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1

Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system  

DOEpatents

A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

Venkataperumal, Rama R. (Troy, MI); Mericle, Gerald E. (Mount Clemens, MI)

1981-06-02

2

Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

1966-01-01

3

Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel hydraulic brake pressure control (BPC) valve for the railway rolling stock was proposed in the part I of this study. As a second report, this paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis and the performance evaluation of the hydraulic brake system using the BPC valve. In order to analyze the behavior of the BPC valve, a simplified transfer function and a nonlinear model of the valve are derived respectively. By use of simple linear model, it is achieved to determine the initial values of essential parameter simply. In addition, it is also achieved to investigate overall dynamic performance of brake system and to evaluate the effect of design parameters through the numerical analysis using detailed nonlinear model. The validity of mathematical models is confirmed by experiments. Finally, the performance of the hydraulic brake system using newly manufactured BPC valve is confirmed with an actual braking device of the E2 series Shinkansen railway.

Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

4

COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

5

49 CFR 571.105 - Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems. 571.105 Section 571.105 Transportation...No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems. S1. Scope. This standard specifies...for hydraulic and electric service brake systems, and associated parking brake...

2013-10-01

6

Development of Hydraulic Friction Brake for Railway Rolling Stock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel hydraulic brake system is proposed in order to increase the reliability of railway brake systems. The reason hydraulic brake systems have not been taken up as a practical railway brake system until now is that the brake pressure control valve inherently has internal leakage and this causes insufficient fail-safe function. Accordingly, We focus on the development of a hydraulic brake pressure control valve (BPC valve) in this study. By virtue of adopting poppet elements in the valve, the braking force is maintained without internal leakage even when the electric power supply fails. The developed BPC valve includes a built-in pressure feedback mechanism and it enables the pressure control function to be maintained when the pressure transducer is broken. The operating principle and wear compensation methods for poppet elements are also examined in this study. The experimental results verify the linearity of static behavior, the stability, and the performance of the valve in maintaining output pressure.

Chenvisuwat, Thum; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kitagawa, Ato

7

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Heavy Duty Vehicle Brake Research Program Report No. 4 - Stopping Capability of Hydraulically Braked Vehicles. Volume 1. Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve hydraulically braked trucks representing a broad range of vehicle and braking system configurations were extensively tested to determine their braking performance. Limited tests were also run on a school bus. Gross vehicle weight ratings of the tes...

R. L. Kirkbride R. W. Radlinski

1985-01-01

8

49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...except as noted. (a) Air brake system integrity. The air brake system shall demonstrate...in a stationary position, compressed air reserve shall be sufficient...brake application, after the engine is stopped and with the...

2013-10-01

9

MVSS 105a-Hydraulic Brake Systems-Vehicle Test Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five vehicles were tested to Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 105a, Hydraulic Brake Systems, to determine the degree current production (1973) braking systems comply with the 1976 model year requirements. A large school bus, a motor home, a compact picku...

R. W. Radlinski

1973-01-01

10

Integrative control strategy of regenerative and hydraulic braking for hybrid electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since electric braking involvement, the braking system of an EV, HEV and FCV becomes much more complex than conventional mechanical alone braking system. The target in this hybrid braking system is to recover the braking energy as much as possible and meanwhile maintain a good braking performance for vehicle safety. For this purpose, the control of this braking system is

Liang Chu; Wanfeng Sun; Liang Yao; Yongsheng Zhang; Yang Ou; Wenruo Wei; Minghui Liu; Jun Li

2009-01-01

11

Automotive Brake Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

12

76 FR 7623 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Brakes; Application for Exemption From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...self-contained, permanently closed hydraulic brake system'' [Emphasis added...FMCSRs to allow the use of automatic hydraulic inertia brake systems (surge brakes...self-contained, permanently closed hydraulic brake system for trailers that...

2011-02-10

13

Track brake for railways  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The track brake is intended to limit the speed of rolling motion of a freight car according to the track gradient in a marshalling yard. A retarder installed along a braking rail comprises a number of braking tappets each having a portion which projects above the braking rail in the rest position and each being applied in turn beneath each wheel of the car to be braked. The track brake comprises a motion converter constituted by a series of rockers each pivotally mounted on a pin connected to the braking rail. One portion of each rocker cooperates with a braking tappet and another portion of the rocker cooperates with a piston-rod of a substantially horizontal hydraulic brake cylinder.

1980-04-22

14

49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antilock brake systems. 393.55 Section 393.55 Transportation...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.55 Antilock brake systems. (a) Hydraulic brake...

2013-10-01

15

Modeling and Simulation about an Electric Car's Regenerative Braking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of regenerative braking system of an electric car is studied in the paper. The car's speed, acceleration, the hydraulic accumulator's pressure and volume are simulated with Matlab while the electric car is braking or accelerating from stop. The hydraulic accumulator can absorb all of the braking energy when braking and the energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator can

Zuowu Ding; Dongbiao Zhao; Jianmin Zuo

2007-01-01

16

Effects of brake fluid components on rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the hydraulic drives of automotive brake systems, rubber seal rings are used to prevent leakage of brake fluid. The hardness and swelling of the seal rubbers, when exposed to brake fluid, must remain within limits such that the seals will give reliable operation. According to certain specifications used in other countries (SAE 1702, SAE 1703, DOT-3, and DOT-4), brake

R. N. Abadzheva; Z. Ya. Sereda; N. Ya. Rudakova; L. V. Romanova

1982-01-01

17

49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake tubing and hose mustâ (1) Be long and flexible...segment. (d) Brake tubing and hose connections. All connections for air, vacuum, or hydraulic braking systems...

2009-10-01

18

49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake tubing and hose mustâ (1) Be long and flexible...segment. (d) Brake tubing and hose connections. All connections for air, vacuum, or hydraulic braking systems...

2010-10-01

19

FMVSS 105 Brake Tests of the AMF Inc. and Fairchild Industries Experimental Safety Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Braking performance tests were conducted on Experimental Safety Vehicles manufactured by AMF Inc. and Fairchild Industries to assess compliance with FMVSS 105 (Hydraulic Service Brake, Emergency Brake, and Parking Brake Systems - Passenger Cars). The test...

1973-01-01

20

Development of Nonfriction Braking Systems for High Speed Trains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance potential and approximate cost estimate for three nonfriction braking systems are obtained. The systems are: the air retarder, the hydraulic retarder, and aerodynamic braking. It is shown that the air retarder and the hydraulic retarder have p...

R. J. Cassidy R. L. Pleuthner F. K. Schenkel

1970-01-01

21

Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

22

Braking - Tracked Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Provides a method of evaluating the brake systems of tracked vehicles. Covers brake holding ability, stopping distance, steering brake performance, wet and freezing effects, braking potential, service brake efficiency, fade and recovery tests, brake syste...

1977-01-01

23

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

24

Better Brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through continuing studies on high-temperature space materials useful for better brake linings, Bendix Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to develop a novel composite. This team worked to fabricate several combinations of composite materials and evaluated results. The one selected increases wear rates and lowers costs. It exhibits constant coefficient of friction at temperatures as high as 650 degrees Fahrenheit, a region where conventional brake linings fade markedly. Other suitable markets include brakes for trucks and industrial equipment such as overhead cranes and hoists. Afterwards brake linings could find successful application in passenger cars.

1976-01-01

25

78 FR 21189 - Agency Requests for Approval of a New Information Collection: Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...brake fluids as well as packagers of hydraulic system mineral oils. The information...requirements for motor vehicle brake fluids and hydraulic system mineral oils. Section 5.2...brake fluids as well as packagers of hydraulic system mineral oils. The...

2013-04-09

26

Sprag solenoid brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation of solenoid braking mechanism is discussed. Illustrations of construction of the brake are provided. Device is used for braking low or medium speed shaft rotations and produces approximately ten times braking torque of similar solenoid brakes.

Dane, P. H.

1972-01-01

27

Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system  

DOEpatents

An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

Cikanek, S.R.

1995-09-12

28

Magnetostrictive Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetostrictive brake has been designed as a more energy-efficient alternative to a magnetic fail-safe brake in a robot. (In the specific application, failsafe signifies that the brake is normally engaged; that is, power must be supplied to allow free rotation.) The magnetic failsafe brake must be supplied with about 8 W of electric power to initiate and maintain disengagement. In contrast, the magnetostrictive brake, which would have about the same dimensions and the same torque rating as those of the magnetic fail-safe brake, would demand only about 2 W of power for disengagement. The brake (see figure) would include a stationary base plate and a hub mounted on the base plate. Two solenoid assemblies would be mounted in diametrically opposed recesses in the hub. The cores of the solenoids would be made of the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D or equivalent. The rotating part of the brake would be a ring-and spring- disk subassembly. By means of leaf springs not shown in the figure, this subassembly would be coupled with the shaft that the brake is meant to restrain. With no power supplied to the solenoids, a permanent magnet would pull axially on a stepped disk and on a shelf in the hub, causing the ring to be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub. The friction associated with this axial squeeze would effect the braking action. Supplying electric power to the solenoids would cause the magnetostrictive cylinders to push radially inward against a set of wedges that would be in axial contact with the stepped disk. The wedges would convert the radial magnetostrictive strain to a multiplied axial displacement of the stepped disk. This axial displacement would be just large enough to lift the stepped disk, against the permanent magnetic force, out of contact with the ring. The ring would then be free to turn because it would no longer be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub.

Diftler, Myron A.; Hulse, Aaron

2010-01-01

29

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

30

Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system  

DOEpatents

An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

Cikanek, Susan R. (Wixom, MI)

1995-01-01

31

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

Decker, Robert L.

32

A Robust Servo Electronic Controller for Brake Force Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a control system which achieves ideal brake force distribution between the front and the rear wheels of a vehicle during normal braking is studied. Ideal brake proportioning is achieved by dynamically controlling the rear-wheel speed to track the front-wheel speed. A simple linear model of an electro-hydraulic brake actuator was developed. This model is derived from experimental

M. A. Salman

1989-01-01

33

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

1996-10-01

34

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

2005-10-01

35

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

1998-10-01

36

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

2003-10-01

37

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

2000-10-01

38

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

2002-10-01

39

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

1999-10-01

40

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

2001-10-01

41

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

2004-10-01

42

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of improper or contaminated fluid. S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake...Fill the system with brake fluid, bleeding all wheel cylinders and the pressure gage to remove entrapped...

1997-10-01

43

Compression relief engine brake  

SciTech Connect

A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

Meneely, V.A.

1987-10-06

44

Hydraulics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive learning objects, created by instructors from Fox Valley Technical College and other colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College program, focus on concepts that cover a broad-based electromechanical program. Here visitors will find learning objects in Hydraulics with over 25 lessons in Actuators, Relief Valves, Basic Concepts, and Directional Control Valves.

2011-01-03

45

Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system  

DOEpatents

An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

Cikanek, S.R.

1994-10-25

46

Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system  

DOEpatents

An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

Cikanek, Susan R. (Wixom, MI)

1994-01-01

47

Brake power servo booster  

SciTech Connect

A brake power servo booster is described comprising: a power piston; a power piston return spring; at least two shells enclosing at least a portion of the power piston and defining a constant pressure chamber and a variable pressure chamber; a master cylinder for controlling the application of hydraulic pressure to a brake mechanism; an input shaft; a hollow cylindrical member integrally connected to the input shaft, a stopper member for limiting movement of the hollow cylindrical member in the second direction, a hollow output shaft integrally connected at one end thereof to the power piston; a connecting member integrally connected to the other end of the output shaft and slidably disposed inside the hollow cylindrical member, a valve member, a valve return spring for urging and valve member towards the first and second valve seats; and a key member provided between the connecting member and the hollow cylindrical member for allowing relative displacement between the connecting member and the hollow cylindrical member in the first and second directions within a predetermined range.

Kobayashi, M.; Shimamura, M.

1988-04-19

48

Well packer brake  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a brake mechanism including friction brake means for selectively applying a friction braking force and being movable inwardly and outwardly toward and away from a longitudinal axis between released and operating positions, biasing means for biasing the brake means outwardly to the operating position, opposite rings cooperating with the brake means for holding the brake means inwardly in the released position against the force of the biasing means, and the rings being movable away from one another for releasing the brake means for outward movement to the operating position by action of the biasing means.

Dearing, D.G.

1989-06-13

49

Analysis of disc brake squeal using the complex eigenvalue method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new functionality of ABAQUS\\/Standard, which allows for a nonlinear analysis prior to a complex eigenvalue extraction in order to study the stability of brake systems, is used to analyse disc brake squeal. An attempt is made to investigate the effects of system parameters, such as the hydraulic pressure, the rotational velocity of the disc, the friction coefficient of the

P. Liu; H. Zheng; C. Cai; Y. Y. Wang; C. Lu; K. H. Ang; G. R. Liu

2007-01-01

50

Optimal design of a disc-type MR brake for middle-sized motorcycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research work focuses on optimal design of a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake that can replace a conventional hydraulic brake (CHB) of middle-sized motorcycles. Firstly, a MR brake configuration is proposed considering the available space and the simplicity to replace a CHB by the proposed MR brake. An optimal design of the proposed MR brake is then performed considering the required braking torque, operating temperature, mass and size of the brake. In order to perform the optimization of the brake, the braking torque of the brake is analyzed based on Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of MR fluid. The constrain on operating temperature of the MR brake is determined by considering the steady temperature of the brake when the motorcycle is cruising and the temperature increase during a braking process. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Optimal solution of the MR brake is then presented and simulated performance of the optimized brake is shown with remarkable discussions.

Nguyen, Quoc-Hung; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

2011-03-01

51

Automotive disc brake squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disc brake squeal remains an elusive problem in the automotive industry. Since the early 20th century, many investigators have examined the problem with experimental, analytical, and computational techniques, but there is as yet no method to completely suppress disc brake squeal. This paper provides a comprehensive review and bibliography of works on disc brake squeal. In an effort to make this review accessible to a large audience, background sections on vibrations, contact and disc brake systems are also included.

Kinkaid, N. M.; O'Reilly, O. M.; Papadopoulos, P.

2003-10-01

52

TGV disc brake squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discomfort generated by the noise emission of braking systems in trains has aroused recently many studies on the mechanical modelling of brake noise in France. A theoretical and numerical discussion on the phenomenon of brake squeal is given in this paper in relation with some experimental data. This study is based upon a flutter instability analysis giving unstable modes of the brake system under the contact and Coulomb friction.

Lorang, X.; Foy-Margiocchi, F.; Nguyen, Q. S.; Gautier, P. E.

2006-06-01

53

Deployable Brake for Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

1987-01-01

54

TGV disc brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discomfort generated by the noise emission of braking systems in trains has aroused recently many studies on the mechanical modelling of brake noise in France. A theoretical and numerical discussion on the phenomenon of brake squeal is given in this paper in relation with some experimental data. This study is based upon a flutter instability analysis giving unstable modes

X. Lorang; F. Foy-Margiocchi; Q. S. Nguyen; P. E. Gautier

2006-01-01

55

Roller Locking Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roller locking brake is normally braking rotary mechanism allowing free rotation when electromagnet in mechanism energized. Well suited to robots and other machinery which automatic braking upon removal of electrical power required. More compact and reliable. Requires little electrical power to maintain free rotation and exhibits minimal buildup of heat.

Vranish, John M.

1993-01-01

56

Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

Cunningham, Larry; And Others

57

Intelligent control for brake systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exist several problems in the control of brake systems including the development of control logic for antilock braking systems (ABS) and “base-braking.” Here, we study the base-braking control problem where we seek to develop a controller that can ensure that the braking torque commanded by the driver will be achieved. In particular, we develop a fuzzy model reference learning

William K. Lennon; Kevin M. Passino

1999-01-01

58

Reel safety brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A braking apparatus is described for a tape transport device having two stacked coaxial reels and feelers mounted in proximity to the reels for sensing the tape being wound on each reel. A device is mounted in proximity to adjacent central hubs of the reels to a simultaneously, frictionally engage both hubs and brake both reels. A mechanical actuator is coupled to both feelers and to the brake device. The brake means comprises a pair of rubber shoulders that extend in opposite directions relative to a common axis, and turns about the axis in response to either of the feelers.

Carle, C. E. (inventor)

1976-01-01

59

Toxicity of brake oil.  

PubMed

Brake oil is an automobile transmission fluid composed of a mixture of toxic glycols and glycol ethers. Three cases of poisoning with toxic glycol based brake fluid are reported who presented with mild metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. As all the cases had presented late, treatment with ethanol was not started. All of them were treated successfully with haemodialysis. PMID:11971850

Sharma, N; Jain, S

2002-05-01

60

Brake for rollable platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frame-mounted brake is independent of wheels and consists of simple lever-actuated foot. Brake makes good contact with surface even though foot pad is at higher or lower level than wheels, this is particularly important when a rollable platform is used on irregular surface.

Morris, A. L.

1974-01-01

61

WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS  

SciTech Connect

We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

Tong, H. [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China); Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J. [KIAA and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Song, L. M., E-mail: tonghao@xao.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2013-05-10

62

Wind Braking of Magnetars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L_x{<}-\\dot{E}_rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Song, L. M.; Qiao, G. J.

2013-05-01

63

Improved Electromagnetic Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may still be possible to set the brake by applying an electromagnet current to aid the permanent magnetic field instead of canceling it, this action can mask an out-of-tolerance condition in the brake and it does not restore the fail-safe function of setting the brake when current is lost.

Martin, Toby B.

2004-01-01

64

Braking System for Wind Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

1987-01-01

65

29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and the efficiency of such means shall be demonstrated. Electric winches, electrohydraulic winches fitted with electromagnetic or hydraulic brakes at the winch, or electric cranes shall be equipped so that a failure of the electric power...

2013-07-01

66

Apply the Brakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a dot moving across the screen together with two graphs of the dot's motion. An arrow shows the dot's velocity and marks appear at regular time intervals show the dot's position at different clock readings. The dot moves at a constant velocity until the user presses a button marked "Brake," at which point the dot slows to a stop. Sliders allow the user to change the dot's initial velocity and the braking acceleration.

67

Unidirectional high gain brake stop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

Lang, David J. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

68

Linear Induction Motor Electrical Braking Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the electrical braking characteristics of a 2500-hp (at 250 mph) linear induction motor (LIM), which is used to propel and brake the LIM research vehicle. Three methods of electrical braking were investigated: ac dynamic braking, dc ...

R. B. Powell

1976-01-01

69

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cracks. (g) Disc brakes shall be designed...recommended by the disc manufacturer and...service. (h) Hand brakes and parking brakes...Operation of the friction brake alone does not result...damage to wheels or disc rotor surface...

2010-10-01

70

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cracks. (g) Disc brakes shall be designed...recommended by the disc manufacturer and...service. (h) Hand brakes and parking brakes...Operation of the friction brake alone does not result...damage to wheels or disc rotor surface...

2009-10-01

71

Safety brake for tape reels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All-mechanical device senses end of tape and stops reel, even in event of electronic system failure. Assembly includes stop to prevent brake from overriding tape. Recentering mechanism returns brake to neutral position after torque is removed from reels.

Carle, C. E.

1977-01-01

72

Aspects of Disc Brake Judder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake judder is a braking induced, forced vibration occurring in di Ä erent types of vehicles. The judder frequency is directly proportional to the revolution speed of the wheel and therefore also to the velocity of the vehicle. The driver experiences judder as vibrations in the steering wheel, brake pedal and è oor. In the higher frequency range, the structural

H Jacobsson

2003-01-01

73

Chaos in brake squeal noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake squeal has become an increasing concern to the automotive industry because of warranty costs and the requirement for continued interior vehicle noise reduction. Most research has been directed to either analytical and experimental studies of brake squeal mechanisms or the prediction of brake squeal propensity using finite element methods. By comparison, there is a lack of systematic analysis of

S. Oberst; J. C. S. Lai

2011-01-01

74

Brake-By-Wire Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two design iterations for electric calipers and two systems (full brake by wire and hybrid brakes) were developed for use on a ground vehicle. The program demonstrated a fully integrated-rated electric caliper and full brake- by-wire system on a sports ut...

R. J. Bowman P. F. Flanagan E. S. Baumgartner

2003-01-01

75

Evaluation of aircraft brake materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program was carried out to evaluate several new high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. A specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small jet aircraft was used. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The materials evaluation showed that two newly developed friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary, however, since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

1977-01-01

76

Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

2014-02-01

77

49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators. 393.53 Section 393...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.53 Automatic brake adjusters and...

2013-10-01

78

Design of a squeeze film magnetorheological brake considering compression enhanced shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetorheological brake, consisting of rotating disks immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnet, is proposed to replace the conventional heavy weight low response hydraulic disk brake. The frictional characteristics of the proposed brake can be controlled by regulating the yield stress of the MR fluid as function of magnetic field and normal compressive force. The controllable yield stress retards the surfaces of rotating disks, thus MR fluid can be used as a brake lining material. The present research work attempts designing a squeeze film MR brake by accounting compression enhanced shear yield stress of magnetorheological fluid. Theoretical calculations indicate that the estimated braking torque of the six plate squeeze film MR brake, under compression, is in the order of 600Nm. To validate the theoretical design and its findings, a prototype of single-plate squeeze film MR disk brake has been developed. Experimental test setup helps to illustrate braking torque under different control currents (0.0 to 1.25 A).

Sarkar, C.; Hirani, H.

2013-02-01

79

Sprag solenoid brake. [development and operations of electrically controlled brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and characteristics of an electrically operated brake are discussed. The action of the brake depends on energizing a solenoid which causes internally spaced sprockets to contact the inner surface of the housing. A spring forces the control member to move to the braking position when the electrical function is interrupted. A diagram of the device is provided and detailed operating principles are explained.

Dane, D. H. (inventor)

1974-01-01

80

Tether Deployer And Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

1993-01-01

81

Influence of initial braking velocity and braking frequency on tribological performance of non-asbestos brake shoe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to find the influence of the initial braking velocity and braking frequency on the tribological performance of the non-asbestos brake shoe used in mine hoisters during some continuous emergency brakings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The tribological performance experiments of the WSM-3 non-asbestos brake shoe braking on the 16 Mn steel are investigated on the

Bao Jiusheng; Zhu Zhencai; Yin Yan; Chen Guoan

2009-01-01

82

Brake assembly including torque monitor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a brake assembly for selectively braking rotation of an input shaft extending from a control rod drive having a longitudinal centerline axis, the shaft being rotatable for selectively inserting and withdrawing a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a stationary base; an annular bearing mounted to the base; a brake mounted to the bearing; a backing plate mounted to the bearing; a first braking pad fixedly joined to the backing plate; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the input shaft and disposed adjacent to the first pad; a second braking pad disposed adjacent to the rotor disc; and means for selectively clamping the first and second pads against the rotor disc for braking the input shaft; means for torsionally restraining the brake including: a pin extending outwardly from the backing plate toward the base; and a spring extending from the base to the pin and generally perpendicular to the centerline axis; and means for monitoring the angle for monitoring braking torque capability of the brake.

Dillmann, C.W.

1992-07-21

83

49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...irretrievable stop, using a brake rate consistent with prevailing adhesion, passenger safety, and brake system thermal capacity. An...friction and dynamic brake to obtain the correct retarding force is automatic; (2) Loss of power or failure of the...

2013-10-01

84

49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges. All mechanical gauges and...

2013-10-01

85

Chaos in brake squeal noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brake squeal has become an increasing concern to the automotive industry because of warranty costs and the requirement for continued interior vehicle noise reduction. Most research has been directed to either analytical and experimental studies of brake squeal mechanisms or the prediction of brake squeal propensity using finite element methods. By comparison, there is a lack of systematic analysis of brake squeal data obtained from a noise dynamometer. It is well known that brake squeal is a nonlinear transient phenomenon and a number of studies using analytical and experimental models of brake systems (e.g., pin-on-disc) indicate that it could be treated as a chaotic phenomenon. Data obtained from a full brake system on a noise dynamometer were examined with nonlinear analysis techniques. The application of recurrence plots reveals chaotic structures even in noisy data from the squealing events. By separating the time series into different regimes, lower dimensional attractors are isolated and quantified by dynamic invariants such as correlation dimension estimates or Lyapunov exponents. Further analysis of the recurrence plot of squealing events by means of recurrence quantification analysis measures reveals different regimes of laminar and random behaviour, periodicity and chaos-forming recurrent transitions. These results help to classify brake squeal mechanisms and to enhance understanding of friction-related noise phenomena.

Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

2011-02-01

86

Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

1983-01-01

87

Automatic transmission brake assembly including an overrunning roller brake and a friction brake  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an overrunning roller brake assembly for a planetary gear unit in an automatic transmission for automobiles, the gear unit having a ring gear, a carrier and a sun gear, the carrier having planet pinions thereon engaging the sun and ring gears; a brake for anchoring a reaction member of the gear unit, at least one other member of the gear unit being adapted to receive driving torque; the brake comprising an annular inner brake race surrounding a fixed part of the transmission, an annular outer brake race connected to the reaction member and surrounding the inner race, the outer race comprising an extrusion with an outer brake drum surface adapted to be engaged by a reaction friction brake band; overrunning brake rollers between the races, a pair of support rings between the races on either side of the rollers; the support rings having a C-shaped cross section whereby the inner and outer surfaces thereof provide a bearing support for the races; retainer rings enclosed within the support rings, the retainer rings having a radial thickness approximately equal to the radial inside dimension of the C-shaped cross section of the support rings whereby radial loads are transmitted between the races through the retainer rings and support rings.

Premiski, V.; Hohnel, R.; Premiski, C.

1988-10-11

88

Brake squeal: Linear and nonlinear numerical approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake squeal” groups a large set of high-frequency sound emissions from brake systems. They are generated during the braking phase and are characterized by a harmonic spectrum. The onset of squeal is due to an unstable behaviour occurring in linear conditions during the braking phase, and a general approach used by several authors to determine the system instabilities is the

Francesco Massi; Laurent Baillet; Oliviero Giannini; Aldo Sestieri

2007-01-01

89

Neural network prediction of disc brake performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automotive brake's performance results from the complex interrelated phenomena occurring at the contact of the friction pair. These complex braking phenomena are mostly affected by the tribochemical properties of the friction material's ingredients, the brake disc properties, and the brake's operating regimes. In this paper, the synergistic effects of the friction material's properties, defined by its composition and manufacturing

Dragan Aleksendri?; David C. Barton

2009-01-01

90

30 CFR 56.19004 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 56.19004 Section 56.19004 ...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be capable of...

2013-07-01

91

30 CFR 57.19004 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 57.19004 Section 57.19004 ...Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be capable of...

2013-07-01

92

Benefits of front brakes on heavy trucks  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the issue of front wheel braking on heavy trucks and reviews testing that has been performed over the years dating back to 1948 to evaluate the effect of front brakes on braking performance. It also describes in detail a test and demonstration program on front wheel brakes that was conducted in September 1986. The paper indicates that front wheel brakes have a strong effect on braking performance and that vehicles without front wheel brakes take longer distances to stop and are more likely to lose control in emergency situations. The paper also indicates that the use of front brake pressure limiting valves with typical, current design front brakes degrades vehicle braking performance.

Radlinski, R.W.; Flick, M.A.

1987-01-01

93

Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

94

Mechanical Mixer for Rudder/Braking Wedge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Right and left rudder panels moved separately. Mechanical mixer enables panels of two-panel rudder to rotate in same direction for steering or in opposite directions for dynamic braking. Steering and braking inputs separate so any combination of steering and braking motions executed simultaneously. Developed for aerodynamic braking of Space Shuttle orbiter, steering/braking drive train and rudder arrangement used for similar purposes on aircraft, thereby reducing sizes of thrust reversers.

Grimm, D.

1985-01-01

95

Wheel brakes and their application to aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advantages to be gained from braking have not been ignored, and in the search for a suitable method many schemes have been suggested and tried. Some of the methods discussed in this paper include: 1) increasing the height of the landing gear; 2) air brakes of various forms; 3) sprags on tail skid and axle; and 4) wheel brakes. This report focuses on the design of wheel brakes and wheel brake controls.

Dowty, G H

1928-01-01

96

Development of aircraft brake materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program has been carried out to study and develop high temperature aircraft brake materials. A survey of the requirements of brake materials was made to select materials to meet these requirements. Based upon their physical and thermal properties, a number of materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. The mating material is 17-22 AS steel. Additives were incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials. Optimum materials were developed which had improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials were a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite and a molybdenum base material containing LPA 100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum and silicon).

Ho, T.-L.; Peterson, M. B.

1976-01-01

97

Experimental Research on Brake Squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many years experimental researches have been performed in order to get an insight into the issue of brake squeal. This work presents an innovative test setup for analyzing friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. The investigated brake system showed brake squeal issues at certain operating points. The purpose was to analyse the brake system in detail on a test rig. Because the well-known methods of investigation such as laser vibrometer were not possible, the aim was to develop and generate new measuring points, which are close to the contact area of disc and pad. Therefore the brake calliper has been modified; hence the guide are replaced by modified ones. At these pins the friction force can be measured. Because of an optimized shape it is possible to measure the vibration of the friction force. The measured signal correlates with a parallel measured microphone signal. Next the brake disc will be assembled with triaxial accelerometers. Thus it is possible to determine the operating deflection shape of the disc. With the results of this work a new contact algorithm should be developed which can be used e.g. in Finite Element calculations.

Wallner, Daniel; Bernsteiner, Stefan

98

Braking System Performance of Selected 1978 Model Year Trucks and Multi-Purpose Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six vehicles were tested to Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 105-75, Hydraulic Brake Systems, to determine the degree to which their performance complied with the requirements of that standard. The vehicle group included a compact pickup truck, a large 4...

E. Kakaley R. Radlinski

1980-01-01

99

49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydraulic brake system cylinder having a diameter of...is required for each test. (e) Filler cap...adequate volume for thermal expansion, yet permit measurement...reused. (f) Wheel cylinder (WC) assemblies (SAE...8 inch) for each test. Pistons shall be...

2011-10-01

100

Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic control system is described for an automatic transmission including hydraulic servos for clutches and brakes to engage and disengage components in the transmission gear mechanism and having a forward clutch hydraulic servo and a brake hydraulic servo, and a manual valve, comprising:a modulator valve for adjusting line pressure to a predetermined modulator pressure; a control valve adapted to be shifted in response to signals based on positions of the manual valve and the vehicle running condition; a first oil path connected between the control valve and the manual valve as a line pressure oil path; the control valve including a first port connecting to the forward clutch hydraulic servo; a second oil path connected between the control valve and the brake hydraulic servo; and a shift valve situated in the second oil path, the shift valve not operating during a low speed vehicle condition, the shift valve being adapted to connect the second oil path when the shift valve shifts to a low speed position and to disconnect the oil path when the shift valve shifts to a high speed position.

Sakaguchi, Y

1989-05-16

101

Dynamic analysis of disc brake and impact law of related parameters on braking torque  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling method of parameterized flexible virtual prototype of disc brake was provided by the united application of finite element modeling (FEM) and dynamics analysis method. A virtual prototype of disc brake was created, in which the rotor, backplates and brake pads are flexible parts. A typical dynamics analysis in condition of the fully loaded braking process at the initial

Zhaojun Yang; Changliang Liu; Jixin Wang; Xun Yang

2010-01-01

102

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 Transportation...More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The...

2013-10-01

103

49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. 236.508 Section 236.508 Transportation...Standards § 236.508 Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. The automatic...

2013-10-01

104

14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main...assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined...following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements...

2009-01-01

105

14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main...assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined...following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements...

2010-01-01

106

Minimal models for disk brake squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous publications on the modeling of disk brake squeal can be found in the literature. Recent publications describe the onset of disk brake squeal as an instability of the trivial solution resulting from the non-conservative friction forces even for a constant friction coefficient. Therefore, a minimal model of disk brake squeal must contain at least two degrees of freedom. A literature review of minimal models shows that there is still a lack of a minimal model describing the basic behavior of disk brake squeal which can easily be associated to an automotive disk brake. Therefore, a new minimal model of a disk brake is introduced here, showing an obvious relation to the technical system. In this model, the vibration of the disk is taken into account, as it plays a dominant role in brake squeal. The model is analyzed with respect to its stability behavior, and consequences in using it in the optimization of disk brake systems are discussed.

von Wagner, Utz; Hochlenert, Daniel; Hagedorn, Peter

2007-05-01

107

Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

Edwards, H. B.

1981-01-01

108

Independent Evaluation of Electronically Controlled Braking Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI), this study was funded to increase the understanding of the performance benefits of leading-edge foundation brake technologies and advanced brake control systems for tractor-trailers. It has been documented i...

B. Nicosia D. Skorupski D. Van Order R. Stinebiser S. Silvani

2009-01-01

109

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT IX, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (PART I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OIL FLOW WITHIN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE GENERAL DESCRIPTION, HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS, AND BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT AND OPERATION. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "LEARNING ABOUT THE ALLISON…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

110

Control of Dynamic Brake Through Heuristic Rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, it is shown that the application of a dynamic brake or thyristorcontrolled braking resistor (TCBR) at the generator terminals enhances the power transfer limit over a transmission line greatly. Two types of dynamic brake configuration have been considered here: a 3-phase, bidirectional, fullwave, Y-connected, phase controlled conventional brake and a 3-phase, fullwave, thyristor-controlled rectifier bridge. A simple

2000-01-01

111

Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to

S. Oberst; J. C. S. Lai

2011-01-01

112

DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS FOR AUTOMOTIVE DISC BRAKES  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of the 19th century the development of a brake system for the newly invented automobile vehicles was needed. From that moment on, this equipment, which makes use of several components (the brake disc among them), was developed. It was after the beginning of the Second World War, in 1938, that the brake system technological advance got great

Omar Maluf; Maurício Angeloni; Marcelo Tadeu Milan; Dirceu Spinelli; Waldek Wladimir; Bose Filho

113

Disk Brake Squeal: Modeling and Active Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable effort is spent in the design and testing of disk brakes of modern passenger cars. This effort can be reduced if refined mathematical-mechanical models are used for studying the dynamics of these brakes before prototypes are available. The present paper is devoted to the modeling of a floating caliper disk brake, special regard being given to the suppression of

Thira Jearsiripongkul; Daniel Hochlenert

2006-01-01

114

Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

2010-01-01

115

Freight Train Brake System Safety Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the development of railroad brake system dynamic models and the results of an experimental study of the effects of water and ice on brake friction. Dynamic computer models account for brake signal propagation through a pneumatic air l...

E. K. Bender L. E. Wittig J. D. Stahr

1983-01-01

116

49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drained from the air brake system of all locomotives in the consist...or independent brake control system will be considered to be...controlling locomotive in a distributed power train consist; ...safe operation of the brake systems from the controlling...

2013-10-01

117

Friction brake cushions acceleration and vibration loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Friction brake cushions an object in a vehicle from axially applied vibration and steady-state acceleration forces. The brake incorporates a doubly tapered piston that applies a controlled radial force to friction brake segments bearing against the walls of a cylinder.

Fraser, G. F.; Zawadski, G. Z.

1966-01-01

118

49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the...

2013-10-01

119

49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52 Transportation...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its...

2013-10-01

120

Tribological surfaces of organic brake pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the enormous amount of testing and development of automotive brakes and brake pad materials, rather little is known about their tribological contact situation on a microscopic level. The sliding of an organic brake pad against a grey cast iron rotor is very different from most tribological systems. When worn against the rotor, the complex structure and very inhomogeneous composition

Mikael Eriksson; Staffan Jacobson

2000-01-01

121

Brake wear warning device: A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

Hawkins, S. F.

1973-01-01

122

Review of automotive brake friction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gradual phasing-out of asbestos in automotive brake friction materials in many parts of the world has sparked the onset of extensive research and development into safer alternatives. As a result, the brake friction industry has seen the birth of different brake pads and shoes in the past decade, each with their own unique composition, yet performing the very same

D Chan; G W Stachowiak

2004-01-01

123

30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 36.29 Section 36.29 Mineral...and Design Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation...equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes acceptable to...

2013-07-01

124

Braking performance of aircraft tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

Agrawal, Satish K.

125

Panic bars and automatic brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication illustrates the need for installation of panic bars that will permit rapid deenergization of equipment in emergencies and automatic emergency brakes on self-propelled electric face equipment used in coal mines. The publication contains drawings depicting actual fatal accidents that have occurred in underground coal mines which these safety devices could have prevented. Also included are drawings and technical

1975-01-01

126

Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel.

Swan, Scott A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

127

Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle  

DOEpatents

A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI)

2000-12-05

128

Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

129

Minimal models for squealing of railway block brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block brakes have been used to brake railway vehicles for approximately 200 years. During the last 40 years, disk brakes have\\u000a replaced the block brakes at passenger cars but block brakes are still used for all freight wagons. One problem of block brakes\\u000a is that they show an enormous tendency to squeal. Although the block brake is a very common and old

Utz von Wagner; Gottfried Spelsberg-Korspeter

2011-01-01

130

Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according to signals from the control unit. The control device consists of: a selecting value switched by signals indicating stopping and running condition of a vehicle, the selecting valve being connected to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch for engaging and transmitting torque during the forward running conditon, the selecting valve selectively receiving a line pressure and a control pressure from the regulating valve so that hydraulic pressure just below engaging pressure regulated by the regulating valve is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during stopping, and a line pressure is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during running.

Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kashihara, Y.

1989-06-20

131

49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indicator, or in the case of tread or disc brakes by determining that the brake shoe...or between the brake pad and the brake disc. (4) The communicating signal...train properly apply; (13) Each brake disc is free of any crack in...

2009-10-01

132

49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indicator, or in the case of tread or disc brakes by determining that the brake shoe...or between the brake pad and the brake disc. (4) The communicating signal...train properly apply; (13) Each brake disc is free of any crack in...

2010-10-01

133

Space shuttle wheels and brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

Carsley, R. B.

1985-01-01

134

Braking performance of heavy U. S. vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a synthesis of the information available describing the braking performance of heavy (on-highway) vehicles in the U.S. and contrasts the braking performance of heavy vehicles with that of passenger cars. It discusses the unique demands that are placed on heavy vehicle brake systems and shows that it is difficult to optimize braking performance for all operating conditions without adding complexity to the system. As designed, U.S. heavy vehicles do not perform as well as cars. In addition, heavy vehicle brake performance can degrade significantly from the design-intent level if proper maintenance is not performed. The brake maintenance situation in the U.S. leaves something to be desired.

Radlinski, R.W.

1987-01-01

135

Intelligent vehicle braking and steering control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art vehicle dynamics control systems integrate the driver's steering and braking inputs together with the antilock braking system (ABS) and the four wheel steering system (4WS) in order to control the vehicle's yaw rate, lateral acceleration, longitudinal acceleration, and body sideslip angle. The goal of this project is to develop intelligent controllers for vehicle steering and braking maneuvers. In the

Anthony Barnard Will

1997-01-01

136

PREDICTING RANGES FOR PULSARS' BRAKING INDICES  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical determination of braking indices of pulsars is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study concerning such determination based on a modification of the canonical model, which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles, and on data from the seven pulsars with known braking indices. In order to test the modified model, we predict ranges for the braking indices of other pulsars.

Magalhaes, Nadja S.; Miranda, Thaysa A. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, DCET, Rua Sao Nicolau 210, Diadema, SP 09913-030 (Brazil); Frajuca, Carlos, E-mail: nadjasm@gmail.com [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sao Paulo, R. Pedro Vicente 625, Sao Paulo, SP 01109-010 (Brazil)

2012-08-10

137

Bonneville power administration 1400MW braking resistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1400-MW dynamic braking resistor installed at the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Chief Joseph Substation enhances system stability in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The capacity of the Pacific Northwest-Southwest (PNW-SW) Intertie is increased by the use of resistor braking for faults in the PNW. The need of and benefits from the use of the brake are discussed. The physical and

M. L. Shelton; P. F. Winkelman; W. A. Mittelstadt; W. J. Bellerby

1975-01-01

138

Influence of convective cooling on a disc brake temperature distribution during repetitive braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate an impact of convective mode of heat transfer on the thermal behaviour of a disc brake system during repetitive braking process with the constant velocity using fully three-dimensional finite element model. The transient thermal analysis to determine the temperature distributions on the contact surface of a disc brake is performed. The issue

Adam Adamowicz; Piotr Grzes

2011-01-01

139

Bidirectional Drive-And-Brake Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vehicle that crawls along monorail combines features of both bicycle and railroad handcar. Bidirectional drive-and-brake mechanism includes selectable-pawl-and-ratchet overrunning clutch (drive mechanism) and mating stationary and rotating conical surfaces pressing against each other (brake mechanism). Operates similarly to bicycle drive-and-brake mechanism except limits rotation of sprocket in both directions and brakes at both limits. Conceived for use by astronaut traveling along structure in outer space, concept also applied on Earth to make very small railraod handcars or crawling vehicles for use on large structures, in pipelines under construction, or underwater.

Swan, Scott A.

1991-01-01

140

Engine brake control apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a compression brake controller for use with a vehicle having an engine, a clutch, a transmission, a compression brake apparatus having a brake input and activated in response to signals supplied to the brake input, and a throttle control device. It comprises fuel metering means for controlling fuel delivery to the engine; throttle position sensor means for sensing the position of the throttle control device; pressure sensor means in fluid communication with the intake manifold of the engine; control circuit means for supplying a fueling signal to the fuel signal input in accordance with the throttle signal; RPM sensor means for producing an RPM signal corresponding to engine RPM; and brake circuit means for supplying a braking signal to the brake input of the compression brake apparatus in accordance with concurrence of the following conditions. This patent also describes a method for activating and deactivating a compression brake in an internal combustion having a throttle control. It comprises detecting a throttle control position below a predetermined throttle limit; detecting an intake manifold pressure below a predetermined pressure limit; detecting an engine speed above a predetermined RPM limit; detecting a fuel metering signal corresponding to a fueling rate below a predetermined fueling limit.

Stepper, M.R.; White, G.R.; Seger, J.P.; Van Klompenburg, D.; Green, J.H.; Ling, R.

1992-06-16

141

49 CFR 570.5 - Service brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breaks that extend to rivet holes except minor cracks that do not impair attachment. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely attached to shoe plates. (1) Inspection procedure....

2009-10-01

142

49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attachment. The wire in wire-backed lining shall not be visible on the friction surface. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely attached to shoe plates. (1) Inspection procedure....

2010-10-01

143

49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attachment. The wire in wire-backed lining shall not be visible on the friction surface. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely attached to shoe plates. (1) Inspection procedure....

2009-10-01

144

49 CFR 570.5 - Service brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...breaks that extend to rivet holes except minor cracks that do not impair attachment. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely attached to shoe plates. (1) Inspection procedure....

2010-10-01

145

30 CFR 56.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 56.19065 Section 56.19065 Mineral...56.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during...

2013-07-01

146

30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56.14113 Section 56.14113 Mineral Resources...56.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined...

2013-07-01

147

49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required brake systems. 393.40 Section 393.40 Transportation...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each commercial motor...

2013-10-01

148

30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57.14113 Section 57.14113 Mineral Resources...57.14113 Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined...

2013-07-01

149

49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393.44...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if...

2013-10-01

150

49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section 236... Definitions § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous or a split...

2013-10-01

151

49 CFR 393.42 - Brakes required on all wheels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brakes required on all wheels. 393.42 Section 393...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.42 Brakes required on all wheels. (a) Every...

2013-10-01

152

30 CFR 57.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 57.19065 Section 57.19065 Mineral...57.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during...

2013-07-01

153

49 CFR 229.47 - Emergency brake valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency brake valve. 229.47 Section 229.47 Transportation...LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.47 Emergency brake valve. (a) Except for locomotives...

2013-10-01

154

49 CFR 396.25 - Qualifications of brake inspectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Qualifications of brake inspectors. 396.25 Section 396...MAINTENANCE § 396.25 Qualifications of brake inspectors. (a) Motor carriers...maintenance, repairs or service to the brakes of its commercial motor vehicles,...

2013-10-01

155

Human Performance Evaluation of Light Vehicle Brake Assist Systems: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brake Assist System (BAS) is a safety feature that supplements drivers inadequate braking force during panic braking maneuvers upon the detection of a rapid brake pedal application. This report presents an evaluation of drivers panic braking performan...

A. Wharton G. M. Fitch J. C. Rice J. F. Morgan M. Blanco R. J. Hanowski W. W. Wierwille

2010-01-01

156

ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

157

Alter-Brake System. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first phase of the work performed under this grant involved design improvements in the Model ABS5-B1 Alter-Brake unit. This particular unit was designed to operate during vehicle deceleration rather than just during braking. The B1 version of this dev...

D. E. Hicks

1986-01-01

158

BRAKE SQUEAL NOISE: FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the brake disc squeal phenomenon using finite element analysis (FEA). The modal analysis has been used in this work to determine the natural frequency and mode shape pattern. The study on four different types of material properties is carried out to shows the effect of vibration mode and natural frequency as the source of brake squeal contribution.

MUHAMMAD ZAHIR HASSAN

159

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF DISC BRAKE SQUEAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents prediction of disc brake squeal using the finite element method. A time domain nonlinear transient analysis approach in ABAQUS v6.4 is employed in order to assess instability of the disc brake assembly, which can be identified as an initially divergent vibration response. The predicted unstable frequencies from dynamic transient analysis are then compared to the results predicted

Abd Rahim; Abu Bakar; Khidzir Zakaria

2005-01-01

160

14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921 Aeronautics...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the...

2010-01-01

161

Failure analysis of a motorcycle brake disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

A certain number of motorbike disc brakes, made of stainless steel, shown the presence of small cracks only after a few thousands miles. These cracks were mainly located nearby the holes placed on flange to ventilate and refresh pads.According to results, the deterioration can be led back to thermal cyclic strain (related with the heating–cooling cycles developed during the brake

M. Boniardi; F. D’Errico; C. Tagliabue; G. Gotti; G. Perricone

2006-01-01

162

Rotary drive disc brake for drawworks  

SciTech Connect

A disc-type brake apparatus is described that is adapted for installation in combination with the drawworks of a well bore drilling operation for automatically sensing any reverse torque situation in the drill pipe and quickly set the brake for precluding transmission of any reverse torque to the rotary table drive and clutch mechanism therefor.

Johnson, E.R.; Watkins, L.G.

1980-10-07

163

Vehicle steering intervention through differential braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the usefulness of a brake steer system (BSS) which uses differential brake forces for steering intervention in the context of intelligent vehicle highway systems. The resulting moment on the vehicle affects yaw rate and lateral position, thereby providing a limited steering function. The steering function achieved through BSS can then be used to control lateral position in

Tom Pilutti; Galip Ulsoy; D. Hrovat

1995-01-01

164

Fuzzy learning control for antiskid braking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although antiskid braking systems (ABS) are designed to optimize braking effectiveness while maintaining steerability, their performance often degrades under harsh road conditions (e.g. icy\\/snowy roads). The use of the fuzzy model reference learning control (FMRLC) technique for maintaining adequate performance even under such adverse road conditions is proposed. This controller utilizes a learning mechanism that observes the plant outputs and

Jeffery R. Layne; Kevin M. Passino; Stephen Yurkovich

1993-01-01

165

Air brake-dynamometer accurately measures torque  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air brake-dynamometer assembly combines the principles of the air turbine and the air pump to apply braking torque. The assembly absorbs and measures power outputs of rotating machinery over a wide range of shaft speeds. It can also be used as an air turbine.

1965-01-01

166

Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

2011-01-01

167

Some wear studies on aircraft brake systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An initial investigation of worn surfaces in friction pads and steel rotors used in current aircraft brakes was carried out using electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis. It consists of the topographical study and the analysis of chemical element distribution. Based upon this initial examination, two approaches, microscopic and macroscopic have been conducted to interpret and formulate the wear mechanism of the aircraft brake materials. Microscopically, the wear particles were examined. The initiation and growth of surface cracks and the oxidation were emphasized in this investigation. Macroscopically, it has been found that, for the current copper based brake material sliding against 17-22 AS steel in a caliper brake, the surface temperature raised due to frictional heat is nonlinearly proportional to the load applied and slide time with speed at 1750 rpm. The wear of brake materials is then proportional to this temperature and is also a function of the melting temperature for copper.

Ho, T. L.

1975-01-01

168

Hydraulics Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the WindTech TV project provides a link to lectures created by Jim Pytel for his hydraulics course at Columbia Gorge Community College. The lectures consist of live videos and screen capture style presentations and may be viewed free of charge. Clicking on the video link in the center of the page will lead users to a YouTube page with 31 lectures. Topics include hydraulics math, hydraulic safety, basic hydraulic schematics, viscosity, piston pumps, actuators, troubleshooting and more. These lectures would be extremely useful for technical and community college students taking a fundamental hydraulics course. Flash is required to view the videos.

Pytel, Jim

2013-07-18

169

Reaction times to neon, LED, and fast incandescent brake lamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard incandescent brake lamps have a relatively slow rise time. It takes approximately a quarter of a second for them to reach 90% of asymptotic light output, causing potential delays in responses by following drivers. The present study evaluated reaction times to brake signals from standard incandescent brake lamps and from three alternative brake lamps with substantially faster rise times:

MICHAEL SIVAK; MICHAEL J. FLANNAGAN; TAKASHI SATO; ERIC C. TRAUBE; MASAMI AOKI

1994-01-01

170

49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation...STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57 Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or...

2013-10-01

171

Electrodynamic braking in high?speed rail transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers electrodynamic braking of trains, which is of particular importance for high?speed railway transport from theoretical and technical perspectives. Braking methods used for high?speed trains should ensure compatibility and redundancy of braking systems. They include a mechanical method (based on adding frictional disks to wheelsets), as well as magnetic braking, which is being currently implemented and based on

Lionginas Liudvinavi?ius; Leonas Povilas Lingaitis

2007-01-01

172

Braking methods of induction motor using direct torque control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the performance of the three phase induction motor with different methods of braking, such as forward plugging, ac dynamic braking and reverse plugging braking using direct torque control (DTC). The simulation results are validated with the practical results under different conditions. The paper presents a solution to decrease the energy losses resulting from traditional methods of braking

G. M. A. Sowilam; M. I. Korfly; A. A. Hassan

2006-01-01

173

Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to understand the mechanisms, a design of experiments study, using a noise dynamometer, was performed by a brake system manufacturer to determine the influence of geometrical parameters (namely, the number and location of slots) of brake pads on brake squeal noise. The experimental results were evaluated with a noise index and ranked for warm and cold brake stops. These data are analysed here using statistical descriptors based on population distributions, and a correlation analysis, to gain greater insight into the functional dependency between the time-averaged friction coefficient as the input and the peak sound pressure level data as the output quantity. The correlation analysis between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure data is performed by applying a semblance analysis and a joint recurrence quantification analysis. Linear measures are compared with complexity measures (nonlinear) based on statistics from the underlying joint recurrence plots. Results show that linear measures cannot be used to rank the noise performance of the four test pad configurations. On the other hand, the ranking of the noise performance of the test pad configurations based on the noise index agrees with that based on nonlinear measures: the higher the nonlinearity between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure, the worse the squeal. These results highlight the nonlinear character of brake squeal and indicate the potential of using nonlinear statistical analysis tools to analyse disc brake squeal.

Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

2011-06-01

174

Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

Tanner, J. A.

1972-01-01

175

Wear studies on aircraft brake materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of both worn surfaces of friction pads and steel rotors which are being applied in current aircraft brakes has been carried out by employing an X-ray diffraction technique. It consists of the analysis of chemical element distribution in the surface layers. The wear particles were also examined by using the scanning electron microscope. The initiation and growth of surface cracks and the oxidation were emphasized in this investigation. A wear model was proposed for the current aircraft brake materials. Essentially this model proposed that cracks are formed in the surface layer of the brake material due to the normal and frictional stresses. It is primarily surface temperature dependent.

Ho, T. L.

1977-01-01

176

Screw-released roller brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

177

Experimental Identification of Brake Pad Material Properties-A Step Towards a Better Prediction of Brake Squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive brake squeal is a disruptive high frequency sound radiation phenomenon generated by friction-induced self-excited vibrations of the brake system. The brake system loses its stability and starts oscillating in a limit cycle with amplitudes limited by nonlinearities, the main origin of the nonlinearities being brake lining material. In order to perform a reliable brake squeal prediction using established mathematical-mechanical

Sylwia Hornig; Daniel Hochlenert; Utz von Wagner

2010-01-01

178

Calibrator for an Electromagnetically Braked Bicycle Ergometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electromagnetically braked bicycle ergometer is frequently used in the exercise physiology laboratory as a source of known workload. Normally the accuracy of the device cannot be verified without returning it to the factory for recalibration, a costly...

R. P. Layton W. A. Tetrault

1982-01-01

179

30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment shall not be tested when carrying hazardous loads, such as explosives. (ii) The approach shall be of sufficient...traveling except for equipment which is designed for the power train to be disengaged during braking. (v) Testing...

2013-07-01

180

30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment shall not be tested when carrying hazardous loads, such as explosives. (ii) The approach shall be sufficient...traveling except for equipment which is designed for the power train to be disengaged during braking. (v) Testing...

2013-07-01

181

Determination of Petroleum Contamination in Brake Fluids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the investigation was to develop a procedure for the determination of small amounts of petroleum contaminants in conventional brake fluids. Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were utilized. The procedure is a...

C. B. Jordan R. G. Jamison

1972-01-01

182

Implementation Analysis of Brake Inspectability Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An accurate description of the feasibility, optimum schedule, and cost of implementing a brake inspectability requirement for all production passenger cars (PPC) and light trucks (LT) was prepared. The work was performed as a part of Task 1h Manufacturing...

A. L. Cross W. Wakeley O. J. Viergutz M. Harvey

1979-01-01

183

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating under worst-case adhesion conditions. (b) The...consistent with prevailing adhesion, passenger safety, and...equipment shall be equipped with an adhesion control system designed to automatically adjust the braking force on each wheel to prevent...

2009-10-01

184

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operating under worst-case adhesion conditions. (b) The...consistent with prevailing adhesion, passenger safety, and...equipment shall be equipped with an adhesion control system designed to automatically adjust the braking force on each wheel to prevent...

2010-10-01

185

49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operating under worst-case adhesion conditions. (b) The...consistent with prevailing adhesion, passenger safety, and...equipment shall be equipped with an adhesion control system designed to automatically adjust the braking force on each wheel to prevent...

2013-10-01

186

30 CFR 57.10004 - Brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type...automatically in the event of a power failure shall be provided on aerial...

2013-07-01

187

Motorcycle Brake Test Procedure Validation. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure for measuring motorcycle braking performance by the tow-method was validated. Three motorcycles were subjected to this procedure, which was developed for NHTSA by the Highway Safety Research Institute of the University of Michigan. A water del...

M. L. Love R. D. Tonda

1983-01-01

188

Transient Thermal Effects in Disc Brakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was undertaken with the ultimate objective being to develop a general theoretical model for predicting temperatures within the stators, rotors, rim, torque tube, tire, fuse plug and bead seat of a typical disc brake assembly. The effort w...

B. J. Brookman

1979-01-01

189

Effect of frictional heating on brake materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory study of the properties of aircraft brake materials was made to determine ways of improving friction and wear behavior while minimizing surface temperatures. It is found that frictional variation at high temperature involves material softening and metal transfer, formation of oxides, and surface melting. The choice of proper materials to combat these effects is discussed. Minimum surface temperatures are found to result from use of materials with large density-specific heat and density-specific heat-conductivity factors, use of a higher load-lower friction system, and maximization of the contact area. Some useful trade-off criteria for the size of brake disks against weight considerations are suggested. Additional information on material behavior and peak braking temperatures was gathered from an inspection of used brake pads and rotor disks.

Ho, T.-L.; Peterson, M. B.; Ling, F. F.

1974-01-01

190

Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking  

DOEpatents

A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

Barbu, Corneliu (Laguna Hills, CA) [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph (Nishkayuna, NY) [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee (Simpsonville, SC) [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel (Greenville, SC) [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter (Muenster, DE) [Muenster, DE

2009-02-10

191

PID Control Analysis of Brake Test Bench  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, the control methods of brake test bench are studied. According to as much as possible consistent principle\\u000a of braking process between on the test bench and road test vehicle, by controlling motor to work under certain regular current,\\u000a compensate lack energy owing to the shortage of electricity, establish control model of equivalent inertia and vehicle load.\\u000a At

Rui Zhang; Haiyin Li; Huimin Xiao

2010-01-01

192

Rotary Speed Sensor for Antilocking Brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor based on fluidic principles produces negative pressure approximately proportional to rotational speed. Sensor developed as part of antilocking brake system for motorcycles. Uses inlet pressure rather than outlet pressure as braking-control signal, eliminating pressure pulsations caused by pump vanes and ensuring low-noise signal. Sensor is centrifugal air pump turned by one of motorcycle wheels. Air enters pump through orifice plates, and suction taken off through port in pump inlet plenum.

Berdahl, C. M.

1986-01-01

193

Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

1972-01-01

194

Massive star models with magnetic braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Magnetic fields at the surface of a few early-type stars have been directly detected. These fields have magnitudes between a few hundred G up to a few kG. In one case, evidence of magnetic braking has been found. Aims: We investigate the effects of magnetic braking on the evolution of rotating (?ini = 200 km s-1) × 10 M_? stellar models at solar metallicity during the main-sequence (MS) phase. Methods: The magnetic braking process is included in our stellar models according to the formalism deduced from 2D MHD simulations of magnetic wind confinement by ud-Doula and co-workers. Various assumptions are made regarding both the magnitude of the magnetic field and of the efficiency of the angular momentum transport mechanisms in the stellar interior. Results: When magnetic braking occurs in models with differential rotation, a strong and rapid mixing is obtained at the surface accompanied by a rapid decrease in the surface velocity. Such a process might account for some MS stars showing strong mixing and low surface velocities. When solid-body rotation is imposed in the interior, the star is slowed down so rapidly that surface enrichments are smaller than in similar models with no magnetic braking. In both kinds of models (differentially or uniformly rotating), magnetic braking due to a field of a few 100 G significantly reduces the angular momentum of the core during the MS phase. This reduction is much greater in solid-body rotating models.

Meynet, G.; Eggenberger, P.; Maeder, A.

2011-01-01

195

Hydraulic Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build cars using syringes and water-powered hydraulics. Learners construct the car frame out of cardboard and set up a hydraulic system to raise and lower the car. Use this project to introduce learners to incompressible fluids and Pascal's Principle.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

196

Modelling and validation of magnetorheological brake responses using parametric approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological brake (MR Brake) is one x-by-wire systems which performs better than conventional brake systems. MR brake consists of a rotating disc that is immersed with Magnetorheological Fluid (MR Fluid) in an enclosure of an electromagnetic coil. The applied magnetic field will increase the yield strength of the MR fluid where this fluid was used to decrease the speed of the rotating shaft. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model to represent MR brake with a test rig. The MR brake model is developed based on actual torque characteristic which is coupled with motion of a test rig. Next, the experimental are performed using MR brake test rig and obtained three output responses known as angular velocity response, torque response and load displacement response. Furthermore, the MR brake was subjected to various current. Finally, the simulation results of MR brake model are then verified with experimental results.

Z, Zainordin A.; A, Abdullah M.; K, Hudha

2013-12-01

197

Finite Element Analysis of Locomotive Wheel Rim and Brake Block ThermoMechanical Interaction during Braking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of time varying temperature dependent phenomena is a tedious task. In the present work finite element analysis (FEA) of locomotive wheel and brake block interface has been made to study efficiently the processes such as temperature responsible for initiation of wheel wear and roughness. The main consideration in the study is the thermo-mechanical interaction between brake block and wheel

Amarjeet Singh Randhawa; Varinder Sahni; Rajesh Kumar

198

Experimental analysis of brake squeal noise on a laboratory brake setup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first of two papers dealing with brake squeal instability. An experimental setup is specifically designed for this purpose and is characterized by a simple design to aid measurements and modeling. This first paper describes the experimental setup called “laboratory brake” and presents the measurements performed on it to characterize its dynamical behavior and its squeal

Oliviero Giannini; Adnan Akay; Francesco Massi

2006-01-01

199

Performance of ceramic enhanced phenolic matrix brake lining materials for automotive brake linings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the number of research studies completed on the mechanism of friction in automotive brake lining materials, the phenomenon is still not fully understood. Complex mechano-chemical processes occurring on the friction interface of a composite friction material make it difficult to understand the correlation between the formulation of brake lining and the frictional performance. This paper concentrates on (i) the

K. W. Hee; P. Filip

2005-01-01

200

Electromagnetic brake/clutch device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromagnetic brake/clutch device includes a drive shaft supported by at least one bearing for transmitting torque, a housing, affixed to prevent its rotation, surrounding the drive shaft, and an electromagnetically activated device within the housing to selectively prevent and allow rotation of the drive shaft. The electromagnetically activated device includes a plurality of cammed rollers to prevent counter-clockwise rotation of the drive shaft. The drive shaft includes a circumferential disk and the housing includes a reaction ring for engagement with the plurality of cammed rollers. The plurality of cammed rollers are released from engagement with the circumferential disk and the reaction ring by a plurality of tripping mechanisms within the housing. The tripping action uses the locking force to act as a release force merely by changing the boundary conditions of the roller interface angles. The tripping mechanisms include trippers for disengaging the plurality of cammed rollers and an anvil shaped portion for providing lateral movement of the trippers. The plurality of cammed rollers is preloaded to engagement with the circumferential disk and reaction ring by a spring, and is located with respect to an adjacent tripping mechanism with another spring.

Vranish, John M.

1994-01-01

201

Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system  

DOEpatents

A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more road wheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the road wheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the road wheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded. 8 figs.

Davis, R.I.

1990-10-16

202

Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system  

DOEpatents

A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

Davis, Roy I. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01

203

Evaluation of Squeal Noise from the WMATA Transit Car Disc Brake System: A Preliminary Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) rail transit car design adopted the use of disc brakes as the primary friction braking system. Unfortunately, while disc brakes are more efficient than the traditional tread brake designs, they ar...

L. A. Ronk M. A. Staiano

1981-01-01

204

Hydraulic Amplifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed hydraulic amplifier differs from those already known for increasing accuracy, simplifying the design and ensuring the independence of the output parameter from a change in pressure and drainage head; the throttle valve in it is incorporated i...

A. A. Lyubimov E. D. Magner M. V. Shevyakov

1969-01-01

205

Based on Measurements of Dynamic Wheel Braking Force Detection Vehicle Trajectory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate braking performance of the vehicle scientifically and acquire directly described braking performance parameters of braking distance, horizontal displacement and yaw angle, the paper brings forward the method of testing braking track basing on dynamic measurements of braking wheel force solves the problem that can only rely on the road testing to get the braking track. The same pressure

Li Bing; Chen Meng

2009-01-01

206

30 CFR 57.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 57.19017 Section 57.19017 Mineral... Hoists § 57.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a...

2013-07-01

207

30 CFR 56.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 56.19017 Section 56.19017 Mineral... Hoists § 56.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a...

2013-07-01

208

49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed to: (1) Conduct an electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the grids...dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the...

2013-10-01

209

P iezoelectric Sensors and Actuators in Disk Brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years new mathematical models for mechanical disk brakes in passenger cars were developed in the authors' laboratory, mainly with view to brake squeal and these models were validated in a test rig. For this application \\

Peter Hagedorn; Daniel Hochlenert; Reg Dunlop

210

2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

211

Vehicle transfer gear and drive line brake mechanism  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle transfer gear and drive line brake mechanism including a depending gear transfer train and a drive line brake assembly for respectively propelling and stopping movement of a vehicle. The gear transfer train has an output gear connected to an output shaft disposed on a lower axis and the drive line brake assembly is connected to the output shaft and disposed on the lower axis. The improvement described here consists of: housing means for defining an enclosed compartment containing the gear transfer train and the drive line brake assembly in juxtaposed relation and a common lubrication fluid. The housing means includes a main case defining an opening on the lower axis. The drive line brake assembly includes a brake body releasably secured to the case in closing relationship to the opening and annular plates and discs, the drive line brake assembly being modularized and being removable with the brake body from the output shaft independent of the output gear.

Richards, D.L.; Windish, W.E.

1986-03-25

212

1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

213

The dynamic braking of induction motors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic braking of induction motors is investigated with particular emphasis on the use of zero-sequence connections. The braking performance using both ac and dc supplies is compared. A mathematical model is developed to predict both the transient and steady-state zero-sequence braking performance. To ensure accurate calculations, a model is constructed to allow for the variation of secondary parameters with frequency due to the skin effect. A method for determining the zero-sequence parameters using locked rotor variable frequency data is presented. To measure the transient acceleration torque of the machine, a rotational accelerometer is developed from a small single-phase induction motor. Good correlation between measured and calculated results is achieved during switching transients for both current and torque.

Hickman, B.

1985-03-01

214

Consideration of materials for aircraft brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study has been made of the frictional behavior of several aircraft brake materials using a simple high-temperature Falex-type apparatus. Tests were run at velocities of seven ft/minute; loads to 600 pounds and temperatures to 700 C. The data for these brake materials sliding against a variety of steels and other materials indicate a large reduction in friction due to surface oxidation in the temperature range 250 to 300 C. It also was found that the retention of this oxide was a function of the temperature changes. With increasing temperature the oxide was removed, while with reducing temperature it was retained. Frictional behavior was more characteristic of the steel than the brake material.

Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.-L.

1974-01-01

215

Brake squeal: Linear and nonlinear numerical approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Brake squeal" groups a large set of high-frequency sound emissions from brake systems. They are generated during the braking phase and are characterized by a harmonic spectrum. The onset of squeal is due to an unstable behaviour occurring in linear conditions during the braking phase, and a general approach used by several authors to determine the system instabilities is the complex eigenvalues analysis. When the brake begins to squeal, the response of the system reaches a new limit cycle where the linear models cannot be used anymore. This paper presents the integration of two different numerical procedures to identify the mechanism bringing to squeal instability and to analyse its dynamics. The first approach is a finite element modal analysis of the brake system and is used to identify its eigenvalues and to relate them to the squeal occurrence. The second one is a specific finite element programme, Plast3, appropriate for nonlinear dynamic analyses in the time domain and is particularly addressed to study contact problems with friction between deformable bodies. This programme computes the contact stresses and permits to determine the dynamics of the system along the contact surface, both in the linear and nonlinear fields. The two models are compared and the onset of squeal is predicted both in the frequency domain by the linear model and in the time domain by the nonlinear one. The instability predictions, obtained by the two models, are discussed. To simplify the dynamics of its components, the study is carried out on a simple model, made of a disc, a small friction pad and a beam supporting the pad. The geometry of the model is related to an experimental set-up used to validate the models and to compare the numerical results with the experiments.

Massi, Francesco; Baillet, Laurent; Giannini, Oliviero; Sestieri, Aldo

2007-08-01

216

Magnetic braking of the present Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic braking is essential for angular momentum transport in late-type stars which have convective envelopes. The mechanism may be entirely responsible for the slow rotation of the present Sun, on which a braking model is normally calibrated. Recent or current satellite missions such as Helios and Ulysses have jointly revealed a more complete picture of the solar corona, and more specifically of the solar wind. The wealth of these data at or near the solar minimum is valuable for constraining the dipolar solar braking model. In this paper, we use recently available observations (at or near the solar minimum) to constrain a solar magnetic braking model based on a dipolar field structure. It is found that the Ulysses data indicate a spherical Alfvén surface at high latitudes. We infer from a thermal wind model that it is located at 16 Rsolar, which is larger than the 12 Rodot; deduced from the Helios data for the equatorial region near the solar minimum. It is also found that the braking model with a transition from a dipole to a split monopole field is generally consistent with Ulysses observations, provided that a linear relation between dead zone extent and dipole field strength is satisfied. Thus either the dipole field retains a sizeable dead zone but is much stronger than the standard value, ~ 1 G, or the field has standard strength but an exceedingly small dead zone (<2 R x solar). The magnetic braking rate as constrained by Ulysses data is found to be 2.1× 1030 dyn cm, which is about a quarter of the value deduced earlier from the Weber & Davis model and does not differ significantly from that deduced by Pizzo et al.

Li, Jianke

1999-01-01

217

Simplified representation of rigging efficiency in brake force calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for predicting brake shoe force of a rail vehicle as a linear function of effective brake cylinder pressure. Historically, the braking force has been calculated as the product of cylinder pressure, cylinder area, rigging leverage ratio, and an overall system efficiency factor. The efficiency factor, which takes into account frictional forces and other losses, is a

Graydon Booth; A. Prabhakaran; S. K. Punwani; M. Stewart

2006-01-01

218

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake test. 238.315 Section 238...Passenger Equipment § 238.315 Class IA brake test. (a) Except as provided...this section, either a Class I or a Class IA brake test shall be performed:...

2010-10-01

219

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Class IA brake test. 238.315 Section 238...Passenger Equipment § 238.315 Class IA brake test. (a) Except as provided...this section, either a Class I or a Class IA brake test shall be performed:...

2009-10-01

220

49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class IA brake test. 238.315 Section 238...Passenger Equipment § 238.315 Class IA brake test. (a) Except as provided...this section, either a Class I or a Class IA brake test shall be performed:...

2013-10-01

221

Contact surface topography and system dynamics of brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake noise is an example of noise caused by vibrations induced by friction forces. During brake operation, the friction between the pad and the disc can induce a dynamic instability in the system. Brake squeal can occur in the frequency range between 1 and 20kHz, and more. Approaches to this problem are usually confined to the analysis of the system

Francesco Massi; Yves Berthier; Laurent Baillet

2008-01-01

222

Control of disc brake squeal – modelling and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Considerable effort is spent in the design and testing of disc brakes of modern passenger cars. This effort can be reduced if refined mathematical-mechanical models and new experimental techniques are used for studying the dynamics of these brakes. The present paper is devoted to the modeling and the active suppression of brake squeal. A four degree of freedom disc

D. Hochlenertand; P. Hagedorn

2006-01-01

223

Parameter analysis of brake squeal using finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake Squeal is a friction induced instability phenomenon known to be one of the most annoying noise for drivers. This paper focuses on the mode coupling aspect of brake squeal by means of a multi parametric analysis. The study is based on a Finite Element model of the whole brake corner. A complex eigenvalue analysis is undertaken, with a modal

Guillaume Fritz; Jean-Jacques Sinou; Jean-Marc Duffal; Louis Jézéquel

2007-01-01

224

Predictive model of squeal noise occurring on a laboratory brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper on brake squeal instability presents a reduced order model of a laboratory brake considered in a previous paper, and presents a description of the squeal mechanism occurring during experiments.The model uses the modal parameters of the laboratory brake components, the disc and the caliper, when they are not in contact between them. Successively, the caliper and the disc

Oliviero Giannini; Aldo Sestieri

2006-01-01

225

Evaluation of Disc Brake Materials for Squeal Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nontraditional evaluation tool is introduced to examine the effects of different materials, in practical applications, which are used in fabricating disc brake components for commonly used or special requirements such as heavy duty performance and racing cars. As an extension to earlier FE disc brake models, a detailed FE model of the whole disc brake corner that incorporates wheel

J. Abdo; M. Nouby; D. Mathivanan; K. Srinivasan

2011-01-01

226

Linear eigenvalue analysis of the disc-brake squeal problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents a numerical method to calculate the unstable frequencies of a car disc brake and suggests a suitable analysis procedure. The stationary components of the disc brake are modelled using finite elements and the disc as a thin plate. The separate treatments of the stationary components and the rotating disc facilitate the modelling of the disc brake

Q. Cao; H. Ouyang; M. I. Friswell; J. E. Mottershead

2004-01-01

227

Control strategy of disc braking systems for downward belt conveyors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability of braking systems is a key requirement to ensure the safety of in using downward belt conveyor brakes. By analyzing and comparing three commonly used braking velocity curves, we conclude that the Harrison curve is the best. Given the characteristics of a downward belt conveyor, we studied the control in a closed-loop velocity, a conventional PID method and an

Youfu Hou; Fangwei Xie; Fei Huang

2011-01-01

228

Use of Runway Condition Method to Predict Braking Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Both the U. S. Air Force and FAA currently use James Brake Decelerometer to measure the runway condition and to enable the prediction of braking performance. A new method has been recently developed which also can be used to predict braking performance an...

N. S. Attri

1969-01-01

229

49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the event any brake line to any of the front wheels is broken, the driver can apply the brakes on the rear wheels despite such breakage. The means used to apply the brakes may be located forward of the driver's seat as long as it can be operated...

2010-10-01

230

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2013-10-01

231

A Surface Texturing Approach for Cleaner Disc Brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake dust generated in vehicle brakes causes discoloration of wheels and, more importantly, the emission of particles suspected of health hazard in the environment. Laboratory testing of brake pad materials against cast iron discs revealed that the majority of wear particles are submicrometer in size. Wear particles with a size of 350 nm had the highest percentage in the particle

Mohsen Mosleh; Bomani A. Khemet

2006-01-01

232

AMTRAK/KNORR Disc Brake Study. Volume I. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the Amtrak/Knorr Disc Brake Study which was developed: to evaluate candidate replacement disc brakes for the Knorr disc brakes presently in use on Amfleet and Turboliner cars; to explain the cause of the loosening of the attaching pi...

R. Avant R. Scofield

1980-01-01

233

30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral...Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars...

2013-07-01

234

30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1400-1 Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be...

2013-07-01

235

Neural-network hybrid control for antilock braking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antilock braking systems are designed to maximize wheel traction by preventing the wheels from locking during braking, while also maintaining adequate vehicle steerability; however, the performance is often degraded under harsh road conditions. In this paper, a hybrid control system with a recurrent neural network (RNN) observer is developed for antilock braking systems. This hybrid control system is comprised

Chih-Min Lin; Chun-Fei Hsu

2003-01-01

236

49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319...Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each...

2013-10-01

237

49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Transfer train brake tests. 232.215 Section 232.215...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND...Requirements § 232.215 Transfer train brake tests. (a) A transfer train, as...

2013-10-01

238

49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brakes to be operative. 393.48 Section 393.48...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.48 Brakes to be operative. (a) General rule....

2013-10-01

239

30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral...Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking systems on railroad cars...

2013-07-01

240

30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section 77.1401 Mineral... § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped...and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the elevator when...

2013-07-01

241

49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317 Transportation...Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be performed on a passenger train...

2013-10-01

242

Adaptive emergency braking control with underestimation of friction coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a control scheme for emergency braking maneuvers in automated highway systems and a new online identification scheme to determine the tire-road friction characteristics of the vehicle are presented. The proposed controller determines the required pressure in the master cylinder of the braking system to achieve maximum deceleration during braking, based on the estimation of the tire-road friction

Jingang Yi; Luis Alvarez; Roberto Horowitz

2002-01-01

243

49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.43 Breakaway and emergency...if used to tow a trailer equipped with brakes, shall be equipped with a means for...breakaway of the trailer, the service brakes on the towing vehicle will be...

2013-10-01

244

30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404...and Mantrips § 75.1404 Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. [Statutory...coal mine shall be equipped with automatic brakes, where space permits. Where space...

2013-07-01

245

49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake power unit. 570.6 Section 570...of 10,000 Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall...exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the brake pedal, the pedal shall fall...

2013-10-01

246

Magnetic braking in weakly ionized media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combined magnetic braking-ambipolar diffusion problem in weakly ionized, rigidly rotating disks is studied. An analytical solution is presented for a disk whose angular velocity and magnetic yield vectors are aligned with the symmetry axis, illustrating the effects of the relative azimuthal drift of neutrals and ions. The effects of radial drift are added, commenting on the ratio of the characteristic ambipolar diffusion and magnetic braking time scales in high-mass and low-mass disks. A numerical calculation is used to show the combined action of these two processes.

Konigl, Arieh

1987-01-01

247

Measuring transient temperatures in brake rotors  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle's kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy when its brakes are applied. If this energy is dissipated in the disc rotor, it can cause local temperature rises which induce disc distortions. Although analysis of this thermal phenomenon has been attempted by several means, a study of the transient temperature distribution has not been made due to the difficulty of measuring it by conventional means. The system to be discussed in this article makes non-contact measurement possible even in a narrow space. Temperature distribution patterns during a revolution of high speed braking can be determined for both sides of a disc rotor.

Idogaki, T.; Kawai, H.; Harada, H.; Inoune, H.

1987-06-01

248

The influence of braking time on heat flow through the friction surfaces of the friction elements of disk brakes for railway vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disk brakes were first introduced on the suburban and urban coaches and high speed freight cars (V > 120 km\\/h) for the following reasons: shoe brakes reached their potential limits, especially at high speeds; the maintenance of disc brakes is cheaper; greater comfort; the friction coefficient of disk brake elements (friction pad and brake disc) presents lower variation in velocity

Liviu Sevastian Bocîi

2011-01-01

249

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01

250

Prediction of Railroad Friction Braking Temperatures: Prediction of Average Bulk and Average Surface Temperatures of Railroad Wheels and Brake Discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the closed-form solutions for simulation of a braking temperature generation during inertia dynamometer tests of railroad wheels and brake discs subject to single and multiple uniform and non-uniform braking actions. These methods, compared to other techniques, have a higher level of flexibility and allow for a rapid (a matter of seconds) and accurate computer solution of related

V. V. Dunaevsky

1991-01-01

251

Experimental Identification of Brake Pad Material Properties-A Step Towards a Better Prediction of Brake Squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automotive brake squeal is a disruptive high frequency sound radiation phenomenon generated by friction-induced self-excited vibrations of the brake system. The brake system loses its stability and starts oscillating in a limit cycle with amplitudes limited by nonlinearities, the main origin of the nonlinearities being brake lining material. In order to perform a reliable brake squeal prediction using established mathematical-mechanical models, the knowledge of the lining material properties is of great importance. The present paper deals with the experimental identification of lining material properties, expecially referring to the elastic properties. Since these strongly vary depending on the operating conditions of brake systems, it is necessary to reproduce the operating conditions during brake squeal as close as possible in experimental setups. In this context a special test rig, the test data evaluation and the experimentally determined nonlinear elastic brake lining properties are presented. Assuming these brake lining properties to be the prominent source of the nonlinearity, a nonlinear stability analysis is performed on a realistic disk brake model. The results referring to brake squeal are discussed, whereas basic phenomena known from operating experience of brake systems can be explained on the basis of this analysis.

Hornig, Sylwia; Hochlenert, Daniel; von Wagner, Utz

2010-09-01

252

The design of aircraft brake systems, employing cooling to increase brake life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program was initiated to determine the feasibility of using cooling to increase brake life. An air cooling scheme was proposed, constructed and tested with various designs. Straight and curved slotting of the friction material was tested. A water cooling technique, similar to the air cooling procedure, was evaluated on a curved slotted rotor. Also investigated was the possibility of using a phase-change material within the rotor to absorb heat during braking. Various phase-changing materials were tabulated and a 50%, (by weight) LiF - BeF2 mixing was chosen. It was shown that corrosion was not a problem with this mixture. A preliminary design was evaluated on an actual brake. Results showed that significant improvements in lowering the surface temperature of the brake occurred when air or water cooling was used in conjunction with curved slotted rotors.

Scaringe, R. P.; Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

1975-01-01

253

Thermal-Mechanical Couple Simulation of Solid Brake Disc in Repeated Braking Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The brake system is an important part of the automobile safety system. This system consists of two parts: a rotating axi-symmetrical\\u000a disk; and stationary pads, with three-dimensional geometry. The braking operation is a process that converts the kinetic energy\\u000a and potential energy of the moving automobile in to the other energies. Most of the mechanical energy is transferred into\\u000a the

Pyung Hwang; Xuan Wu; Young-Bae Jeon; Qi-Cheng Peng; Hee-Chang Seo

254

The effect of aftermarket linings on braking efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Currently there are no adequate standards or regulations that address the performance of aftermarket replacement brake linings to insure that the use of these materials does not degrade vehicle braking performance from the original equipment (OE) design intent level. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of a large sampling of aftermarket linings available for the rear brake of a specific model passenger car and shows that many of these linings have significantly different performance than the OE material. The paper also shows how this deviation can adversely affect vehicle braking efficiency or the ability of the brake system to utilize available tire/roadway friction without locking wheels and losing control.

Flick, M.A.; Radlinski, R.W.; Kirkbride, R.L.

1987-01-01

255

Braking mechanism is self actuating and bidirectional  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanism automatically applies a braking action on a moving item, in either direction of motion, immediately upon removal of the driving force and with no human operator involvement. This device would be useful wherever free movement is undesirable after an object has been guided into a precise position.

Pizzo, J.

1966-01-01

256

Muzzle Brake for an Underwater Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for use as a muzzle brake for an underwater gun having a projectile conveying structure with concentric inner and outer cylinders. The inner cylinder has at least one longitudinal slot formed therein. A sealing means joins the projectile conveyin...

I. N. Kirschner G. R. Berlam

1997-01-01

257

Model regulator based individual wheel braking control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yaw stability control systems are important components of active safety systems for road transport. A model regulator based yaw stability control system that was previously implemented and tested very successfully as a steering controller is adapted to work as an individual wheel braking controller in this paper. A two track nonlinear vehicle model is used to test the individual wheel

B. A. Guvenc; L. Guvenc; E. S. Ozturk; T. Yigit

2003-01-01

258

Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes the procedure and data relative to brake fluid tests performed in November and December of 1968 on the following automobiles: (1) Dodge Charger - Chrysler Part 242 1352 - Hi Temp.; (2) Plymouth Sport Fury - Chrysler Part 293 - 3249; (3...

1969-01-01

259

Performance of Trucks Braking on Ice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study addressed the braking performance of heavy-duty trucks operating on ice with and without chains installed at various axle positions. The research method included full-scale vehicle tests, measurement of the traction properties of truck tires wit...

R. D. Ervin Y. Guy L. Balderas-Ariza

1987-01-01

260

Electromechanical steering, suspension, drive and brake modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualified chassis control is enabled by utilizing the modular alignment, load and torque concept described in this paper. The most advanced vehicle design incorporates mechanically identical wheel corners, each with individually powered and computer regulated propulsion, braking, steering, spring and damper functions. The suspension arms are mechanically attached to the body; all other interfaces are by-wire. In-wheel motors, actuators and

S. Zetterstrom

2002-01-01

261

Flow braking and the substorm current wedge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent models of magnetotail activity have associated the braking of earthward flow with dipolarization and the reduction and diversion of cross-tail current, that is, the signatures of the substorm current wedge. Estimates of the magnitude of the diverted current by Haerendel [1992] and Shiokawa et al. [1997, 1998] tend to be lower than results from computer simulations of magnetotail reconnection

J. Birn; M. Hesse; G. Haerendel; W. Baumjohann; K. Shiokawa

1999-01-01

262

Calculations enable optimum design of magnetic brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical analysis and computations determine optimum magnetic coil configurations for a magnetic brake which controllably decelerates a free falling load to a soft stop. Calculations on unconventionally wound coils determine the required parameters for the desired deceleration with minimum electrical energy supplied to the stationary coil.

Kosmahl, H. G.

1966-01-01

263

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Braking and Steering Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of a PowerPoint presentation, lab sheet, and syllabi discussing HEVs' braking and steering systems. These materials are derived from three courses offered at Lewis and Clark Community College on automotive alignment, braking, and steering systems and were developed through a seed grant from the CAAT. The presentation discusses the circuitry and operations for HEV braking and steering systems, variations from traditional braking and steering power assist, and how to service brake pads on a Ford Escape Hybrid. The lab sheet should familiarize students with the variations and similarities between hybrid and conventional systems when servicing a HEV's brake pads such as placing the vehicle in âPad Service Mode.â The provided syllabi includes highlighted sections where these HEV technologies were incorporated into alignment, brakes, and suspension courses at Lewis and Clark Community College.

College, Lewis A.

264

Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

265

49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...power brake defect at the time a Class I or IA brake test is performed. Except as provided...become defective en route after a Class I or IA brake test was performed), a commuter...brake defect at the time that a Class I or IA brake test (or, for Tier II trains,...

2013-10-01

266

Effect of lateral run-out on calliper drag in automotive disc brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficiency of an automotive disc brake system is affected by several factors such as lateral run out (LRO), caliper housing stiffness, lining compressibility, seal\\/groove design, brake fluid, and pad material. A minor deviation in any of these factors may lead to problems like brake noise, vibration and off-brake caliper drag in the brake system. This paper presents an experimental study

S. H. Masood; Lakhwinder Singh

2007-01-01

267

A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

Wolff, Andrzej

2010-01-01

268

Hydraulic drilling machine  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hydraulic drilling machine comprises a drill tool (1) connected to a hydraulic motor (3), a hydraulic percussive mechanism (4) connected via a hydraulic distributor (15) to a hydraulic pressure line (11) and to a hydraulic discharge line (21), and a means (16) for sucking the liquid from the working chamber of the hydraulic percussive mechanism (4) during its idle stroke. The means (16) includes a mixing chamber (17) connected to the discharge line of the hydraulic percussive mechanism, an ejector (18) connected to the discharge line of the hydraulic motor (3), and a diffuser (19) connected to the hydraulic discharge line (21) and accommodating a nozzle of the ejector (18).

1991-04-30

269

Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes  

SciTech Connect

Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

1995-04-01

270

Air Braked Vehicle Performance: FMVSS No. 121 Braking Systems Versus Pre-FMVSS No. 121 Braking Systems and Stability Augmentation Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Road tests were conducted on 3 truck tractors and 4 semitrailers to evaluate the effects of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems--Trucks, Buses and Trailers, on braking system performance. Tests were run in accordance w...

R. W. Radlinski

1976-01-01

271

Magnetic braking of the Earth's rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth's rotation is decelerating at a rate of 8.8×10 exp-20 rad\\/s. Thus, a leap second is added to the year every two to four years. This deceleration is small, but the Earth weighs 6×10 exp 24 kg. A prony brake that achieves this deceleration would release 5.14×10 exp 11 kW, the equivalent of 514,000 1-GW nuclear power plants. Tides,

Henry Oman

1989-01-01

272

Aerodynamic braking of high speed ground transportation vehicles.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The drag effectiveness of aerodynamic brakes arranged in series on a train-like vehicle was investigated. Fixed- and moving-model testing techniques were used in order to determine the importance of proper vehicle-ground interference simulation. Fixed-model tests were carried out on a sting-mounted model: alone; with a fixed ground plane; and in proximity to an image model. Moving-model tests were conducted in a vertical slide-wire facility with and without a ground plane. Results from investigations of one brake configuration are presented which show the effect of the number of brakes in the set and of spacing between brakes.

Marte, J. E.; Marko, W. J.

1973-01-01

273

Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

1975-01-01

274

Predicting the Braking Indices of Nulling and Intermittent Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The braking index is an important factor when examining the pulsar braking mechanism. Measuring braking indices requires measuring the pulsar period and its first and second derivatives. Among them, the second derivative is easily contaminated by timing noise and an unresolved glitch effect. The absence of data bounding a given transition into (or out of) a radio-on phase is another disadvantage in measuring the second derivatives of intermittent pulsars, as was recently demonstrated by Young and coworkers. But, the observed period first derivatives, in the "on" and "off" states of the intermittent pulsars, give us a possible way to predict their braking indices even though they are hard to observe. In this paper, we will give a simple and useful method to study the braking indices of intermittent pulsars. As an application of our method, we will calculate the possible braking indices of three intermittent pulsars and one nulling pulsar, namely, PSR B1931 + 24, PSR J1841 - 0500, PSR J1832 + 0029 and PSR B0823 + 26, under three different magnetospheric conditions, which include polar cap size variation, charge density variation and the combination of the above two cases. We have found that all the braking indices we predicted are almost within the observed domain. It is concluded that, in a relatively short observation period, in which the variation of the braking index can be ignored, we can accurately predict the braking indices of intermittent pulsars, under a specific magnetosphere model, by using the observed "on" and "off" state period first derivatives.

Rusul, Abdujappar; Zheng, Xiao-Ping; Esamdin, Ali

2014-04-01

275

25. DETAIL SHOWING BRAKING MECHANISM FOR TRAIN, NOTE HOT RAIL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. DETAIL SHOWING BRAKING MECHANISM FOR TRAIN, NOTE HOT RAIL ON LEFT - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

276

76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...there were continuous brake pressure modulations for the drive axles...equipped with ABS wheel speed sensors and the brake pressures for both drive axles were modulated...drive axle, although brake pressure modulation was observed in...

2011-07-27

277

Optimal design of a novel configuration of MR brake with coils placed on the side housings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that in design of traditional magneto-rheological brake (MRB), coils are placed on the cylindrical housing of the brake. In this study, a new configuration of MR brake with coils placed on the side housings of the brake is proposed and analyzed. After briefly explaining the operating principle of the proposed configuration, the braking torque of the MR brake is analyze based on Bingham-plastic rheological model of MR fluid. The optimization of the proposed and conventional MR brakes is then performed considering maximum braking torque and mass of the brake. Based on the optimal results, a comparison between the proposed MR brakes and the conventional ones is undertaken. In addition, experimental test of the MR brakes is conducted and the results are presented in order to validate the performance characteristics of the proposed MR brake.

Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Nguyen, Ngoc Diep; Choi, Seung-Bok

2014-03-01

278

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2012-10-01

279

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2010-10-01

280

49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Process to introduce new brake system technology. 232.503 Section 232.503... Introduction of New Brake System Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the...

2011-10-01

281

49 CFR 571.121 - Standard No. 121; Air brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Inspect the service brake system for the condition of adjustment...without replacing any brake system part or making any adjustments to the brake system except as specified. Unless...vehicle is loaded to its GVWR, distributed proportionally to its...

2013-10-01

282

49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation...pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. The equalizing-reservoir pressure or brake-pipe pressure reduction during an...

2013-10-01

283

49 CFR 238.17 - Movement of passenger equipment with other than power brake defects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...passenger equipment with other than power brake defects. 238.17 Section 238.17...passenger equipment with other than power brake defects. Beginning on January...passenger equipment with other than a power brake defect. (Passenger cars and...

2013-10-01

284

49 CFR 236.506 - Release of brakes after automatic application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Release of brakes after automatic application. 236... Standards § 236.506 Release of brakes after automatic application. The automatic...apparatus shall prevent release of the brakes after automatic application until...

2013-10-01

285

30 CFR 75.1403-2 - Criteria-Hoists transporting materials; brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Criteria-Hoists transporting materials; brakes. 75.1403-2 Section 75.1403-2...Hoists transporting materials; brakes. Hoists and elevators used to transport materials should be equipped with brakes capable of stopping and holding...

2013-07-01

286

49 CFR 232.307 - Modification of the single car air brake test procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. 232.307 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND...307 Modification of the single car air brake test procedures. (a) Request....

2013-10-01

287

49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems. 232.609 Section 232.609...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND...Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems. (a) Ninety-five...

2013-10-01

288

Model and Simulation of a Super-capacitor Braking Energy Recovery System for Urban Railway Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a braking energy recovery system based on super-capacitor was presented. The method use super-capacitor and the conventional braking resistance constitute a new braking unit to realize the regenerative energy recovery, when braking, braking energy will be stored in the super-capacitor by a DC\\/DC converter. meanwhile, the conventional braking resistance still keep in system to ensure the security.

Chen Xiao-li; Yang Jian; Fang Yu

2010-01-01

289

Copper leaching from brake wear debris in standard extraction solutions.  

PubMed

Quantification of the copper content of and copper leaching from a disc brake wear debris sample was performed using microwave-assisted acid digestion, the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the State of California Waste Extraction Test (WET). The brake wear debris tested was a composite sample obtained from a brake dynamometer test of one brake pad source material. Comparative digestion studies demonstrated that a modified aqua regia matrix (HNO3:HCl:H2O2 = 1:3:0.5) optimized the digestion effectiveness for determining the total copper content in the brake wear debris. No significant sample heterogeneity within the brake wear debris was observed, based on statistically indistinguishable total copper content results for subsamples with a wide range of sample masses. Upon pooling all subsample results, an overall total copper content for the composite brake wear debris sample was determined to be 10.8% (g/g), with a 95% confidence limit of +/- 0.5% (g/g). Copper leaching increased with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratios in TCLP tests, but was unaffected by the solid-to-liquid ratio in the WET. For a 1:10(4) (g/g) solid-to-liquid ratio, 85% and 99% of the total mass of copper present in the composite brake wear debris sample was leached into solution during the TCLP and WET, respectively. Rate studies also demonstrated that the WET resulted in a faster rate and higher extent of copper leaching relative to the TCLP. Compared to reference copper-containing materials, the composite brake wear debris sample exhibited relatively higher TCLP and WET copper leaching characteristics. The higher copper leaching exhibited by the brake wear debris sample may have resulted from its higher specific surface area and/or from changes in the chemical form of copper that occurred during the braking process. PMID:14587858

Hur, Jin; Yim, Soobin; Schlautman, Mark A

2003-10-01

290

Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

2013-01-01

291

Analysis of disc brake temperature distribution during single braking under non-axisymmetric load  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to study and compare the temperature distributions caused by mutual sliding of two members of the disc brake system basing on two- and three-dimensional FE modelling techniques and complexity of the phenomenon. First step of the analysis based on the previously developed model where the intensity of heat flux was assumed to be uniformly distributed on the

Adam Adamowicz; Piotr Grzes

2011-01-01

292

Hydraulic fracturing-1  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available

1990-01-01

293

Longitudinal vehicle speed estimation for traction and braking control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimation of longitudinal vehicle speed is crucial for effective design and implementation of anti-lock braking systems (ABS) and traction control systems (TCS). The knowledge of the current value of the vehicle speed, in fact, is the key for computing the longitudinal wheel slip, i.e., the main control variable in most advanced braking and traction control logics. This work presents

Mara Tanelli; Sergio M. Savaresi; Carlo Cantoni

2006-01-01

294

Sensitivity analysis of brake squeal tendency to substructures’ modal parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity analysis methods are explored to determine the dominant modal parameters of substructures of a brake system for brake squeal suppression analysis. The related formulae of sensitivities of the positive real part of the eigenvalue of squeal mode (RES) to substructures’ modal parameters (SMP) are derived. The sensitivity analysis method can determine the dominant modal parameters influencing the squeal occurrence

Dihua Guan; Xindong Su; Fang Zhang

2006-01-01

295

Suppression of Brake Squeal Noise Applying Viscoelastic Damping Insulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squeal noise in vehicle disc brakes is perceived by consumers as both annoying and warranty cost. Among the methods that have been used to control squeal noise, increasing the system damping has been shown to be very effective. The most commonly used method to increase system damping consists of attaching multi-layer laminates on the back of the brake pads. As

Jun Hou; Xuexun Guo; Guohui Sun; Jie Zhang

2009-01-01

296

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF DISC BRAKE SQUEAL CONSIDERING TEMPERATURE EFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger cars have become one of the main transportations for people travelling from one place to another. Indeed, vehicle quietness and passenger comfort issues are a major concern. One of vehicle components that occasionally generate unwanted vibration and unpleasant noise is the brake system. Brake squeal noise is the most troublesome and irritant one to both car passenger and the

Abd Rahim; Abu Bakar; Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid; Afandi Dzakaria; Badri Abdul Ghani; Maziah Mohamad

2006-01-01

297

Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to

A. Akay; O. Giannini; F. Massi; A. Sestieri

2009-01-01

298

EVEN WEAR PROVIDING OF DISC BRAKE FRICTION LINING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyzes practical research of even wear of disc brake friction linings. The research was carried out to test the theoretical research regarding providing of even wear changing the pressing force application coordinates. Two kinds of the friction body (friction lining on steel base) construction were tested in experimental work. The friction body and brake lever are linked with

Aldis Paeglis

2008-01-01

299

On the influence of contact tribology on brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution aims at introducing tribological contact properties into the stability analysis of macroscopic structural systems with focus on brake-squeal applications.First, the surfaces of several brake pads at different states of wear are analyzed experimentally. Based on these data a statistical contact model as well as a numerical simulation are presented. Using these models two constitutive contact laws are derived,

H. Hetzler; K. Willner

2012-01-01

300

49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...900 psi expansion test requirements. The...Table I—Maximum Expansion of Free Length Brake...inside diameter Test pressure 1,000...when bent around a cylinder as specified in S6...temperature impulse test. A brake hose...fittings. S6.1.Expansion test....

2011-10-01

301

Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications.

Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

2013-06-01

302

49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a)...

2013-10-01

303

Oxygen-diffused titanium as a candidate brake rotor material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process –

Jun Qu; Peter Julian Blau; Brian C. Jolly

2009-01-01

304

Magnetic-Air Brake for Test of Microturbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of the magnetic-air brake UIMT-4 and data on the results of its final adjustment and operation. The brake was used to test air micro-turbines with power from 0.026 to 3.5 horsepower, developed in the range from 15,000 to 60,000 rpm ...

V. M. Dorofeev A. S. Natalevich N. T. Tikhonov

1964-01-01

305

49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fouled in any way which will affect the proper operation of the brake. All pins shall be properly secured in place with cotter pine, split keys, or nuts. Brake shoes must be properly applied and kept approximately in line with the tread of the wheel....

2013-10-01

306

Judder vibration in disc brakes excited by thermoelastic instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction vibrations and noises which are common in brakes, have attracted a great deal of attention lately. This paper analyses low frequency vibrations in disc brakes excited at high car speed. This vibration, called judder, has a frequency in the range 10 to 300 Hz and usually comes in association with hum noises. The dynamic phenomenon shows two principal components,

Oscar Altuzarra; Enrique Amezua; Rafael Avilés; Alfonso Hernández

2002-01-01

307

An experimental investigation of hot spots in railway disc brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermographic measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. Based on

S. Panier; P. Dufrénoy; D. Weichert

2004-01-01

308

Robust control of anti-lock brake system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust control algorithm for an anti-lock brake system is proposed. The method used is based on static-state feedback of longitudinal slip and does not involve controller scheduling with changing vehicle speed or road adhesion coefficient estimation. An improvement involving scheduling of longitudinal slip reference with longitudinal acceleration measurement is included. Electromechanical braking actuators are used in simulations, and the

?. Emre Köse; Günay Anla?

2007-01-01

309

Control of asbestos exposure during brake drum service  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies of airborne asbestos exposure to mechanics during brake maintenance operations showed overexposure to asbestos fibers during brake servicing, especially brake assembly cleaning. Because an estimated 150,000 brake mechanics and garage workers in the U.S. are potentially exposed to asbestos, a known carcinogen, and the lack of information available on the effectiveness of available controls, an evaluation of these methods was initiated. Detailed field surveys were conducted at five facilities employing five methods for controlling exposure to asbestos during brake repair. These included the use of two commercial enclosure devices with ventilation provided by HEPA filter-equipped vacuum, a HEPA filter-equipped vacuum alone, a brush with recirculating cleaning solution, and cleaning solvents in aerosol cans. These controls were evaluated while servicing brakes to automobiles, pickup trucks, vans, and vehicles with a 4-wheel rear axle. Detailed evaluations of these control measures involved a program consisting of traditional air sampling methods, incorporating phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a real-time analysis of brake dust exposure. Personal and area air samples were collected during brake repair to each vehicle.

Sheehy, J.W.; Cooper, T.C.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Froehlich, P.A.

1989-08-01

310

Fuzzy learning control for anti-skid braking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although antiskid braking systems (ABSs) are designed to optimize braking effectiveness while maintaining steerability, their performance often degrades for harsh road conditions (e.g., icy\\/snowy roads). The authors introduce the idea of using the fuzzy model reference learning control (FMRLC) technique for maintaining adequate performance even under such adverse road conditions. This controller utilizes a learning mechanism which observes the plant

J. R. Layne; K. M. Passino; Stephen Yurkovich

1992-01-01

311

Brake system requirements for platooning on an automated highway  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, brake actuation has presented an obstacle to experimental demonstration of constant-spacing laws for automated vehicle following. Such difficulties can be traced to the lack of a unique actuation strategy and the strict, though not well defined, demands of platooning. This paper presents the results of a simulation study to examine the effects of brake dynamics within the multiple

J. Christian Gerdes; J. Karl Hedrick

1995-01-01

312

Metal-bending brake facilitates lightweight, close-tolerance fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lightweight, metal bending brake ensures very accurate bends. Features of the brake that adapt it for making complex reverse bends to close tolerances are a pronounced relief or cutaway of the underside of the bodyplate combined with modification in the leaf design and its suspension.

Ercoline, A. L.; Wilton, K. B.

1964-01-01

313

Method and apparatus for braking a derrick winch  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for braking a derrick winch with a winch brake. It comprises: a control lever remotely located from the winch; a servo-control circuit connecting the lever and brake for actuating the brake in response to movement of the lever, and including: a torque motor having a shaft mechanically coupled to the control lever; a brake activating device for actuating the winch brake; a first position transducer for sensing the position of the control lever; a second position transducer for sensing the position of the winch brake; a first force transducer for measuring the force applied to the winch brake; a first comparator; a second comparator. The first comparator being connected to receive signals from the first and second position transducers and to deliver an error signal to the torque motor and to the second comparator. The second comparator being connected to receive signals from the first comparator and from the first force transducer and to deliver an error signal to the actuating device.

Falcon, J.F.

1989-09-12

314

A fuzzy logic controller for an ABS braking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-blocking system (ABS) brake controllers pose unique challenges to the designer: a) For optimal performance, the controller must operate at an unstable equilibrium point, b) Depending on road conditions, the maximum braking torque may vary over a wide range, c) The tire slippage measurement signal, crucial for controller performance, is both highly uncertain and noisy, d) On rough roads, the

Georg F. Mauer

1995-01-01

315

Eigenvalue optimization against brake squeal: Symmetry, mathematical background and experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brake squeal is still a challenge for design engineers and scientists. Due to cost reasons for the avoidance of brake noise only passive measures are meaningful for a broad industrial range. Many countermeasures against squeal are based on the introduction of damping, for example by using shims. In the literature on the modeling of brake squeal, the structural properties of the brake disc are most often not considered. It has however been shown analytically and experimentally that the stiffness properties of the disc are important and that splitting of double modes of the disc has a stabilizing effect. This knowledge can be used for structural optimization of brake rotors. The goal of this paper is to exploit the potential and to discuss some mathematical difficulties. Furthermore, experimental evidence for the relation of rotor asymmetry and squeal is given.

Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried

2012-09-01

316

Radial brake assembly for a control rod drive  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a brake assembly for a control rod drive for selectively preventing travel of a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a shaft having a longitudinal centerline axis; means for selectively rotating the shaft in a first direction and in a second direction, opposite to the first direction; a stationary housing having a central aperture receiving the shaft; a frame fixedly joined to the housing and having a guide hole; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the shaft for rotation therewith and having at least one rotor tooth extending radially outwardly from a perimeter thereof, the rotor tooth having a locking surface and an inclined surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction; a brake member disposed adjacent to the rotor disc perimeter and including a base, at least one braking tooth having a locking surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction, and a plunger extending radially outwardly from the base and slidably joined to the frame through the guide hole; the rotor tooth and the braking tooth being complementary to each other; and means for selectively positioning the brake member in a deployed position abutting the rotor disc perimeter for allowing the braking tooth locking surface to contact the rotor tooth locking surface for preventing rotation of the shaft in the first direction, and in a retracted position spaced radially away from the rotor disc for allowing the rotor disc and the shaft to rotate without restraint from the brake member, the positioning means including a tubular solenoid fixedly joined to the frame and having a central bore disposed around the brake member plunger and effective for sliding the brake member plunger relative to the frame for positioning the brake member in the deployed and retracted positions.

Hekmati, A.; Gibo, E.Y.

1992-04-07

317

Suppression of brake squeal noise applying finite element brake and pad model enhanced by spectral-based assurance criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enhanced dynamic finite element (FE) model with friction coupling is applied to analyze the design of disc brake pad structure for squeal noise reduction. The FE model is built-up from the individual brake component representations. Its interfacial structural connections and boundary conditions are determined by correlating to a set of measured frequency response functions using a spectral-based assurance criterion.

Yi Dai; Teik C. Lim

2008-01-01

318

Engineering report. Part 3: NASA lightweight wheel and brake sub-system. Lightweight brake development. [for application to space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of light weight wheel and brake systems designed to meet the space shuttle type requirements was investigated. The study includes the use of carbon graphite composite and beryllium as heat sink materials and the compatibility of these heat sink materials with the other structural components of the wheel and brake.

Bok, L. D.

1973-01-01

319

Protobinary Evolution Driven By Magnetic Braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of stars are in multiple systems, especially binaries. Such objects form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be strongly magnetized. Most previous studies of binary formation have either ignored magnetic fields or focused on the initial core fragmentation into binary seeds. Here I focus on the effects of the magnetic field on the orbital evolution of the protobinary during the main accretion phase, after a pair of stellar seeds have formed. By simulating a 'seed' binary system with the sink particle treatment, we show that magnetic field plays a crucial role in removing the gas angular momentum and shrinking the binary separation. Through magnetic braking, strong magnetic field is very effective in suppressing the formation of circumstellar disks and circumbinary disk along with its spiral arm structures. The magnetic field can also be responsible for the population of the low mass-ratio binaries in the observed distribution. The magnetically-braked material will have equal chance of being accreted onto either binary seed, instead of the preferential accretion onto the secondary when magnetic field is absent. Furthermore, large field mis-alignment helps to produce rotationally-supported circumbinary disks even for relatively strong magnetic fields, by weakening the magnetically-dominated structure close to the binary. Hence to explain the observed properties of binaries, the magnetic effects deserve more careful considerations in the larger context of binary formation in future studies.

Zhao, Bo; Li, Zhi-Yun

2013-07-01

320

Modeling of automotive drum brakes for squeal and parameter sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many fundamental studies have been conducted to explain the occurrence of squeal in disc and drum brake systems. The elimination of brake squeal, however, still remains a challenging area of research. Here, a numerical modeling approach is developed for investigating the onset of squeal in a drum brake system. The brake system model is based on the modal information extracted

Jinchun Huang; Charles M. Krousgrill; Anil K. Bajaj

2006-01-01

321

The Reliability Modeling and Analysis on Brake System of Medium-low Speed Maglev Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of the paper is the reliability of the function of the brake system on Beijing S1 line Medium-low Speed Maglev Train. The construction of the brake system and the working principle of the brake system are analyzed, based on which, the reliability of the emergency brake function is analyzed via FTA method after modeling, then the weakness of

Qinglong Tan; Hongfeng Qi; Jiangsuo Li; Ying Tian

2012-01-01

322

49 CFR 571.122 - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicable to parking brake systems unless it is the secondary...CBS and split service brake system, the vehicle is tested in...hr. The water is equally distributed on each side of the rotor...carried out for each brake system but with the brake...

2013-10-01

323

Surface characterisation of brake pads after running under silent and squealing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many investigations over the years to clarify the mechanisms causing automotive brake squeal the phenomenon is not yet fully understood. This paper focuses on the previously almost unexplored area of the connection between brake pad surface topography and the occurrence of squeals. Two sets of brake pads were subjected to brake tests in a special test rig. Both pads

Mikael Eriksson; Filip Bergman; Staffan Jacobson

1999-01-01

324

Self-learning fuzzy sliding-mode control for antilock braking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antilock braking system (ABS) is designed to optimize braking effectiveness and maintain steerability; however, the ABS performance will be degraded in the case of severe road conditions. In this study, a self-learning fuzzy sliding-mode control (SLFSMC) design method is proposed for ABS. The SLFSMC ABS will modulate the brake torque for optimum braking. The SLFSMC system is comprised of

Chih-Min Lin; Chun-Fei Hsu

2003-01-01

325

EEG potentials predict upcoming emergency brakings during simulated driving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency braking assistance has the potential to prevent a large number of car crashes. State-of-the-art systems operate in two stages. Basic safety measures are adopted once external sensors indicate a potential upcoming crash. If further activity at the brake pedal is detected, the system automatically performs emergency braking. Here, we present the results of a driving simulator study indicating that the driver's intention to perform emergency braking can be detected based on muscle activation and cerebral activity prior to the behavioural response. Identical levels of predictive accuracy were attained using electroencephalography (EEG), which worked more quickly than electromyography (EMG), and using EMG, which worked more quickly than pedal dynamics. A simulated assistance system using EEG and EMG was found to detect emergency brakings 130 ms earlier than a system relying only on pedal responses. At 100 km h-1 driving speed, this amounts to reducing the braking distance by 3.66 m. This result motivates a neuroergonomic approach to driving assistance. Our EEG analysis yielded a characteristic event-related potential signature that comprised components related to the sensory registration of a critical traffic situation, mental evaluation of the sensory percept and motor preparation. While all these components should occur often during normal driving, we conjecture that it is their characteristic spatio-temporal superposition in emergency braking situations that leads to the considerable prediction performance we observed.

Haufe, Stefan; Treder, Matthias S.; Gugler, Manfred F.; Sagebaum, Max; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

2011-10-01

326

Vehicle Hybrid Braking Control Using Sliding Mode Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-lock brake system and brake-by-wire are proposed in the vehicle control using a brake, and the braking power is expected to be improved more than ever. The researches such as an application to the ABS of Siliding mode control which considered a actuator dynamics and a hybrid control of the brake using model reference adaptive control are done so far. However, in the former case, speed following that becomes a target exists physically impossible situation by saturation of tire frictional force because only speed following is done. In the latter, the model error is caused because the simulation model and the controller design model are different. Therefore, there is a problem that an accurate follow cannot be done. In this paper, the braking control is performed using the sliding mode control which has high robustness for disturbance that fulfils matching conditions. In so doing, it aims at the achievement of optimal braking control to switch wheel speed following to slip ratio following.

Kasahara, Misawa; Kanai, Yuki; Shiraki, Ryoko; Mori, Yasuchika

327

Dynamic calibration of mechanically, air- and electromagnetically braked cycle ergometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we measured the accuracy of the following types of cycle ergometer against the criterion of a dynamic calibration\\u000a rig (DCR): 35 friction-braked (Monark), 5 research-grade air-braked (Repco) and 5 electromagnetically braked (2 Siemens, 1\\u000a Elema-Schonander, 1 Ergoline, l Warren E. Collins). Monark ergometer power outputs over the range 58.9–353.2 W significantly\\u000a (P < 0.001) underestimated those registered

B. F. Maxwell; R. T. Withers; A. H. Ilsley; M. J. Wakim; G. F. Woods; L. Day

1998-01-01

328

Contamination of brake fluid by power steering fluid.  

PubMed

Analysis of a contaminated brake fluid revealed the contaminant to be power steering fluid. The sample received at the laboratory presented two immiscible phases, which were both organic. Both fluids were analyzed by GC-MS and compared with a library of known automotive fluids. The bottom layer (brake fluid) consisted of glycols while the top layer (power steering fluid) consisted of aliphatics ranging from C16 to C25+. An interesting phenomenon of diffusion of some of the glycols from the brake fluid phase into the power steering fluid phase was observed and needs to be taken into consideration in the interpretation of the results. PMID:12877295

Stauffer, Eric; Lentini, John J

2003-07-01

329

Wear formulation for aircraft brake material sliding against steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predictions of wear on contemporary copper-based brake material sliding against 17-22 AS grade steel, wear testing equipment, formulation of wear, and test results are discussed. An initial investigation of worn surfaces of the brake material and a mating steel rotor was carried out. A wear model proposed suggests initiation of cracks at a hard particle inclusion site in the surface layer of the brake material; crack propagation allows particles to be removed by intersection of cracks. Mutual relations between sliding variables, load, time, hardness, and surface temperature are studied. Empirical formulas are exhibited.

Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

1977-01-01

330

Brake lock mechanism for the two axis pointing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six months prior to shipment of the Broadband X-ray Telescope to the Kennedy Space Center for flight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, a major system failure occurred. During modal survey testing of the telescope's gimbal pointing system, the roll axis brake unexpectedly released. Low level vibration and static preloads present during the modal survey were within the expected flight environment. Brake release during shuttle liftoff or ascent was an unacceptable risk to mission success; thus, a Brake Lock Mechanism (BLM) was developed.

Posey, Alan; Clark, Mike; Mignosa, Larry

1991-01-01

331

Tribomaterial factors in space mechanism brake performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The asbestos/phenolic pads of Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) brakes are unsuitable for use in long life space mechanisms because their friction decreases on extended sliding in high vacuum. Dehydration of the material and accumulation of wear debris in the conforming interface of this tribosystem induces the permanent friction changes. Other polymer and some ceramic based materials exhibit similar frictional torque behavior due to the development of minimal contact patches by the interfacial debris. In contrast, high friction occurs when other ceramics form many small contacts throughout fine debris beds. Generating this latter interfacial structure during run-in ensures that the in-vacuo friction remains stable thereafter. Such materials with low wear rates are potential candidates for friction elements in SSRMS and similar mechanisms.

Hawthorne, H. M.

1990-01-01

332

Asbestos exposure during routine brake lining manufacture.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber and total dust of workers of a major brake lining manufacture plant in a developing country were examined and compared with those in developed countries. Time weighted average of total dust and asbestos fiber concentration in the potential sources of exposure were monitored. All personal air sampling were collected on membrane filters and analyzed by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCM) for comparison with the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc, 8-h time--weighted average. This study demonstrates that routine mixing, polishing and beveling process in the brake lining production can result in elevated levels of airborne asbestos. Greater releases of airborne asbestos were observed during mixing process and mixer machine. The results also showed that the employees working in the process had the exposure to total dust concentrations ranging from 2.08 to 16.32 mg/m(3) that is higher than OSHA, recommendation. According to OSHA definition of fibers, it has been indicated that from 3,000 counted particles, 90% of particles are in the form of non-fiber and reaming have fiber-shaped. The particle analyze gives the geometric mean diameter as 6.02 mum, and also indicated that the arithmetic mean of the number distribution for the particle population was 8.4 mum. Approximately 60.4% of the counted fibers were lower than 10 mum in length, from which only 8% consists of fibers (>5 mum in length). In conclusion, the analysis showed a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. During an 8-h shift, the average asbestos fiber exposure (0.78 f/cc) were 7.8 time in excess of OSHA PEL. Additional studies in occupational exposure to asbestos are needed. PMID:18212474

Kakooei, Hossein; Sameti, Mahmod; Kakooei, Ali Akbar

2007-12-01

333

Braking Distance Prediction by Hydroplaning Analysis of 3-D Patterned Tire Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a wet-road braking distance estimate for the vehicles equipped with ABS (Anti-lock Brake System). In order to effectively compute the interval-wise braking times and the resulting total braking distance, we divide the entire speed interval at braking into finite number of uniform sub-intervals and apply the energy conservation law to individual sub-intervals. The proposed method

Jin-Rae Cho; Joo-Hyoung Choi; Hong-Woo Lee; Jong-Shik Woo; Wan-Suk Yoo

2007-01-01

334

14 CFR 27.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.493 Braked roll conditions...the lesser ofâ (1) The vertical load multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8; and (2) The maximum value...

2009-01-01

335

14 CFR 29.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.493 Braked roll conditions...the lesser ofâ (1) The vertical load multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8; and (2) The maximum value...

2009-01-01

336

14 CFR 29.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 29.493 Braked roll conditions...the lesser ofâ (1) The vertical load multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8; and (2) The maximum value...

2010-01-01

337

14 CFR 27.493 - Braked roll conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Ground Loads § 27.493 Braked roll conditions...the lesser ofâ (1) The vertical load multiplied by a coefficient of friction of 0.8; and (2) The maximum value...

2010-01-01

338

17. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: BRAKE AIR TANKS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: BRAKE AIR TANKS AND VERTICAL AIR COMPRESSORS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

339

Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples  

PubMed Central

Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems.

McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

340

Airbus A320 Braking as Predicate-Action Diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the Predicate-Action Diagrams of Lamport to express the de- scription of the operation of the Airbus A320 braking systems contained in the Flight Crew Operating Manual. This helps identify ambiguities and incompleteness.

Peter B. Ladkin

341

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle to operate...construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional valve to be used to operate...operations are designed to be operated by a single...

2009-10-01

342

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle to operate...construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional valve to be used to operate...operations are designed to be operated by a single...

2008-10-01

343

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle to operate...construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional valve to be used to operate...operations are designed to be operated by a single...

2011-10-01

344

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle to operate...construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional valve to be used to operate...operations are designed to be operated by a single...

2007-10-01

345

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle to operate...construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional valve to be used to operate...operations are designed to be operated by a single...

2013-10-01

346

49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...service brakes on the motor vehicle or combination motor vehicle to operate...construed to prohibit motor vehicles from being equipped with an additional valve to be used to operate...operations are designed to be operated by a single...

2010-10-01

347

View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

348

11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

349

22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

350

49. FIRST FLOOR, POSSIBLE SUPPORTS FOR WATER OR BRAKE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. FIRST FLOOR, POSSIBLE SUPPORTS FOR WATER OR BRAKE TEST EQUIPMENT, BAYS 50-51/6 NORTH, TO EAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

351

28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ADJUSTING MACHINERY. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

352

35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. CONDUIT LAYOUT FOR BASCULE General overview with motors, brakes, etc. Courtesy of Norwood Noonan Company, Chicago, 1930. - Congress Street Bascule Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at Congress Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

353

50. FIRST FLOOR, POSSIBLE SUPPORTS FOR WATER OR BRAKE TEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. FIRST FLOOR, POSSIBLE SUPPORTS FOR WATER OR BRAKE TEST EQUIPMENT, BAYS 52-53/3 NORTH, TO NORTHWEST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

354

8. CRANCE BOOM WITH DETAIL OF SHIPPER SHAFT AND BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. CRANCE BOOM WITH DETAIL OF SHIPPER SHAFT AND BRAKE ASSEMBLY. DIPPER STICK AND TWO-YARD BUCKET ALSO VISIBLE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

355

6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

356

27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

357

4. FLOOR 3; GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWS WALLOWER, BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. FLOOR 3; GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWS WALLOWER, BRAKE LEVER, CASE FOR SCREENER, TOP OF GRAIN ELEVATOR, LAYSHAFT WHICH POWERS THE SCREENER AND ELEVATOR - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

358

Numerical Analysis of Car Disc Brake Squeal Considering Thermal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction-induced vibration and noise emanating from car disc brakes is a source of considerable discomfort and leads to customer\\u000a dissatisfaction. The high frequency noise above 1 kHz, known as squeal, is most annoying and is very difficult to eliminate.\\u000a It was recently estimated that noise, harshness and vibration (together known as the NVH problem), including disc brake squeal,\\u000a generated warranty

Lijie Li; Huajiang Ouyang; A. R. AbuBakar

359

The T.G.V. disk brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discomfort problems due to the noise emittence of braking systems in trains have suggested recently several mechanical analyses.\\u000a This paper gives some of our results obtained from the numerical modelling of TGV brakes in relation with some experimental\\u000a data. The numerical discussion is based upon the Coulomb’s law of contact with a constant coefficient of friction. A dynamic\\u000a stability analysis

X. Lorang; Q. S. Nguyen; F. Margiocchi; P. E. Gautier

360

Modeling and control of an eddy current brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is the application of some existing techniques for the modelling and regulation of an eddy current brake process. An approximate theoretical model is derived for the behavior of an eddy current disc brake in the low-speed zone. Input-output information is used to obtain a polynomial state-affine behavior model for such a process. Dynamic and static

E. Simeu; D. Georges

1996-01-01

361

Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

1973-01-01

362

A novel control strategy for a braking resistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is established that the application of a braking resistor at the generator terminal enhances significantly the power transfer limit over a transmission line. Two types of braking resistor configuration have been considered here: a 3-phase, bi-directional, full wave, Y-connected phase-controlled ac\\/ac converter, and a 3-phase, full wave, thyristor-controlled rectifier bridge. A simple rule-based ‘ON-OFF’ control law

Biswarup Das; Arindam Ghosh; Sachchidanand

1998-01-01

363

Study on real-time elevator brake failure predictive system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presented a real-time failure predictive system of the elevator brake. Through inspecting the running state of the coil by a high precision long range laser triangulation non-contact measurement sensor, the displacement curve of the coil is gathered without interfering the original system. By analyzing the displacement data using the diagnostic algorithm, the hidden danger of the brake system can be discovered in time and thus avoid the according accident.

Guo, Jun; Fan, Jinwei

2013-10-01

364

Thermal-structure coupling analysis of disc brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional finite element model for thermal-structure coupling analysis of a type of disc brake was established. And using the direct-coupling technique in finite element method, an emergent working condition of braking process was analyzed, getting the distribution laws of the stress field and the temperature field, and the interacting laws between the stress field and the temperature field. The

Jiuchen Fan; Xuemei Sun; Yaxu Chu; Xun Yang

2010-01-01

365

Gain-scheduled wheel slip control in automotive brake systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wheel slip controller is developed and experimentally tested in a car equipped with electromechanical brake actuators and a brake-by-wire system. A gain scheduling approach is taken, where the vehicle speed is viewed as a slowly time-varying parameter and the model is linearized about the nominal wheel slip. Gain matrices for the different operating conditions are designed using an LQR

Tor A. Johansen; Idar Petersen; Jens Kalkkuhl; Jens Ludemann

2003-01-01

366

6. North wall and east end of air brake shop ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. North wall and east end of air brake shop section of roundhouse at center. East end of boiler shop section of roundhouse to the right of air brake shop. East end of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at far right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

367

Modular design and testing for anti-lock brake actuation and control using a scaled vehicle system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique decoupling feature in frictional disk brake mechanisms, derived through kinematic analysis, enables modularised design of an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) into a sliding mode system that specifies reference brake torque and a tracking brake actuator controller. Modelling of brake actuation, vehicle dynamics, and control design are described for a scaled vehicle system. The overall control scheme is evaluated

Chinmaya B. Patil; Raul G. Longoria

2007-01-01

368

Development of aircraft brake materials. [evaluation of metal and ceramic materials in sliding tests simulation of aircraft braking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements of brake materials were outlined and a survey made to select materials to meet the needs of high temperature brakes. A number of metals and ceramic materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. Nickel, molybdenum tungsten, Zr02, high temperature cements and carbons were tested. Additives were then incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials and a high temperature potassium silicate cement. Optimum materials were developed which improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials are a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite or molybdenum disulphite; a molybdenum base material containing LPA100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum, and silicon); and a carbon material (P5).

Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

1974-01-01

369

Simulated three-dimensional transient temperature field during aircraft braking for C\\/SiC composite brake disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, a theoretical model of three-dimensional transient temperature field for C\\/SiC composite brake discs was established by adopting a finite element method according to the theory of energy transformation and transportation. The variation regularities of transient temperature field and internal temperature gradient of the brake discs were obtained. The effects of initial velocity, deceleration and friction coefficient

Chaoqun Zhang; Litong Zhang; Qingfeng Zeng; Shangwu Fan; Laifei Cheng

2011-01-01

370

Wear Modalities and Mechanisms of the Mining Non-asbestos Composite Brake Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mining brake material is generally made of composite materials and its wear has important influences on the braking performance of disc brakes. In order to improve the braking reliability of mine hoisters, this paper did some tribological investigations on the mining brake material to reveal its wear modalities and mechanisms. The mining non-asbestos brake shoe and 16Mn steel were selected as braking pairs and tested on a pad-on-disc friction tester. And a SEM was used to observe the worn surface of the brake shoe. It is shown that the non-asbestos brake material has mainly five wear modalities: adhesive wear, abrasive wear, cutting wear, fatigue wear and high heat wear. At the front period of a single braking the wear modality is mainly composed of some light mechanical wear such as abrasive, cutting and point adhesive. With the temperature rising at the back period it transforms to some heavy mechanical wear such as piece adhesive and fatigue. While in several repeated brakings once the surface temperature rises beyond the thermal-decomposition point of the bonding material, the strong destructive high heat wear takes leading roles on the surface. And a phenomenon called friction catastrophe (FC) occurs easily, which as a result causes a braking failure. It is considered that the friction heat has important influences on the wear modalities of the brake material. And the reduction of friction heat must be an effective technical method for decreasing wear and avoiding braking failures.

Bao, Jiusheng; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Zhencai; Tong, Minming; Lu, Yuhao; Peng, Yuxing

2013-08-01

371

Airborne asbestos concentrations associated with heavy equipment brake removal.  

PubMed

Asbestos-containing brake linings were used in heavy-duty construction equipment such as tractors, backhoes, and bulldozers prior to the 1980s. While several published studies have evaluated exposures to mechanics during brake repair work, most have focused on automobiles and light trucks, not on heavy agricultural or construction vehicles. The purpose of this study is to characterize the airborne concentration of asbestos to workers and bystanders from brake wear debris during brake removal from 12 loader/backhoes and tractors manufactured between 1960 and 1980. Asbestos content in brake lining (average 20% chrysotile by polarized light microscopy) and brake wear debris [average 0.49% chrysotile by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)] was also quantified. Breathing zone samples on the lapel of mechanics (n = 44) and area samples at bystander (n = 34), remote (n = 22), and ambient (n = 12) locations were collected during 12 brake changes and analyzed using phase contrast microscopy (PCM) [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400] and TEM (NIOSH 7402). In addition, the fiber distribution by size and morphology was evaluated according to the International Organization for Standardization method for asbestos. Applying the ratio of asbestos fibers:total fibers (including non-asbestos) as determined by TEM to the PCM results, the average airborne chrysotile concentrations (PCM equivalent) were 0.024 f/cc for the mechanic and 0.009 f/cc for persons standing 1.2-3.1 m from the activity during the period of exposure ( approximately 0.5 to 1 h). Considering the time involved in the activity, and assuming three brake jobs per shift, these results would convert to an average 8-h time-weighted average of 0.009 f/cc for a mechanic and 0.006 f/cc for a bystander. The results indicate that (i) the airborne concentrations for worker and bystander samples were significantly less than the current occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f/cc; (ii) approximately 2% of respirable fibers were >20 microm in length; and (iii) approximately 95% of chrysotile in the brake linings degraded in the friction process. The industrial hygiene data presented here should be useful for conducting retrospective and current exposure assessments of individuals, as well as hazard assessments of work activities that involve repairing and replacing asbestos-containing brakes in heavy construction equipment. PMID:19692501

Madl, A K; Gaffney, S H; Balzer, J L; Paustenbach, D J

2009-11-01

372

A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of the regenerative system.

Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

2006-04-01

373

Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

374

49 CFR 236.565 - Provision made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...made for preventing operation of pneumatic brake-applying apparatus by double-heading...preventing the operation of the pneumatic brake-applying appartus of an...

2013-10-01

375

An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

1995-11-01

376

The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis is kept in line with the direction of the prevailing wind, as well as pressure to the yaw and high speed shaft brakes. The pitch-change-mechanism hydraulic system provides the actuation to the pitch change mechanism and permits feathering of the blades during an emergency situation. It operates in conjunction with the overall windmill computer system, with the feather control permitting slewing control flow to pass from the servo valve to the actuators without restriction.

Onufreiczuk, S.

1978-01-01

377

Measuring workload with electrodermal activity during common braking actions.  

PubMed

How to assess mental load remains a recurrent question. We aimed to explore whether slight differences in real-world driving task demands could be discriminated by electrodermal response (EDR). A sample of 33 participants was observed under five conditions: controlled braking from 50 to 30 km/h, 80 to 50 km/h, 50 to 0 km/h, 80 to 0 km/h, and a single unexpected emergency braking event from 80 to 0 km/h. The likelihood of EDR and, whenever present, its duration were both correlated with workload as represented by the deceleration demand. A higher base travel speed and the unexpected demand of the emergency braking situation impacted EDR, thus attesting higher workload level. EDR explains why stopping the vehicle from 50 km/h and slowing down from 80 to 50 km/h was of similar strain. The results further demonstrate that EDR measures can be successfully employed to discriminate multiple levels of workload. Practitioner Summary: Common braking elicited different loads as revealed by electrodermal response (EDR) with sensitivity to deceleration of - 0.2 g. Even the slightest braking elicited a strain measurable with EDR. Accordingly, EDR may objectively assess the resulting strain during driving, with enhanced reliability if associated with other variables, e.g. cardiac activity. PMID:24689861

Collet, C; Salvia, E; Petit-Boulanger, C

2014-06-01

378

Thermophysical Properties of Automotive Metallic Brake Disk Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature distribution, the thermal deformation, and the thermal stress of automotive brake disks have quite close relations with car safety; therefore, much research in this field has been performed. However, successful and satisfactory results have not been obtained because the temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of brake disk materials are not sufficiently known. In this study, the thermophysical properties (thermal diffusivity, the specific heat, and the coefficient of thermal expansion) of three kinds of iron alloy series brake disk materials, FC250, FC170, and FCD50, and two kinds of aluminum alloy series brake disk materials, Al MMC and A356, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density. As expected, the results show that the two series have significant differences in respect of the thermophysical properties, and to reduce the thermal deformation of the brake disk, the aluminum alloys with a high thermal conductivity and the iron alloys with low thermal expansion are recommended.

Kim, S. W.; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, K. H.; Lim, K. T.

2008-12-01

379

Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

2014-04-01

380

Performance Criteria for Air Brake Component Combinations on In-Use Commercial Motor Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommended that the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) develop performance criteria for allowable combinations (brake size, lining friction and axle rating) of air brake system components on heavy vehicl...

R. Radlinski

1996-01-01

381

Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given.

Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

2012-02-01

382

Sensitivity analysis of brake squeal tendency to substructures’ modal parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity analysis methods are explored to determine the dominant modal parameters of substructures of a brake system for brake squeal suppression analysis. The related formulae of sensitivities of the positive real part of the eigenvalue of squeal mode (RES) to substructures' modal parameters (SMP) are derived. The sensitivity analysis method can determine the dominant modal parameters influencing the squeal occurrence in a regular way, and the dominant modal parameters will be set to be the target of structural modification attempted to eliminate the squeal mode. Sensitivity analysis of a typical squealing disc brake is performed. The analysis results show that a modified rotor or a modified bracket can be used to eliminate the squealing and that the latter is taken in practice and verified experimentally.

Guan, Dihua; Su, Xindong; Zhang, Fang

2006-03-01

383

The method of feed-in energy on disc brake squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake squeal is studied in this paper by feed-in energy analysis. Based on the brake closed-loop coupling model, a calculation method of feed-in energy for squeal mode is derived. Result of the feed-in energy indicates squeal tendency of the brake system, while formula for calculating it discloses the relation among brake squeal phenomenon and structural parameters, such as frictional coefficient,

Dihua Guan; Jinchun Huang

2003-01-01

384

Characterization of the high-frequency squeal on a laboratory brake setup  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental investigation on high-frequency brake squeal noise conducted on an appropriately designed experimental rig, called laboratory brake.Brake squeal is one of the major issues in the design process of an automotive brake and the development of a robust procedure for a “squeal-free” design is still under investigation. The high-frequency squeal is the most frequent noise generated

Oliviero Giannini; Francesco Massi

2008-01-01

385

Study on Reliability Test for Brake Control Execution Unit of Rail Transit Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brake system is the safety-critical subsystem of rail transit vehicle. However, the reliability test technology related to rail transportation equipments is much needed in China. In this paper, a certain Chinese computer-controlled electro-pneumatic brake system was selected to conduct reliability analysis by FMEA and BCEU (Brake Control Execution Unit) was determined the weak link of the brake system. Then,

Luo Min; Wu Meng-lin; Wang Xiao-yan

2010-01-01

386

Effects of hard particles on friction coefficients and particle embedment in brake system during hard braking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of hard particles on the friction coefficients and particle embedment during hard braking were investigated. Silica sands grit of the size between 180 to 355 ?m were used during the experiments. The results were compared to the results obtained without the grit particles present in order to determine the change in friction coefficient, the fluctuation of frictional oscillation amplitude, and the percentage of particle embedment. Different sliding speeds were applied to investigate the relationship between particle embedment with friction coefficient and friction oscillation amplitude. Presence of hard particles of different grit size is found to significantly affect the friction coefficient and standard deviation of friction oscillation amplitude values. The friction coefficient and standard deviation values of friction oscillation amplitude increase with particle embedment due to the rapid changes of the effective contact area and the abrasion mode operating in the gap interface. Also, particle embedment tends to increase the disc surface roughness and influence the stopping time of the disc.

Abdul Hamid, M. K.; Stachowiak, G. W.; Syahrullail, S.

2012-06-01

387

Analysis of compressed air regenerative braking and a thermally enhanced option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a net benefit from regenerative braking is difficult. Various forms of regenerative braking systems have been proposed. They include electric batteries, capacitors, flywheels, and compressed air. Some have been implemented on a limited scale. The benefits of regenerative braking systems are easy to qualitatively describe, but can be challenging to quantify. The potential benefits depend upon obvious things such

F. Wicks; J. Maleszweski; C. Wright; J. Zarybnicky

2002-01-01

388

Design electronic control unit of blend brake system for heavy vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic control unit(ECU) of blend brake system based on electro-hydra ulic servo control for heavy vehicle is designed and analyzed in this paper. The study makes full consideration of the requirements of high speed, heavy weight and fast braking for heavy vehicle. Through collected speed signals and pressure signals output by the main brake cylinder, the ECU analyses and judges

Wang Tianxu; Gong Mingde

2011-01-01

389

49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection...Testing Requirements § 232.207 Class IA brake testsâ1,000-mile inspection...213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified...

2013-10-01

390

49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection...Testing Requirements § 232.207 Class IA brake testsâ1,000-mile inspection...213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified...

2009-10-01

391

49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection...Testing Requirements § 232.207 Class IA brake testsâ1,000-mile inspection...213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified...

2010-10-01

392

The onset of squeal vibrations in drum brake systems resulting from a coupled mode instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades there has been a great deal of research done to model, predict and understand brake squeal in both disc and drum brakes. The goal of this study was to build a sufficiently accurate analytical model that can be used to predict brake squeal and to gain a better understanding of some of the mechanisms responsible

Brian Kent Servis

2000-01-01

393

An active control method to reduce the effect of negative damping in disk brake system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to reduce the effect of negative damping that causes brake noise is proposed by applying an active force control (AFC) based strategy to a two degree-of-freedom model of a disk brake system. At first, the disc brake model is simulated and analyzed using a closed loop pure PID controller. Later, it is integrated with

Sayed-Mahdi Hashemi-Dehkordi; Musa Mailah; A. R. A. Bakar

2009-01-01

394

Reduction of automotive brake squeal through pad geometrical modifications: A numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing brake squeal noise for the improvement of ride comfort is one of the most important issues in today's automotive industry. This study details an investigation into the design modification of a brake pad for the front disc brake system as found on a typical passenger vehicle, and reports how the design modification can be improved to reduce the occurrence

C. Sujatha; M. Nouby; K. Srinivasan

2010-01-01

395

Wear prediction of friction material and brake squeal using the finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents wear prediction of friction material in a disc brake assembly. A new and unworn pair of brake pads is tested under different durations of brake application to establish wear on their surfaces. One of the wear models available in the literature is adopted and then modified to suit the current work. A detailed three-dimensional finite element (FE)

Abd Rahim AbuBakar; Huajiang Ouyang

2008-01-01

396

Wear Simulation and Its Effect on Contact Pressure Distribution and Squeal of a Disc Brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS In the past, wear at the disc and pads interface of disc brakes has rarely been accounted for in a 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model for studying brake squeal. Thus, its effect on disc brake squeal is only possible to investigate through experimental methods. In the present paper, wear over time at the pads interface is simulated using a

A R ABU BAKAR; L LI; H OUYANG

397

Reduction of squeal noise from disc brake systems using constrained layer damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squeal noise generation during braking is a complic ated dynamic problem which automobile manufacturers have confronted for decade s. Customer complaints result in significant yearly warranty costs. More importantly , customer dissatisfaction may result in rejection of certain brands of brake systems. In or der to produce quality automobiles that can compete in today's marketplace, the occurrence of disc brake

M. Triches Jr; S. N. Y. Gerges; R. Jordan

2004-01-01

398

Evaluating new ways of conducting convective heat dissipation experiments with ventilated brake discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research on convective cooling from automotive brake discs has been conducted using an affordable way of experimentally modelling various vanes geometries. A standard gray iron ventilated brake disc with 30 radial vanes was used as a baseline design. This disc has been computationally modelled and good correlation has been obtained with experimental results. The new brake disc concept, an

Carlos H. Galindo-López

399

Auto Mechanics I. Learning Activity Packets (LAPs). Section E--Brakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two learning activity packets (LAPs) that outline the study activities for the "brakes" instructional area for an Auto Mechanics I course. The two LAPs cover the following topics: brake systems and power disc brakes. Each LAP contains a cover sheet that describes its purpose, an introduction, and the tasks included in the…

Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

400

Airborne asbestos concentration from brake changing does not exceed permissible exposure limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use in the past, and to a lesser extent today, of chrysotile asbestos in automobile brake systems causes health concerns among professional mechanics. Therefore, we conducted four separate tests in order to evaluate an auto mechanic’s exposure to airborne asbestos fibers while performing routine brake maintenance. Four nearly identical automobiles from 1960s having four wheel drum brakes were used.

Charles L. Blake; Drew R. Van Orden; Marek Banasik; Raymond D. Harbison

2003-01-01

401

49 CFR 571.122a - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems. 571.122a Section 571...pounds). S5.8Service brake system design durability. Each...detachment or fracture of any brake system components, or leakage of...instrumentation), with the added weight distributed in the saddle or carrier...

2013-10-01

402

49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for all train brake systems. 232.103 Section 232...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT...such a manner that the brake system of the equipment cannot be...unattended. (3) Except for distributed power units, the...

2013-10-01

403

49 CFR 232.309 - Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. 232.309 Section...Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests. (a) Equipment and devices used to perform single car air brake tests shall be tested for...

2013-10-01

404

Dynamic system identification of Audi disc brake under anti-lock condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a dynamic test of an Audi disc brake is performed on the JF-132 vehicle brake tester. The ARX model of the brake dynamics is developed. Based on measured data, model structure is determined, and the model parameter is identified employing the optical instrumental variable method. Through validation of residual whiteness and comparison of different observed data, the

Ren Luquan; Chen Hongwei; Wang Tieshan

1999-01-01

405

49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND...Testing Requirements § 232.217 Train brake tests conducted using yard air....

2013-10-01

406

49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.47 Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and...

2013-10-01

407

49 CFR 236.502 - Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive block conditions stopping distance in...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive...Systems Standards § 236.502 Automatic brake application, initiation by restrictive...shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application at least stopping distance...

2013-10-01

408

49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings...PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end...

2013-10-01

409

Effect of cellular telephone conversations and other potential interference on reaction time in a braking response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment studied the effect of phone conversations and other potential interference on reaction time (RT) in a braking response. Using a laboratory station which simulated the foot activity in driving, 22 research participants were requested to release the accelerator pedal and depress the brake pedal as quickly as possible following the activation of a red brake lamp. Mean reaction

William Consiglio; Peter Driscoll; Matthew Witte; William P. Berg

2003-01-01

410

49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined...Systems Standards § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined...shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed of the...

2013-10-01

411

Aluminum runway surface as possible aid to aircraft braking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several concepts are described for use singly or in combination to improve aircraft braking. All involve a thin layer of aluminum covering all or part of the runway. Advantage would derive from faster heat conduction from the tire-runway interface. Heating of tread surface with consequent softening and loss of friction coefficient should be reduced. Equations are developed indicating that at least 99 percent of friction heat should flow into the aluminum. Preliminary test results indicate a coefficient of sliding friction of 1.4, with predictably slight heating of tread. Elimination of conventional brakes is at least a remote possibility.

Miller, C. D.; Pinkel, I. I.

1973-01-01

412

Disc brake squeal characterization through simplified test rigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of recent investigations on brake squeal noise carried out on simplified experimental rigs. The common theme of these works is that of approaching the study of squeal noise on experimental set-ups that are much simpler than commercial disc brakes, providing the possibility of repeatable measurements of squeal occurrence. As a consequence, it is possible to build consistent and robust models of the experimental apparatus to simulate the squeal events and to understand the physics behind squeal instabilities.

Akay, A.; Giannini, O.; Massi, F.; Sestieri, A.

2009-11-01

413

Transient analysis of thermoelastic contact problem of disk brakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles. The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation established and the Von Mises stresses in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory compared to those found in the literature.

Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa

2013-06-01

414

Thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of a brake disk rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation and the Von Mises stress established in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those of the specialized literature.

Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa

2013-08-01

415

Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research vessels. Heretofore, electrically actuated hydraulic pumps have been used for this purpose. By eliminating the demand for electrical energy for pumping, the use of the thermally actuated hydraulic pumps could prolong the intervals between battery charges, thus making it possible to greatly increase the durations of undersea exploratory missions.

Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

2008-01-01

416

Hydraulic hoisting and backfilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a country such as South Africa, with its large deep level mining industry, improvements in mining and hoisting techniques could result in substantial savings. Hoisting techniques, for example, may be improved by the introduction of hydraulic hoisting. The following are some of the advantages of hydraulic hoisting as against conventional skip hoisting: (1) smaller shafts are required because the

H. B. Sauermann

1982-01-01

417

Parametric finite element modelling and nonlinear analysis of vehicle brake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric platform for the drum brake automatic modelling and nonlinear analysis is established with the parametric programming language (APDL) and user interface design language (UIDL) in ANSYS. The platform is easy to use and flexible, requiring user only to input different parameters in the dialog boxes, then geometric model can be created automatically by assigning values to parameters, and

Jiuchen Fan; Zhaojun Yang; Jixin Wangt; Shuwei Ding; Changliang Liu; Zongcheng Shi

2009-01-01

418

Can dark matter explain the braking index of neutron stars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard n˜3 of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations.

Kouvaris, Chris; Pérez-García, M. Ángeles

2014-05-01

419

Sudden Radiative Braking in Colliding Hot-Star Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot, massive stars have strong stellar winds, and in hot-star binaries these winds can undergo violent collision. Because such winds are thought to be radiatively driven, radiative forces may also play an important role in moderating the wind collision. However, previous studies have been limited to considering how such forces may inhibit the initial acceleration of the companion stellar wind. In this paper we analyze the role of an even stronger radiative braking effect, whereby the primary wind is rather suddenly decelerated by the radiative momentum flux it encounters as it approaches a bright companion. We further show that the braking location and velocity law along the line of centers between the stars can be approximated analytically using a simple one-dimensional analysis. The results of this analysis agree well with a detailed two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of the wind collision in the WR + O binary V444 Cygni and demonstrate that radiative braking can significantly alter the bow-shock geometry and reduce the strength of the wind collision. We then apply the derived analytic theory to a set of 14 hot-star binary systems, and conclude that radiative braking is likely to be of widespread importance for wind-wind collisions in WR + O binaries with close to medium separation, D <~ 100 R?. It may also be important in other types of hot-star binaries that exhibit a large imbalance between the component wind strengths.

Gayley, K. G.; Owocki, S. P.; Cranmer, S. R.

1997-02-01

420

Sudden Radiative Braking in Colliding Hot-Star Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot, massive stars have strong stellar winds, and in hot-star binaries these winds can undergo violent collision. Because such winds are thought to be radiatively driven, radiative forces may also play an important role in moderating the wind collision. However, previous studies have been limited to considering how such forces may inhibit the initial acceleration of the companion stellar wind. In this poster we describe the role of an even stronger radiative braking effect, whereby the primary wind is rather suddenly decelerated by the radiative momentum flux it encounters as it approaches a bright companion. We show that the braking location and velocity law along the line of centers between the stars can be approximated analytically using a simple one-dimensional analysis. The results of this analysis agree well with a detailed two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation of the wind collision in the WR+O binary V444 Cygni, and demonstrate that radiative braking can significantly alter the bow-shock geometry and reduce the strength of the wind collision. We also apply the derived analytic theory to a set of 14 hot-star binary systems, and conclude that radiative braking is likely to be of widespread importance for wind-wind collisions in WR+O binaries with close to medium separation, D <= 100 Rsun. It may also be important in other types of hot-star binaries that exhibit a large imbalance between the component wind strengths.

Gayley, K.; Owocki, S.; Cranmer, S.

1996-05-01

421

The Brake Pedal Force Capability of Adult Females.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the brake pedal force capability of 105 women employees at the National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., was performed utilizing two stationary passenger automobiles as test vehicles. Results showed that over 50% of the test subjects cou...

R. W. Radlinski J. I. Price

1970-01-01

422

Driver Behavior and Situation Aware Brake Assistance for Intelligent Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the development of Human-Centric Intelligent Driver Assistance Systems. Rear-end collisions account for a large portion of traffic accidents. To help mitigate this problem, predictive braking systems and adaptive cruise control systems have been developed. However, these types of systems usually rely solely on the vehicle and vehicle surround sensors, either ignoring the human component of driving

Joel C. McCall; Mohan M. Trivedi

2007-01-01

423

Anticollision system PRORETA with automatic braking and steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and experimental results of a collision-avoidance, driver-assistance system are described with automatic object detection, trajectory prediction, and track following, with controlled braking and steering. The objects are detected by a fusion of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) scanning and video camera pictures that show the location, size and speed of objects in front of the car. A desired trajectory

R. Isermann; M. Schorn; U. Stählin

2008-01-01

424

Robust Active Force Controller for an Automotive Brake System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a robust feedback control method to suppress the vibration and squeal noise phenomenon in disc brake model using an active force control (AFC) strategy. A two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) Wagner model was considered in the study as the main dynamical element to be controlled. The system was tested for robustness and effectiveness in reducing the vibration and squeal,

Mohammed H. Al-Mola; M. Mailah; S. Kazi; A. H. Muhaimin; M. Y. Abdullah

2012-01-01

425

Nonsmooth dynamics of disc brake systems and aeroelastic panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact forces and boundary conditions relaxation play an important role in the dynamic behaviors of mechanical systems such as disc brake systems, jointed structures, and aeroelastic panels. Contact forces between sliding surfaces are strongly nonlinear, non-smooth, and random; and thus can result in complex dynamic characteristics. In addition, boundary conditions relaxation causes stiffness and damping variations, and thus affects structural

Dumitru Marian Beloiu

2005-01-01

426

Disk brake squeal prediction using the ABLE algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk brake squeal noise is mainly due to unstable friction-induced vibration. A typical disk brake system includes two pads, a rotor, a caliper and a piston. In order to predict if a disk brake system will generate squeal, the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the system. At the contact interfaces between the pads and the rotor, the normal displacement is continuous and Coulomb's friction law is applied. Thus, the resulting FEM matrices of the dynamic system become unsymmetric, which will yield complex eigenvalues. Any complex eigenvalue with a positive real part indicates an unstable mode, which may result in squeal. In real-world applications, the FEM model of a disk brake system usually contains tens of thousands of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.s). Therefore any direct eigenvalue solver based on the dense matrix data structure cannot efficiently perform the analysis, mainly due to its huge memory requirement and long computation time. It is well known that the FEM matrices are generally sparse and hence only the non-zeros of the matrices need to be stored for eigenvalue analysis. A recently developed iterative method named ABLE is used in this paper to search for any unstable modes within a certain user-specified frequency range. The complex eigenvalue solver ABLE is based on an adaptive block Lanczos method for sparse unsymmetric matrices. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the formulation and the eigenvalues are compared to the results from the component modal synthesis (CMS).

Lou, G.; Wu, T. W.; Bai, Z.

2004-05-01

427

27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Historic drawing, Marine Railway. Detail of Emergency Brake, 1917. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 13439, #551-16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

428

49 CFR 571.106 - Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fittings during a slow pull test, and shall withstand...fittings during a fast pull test (S6.4). S5.3...magnification when bent around a cylinder as specified in S6...12High temperature impulse test. A brake hose assembly...fittings. S6.1.Expansion test....

2012-10-01

429

Electromagnetic brake for a camshaft phase change device  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a phase change device. It comprises a first shaft; an input member supported for rotation on the first shaft; an output member fixed to the first shaft; advancing means interconnecting the input and output members, the advancing means being operative upon axial movement to effect limited relative rotation between the input and output members; drum means supported for rotation on the first shaft and engaged with the advancing means to effect the axial movement of the advancing means when a retarding force is applied to the drum means; and actuating means operable to apply the retarding force; the improvement wherein the actuating means comprises an electromagnetic brake assembly, the electromagnetic brake assembly comprising an annular housing defining pole pieces of the electromagnet, a magnetic coil received in the housing, a nonmagnetic plate member enclosing the housing, friction material adhered to the plate member, a brake disc surface formed on the drum, and means for mounting the housing on the first shaft in juxtaposition with the brake disc surface in a substantially fixed angular position while permitting limited axial movement relative to the disc surface.

Muir, D.J.; Brune, J.E.; Van Deusen, B.K.; Day, J.K.

1991-07-16

430

Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material  

SciTech Connect

Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 ?C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

2009-01-01

431

Implementation analysis of brake inspectability requirements. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate description of the feasibility, optimum schedule, and cost of implementing a brake inspectability requirement for all production passenger cars (PPC) and light trucks (LT) was prepared. The work was performed as a part of Task 1h Manufacturing and Maintainability, which addresses the need for supporting fuel conservation through vehicle design. The study made use of best available data

A. L. Cross; W. Wakeley; O. J. Viergutz; M. Harvey

1979-01-01

432

Magnetic Braking Revisited: An Activity for "How Science Works"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Curriculum for 14-16 year old students in England contains a mandatory element called "How science works". Included in this material is interpretation of data, collecting data from primary sources, using ICT tools, and developing an argument and drawing conclusions. What follows is an activity, based on magnetic braking, which allows…

Ireson, Gren; Twidle, John

2008-01-01

433

DISC BRAKE SYSTEM (CENTER), INCLUDING BELT DRIVE TO SECONDARY GENERAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISC BRAKE SYSTEM (CENTER), INCLUDING BELT DRIVE TO SECONDARY GENERAL MOTORS ENGINE (LEFT)AND FERREL REDUCTION GEAR CONNECTION TO ALLIS-CHALMERS DIESEL ENGINE (RIGHT), LOOKING NORTH. NOTE TORQUE CONVERTER (TOP) AND THROTTLE (BELOW) LINES CONNECTING TO PRIMARY ENGINE. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

434

HYDRO BRAKE REGULATED STORAGE SYSTEM FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This research project was initiated with the overall objective of determining the ability of the Hydro Brake flow control device, in conjunction with off-line underground storage, to limit the rate of stormwater flow into combined sewers. The intended result of this control was t...

435

Tribological properties of automotive disc brakes with solid lubricants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In automotive brake systems, high temperatures and pressures are generated at the contacting surfaces. This affects the pad and disc materials, creating a friction film between the surfaces, which consists of wear particles and volatile reactants from the pad and disc. To acquire suitable tribological properties, a pad matrix contains up to 20 different ingredients, mainly selected from experience. In

Luise Gudmand-Høyer; Allan Bach; Georg T Nielsen; Per Morgen

1999-01-01

436

NONLINEAR STEERING AND BRAKING CONTROL FOR VEHICLE ROLLOVER AVOIDANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steering and braking control is applied to avoid rollover of road vehicles. The control concept presented is composed of three feedback loops: Continuous operation steering control, emergency steering control and emergency brak- ing control. In continuous operation the roll rate and the roll acceleration are fed back by velocity scheduled gains to the front wheel steering angle. Thereby, the vehicle's

Dirk Odenthal; Tilman Bunte; Jurgen Ackermann

1999-01-01

437

6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, REDUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, REDUCTION GEARS AND BED FOR (MISSING) CLUTCH/DRIVE GEAR UNIT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

438

5. Machine shop and air brake shop sections of roundhouse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Machine shop and air brake shop sections of roundhouse in background. Foundry (MN-99-B) in foreground. View to south. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

439

44. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 SHEET METAL BRAKE, THE MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. SOUTHWEST TO CIRCA 1900 SHEET METAL BRAKE, THE MACHINE USED TO BEND SHEET METAL TO EXACT ANGLES AS IN STEEL WATER TANK MANUFACTURE. IN THE BACKGROUND IS THE INTERIOR WEST WALL OF THE FACTORY, ITS SHELVES BEARING WATER PUMPS, PARTS FOR PUMPS AND WATER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT, AND NEW OLD STOCK MERCHANDISE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

440

5. FLOOR 3; SHOWS BRAKE LEVER, BLOCK FORMERLY USED TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. FLOOR 3; SHOWS BRAKE LEVER, BLOCK FORMERLY USED TO RAISE IT AND HOOK WHICH KEPT IT IN THE 'OFF' POSITION; ALSO SEEN ARE THE LARGE BLOCKS SUSPENDED FROM THE CAP FRAME WHICH HOLD THE TRUCK WHEELS TO CENTER THE CAP - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

441

22. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE SHOWING CLUTCH AND BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. INTERIOR OF BRIDGE TENDER'S HOUSE SHOWING CLUTCH AND BRAKE HANDLES, AIR VALVE FOR RAIL LOCKS, AND MOTOR CONTROLLER FOR TURNING MACHINERY, LOOKING N. PHOTOGRAPHER: SARAH J. DENNETT & ROBERT A. RYAN - Keokuk & Hamilton Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River, Keokuk, Lee County, IA

442

THROTTLE AND BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATIC VEHICLE FOLLOWING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present several throttle and brake control systems for automatic vehicle following. These control systems are designed and tested using a validated nonlinear vehicle model First and then actual vechicles. Each vehicle to be controlled is assumed to be equipped with sensors that, in addition to its own vehicle characteristics, provide measurements of the relative distance and

P. Ioannou; Z. Xu

1994-01-01

443

Friction layers and friction films on PMC brake pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rather new tool, the focused ion beam (FIB) technique, was used to characterise superficial layers at micro-contact areas of a commercial brake pad. The friction material was a polymer matrix composite (PMC) with approximately 50% metal content (semi-metallic) and the counter part was a cast iron rotor. Though the contact areas were not visible as topographic features, they could

W. Österle; I. Urban

2004-01-01

444

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

DOEpatents

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

445

Theoretical and experimental studies on a magnetorheological brake operating under compression plus shear mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The torque characteristics of magnetorheological brakes, consisting of rotating disks immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnetic casing, are controlled by regulating the yield stress of the MR fluid. An increase in yield stress increases the braking torque, which means that the higher the yield strength of the MR fluid, the better the performance of the MR brake will be. In the present research an application of compressive force on MR fluid has been proposed to increase the torque capacity of MR brakes. The mathematical expressions to estimate the torque values for MR brake, operating under compression plus shear mode accounting Herschel-Bulkley shear thinning model, have been detailed. The required compressive force on MR fluid of the proposed brake has been applied using an electromagnetic actuator. The development of a single-plate MR disk brake and an experimental test rig are described. Experiments have been performed to illustrate braking torque under different control currents (0.0-2.0 A). The torque results have been plotted and compared with theoretical study. Experimental results as well as theoretical calculations indicate that the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is higher than that of the MR brake operating only under shear.

Sarkar, C.; Hirani, H.

2013-11-01

446

An evaluation of the historical exposures of mechanics to asbestos in brake dust.  

PubMed

This article presents a historical analysis of published data regarding the exposure of brake mechanics to asbestos as a result of doing brake work. Concerns about this possible hazard were first raised in the late 1960s. This analysis focuses on 30 years of data collected during the brake repair event (e.g., a brake job) and 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) personal samples. A brake job TWA represents the average concentration a mechanic experienced during brake servicing, rather than throughout the workday, and an 8-hour TWA represents the average airborne concentration of asbestos for the entire workday (which would involve brake work and other activities). Nearly 200 brake job and 8-hour TWA airborne asbestos samples were analyzed to assess how asbestos concentrations varied by type of vehicle serviced, country in which mechanics worked, time period, and brake-cleaning method. To facilitate comparisons, brake job TWAs were converted to estimated 8-hour TWAs using the durations and number of brake jobs performed per mechanic each day. Estimated and measured 8-hour TWAs for mechanics servicing automobiles and light trucks ranged from <0.002 to 0.68 f/cc, with a mean of 0.04 f/cc. In contrast, the 8-hour TWAs for mechanics servicing heavy trucks and buses ranged from 0.002 to 1.75 f/cc, with a mean of 0.2 f/cc, suggesting that these mechanics experienced higher daily asbestos exposures than automobile and light truck mechanics. Brake job and 8-hour TWAs for brake mechanics worldwide were found to be similar during the same time periods, and they were consistently below contemporaneous occupational health standards in the United States. The increased use of brake-dust control measures in some garages resulted in at least a 10-fold decrease in the TWA airborne concentrations of asbestos from the 1970s to the late 1980s. PMID:12959890

Paustenbach, Dennis J; Richter, Richard O; Finley, Brent L; Sheehan, Patrick J

2003-10-01

447

Guidelines for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of disc brake squeal using simple models of brake systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brake squeal has become of increasing concern to the automotive industry but guidelines on how to confidently predict squeal propensity are yet to be established. While it is standard practice to use the complex eigenvalue analysis to predict unstable vibration modes, there have been few attempts to calculate their acoustic radiation. Here guidelines are developed for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of brake squeal using models of simplified brake systems with friction contact by considering (1) the selection of appropriate elements, contact and mesh; (2) the extraction of surface velocities via forced response; and (3) the calculation of the acoustic response itself. Results indicate that quadratic tetrahedral elements offer the best option for meshing more realistic geometry. A mesh has to be sufficiently fine especially in the contact region to predict mesh-independent unstable vibration modes. Regarding the vibration response, only the direct, steady-state method with a pressurised pad and finite sliding formulation (allowing contact separation) should be used. Comparison of different numerical methods suggest that a obroadband fast multi-pole boundary element method with the Burton-Miller formulation would efficiently solve the acoustic radiation of a full brake system. Results also suggest that a pad lift-off can amplify the acoustic radiation similar to a horn effect. A horn effect is also observed for chamfered pads which are used in practice to reduce the number and strength of unstable vibration modes. These results highlight the importance of optimising the pad shape to reduce acoustic radiation of unstable vibration modes.

Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.; Marburg, S.

2013-04-01

448

Investigation of temperature and thermal stress in ventilated disc brake based on 3D thermo-mechanical coupling model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventilated disc brakes are widely used for reducing velocity due to their braking stability, controllability and ability to\\u000a prove a wide-ranging brake torque. During braking, the kinetic energy and potential energies of a moving vehicle are converted\\u000a into thermal energy through friction heating between the brake disc and the pads. The object of the present study is to investigate\\u000a the

Pyung Hwang; Xuan Wu

2010-01-01

449

New hydraulics laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DeFrees Hydraulics Laboratory was opened in June 1984 as a 500-m2 addition to the former hydraulics teaching laboratory in Cornell University's School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Total laboratory space is now about 800 m2 and is dedicated to basic and applied research and teaching in hydraulics, fluid mechanics, and hydrology. Three major equipment installations are in progress: a 33-m wave tank with a random wave generator for coastal/ocean engineering research, a 24-m wind-water tunnel for stratified flow and interfacial transfer research, and a 24-m tilting flume for open channel turbulence and sediment transport research.

450

Shuttle Rudder/Speed Brake Power Drive Unit (PDU) Gear Scuffing Tests With Flight Gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scuffing-like damage has been found on the tooth surfaces of gears 5 and 6 of the NASA space shuttle rudder/speed brake power drive unit (PDU) number 2 after the occurrence of a transient back-driving event in flight. Tests were conducted using a pair of unused spare flight gears in a bench test at operating conditions up to 2866 rpm and 1144 in.-lb at the input ring gear and 14,000 rpm and 234 in.-lb at the output pinion gear, corresponding to a power level of 52 hp. This test condition exceeds the maximum estimated conditions expected in a backdriving event thought to produce the scuffing damage. Some wear marks were produced, but they were much less severe than the scuffing damaged produced during shuttle flight. Failure to produce scuff damage like that found on the shuttle may be due to geometrical variations between the scuffed gears and the gears tested herein, more severe operating conditions during the flight that produced the scuff than estimated, the order of the test procedures, the use of new hydraulic oil, differences between the dynamic response of the flight gearbox and the bench-test gearbox, or a combination of these. This report documents the test gears, apparatus, and procedures, summarizes the test results, and includes a discussion of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Proctor, Margaret P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Krants, Timothy L.

2005-01-01

451

Hydraulic Hoisting and Backfilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a country such as South Africa, with its large deep level mining industry, improvements in mining and hoisting techniques could result in substantial savings. Hoisting techniques, for example, may be improved by the introduction of hydraulic hoisting. ...

H. B. Sauermann

1982-01-01

452

Investigations of Hydraulic Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of the initial degree of turbulence on the hydrodynamic coefficients of the blade systems of axial hydraulic turbines; Accuracy of determining the flow around straight blade cascades; Application of Stanitz and Prian's approximate theory...

G. A. Svinarev

1969-01-01

453

Aircraft Hydraulic Servomechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have attempted to present to others concerned with the analysis, design, and testing of integrated aircraft control systems, certain fundamental information regarding the hydraulic servomechanisms used to position the aircraft control surfaces...

I. L. Ashkenas G. E. Click D. Graham J. W. Hager A. P. Henry

1969-01-01

454

Portable Hydraulic Powerpack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

1986-01-01

455

Heat generation in aircraft tires under braked rolling conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model was developed to approximate the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire operating under conditions of unyawed braked rolling. The model employs an array of elements to represent the tire cross section and considers the heat generated within the tire to be caused by the change in strain energy associated with cyclic tire deflection. The additional heating due to tire slip and stresses induced by braking are superimposed on the previously developed free rolling model. An extensive experimental program was conducted to verify temperatures predicted from the analytical model. Data from these tests were compared with calculations over a range of operating conditions. The model results were in reasonably good agreement with measured values.

Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

1984-01-01

456

Inductive braking of thermomagnetic avalanches in superconducting films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stabilizing effect of placing a normal metal layer adjacent to a thermomagnetically unstable superconducting film is investigated. By solving the coupled Maxwell and heat transfer equations numerically it is shown that the metal, via inductive braking of the rapidly propagating flux avalanches, strongly reduces their impact. It is found that with increasing thickness and/or electrical conductivity of the metal layer, the number of avalanche events increases, while the amount of flux involved in each avalanche is strongly reduced, resulting in an overall more stable thermomagnetic system. The numerical results provide detailed insight into the braking process, and explain both previous dc magnetometry measurements and new magneto-optical imaging results obtained for a superconducting NbN film coated with a Cu-layer.

Vestgården, J. I.; Mikheenko, P.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

2014-05-01

457

Analytical Investigation on Squeal Phenomena Generated in Bicycle Disc Brakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The squeal phenomenon is often generated in bicycle disc brakes. This paper deals analytically with the generation mechanism and the criterion of whether or not the squeal occurs. According to the experimental studies, it has been made clear that the squeal is mainly in-plane vibration in the direction of disc surface with the frequency about 1kHz caused by frictional characteristics with negative slope with respect to the relative velocity. An analytical model of the bicycle disc brake system has been devised to confirm the experimental results, in which a coupled in-plane and out-of-plane vibrating system is composed of the disc, hub, caliper and spokes. The resulting frequency of squeal and the unstable vibration modes of the disc and spokes from the analytical model agreed well with the experimental results.

Nakae, Takashi; Sueoka, Atsuo; Ryu, Takahiro

458

Aerodynamic fairing/brake for high-speed trains  

SciTech Connect

A dual aerodynamic function assembly for high speed MAGLEV trains having adjacent in-line cars is described comprising: a series of flaps pivotally mounted by means of a hinge to a circumferential segment of a car end, each flap displaceable to a first position covering a gap existing between the car end and a confronting end of an adjacent car thereby serving as a fairing; a second position at an oblique angle to the path of travel thereby creating drag on the train resulting in braking; and means for actuating the flaps to one or the other position; wherein the flaps have rectangular shapes along those lengths of the circumferential segment which are linear; and further wherein the flaps have contoured edges along those lengths of the circumferential segment which are curved so as to create a close edgewise fit to create a more continuous drag braking surface.

Ende, R.E.

1993-06-29

459

Plasma Jet Braking: Energy Dissipation and Nonadiabatic Electrons  

SciTech Connect

We report in situ observations by the Cluster spacecraft of wave-particle interactions in a magnetic flux pileup region created by a magnetic reconnection outflow jet in Earth's magnetotail. Two distinct regions of wave activity are identified: lower-hybrid drift waves at the front edge and whistler-mode waves inside the pileup region. The whistler-mode waves are locally generated by the electron temperature anisotropy, and provide evidence for ongoing betatron energization caused by magnetic flux pileup. The whistler-mode waves cause fast pitch-angle scattering of electrons and isotropization of the electron distribution, thus making the flow braking process nonadiabatic. The waves strongly affect the electron dynamics and thus play an important role in the energy conversion chain during plasma jet braking.

Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Cully, C. M.; Vaivads, A.; Andre, M.; Owen, C. J. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Dorking (United Kingdom)

2011-04-22

460

Charged-particle acceleration in braking plasma jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the mechanism of the charged particle acceleration in space plasma systems. We consider the interaction of nonrelativistic particles with a sub-Alfvenic plasma jet originated from the magnetic reconnection. The sharp front with increased magnetic field amplitude forms in the jet leading edge. Propagation of the jet in the inhomogeneous background plasma results in front braking. We show that particles can interact with this front in a resonance manner. Synchronization of particle reflections from the front and the front braking provides the stable trapping of particles in the vicinity of the front. This trapping supports the effective particle acceleration along the front. The mechanism of acceleration is potentially important due to the prevalence of the magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas.

Artemyev, A. V.

2014-03-01

461

Damping mechanisms of perturbations in electromagnetically braked horizontal film flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of shear and surface modes in an electromagnetically braked free surface liquid metal flow over a horizontally moving boundary is considered. The main objective is to investigate the stabilizing effect of a transverse magnetic field of the film flow appearing in connection with the horizontal belt strip casting. The flow is two-dimensional and the upper boundary is a free surface. In the stability analysis the film flow is approximated as parallel and is therefore based on the MHD-modified Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Numerical calculations present the linear growth rate for shear and surface mode instabilities. A transverse magnetic field is found to have two damping mechanisms. For low Hartmann numbers the main mechanism is due to the braking of the flow, reducing the shear stress. The other mechanism is due to dissipation by the Joule effect.

Löfgren, Hans B.; Åkerstedt, Hans O.

2000-01-01

462

Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

1985-06-01

463

Thermal design of AOTV heatshields for a conical drag brake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an on-going study of the thermal performance of thermal protection systems for a conical drag brake type AOTV. Three types of heatshield are considered: rigid ceramic insulation, flexible ceramic blankets, and ceramic cloths. The results for the rigid insulation apply to other types of AOTV as well. Charts are presented in parametric form so that they may be applied to a variety of missions and vehicle configurations. The parameters considered include: braking maneuver heat flux and total heat load, heatshield material and thickness, heatshield thermal mass and conductivity, absorptivity and emissivity of surfaces, thermal mass of support structure, and radiation transmission through thin heatshields. Results of temperature calculations presented show trends with and sensitivities to these parameters. The emphasis is on providing information that will be useful in estimating the minimum required mass of these heatshield materials.

Pitts, W. C.; Murbach, M. S.

1985-01-01

464

An unusual intraorbital foreign body: A brake lever  

PubMed Central

Orbital trauma usually affects the bony parts of the orbit; however, in rare cases foreign bodies are found within the orbit. In this report, we introduce a case with unusual large intraorbital foreign bodies (two parts of a brake lever) after a motorcycle accident. Although one of the foreign bodies was located in the posterior orbit, they required only one simple operation for retrieval. We will discus the management strategy.

Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hosein

2009-01-01

465

Evaluation of asbestos exposure during brake repair and replacement.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber of brake repair job (auto mechanics) has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos fiber concentrations in the breathing zone of auto mechanics between July 2008 and December 2008. The asbestos fiber concentrations of 60 personal air samples collected from 30 cars and trucks brake replacement and they were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The geometric means of the personal monitoring fiber concentrations were 0.92 PCM f/ml and 0.46 PCM f/ml respectively in car and passenger heavy truck auto shops. There was a significant differences in the asbestos fiber concentrations between the car and truck auto shops (p=0.006). Based on these findings, auto mechanics who worked with asbestos containing brake may have been exposed to asbestos concentrations approximately 7 times higher than the current occupational safety and health agency (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/ml. Fiber morphology and energy dispersive X-ray analysis by SEM revealed that amphibole fibers such as tremolite and actinolite existed in the brakes dust and that the vast majority (>30%) of the airborne chrysotile fibers were greater than 1 ?m in diameter. It can be concluded that the imported chrysotile asbestos contains trace amounts of tremolite and actinolite fibers and they are responsible for the high airborne asbestos levels and occupational exposure to amphibole asbestos in auto mechanics job in Iran. Thus, it is to be expected that the auto mechanics will suffer negative health effects due to exposure to the serpentine and amphibole asbestos fibers. PMID:21372435

Kakooei, Hossein; Hormozy, Maryam; Marioryad, Hossein

2011-01-01

466

A robust active control method to reduce brake noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel approach to suppress vibration that causes brake noise is proposed employing a closed-loop feedback control method using an Active Force Control (AFC) based strategy. It is used in conjunction with the classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID) scheme that is typically incorporated in the outermost positional control loop. The idea is to introduce an active element that dynamically

S. M. Hashemi-Dehkordi; M. Mailah; A. R. Abu-Bakar

2009-01-01

467

Analytical Investigation on Squeal Phenomena Generated in Bicycle Disc Brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The squeal phenomenon is often generated in bicycle disc brakes. This paper deals analytically with the generation mechanism and the criterion of whether or not the squeal occurs. According to the experimental studies, it has been made clear that the squeal is mainly in-plane vibration in the direction of disc surface with the frequency about 1kHz caused by frictional characteristics

Takashi Nakae; Atsuo Sueoka; Takahiro Ryu

2010-01-01

468

Failure Rate Analysis of Boeing 737 Brakes Employing Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure rate analysis of brake assemblies of a commercial airplane, i.e., Boeing 737, is analyzed using the artificial neural network and Weibull regression models. One-layered feed-forward back- propagation algorithm for artificial neural network whereas three parameters model for Weibull are used for the analysis. Three years of data are used for model building and validation. The results show that

Ahmed Z. Al-Garni; Ahmad Jamal; Farooq Saeed; Ayman H. Kassem

469

Tribological investigation of titanium-based materials for brakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloys and their composites have the potential to reduce truck disc brake component weight and improve their resistance to road-salt corrosion. A titanium alloy rotor can weigh approximately 37% less than a conventional cast iron rotor with the same dimensions, while offering good high-temperature strength and much better resistance to corrosion from road-deicing salts. Friction coefficients and temperature rise

Peter J. Blau; Brian C. Jolly; Jun Qu; William H. Peter; Craig A. Blue

2007-01-01

470

Estimation of Driving Phase by Modeling Brake Pressure Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is important for a driver-assist system to know the phase of the driver, that is, safety or danger. This paper proposes\\u000a two methods for estimating the driver’s phase by applying machine learning techniques to the sequences of brake signals. One\\u000a method models the signal set with a mixture of Gaussians, where a Gaussian corresponds to a phase. The other

Hiroki Mima; Kazushi Ikeda; Tomohiro Shibata; Naoki Fukaya; Kentarou Hitomi; Takashi Bando

2009-01-01

471

Analysis of natural frequency variability of a brake component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manufacture of automotive disc brake calipers is subjected to many inherent variabilities resulting in product variability. In particular, the dispersion of natural frequency values is a primary issue in the context of vehicle comfort. This paper aims to quantify natural frequency variability and search for its causes. Extensive experimental tests and numerical simulations, described in the paper, point out the fundamental role of mold wear and assembling process in this variability.

Gallina, A.; Lisowski, W.; Pichler, L.; Stachowski, A.; Uhl, T.

2012-10-01

472

Sudden Radiative Braking in Colliding Hot-Star Winds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When two hot-star winds collide, their interaction centers at the point where the momentum fluxes balance. However, in WR+O systems, the imbalance in the corporeal momentum fluxes may be extreme enough to preclude a standard head-on wind/wind collision. On the other hand, an important component of the total momentum flux in radiatively driven winds is carried by photons. Thus, if the wind interaction region has sufficient scattering opacity, it can reflect stellar photons and cause important radiative terms to enter the momentum balance. This radiative input would result in additional braking of the wind. We use a radiative-hydrodynamics calculation to show that such radiative braking can be an important effect in many types of colliding hot-star winds. Characterized by sudden deceleration of the stronger wind in the vicinity of the weak-wind star, it can allow a wind ram balance that would otherwise be impossible in many WR+O systems with separations less than a few hundred solar radii. It also greatly weakens the shock strength and the encumbent X ray production. We demonstrate the significant features of this effect using V444 Cygni as a characteristic example. We also derive a general analytic theory that applies to a wide class of binaries, yielding simple predictions for when radiative braking should play an important role.

Gayley, K. G.; Owocki, S. P.; Cranmer, S. R.

1996-01-01

473

Predictive model of squeal noise occurring on a laboratory brake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper on brake squeal instability presents a reduced order model of a laboratory brake considered in a previous paper, and presents a description of the squeal mechanism occurring during experiments. The model uses the modal parameters of the laboratory brake components, the disc and the caliper, when they are not in contact between them. Successively, the caliper and the disc are put in contact through the pad that is modeled as a one degree of freedom system while the Coulomb law models the friction interaction between them. No stick slip motion of the pad is considered, because it was not observed in the experimental tests. As a result the model is linear and particularly suited for a parametric analysis. The stability of the model is studied by a complex eigenvalue analysis and the obtained results show a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the key parameters of the model are consistent with the experimental set-up. The key role of the disc and the pad dynamics are discussed.

Giannini, Oliviero; Sestieri, Aldo

2006-09-01

474

SPINDOWN OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS: GRAVITATIONAL WAVES OR MAGNETIC BRAKING?  

SciTech Connect

We study the spindown of isolated neutron stars from initially rapid rotation rates, driven by two factors: (1) gravitational wave emission due to r-modes and (2) magnetic braking. In the context of isolated neutron stars, we present the first study including self-consistently the magnetic damping of r-modes in the spin evolution. We track the spin evolution employing the RNS code, which accounts for the rotating structure of neutron stars for various equations of state. We find that, despite the strong damping due to the magnetic field, r-modes alter the braking rate from pure magnetic braking for B {<=} 10{sup 13} G. For realistic values of the saturation amplitude {alpha}{sub sat}, the r-mode can also decrease the time to reach the threshold central density for quark deconfinement. Within a phenomenological model, we assess the gravitational waveform that would result from r-mode-driven spindown of a magnetized neutron star. To contrast with the persistent signal during the spindown phase, we also present a preliminary estimate of the transient gravitational wave signal from an explosive quark-hadron phase transition, which can be a signal for the deconfinement of quarks inside neutron stars.

Staff, Jan E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jaikumar, Prashanth; Chan, Vincent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Ouyed, Rachid [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2012-05-20

475

Driver sensitivity to brake pulse duration and magnitude.  

PubMed

Adaptive cruise control (ACC) requires that the driver intervene in situations that exceed the capability of ACC. A brake pulse might provide a particularly compatible means of alerting the driver to situations in which the acceleration authority of the ACC has been exceeded. This study examined the sensitivity of the driver to brake pulses of five different amplitudes (0.01-0.025 g) and five different durations (50-800 ms). Drivers were sensitive to accelerations as low as 0.015 g. Pulse duration interacted with pulse amplitude, such that moderate duration pulses were more detectable than long and short duration pulses at intermediate levels of pulse amplitude. A power function with an exponent of 1.0 accounted for 99% of the variance in drivers' sensitivity to pulse amplitude; however, a power function with an exponent of 0.23 accounted for only 70% of the variance in drivers' sensitivity to pulse duration. These results can help designers create ACC algorithms and develop brake pulse warnings. PMID:17457744

Lee, J D; McGehee, D V; Brown, T L; Nakamoto, J

2007-06-01

476

The method of feed-in energy on disc brake squeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brake squeal is studied in this paper by feed-in energy analysis. Based on the brake closed-loop coupling model, a calculation method of feed-in energy for squeal mode is derived. Result of the feed-in energy indicates squeal tendency of the brake system, while formula for calculating it discloses the relation among brake squeal phenomenon and structural parameters, such as frictional coefficient, geometric shape of brake pads, elastic modulus of frictional material, substructure modal shape, etc. The method also helps to analyze the effectiveness of various structural modification schemes attempted to eliminate the squeal noise. Finally, this method is illustrated by application to a typical squealing disc brake.

Guan, Dihua; Huang, Jinchun

2003-03-01

477

Braking Energy Regeneration System of Buses Based on Compressed Air Energy Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brake energy regeneration is an electrical current management technology that ensures intelligent generation of electric power\\u000a by restricting production to the engine overrun phases and the application of the brakes. Compressed air energy storage is\\u000a a technically feasible and economically attractive method for load management. This work proposed a brake energy regeneration\\u000a system based on electric-controlled compressed air energy storage

Wei-gang Zhang; Ying-duo Han; Feng-ling Li

2007-01-01

478

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation onto passenger car disk brake design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to investigate the flow and heat transfer in ventilated disc brakes using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). NACA Series blade is designed for ventilated disc brake and the cooling characteristic is compared to the baseline design. The ventilated disc brakes are simulated using commercial CFD software FLUENTTM using simulation configuration that was obtained from experiment data. The NACA Series blade design shows improvements in Nusselt number compared to baseline design.

Munisamy, Kannan M.; Kanasan Moorthy, Shangkari K.

2013-06-01

479

The Use of AI Methods for Evaluating Condition Dependent Dynamic Models of Vehicle Brake Squeal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neurofuzzy modelling technique is used to predict the differential equation coefficients of brake noise time histories as\\u000a functions of braking test conditions. These are then related to the 3rd order differential equations governing a candidate mathematical model of brake squeal using a second neurofuzzy model. This\\u000a determines whether similar or sensible parametric changes in the model are required to

Simon Feraday; Chris Harris; Kihong Shin; Mike Brennan; Malcolm Lindsay

2000-01-01

480

Improvements for reduction of the brake squeal noise at Seoul metro rolling stock on tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical methods were applied to find and understand the phenomenon of brake squeal noise of the Seoul\\u000a Metro rolling stock on tracks. Generally, it is well known that brake squeal noise is strongly related to stick and slip between\\u000a brake pad and disk. In most cases for rolling stock on tracks, trailer cars needed more particular attention through

Seong Keol Kim

2009-01-01

481

Chemical and physical properties of carbon as related to brake performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two objectives of this paper are: (a) to review the literature relevant to the structure, properties and applications of carbon-carbon (C\\/C) disc brakes, and (b) to present aspects of carbon science relevant to an understanding of the operational behaviour of such brakes. The literature describes numerous studies relating structure and composition of (C\\/C) disc brakes to wear mechanisms and

C. Blanco; J. Bermejo; H. Marsh; R. Menendez

1997-01-01

482

Optimal design of a novel hybrid MR brake for motorcycles considering axial and radial magnetic flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an optimal solution of a new type of motorcycle brake featuring different smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In this study, typical types of commercial MR fluid are considered there for the design of a motorcycle MR brake; MRF-122-2ED (low yield stress), MRF-132-DG (medium yield stress) and MRF-140-CG (high yield stress). As a first step, a new configuration featuring a T-shaped drum MR brake is introduced and a hybrid concept of magnetic circuit (using both axial and radial magnetic flux) to generate braking force is analyzed based on the finite element method. An optimal design of the MR brake considering the required braking torque, the temperature due to friction of the MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions is then performed. For the optimization, the finite element analysis (FEA) is used to achieve principal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. In addition, the size, mass and power consumption of three different MR motorcycle brakes are quantitatively analyzed and compared.

Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

2012-05-01

483

TU Delft: Hydraulic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the Dutch reputation for water management, it's no surprise that one of their leading technical institutes, The Technische Universiteit Delft, offers a program in Hydraulic Engineering. The website, in both Dutch and English, describes their program as an attempt "to bridge the gap between basic sciences (fluid mechanics and soil mechanics in particular) and practical engineering applications in the design, construction, maintenance, management and eventually the demolition of hydraulic structures." The Education section of the website posts MSc theses completed by their students. The research section describes current and recently completed research projects and includes a listing of publications, some of which are available to download. The website also has a link to a Hydraulic Engineering portal, which offers various publication databases (some in Dutch only), and the Civil Engineering Knowledge Centre, which provides library access and discussion forums for students and staff of Civil Engineering.

484

What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled and sometimes spilled on the surface. This poster presentation illustrates the under surface process of hydraulic fracking and the distribution flow to the market.

2012-01-01

485

Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From D.B. McWhorterand D. K. Sunda's 1977 Ground-Water Hydrology and Hydraulics, this two page excerpt outlines and details Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. Here, visitors will find illustrations and formula to understand the concept.

2008-02-07

486

In-Depth Survey Report: Evaluation of Brake Drum Service Controls at Cincinnati Bell Maintenance Facility, Fairfax, Ohio,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of vacuum units (Nilfisk Asbestos-Clene System) equipped with high efficiency particulate air filters in limiting exposure to asbestos (1332214) during the servicing of automotive brakes was evaluated. Brake servicing of seven vehicles a...

J. W. Sheehy W. F. Todd T. C. Cooper H. D. Van Wagenen

1987-01-01

487

Coarse coal hydraulic transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consolidation Coal Co's work on hydraulic transport in underground mining is recommended. After initial testing of the transport of coarse coal in a surface test plant, a pilot system was installed at Robinson Run Mine in West Virginia to investigate transport from a continuous miner to the surface of the drift and thence to the preparation plant. A pipe-wear pilot

Petry

1982-01-01

488

Downhole hydraulic actuated pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of the type having a main housing within which an engine and pump is enclosed; a connecting rod, an engine piston, a pump plunger, means by which the engine and connecting rod reciprocate the pump plunger and thereby produces fluid; the main housing has a lower end having a formation fluid

Roeder

1988-01-01

489

Hydraulic Network Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the work done simulating a water radiator heating system as a whole coupled with the building using design data as input and using measured data for verification of the predictions. The exercise had three stages: hydraulic balance, t...

R. Kohonen A. Laitinen M. Virtanen

1989-01-01

490

Hydraulic Structures for Wetlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical note examines hydraulic structures presently being used in wetland design. The examples given will provide insight to structure types being used in the field and how well they are succeeding. The design and construction of a wetland site re...

1993-01-01

491

Hydraulic Impulse Speargun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydraulic speargun has an elongated elastomeric bladder for charging the gun. One end of the bladder selectively communicates with the breech chamber at the end of the gun barrel. The other end of the bladder is connected to a pump for inflating the bla...

L. Bissonnette

1996-01-01

492

Hydraulic borehole mining system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic underground mining system is disclosed for operating through a small diameter borehole into a subterranean body. An elongated mining tool includes a liquid jet nozzle that is movable in vertical direction along the length of the mining tool for forming a directed jet stream to impact material in the ore body and convert the material into a slurry.

1983-01-01

493

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

494

Integration in Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

Sworder, Steven C.

495

Hydraulic Shutdown Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adding switch allows inappropriate control actions to be overridden. Four-pole, double-throw switch added to front panel of controller to disable tracking-error and endpoint-error circuitry yet still retain overload-detection capability. Previously, it was necessary to use adjustable-voltage-level detection equipment connected with cables to hydraulic "dump" or shutdown circuitry in controller.

Fleming, S. T.; Harrington, D. B.

1986-01-01

496

Digital Hydraulic Actuator Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The progress is reported on the Digital Hydraulic Actuator (DHA) Study as related to a Polaris application. The purpose of the DHA Phase I Study is to establish and define the pertinent parameters which impact control system performance with Polaris as a ...

1964-01-01

497

Hydraulic Pressure Intensifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydraulic pressure intensifier is used to raise the pressure in an accumulator above a given input pressure. An oscillating piston provides a boost pressure while a pilot valve and a dump valve and restrictors allow the oscillating piston to move. (Auth...

R. S. Andrews

1985-01-01

498

Cradle modification for hydraulic ram  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

Koons, B.M.

1995-03-02

499

Hydraulic Drives of Aircraft. Part I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The place occupied by hydraulic systems in equipment of aircraft; Working fluids and their properties; Basic information on hydraulics of pipelines; Pumps and hydraulic motors; Pumps and hydraulic motors of piston types; Axial-piston pumps and h...

T. M. Bashta

1969-01-01

500

Rotational Resonance of Nonaxisymmetric Magnetic Braking in the KSTAR Tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important rotational resonances in nonaxisymmetric neoclassical transport has been experimentally validated in the KSTAR tokamak by applying highly nonresonant n=1 magnetic perturbations to rapidly rotating plasmas. These so-called bounce-harmonic resonances are expected to occur in the presence of magnetic braking perturbations when the toroidal rotation is fast enough to resonate with periodic parallel motions of trapped particles. The predicted and observed resonant peak along with the toroidal rotation implies that the toroidal rotation in tokamaks can be controlled naturally in favorable conditions to stability, using nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbations.

Park, J.-K.; Jeon, Y. M.; Menard, J. E.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, S. G.; Bae, Y. S.; Joung, M.; You, K.-I.; Lee, K.-D.; Logan, N.; Kim, K.; Ko, J. S.; Yoon, S. W.; Hahn, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, W. C.; Oh, Y.-K.; Kwak, J.-G.

2013-08-01