC voltage link of a three-phase PWM AC drive system into the mains is proposed. The operating behavior of the system which consists of a series connection of a line-commutated three-phase bridge and a turn-off power semiconductor device and in principle does not require passive components

Johann W. Kolar; Hans Ertl; Franz C. Zach; Vladimir Blasko; Vikram Kaura; Rich Lukaszewski

1997-01-01

371

Noise-related roughness on tread braked railway wheels-experimental measurements and numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block braking is studied experimentally and numerically with focus on the thermal phenomena, in particular on the development of localised temperature peaks: hot spots. Full-scale braking tests on an inertia dynamometer have been carried out. Block braking has also been simulated with two different FE-models, both being 2D-models, where one is based on time-averaging of the heat input to the

Martin Petersson; Tore Vernersson

2002-01-01

372

Detection technology research on the one-way clutch of automatic brake adjuster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we provide a new testing method to evaluate the acceptable quality of the one-way clutch of automatic brake adjuster. To analysis the suitable adjusting brake moment which keeps the automatic brake adjuster out of failure, we build a mechanical model of one-way clutch according to the structure and the working principle of one-way clutch. The ranges of adjusting brake moment both clockwise and anti-clockwise can be calculated through the mechanical model of one-way clutch. Its critical moment, as well, are picked up as the ideal values of adjusting brake moment to evaluate the acceptable quality of one-way clutch of automatic brake adjuster. we calculate the ideal values of critical moment depending on the different structure of one-way clutch based on its mechanical model before the adjusting brake moment test begin. In addition, an experimental apparatus, which the uncertainty of measurement is ±0.1Nm, is specially designed to test the adjusting brake moment both clockwise and anti-clockwise. Than we can judge the acceptable quality of one-way clutch of automatic brake adjuster by comparing the test results and the ideal values instead of the EXP. In fact, the evaluation standard of adjusting brake moment applied on the project are still using the EXP provided by manufacturer currently in China, but it would be unavailable when the material of one-way clutch changed. Five kinds of automatic brake adjusters are used in the verification experiment to verify the accuracy of the test method. The experimental results show that the experimental values of adjusting brake moment both clockwise and anti-clockwise are within the ranges of theoretical results. The testing method provided by this article vividly meet the requirements of manufacturer's standard.

Jiang, Wensong; Luo, Zai; Lu, Yi

2013-10-01

373

Component Fault Tree Analysis Resolves Complexity: Dependability Confirmation for a Railway Brake System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006 Siemens Transportation systems had to obtain an operating license for the brake system of a newly developed train.\\u000a Therefore a safety analysis for the brake system had to be performed to show that the probability of a failure of the brakes\\u000a is sufficiently small, less than specified limits. The safety analysis was performed by Siemens Corporate Technology. The

Reiner Heilmann; Stefan Rothbauer; Ariane Sutor

2007-01-01

374

Design of Automatic Cutting and Welding Machine for Brake Beam-Axle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Brake beam is one of the important components working in railway vehicles braking process, which directly affects the security\\u000a and stability of the high-speed running railway vehicles. Through the research of the cutting and welding technology for the\\u000a 209T straight plate type brake beam, this paper presents an advanced maintenance method, and designs an automatic cutting\\u000a and welding machine for

Leping Liu; Mingdong Zhong; Qizheng Dong

2010-01-01

375

Railway Noise Abatement: The Case for Retrofitting Freight Vehicles with Composite Brake Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basically rolling noise in railways is created by rough wheels and tracks. If both can be kept smooth, noise can be reduced\\u000a significantly. Smooth wheels can be achieved by replacing cast-iron brake-blocks with composite brake blocks. Currently two\\u000a types of composite brake blocks are being discussed: K- and LL-blocks. K-blocks probably have a higher noise reduction than\\u000a LL-blocks, but require

J. Oertli

376

Braking Circuit of Small Wind Turbine Using NTC Thermistor under Natural Wind Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electric brake by a three-phase short-circuit system used as the brake equipment of a small wind turbine damages the rotor blades by a rapid revolution stopping of the generator. Moreover, the generators windings may also be damaged by a large short-circuit current. In this paper, the electric braking circuit using the NTC thermistors (negative temperature coefficient resistors) is proposed

Y. Matsui; A. Sugawara; S. Sato; T. Takeda; K. Ogura

2007-01-01

377

Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1997-03-01

378

Use of MSC/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter braking system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the thermal modeling and analysis effort being conducted to investigate the transient temperature and thermal stress characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter brake components and subsystems. Models are constructed of the brake stator as well as of the entire brake assembly to analyze the temperature distribution and thermal stress during the landing and braking process. These investigations are carried out on a UNIVAC computer system with MSC/NASTRAN Version 63. Analytical results and solution methods are presented and comparisons are made with SINDA results.

Shu, James; Mccann, David

1987-01-01

379

Antioxidative responses to arsenic in the arsenic-hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.)  

E-print Network

(superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase) in Chinese brake followed the same induces free radicals that may damage plant major cell macromolecules (proteins, lipids and DNA) (Fu

Ma, Lena

380

Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Proof of Concept Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This proof-of-concept research was performed to explore the feasibility of using real-world braking data from commercial motor vehicles to make a diagnosis of brake condition similar to that of the performance-based brake tester (PBBT). This was done by determining the relationship between pressure and brake force (P-BF), compensating for the gross vehicle weight (GVW). The nature of this P-BF relationship (e.g., low braking force for a given brake application pressure) may indicate brake system problems. In order to determine the relationship between brake force and brake application pressure, a few key parameters of duty cycle information were collected. Because braking events are often brief, spanning only a few seconds, a sample rate of 10 Hz was needed. The algorithm under development required brake application pressure and speed (from which deceleration was calculated). Accurate weight estimation was also needed to properly derive the braking force from the deceleration. In order to ensure that braking force was the predominant factor in deceleration for the segments of data used in analysis, the data was screened for grade as well. Also, the analysis needed to be based on pressures above the crack pressure. The crack pressure is the pressure below which the individual brakes are not applied due the nature of the mechanical system. This value, which may vary somewhat from one wheel end to another, is approximately 10 psi. Therefore, only pressures 15 psi and above were used in the analysis. The Department of Energy s Medium Truck Duty Cycle research has indicated that under the real-world circumstances of the test vehicle brake pressures of up to approximately 30 psi can be expected. Several different types of data were collected during the testing task of this project. Constant-pressure stopping tests were conducted at several combinations of brake application pressure (15, 20, 25, and 30 psi), load conditions (moderately and fully laden), and speeds (20 and 30 mph). Data was collected at 10 Hz. Standard and stepped-pressure performance-based brake tests with brake pressure transducers were performed for each loading condition. The stepped-pressure test included the constant-pressure intervals of brake application at 15, 20, 25, and 30 psi. The PBBT data files included 10 Hz streaming data collected during the testing of each axle. Two weeks of real-world duty cycle (driving and braking) data was also collected at 10 Hz. Initial analysis of the data revealed that the data collected in the field (i.e., day-to-day operations) provided the same information as that obtained from the controlled tests. Analysis of the data collected revealed a strong linear relationship between brake application pressure and deceleration for given GVWs. As anticipated, initial speed was not found to be a significant factor in the deceleration-pressure relationship, unlike GVW. The positive results obtained from this proof of concept test point to the need for further research to expand this concept. A second phase should include testing over a wider range of speeds and include medium brake application pressures in addition to the low pressures tested in this research. Testing on multiple vehicles would also be of value. This future phase should involve testing to determine how degradation of braking performance affects the pressure-deceleration relationship.

Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

2011-11-01

381

Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

1987-01-01

382

Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the hydraulics/water spray boiler subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items (PCIs). To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results for the Orbiter Hydraulics/Water Spray Boiler Subsystem. The hydraulic system provides hydraulic power to gimbal the main engines, actuate the main engine propellant control valves, move the aerodynamic flight control surfaces, lower the landing gear, apply wheel brakes, steer the nosewheel, and dampen the external tank (ET) separation. Each hydraulic system has an associated water spray boiler which is used to cool the hydraulic fluid and APU lubricating oil. The IOA analysis process utilized available HYD/WSB hardware drawings, schematics and documents for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Of the 430 failure modes analyzed, 166 were determined to be PCIs.

Duval, J. D.; Davidson, W. R.; Parkman, William E.

1986-01-01

383

Hot brakes and energy-related concepts: is energy lost?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a secondary school experience which is intended to help students to think profoundly about some energy-related concepts. It is quite different to other experiences of mechanics because the focus is not on the quantitative calculation of energy conservation but on the qualitative understanding of energy degradation. We first present an experience where students study the friction produced between a wheel and a piece of copper foil that acts as a brake pad. Then, we present an educational approach specially designed for the experience. Some visual representations have also been specially designed to support the learning process.

López, V.; Pintó, R.

2012-01-01

384

Tachyon cosmology, supernovae data and the Big Brake singularity  

E-print Network

We compare the existing observational data on type Ia Supernovae with the evolutions of the universe predicted by a one-parameter family of tachyon models which we have introduced recently in paper \\cite{we-tach}. Among the set of the trajectories of the model which are compatible with the data there is a consistent subset for which the universe ends up in a new type of soft cosmological singularity dubbed Big Brake. This opens up yet another scenario for the future history of the universe besides the one predicted by the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model.

Z. Keresztes; L. Á. Gergely; V. Gorini; U. Moschella; A. Yu. Kamenshchik

2009-01-15

385

Hydraulic mining method  

DOEpatents

A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

1985-08-20

386

49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...actuators must be less than 80 percent of the rated strokes listed in SAE J1817—Long Stroke Air Brake Actuator Marking, July 2001 (See...of this document), or 80 percent of the rated stroke marked on the brake chamber by the chamber...

2011-10-01

387

76 FR 9717 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Saddle-Mount Braking Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...in a triple saddle-mount combination, except when a full mount...braking performance of these combinations because the lightly loaded...Comments'' box in the upper right-hand side of the screen...brake lockup on saddle- mount combinations, which the NPRM is...

2011-02-22

388

Rendezvous terminal phase automatic braking sequencing and targeting. [for space shuttle orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the rendezvous terminal phase braking program is to provide the means of automatically bringing the primary orbiter within desired station keeping boundaries relative to the target satellite. A detailed discussion is presented on the braking program and its navigation, targeting, and guidance functions.

Kachmar, P. M.

1973-01-01

389

49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pipe pressure shall not be greater than 15 psi less than the air compressor governor starting...or brake pipe gradient of greater than 15 psi while en route and the movable pointer...the following pressures: Locomotives PSI (1) Minimum brake pipe air...

2012-10-01

390

49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pipe pressure shall not be greater than 15 psi less than the air compressor governor starting...or brake pipe gradient of greater than 15 psi while en route and the movable pointer...the following pressures: Locomotives PSI (1) Minimum brake pipe air...

2013-10-01

391

49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pipe pressure shall not be greater than 15 psi less than the air compressor governor starting...or brake pipe gradient of greater than 15 psi while en route and the movable pointer...the following pressures: Locomotives PSI (1) Minimum brake pipe air...

2011-10-01

392

49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pipe pressure shall not be greater than 15 psi less than the air compressor governor starting...or brake pipe gradient of greater than 15 psi while en route and the movable pointer...the following pressures: Locomotives PSI (1) Minimum brake pipe air...

2010-10-01

393

Modeling the pneumatic subsystem of a S-cam air brake system  

E-print Network

The air brake system is one of the critical components in ensuring the safe operation of any commercial vehicle. This work is directed towards the development of a fault-free model of the pneumatic subsystem of the air brake system. This model can...

Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar

2004-09-30

394

Fault tolerant control of automatically controlled vehicles in response to brake system failures  

E-print Network

in the brake system is vital. In this thesis, nonlinear failure detection filters are used for fault detection of sensors and actuators in a class of nonlinear systems. In this thesis, the effects of brake system failures in an AHS where the vehicle steering...

Hsien, Li-Wei

2012-06-07

395

Brake control system modification, augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane (AWJSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The braking system for a short takeoff aircraft is discussed and the deficiencies are described. The installation of a Boeing 727 aircraft brake system was made to correct the deficiencies. Tests of the modified system were conducted using an analog computer/hardware simulator. Actual performance tests were conducted and the characteristics of the system were satisfactory.

Amberg, R. L.; Arline, J. A.; Jenny, R. W.

1974-01-01

396

A Fuzzy Logic Based Regenerative Braking Regulation For a Fuel Cell Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a fuel cell bus, it is significant to equip the regenerative break system to enhance the fuel economy. A two-input, one-output Mamdani's fuzzy inference system is introduced to the regenerative braking model. Taking the safety working conditions of the batteries, the driving dynamics and the occupant comfort into consideration, the method can not only recycle the bus braking energy

Jie Yao; Zaimin Zhong; Sun Zechang

2006-01-01

397

A neural network based SRM drive control strategy for regenerative braking in EV and HEV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the regenerative braking in EV and HEV are analyzed in this paper. A neural network based SRM drive control strategy is developed for satisfying the requirements of regenerative braking in EV and HEV when SRM is chosen as the power source of EV and HEV. The energy recovery efficiency of the proposed control strategy is also evaluated

Hongwei Gao; Yimin Gao; Mehrdad Ehsani

2001-01-01

398

Regenerative braking control strategy for fuel cell hybrid vehicles using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the advantages of using electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is recovering energy through vehiclepsilas braking regeneration. In this paper, a regenerative braking control strategy for a fuel cell hybrid vehicular power system has been presented based on fuzzy logic. Fuel cell output power is determined according to the driving load requirement and the battery SOC,

Xiangjun Li; Liangfei Xu; Jianfeng Hua; Jianqiu Li; Minggao Ouyang

2008-01-01

399

Novel Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Power-Assisted Wheelchair for Safety Downhill Road Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel regenerative braking control scheme of electric power-assisted wheelchairs for safety driving on downhill roads. The ldquoelectric power-assisted wheelchairrdquo which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however, it has no braking system to suppress the wheelchair's velocity and

Hirokazu Seki; Kenji Ishihara; Susumu Tadakuma

2009-01-01

400

Regenerative-braking sliding mode control of electric vehicle based on neural network identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the main problems of electric vehicle (EV): short driving range, short life of batteries, and variation of model parameters, based on constructing the main circuit diagram of the EVpsilas control system, the mathematical model of regenerative-braking process was established, and a novel regenerative-braking controller was designed, which combined neural network (NN) with traditional sliding mode controller (SMC). The

Jianbo Cao; Binggang Cao; Peng Xu; Zhifeng Bai

2008-01-01

401

Study on the performance and control of SR machine for vehicle regenerative braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regenerative braking system with simple structure, high efficiency, good performance and easy control is crucial for electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and fuel cell vehicle (FCV). SR machine is one of the promising candidates. In this paper, the current and torque performance of a SR machine for application to vehicle regenerative braking has been studied. The relationship

Xiaoling Yuan; Yimin Gao; M. Ehsani

2008-01-01

402

Regenerative Braking Performance Analysis of a Thyristor-Chopper Controlled DC Series Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis which predicts the performance of a thyristor-chopper controlled dc series motor during regenerative braking operation. The analysis takes into account all the possible modes of operation during this type of braking, the nonlinearity of the magnetization characteristics including the variation of the field inductance, and the effect of the commutating capacitor in the chopper

Sailendra N. Bhadra; Nisit K. De; Ajit K. Chattopadhyay

1981-01-01

403

Regenerative and plug braking operations of asynchronous drives for electric road vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a feeding algorithm for asynchronous motor drives which can be fruitfully used for road vehicles, because it enable the cars to run in driving and in braking operations. Plug braking operations are also possible: this means that by using of the suggested feeding algorithm, ballast resistances may be eliminated, thereby and therefore the saving usable space

E. Pagano; O. Veneri

1999-01-01

404

An investigation into friction behaviour of dispersion-strengthened copper under severe railway braking conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

   A dispersion-strengthened copper (DSC) has been studied as an alternative material for railway brake discs, to be used in severe railway braking applications. Compared to standard steel, the DSC shows a more homogeneous thermal field at the friction surface. This also applies in depth, both avoiding hot spots. This thermal behaviour implies a lower wear and a very interesting friction

O. Roussette; Y. Desplanques; G. Degallaix

2006-01-01

405

Chemical and microstructural changes induced by friction and wear of brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and microstructural changes occurring during braking simulation tests at the surface of a conventional brake pad material were investigated mainly by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and surface analytical techniques. It can be shown that patches of a third body material develop, comprising a compositional mix of all constituents of the pad and iron oxides from the disk.

W. Österle; M. Griepentrog; Th. Gross; I. Urban

2001-01-01

406

76 FR 34801 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2010-0174] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...FRA) grant a modification of the single car air brake test procedures as prescribed...FRA-2010-0174. PATH operates a fleet of 25 flat cars in consist with revenue cars utilized...

2011-06-14

407

78 FR 44189 - Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRA-2013-0064] Petition for Modification of Single Car Air Brake Test Procedures In accordance...per 49 CFR 232.307 to modify the single car air brake test procedures located in AAR...System Tests for Freight Equipment-- Single Car Test, and required pursuant to 49 CFR...

2013-07-23

408

Fabrication of a Novel Contactless Switch Using Eddy Current Displacement Sensor for Safer Vehicle Brake System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional brake systems using a mechanical- structure-based contact switch with a metal spring suffer from frequent malfunction problems over time caused by unstable con- tacts stemming from loose tension of the spring, a faulty air gap, and damage to the contact point due to overcurrent from load. In this paper, a novel contactless switch for brake systems using an eddy-current

Young Su Kim; Yun Ho Choi; Jung Min Lee; Jong Sang Noh; Jae Joon Kim; Franklin Bien

2011-01-01

409

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND GROUP PROCESSES Putting the Brakes on Aggression Toward a Romantic Partner  

E-print Network

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND GROUP PROCESSES Putting the Brakes on Aggression Toward a Romantic. Fincham The Florida State University Why do people behave aggressively toward romantic partners, and what can put the brakes on this aggression? Provocation robustly predicts aggression in both intimate

Reber, Paul J.

410

Elemental composition of current automotive braking materials and derived air emission factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wear-related PM emissions are an important constituent of total PM emissions from road transport. Due to ongoing (further) exhaust emission reduction wear emissions may become the dominant PM source from road transport in the near future. The chemical composition of the wear emissions is crucial information to assess the potential health relevance of these PM emissions. Here we provide an elemental composition profile of brake wear emissions as used in the Netherlands in 2012. In total, 65 spent brake pads and 15 brake discs were collected in car maintenance shops from in-use personal cars vehicles and analyzed with XRF for their metal composition (Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, Al, Si, Zr, Ti, Sb, Cr, Mo, Mn, V, Ni, Bi, W, P, Pb and Co). Since car, engine and safety regulations are not nationally determined but controlled by European legislation the resulting profiles will be representative for the European personal car fleet. The brake pads contained Fe and Cu as the dominant metals but their ratio varied considerably, other relatively important metals were Sn, Zn and Sb. Overall a rather robust picture emerged with Fe, Cu, Zn and Sn together making up about 80-90% of the metals present in brake pads. Because the XRF did not give information on the contents of other material such as carbon, oxygen and sulphur, a representative selection of 9 brake pads was further analyzed by ICP-MS and a carbon and sulphur analyzer. The brake pads contained about 50% of non-metal material (26% C, 3% S and the remainder mostly oxygen and some magnesium). Based on our measurements, the average brake pad profile contained 20% Fe, 10% Cu, 4% Zn and 3% Sn as the dominant metals. The brake discs consisted almost entirely of metal with iron being the dominant metal (>95%) and only traces of other metals (<1% for individual metals). Non-metal components in the discs were 2-3% Silicon and, according to literature, ?3% carbon. The robust ratio between Fe and Cu as found on kerbsides has been used to estimate the contribution of brake pads and brake discs to total brake wear. Based on this approach our hypothesis is that 70% of the brake wear originates from the discs and only 30% from the brake pads.

Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Roskam, G. D.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

2014-12-01

411

Development of brake system of railway vehicles for real-time HILS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brake system of railway vehicles has a crucial role for the safety as well as riding quality of passengers. Its core technology for successful development of the brake system is to design of ECU (Electric Control Unit) containing antiskid control, brake blending control, load compensating control, and so on. Each development procedure of ECU involves a verifying test for each step and is completed by an evaluation test of the comprehensive performance verification for the overall systems. The development tool which is applied to this objective is the HILS (Hardware-In-the- Loop-Simulation). In order to design a controller, a good representative model of the system is needed. This paper describes the dynamic modeling of brake system of railway vehicle for HILS and analyzes some dynamic behavior under emergency braking force.

Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Joon-Hyuk; Goo, Byeong-Choon

2007-12-01

412

49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...made for preventing the operation of the pneumatic brake-applying appartus of an...

2013-10-01

413

49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...made for preventing the operation of the pneumatic brake-applying appartus of an...

2011-10-01

414

49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...made for preventing the operation of the pneumatic brake-applying appartus of an...

2012-10-01

415

Coupling between friction physical mechanisms and transient thermal phenomena involved in pad–disc contact during railway braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

During railway braking, friction dissipates high energy, leading to transient and localized thermal phenomena such as hot bands and hot spots. These thermal phenomena interact with third-body flows and friction mechanisms activated in the contact. To provide information on the transient character of these physical mechanisms, severe stop-braking conditions are reproduced on a specially designed braking tribometer. Thermal phenomena observed

A.-L. Cristol-Bulthé; Y. Desplanques; G. Degallaix

2007-01-01

416

a Study on the Failure Analysis of Cast Iron Brake Blocks that are Used for Railway Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the cracking and failure behavior of gray cast iron brake blocks that are used for the railway applications, macro- and micro observations regarding the cracks and the micro-structure of the used brake blocks were examined. Three brake blocks, which have different degrees of hot spots and cracking during the actual application, were selected for testing. In

Chang-Min Suh; Byung-Won Hwang; Woo-Ho Bae

2006-01-01

417

Switched reluctance and permanent magnet brushless motors in highly dynamic situations: A comparison in the context of electric brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular brake systems with electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are emerging as a way to enhance system features and performance. Of particular interest in this context is the EMB actuator motor, which needs to be designed to meet the dynamic brake system performance requirements. Two motors with fundamentally different operating principles, a switched reluctance (SR) motor and a permanent magnet (PM) brushless

Avoki M. Omekanda; Bruno Lequesne; Harald Klode; Suresh Gopalakrishnan; Iqbal Husain

2006-01-01

418

110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

419

128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

420

Power hydraulics - switched mode control of hydraulic actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the application of switching technology to hydraulic actuation. Over the last 50 years with advances in power electronics, faster and faster static switches have been developed and applied to the control of motors. Hydraulic technology evolved in the opposite direction: switching control was not considered, and more and more accurate proportional flow\\/pressure control devices (servovalves

Emanuele Guglielmino; Claudio Semini; Helmut Kogler; Rudolf Scheidl; Darwin G. Caldwell

2010-01-01

421

Design of the Electronic Brake Pressure Modulator Using a Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Commercial Vehicles for the Safety of Braking in Fail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the brake systems, it is important to reduce the rear brake pressure in order to secure the safety of the vehicle in braking. So, there was some research that reduced and controlled the rear brake pressure exactly like a L. S. P. V and a E. L. S. P. V. However, the previous research has some weaknesses: the L. S. P. V is a mechanical system and its brake efficiency is lower than the efficiency of E. L. S. P. V. But, the cost of E. L. S. P. V is very higher so its application to the vehicle is very difficult. Additionally, when a fail appears in the circuit which controls the valves, the fail results in some wrong operation of the valves. But, the previous researchers didn't take the effect of fail into account. Hence, the efficiency of them is low and the safety of the vehicle is not confirmed. So, in this paper we develop a new economical pressure modulator that exactly controls brake pressure and confirms the safety of the vehicle in any case using a direct adaptive fuzzy controller.

Kim, Hunmo

422

Supernova Kicks, Magnetic Braking, and Neutron-Star Binaries  

E-print Network

We consider the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries containing accreting neutron stars via the helium-star supernova channel. The predicted relative number of short-period transients provides a sensitive test of the input physics in this process. We investigate the effect of varying mean kick velocities, orbital angular momentum loss efficiencies, and common envelope ejection efficiencies on the subpopulation of short-period systems, both transient and persistent. Guided by the thermal-viscous disk instability model in irradiation-dominated disks, we posit that short-period transients have donors close to the end of core-hydrogen burning. We find that with increasing mean kick velocity the overall short-period fraction, s, grows, while the fraction, r, of systems with evolved donors among short-period systems drops. This effect, acting in opposite directions on these two fractions, allows us to constrain models of LMXB formation through comparison with observational estimates of s and r. Without fine tuning or extreme assumptions about evolutionary parameters, consistency between models and current observations is achieved for a regime of intermediate average kick magnitudes of about 100-200 km/s, provided that (i) orbital braking for systems with donor masses in the range 1-1.5 solar masses is weak, i.e., much less effective than a simple extrapolation of standard magnetic braking beyond 1.0 solar mass would suggest, and (ii) the efficiency of common envelope ejection is low.

Vassiliki Kalogera; Ulrich Kolb; Andrew King

1998-03-26

423

Predicted influence of materials' thermal properties on disc brake roughness due to thermoelastic instability  

SciTech Connect

Passenger car disc brakes occasionally exhibit objectionable vibration during operation. Low frequency vibration (< 100 Hz) that occurs when the brakes are applied is called brake roughness or judder and is caused by a variation in torque at the friction interface. Brale torque variation can result from disc thickness variation and/or thermal distortions. Thermal distortions or hot spots may occur during a long brake drag such as a mountain descent due to the onset of a phenomenon known as frictionally excited thermoelastic instability (TEI). Models of TEI can be used to predict the propensity of a brake system to generate torque variation or roughness during long brake drags. TEI modeling requires accurate materials properties such as Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, density and thermal expansion of both the disc and the brake pad materials. The authors have measured the thermal transport properties of a series of disc materials, gray cast irons and aluminum metal matrix composites, and commercially available brake pad friction materials. For example, room temperature thermal diffusivity measured by the laser flash technique was found to vary from 0.002--0.009 cm{sup 2}/sec for friction materials, 0.15--0.21 cm{sup 2}/sec for gray cast irons, and 0.43--0.89 cm{sup 2}/sec for aluminum metal matrix composites (Al MMCs). This paper will consider the behavior of Al MMC rotors versus traditional gray cast iron rotors coupled with a non-asbestos organic brake pad. The relevant materials properties were used in a TEI analytical model of a mid-sized passenger car disc brake. The analysis shows that Al MMC rotors have a lower critical speed at which TEI is predicted to occur than gray cast iron rotors.

Hecht, R.L.; Hartsock, D.L.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.

1999-07-01

424

Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

425

Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

426

Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

2009-08-01

427

Monument Creek hydraulics project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given some general questions (file "IntroQuestions_07.pdf") related to project design during the class session before the main project is handed out. They need to use their textbook and/or other class resources to attempt to answer these questions and to prepare to discuss them the next class session. These questions concern field reconstruction of flood hydraulics, specifically. of bankfull flow. At this next class session we discuss their answers to the preliminary questions. Students are then given the main project handout (Monument_Ck_Problem_07.pdf). This gives them the general questions to be answered in the project. After reading it, students brainstorm again as a class about how to go about answering the questions. Students then divide themselves into research of three. These teams will synthesize data together and ultimately write up the project together. Each team then sends one member to join members of other teams to do one of the three main aspects of the field or computer work (1) field identification of the bankfull channel and measurement of bankfull channel geometry, (2) field determination of modern channel roughness from modern stream hydraulics (Manning's n is back-calculated from present channel geometry and flow), (3) development of a flood-frequency curve for this reach of Monument Creek from USGS discharge data. These working groups (with one member from each research team) work initially independently in the field and subsequently doing calculations in the lab, or on the computer. Once each working group has completed what it can do on its own, these groups split up and each member of each group carries the groups results back to his/her research team, and explains to the other members of the research team what he/she has done to this point and what results he/she has for the team. The team then works to synthesize he results into an overall answer to the questions posed at the beginning of the lab (confusing enough for you?). Each research team then writes up the results, sometimes (as in 2007) as a lab write up, in other years in scientific paper format. Whether the project is turned in simply as a lab write up or as a scientific paper, students are always asked to assess sources of error and how they might affect the results. Key words: Fluvial geomorphology, fluvial hydraulics, bankfull discharge, flood-frequency analysis Designed for a geomorphology course

Leonard, Eric

428

Hydraulic and Habitat Suitability Analyses Technical Memorandum  

E-print Network

Appendix D Hydraulic and Habitat Suitability Analyses Technical Memorandum #12;COPYRIGHT DECEMBER Series 2 and Pond Series 3 Hydraulic and Habitat Suitability Analyses Prepared for Bureau of Reclamation HILL, INC. III Hydraulic and Habitat Suitability Analyses

429

Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

Roth, B.A.

1992-10-20

430

Amazon flood wave hydraulics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryA bathymetric survey of 575 km of the central Amazon River and one of its tributaries, the Purus, are combined with gauged data to characterise the Amazon flood wave, and for hydraulic modelling of the main channel for the period June 1995-March 1997 with the LISFLOOD-FP and HEC-RAS hydraulic models. Our investigations show that the Amazon flood wave is subcritical and diffusive in character and, due to shallow bed slopes, backwater conditions control significant reach lengths and are present for low and high water states. Comparison of the different models shows that it is necessary to include at least the diffusion term in any model, and the RMSE error in predicted water elevation at all cross sections introduced by ignoring the acceleration and advection terms is of the order of 0.02-0.03 m. The use of a wide rectangular channel approximation introduces an error of 0.10-0.15 m on the predicted water levels. Reducing the bathymetry to a simple bed slope and with mean cross section only, introduces an error in the order of 0.5 m. These results show that when compared to the mean annual amplitude of the Amazon flood wave of 11-12 m, water levels are relatively insensitive to the bathymetry of the channel model. The implication for remote sensing studies of the central Amazon channel, such as those proposed with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography mission (SWOT), is that even relatively crude assumptions regarding the channel bathymetry will be valid in order to derive discharge from water surface slope of the main channel, as long as the mean channel area is approximately correct.

Trigg, Mark A.; Wilson, Matthew D.; Bates, Paul D.; Horritt, Matthew S.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Forsberg, Bruce R.; Vega, Maria C.

2009-07-01

431

Some Fundamental Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation focuses mainly on three topics: (1) mixed-mode branching and segmentation of hydraulic fractures in brittle materials, (2) hydraulic fracture propagation in particulate materials,… (more)

Wu, Ruiting

2006-01-01

432

Frictional behavior of automotive brake materials under wet and dry conditions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this effort was to develop an improved understanding of the relationship between the structure and frictional behavior of materials in the disc brake/rotor interface with a view toward improving the performance of automotive disc brakes. The three tasks involved in this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were as follows: Task 1. Investigation of Brake Pads and Rotors. Characterize surface features of worn brake pads and rotors, with special attention to the transfer film which forms on them during operation. Ford to supply specimens for examination and other supporting information. Task 2. Effects of Atmosphere and Repeated Applications on Brake Material Friction. Conduct pin-on-disk friction tests at ORNL under controlled moisture levels to determine effects of relative humidity on frictional behavior of brake pad and rotor materials. Conduct limited tests on the characteristics of friction under application of repeated contacts. Task 3. Comparison of Dynamometer Tests with Laboratory Friction Tests. Compare ORNL friction data with Ford dynamometer test data to establish the degree to which the simple bench tests can be useful in helping to understand frictional behavior in full-scale brake component tests. This final report summarizes work performed under this CRADA.

Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Weintraub, M.H.; Jang, Ho; Donlon, W. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1996-12-15

433

Influence of centrifuge brake on residual platelet count and routine coagulation tests in citrated plasma.  

PubMed

Sample centrifugation is an essential step in the coagulation laboratory, as clotting tests are typically performed on citrated platelet (PLT) poor plasma (PPP). Nevertheless, no clear indication has been provided as to whether centrifugation of specimens should be performed with the centrifuge brake set to on or off. Fifty consecutive sodium citrate anticoagulated samples were collected and divided into two aliquots. The former was centrifuged as for Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines with the centrifuge brake set to on, whereas the latter was centrifuged again as for CLSI guidelines, but with the brake set to off. In the PPP of all samples, a PLT count was performed, followed by the analysis of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FBG). The PLT count after samples centrifugation was substantially reduced, either with centrifuge brake set to on or off (5?±?1 versus 3?±?1?×?10/l; P?=?0.009). The frequency of samples exceeding a PLT count less than 10?×?10/l was nearly double in samples centrifuged with the brake on than in those with the brake off (14 versus 8%; P?brake set to on (mean bias 0.2?s; P?brake set to on (mean bias 0.29?g/l; P?brake set to off for providing a better quality specimen. PMID:24389587

Daves, Massimo; Giacomuzzi, Katia; Tagnin, Enrico; Jani, Erika; Adcock Funk, Dorothy M; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lippi, Giuseppe

2014-04-01

434

Quantum cosmology with a big-brake singularity  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a cosmological model with a big-brake singularity in the future: while the first time derivative of the scale factor goes to zero, its second time derivative tends to minus infinity. Although we also discuss the classical version of the model in some detail, our main interest lies in its quantization. We formulate the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and derive solutions describing wave packets. We show that all such solutions vanish in the region of the classical singularity, a behavior which we interpret as singularity avoidance. We then discuss the same situation in loop quantum cosmology. While this leads to a different factor ordering, the singularity is avoided there, too.

Kamenshchik, Alexander Y.; Kiefer, Claus; Sandhoefer, Barbara [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin Street 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany)

2007-09-15

435

Development of metalloceramic friction materials for aircraft brake  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the science and technology of designing and developing complex iron and copper based metalloceramic composites for aircraft brake applications to meet diverse characteristics such as high coefficient of friction, low wear rate, high melting point, high temperature strength and hardness, high specific heat and thermal conductivity and resistance to seizure. The composition of the various ingredients and sintering parameters are optimized by statistically designed experiments. Friction test in a laboratory scale dynamometer is used to measure friction coefficient, temperature rise and wear rate. EPMA and EDAX are used for assessing uniformity of alloying of matrix and distribution of various ingredients. A variety of complex compositions have been developed to suit a number of applications as friction material for aircraft ranging from jet engine trainer, advanced fighter, civil and military transport aircraft.

Nair, C.G.K.; Dutta, D.; Mohan, G. [Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Bangalore (India)

1993-12-31

436

Magnetic braking and the evolution of cataclysmic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the evolution and the period distribution of cataclysmic variables using a magnetic braking law proposed recently by Mestel & Spruit (1987). The application of this law gives a predicted period distribution that matches the observed one. The authors also show that the observed accumulation of AM Her systems with periods in the range 114 - 115 min can be explained in terms of evolution, as a result of the adiabatic expansion of the secondary when accretion resumes at the end of the period gap provided that the masses of the white dwarfs in AM Her systems are in a restricted range. The authors examine finally the recent claim by Lamb & Melia (1987) that when the magnetic white dwarf synchronizes with the orbit, the system detaches, and enters a prolonged gap. They show that the proposed mechanism does not work, and that synchronization has a relatively small effect on the evolution of these systems.

Hameury, J. M.; King, A. R.; Lasota, J. P.; Ritter, H.

1988-03-01

437

Analytical model and finite element computation of braking torque in electromagnetic retarder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical model has been developed for analyzing the braking torque in electromagnetic retarder by flux tube and armature reaction method. The magnetic field distribution in air gap, the eddy current induced in the rotor and the braking torque are calculated by the developed model. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element models for retarder have also been developed. Results from the analytical model are compared with those from finite element models. The validity of these three models is checked by the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements from an experimental prototype. The influencing factors of braking torque have been studied.

Ye, Lezhi; Yang, Guangzhao; Li, Desheng

2014-11-01

438

A model of ionospheric image structure underneath a braking, cross-field plasma jet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plasma jetting across the geomagnetic field above the ionosphere tends to brake by ohmic dissipation of Pedersen currents. The braking can affect the ionosphere underneath if the associated Pedersen drifts are intense and prolonged enough to cause cumulative image structuring. Here, such image structuring is studied for the parameter regime of forthcoming releases from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite, involving photoionization of kilograms of barium vapor moving at orbital velocity. The resultant structuring in the upper E-region offers possible diagnostic telltales of the braking process.

Jacobson, Abram R.; Simons, David J.; Nalesso, Gianfranco

1987-01-01

439

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOEpatents

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

440

In-line hydraulic dashpot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

Moody, Paul E.

1992-10-01

441

Recover Power with Hydraulic Motors  

E-print Network

Anywhere liquid pressure is reduced across a throttling device, there is a potential application for a hydraulic power recovery motor (HPRM). Cost of power makes HPRM's attractive with recoveries as small as 25 hp on a continuous basis. When...

Brennan, J. R.

1982-01-01

442

Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing  

E-print Network

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A Thesis by JOSEPH BARNES WARNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Maj or Subj ect...: Petroleum Engineering NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A Thesis by JOSEPH BARNES WARNER Approved as to style and content by: S. A. Holditch (Chairman of Committee) D. D. Van Fleet (member) J. E. Russell (m be ) W. D. Von onten ( ead...

Warner, Joseph Barnes

2012-06-07

443

Evaluation of driver braking performance to an unexpected object in the roadway  

E-print Network

) in 1940, incorporates two components into geometric design, a perception-response time (PRT) component and a braking distance component. Because of the importance of sight distance on highways, previous research has questioned the assumptions of these two...

Picha, Dale Louis

2012-06-07

444

Robots, vision systems and automatic gages streamline brake drum and rotor manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robot-equipped machining cells with vision and gauging systems efficiently improve throughput and reduce ergonomic concerns. This paper examines Webb Wheel Products’ installation of four robotic workcells dedicated to producing a family of brake drums and rotors.

Ron Potter

2002-01-01

445

Analysis of Braking Behavior of Train Drivers to Detect Unusual Driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The safety devices for train systems are activated in emergency situations when a risk becomes obvious, and the emergency brake is applied. If such systems are faulty, the drivers' operating errors may cause immediate accidents. So it is necessary to evaluate potential risks by detecting improper driving behavior before overt risks appear. This study analyzes the driving behavior of train drivers using a train-driving simulator. We focus on braking behavior when approaching a station. Two methods for detecting unusual braking operation are examined by giving drivers mental calculation problems as a mental workload. The first is a method monitoring the driver's brake handle operation, and the second is a method measuring vehicle deceleration. These methods make it possible to detect unusual driving.

Marumo, Yoshitaka; Tsunashima, Hitoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yasushi

446

Downward Slope Driving Control for Electric Powered Wheelchair Based on Capacitor Regenerative Brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a novel capacitor regenerative braking control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for efficient driving on downward slopes. An electric powered wheelchair, which generates the driving force by electric motors, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however the energy efficiency has to be further improved because it is driven only by battery energy. This study proposes a capacitor regenerative braking circuit and two types of velocity control schemes with variable duty ratio. The proposed regenerative braking circuit is based on the step-up/down circuit with additional resistance and connects right and left motors in series in order to obtain a larger braking power. Some driving experiments on a practical downward slope show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

447

49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total...

2013-10-01

448

49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total...

2012-10-01

449

49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total...

2011-10-01

450

75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock...ACTION: Request for comments on technical report...announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report its existing Safety...

2010-08-20

451

49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236...initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control...an automatic brake application when the speed of the train exceeds the...

2010-10-01

452

49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236...initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control...an automatic brake application when the speed of the train exceeds the...

2011-10-01

453

Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

Not Available

1985-01-01

454

Ensemble smoother assimilation of hydraulic head and return flow data to estimate hydraulic conductivity distribution  

E-print Network

and return flow data to estimate hydraulic conductivity distribution, Water Resour. Res., 46, W12543, doi:10 of transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, or storativity in an aquifer system given measurements of hydraulic headEnsemble smoother assimilation of hydraulic head and return flow data to estimate hydraulic

Bau, Domenico A.

455

Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuator  

E-print Network

Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic) of electro-hydraulic systems driven by single- rod hydraulic actuators. Unlike the tracking that the proposed IARC achieves good tracking performance and accurate parameter estimation. INTRODUCTION Electro-hydraulic

Yao, Bin

456

Combined fast valving and braking resistor application to improve transient stability  

E-print Network

COMBINED FAST VALVING AND BRAKING RESISTOR APPLICATION TO IMPROVE TRANSIENT STABILITY A Thesis by Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1982 Major Subjecta Electrical Engineering COMBINED FAST VALVING AND BRAKING RESISTOR APPLICATION TO IMPROVE TRANSIENT STABILITY A Thesis by Approved as to style and content by& herman oY mm ee ad of' De tment Member May 1982 ABSTRACT...

Chen, Jen-Yeu Thomas

2012-06-07

457

ABS\\/traction assist\\/regenerative braking application of hardware-in-the-loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model for the study of an anti-lock brake system (ABS)\\/traction assist\\/regenerative (ATR) brake system as an application of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). The paper presents a description of the real-time dynamic models, the “dual” model concept and its advantages for studying sensor noise and hardware\\/software interface problems. Simulation results are also presented

K. E. Bailey; B. K. Powell; G. N. Villec

1998-01-01

458

Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the

Wei-Lian Qu; Shun-Quan Qin; Jian-Weia Tu; Jia Liu; Qiang Zhou; Haibin Cheng; Yong-Lin Pi

2009-01-01

459

Wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of an aircraft tire undergoing braking and cornering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to evaluate the wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of aircraft tire treads fabricated from different elastomers is presented. The braking and cornering tests performed on aircraft tires retreaded with currently employed and experimental elastomers are described. The tread wear rate is discussed in relation to the slip ratio during braking and yaw angle during cornering. The extent of wear in either operational mode is examined in relation to the runway surface.

Mccarty, J. L.; Yager, T. J.; Riccitiello, S. R.

1979-01-01

460

Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

461

Deconstructing a state-of-the-art review of the asbestos brake industry.  

PubMed

State of the art is a legal concept that describes what was known as knowable by experts including manufacturer's state of knowledge about the potential hazards of their product(s) at a point in time. In 2004, Paustenbach et al. published a state-of-the-art review that describes the development of knowledge about asbestos hazards to brake mechanics performing asbestos brake installation and maintenance. Paustenbach et al.'s review, however, omits important pieces of corporate knowledge, dismisses several historical scientific conclusions and ignores the way experts have applied the results of scientific research to protect workers and consumers handling asbestos brakes. By taking their state-of-the-art review out of the legal liability context, Paustenbach et al. create a misleading version of events that fails to properly address the question of what asbestos brake manufacturers knew or should have known about the potential hazards of their brakes to mechanics over time. Without proper presentation of this information, judges and juries cannot adequately assess whether these companies had a duty to warn or take other action to prevent injury to those exposed to their asbestos brakes. PMID:22202589

Egilman, David Steven; Ardolino, Emily Laura; Howe, Samantha; Bird, Tess

2011-01-01

462

Exposure to chrysotile asbestos associated with unpacking and repacking boxes of automobile brake pads and shoes.  

PubMed

Industrial hygiene surveys and epidemiologic studies of auto mechanics have shown that these workers are not at an increased risk of asbestos-related disease; however, concerns continue to be raised regarding asbestos exposure from asbestos-containing brakes. Handling new asbestos-containing brake components has recently been suggested as a potential source of asbestos exposure. A simulation study involving the unpacking and repacking of 105 boxes of brakes (for vehicles ca. 1946-80), including 62 boxes of brake pads and 43 boxes of brake shoes, was conducted to examine how this activity might contribute to both short-term and 8-h time-weighted average exposures to asbestos. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of a volunteer worker (n = 80) and area samples at bystander (e.g., 1.5 m from worker) (n = 56), remote area (n = 26) and ambient (n = 10) locations collected during the unpacking and repacking of boxes of asbestos-containing brakes were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Exposure to airborne asbestos was characterized for a variety of parameters including the number of boxes handled, brake type (i.e. pads versus shoes) and the distance from the activity (i.e. worker, bystander and remote area). This study also evaluated the fiber size and morphology distribution according to the International Organization for Standardization analytical method for asbestos. It was observed that (i) airborne asbestos concentrations increased with the number of boxes unpacked and repacked, (ii) handling boxes of brake pads resulted in higher worker asbestos exposures compared to handling boxes of brake shoes, (iii) cleanup and clothes-handling tasks produced less airborne asbestos than handling boxes of brakes and (iv) fiber size and morphology analysis showed that while the majority of fibers were free (e.g. not associated with a cluster or matrix), <30% were respirable and even fewer were of the size range (>20 microm length) considered to pose the greatest risk of asbestos-related disease. It was found that average airborne chrysotile concentrations (30 min) ranged from 0.086 to 0.368 and 0.021 to 0.126 f cc(-1) for a worker unpacking and repacking 4-20 boxes of brake pads and 4-20 boxes of brake shoes, respectively. Additionally, average airborne asbestos exposures (30 min) at bystander locations ranged from 0.004 to 0.035 and 0.002 to 0.011 f cc(-1) when 4-20 boxes of brake pads and 4-20 boxes of brake shoes were handled, respectively. These data show that a worker handling a relatively large number of boxes of brakes over short periods of time will not be exposed to airborne asbestos in excess of its historical or current short-term occupational exposure limits. PMID:18515846

Madl, A K; Scott, L L; Murbach, D M; Fehling, K A; Finley, B L; Paustenbach, D J

2008-08-01

463

A global strategy based on experiments and simulations for squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of recent experimental and numerical investigations on industrial railway brakes. The goal of the present study is to discuss the relevance of the mechanical modeling strategy for squeal prediction. Specific experimental set-ups based on transient and controlled braking tests are designed for this purpose. Measurements are performed on it to investigate the dynamic behavior of TGV squeal noise and its squeal characterization through experiments. It will be demonstrated that it is possible to build consistent and efficient finite element models to simulate squeal events in TGV brake systems. The numerical strategy will be presented, including not only the modeling of the TGV brake system and the stability analysis, but also the transient nonlinear dynamic and computational process based on efficient reduced basis. This complete numerical strategy allows us to perform relevance squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes. This study comes within the scope of a research program AcouFren that is supported by ADEME (Agence De l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie) concerning the reduction of the squeal noise generated by high power railway disc brakes. experiments with an evolution of the rotational speed of the disc: these tests are called "transient braking tests" and correspond to real braking tests, experiments with a controlled steady rotational speed (i.e. dynamic fluctuations in rotational speed are not significant): these tests are called "controlled braking tests". In the present study, the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) [20] is used to study the time-history responses of the TGV brake system. So, a brief basic theory of the wavelet analysis that transforms a signal into wavelets that are well localized both in frequency and time is presented in this part of the paper. Considering a function f(t), the associated Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) corresponds to a wavelet transform given by W(a,b)=?-?+?f(t)?a,b*(t) dt where ?(t)={1}/{?{a}}?({t-b}/{a}) where a and b define the scale parameter and the time translation factor, respectively. The asterisk ?a,b* indicates the complex conjugate of ? that are the daughter wavelets (i.e. the dilated and shifted versions of the "'mother"' wavelet ? that is continuous in both time and frequency). The mother wavelet must satisfy an admissibility criterion in order to get a stably invertible transform.

Sinou, J.-J.; Loyer, A.; Chiello, O.; Mogenier, G.; Lorang, X.; Cocheteux, F.; Bellaj, S.

2013-09-01

464

Macroautophagy can press a brake on presynaptic neurotransmission.  

PubMed

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) has been implicated in regulating synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration, but MTOR's role in modulating presynaptic function through autophagy is unexplored. We studied presynaptic function in ventral dopamine neurons, a system from which neurotransmitter release can be measured directly by cyclic voltammetry. We generated mutant mice that were specifically deficient for macroautophagy in dopaminergic neurons by deleting the Atg7 gene in cells that express the dopamine uptake transporter. Dopamine axonal profiles in the mutant dorsal striatum were ~one third larger in the mutant mice, released ~50% more stimulus-evoked dopamine release, and exhibited more rapid presynaptic recovery than controls. Rapamycin reduced dopamine neuron axon profile size by ~30% in control mice, but had no effect on macroautophagy deficient axons. Acute rapamycin decreased dopaminergic synaptic vesicle density by ~25% and inhibited evoked dopamine release by ~25% in control mice, but not in the Atg7 deficient mutants. Thus, both basal and induced macroautophagy can provide a brake on presynaptic activity in vivo, perhaps by regulating the turnover of synaptic vesicles, and further regulates terminal volume and the kinetics of transmitter release. PMID:22767262

Torres, Ciara A; Sulzer, David

2012-10-01

465

Free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine and drive system for automobiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calculated fuel economy for an automotive free piston Stirling hydraulic engine and drive system using a pneumatic accumulator with the fuel economy of both a conventional 1980 spark ignition engine in an X body class vehicle and the estimated fuel economy of a 1984 spark ignition vehicle system are compared. The results show that the free piston Stirling hydraulic system with a two speed transmission has a combined fuel economy nearly twice that of the 1980 spark ignition engine - 21.5 versus 10.9 km/liter (50.7 versus 25.6 mpg) under comparable conditions. The fuel economy improvement over the 1984 spark ignition engine was 81 percent. The fuel economy sensitivity of the Stirling hydraulic system to system weight, number of transmission shifts, accumulator pressure ratio and maximum pressure, auxiliary power requirements, braking energy recovery, and varying vehicle performance requirements are considered. An important finding is that a multispeed transmission is not required. The penalty for a single speed versus a two speed transmission is about a 12 percent drop in combined fuel economy to 19.0 km/liter (44.7 mpg). This is still a 60 percent improvement in combined fuel economy over the projected 1984 spark ignition vehicle.

Beremand, D. G.; Slaby, J. G.; Nussle, R. C.; Miao, D.

1982-01-01

466

Method for directional hydraulic fracturing  

DOEpatents

A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

1994-01-01

467

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOEpatents

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01

468

Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Fine particulate matter originating from traffic correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. An important source of traffic particles is brake wear of cars which contributes up to 20% of the total traffic emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential toxicological effects of human epithelial lung cells exposed to freshly generated brake wear particles. Results An exposure box was mounted around a car's braking system. Lung cells cultured at the air-liquid interface were then exposed to particles emitted from two typical braking behaviours („full stop“ and „normal deceleration“). The particle size distribution as well as the brake emission components like metals and carbons was measured on-line, and the particles deposited on grids for transmission electron microscopy were counted. The tight junction arrangement was observed by laser scanning microscopy. Cellular responses were assessed by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (cytotoxicity), by investigating the production of reactive oxidative species and the release of the pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin-8. The tight junction protein occludin density decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing concentrations of metals on the particles (iron, copper and manganese, which were all strongly correlated with each other). Occludin was also negatively correlated with the intensity of reactive oxidative species. The concentrations of interleukin-8 were significantly correlated with increasing organic carbon concentrations. No correlation was observed between occludin and interleukin-8, nor between reactive oxidative species and interleukin-8. Conclusion These findings suggest that the metals on brake wear particles damage tight junctions with a mechanism involving oxidative stress. Brake wear particles also increase pro-inflammatory responses. However, this might be due to another mechanism than via oxidative stress. PMID:19930544

2009-01-01

469

21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs...Devices § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs...Identification. A hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric...

2012-04-01

470

21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.  

...2014-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs...Devices § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs...Identification. A hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric...

2014-04-01

471

Hydraulic charcterization of carbonatic rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic conductivity, K(?), and the water retention, ?(h), are needed to predict the flow of water and solute transport in unsaturated porous media. During recent decades methods have been developed to determine these hydraulic properties for rock. We have developed a methodology, based on Wind's evaporation method for soils, to measure in the laboratory the water retention and hydraulic conductivity in coherent porous rock. This methodology requires matric potential and water content estimation at three depths of the rock sample during a transient evaporation process. We applied this methodology to calcarenite, a sedimentary carbonate rock of marine environment. Little compacted, with a granular skeleton constituted by equal quantities of lithoclasts and bioclasts soaked in a matrix, this rock is widely represented in the Mediterranean basin, and often constitutes a thick layer of the vadose zone. Samples of three different lithotypes of calcarenites have been used for the tests: two of them (lithotypes A and B) came from the same place but different depths and the third lithotype, M, from an outcrop in another area. The water retention curves show similar values near saturation, indicating similar total porosity for the different lithotypes. For matric potential below -20 cm the curves differ; at the same matric potential the water content of lithotype M exceeds that of lithotypes A and B; moreover, at higher matric potential the curve of M shows smaller slope than those of A and B. Therefore M has a greater water retention capacity and spread of pore-size distribution. The results for hydraulic conductivity show greater values for A and B than for M over the entire range of matric potential investigated, though at high water content the differences are small. Therefore the hydraulic behaviour of the analysed rocks is very similar near the saturation while it differs in unsaturated conditions. These considerations point out the need of accurate studies on unsaturated hydraulic behaviour of carbonatic rocks.

Caputo, M. C.; Basile, A.; de Mascellis, R.; Nimmo, J. R.; Vurro, M.; Walsh, N.

2003-04-01

472

Hydraulic jumps on an incline  

E-print Network

When a fluid jet strikes an inclined solid surface at normal incidence, gravity creates a flow pattern with a thick outer rim resembling a parabola and reminiscent of a hydraulic jump. There appears to be little theory or experiments describing simple aspects of this phenomenon, such as the maximum rise height of the fluid above the impact point, and its dependence on jet velocity and inclination angle. We address this with experiments, and present a simple theory based on horizontal hydraulic jumps which accounts for the rise height and its scaling, though without describing the shape of the parabolic envelope.

Jean-Luc Thiffeault; Andrew Belmonte

2010-09-01

473

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOEpatents

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

474

Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains.

Qu, Wei-Lian; Qin, Shun-Quan; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

2009-12-01

475

Brake Failure from Residual Magnetism in the Mars Exploration Rover Lander Petal Actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft arrived at Mars. Each safely delivered an identical rover to the Martian surface in a tetrahedral lander encased in airbags. Upon landing, the airbags deflated and three Lander Petal Actuators opened the three deployable Lander side petals enabling the rover to exit the Lander. Approximately nine weeks prior to the scheduled launch of the first spacecraft, one of these mission-critical Lander Petal Actuators exhibited a brake stuck-open failure during its final flight stow at Kennedy Space Center. Residual magnetism was the definitive conclusion from the failure investigation. Although residual magnetism was recognized as an issue in the design, the lack of an appropriately specified lower bound on brake drop-out voltage inhibited the discovery of this problem earlier in the program. In addition, the brakes had more unit-to-unit variation in drop-out voltage than expected, likely due to a larger than expected variation in the magnetic properties of the 15-5 PH stainless steel brake plates. Failure analysis and subsequent rework of two other Lander Petal Actuators with marginal brakes was completed in three weeks, causing no impact to the launch date.

Jandura, Louise

2004-01-01

476

Performance of a fully mechanical parking brake system for passenger cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure that a vehicle remains stationary when it is parked at a certain road slope, the driver has to apply sufficient pulling force on the handbrake lever. Otherwise, the vehicle will start to rollaway where the torque generated by the parking brake system is lower that the torque required by the vehicle to remain stationary. This poses a danger situation not only to the vehicle's occupants but also to the people surrounding it. Thus, this paper aims to investigate performance of a typical parking brake system used in passenger cars. A theoretical model of drum-type parking brake system is derived and later being validated by test data that measured from the parking brake test bench. A good agreement is achieved between calculated and test results. Results from the model show that the parking brake system used in this work can hold the vehicle stationary at 11 degree slope less than 200 N of the applied force and thus it meets the regulation requirement, and also the vehicle will not rollaway even though there are four adult passengers inside it.

Rozaini, A. H.; Ishak, M. R.; Abu Bakar, A. R.; Mohd Zain, M. Z.

2013-12-01

477

Driving and braking control of PM synchronous motor based on low-resolution hall sensor for battery electric vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolvers are normally employed for rotor positioning in motors for electric vehicles, but resolvers are expensive and vulnerable to vibrations. Hall sensors have the advantages of low cost and high reliability, but the positioning accuracy is low. Motors with Hall sensors are typically controlled by six-step commutation algorithm, which brings high torque ripple. This paper studies the high-performance driving and braking control of the in-wheel permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) based on low-resolution Hall sensors. Field oriented control (FOC) based on Hall-effect sensors is developed to reduce the torque ripple. The positioning accuracy of the Hall sensors is improved by interpolation between two consecutive Hall signals using the estimated motor speed. The position error from the misalignment of the Hall sensors is compensated by the precise calibration of Hall transition timing. The braking control algorithms based on six-step commutation and FOC are studied. Two variants of the six-step commutation braking control, namely, half-bridge commutation and full-bridge commutation, are discussed and compared, which shows that the full-bridge commutation could better explore the potential of the back electro-motive forces (EMF), thus can deliver higher efficiency and smaller current ripple. The FOC braking is analyzed with the phasor diagrams. At a given motor speed, the motor turns from the regenerative braking mode into the plug braking mode if the braking torque exceeds a certain limit, which is proportional to the motor speed. Tests in the dynamometer show that a smooth control could be realized by FOC driving control and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by FOC braking control, compared to six-step commutation braking control. Therefore, FOC braking is selected as the braking control algorithm for electric vehicles. The proposed research ensures a good motor control performance while maintaining low cost and high reliability.

Gu, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Dongbin; Fang, Chuan; Ma, Yan

2013-01-01

478

Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

Denny, Mark

2012-01-01

479

Introduction to Hydraulics. Student's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of individualized instructional materials for students. The manual is self-paced, but is designed to be used under the supervision of an instructor. The manual contains 10 assignments, each with all the information needed, a list of objectives that should be met, and exercise questions that can help in…

Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

480

Introduction to Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's guide on hydraulics is part of a series of individualized instructional materials. The guide is provided to help the instructor make certain that each student gets the most benefit possible from both the student's manual and what he/she does on the job. Notes for the instructor contain suggestions on how the student should use…

Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

481

THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation,  

E-print Network

as a neutron source, and the detection of the induced 16 N activity in the flow was performed by two bismuth portable is the pulsed-neutron activation ~PNA! method. This method is based on the detection of radiationTHERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation, flow measurements, evaluation methods FLOWACT

Pázsit, Imre

482

Hydraulic drive for control rods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nuclear reactor is disclosed wherein hydraulic drive mechanisms for control rods are provided with a positive mechanical latching arrangement to maintain the control rods in a withdrawn position with respect to the core. With this arrangement, the coil of an associated electromagnet must be deliberately energized in order to insert the control rod into the core thus making accidental

E. Frisch; H. N. Andrews

1976-01-01

483

Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each constant head we repeated the test for three different rate of fiber compaction within the flow cell, corresponding to three different densities (146 kg/m3, 200 kg/m3 and 240 kg/m3). We observed that with increasing density of the fibers there is an increase of hydraulic conductivity. The importance of the experimental results on permeability acquires greater relevance when compared to the values of hydraulic conductivity already known from the literature for different soils types. In this study, special attention has been given to the value of hydraulic conductivity of this fiber, considering that in the framework of groundwater remediation strategies if the hydraulic conductivity in the barrier is lower than that of the surrounding aquifer, the plume may change its natural pathway, bypassing the barrier and veering towards larger hydraulic conductivity. Reference • Lee, B. G. and Rowell, R. M.: Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using lignocellulosic fibers, J. Natural Fibers, 1, 97-108, 2004. • Troisi, S., Fallico, C., Straface, S., and Mazzuca, L.: Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. Brevetto dell'Università della Calabria (n.: CS2008A00018), 2008. • C. Fallico, S. Troisi, A. Molinari, and M. F. Rivera.: Characterization of broom fibers for PRB in the remediation of aquifers contaminated by heavy metals, Biogeosciences journal , 7, 2545-2556, 2010

Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

2012-04-01

484

23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Location hydraulic studies. 650.111 Section 650...STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.111 Location hydraulic studies. (a) National...

2010-04-01

485

Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to

Scott F

2002-01-01

486

Hydraulic conductivity imaging from 3-D transient hydraulic tomography at several pumping/observation densities  

E-print Network

Hydraulic conductivity imaging from 3-D transient hydraulic tomography at several pumping August 2013; accepted 7 September 2013; published 13 November 2013. [1] 3-D Hydraulic tomography (3-D HT (primarily hydraulic conductivity, K) is estimated by joint inversion of head change data from multiple

Barrash, Warren

487

Electro-Hydraulic Proportional Synchronous Control System of Ring Gate for Hydraulic Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of opening and closing control manner for ring gate of hydraulic turbine, the electro-hydraulic proportional control system for ring gate of hydraulic turbine was studied. A new control system, which combines mechanics, hydraulics and electrics, was presented. More particularly, the modules of speed control and multi-cylinder synchronous control for the movement of ring gate was designed.

Juliang Xiao; Guodong Wang; Weike Song

2009-01-01

488

Land Use Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tillage alters the pore structure and hydraulic properties of soils. Likewise, reestablishment of grass on cropland will, over time, produce changes in soil hydraulic properties that can influence the amount of plant available water. We conducted a study to characterize and compare soil hydraulic properties on adjacent native grassland, cropland, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sites at three locations in

R. C. Schwartz; P. W. Unger; S. R. Evett

489

Variable-Displacement Hydraulic Drive Unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydraulic power controlled through multiple feedback loops. In hydraulic drive unit, power closely matched to demand, thereby saving energy. Hydraulic flow to and from motor adjusted by motor-control valve connected to wobbler. Wobbler angle determines motor-control-valve position, which in turn determines motor displacement. Concept applicable to machine tools, aircraft controls, and marine controls.

Lang, D. J.; Linton, D. J.; Markunas, A.

1986-01-01

490

May 10, 2013 Determining Soil Hydraulic Conductivity  

E-print Network

May 10, 2013 Determining Soil Hydraulic Conductivity from Cosmic-ray Neutron Data Adam M Current methods used to quantify hydraulic conductivity require either lab testing of soil samples trends of the COSMOS soil moisture signal, it may be possible to estimate area averaged soil hydraulic

Fay, Noah

491

4, 37193769, 2007 A model for hydraulic  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 3719­3769, 2007 A model for hydraulic redistribution G. G. Amenu and P. Kumar Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences A model for hydraulic;HESSD 4, 3719­3769, 2007 A model for hydraulic redistribution G. G. Amenu and P. Kumar Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

492

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Geometry: Empirical Investigations and Theoretical Approaches B.C. Eatona, a Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z2 Abstract Hydraulic. One approach to hydraulic geometry considers temporal changes at a single location due to variations

Eaton, Brett

493

Hydraulic conductivity tests on compacted clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability tests were performed in the laboratory on compacted clay to study the effects of type of permeameter, hydraulic anisotropy, diameter of test specimens, storage time, and desiccation cracking. Essentially identical hydraulic conductivities were measured with compaction-mold, consolidationcell, and flexible-wall permeameters. With good bonding between lifts, hydraulic conductivity was isotropic. Test specimens having a diameter of 15 cm were twice

Stephen S. Boynton; David E. Daniel

1985-01-01

494

LA-12968-MS The Unsaturated Hydraulic  

E-print Network

LA-12968-MS The Unsaturated Hydraulic Characteristics of the BandelierTuff LosN A T I O N A L L A B technical correctness. #12;The Unsaturated Hydraulic Characteristics of the Bandelier Tuff David B. Rogers........................................................................................................4 Hydraulic Data Presentation

495

Numerical Study of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump  

E-print Network

Numerical Study of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump Qun Zhao, Shubhra Misra, Ib. A. Svendsen and James T of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump ­ p.1/14 #12;Objective Our ultimate goal is to study the breaking waves. Numerical Study of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump ­ p.2/14 #12;A moving bore Qiantang Bore China (Courtesy of Dr J

Zhao, Qun

496

Hydraulic Cooling Tower Driver- The Innovation  

E-print Network

-drive eliminates these items from the drive train and puts the same electric motor HP at ground level close coupled to a hydraulic pump, filters, and oil reservoir. Hydraulic lines bring oil pressure to the hydraulic motor, which is more than 75% less weight than...

Dickerson, J. A.

497

Computer-monitored hydraulic bulging of tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic bulging machine with independent pressure and axial-force control has been designed and constructed. This machine consists of a horizontal press frame with two opposed hydraulic units at the ends of two sliding units carrying the die halves. Two sets of three hydraulic cylinders open and close the die halves containing the tube to be bulged. Once the die

S. Thiruvarudchelvan; G. L. Seet; H. E. Ang

1996-01-01

498

Hydraulic Fracture: multiscale processes and moving  

E-print Network

Hydraulic Fracture: multiscale processes and moving interfaces Anthony Peirce Department Siebrits (SLB, Houston) #12;2 Outline · What is a hydraulic fracture? · Mathematical models of hydraulic fracture · Scaling and special solutions for 1-2D models · Numerical modeling for 2-3D problems

Peirce, Anthony

499

Effect of design factors on surface temperature and wear in disk brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temperatures, friction, wear and contact conditions that occur in high energy disk brakes are studied. Surface and near surface temperatures were monitored at various locations in a caliper disk brake during drag type testing, with friction coefficient and wear rates also being determined. The recorded transient temperature distributions in the friction pads and infrared photographs of the rotor disk surface both showed that contact at the friction surface was not uniform, with contact areas constantly shifting due to nonuniform thermal expansion and wear. The effect of external cooling and of design modifications on friction, wear and temperatures was also investigated. It was found that significant decreases in surface temperature and in wear rate can be achieved without a reduction in friction either by slotting the contacting face of the brake pad or by modifying the design of the pad support to improve pad compliance. Both design changes result in more uniform contact conditions on the friction surface.

Santini, J. J.; Kennedy, F. E.; Ling, F. F.

1976-01-01

500

Disc formation in turbulent cloud cores: Circumventing the magnetic braking catastrophe  

E-print Network

We present collapse simulations of strongly magnetised, 100 M_sun, turbulent cloud cores. Around the protostars formed during the collapse Keplerian discs with typical sizes of up to 100 AU build up in contrast to previous simulations neglecting turbulence. Analysing the condensations in which the discs form, we show that the magnetic flux loss is not sufficient to explain the build-up of Keplerian discs. The average magnetic field is strongly inclined to the disc which might reduce the magnetic braking efficiency. However, the main reason for the reduced magnetic braking efficiency is the highly disordered magnetic field in the surroundings of the discs. Furthermore, due to the lack of a coherently rotating structure in the turbulent environment of the disc no toroidal magnetic field necessary for angular momentum extraction can build up. Simultaneously the angular momentum inflow remains high due to local shear flows created by the turbulent motions. We suggest that the "magnetic braking catastrophe" is an ...

Seifried, D; Pudritz, R E; Klessen, R S

2012-01-01