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Sample records for hydraulic conductivity technical

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs.

  2. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  3. The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.

  4. Mathematical and geological approaches to minimizing the data requirements for statistical analysis of hydraulic conductivity. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, F.M.; Wilson, J.L.; Gutjahr, A.L.; Love, D.W.; Davis, J.M.; Lohmann, R.C.; Colarullo, S.J.; Gotkowitz, M.B.

    1992-12-01

    Field scale heterogeneity has been recognized as a dominant control on solute dispersion in groundwater. Numerous random field models exist for quantifying heterogeneity and its influence on solute transport. Minimizing data requirements in model selection and subsequent parameterization will be necessary for efficient application of quantitative models in contaminated subsurface environments. In this study, a detailed quantitative sedimentological study is performed to address the issue of incorporating geologic information into the geostatistical characterization process. A field air-minipermeameter is developed for rapid in-situ measurements. The field study conducted on an outcrop of fluvial/interfluvial deposits of the Pliocene- Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation in the Albuquerque Basin of central New Mexico. Architectural element analysis is adopted for mapping and analysis of depositional environment. Geostatistical analysis is performed at two scales. At the architectural element scale, geostatistical analysis of assigned mean log-permeabilities of a 0.16 km{sup 2} peninsular region indicates that the directions of maximum and minimum correlation correspond to the directions of the large-scale depositional processes. At the facies scale, permeability is found to be adequately represented as a log-normal process. Log-permeability within individual lithofacies appears uncorrelated. The overall correlation structure at the facies scale is found to be a function of the mean log-permeability and spatial distribution of the individual lithofacies. Based on field observations of abrupt spatial changes in lithology and hydrologic properties, an algorithm for simulating multi-dimensional discrete Markov random fields. Finally, a conceptual model is constructed relating the information inferred from dimensional environment analysis to the various random fields of heterogeneity.

  5. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

  6. Peat hydraulic conductivity in different landuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustamo, Pirkko; Hyvärinen, Maarit; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kløve, Bjørn

    2013-04-01

    Information on hydraulic conductivity and water retention properties of peatlands is needed, e.g., for modelling hydrology and soil carbon balance of peat soils. Ability to model the behaviour of peat soils, especially those drained for agricultural use, is important as cultivated peatlands act as a major source of CO2 and N2O emissions in Nordic countries. Peat soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention properties vary greatly, and their relationship to soil depth and degree of decomposition is not straightforward. The aim of this study was to produce new information about peat physical properties in different land uses and the relationship between peat soil hydraulic conductivity and variables such as soil porosity and degree of humification. Peat hydraulic conductivity was measured in situ with infiltrometer (direct push piezometer) in six study sites (two pristine bogs, two sites drained for forestry, a cultivated peat land site and a peat extraction site). Measurements were made in several depths according to soil profile. To examine relationship of soil properties and the hydraulic conductivity, undisturbed peat cores of known volume and also disturbed peat samples were collected from the study sites for determination of von Post humification factor, ash content, porosity and bulk density. Surface layer of the agricultural site had high ash content and bulk density and low porosity compared to the soil beneath it and the soil in other study sites. This was due to added sand and compaction by agricultural practice. Bog, in contrast, had very low bulk density and high porosity. Results show a great variation in hydraulic conductivity within the study sites even when the observations were in the same soil layer. Hydraulic conductivity was lowest in the peat extraction site and the agricultural site, and had higher correlation with study site (= landuse) and the measured layer than with soil porosity.

  7. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  8. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of desiccated geosynthetic clay liners

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, B.T.; Daniel, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Large-scale tests were performed to determine the effect of a cycle of wetting and drying on the hydraulic conductivity of several geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). The GCLs were covered with 0.6 m of pea gravel and permeated with water. After steady seepage had developed, the water was drained away, and the GCL was desiccated by circulating heated air through the overlying gravel. The drying caused severe cracking in the bentonite component of the GCLs. The GCLs were again permeated with water. As the cracked bentonite hydrated and swelled, the hydraulic conductivity slowly decreased from an initially high value. The long-term, steady value of hydraulic conductivity after the wetting and drying cycle was found to be essentially the same as the value for the undesiccated GCL. It is concluded that GCLs possess the ability to self-heal after a cycle of wetting and drying, which is important for applications in which there may be alternate wetting and drying of a hydraulic barrier (e.g. within a landfill final cover).

  10. Iterative method of finding hydraulic conductivity characteristics of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysbaiuly, Bolatbek; Adamov, Abilmazhin

    2016-08-01

    The work considers an initial boundary value problem for a nonlinear equation of hydraulic conductivity. A method of finding a nonlinear diffusion coefficient is developed and hydraulic conductivity of soil moisture is found. Numerical calculations are conducted.

  11. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  12. Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewardson, M. J.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Pella, H.; Thommeret, N.; Valette, L.; Grant, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is an important control on flow within the hyporheic zone, affecting hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes essential to river ecosystem function. Despite many published field measurements, few empirical studies examine the drivers of spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity. Reach-averaged hydraulic conductivity estimated for 119 surveys in 83 stream reaches across continental France, even of coarse bed streams, are shown to be characteristic of sand and finer sediments. This supports a model where processes leading to the accumulation of finer sediments within streambeds largely control hydraulic conductivity rather than the size of the coarse bed sediment fraction. After describing a conceptual model of relevant processes, we fit an empirical model relating hydraulic conductivity to candidate geomorphic and hydraulic drivers. The fitted model explains 72% of the deviance in hydraulic conductivity (and 30% using an external cross-validation). Reach hydraulic conductivity increases with the amplitude of bedforms within the reach, the bankfull channel width-depth ratio, stream power and upstream catchment erodibility but reduces with time since the last streambed disturbance. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and time since a streambed mobilisation event is likely a consequence of clogging processes. Streams with a predominantly suspended load and less frequent streambed disturbances are expected to have a lower streambed hydraulic conductivity and reduced hyporheic fluxes. This study suggests a close link between streambed sediment transport dynamics and connectivity between surface water and the hyporheic zone.

  13. Hydraulic Conductivity Fields: Gaussian or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Dogan, Mine; Van Dam, Remke L.; Hyndman, David W.; Benson, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) fields are used to parameterize groundwater flow and transport models. Numerical simulations require a detailed representation of the K field, synthesized to interpolate between available data. Several recent studies introduced high resolution K data (HRK) at the Macro Dispersion Experiment (MADE) site, and used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to delineate the main structural features of the aquifer. This paper describes a statistical analysis of these data, and the implications for K field modeling in alluvial aquifers. Two striking observations have emerged from this analysis. The first is that a simple fractional difference filter can have a profound effect on data histograms, organizing non-Gaussian ln K data into a coherent distribution. The second is that using GPR facies allows us to reproduce the significantly non-Gaussian shape seen in real HRK data profiles, using a simulated Gaussian ln K field in each facies. This illuminates a current controversy in the literature, between those who favor Gaussian ln K models, and those who observe non-Gaussian ln K fields. Both camps are correct, but at different scales. PMID:24415806

  14. Winter effects on hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.H.; Abichou, T.H.; Bosscher, P.J. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Olson, M.A. )

    1995-01-01

    A field test was conducted to determine if freeze-thaw cycles cause increases in hydraulic conductivity in the field, as has been observed in laboratory tests. A test pad of compacted clay was instrumented for monitoring temperatures and climatic conditions and partially insulated. The measurements indicated that up to 10 cycles of freeze-thaw occurred in the uninsulated portion of the test pad whereas no freezing occurred in the insulated portion. Hydraulic-conductivity tests were conducted before and after winter to determine if changes in hydraulic conductivity occurred as a result of winter exposure. In situ hydraulic-conductivity tests showed that the overall hydraulic conductivity was similar in the insulated and uninsulated portions of the test pad before and after winter. No change in overall hydraulic conductivity occurred in the uninsulated region because the depth of frost penetration was only 30% of the thickness of the test pad. However, tests on block specimens collected from near-surface soil that underwent freezing and thawing increased in hydraulic conductivity by a factor of 50--300. Similar increases in hydraulic conductivity were measured using laboratory freeze-thaw tests.

  15. Using electrical impedance tomography to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Berryman, James G.; Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity. EIT can be used to map hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface where measurements of both amplitude and phase are made. Hydraulic conductivity depends on at least two parameters: porosity and a length scale parameter. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) measures and maps electrical conductivity (which can be related to porosity) in three dimensions. By introducing phase measurements along with amplitude, the desired additional measurement of a pertinent length scale can be achieved. Hydraulic conductivity controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the surface. Thus inexpensive maps of hydraulic conductivity would improve planning strategies for subsequent remediation efforts. Fluid permeability is also of importance for oil field exploitation and thus detailed knowledge of fluid permeability distribution in three-dimension (3-D) would be a great boon to petroleum reservoir analysts.

  16. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2011-02-14

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  17. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  18. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayler, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report details some recent field measurements and compares predicted and measured values of hydraulic conductivities for three locations at the Hanford Site. Measurements from small (6-cm-dia) /open quotes/point/close quotes/ and large (2-m by 2-m) /open quotes/plot/close quotes/ areas utilized inflitration and drainage techniques to obtain in situ data for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The Guelph permeameter was used for point sampling, and the unsteady drainage-flux method was used on plots for field-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measurements. Steady-state techniques were used to measure unsaturated hydraulic conductivities in small columns in the laboratory for one of the three soils tested to provide a comparison with data obtained from the field. Measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and those predicted from particle-size distribution and bulk density data agree within one-half to one and one-half orders of magnitude, depending on soil type. To use a particle-size distribution to estimate water retention characteristics and, subsequently, to predict unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, measurements of water-retention characteristics are necessary to determine a parameter value used in one of the models. No single method for measuring or calculating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities was found appropriate for all Hanford Site soils. Ideally, several methods should be used to take advantage of the strengths of each method, considering the data needs and resources available. 45 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is saturation-dependent. Accurate characterization of soil anisotropy is very important in simulating flow and contaminant (e.g., radioactive nuclides in Hanford) transport. A recently developed tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept describes the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the unsaturated anisotropic soils as the product of a scalar variable, the symmetric connectivity tortuosity tensor, and the hydraulic conductivity tensor at saturation. In this study, the TCT model is used to quantify soil anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The TCT model can describe different types of soil anisotropy; e.g., the anisotropy coefficient, C, can be monotonically increase or decrease with saturation and can vary from greater than unity to less than unity and vice versa. Soil anisotropy is independent of soil water retention properties and can be characterized by the ratio of the saturated hydraulic conductivities and the difference of the tortuosity-connectivity coefficients in two directions. ln(C) is linearly proportional to ln(Se) with Se being the effective saturation. The log-linear relationship between C and Se allows the saturation-dependent anisotropy to be determined using linear regression with the measurements of the directional hydraulic conductivities at a minimum of two water content levels, of which one may be at full saturation. The model was tested using measurements of directional hydraulic conductivities.

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners after freeze-thaw

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, R.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity tests were performed in large tanks on intact (single panel) and overlapped samples of three geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) that has been subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. The compressive stress applied to the GCLs (7.6--12.4 kPa) was selected to simulate final cover systems for landfills. Laboratory flexible-wall permeameter tests were also performed. With the exception of one overlapped GCL, all three GCLs withstood three freeze-thaw cycles without a significant change in hydraulic conductivity. An overlapped, geo-textile-encased, stitch-bonded GCL did undergo a 1,000-fold increase in hydraulic conductivity after one freeze-thaw cycle, but the overlapped area contained stitches, which are left off the edges of the full-sized material that is deployed in the field. In general, the tests showed that GCLs can withstand at least three freeze-thaw cycles without significant changes in hydraulic conductivity.

  1. Numerical simulations of hydraulic redistribution across climates: The role of the root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijano, Juan C.; Kumar, Praveen

    2015-10-01

    Hydraulic redistribution, a process by which vegetation roots redistribute soil moisture, has been recognized as an important mechanism impacting several processes that regulate plant water uptake, energy and water partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling. We analyze how the magnitude of hydraulic redistribution varies across ecosystems that are exposed to different climates and seasonal patterns of incoming shortwave radiation and precipitation. Numerical simulation studies are performed over 10 Ameriflux sites, which show that hydraulic redistribution predictions are significantly influenced by the specified root hydraulic conductivities. We performed sensitivity analyses by considering expected ranges of root conductivities based on previous experimental studies, and found contrasting patterns in energy-limited and water-limited ecosystems. In energy-limited ecosystems, there is a threshold above which high root conductivities enhance hydraulic redistribution with no increase in transpiration, while in water-limited ecosystems increase in root conductivities was always associated with enhancements in both transpiration and hydraulic redistribution. Further we found differences in the magnitude and seasonality of hydraulic redistribution and transpiration across different climates, regulated by interplay between precipitation and transpiration. The annual hydraulic redistribution to transpiration flux ratio (HR/Tr) was significant in Mediterranean climates (HR/Tr ≈ 30%), and in the tropical humid climates (HR/Tr ≈ 15%). However, in the continental climates hydraulic redistribution occurs only during sporadic precipitation events throughout the summer resulting in lower annual magnitudes (HR/Tr < 5%). These results provide more insights for suitable implementation of numerical models to capture belowground processes in eco-hydrology, and enhance our understanding about the variability of hydraulic redistribution across different climates.

  2. Hydraulic conductivity explored by factor analysis of borehole geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Norbert Péter

    2015-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented for providing hydrogeological information on groundwater formations. Factor analysis is applied to borehole logs in Hungary and the USA to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of rocks intersected by the borehole. Earlier studies showed a strong correlation between a statistical variable extracted by factor analysis and shale volume in primary porosity rocks. Hydraulic conductivity as a related quantity can be derived directly by factor analysis. In the first step, electric and nuclear logs are transformed into factor logs, which are then correlated to hydraulic properties of aquifers. It is shown that a factor explaining the major part of variance of the measured variables is inversely proportional to hydraulic conductivity. By revealing the regression relation between the above quantities, an estimate for hydraulic conductivity can be given along the entire length of the borehole. Synthetic modeling experiments and field cases demonstrate the feasibility of the method, which can be applied both in primary and secondary porosity aquifers. The results of factor analysis show consistence with those of the Kozeny-Carman method and hydraulic aquifer tests. The application of the statistical analysis of well logs together with independent ground geophysical and hydrogeological methods serves a more efficient exploration of groundwater resources.

  3. DEPTH-AVERAGING EFFECTS ON HYDRAULIC HEAD FOR MEDIA WITH STOCHASTIC HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.; Vecchia, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of a porous medium frequently is considered to be a single realization of a three-dimensional spatial stochastic process. The most common observation of flow in porous media are hydraulic-head measurements obtained from wells which are screened over extensive sections of the medium. These measurements represent, approximately, a one-dimensional spatial average of the actual three-dimensional head distribution, the actual head distribution being a stochastic process resulting from flow through a random hydraulic-conductivity field. This paper examines, via ensemble averages, the effect of such spatial averages of groundwater flow on the spatial autocovariance function for a simple, yet viable, stochastic model of a bounded medium. The model is taken to be three-dimensional flow in a medium that is bounded above and below and in which the hydraulic conductivity is a second-order stationary stochastic process.

  4. Hydraulic Conductivity of Residual Soil-Cement Mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, P.; Taha, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, although there are several researches on engineering properties of residual soils, however study on the hydraulic conductivity properties of metasedimentary residual soils is still lacking. Construction of containment walls like slurry wall techniques can be achieved with hydraulic conductivity of approximately 5 x 10-7cm/sec. The objectives of the study were to determine the physical properties of metasedimentary residual soils and to determine the influence of 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement on hydraulic conductivity parameters. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity of the soil naturally and soil-cement mixtures were determined by using the falling head test. According to the test, the hydraulic conductivity of the original soil was 4.16 x 10-8 m/s. The value decreases to 3.89 x 10-8 m/s, 2.78 x 10-8 m/s then 6.83 x 10-9 m/s with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of cement additives, respectively. During the hydration process, cement hydrates is formed followed by the increase in pH value and Ca(OH)2 which will alter the modification of pores size and distribution. When the quantity of cement increases, the pores size decrease. But, the addition of 10% cement gives an increased hydraulic conductivity value to 2.78 x 10-8 m/s. With 10%, the pore size increase might due to flocculation and agglomeration reaction. The generated hydraulic conductivity values will indirectly become a guide in the preliminary soil cement stabilization to modify the properties of the soil to become more like the properties of a soft rock.1. Introduction

  5. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial system using temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from < 0.2??C in two wells to ???8??C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  6. Osteoblast hydraulic conductivity is regulated by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that osteoblasts play a major role in regulating bone (re)modeling by regulating interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through individual bone compartments. We hypothesize that osteoblasts of the blood-bone membrane lining the bone surfaces are capable of regulating transosseous fluid flow. This regulatory function of the osteoblasts was tested in vitro by culturing a layer of rat calvarial osteoblasts on porous membranes. Such a layer of osteoblasts subjected to 7.3 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure posed a significant resistance to fluid flow across the cell layer similar in magnitude to the resistance posed by endothelial monolayers in vitro. The hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric fluid flux per unit pressure drop, of the osteoblast layer was altered in response to certain hormones. Hydraulic conductivity decreased approximately 40% in response to 33 nM parathyroid hormone, while it exhibited biphasic behavior in response to calcitonin: increased 40% in response to 100 nM calcitonin and decreased 40% in response to 1000 nM calcitonin. Further, activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin dramatically increased the hydraulic conductivity, while elevation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, by the calcium ionophore A23187 initially decreased the hydraulic conductivity at 5 minutes before increasing conductivity by 30 minutes. These results suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and [Ca2+]i may mediate changes in the osteoblast hydraulic conductivity. The increase in hydraulic conductivity in response to 100 nM calcitonin and the decrease in response to PTH suggest that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on bone formation of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, respectively, may be due in part to alterations in bone fluid flow.

  7. The temporal changes in saturated hydraulic conductivity of forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornél Szegedi, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    I investigated the temporal variability of forest soils infiltration capacity through compaction. I performed the measurements of mine in The Botanical Garden of Sopron between 15.09.2014 - 15.10.2014. I performed the measurements in 50-50 cm areas those have been cleaned of vegetation, where I measured the bulk density and volume of soil hydraulic conductivity with Tension Disk Infiltrometer (TDI) in 3-3 repetitions. I took undisturbed 160 cm3 from the upper 5 cm layer of the cleaned soil surface for the bulk density measurements. Then I loosened the top 10-15 cm layer of the soil surface with spade. After the cultivation of the soil I measured the bulk density and volume of water conductivity also 3-3 repetitions. Later I performed the hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) using the TDI and bulk density measurements on undisturbed samples on a weekly basis in the study area. I illustrated the measured hydraulic conductivity and bulk density values as a function of cumulative rainfall by using simple graphical and statistical methods. The rate of the soil compaction pace was fast and smooth based on the change of the measured bulk density values. There was a steady downward trend in hydraulic conductivity parallel the compaction. The cultivation increased the hydraulic conductivity nearly fourfold compared to original, than decreased to half by 1 week. In the following the redeposition rate declined, but based on the literature data, almost 3-4 months enough to return the original state before cultivation of the soil hydraulic conductivity and bulk density values. This publication has been supported by AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project.

  8. Slope instability caused by small variations in hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Variations in hydraulic conductivity can greatly modify hillslope ground-water flow fields, effective-stress fields, and slope stability. In materials with uniform texture, hydraulic conductivities can vary over one to two orders of magnitude, yet small variations can be difficult to determine. The destabilizing effects caused by small (one order of magnitude or less) hydraulic conductivity variations using ground-water flow modeling, finite-element deformation analysis, and limit-equilibrium analysis are examined here. Low hydraulic conductivity materials that impede downslope ground-water flow can create unstable areas with locally elevated pore-water pressures. The destabilizing effects of small hydraulic heterogeneities can be as great as those induced by typical variations in the frictional strength (approximately 4??-8??) of texturally similar materials. Common "worst-case" assumptions about ground-water flow, such as a completely saturated "hydrostatic" pore-pressure distribution, do not account for locally elevated pore-water pressures and may not provide a conservative slope stability analysis. In site characterization, special attention should be paid to any materials that might impede downslope ground-water flow and create unstable regions.

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of landfill liners containing benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Franklin, Pamela M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    Varying weight percentages of an Ottawa sand, benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-clay), Wyoming bentonite (Na-clay), and water were mixed uniformly and compacted to simulate sand-and-clay liners for waste-disposal facilities. The hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil cores were measured in triplicate. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent BTEA-clay were about of 10-4 cm/s. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent Na-clay and of cores containing 88 percent sand, 8 percent Na-clay, and 4 percent BTEA-clay were about 10-8 cm/s.

  10. Shape Factor and Hydraulic Conductance in Noncircular Capillaries.

    PubMed

    Patzek, T. W.; Silin, D. B.

    2001-04-15

    We use the Mason-Morrow shape factor, i.e., a dimensionless hydraulic radius, and corner half-angles to capture the geometry of noncircular capillaries pertinent to a physically adequate pore network description of porous media. We give analytic expressions for random corner half-angles that satisfy a given shape factor calculated from the microscopic images of pore space. We demonstrate that use of the shape factor leads to particularly simple expressions for the hydraulic conductance in single-phase flow through noncircular capillaries. In particular, we obtain the hydraulic conductances of arbitrary triangular ducts semianalytically, using conformal mapping. The conductances of equilateral triangular, rectangular, and elliptic ducts are calculated analytically. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401377

  11. Measurement of soil hydraulic conductivity in relation with vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cheng, Qinbo

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is a key parameter which influences hydrological processes of infiltration, surface and subsurface runoff. Vegetation alters surface characteristics (e.g., surface roughness, litter absorption) or subsurface characteristics (e.g. hydraulic conductivity). Field infiltration experiment of a single ring permeameter is widely used for measuring soil hydraulic conductivity. Measurement equipment is a simple single-ring falling head permeameter which consists of a hollow cylinder that is simply inserted into the top soil. An optimization method on the basis of objective of minimum error between the measured and simulated water depths in the single-ring is developed for determination of the soil hydraulic parameters. Using the single ring permeameter, we measured saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) of the red loam soil with and without vegetation covers on five hillslopes at Taoyuan Agro-Ecology Experimental Station, Hunan Province of China. For the measurement plots without vegetation roots, Ks value of the soil at 25cm depth is much smaller than that of surface soil (1.52×10-4 vs. 1.10×10-5 m/s). For the measurement plots with vegetation cover, plant roots significantly increase Ks of the lower layer soil but this increase is not significant for the shallow soil. Moreover, influences of vegetation root on Ks depend on vegetation species and ages. Ks value of the Camellia is about three times larger than that of seeding of Camphor (2.62×10-4 vs. 9.82×10-5 m/s). Ks value of the matured Camellia is 2.72×10-4 m/s while Ks value of the young Camellia is only 2.17×10-4 m/s. Key words: single ring permeameter; soil hydraulic conductivity; vegetation

  12. Hydraulic Experiments for Determination of In-situ Hydraulic Conductivity of Submerged Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Joo; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Yoon, Heesung; Lee, Eunhee

    2015-01-01

    A new type of in-situ hydraulic permeameter was developed to determine vertical hydraulic conductivity (VHC) of saturated sediments from hydraulic experiments using Darcy's law. The system allows water to move upward through the porous media filled in the permeameter chamber driven into sediments at water-sediment interface. Darcy flux and hydraulic gradient can be measured using the system, and the VHC can be determined from the relationship between them using Darcy's law. Evaluations in laboratory and in field conditions were performed to see if the proposed permeameter give reliable and valid measures of the VHC even where the vertical flow at water-sediment interface and fluctuation of water stage exist without reducing the accuracy of the derived VHC. Results from the evaluation tests indicate that the permeameter proposed in this study can be used to measure VHC of saturated sandy sediments at water-sediment interface in stream and marine environment with high accuracy. PMID:25604984

  13. Comparison of Measured and Estimated Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, M. E.; Waters, P. A.

    1980-08-01

    Most studies of empirical estimates of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions do not account for water which may be relatively immobile under the conditions in which field measurements of conductivity are made. To investigate this, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity data were obtained for three monolith lysimeters, 80 cm in diameter by 135 cm deep, using the instantaneous profile technique. The lysimeters contained well-structured, freely draining loam soil and moisture measurements were made using a neutron probe. Conductivity estimates were also obtained from laboratory measurements of soil moisture characteristics using the modified Millington and Quirk computational method. Ratios of the calculated to measured conductivities at a matching point near saturation were so large as to suggest that only a minor proportion of the soil pore space was contributing to flow through the whole profile.

  14. Comparison of hydraulic and chemical methods for determining hydraulic conductivity and leakage rates in argillaceous aquitards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Cook, Peter G.; Harrington, Glenn A.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of argillaceous aquitards to effectively separate fresh water aquifers from lower quality waters has been widely studied for several decades using both hydraulic and chemical methods. Hydraulic methods, namely laboratory, field and regional groundwater flow modelling, are used to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K), whereas chemical methods, namely aquitard porewater and aquifer groundwater chemistry, are used to estimate either leakage rates or porewater velocity (V). We reviewed a total of 40 formations where either K or V (or both) have been estimated. Typical vertical hydraulic conductivity (KZ) values in argillaceous materials estimated using hydraulic methods are 10-12-10-9 m s-1. Usual V values, estimated using chemical methods, ranges between 0.01 and 1 mm y-1, although the range is as wide as 10-4-103 mm y-1, when inferred from hydraulic KZ measurements. Based on a Péclet number of 1, we calculated the lower limits of porewater velocity that can be reliably identified for different tracers, in most cases ranging from <1 mm y-1 for 2H, 18O and Cl- to >100 mm y-1 for temperature. Despite the limited number of sites where both methods were applied, comparison between hydraulic and chemical-derived values showed a reasonable correlation, although the range of KZ and V estimated using hydraulic methods is larger than that obtained using chemical methods. Methods applied to the whole aquitard thickness (some field hydraulic methods, regional groundwater flow modelling, aquitard porewater and aquifer chemistry) consistently result in lower KZ values, most probably indicating the presence of very low KZ layers within the aquitard, likely to be missed while using field hydraulic methods that test only a section of the entire thickness. KZ was observed to decrease with depth, presumably due to an increase in consolidation resulting in loss of porosity and smaller aperture of fractures and joints. Multi-disciplinary studies involving the use of

  15. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial system using temperatures.

    PubMed

    Su, Grace W; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.2 degrees C in two wells to approximately 8 degrees C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers. PMID:15584302

  16. Test of the Rosetta Pedotransfer Function for saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models are tools that can be used to explore, for example, effects of cultural practices on soil erosion and irrigation on crop yield. However, often these models require many soil related input data of which the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important ones. The...

  17. EVALUATION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITIES CALCULATED FROM MULTIPORT-PERMEAMETER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiport permeameter was developed for use in estimating hydraulic conductivity over intact sections of aquifer core using the core liner as the permeameter body. Six cores obtained from one borehole through the upper 9 m of a stratified glacial-outwash aquifer were used to ev...

  18. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR I-129 WASTES: EFFECT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, M; Leonard Collard, L

    2007-01-12

    Solid low-level radioactive wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are disposed in trenches. In order to determine the permissible radioactive inventory limits for such disposal facilities, it is required to assess the behavior of radioactive waste material over long periods of time. The sensitivity of flow and I-129 (and similar radionuclides) transport in groundwater in the vadose zone to the hydraulic conductivities of the vadose zone subregions and the low-level waste is identified and quantified. A trench configuration and simulation model have been developed to analyze the flow and transport of the radionuclide in the vadose zone as it migrates to the groundwater table. The analysis identifies and quantifies the major dependencies of the flow and radionuclide fractional flux on the subregion hydraulic conductivities. Analysis results indicate the importance of the hydraulic conductivity assigned to the materials modeled, thereby providing the modeler and decision makers with valuable insights on the potential impact of the hydraulic conductivity on flow and radionuclide transport.

  19. Unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity: The field infiltrometer method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory: Field methods to measure the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity assume presence of steady-state water flow. Soil infiltrometers are desired to apply water onto the soil surface at constant negative pressure. Water is applied to the soil from the Marriott device through a porous membrane...

  20. Measuring the hydraulic conductivity of shallow submerged sediments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Susan E; Murdoch, Lawrence C

    2003-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of submerged sediments influences the interaction between ground water and surface water, but few techniques for measuring K have been described with the conditions of the submerged setting in mind. Two simple, physical methods for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of submerged sediments have been developed, and one of them uses a well and piezometers similar to well tests performed in terrestrial aquifers. This test is based on a theoretical analysis that uses a constant-head boundary condition for the upper surface of the aquifer to represent the effects of the overlying water body. Existing analyses of tests used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of submerged sediments may contain errors from using the same upper boundary conditions applied to simulate terrestrial aquifers. Field implementation of the technique requires detecting minute drawdowns in the vicinity of the pumping well. Low-density oil was used in an inverted U-tube manometer to amplify the head differential so that it could be resolved in the field. Another technique was developed to measure the vertical hydraulic conductivity of sediments at the interface with overlying surface water. This technique uses the pan from a seepage meter with a piezometer fixed along its axis (a piezo-seep meter). Water is pumped from the pan and the head gradient is measured using the axial piezometer. Results from a sandy streambed indicate that both methods provide consistent and reasonable estimates of K. The pumping test allows skin effects to be considered, and the field data show that omitting the skin effect (e.g., by using a single well test) can produce results that underestimate the hydraulic conductivity of streambeds. PMID:12873006

  1. Characterizing hydraulic conductivity with the direct-push permeameter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; Dietrich, P.; Wittig, V.; Christy, T.

    2007-01-01

    The direct-push permeameter (DPP) is a promising approach for obtaining high-resolution information about vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool, which consists of a short screened section with a pair of transducers inset in the tool near the screen, is pushed into the subsurface to a depth at which a K estimate is desired. A short hydraulic test is then performed by injecting water through the screen at a constant rate (less than 4 L/min) while pressure changes are monitored at the transducer locations. Hydraulic conductivity is calculated using the injection rate and the pressure changes in simple expressions based on Darcy's Law. In units of moderate or higher hydraulic conductivity (more than 1 m/d), testing at a single level can be completed within 10 to 15 min. Two major advantages of the method are its speed and the insensitivity of the K estimates to the zone of compaction created by tool advancement. The potential of the approach has been assessed at two extensively studied sites in the United States and Germany over a K range commonly faced in practical field investigations (0.02 to 500 m/d). The results of this assessment demonstrate that the DPP can provide high-resolution K estimates that are in good agreement with estimates obtained through other means. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  2. Aquifer-scale fluxes, hydraulic heads, and upscaled hydraulic conductivities: behaviour during transient flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    Catchment- or basin-scale hydrometeorological models can benefit from groundwater flow models that are able to handle large-scale parameters, yet preserve as much as possible of the Darcian-scale understanding of groundwater flow. At large scales the interest is mainly in exchanges of water between environmental compartments, e.g., the flux Q (L3T-1) between groundwater and surface water. Maps of hydraulic heads will generally neither be generated by such models, nor be required as input. Instead, spatial averages of such heads may be more useful. Therefore, the relationship between Q and the difference between the average hydraulic head and the surface water level (H - HA) was determined from analytical solutions for transient parallel and radial flows obeying the Dupuit assumptions. For constant forcings, the solutions showed that Q will eventually be proportional to (H - HA) (relaxed state), with three different proportionality constants for non-leaky aquifers (for zero and non-zero recharge) and leaky aquifers. The proportionality constants incorporated the effects of the forcings, porous medium properties, and aquifer geometry. Thus, under favourable conditions, the Darcian proportionality between the flux density and the gradient in the hydraulic head is echoed at the aquifer scale by the proportionality between the flux across the groundwater-surface water interface and the difference between the average hydraulic heads of both bodies of water. The resulting proportionality constants can be viewed as upscaled hydraulic conductivities. For conductive aquifers intersected by dense drainage networks, the upscaled hydraulic conductivity will reach its asymptotic value within days after a perturbation in the forcings, while large systems will normally never reach a relaxed state and the full solutions will be required.

  3. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  4. Measurement of Fracture Geometry for Accurate Computation of Hydraulic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, B.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kim, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Fluid flow in rock mass is controlled by geometry of fractures which is mainly characterized by roughness, aperture and orientation. Fracture roughness and aperture was observed by a new confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM; Olympus OLS1100). The wavelength of laser is 488nm, and the laser scanning is managed by a light polarization method using two galvano-meter scanner mirrors. The system improves resolution in the light axis (namely z) direction because of the confocal optics. The sampling is managed in a spacing 2.5 μ m along x and y directions. The highest measurement resolution of z direction is 0.05 μ m, which is the more accurate than other methods. For the roughness measurements, core specimens of coarse and fine grained granites were provided. Measurements were performed along three scan lines on each fracture surface. The measured data were represented as 2-D and 3-D digital images showing detailed features of roughness. Spectral analyses by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were performed to characterize on the roughness data quantitatively and to identify influential frequency of roughness. The FFT results showed that components of low frequencies were dominant in the fracture roughness. This study also verifies that spectral analysis is a good approach to understand complicate characteristics of fracture roughness. For the aperture measurements, digital images of the aperture were acquired under applying five stages of uniaxial normal stresses. This method can characterize the response of aperture directly using the same specimen. Results of measurements show that reduction values of aperture are different at each part due to rough geometry of fracture walls. Laboratory permeability tests were also conducted to evaluate changes of hydraulic conductivities related to aperture variation due to different stress levels. The results showed non-uniform reduction of hydraulic conductivity under increase of the normal stress and different values of

  5. Shape Factor Correlations of Hydraulic Conductance in Noncircular Capillaries.

    PubMed

    Patzek, T. W.; Kristensen, J. G.

    2001-04-15

    In Part I of this paper, we introduced the Mason-Morrow shape factor and the corner half-angles to capture the part of geometry of angular capillaries essential in pore network calculations of single- and two-phase flow in drainage and imbibition. We then used this shape factor to obtain simple expressions for the hydraulic conductance in single-phase flow through triangular, rectangular, and oval capillaries. In Part II, we study two-phase fluid flow along angular capillaries. The nonwetting fluid occupies the central part of the capillary, whereas the wetting liquid fills the corners. First, we verify the numerical solution obtained by Ransohoff-Radke for concave corner menisci by using a high-resolution finite element method with zero and infinite surface shear viscosity. We present new numerical results for corner flow domains bounded by convex menisci, i.e., for pinned contact lines and forced imbibition. We also present numerical solutions for two-phase flow with momentum transfer across the interface. We introduce a dimensionless hydraulic conductance of wetting fluid in the corners and correlate it with the corner filament shape factor, corner half-angle, and contact angle. By appropriate scaling, we obtain an accurate universal curve for flow conductance in the corners of an arbitrary angular capillary and for arbitrary contact angles. We give error estimates of the Ransohoff-Radke flow resistance factors, of the Zhou et al. analytical expressions for the resistance factors, and of our universal curves for the hydraulic conductance with no-slip and perfect-slip boundary conditions at the interface. Our expressions for the hydraulic conductance in corner flow of wetting liquid not only are valid for both concave and convex fluid interfaces but also are more accurate than any other published correlation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401378

  6. Functional parameterization for hydraulic conductivity inversion with uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jianying; Zhang, Ye

    2015-05-01

    Functional inversion based on local approximate solutions (LAS) is developed for steady-state flow in heterogeneous aquifers. The method employs a set of LAS of flow to impose spatial continuity of hydraulic head and Darcy fluxes in the solution domain, which are conditioned to limited measurements. Hydraulic conductivity is first parameterized as piecewise continuous, which requires the addition of a smoothness constraint to reduce inversion artifacts. Alternatively, it is formulated as piecewise constant, for which the smoothness constraint is not required, but the data requirement is much higher. Success of the inversion with both parameterizations is demonstrated for both one-dimensional synthetic examples and an oil-field permeability profile. When measurement errors are increased, estimation becomes less accurate but the solution is stable, i.e., estimation errors remain bounded. Compared to piecewise constant parameterization, piecewise continuous parameterization leads to more stable and accurate inversion. Moreover, conductivity variation can also be captured at two spatial scales reflecting sub-facies smooth-varying heterogeneity as well as abrupt changes at facies boundaries. By combining inversion with geostatistical simulation, uncertainty in the estimated conductivity and the hydraulic head field can be quantified. For a given measurement dataset, inversion accuracy and estimation uncertainty with the piecewise continuous parameterization is not sensitive to increasing conductivity contrast.

  7. Saturation-dependent anisotropy in the Hanford subsurface hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, L.; Skinner, T.; Hunt, A.

    2006-12-01

    In previous work anisotropy in a fracture network was shown to provide a possible explanation for the observed scale-effect in the hydraulic conductivity of a carbonate aquifer. Use was made of a coordinate transformation and reference made to the transverse and longitudinal electrical conductivities of thin (disordered) solid films. An analogous approach is now developed to describe the inferred anisotropy of the hydraulic conductivity as a function of saturation in the Hanford subsurface. Here different soil types play the role of fractures of different apertures, while the spatial anisotropy is generated by soils of higher silt and clay fractions. A quasi- equilibrium condition (equal matric potentials) is implemented at matric potentials believed characteristic of the Hanford subsurface (several hundred centimeters) and theoretical results for the hydraulic conductivity (modified by known values at saturation) are used to develop the distribution of K values at the appropriate potential. The results are hoped to be relevant to the dispersion of a Tc plume. Work was supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-05ER64067 and -06ER64196 and NSF grant EAR 0609884

  8. Calculated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.

    2001-12-01

    Because of growing evidence and public concern that the quality of the subsurface environment is being adversely affected by industrial, municipal and agricultural activities, environmental issue relating the unsaturated zone has dramatically increased in recent years. Especially, advection and dispersion mechanism of contaminants should be studied first for accurate prediction and optimal conservation of environmental system in metropolitan area. In this study, physical properties and water retention characteristics of soil samples collected through Seoul area were obtained as primary input data for evaluating unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of the samples. Comparing results of grain size analyses of 11 soil samples with detailed soil map, loam may covers about 50.83% of Seoul area and sandy loam, silt loam, fine sandy loam and silt clay loam account for about 20.9%, 10.18%, 7.93% and 0.86%, respectively. As physical properties of the samples, porosity, wet, saturate and dry densities of 11 soil samples ranged 0.33-0.51, 1.68-2.01, 1.81-2.07, and 1.37-1.78, respectively. In addition, soil water characteristic function of 11 soil samples showing the relation between volumetric moisture content of soil and hydraulic head were obtained. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of the samples were also calculated on the basis of theoretical method which predict the conductivity more easily from measured soil water retention data. The calculated conductivities of the samples ranged 1.08-101.44 cm/sec.

  9. Analysis of Slug Tests in Formations of High Hydraulic Conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; Garnett, E.J.; Healey, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A new procedure is presented for the analysis of slug tests performed in partially penetrating wells in formations of high hydraulic conductivity. This approach is a simple, spreadsheet-based implementation of existing models that can be used for analysis of tests from confined or unconfined aquifers. Field examples of tests exhibiting oscillatory and nonoscillatory behavior are used to illustrate the procedure and to compare results with estimates obtained using alternative approaches. The procedure is considerably simpler than recently proposed methods for this hydrogeologic setting. Although the simplifications required by the approach can introduce error into hydraulic-conductivity estimates, this additional error becomes negligible when appropriate measures are taken in the field. These measures are summarized in a set of practical field guidelines for slug tests in highly permeable aquifers.

  10. Influence of Alluvial Morphology on Upscaled Hydraulic Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Mathews, George; Vial, John; Kelly, Bryce F J

    2016-05-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of aquifers is a key parameter controlling the interactions between resource exploitation activities, such as unconventional gas production and natural groundwater systems. Furthermore, this parameter is often poorly constrained by typical data used for regional groundwater modeling and calibration studies performed as part of impact assessments. In this study, a systematic investigation is performed to understand the correspondence between the lithological descriptions of channel-type formation and the bulk effective hydraulic conductivities at a larger scale (Kxeff , Kyeff , and Kzeff in the direction of channel cross section, along the channel and in the vertical directions, respectively). This will inform decisions on what additional data gathering and modeling of the geological system can be performed to allow the critical bulk properties to be more accurately predicted. The systems studied are conceptualized as stacked meandering channels formed in an alluvial plain, and are represented as two facies. Such systems are often studied using very detailed numerical models. The main factors that may influence Kxeff , Kyeff , and Kzeff are the proportion of the facies representing connected channels, the aspect ratio of the channels, and the difference in hydraulic conductivity between facies. Our results show that in most cases, Kzeff is only weakly dependent on the orientations of channelized structures, with the main effects coming from channel aspect ratio and facies proportion. PMID:26479727

  11. Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2. A technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

  12. Modification of hydraulic conductivity in granular soils using waste materials.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, S; Saglamer, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of waste products such as silica fume and fly ash in modification of the granular soils in order to remove some environmental problems and create new useful findings in the field of engineering. It is known that silica fume and fly ash, as well as clay material, are used in geotechnical engineering because of their pozzolanic reactivity and fineness to improve the soil properties needed with respect to engineering purposes. The main objective of this research project was to investigate the use of these materials in geotechnical engineering and to improve the hydraulic properties of soils by means of grouting. For this reason, firstly, suitable grouts in suspension forms were prepared by using silica fume, fly ash, clay and cement in different percentages. The properties of these cement-based grouts were then determined to obtain the desired optimum values for grouting. After that, these grouts were penetrated into the soil samples under pressure. The experimental work indicates that these waste materials and clay improved the physical properties and the fluidity of the cement-based grouts and they also decreased the hydraulic conductivity of the grouted soil samples by sealing the voids of the soil. The results of this study have important findings concerning the use of these materials in soil treatment and the improvement of hydraulic conductivity of the soils. PMID:15120433

  13. Statistical-physical model of the hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, B.; Marczewski, W.; Usowicz, J. B.; Lukowski, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    The water content in unsaturated subsurface soil layer is determined by processes of exchanging mass and energy between media of soil and atmosphere, and particular members of layered media. Generally they are non-homogeneous on different scales, considering soil porosity, soil texture including presence of vegetation elements in the root zone, and canopy above the surface, and varying biomass density of plants above the surface in clusters. That heterogeneity determines statistically effective values of particular physical properties. This work considers mainly those properties which determine the hydraulic conductivity of soil. This property is necessary for characterizing physically water transfer in the root zone and access of nutrient matter for plants, but it also the water capacity on the field scale. The temporal variability of forcing conditions and evolutionarily changing vegetation causes substantial effects of impact on the water capacity in large scales, bringing the evolution of water conditions in the entire area, spanning a possible temporal state in the range between floods and droughts. The dynamic of this evolution of water conditions is highly determined by vegetation but is hardly predictable in evaluations. Hydrological models require feeding with input data determining hydraulic properties of the porous soil which are proposed in this paper by means of the statistical-physical model of the water hydraulic conductivity. The statistical-physical model was determined for soils being typical in Euroregion Bug, Eastern Poland. The model is calibrated on the base of direct measurements in the field scales, and enables determining typical characteristics of water retention by the retention curves bounding the hydraulic conductivity to the state of water saturation of the soil. The values of the hydraulic conductivity in two reference states are used for calibrating the model. One is close to full saturation, and another is for low water content far

  14. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of two-dimensional fracture networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, C. T.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through stochastically generated two-dimensional fracture networks. The centres and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow either a lognormal distribution or a power law distribution. We have considered the case where the fractures in the network each have the same aperture, as well as the case where the aperture of each fracture is directly proportional to the fracture length. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this conductivity using a simple estimation method that does not require extensive computation. For our calculations, fracture networks are represented as networks composed of conducting segments (bonds) between nodes. Each bond represents the region of a single fracture between two adjacent intersections with other fractures. We assume that the bonds are arranged on a kagome lattice, with some fraction of the bonds randomly missing. The conductance of each bond is then replaced with some effective conductance, Ceff, which we take to be the arithmetic mean of the individual conductances, averaged over each bond, rather than over each fracture. This is in contrast to the usual approximation used in effective medium theories, wherein the geometric mean is used. Our

  15. Frequency-dependent effective hydraulic conductivity of strongly heterogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Caspari, E; Gurevich, B; Müller, T M

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the transport properties of heterogeneous porous rocks, such as an effective hydraulic conductivity, arises in a range of geoscience problems, from groundwater flow analysis to hydrocarbon reservoir modeling. In the presence of formation-scale heterogeneities, nonstationary flows, induced by pumping tests or propagating elastic waves, entail localized pressure diffusion processes with a characteristic frequency depending on the pressure diffusivity and size of the heterogeneity. Then, on a macroscale, a homogeneous equivalent medium exists, which has a frequency-dependent effective conductivity. The frequency dependence of the conductivity can be analyzed with Biot's equations of poroelasticity. In the quasistatic frequency regime of this framework, the slow compressional wave is a proxy for pressure diffusion processes. This slow compressional wave is associated with the out-of-phase motion of the fluid and solid phase, thereby creating a relative fluid-solid displacement vector field. Decoupling of the poroelasticity equations gives a diffusion equation for the fluid-solid displacement field valid in a poroelastic medium with spatial fluctuations in hydraulic conductivity. Then, an effective conductivity is found by a Green's function approach followed by a strong-contrast perturbation theory suggested earlier in the context of random dielectrics. This theory leads to closed-form expressions for the frequency-dependent effective conductivity as a function of the one- and two-point probability functions of the conductivity fluctuations. In one dimension, these expressions are consistent with exact solutions in both low- and high-frequency limits for arbitrary conductivity contrast. In 3D, the low-frequency limit depends on the details of the microstructure. However, the derived approximation for the effective conductivity is consistent with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. PMID:24229128

  16. Automated multi-point mini-disk infiltrometer measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Sacha, Jan; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Zumr, David; Tacheci, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function K(h) is one of hydraulic characteristics needed for numerical modeling of water flow and solute transport in the vadose zone. Tension infiltrometer is advantageous tool to conduct the measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in field under near saturated conditions. Manually operated minidisk infiltrometers are often used for performing infiltration experiments, but their disadvantage is that permanent attendance is needed during experiments. Therefore automatization of the tension infiltrometer is desirable. A new automated multi-disk tension infiltrometer has been designed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague to facilitate the measurements of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. Infiltration experiment performed by device is simultaneously carried out by six tension mini-disk infiltrometer modules forming a fixed matrix as they are held by a lightweight aluminum frame. This setup is divided into the two groups of three infiltrometers. Each triplet of modules is controlled by Mariotte`s bottle. Therefore it is possible to conduct six simultaneous infiltration experiments at two different pressure heads. Amount of infiltrated water is registered via changes of buoyant force of vertical bar attached to the weighing sensor in each infiltrometer module and recorded automatically using datalogger. Cumulative infiltration and volumetric flux are calculated and displayed in real time. Near saturated hydraulic conductivity is determined from cumulative infiltration data using nonlinear optimization and improved procedure of Zhang. Device developed was to date tested on four experimental locations. Two sites were arable land (Nucice and Kopaninsky stream) and two located in headwater catchments (Sumava and Jizera Mountains). Soils at experimental sites were classified as Cambisols (empirical van Genuchten parameters α and n ranged from 0.007 to 0.043 cm-1 and from 1.13 to 1

  17. Effective soil hydraulic conductivity predicted with the maximum power principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, Martijn; Erpicum, Sébastien; Archambeau, Pierre; Pirotton, Michel; Zehe, Erwin; Dewals, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of water in soils happens for a large extent through preferential flowpaths, but these subsurface flowpaths are extremely difficult to observe or parameterize in hydrological models. To potentially overcome this problem, thermodynamic optimality principles have been suggested to predict effective parametrization of these (sub-grid) structures, such as the maximum entropy production principle or the equivalent maximum power principle. These principles have been successfully applied to predict heat transfer from the Equator to the Poles, or turbulent heat fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere. In these examples, the effective flux adapts itself to its boundary condition by adapting its effective conductance through the creation of e.g. convection cells. However, flow through porous media, such as soils, can only quickly adapt its effective flow conductance by creation of preferential flowpaths, but it is unknown if this is guided by the aim to create maximum power. Here we show experimentally that this is indeed the case: In the lab, we created a hydrological analogue to the atmospheric model dealing with heat transport between Equator and poles. The experimental setup consists of two freely draining reservoirs connected with each other by a confined aquifer. By adding water to only one reservoir, a potential difference will build up until a steady state is reached. From the steady state potential difference and the observed flow through the aquifer, and effective hydraulic conductance can be determined. This observed conductance does correspond to the one maximizing power of the flux through the confined aquifer. Although this experiment is done in an idealized setting, it opens doors for better parameterizing hydrological models. Furthermore, it shows that hydraulic properties of soils are not static, but they change with changing boundary conditions. A potential limitation to the principle is that it only applies to steady state conditions

  18. An Integrated View of Whole-Tree Hydraulic Architecture. Does Stomatal or Hydraulic Conductance Determine Whole Tree Transpiration?

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gamir, Juan; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductance exerts a strong influence on many aspects of plant physiology, namely: transpiration, CO2 assimilation, growth, productivity or stress response. However we lack full understanding of the contribution of root or shoot water transport capacity to the total water balance, something which is difficult to study in trees. Here we tested the hypothesis that whole plant hydraulic conductance modulates plant transpiration using two different seedlings of citrus rootstocks, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan.). The two genotypes presented important differences in their root or shoot hydraulic conductance contribution to whole plant hydraulic conductance but, even so, water balance proved highly dependent on whole plant conductance. Further, we propose there is a possible equilibrium between root and shoot hydraulic conductance, similar to that between shoot and root biomass production, which could be related with xylem anatomy. PMID:27223695

  19. Root hydraulic conductivity and adjustments in stomatal conductance: hydraulic strategy in response to salt stress in a halotolerant species

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, Victoria; Bellati, Jorge; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás D.; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances at the molecular level are introducing a new scenario that needs to be integrated into the analysis of plant hydraulic properties. Although it is not yet clear to what extent this scenario alters the current proposal for the hydraulic circuit models, it introduces new insights when studying plants that are able to easily overcome water restrictions. In this context, our aim was to explore water adjustments in a halotolerant model (Beta vulgaris) by studying the coordination between the root in terms of root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and the shoot as reflected in the stomatal conductance (gs). The root water pathways were also analysed in terms of root suberization (apoplastic barrier) and aquaporin transcript levels (cell-to-cell pathway). Beta vulgaris showed the ability to rapidly lose (4 h) and gain (24 h) turgor when submitted to salt stress (200 mM). The reduction profile observed in Lpr and gs was consistent with a coupled process. The tuning of the root water flow involved small variations in the studied aquaporin's transcripts before anatomical modifications occurred. Exploring Lpr enhancement after halting the stress contributed to show not only a different profile in restoring Lpr but also the capacity to uncouple Lpr from gs. Beta vulgaris root plays a key role and can anticipate water loss before the aerial water status is affected. PMID:26602985

  20. Root hydraulic conductivity and adjustments in stomatal conductance: hydraulic strategy in response to salt stress in a halotolerant species.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Victoria; Bellati, Jorge; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás D; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances at the molecular level are introducing a new scenario that needs to be integrated into the analysis of plant hydraulic properties. Although it is not yet clear to what extent this scenario alters the current proposal for the hydraulic circuit models, it introduces new insights when studying plants that are able to easily overcome water restrictions. In this context, our aim was to explore water adjustments in a halotolerant model (Beta vulgaris) by studying the coordination between the root in terms of root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr) and the shoot as reflected in the stomatal conductance (gs). The root water pathways were also analysed in terms of root suberization (apoplastic barrier) and aquaporin transcript levels (cell-to-cell pathway). Beta vulgaris showed the ability to rapidly lose (4 h) and gain (24 h) turgor when submitted to salt stress (200 mM). The reduction profile observed in Lpr and gs was consistent with a coupled process. The tuning of the root water flow involved small variations in the studied aquaporin's transcripts before anatomical modifications occurred. Exploring Lpr enhancement after halting the stress contributed to show not only a different profile in restoring Lpr but also the capacity to uncouple Lpr from gs. Beta vulgaris root plays a key role and can anticipate water loss before the aerial water status is affected. PMID:26602985

  1. Upscaling of Hydraulic Conductivity using the Double Constraint Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zijl, Wouter; Batelaan, Okke

    2013-04-01

    The mathematics and modeling of flow through porous media is playing an increasingly important role for the groundwater supply, subsurface contaminant remediation and petroleum reservoir engineering. In hydrogeology hydraulic conductivity data are often collected at a scale that is smaller than the grid block dimensions of a groundwater model (e.g. MODFLOW). For instance, hydraulic conductivities determined from the field using slug and packer tests are measured in the order of centimeters to meters, whereas numerical groundwater models require conductivities representative of tens to hundreds of meters of grid cell length. Therefore, there is a need for upscaling to decrease the number of grid blocks in a groundwater flow model. Moreover, models with relatively few grid blocks are simpler to apply, especially when the model has to run many times, as is the case when it is used to assimilate time-dependent data. Since the 1960s different methods have been used to transform a detailed description of the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity to a coarser description. In this work we will investigate a relatively simple, but instructive approach: the Double Constraint Method (DCM) to identify the coarse-scale conductivities to decrease the number of grid blocks. Its main advantages are robustness and easy implementation, enabling to base computations on any standard flow code with some post processing added. The inversion step of the double constraint method is based on a first forward run with all known fluxes on the boundary and in the wells, followed by a second forward run based on the heads measured on the phreatic surface (i.e. measured in shallow observation wells) and in deeper observation wells. Upscaling, in turn is inverse modeling (DCM) to determine conductivities in coarse-scale grid blocks from conductivities in fine-scale grid blocks. In such a way that the head and flux boundary conditions applied to the fine-scale model are also honored at the

  2. Specific storage and hydraulic conductivity tomography through the joint inversion of hydraulic heads and self-potential data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A. Soueid; Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Transient hydraulic tomography is used to image the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and specific storage fields of shallow aquifers using time series of hydraulic head data. Such ill-posed and non-unique inverse problem can be regularized using some spatial geostatistical characteristic of the two fields. In addition to hydraulic heads changes, the flow of water, during pumping tests, generates an electrical field of electrokinetic nature. These electrical field fluctuations can be passively recorded at the ground surface using a network of non-polarizing electrodes connected to a high impedance (> 10 MOhm) and sensitive (0.1 mV) voltmeter, a method known in geophysics as the self-potential method. We perform a joint inversion of the self-potential and hydraulic head data to image the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage fields. We work on a 3D synthetic confined aquifer and we use the adjoint state method to compute the sensitivities of the hydraulic parameters to the hydraulic head and self-potential data in both steady-state and transient conditions. The inverse problem is solved using the geostatistical quasi-linear algorithm framework of Kitanidis. When the number of piezometers is small, the record of the transient self-potential signals provides useful information to characterize the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage fields. These results show that the self-potential method reveals the heterogeneities of some areas of the aquifer, which could not been captured by the tomography based on the hydraulic heads alone. In our analysis, the improvement on the hydraulic conductivity and specific storage estimations were based on perfect knowledge of electrical resistivity field. This implies that electrical resistivity will need to be jointly inverted with the hydraulic parameters in future studies and the impact of its uncertainty assessed with respect to the final tomograms of the hydraulic parameters.

  3. Stochastic analysis of the hydraulic conductivity estimated for a heterogeneous aquifer via numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Zhang, Y.; Shu, L.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Li, S.; Wang, G.; Li, J.

    2015-05-01

    The paper aims to evaluate the impacts of the average hydraulic conductivity of the heterogeneous aquifer on the estimated hydraulic conductivity using the observations from pumping tests. The results of aquifer tests conducted at a karst aquifer are first introduced. A MODFLOW groundwater flow model was developed to perform numerical pumping tests, and the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity (K) field was generated using the Monte Carlo method. The K was estimated by the Theis solution for an unconfined aquifer. The effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) was calculated to represent the hydraulic conductivity of a heterogeneous aquifer. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that Ke increase with the mean of hydraulic conductivity (EK), and decrease with the coefficient of variation of the hydraulic conductivity (Cv). The impact of spatial variability of K on the estimated Ke at two observation wells with smaller EK is less significant compared to the cases with larger EK.

  4. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity: measurement and non-equilibrium effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, U.; Vogel, H.

    2010-12-01

    The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media is a central item in hydraulic modeling. It is hard to measure and therefore in most applications it is represented by some kind of model based on indirect measurements. The validity is hardly ever checked. We have developed a fairly easy and automatic measurement procedure that allows to determine directly the hydraulic conductivity of a sample at different water potentials. The sample is placed on a plate where the potential can be controlled. It is then irrigated from the top with a constant, predefined flow rate. Tensiometers control the water potential within the sample, the topmost one is used to steer the potential at the lower boundary. It can be seen that the sample equilibrates fairly quick to a constant potential throughout the sample, and thus the conductivity of the material at the measured potential is equal to the applied flux while gravity is the only driving force. The change in water content is monitored by a balance. We have measured several materials, soils and sand substrates, with a protocol where we first lower the flux stepwise and then rise it again. The samples reach quick an equilibrium, as can be seen by the control tensiometer. Coming from the wet side, with a high flux, and lowering this flux, we observe a fast drop in potential, and in water content. But then the water potential rises again, while the water content remains constant or drops even slightly. When rising the flux again, we observe the opposite effect, but less pronounced: after the initial rise in water potential while the system adapts to the new flow rate, the potential lowers slightly. This behavior occurs over a certain range of water potential, it is not present in the very wet or very dry range. Also, the range in which it occurs and the magnitude of the effect depends on the studied material: pure sands express the pattern very clearly, it is much less obvious in loamy soils. Also, the relation between water

  5. Percolation testing and hydraulic conductivity of soils for percolation areas.

    PubMed

    Mulqueen, J; Rodgers, M

    2001-11-01

    The results of specific percolation tests are expressed in terms of field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) of the soil. The specific tests comprise the Irish SR 6 and the UK BS 6297 standard tests and the inversed auger hole and square hole tests employed for the design of land drainage. Percolation times from these tests are converted to Kfs values using unit gradient theory and the Elrick and Reynolds (Soil Sci. 142(5) (1986) 308) model which takes into account gravitational, pressure head and matric potential gradients. Kfs is then expressed as the inverse of the percolation rate times a constant, in this way the percolation rate can be directly related to Kfs of the soil. A plot of Kfs against percolation rate for the Irish SR 6 and the UK BS 6297 standard tests is asymptotic at Kfs values less than 0.2 m/d and greater than 0.8 m/d. This behaviour creates difficulty in setting limits for percolation rates in standards. Curves are provided which enable Kfs values to be read off from percolation tests without the restrictions of head range currently enforced, for example in the Irish SR 6 and BS 6297 standards. Experimental measurements of percolation rates and Kfs were carried out on two sands in the laboratory and in the field on two soils. Kfs of these four materials was also measured using a tension infiltrometer and the Guelph permeameter. The saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) of the sands were also estimated in a falling head laboratory apparatus and by the Hazen formula. There was good agreement between the different tests for Kfs on each material. Because percolation time continued to increase significantly in consecutive tests in the same test hole while Kfs became constant, the latter is a better measure of the suitability of soils for percolation. PMID:12230173

  6. Geostatistical analysis of field hydraulic conductivity in compacted clay

    SciTech Connect

    Rogowski, A.S.; Simmons, D.E.

    1988-05-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) of fractured or porous materials is associated intimately with water flow and chemical transport. Basic concepts imply uniform flux through a homogeneous cross-sectional area. If flow were to occur only through part of the area, actual rates could be considerably different. Because laboratory values of K in compacted clays seldom agree with field estimates, questions arise as to what the true values of K are and how they should be estimated. Hydraulic conductivity values were measured on a 10 x 25 m elevated bridge-like platform. A constant water level was maintained for 1 yr over a 0.3-m thick layer of compacted clay, and inflow and outflow rates were monitored using 10 x 25 grids of 0.3-m diameter infiltration rings and outflow drains subtending approximately 1 x 1 m blocks of compacted clay. Variography of inflow and outflow data established relationships between cores and blocks of clay, respectively. Because distributions of outflow rates were much less and bore little resemblance to the distributions of break-through rates based on tracer studies, presence of macropores and preferential flow through the macropores was suspected. Subsequently, probability kriging was applied to reevaluate distribution of flux rates and possible location of macropores. Sites exceeding a threshold outflow of 100 x 10/sup -9/ m/s were classified as outliers and were assumed to probably contain a significant population of macropores. Different sampling schemes were examined. Variogram analysis of outflows with and without outliers suggested adequacy of sampling the site at 50 randomly chosen locations. Because of the potential contribution of macropores to pollutant transport and the practical necessity of extrapolating small plot values to larger areas, conditional simulations with and without outliers were carried out.

  7. Predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity in a sandy grassland using proximally sensed apparent electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Saey, Timothy; Seuntjens, Piet; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Finding a correspondence between soil hydraulic properties, such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) as an easily measurable parameter, may be a way forward to estimate the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties at the field scale. In this study, the spatial distributions of Ks, of soil ECa measured by a DUALEM-21S sensor and of soil physical properties were investigated in a sandy grassland. To predict field scale Ks, the statistical relationship between co-located soil Ks, and EMI-ECa was evaluated. Results demonstrated the large spatial variability of all studied properties with Ks being the most variable one (CV = 86.21%) followed by ECa (CV ≥ 53.77%). A significant negative correlation was found between ln-transformed Ks and ECa (r = 0.83; P ≤ 0.01) at two depths of exploration (0-50 and 0-100 cm). This site-specific relation between ln Ks and ECa was used to predict saturated hydraulic conductivity over 0-50 cm depth for the whole field. The empirical relation was validated using an independent dataset of measured Ks. The statistical results demonstrate the robustness of this empirical relation with mean estimation error MEE = 0.46 (cm h- 1), root-mean-square estimation errors RMSEE = 0.74 (cm h- 1), coefficient of determination r2 = 0.67 and coefficient of model efficiency Ce = 0.64. The relationship was then used to produce a detailed map of Ks for the whole field. The result will allow model predictions of spatially distributed water content in view of irrigation management.

  8. Spatial Variability of Streambed Hydraulic Conductivity of a Lowland River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneidewind, Uwe; Thornton, Steven; Van De Vijver, Ellen; Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet

    2015-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity K is a key physical parameter, which describes flow processes in the hyporheic zone (HZ), i.e. the dynamic interface between aquifers and streams or rivers. Knowledge of the spatial variability of K is also important for the interpretation of contaminant transport processes in the HZ. Streambed K can vary over several magnitudes at small spatial scales. It depends mostly on streambed sediment characteristics (e.g. effective porosity, grain size, packing), streambed processes (e.g. sedimentation, colmation and erosion) and the development of stream channel geometry and streambed morphology (e.g. dunes, anti-dunes, pool-riffle sequences, etc.). Although heterogeneous in natural streambeds, streambed K is often considered to be a constant parameter due to a lack of information on its spatial distribution. Here we show the spatial variability of streambed K for a small section of the River Tern, a lowland river in the UK. Streambed K was determined for more than 120 vertically and horizontally distributed locations from grain size analyses using four empirical approaches (Hazen, Beyer, Kozeny and the USBR model). Additionally, streambed K was estimated from falling head tests in 36 piezometers installed into the streambed on a 4 m by 16 m grid, by applying the Springer-Gelhar Model. For both methods streambed K followed a log-normal distribution. Variogram analysis was used to deduce the spatial variability of the streambed K values within several streambed profiles parallel and perpendicular to the main flow direction in the stream. Hydraulic conductivity Kg estimated from grain size analyses varied between 1 m/d and 155 m/d with standard deviations of 79% to 99% depending on the empirical approach used. Kh estimated from falling head tests varied between 1 m/d and 22 m/d with a standard deviation of about 50%, depending on the degree of anisotropy assumed. After rescaling the data to obtain a common sample support, Pearson correlation

  9. Saturated hydraulic conductivities of granitic materials of the Idaho batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megahan, Walter F.; Clayton, James L.

    1986-04-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ksat) of granitic bedrock in the Idaho batholith was determined using a borehole pressure testing technique. Tests were conducted at approximately 1.6 m depth increments ranging from about 1.6 m to an average maximum depth of 7.8 m. A total of 58 valid tests were obtained in nine holes located at five sites in a 145 km long transect line running north-south in the southwest quarter of the batholith. Sites represent a wide range in rock fracturing and weathering properties. Seismograph profiles were also run at each test hole. A conditional probability analysis showed that Ksat values were lognormally distributed with a lower bound at zero. Values for Ksat were unrelated to depth, rock matrix porosity, seismic velocity, or rock fracture density. However, Ksat did vary with rock weathering characteristics. Conductivity was lowest in unweathered rock probably because of restricted fracture apertures. The second least weathered rock class had the highest average Ksat. There was a general decrease in Ksat with increased weathering through the remaining five weathering classes even though rock porosity and fracture density increased with rock weathering. We believe this inverse trend in Ksat with increased weathering is the result of progressively increasing clay formation and mineral expansion that restricts flow in both fractures and the rock matrix. Ksat for bedrock averages an order of magnitude less than Ksat for soil cores and two orders of magnitude less than Ksat obtained by tracer tests during subsurface flow making shallow, sub-surface flow a major hydrologic process at many locations on the steep, mountain slopes.

  10. Hydraulic Conductivity of Smooth Muscle Cell-Initiated Arterial Cocultures.

    PubMed

    Mathura, Rishi A; Russell-Puleri, Sparkle; Cancel, Limary M; Tarbell, John M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of arterial coculture conditions on the transport properties of several in vitro endothelial cell (EC)-smooth muscle cell (SMC)-porous filter constructs in which SMC were grown to confluence first and then EC were inoculated. This order of culturing simulates the environment of a blood vessel wall after endothelial layer damage due to stenting, vascular grafting or other vascular wall insult. For all coculture configurations examined, we observed that hydraulic conductivity (L p) values were significantly higher than predicted by a resistances-in-series (RIS) model accounting for the L p of EC and SMC measured separately. The greatest increases were observed when EC were plated directly on top of a confluent SMC layer without an intervening filter, presumably mediated by direct EC-SMC contacts that were observed under confocal microscopy. The results are the opposite of a previous study that showed L p was significantly reduced compared to an RIS model when EC were grown to confluency first. The physiological, pathophysiological and tissue engineering implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26265460

  11. Assessing lakebed hydraulic conductivity and seepage flux by potentiomanometer.

    PubMed

    Ong, John B; Zlotnik, Vitaly A

    2011-01-01

    Potentiomanometers (PMs) are commonly used to determine flux directions across interfaces between surface waters and aquifers. We describe a complementary function: estimating small-scale hydraulic conductivity (K) in a lakebed, using the constant-head injection test (CHIT) by Cardenas and Zlotnik (2003) with the PM designed by Winter et al. (1988). A piezometer with a small screen is inserted into the lakebed. Local head potential is obtained by measuring the head difference between the test point and the aquifer interface. The piezometer is then used for water injection. This technique is illustrated by measurements taken from Alkali Lake in the Sand Hills, Nebraska, United States. Lakebed K and seepage fluxes ranged from 0.037 to 0.090 m/d and Darcy velocities ranged from 0.004 to 0.027 m/d. Results were consistent with the supplementary data gathered using a modified CHIT and a cone penetrometer. The compact size of the device and the small volumes used for injection enable this method to estimate lakebed K values as low as 0.01 to 0.1 m/d, a range seldom explored in lake-aquifer interface systems. PMID:20497483

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of endothelial cell-initiated arterial cocultures.

    PubMed

    Mathura, Rishi A; Russell-Puleri, Sparkle; Cancel, Limary M; Tarbell, John M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes cocultures of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and the influences of their heterotypic interactions on hydraulic conductivity (L p ), an important transport property. A unique feature of these cocultures is that ECs were first grown to confluence and then SMCs were inoculated. Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were cocultured on Transwell Permeable Supports, and then exposed to a pressure-driven transmural flow. L p across each culture was measured using a bubble tracking apparatus that determined water flux (J v ). Our results indicate that arterial L p is significantly modulated by EC-SMC proximity, and serum content in culture. The L p of cocultures was also compared to the predictions of a resistances-in-series model to distinguish the contributions of heterotypic interactions between SMCs and ECs. Conditions that lead to significantly reduced coculture L p , compared to BAEC monoculture controls, have been uncovered and the lowest L p in the literature for an in vitro system are reported. In addition, VE-cadherin immunostaining of intact BAEC monolayers in each culture configuration reveals that EC-SMC proximity on a porous membrane has a dramatic influence on EC morphology patterns. The cocultures with the lowest L p have ECs with significantly elongated morphology. Confocal imaging indicates that there are no direct EC-SMC contacts in coculture. PMID:24264601

  13. Evaluation of vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated sediments.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Michael; Dietrich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Detailed information on vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) is essential to describe the dynamics of groundwater movement at contaminated sites or as input data used for modeling. K values in high vertical resolution should be determined because K tends to be more continuous in the horizontal than in the vertical direction. To determine K in shallow unconsolidated sediments and in the vertical direction, the recently developed direct-push injection logger can be used. The information obtained by this method serves as a proxy for K and has to be calibrated to obtain quantitative K values of measured vertical profiles. In this study, we performed direct-push soil sampling, sieve analyses and direct-push slug tests to obtain K values in vertical high resolution. Using the results of direct-push slug tests, quantitative K values obtained by the direct-push injection logger could be determined successfully. The results of sieve analyses provided lower accordance with the logs due to the inherent limitations of the sieving method. PMID:21883188

  14. NMR Logging to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in Unconsolidated Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rosemary; Walsh, David O; Butler, James J; Grunewald, Elliot; Liu, Gaisheng; Parsekian, Andrew D; Reboulet, Edward C; Knobbe, Steve; Barrows, Mercer

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging provides a new means of estimating the hydraulic conductivity (K) of unconsolidated aquifers. The estimation of K from the measured NMR parameters can be performed using the Schlumberger-Doll Research (SDR) equation, which is based on the Kozeny-Carman equation and initially developed for obtaining permeability from NMR logging in petroleum reservoirs. The SDR equation includes empirically determined constants. Decades of research for petroleum applications have resulted in standard values for these constants that can provide accurate estimates of permeability in consolidated formations. The question we asked: Can standard values for the constants be defined for hydrogeologic applications that would yield accurate estimates of K in unconsolidated aquifers? Working at 10 locations at three field sites in Kansas and Washington, USA, we acquired NMR and K data using direct-push methods over a 10- to 20-m depth interval in the shallow subsurface. Analysis of pairs of NMR and K data revealed that we could dramatically improve K estimates by replacing the standard petroleum constants with new constants, optimal for estimating K in the unconsolidated materials at the field sites. Most significant was the finding that there was little change in the SDR constants between sites. This suggests that we can define a new set of constants that can be used to obtain high resolution, cost-effective estimates of K from NMR logging in unconsolidated aquifers. This significant result has the potential to change dramatically the approach to determining K for hydrogeologic applications. PMID:25810149

  15. Determining the Hydraulic Conductivity of the Subsurface in Wetland Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, L. E.; Mutiti, S.; Hazzard, S.

    2011-12-01

    Slug tests are a popular method for determining hydraulic conductivity (K) of subsurface material and have the potential to be very accurate because of minimal disturbance to the subsurface. A variety of methods and piezometer construction are widely used for slug tests. Most wetland environments are composed of low K material such as silt or clay, which can make determination of hydrogeologic properties challenging. This study is part of a broader ongoing project to understand the functions of wetlands in Milledgeville, Georgia, a city in the Oconee River Basin (ORB), which straddles the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain. The ORB sits on saprolite and gneiss bedrock, and consequently, its wetlands exhibit a high concentration of clay materials. One site, the Oconee River Greenway, lies along the riverbanks of the Oconee. The second site, Andalusia Farm, is a historical site formerly belonging to writer, Flannery O'Connor. The objective of this study was to determine the best method and/or piezometer type for determining K values for low permeability wetland material. We also investigated the potential of using heat and pressure monitoring to determine horizontal and vertical extent of slug tests. The Greenway wetland has significant seasonal interflow through a relatively more permeable sandy layer. Borehole logs and electrical resistivity profiling were used to study the subsurface stratigraphy. Slug test results from different types of piezometers (borehole, drive point, partially screened and fully screened) were compared. Pressure transducers and HOBO thermisters were used to collect water depth, pressure and temperature data. These results were also compared to results from sediment analyses, in-situ permeameters and heat monitoring. Drive point and borehole piezometers with equal diameters produced comparable K estimates at each site. However, fully screened piezometers of either installation type produced higher K values than partially screened piezometers

  16. Mapping saturated hydraulic conductivity in the presence of deterministic trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Zimmermann, Beate

    2014-05-01

    The saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is an important soil characteristic. Accounting for Ks spatial patterns in distributed hydrological models can improve the model performance considerably. However, obtaining realistic fields of Ks is notoriously difficult because of the pronounced small-scale variability of this variable. In an attempt to adequately characterize Ks spatial variation in a tropical forest catchment, which features a high density of surficial flowlines, we applied a combination of two sampling approaches. At first, we conducted a classical nested sampling survey to assess the scales over which Ks varied in the target area. Next, we applied a purposive sampling strategy which considered hydrologic information on the temporal frequency of overland flow occurrence in the flowlines. The nested sampling approach revealed the dominance of small-scale variability, which is in line with previous findings. Data from the purposive sampling, however, indicated the presence of a strong spatial gradient: surface Ks was extremely low in flowlines and approached values similar to the spatial mean of Ks at a distance of 10 m to flowlines. To build a geostatistical model of the spatial variation of Ks we combined the data from both nested and purposive sampling and used a linear mixed modelling framework where the data are modeled as the additive combination of fixed effects, random effects and independent random error. We ascribed the fixed effects to an external drift variable, the distance to flowline of each point in space. Random effects and independent random error are described by the variogram. In this contribution we will discuss the hydrological relevance of the modelled Ks pattern using probability maps of Ks exceedance for a range of rainfall intensities.

  17. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.

    2013-09-30

    Plausible, but unvalidated, theoretical model constructs for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fractured porous media are currently used in Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for cracked saltstone and concrete (Flach 2011). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern about the lack of model support for these assumed Moisture Characteristic Curves (MCC) data, as noted in Requests for Additional Information (RAIs) PA-8 and SP-4 (Savannah River Remediation, LLC, 2011). The objective of this task was to advance PA model support by developing an experimental method for determining the hydraulic conductivity of fractured cementitious materials under unsaturated conditions, and to demonstrate the technique on fractured saltstone samples. The task was requested through Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0016 and conducted in accordance with Task Technical & Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-TR-2012-00090. Preliminary method development previously conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) identified transient outflow extraction as the most promising method for characterizing the unsaturated properties of fractured porous media. While the research conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) focused on fractured media analogs such as stacked glass slides, the current task focused directly on fractured saltstone. For this task, four sample types with differing fracture geometries were considered: 1) intact saltstone, 2) intact saltstone with a single saw cut, smooth surface fracture, 3) micro-fractured saltstone (induced by oven drying), and 4) micro-fractured saltstone with a single, fully-penetrating, rough-surface fracture. Each sample type was tested initially for saturated hydraulic conductivity following method ASTM D 5084 using a flexible wall permeameter. Samples were subsequently tested using the transient outflow extraction method to determine cumulative outflow as a function of time and applied pressure. Of the four sample types tested, two yielded

  18. Response of four cotton genotypes to N fertilization for root hydraulic conductance and lint yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In controlled environments, hydraulic conductance of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots is affected by nitrate supply. Limited information is available on the influence of N on cotton root hydraulic conductance under field conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N fe...

  19. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  20. Statistical and geostatistical features of streambed hydraulic conductivities in the Platte River, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xunhong

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents streambed hydraulic conductivities of the Platte River from south-central to eastern Nebraska. The hydraulic conductivities were determined from river channels using permeameter tests. The vertical hydraulic conductivities ( K v ) from seven test sites along this river in south-central Nebraska belong to one statistical population. Its mean value is 40.2 m/d. However, the vertical hydraulic conductivities along four transects of the Ashland test site in eastern Nebraska have lower mean values, are statistically different from the K v values in south-central Nebraska, and belong to two different populations with mean values of 20.7 and 9.1 m/d, respectively. Finer sediments carried from the Loup River and Elkhorn River watersheds to the eastern reach of the Platte River lowers the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the streambed. Correlation coefficients between water depth and K v values along a test transect indicates a positive correlation a larger K v usually occurs in the part of channel with deeper water. Experimental variograms derived from the vertical hydraulic conductivities for several transects across the channels of the Platte River show periodicity of spatial correlation, which likely result from periodic variation of water depth across the channels. The sandy to gravelly streambed contains very local silt and clay layers; spatially continuous low-permeability streambed was not observed in the river channels. The horizontal hydraulic conductivities were larger than the vertical hydraulic conductivities for the same test locations.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of fly ash-sewage sludge mixes for use in landfill cover liners.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Inga; Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger; Kumpiene, Jurate; Maurice, Christian; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders

    2009-08-01

    Secondary materials could help meeting the increasing demand of landfill cover liner materials. In this study, the effect of compaction energy, water content, ash ratio, freezing, drying and biological activity on the hydraulic conductivity of two fly ash-sewage sludge mixes was investigated using a 2(7-1) fractional factorial design. The aim was to identify the factors that influence hydraulic conductivity, to quantify their effects and to assess how a sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity can be achieved. The factors compaction energy and drying, as well as the factor interactions material x ash ratio and ash ratio x compaction energy affected hydraulic conductivity significantly (alpha=0.05). Freezing on five freeze-thaw cycles did not affect hydraulic conductivity. Water content affected hydraulic conductivity only initially. The hydraulic conductivity data were modelled using multiple linear regression. The derived models were reliable as indicated by R(adjusted)(2) values between 0.75 and 0.86. Independent on the ash ratio and the material, hydraulic conductivity was predicted to be between 1.7 x 10(-11)m s(-1) and 8.9 x 10(-10)m s(-1) if the compaction energy was 2.4 J cm(-3), the ash ratio between 20% and 75% and drying did not occur. Thus, the investigated materials met the limit value for non-hazardous waste landfills of 10(-9)m s(-1). PMID:19541338

  2. Determination of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity by automated minidisk infiltrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Zumr, David

    2013-04-01

    Numerical models in surface and subsurface hydrology require knowledge of infiltration properties of soils for their routine use in the field of water management, environmental protection or agriculture. A new automated tension infiltration module has been designed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague to facilitate the measurements of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. In the proposed infiltration module the amount of infiltrated water is registered via changes of buoyant force of stationary float attached to the load cell. Presented setup consists of six mini-disk infiltrometer modules held in the light aluminum frame and two Mariotte's bottles. Three infiltrometer modules connected to each Mariotte's bottle allow performing six simultaneous measurements at two different pressure heads. Infiltration modules are connected to the automatic data logging system and consist of: plastic cover with the integrated load cell and the float, reservoir tube (external diameter of 50 mm), and sintered stainless steel plate (diameter of 44.5 mm). The newly developed device was used for determination of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils in experimental catchments Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Northern Bohemia) and Kopaninsky creek (Bohemian-Moravian Highlands). The acquired data show a good agreement with the data obtained from previous measurements.

  3. Leaf hydraulic conductance for a tank bromeliad: axial and radial pathways for moving and conserving water.

    PubMed

    North, Gretchen B; Lynch, Frank H; Maharaj, Franklin D R; Phillips, Carly A; Woodside, Walter T

    2013-01-01

    Epiphytic plants in the Bromeliaceae known as tank bromeliads essentially lack stems and absorptive roots and instead take up water from reservoirs formed by their overlapping leaf bases. For such plants, leaf hydraulic conductance is plant hydraulic conductance. Their simple strap-shaped leaves and parallel venation make them suitable for modeling leaf hydraulic conductance based on vasculature and other anatomical and morphological traits. Plants of the tank bromeliad Guzmania lingulata were investigated in a lowland tropical forest in Costa Rica and a shaded glasshouse in Los Angeles, CA, USA. Stomatal conductance to water vapor and leaf anatomical variables related to hydraulic conductance were measured for both groups. Tracheid diameters and numbers of vascular bundles (veins) were used with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation to calculate axial hydraulic conductance. Measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance using the evaporative flux method were also made for glasshouse plants. Values for axial conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance were used in a model based on leaky cable theory to estimate the conductance of the radial pathway from the vein to the leaf surface and to assess the relative contributions of both axial and radial pathways. In keeping with low stomatal conductance, low stomatal density, low vein density, and narrow tracheid diameters, leaf hydraulic conductance for G. lingulata was quite low in comparison with most other angiosperms. Using the predicted axial conductance in the leaky cable model, the radial resistance across the leaf mesophyll was predicted to predominate; lower, more realistic values of axial conductance resulted in predicted radial resistances that were closer to axial resistance in their impact on total leaf resistance. Tracer dyes suggested that water uptake through the tank region of the leaf was not limiting. Both dye movement and the leaky cable model indicated that the leaf blade of G. lingulata was structurally and

  4. Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity for Evaporation in Large scale Heterogeneous Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Zhu, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this study we aim to provide some practical guidelines of how the commonly used simple averaging schemes (arithmetic, geometric, or harmonic mean) perform in simulating large scale evaporation in a large scale heterogeneous landscape. Previous studies on hydraulic property upscaling focusing on steady state flux exchanges illustrated that an effective hydraulic property is usually more difficult to define for evaporation. This study focuses on upscaling hydraulic properties of large scale transient evaporation dynamics using the idea of the stream tube approach. Specifically, the two main objectives are: (1) if the three simple averaging schemes (i.e., arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means) of hydraulic parameters are appropriate in representing large scale evaporation processes, and (2) how the applicability of these simple averaging schemes depends on the time scale of evaporation processes in heterogeneous soils. Multiple realizations of local evaporation processes are carried out using HYDRUS-1D computational code (Simunek et al, 1998). The three averaging schemes of soil hydraulic parameters were used to simulate the cumulative flux exchange, which is then compared with the large scale average cumulative flux. The sensitivity of the relative errors to the time frame of evaporation processes is also discussed.

  5. IN-SERVICE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF GCLS IN LANDFILL COVERS - LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments using multi-species inorganic solutions (containing calcium and sodium) were conducted on specimens of a new geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) containing sodium bentonite to determine how cation exchange and desiccation affected the hydraulic conductivity. Calc...

  6. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. The primary purpose of this manual is to provide ne...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS: A MANUAL OF PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of hydrologists to perform field measurements of aquifer hydraulic properties must be enhanced in order to significantly improve the capacity to solve groundwater contamination problems at Superfund and other sites. he primary purpose of this manual is to provide new ...

  8. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  9. Laboratory and field hydraulic conductivity of three compacted paper mill sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, J.F.; Benson, C.H.; Wang, X.; Van Maltby, C.

    1997-07-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of three compacted paper mill sludges were measured in various ways to assess their viability for use in barrier layers in landfill final covers. Compaction tests showed that the sludges have compaction curves similar to those for clays, albeit with lower maximum dry unit weights and higher optimum water contents. Hydraulic conductivities less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m/s can be attained for these sludges at low effective stresses (<10 kPa) when compacted using standard Proctor energy if the molding water content is 50--100 percentage points greater than optimum water content. The lowest hydraulic conductivities were obtained in this range. At higher effective stresses (>20 kPa), hydraulic conductivities less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} m/s can be achieved at higher molding water contents. Field tests conducted on barrier layers constructed with two of the sludges showed that field hydraulic conductivities can be obtained that are similar to those measured on laboratory compacted specimens prepared at the same molding water content. Laboratory tests on large and small undisturbed specimens removed from the field showed that no scale dependence existed in the hydraulic conductivity of the field compacted sludge. Additional tests showed that freezing increased the hydraulic conductivity of two of the sludges, regardless of whether the sludges were permeated between freeze-thaw cycles or only after the last thaw. In contrast, for the third sludge, increases in hydraulic conductivity only occurred if the sludge was not permeated between freeze-thaw cycles. Significant shrinkage and cracking of the sludges occurred when they were dried, suggesting that barrier layers constructed with sludge should not be permitted to desiccate. Long-term tests showed that the hydraulic conductivity remains stable or decreases slowly if permeation is continued over an extended period of time.

  10. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey's water retention parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasta, Paolo; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Romano, Nunzio

    2013-05-01

    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we derive a simple closed-form equation that predicts the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks from the WRF parameters of Brooks and Corey (1964). This physically based analytical expression uses an empirical tortuosity parameter (τ) and exploits the information embedded in the measured pore-size distribution. Our proposed model is compared against the current state of the art using more than 250 soil samples from the Grenoble soil catalog (GRIZZLY) and hydraulic properties of European soils (HYPRES) databases. Results demonstrate that the proposed model provides better predictions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity values with reduced size of the 90% confidence intervals of about 3 orders of magnitude.

  11. Effects of particulates and lipids on the hydraulic conductivity of Matrigel

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, William J.; Chimento, Melissa F.; Curcio, Christine A.; Johnson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of a connective tissue is determined both by the fine ultrastructure of the extracellular matrix and the effects of larger particles in the interstitial space. In this study, we explored this relationship by examining the effects of 30- or 90-nm-diameter latex nanospheres or low-density lipoproteins (LDL) on the hydraulic conductivity of Matrigel, a basement membrane matrix. The hydraulic conductivity of Matrigel with latex nanospheres or LDL particles added at 4.8% weight fraction was measured and compared with the hydraulic conductivity of Matrigel alone. The LDL-derived lipids in the gel were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and were seen to have aggregated into particles up to 500 nm in size. The addition of these materials to the medium markedly decreased its hydraulic conductivity, with the LDL-derived lipids having a much larger effect than did the latex nanospheres. Debye-Brinkman theory was used to predict the effect of addition of particles to the hydraulic conductivity of the medium. The theoretical predictions matched well with the results from adding latex nanospheres to the medium. However, LDL decreased hydraulic conductivity much more than was predicted by the theory. The validation of the theoretical model for rigid particles embedded in extracellular matrix suggests that it could be used to make predictions about the influence of particulates (e.g., collagen, elastin, cells) on the hydraulic conductivity of the fine filamentous matrix (the proteoglycans) in connective tissues. In addition, the larger-than-predicted effects of lipidlike particles on hydraulic conductivity may magnify the pathology associated with lipid accumulation, such as in Bruch's membrane of the retina during macular degeneration and the blood vessel wall in atherosclerosis. PMID:18535138

  12. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of US soils grouped according to textural class and bulk density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Importance of the saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil hydraulic property led to the development of multiple pedotransfer functions for estimating it. One approach to estimating Ksat was using textural classes rather than specific textural fraction contents as pedotransfer inputs. The objective...

  13. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of US soils grouped according textural class and bulk density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Importance of the saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil hydraulic property led to the development of multiple pedotransfer functions for estimating it. One approach to estimating Ksat was using textural classes rather than specific textural fraction contents as pedotransfer inputs. The objective...

  14. Sample dimensions effect on prediction of soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) are key hydraulic properties for unsaturated zone hydrology and groundwater. Not only are the SWRC and SHC measurements time-consuming, their results are scale dependent. Although prediction of the SWRC and SHC from availab...

  15. Sprinkler Irrigation Effects on Infiltration and Near-Surface Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) from dairy manure can help to restore productivity of eroded soil. SOC, irrigation, or both may alter soil hydraulic properties. We evaluated effects of SOC and simulated center-pivot irrigation on infiltration and near-surface hydraulic conductivity (K) measured under tens...

  16. Characterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Eléonore; Pichault, Mathieu; Pansak, Wanwisa; Degré, Aurore; Garré, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Although stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils, so that the literature describing the impact of stones on the hydraulic conductivity of a soil is still rather scarce. Most frequently, models characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils assume that the only effect of rock fragments is to reduce the volume available for water flow, and therefore they predict a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with an increasing stoniness. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of rock fragments on the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was done by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. We compared our results with values predicted by the aforementioned predictive models. Our study suggests that it might be ill-founded to consider that stones only reduce the volume available for water flow. We pointed out several factors of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils that are not considered by these models. On the one hand, the shape and the size of inclusions may substantially affect the hydraulic conductivity. On the other hand, laboratory experiments show that an increasing stone content can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced volume in some cases: we observed an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity with volume of inclusions. These differences are mainly important near to saturation. However, comparison of results from predictive models and our experiments in unsaturated conditions shows that models and data agree on a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with stone content, even though the experimental conditions did not allow testing for stone contents higher than 20 %.

  17. Use of tandem circulation wells to measure hydraulic conductivity without groundwater extraction.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Mark N; Huang, Junqi; Close, Murray E; Flintoft, Mark J; Pang, Liping

    2008-09-10

    Conventional methods to measure the hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer on a relatively large scale (10-100 m) require extraction of significant quantities of groundwater. This can be expensive, and otherwise problematic, when investigating a contaminated aquifer. In this study, innovative approaches that make use of tandem circulation wells to measure hydraulic conductivity are proposed. These approaches measure conductivity on a relatively large scale, but do not require extraction of groundwater. Two basic approaches for using circulation wells to measure hydraulic conductivity are presented; one approach is based upon the dipole-flow test method, while the other approach relies on a tracer test to measure the flow of water between two recirculating wells. The approaches are tested in a relatively homogeneous and isotropic artificial aquifer, where the conductivities measured by both approaches are compared to each other and to the previously measured hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. It was shown that both approaches have the potential to accurately measure horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for a relatively large subsurface volume without the need to pump groundwater to the surface. Future work is recommended to evaluate the ability of these tandem circulation wells to accurately measure hydraulic conductivity when anisotropy and heterogeneity are greater than in the artificial aquifer used for these studies. PMID:18674844

  18. Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fracture bedrock near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Hsieh, P.A.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire (USA), hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock was investigated with the crosswell seismic method to determine whether this method could provide any information about hydraulic conductivity between wells. To this end, crosswell seismic data, acoustic logs from boreholes, image logs from boreholes, and single borehole hydraulic tests were analyzed. The analysis showed that, first, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be higher in schist than they were in granite. (Schist and granite were the dominant rock types). Second, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be low near fractures. Third, the hydraulic conductivity was always low (always less than to 10-8 m/s) where no fractures intersected the borehole, but the hydraulic conductivity ranged from low to high (from less than to 10-10 m/s to 10-4 m/s) where one or more fractures intersected the borehole. Fourth, high hydraulic conductivities were slightly more frequent when the P-wave velocity was low (less than 5200 m/s) than when it was high (greater than or equal to 5200 m/s). The interpretation of this statistical relation was that the fractures tended to increase the hydraulic conductivity and to lower the P-wave velocity. This statistical relation was applied to a velocity tomogram to create a map showing the probability of high hydraulic conductivity; the map was consistent with results from independent hydraulic tests. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An automated tool for three types of saturated hydraulic conductivity laboratory measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wietsma, Thomas W.; Oostrom, Martinus; Covert, Matthew A.; Queen, Theresa E.; Fayer, Michael J.

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of porous medium hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory is usually time-consuming and costly because of the manual labor associated with the currently available techniques. Lately, there has been increased interest in automating hydraulic conductivity laboratory techniques to reduce analysis time and improve data consistency. A new apparatus is presented that is able to determine hydraulic conductivity values with the falling head, constant head, and constant flux methods in an automated fashion. In addition, the columns are designed forcing water to flow in a nominally one-dimensional manner throughout the porous medium. In this paper, hydraulic conductivity data for standard laboratory sands are presented and compared to results obtained using a standard Tempe cell configuration. Hydraulic conductivity values obtained with the new tool for the laboratory sands are consistent with literature data. For highly permeable sands, the newly obtained hydraulic conductivity values are considerable larger then values acquired using a Tempe cell configuration. The lower conductivity values for the Tempe Cell configuration are primarily the result of insufficient spreading of water in the inlet and outlet reservoirs.

  20. TECHNIQUES TO DETERMINE SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SAND AND GRAVEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for determining small-scale variations in aquifer properties were investigated for a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. easurements of aquifer properties, in particular hydraulic conductivity, are needed for further investigations into the effects of aqui...

  1. The Comparison of Predicted and Measured Hydraulic Conductivities of Soils having Different Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal; Karakuş, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is one of the most important parameter of earth science related studies such as engineering geology, soil physics, agriculture etc. In order to estimate the ability of soils to transport fluid through particles, field and laboratory tests have been performed since last decades of 19th century. Constant and falling head tests are widely used to directly measure hydraulic conductivity values in laboratory conditions for soils having different particle size distributions. The determination of hydraulic conductivity of soils by performing these methods are time consuming processes and also requires undisturbed samples to reflect in-situ natural condition. Considering these limitations, numerous approaches have been proposed to practically estimate hydraulic conductivity of soils by utilizing empirical equations based on simple physical and index properties such as grain size distribution curves related parameters, porosity, void ratio, etc. Many previous studies show that the hydraulic conductivity values calculated by empirical equations deviate more than two order magnitude than the measured hydraulic conductivity values obtained from convenient permeability tests. In order to investigate the main controlling parameters on hydraulic conductivity of soils, a comprehensive research program was carried out on some disturbed and undisturbed soil samples collected from different locations in Turkey. The hydraulic conductivity values of samples were determined as changing between 10-6 and 10-9 m/s by using falling head tests. In addition to these tests, basic soil properties such as natural water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity and grain size analyses of these samples were also defined to be used as an input parameters of empirical equations for prediction hydraulic conductivity values. In addition, data from previous studies were also used for the aim of this study. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were correlated with all

  2. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  3. Spatial characterization of hydraulic conductivity of perialpine alluvial gravel-and-sand aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, Samuel; Vogt, Tobias; Höhn, Eduard

    2010-05-01

    For many hydrogeological and modeling problems on a scale of the order of 10-100 m, an assessment of the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity is of great importance. This is one of the tasks of the RECORD project (Restored Corridor Dynamics) of CCES (Competence Center Environment and Sustainability of the ETH Domain). This project aims to understand, how river restoration measures affect river - river corridor - groundwater systems in hydrologic and ecologic terms. The river Thur and the alluvial gravel-and-sand aquifer of the perialpine Thur valley flood plain were chosen for field investigations. In this aquifer, the distribution of hydraulic conductivity at the required scale has not yet been investigated. Thus, the aim of this work is to assess the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer on a scale of the order of 10-100 m. To accomplish this, four methods were applied on different scales. Comparing the results of the different methods should lead to an optimization of future hydraulic investigations in alpine and perialpine alluvial gravel-and-sand aquifers. The different methods were applied at a test site in the central part of the valley (Widen, Felben-Wellhausen/TG), which was instrumented with a total of 18 piezometers, covering an approximately 10×20 m area (aquifer thickness, 7 m). The gravel samples of the pre-liminary core drillings were sieved and out of the grain size distributions hydraulic conductivity was calculated (decimeter scale). Further, work included the conduction and analysis of a pumping test (decameter scale), flowmeter logs and multilevel slug tests (meter scale) with appropriate methods. A statistical evaluation of the values of hydraulic conductivity from the above methods showed that the results are quite diverse. Thus, the choice of the method to assess the distribution of hydraulic conductivity has to be done according to the problem and the required level of detail. The following recommendations

  4. Estimating biozone hydraulic conductivity in wastewater soil-infiltration systems using inverse numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R; McCray, John E

    2007-06-01

    During operation of an onsite wastewater treatment system, a low-permeability biozone develops at the infiltrative surface (IS) during application of wastewater to soil. Inverse numerical-model simulations were used to estimate the biozone saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(biozone)) under variably saturated conditions for 29 wastewater infiltration test cells installed in a sandy loam field soil. Test cells employed two loading rates (4 and 8cm/day) and 3 IS designs: open chamber, gravel, and synthetic bundles. The ratio of K(biozone) to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the natural soil (K(s)) was used to quantify the reductions in the IS hydraulic conductivity. A smaller value of K(biozone)/K(s,) reflects a greater reduction in hydraulic conductivity. The IS hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude. The reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity was primarily influenced by wastewater loading rate and IS type and not by the K(s) of the native soil. The higher loading rate yielded greater reductions in IS hydraulic conductivity than the lower loading rate for bundle and gravel cells, but the difference was not statistically significant for chamber cells. Bundle and gravel cells exhibited a greater reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity than chamber cells at the higher loading rates, while the difference between gravel and bundle systems was not statistically significant. At the lower rate, bundle cells exhibited generally lower K(biozone)/K(s) values, but not at a statistically significant level, while gravel and chamber cells were statistically similar. Gravel cells exhibited the greatest variability in measured values, which may complicate design efforts based on K(biozone) evaluations for these systems. These results suggest that chamber systems may provide for a more robust design, particularly for high or variable wastewater infiltration rates. PMID:17449084

  5. A Simple Infiltration Method for Determining Hydraulic Conductivities at Various Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Hsu, K.

    2010-12-01

    Soil hydraulic properties usually show high spatial variation. Most infiltration methods assume a uniform hydraulic conductivity and rely on the attainment of a steady state flow rate of water into the soil. In this study, a falling head infiltration method is developed to determine hydraulic conductivities at various depths. Water content sensors at various depths are required to add to the classical ponded infiltration test. The falling head infiltration theory proposed by Philip [1992a] is extended to multiple steps in the proposed method. The Green-Ampt model is used to physically approximate the movement of the wetting front. General analytical solutions for infiltration depth and saturated hydraulic conductivity are derived for a multi-layer soil. The falling head infiltration method is compared to the constant head infiltration method for a homogeneous soil. The results show that the falling head infiltration method is more efficient in water use than is the constant head infiltration method. Then, the proposed method is demonstrated for a two-layer soil system. Numerical experiment results show that with measured variations of water content, the effective arrival time of the wetting front can be well approximated by the average of the start and finish times of the change in water content to obtain the hydraulic conductivity. The calculated hydraulic conductivity is the harmonic mean of the layer soil, and thus hydraulic conductivities at various depths can be estimated sequentially from the top down. The multi-step falling head infiltration method was applied to a sandbox experiment in the laboratory. The experimental results are consistent with the hydraulic conductivity obtained using the constant head ponded infiltration method. The multi-step falling head infiltration method also shows a consistent decrease of hydraulic conductivity in the sand column. The proposed method is less laborious and more versatile than the constant head ponded infiltration

  6. Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Cecilio F.; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. PMID:25370944

  7. Circadian rhythms of hydraulic conductance and growth are enhanced by drought and improve plant performance.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Cecilio F; Jeanguenin, Linda; Chaumont, François; Tardieu, François

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms enable plants to anticipate daily environmental variations, resulting in growth oscillations under continuous light. Because plants daily transpire up to 200% of their water content, their water status oscillates from favourable during the night to unfavourable during the day. We show that rhythmic leaf growth under continuous light is observed in plants that experience large alternations of water status during an entrainment period, but is considerably buffered otherwise. Measurements and computer simulations show that this is due to oscillations of plant hydraulic conductance and plasma membrane aquaporin messenger RNA abundance in roots during continuous light. A simulation model suggests that circadian oscillations of root hydraulic conductance contribute to acclimation to water stress by increasing root water uptake, thereby favouring growth and photosynthesis. They have a negative effect in favourable hydraulic conditions. Climate-driven control of root hydraulic conductance therefore improves plant performances in both stressed and non-stressed conditions. PMID:25370944

  8. Hydraulic conductivity testing of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) using the constant volume method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Benson, C.H.

    1999-12-01

    Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted using open and constant-volume permeation systems on specimens from a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL). Two constant volume (CV) systems were employed: the falling-head constant-volume (FHCV) system and the constant-head constant-volume (CHCV) system. A conventional burette system using pressurized air was employed for the open system (OS) tests. The test results show that hydraulic conductivity tests can be conducted 30 or more times faster with the FHCV and CHCV systems than with an open system. Typically the permeation portion of the FHCV and CHCV tests can be conducted in one-half day. Slightly lower hydraulic conductivities are measured with the CV systems due to the slightly higher effective stress applied during testing with these systems. The CHCV system has several advantages over the FHCV system, including minimizing initial transient behavior, constant applied effective stress during testing, and simpler calculations.

  9. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  10. EFFECT OF FREEZE-THAW ON THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF BARRIER MATERIALS: LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted on barrier materials to determine if their hydraulic conductivity changes as a result of freezing and thawing. esults of the tests were compared to data collected from a field study. ests were conducted on two compacted clays, one sand-bentonite mi...

  11. Getting saturated hydraulic conductivity from surface Ground-Penetrating Radar measurements inside a ring infiltrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, E.; Saintenoy, A.; Coquet, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic properties of soils, described by the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions, strongly influence water flow in the vadoze zone, as well as the partitioning of precipitation between infiltration into the soil and runoff along the ground surface. Their evaluation has important applications for modelling available water resources and for flood forecasting. It is also crucial to evaluate soil's capacity to retain chemical pollutants and to assess the potential of groundwater pollution. The determination of the parameters involved in soil water retention functions, 5 parameters when using the van Genuchten function, is usually done by laboratory experiments, such as the water hanging column. Hydraulic conductivity, on the other hand can be estimated either in laboratory, or in situ using infiltrometry tests. Among the large panel of existing tests, the single or double ring infiltrometers give the field saturated hydraulic conductivity by applying a positive charge on soils, whereas the disk infiltrometer allows to reconstruct the whole hydraulic conductivity curve, by applying different charges smaller than or equal to zero. In their classical use, volume of infiltrated water versus time are fitted to infer soil's hydraulic conductivity close to water saturation. Those tests are time-consuming and difficult to apply to landscape-scale forecasting of infiltration. Furthermore they involve many assumptions concerning the form of the infiltration bulb and its evolution. Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a geophysical method based on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is highly sensitive to water content variations directly related to the dielectric permittivity. In this study GPR was used to monitor water infiltration inside a ring infiltrometer and retrieve the saturated hydraulic conductivity. We carried out experiments in a quarry of Fontainebleau sand, using a Mala RAMAC system with antennae centered on 1600 MHz. We recorded traces at

  12. The Dependence of Peat Soil Hydraulic Conductivity on Dominant Vegetation Type in Mountain Fens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, A. C.; Ronayne, M. J.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The peat soil within fen wetlands provides water storage that can substantially influence the hydrology of mountain watersheds. In this study, we investigated the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and vegetation type for fens occurring in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Vegetation in RMNP fens can be dominated by woody plants and shrubs, such as willows; by mosses; or by herbaceous plants such as sedges. Fens dominated by each vegetation type were selected for study. Six fens were investigated, all of which are in the Colorado River watershed on the west side of RMNP. For each site, soil hydraulic conductivity was measured at multiple locations using a single-ring infiltrometer. As a result of the shallow water table in these fens (the water table was always within 10 cm of the surface), horizontal hydraulic gradients were produced during the field tests. The measured infiltration rates were analyzed using the numerical model HYDRUS. In order to determine the hydraulic conductivity, a parameter estimation problem was solved using HYDRUS as the forward simulator. Horizontal flow was explicitly accounted for in the model. This approach produced more accurate estimates of hydraulic conductivity than would be obtained using an analytical solution that assumes strictly vertical flow. Significant differences in hydraulic properties between fens appear to result at least in part from the effects of different dominant vegetation types on peat soil formation.

  13. A simple constant-head injection test for streambed hydraulic conductivity estimation.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, M Bayani; Zlotnik, Vitaly A

    2003-01-01

    A fast, efficient constant-head injection test (CHIT) for in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity (K) of sandy streambeds is presented. This test uses constant-head hydraulic injection through a manually driven piezometer. Results from CHIT compare favorably to estimates from slug testing and grain-size analysis. The CHIT combines simplicity of field performance, data interpretation, and accuracy of K estimation in flowing streams. PMID:14649870

  14. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  15. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity. PMID:22980909

  16. Sask method for testing hydraulic conductivity of soils by flat dilatometer (dmt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbulewski, Kazimierz; Żakowicz, Stanisław; Rabarijoely, Simon; Łada, Anna

    2012-10-01

    DMT is one of the most popular methods of determining soil parameters needed to design a safe construction. Apart from the basic outcome parameter obtained from DMT measurements hydraulic conductivity (k) can be determined, previously proposed DMTA and DMTC methods were modified. The basic idea of the method is that the return of the deformed membrane is due to soil and water pressure. In the proposed SASK method the hydraulic conductivity of the soil is determined by measuring time-varying pressures A and C. Research has been performed at the experimental site of the Department of Geotechnical Engineering, WULS. In the paper, the assumptions of the new method for determining the hydraulic conductivity k are presented. The proposed method allows us to determine a reliable value for the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Using this method, the value of hydraulic conductivity (k = 5,47*10-11) is similar to the results of BAT, DMTA and laboratory measurements.

  17. Geophysical data integration and conditional uncertainty analysis on hydraulic conductivity estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Tsai, F.T.-C.; White, C.D.; Carlson, D.A.; Willson, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Integration of various geophysical data is essential to better understand aquifer heterogeneity. However, data integration is challenging because there are different levels of support between primary and secondary data needed to be correlated in various ways. This study proposes a geostatistical method to integrate the hydraulic conductivity measurements and electrical resistivity data to better estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. The K measurements are obtained from the pumping tests and represent the primary data (hard data). The borehole electrical resistivity data from electrical logs are regarded as the secondary data (soft data). The electrical resistivity data is used to infer hydraulic conductivity values through the Archie law and Kozeny-Carman equation. A pseudo cross-semivariogram is developed to cope with the resistivity data non-collocation. Uncertainty in the auto-semivariograms and pseudo cross-semivariogram is quantified. The methodology is demonstrated by a real-world case study where the hydraulic conductivity is estimated in the Upper Chicot aquifer of Southwestern Louisiana. The groundwater responses by the cokriging and cosimulation of hydraulic conductivity are compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). ?? 2007 ASCE.

  18. Could rapid diameter changes be facilitated by a variable hydraulic conductance?

    PubMed

    Steppe, Kathy; Cochard, Hervé; Lacointe, André; Améglio, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Adequate radial water transport between elastic bark tissue and xylem is crucial in trees, because it smoothens abrupt changes in xylem water potential, greatly reducing the likelihood of suffering dangerous levels of embolism. The radial hydraulic conductance involved is generally thought to be constant. Evidence collected about variable root and leaf hydraulic conductance led us to speculate that radial hydraulic conductance in stem/branches might also be variable and possibly modulated by putative aquaporins. We therefore correlated diameter changes in walnut (Juglans regia L.) with changes in water potential, altered by perfusion of twig samples with D-mannitol solutions having different osmotic potentials. Temperature and cycloheximide (CHX; a protein synthesis inhibitor) treatments were performed. The temperature response and diameter change inhibition found in CHX-treated twigs underpinned our hypothesis that radial hydraulic conductance is variable and likely mediated by a putative aquaporin abundance and/or activity. Our data demonstrate that radial water transport in stem/branches can take two routes in parallel: an apoplastic and a cell-to-cell route. The contribution of either route depends on the hydraulic demand and is closely linked to a boost of putative aquaporins, causing radial conductance to be variable. This variability should be considered when interpreting and modelling diameter changes. PMID:21902698

  19. Temporal changes of topsoil hydraulic conductivity studied by multiple-point tension disk infiltrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Zumr, David; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of cultivated soils is strongly affected by agrotechnical procedures, soil compaction, plant growth etc. This contribution is focused on series of measurement of topsoil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using automated multipoint tension infiltrometer developed at CTU in Prague. The apparatus consists of two triplets of minidisk infiltrometers that are supported by a light aluminum frame. Therefore it allows simultaneous measurement of six tension infiltrations at two different pressure heads. Experiments were conducted at the experimental agricultural catchment Nučice (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic) as a part of the broader research of rainfall-runoff and soil erosion processes. The soil in the catchment is classified as Cambisol with texture that is ranging from loam to clay loam and is conservatively tilled. Series of ten infiltration campaigns (56 individual infiltration experiments) were carried out on a single experimental plot during period of two years. Dataset involves measurement under various agricultural activities and crop phenophases. The hydraulic conductivities were determined using extended semiempirical estimation procedure of Zhang. Additionally, large undisturbed soil samples were analyzed with use of X-ray computed tomography to assess the soil structure morphology in detail. Results show that unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was the lowest in early spring and did increase at beginning of summer. Unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity was higher when the soil bulk density was high. During the summer and autumn the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity remained relatively unchanged. The impact of agricultural procedures was not apparent in the dataset.. The study has been supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 13-20388P and by CTU in Prague funding via Student's Grant Competition SGS No. SGS14/131/OHK1/2T/11. The MultiDisk infiltrometer was developed within the framework of the project supported by the

  20. Effect of wet-dry cycling on swelling and hydraulic conductivity of GCLs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.C.; Benson, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Atterberg limits, free swell, and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted to assess how wet-dry cycling affects the plasticity and swell of bentonite, and the hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) hydrated with deionized (DI) water (pH 6.5), tap water (pH 6.8), and 0.0125-M CaCl{sub 2} solution (pH 6.2). The plasticity of bentonite hydrated with DI water increased during each wetting cycle, whereas the plasticity of bentonite hydrated with tap water and CaCl{sub 2} decreased during each wetting cycle. Wet-dry cycling in DI water and tap water had little effect on swelling of the bentonite, even after seven wet-dry cycles. However, swelling decreased dramatically after two wetting cycles with CaCl{sub 2} solution. Hydraulic conductivity of GCL specimens remained low during the first four wetting cycles ({approximately}1 x 10{sup {minus}9} cm/s). However, within five to eight cycles, the hydraulic conductivity of all specimens permeated with the 0.0125-M CaCl{sub 2} solution increased dramatically, to as high as 7.6 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm/s. the hydraulic conductivity increased because cracks, formed during desiccation, did not fully heal when the bentonite rehydrated. In contrast, a specimen continuously permeated for 10 months with the 0.0125-M CaCl{sub 2} solution had low hydraulic conductivity ({approximately}1 x 10{sup {minus}9} cm/s), even after eight pore volumes of flow.

  1. How do leaf hydraulics limit stomatal conductance at high water vapour pressure deficits?

    PubMed

    Bunce, James A

    2006-08-01

    A reduction in leaf stomatal conductance (g) with increasing leaf-to-air difference in water vapour pressure (D) is nearly ubiquitous. Ecological comparisons of sensitivity have led to the hypothesis that the reduction in g with increasing D serves to maintain leaf water potentials above those that would cause loss of hydraulic conductance. A reduction in leaf water potential is commonly hypothesized to cause stomatal closure at high D. The importance of these particular hydraulic factors was tested by exposing Abutilon theophrasti, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum and Xanthium strumarium to D high enough to reduce g and then decreasing ambient carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), and observing the resulting changes in g, transpiration rate and leaf water potential, and their reversibility. Reducing the [CO2] at high D increased g and transpiration rate and lowered leaf water potential. The abnormally high transpiration rates did not result in reductions in hydraulic conductance. Results indicate that low water potential effects on g at high D could be overcome by low [CO2], and that even lower leaf water potentials did not cause a reduction in hydraulic conductance in these well-watered plants. Reduced g at high D in these species resulted primarily from increased stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] at high D, and this increased sensitivity may mediate stomatal responses to leaf hydraulics at high D. PMID:16898024

  2. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Method for estimating spatially variable seepage loss and hydraulic conductivity in intermittent and ephemeral streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, R.G.; Prudic, D.E.; Fogg, G.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Buckland, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating seepage loss and streambed hydraulic conductivity along intermittent and ephemeral streams using streamflow front velocities in initially dry channels. The method uses the kinematic wave equation for routing streamflow in channels coupled to Philip's equation for infiltration. The coupled model considers variations in seepage loss both across and along the channel. Water redistribution in the unsaturated zone is also represented in the model. Sensitivity of the streamflow front velocity to parameters used for calculating seepage loss and for routing streamflow shows that the streambed hydraulic conductivity has the greatest sensitivity for moderate to large seepage loss rates. Channel roughness, geometry, and slope are most important for low seepage loss rates; however, streambed hydraulic conductivity is still important for values greater than 0.008 m/d. Two example applications are presented to demonstrate the utility of the method. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Evaluation of actual and estimated hydraulic conductivity of sands with different gradation and shape.

    PubMed

    Cabalar, Ali Firat; Akbulut, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of sands with different gradation and grain shape were estimated experimentally at a relative density (Dr) of about 40 % and a 22 ± 2 °C of constant temperature. Narli Sand (NS) with 0.67 of sphericity (S) and 0.72 of roundness (R), and Crushed Stone Sand (CSS) with 0.55 of S and 0.15 of R values were artificially graded into sixteen different grain-size fractions (4.75-2, 2-1.18, 1.18-0.6, 0.6-0.425, 0.425-0.3, 0.3-0.075, 4.75-0.075, 2-0.075, 1.18-0.075, 0.6-0.075, 0.425-0.075, 4.75-0.6, 2-0.6, 4.75-0.425, 2-0.425, 1.18-0.425 mm). Hydraulic conductivities of the NS estimated by use of constant head test ranged from 1.61 to 0.01 cm/s, whilst those of the CSS estimated by the same test ranged from 2.45 to 0.012 cm/s. It was observed that the hydraulic conductivity values of the NS are lower than those of the CSS samples, which is likely to be the result of differences in shape, particularly in R values. The results clearly demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity can be significantly influenced by grading characteristics (d10, d20, d30, d50, d60, cu, cc, n, Io). Furthermore, comparisons between results obtained in the present study and hydraulic conductivity estimated with other formulas available in the literature were made. The comparisons indicated that the best estimation of hydraulic conductivity changes based on the gradation and shape properties of the sands tested. PMID:27390660

  5. Characterization of hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium and basin fill, Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeroth, Cory E.

    2002-01-01

    Acidic waters containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals have contaminated the regional aquifer in the Pinal Creek Basin, which is in Gila County, Arizona, about 100 kilometers east of Phoenix. The aquifer is made up of two geologic units: unconsolidated stream alluvium and consolidated basin fill. To better understand how contaminants are transported through these units, a better understanding of the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and processes that affect it within the aquifer is needed. Slug tests were done in September 1997 and October 1998 on 9 wells finished in the basin fill and 14 wells finished in the stream alluvium. Data from the tests were analyzed by using either the Bouwer and Rice (1976) method, or by using an extension to the method developed by Springer and Gellhar (1991). Both methods are applicable for unconfined aquifers and partially penetrating wells. The results of the analyses show wide variability within and between the two geologic units. Hydraulic conductivity estimates ranged from 0.5 to 250 meters per day for the basin fill and from 3 to 200 meters per day for the stream alluvium. Results of the slug tests also show a correlation coefficient of 0.83 between the hydraulic conductivity and the pH of the ground water. The areas of highest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of lowest pH, and the areas of lowest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of highest pH, suggesting that the acidic water is increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by dissolution of carbonate minerals.

  6. Hydraulic characterization for steam enhanced remediation conducted in fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle M; Novakowski, Kent; Davis, Eva; Heron, Gorm

    2006-01-10

    To explore the viability of Steam Enhanced Remediation (SER) in fractured rock a small-scale steam injection and water/vapour extraction pilot study was conducted at the former Loring Air Force Base in northern Maine, USA. A detailed well testing program was undertaken to assist in the design of the injection and extraction well array, and to assess the possibility of off-site heat and contaminant migration. A structurally complex limestone having low matrix porosity and a sparse distribution of fractures underlies the study site. To characterize the groundwater and steam flow pathways, single-well slug tests and more than 100 pulse interference tests were conducted. The results of the well testing indicate that the study site is dominated by steeply dipping bedding plane fractures that are interconnected only between some wells in the injection/extraction array. The SER system was designed to take advantage of interconnected fractures located at depth in the eastern end of the site. An array of 29 wells located in an area of 60 by 40 m was used for steam injection and water/vapour extraction. The migration of heat was monitored in several wells using thermistor arrays having a 1.5 m vertical spacing. Temperature measurements obtained during and after the 3 month steam injection period showed that heat migration generally occurred along those fracture features identified by the pulse interference testing. Based on these results, it is concluded that the pulse interference tests were valuable in assisting with the design of the injection/extraction well geometry and in predicting the migration pathways of the hot water associated with the steam injection. The pulse interference test method should also prove useful in support of any other remedial method dependant on the fracture network for delivery of remedial fluid or extraction of contaminants. PMID:16310888

  7. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, 2.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m{sup 3}) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  8. Analyzing pumped-well impeller logs to ascertain vertical hydraulic conductivity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. H.; West, J.; Odling, N. E.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    Horizontal variations in the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers are generally well characterized through simple pump test analyses. However, vertical variations are often poorly understood and misrepresented in the regional models used by regulatory bodies and water companies. Understanding these is key for predicting flow paths and hence the behavior of contaminants in the aquifer that might present a risk to public drinking water supplies. Traditionally, packer tests were used to characterize these variations, but they can be time consuming and costly to perform. However, other techniques have been developed which can quantify these variations, including impeller logging. This study aims to present new, more rigorous methods of analyzing impeller flow log data. Impeller logs were taken under pumped conditions in open wells in a chalk aquifer located in N. England. Theoretically, hydraulic conductivity can be obtained from the gradient in flow rate with depth. However, data are typically noisy due to turbulent flow and hole diameter variations with depth; so directly converting the flow rate gradient to hydraulic conductivity leads to rapid non-physical variation and negative hydraulic conductivity values. Correcting for hole diameter variations using caliper logs proved difficult due to phenomena such as jetting, whereby when the water enters a widening, it does not instantly slow down. In order to obtain more realistic hydraulic conductivity profiles, we firstly tried a data smoothing algorithm, but this approach distorted the data and still gave an unacceptable noise level. Instead, a layered modeling approach has been developed. A hydraulic conductivity profile consisting of a discrete number of uniform layers is constructed, and layer thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities are varied until a satisfactory fit to the observed flow log is achieved. Results from field sites on the confined Chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire in the United Kingdom showed good

  9. Steady state method to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the ambient water potential

    DOEpatents

    HUbbell, Joel M.

    2014-08-19

    The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision. The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision.

  10. Implementation and influence of heterogeneous riverbed hydraulic conductivity in groundwater flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, Gert; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Characterization of groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes is important for assessing riparian ecology, determining quantity and quality of pumped groundwater close to rivers, modeling groundwater flow, predicting flood peaks and low flows, and river water quality. The exchange fluxes between river and aquifer are strongly influenced by the hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed which can vary several orders of magnitude and shows a strong spatial variation. Direct measurement of riverbed hydraulic conductivity is cumbersome and therefore often indirect data such as temperature data or calibration of groundwater models are used to constrain riverbed hydraulic conductivity. In these approaches, the riverbed is usually represented as a homogeneous geological structure and the spatial variation of riverbed hydraulic conductivity is thus neglected. However, neglecting this spatial variation can lead to systematic underestimation of net river-aquifer exchange fluxes and may have important implications for the estimation of peak mass flows, for the hydrochemistry of streambed sediments, nutrient cycling and biogeochemical gradients. The MODFLOW software is the most wide-spread package used for groundwater modelling. In MODFLOW rivers are usually modelled using the River-package. However, in this package no distinction can be made between horizontal and vertical riverbed hydraulic conductivity and the riverbed cannot be subdivided into layers with different hydraulic characteristics. Riverbed sediments are strongly layered and thus another approach is advised. Different ways of introducing heterogeneous riverbeds in MODFLOW groundwater flow models are explored and compared. The influence of heterogeneous riverbeds on groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes is analyzed for two case studies: the Aa River in the Nete catchment and a stretch of the Dijle River near the nature reserve 'de Doode Bemde' (Belgium). For both cases fine-scale distributed local groundwater flow

  11. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  12. Spatially-Resolved Hydraulic Conductivity Estimation Via Poroelastic Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Matthew; Weaver, John B.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Poroelastic magnetic resonance elastography is an imaging technique that could recover mechanical and hydrodynamical material properties of in vivo tissue. To date, mechanical properties have been estimated while hydrodynamical parameters have been assumed homogeneous with literature-based values. Estimating spatially-varying hydraulic conductivity would likely improve model accuracy and provide new image information related to a tissue’s interstitial fluid compartment. A poroelastic model was reformulated to recover hydraulic conductivity with more appropriate fluid-flow boundary conditions. Simulated and physical experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and stability of the inversion algorithm. Simulations were accurate (property errors were < 2%) even in the presence of Gaussian measurement noise up to 3%. The reformulated model significantly decreased variation in the shear modulus estimate (p≪0.001) and eliminated the homogeneity assumption and the need to assign hydraulic conductivity values from literature. Material property contrast was recovered experimentally in three different tofu phantoms and the accuracy was improved through soft-prior regularization. A frequency-dependence in hydraulic conductivity contrast was observed suggesting that fluid-solid interactions may be more prominent at low frequency. In vivo recovery of both structural and hydrodynamical characteristics of tissue could improve detection and diagnosis of neurological disorders such as hydrocephalus and brain tumors. PMID:24771571

  13. Improving prediction of hydraulic conductivity by constraining capillary bundle models to a maximum pore size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iden, Sascha C.; Peters, Andre; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve by pore-bundle models is a cost-effective and widely applied technique. One problem for conductivity predictions from retention functions with continuous derivatives, i.e. continuous water capacity functions, is that the hydraulic conductivity curve exhibits a sharp drop close to water saturation if the pore-size distribution is wide. So far this artifact has been ignored or removed by introducing an explicit air-entry value into the capillary saturation function. However, this correction leads to a retention function which is not continuously differentiable. We present a new parameterization of the hydraulic properties which uses the original saturation function (e.g. of van Genuchten) and introduces a maximum pore radius only in the pore-bundle model. In contrast to models using an explicit air entry, the resulting conductivity function is smooth and increases monotonically close to saturation. The model concept can easily be applied to any combination of retention curve and pore-bundle model. We derive closed-form expressions for the unimodal and multimodal van Genuchten-Mualem models and apply the model concept to curve fitting and inverse modeling of a transient outflow experiment. Since the new model retains the smoothness and continuous differentiability of the retention model and eliminates the sharp drop in conductivity close to saturation, the resulting hydraulic functions are physically more reasonable and ideal for numerical simulations with the Richards equation or multiphase flow models.

  14. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT PRESSURE RESPONSE FROM A CONSTANT FLOW RATE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY TEST.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporating a flow pump into a conventional triaxial laboratory system allows fluid to be supplied to or withdrawn from the base of a sediment sample at small and constant rates. An initial transient record of hydraulic head versus time is observed which eventually stabilizes to a constant steady state gradient across the sample; values of hydraulic conductivity can subsequently be determined from Darcy's law. In this paper, analytical methods are presented for determining values of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity from the initial transient phase of such a constant flow rate test. These methods are based on a diffusion equation involving pore pressure and are analogous to those used to describe the soil consolidation process and also to interpret aquifer properties from pumping tests.

  15. Final Report - Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth for Underground Test Area (UGTA) Wells

    SciTech Connect

    P. Oberlander; D. McGraw; C. Russell

    2007-10-31

    Hydraulic conductivity with depth has been calculated for Underground Test Area (UGTA) wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock. The following wells in volcanic tuff are evaluated: ER-EC-1, ER-EC-2a, ER-EC-4, ER-EC-5, ER-5-4#2, ER-EC-6, ER-EC-7, and ER-EC-8. The following wells in carbonate rock are evaluated: ER-7-1, ER-6-1, ER-6-1#2, and ER-12-3. There are a sufficient number of wells in volcanic tuff and carbonate rock to associate the conductivity values with the specific hydrogeologic characteristics such as the stratigraphic unit, hydrostratigraphic unit, hydrogeologic unit, lithologic modifier, and alteration modifier used to describe the hydrogeologic setting. Associating hydraulic conductivity with hydrogeologic characteristics allows an evaluation of the data range and the statistical distribution of values. These results are relevant to how these units are considered in conceptual models and represented in groundwater models. The wells in volcanic tuff illustrate a wide range of data values and data distributions when associated with specific hydrogeologic characteristics. Hydraulic conductivity data within a hydrogeologic characteristic can display normal distributions, lognormal distributions, semi-uniform distribution, or no identifiable distribution. There can be multiple types of distributions within a hydrogeologic characteristic such as a single stratigraphic unit. This finding has implications for assigning summary hydrogeologic characteristics to hydrostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units. The results presented herein are specific to the hydrogeologic characteristic and to the wells used to describe hydraulic conductivity. The wells in carbonate rock are associated with a fewer number of hydrogeologic characteristics. That is, UGTA wells constructed in carbonate rock have tended to be in similar hydrogeologic materials, and show a wide range in hydraulic conductivity values and data distributions. Associations of hydraulic conductivity and

  16. Prediction of solute transport in a heterogeneous aquifer utilizing hydraulic conductivity and specific storage tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, S.; Brauchler, R.; Hu, R.; Hu, L.; Schmidt, S.; Ptak, T.; Bayer, P.

    2015-07-01

    A sequential procedure of hydraulic tomographical inversion is applied to characterize at high resolution the spatial heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage at the field test site Stegemühle, Germany. The shallow aquifer at this site is examined by five short-term multilevel pumping tests with 30 pumping-observation pairs between two wells. Utilizing travel time diagnostics of the recorded pressure response curves, fast eikonal-based inversion is shown to deliver insight into the sedimentary structures. Thus, the structural information from the generated travel time tomogram is exploited to constrain full calibration of the pressure response curves. Based on lateral extrapolation from the measured inter-well profile, a three-dimensional reconstruction of the aquifer is obtained. It is demonstrated that calibration of spatially variable specific storage in addition to hydraulic conductivity can improve the fitting of the model while the structural features are only slightly changed. At the field site, two tracer tests with uranine and sodium-naphthionate were also performed and their concentrations were monitored for 2 months. The measured tracer breakthrough curves are employed for independent validation of the hydraulic tomographical reconstruction. It is demonstrated that major features of the observed solute transport can be reproduced, and structures relevant for macrodispersive tracer spreading could be resolved. However, for the mildly heterogeneous aquifer, the tracer breakthrough curves can also be approximated by a simplified homogeneous model with higher dispersivity. Therefore, improved validation results that capture specific characteristics of the breakthrough curves would require additional hydraulic measurements.

  17. The effect of mineral-ion interactions on soil hydraulic conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reuse of winery wastewater (WW) for irrigation could provide an alternative water source for wine production. The shift of many wineries and other food processing industries to K+-based cleaners requires studies on the effects of K+ on soil hydraulic conductivity (HC). Soils of contrasting mine...

  18. Response of Leaf Hydraulic Conductance to Changes in Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because plants play a central role in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle, it is critical to understand the impact of global change factors on the flux of water through plants. Leaves account for a large portion of the resistance to water flow through the whole plant. Leaf hydraulic conductance (K-leaf...

  19. Inverse groundwater modeling for hydraulic conductivity estimation using Bayesian model averaging and variance window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank T.-C.; Li, Xiaobao

    2008-09-01

    This study proposes a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method to address parameter estimation uncertainty arising from nonuniqueness in parameterization methods. BMA is able to incorporate multiple parameterization methods for prediction through the law of total probability and to obtain an ensemble average of hydraulic conductivity estimates. Two major issues in applying BMA to hydraulic conductivity estimation are discussed. The first problem is using Occam's window in usual BMA applications to measure approximated posterior model probabilities. Occam's window only accepts models in a very narrow range, tending to single out the best method and discard other good methods. We propose a variance window to replace Occam's window to cope with this problem. The second problem is the Kashyap information criterion (KIC) in the approximated posterior model probabilities, which tends to prefer highly uncertain parameterization methods by considering the Fisher information matrix. With sufficient amounts of observation data, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) is a good approximation and is able to avoid controversial results from using KIC. This study adopts multiple generalized parameterization (GP) methods such as the BMA models to estimate spatially correlated hydraulic conductivity. Numerical examples illustrate the issues of using KIC and Occam's window and show the advantages of using BIC and the variance window in BMA application. Finally, we apply BMA to the hydraulic conductivity estimation of the "1500-foot" sand in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana.

  20. Saturation-Dependent Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy for Multifluid Systems in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Oostrom, Mart; Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated anisotropic soils has recently been described with a tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept. We extend this concept to unsaturated porous media with two or three immiscible fluids. Mathematical expressions to describe the conductivity of each fluid in anisotropic porous media under unsaturated condition are derived in the form of symmetric second order tensors. The theory is applicable to the combination of any type of saturation-pressure formulation and a generalized hydraulic conductivity model. The extended model shows that the anisotropic coefficient of a fluid is independent of the saturation of other fluids. Synthetic Miller-similar soils having hypothetical anisotropy were defined by allowing the saturated hydraulic conductivity to have different correlation ranges for different directions of flow. The extended TCT concept was tested using synthetic soils with four levels of heterogeneity and four levels of anisotropy. Numerical experiments of infiltration of two liquid phases, i.e., water and the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) carbon tetrachloride, were carried out to test the extended model. The results show that, similar to water in a two-fluid (air-water) system, NAPL retention curves in a three-fluid (air-NAPL-water) system were independent of flow direction but dependent on soil heterogeneity, while the connectivity-tortuosity coefficients are functions of both soil heterogeneity and anisotropy. The extended TCT model accurately describes unsaturated hydraulic functions of anisotropic soils and can be combined into commonly used relative permeability functions for use in multifluid flow and transport numerical simulations.

  1. Predicting Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Percolation Test Results in Layered Silt Loam Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size of on-site waste disposal systems is usually determined by one or more percolation tests performed on the proposed site. The objectives of this study were to develop an empirical relationship between the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of layered soils and their percolation times (PT)...

  2. HOW WELL ARE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY VARIATIONS APPROXIMATED BY ADDITIVE STABLE PROCESSES? (R826171)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Analysis of the higher statistical moments of a hydraulic conductivity (K) and an intrinsic permeability (k) data set leads to the conclusion that the increments of the data and the logs of the data are not governed by Levy-stable or Gaussian dis...

  3. Measurement of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity: The method of constant pressure tubes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field method to measure the saturated soil hydraulic conductivity is presented that does not require expensive equipment and preserves natural water flow pathways that may be bloked during soil core sampling for laboratory measurements. Vegetation must be removed from the plot prior the measurement...

  4. Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates from Particle Size Distributions of Sediments from the Los Alamos Chromium Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R.; Reimus, P. W.; Ding, M.

    2015-12-01

    Chromium used in Los Alamos National Laboratory cooling towers was released as effluent onto laboratory property between 1956 and 1972. As a result, the underlying regional aquifer is contaminated with chromium (VI), a toxin and carcinogen. The highest concentration of chromium is ~1 ppm in monitoring well R-42, exceeding the New Mexico drinking water standard of 50 ppb. The chromium plume is currently being investigated to identify an effective remediation method. Geologic heterogeneity within the aquifer causes the hydraulic conductivity within the plume to be spatially variable. This variability, particularly with depth, is crucial for predicting plume transport behavior. Though pump tests are useful for obtaining estimates of site specific hydraulic conductivity, they tend to interrogate hydraulic properties of only the most conductive strata. Variations in particle size distribution as a function of depth can complement pump test data by providing estimates of vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity. Samples were collected from five different sonically-drilled core holes within the chromium plume at depths ranging from 732'-1125' below the surface. To obtain particle size distributions, the samples were sieved into six different fractions from the fine sands to gravel range (>4 mm, 2-4 mm, 1.4-2 mm, 0.355-1.4 mm, 180-355 µm, and smaller than 180 µm). The Kozeny-Carmen equation (k=(δg/µ)(dm2/180)(Φ3/(1-Φ)2)), was used to estimate permeability from the particle size distribution data. Pump tests estimated a hydraulic conductivity varying between 1 and 50 feet per day. The Kozeny-Carmen equation narrowed this estimate down to an average value of 2.635 feet per day for the samples analyzed, with a range of 0.971 ft/day to 6.069 ft/day. The results of this study show that the Kozeny-Carmen equation provides quite specific estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the Los Alamos aquifer. More importantly, it provides pertinent information on the expected

  5. Effects Of Evaporation Rate of Some Common Organic Contaminants on Hydraulic Conductivity of Aquifer Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Q. J.; Hasan, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a larger study to investigate potential effects of hydrocarbons on the geotechnical properties of aquifer solids, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to ascertain the influence of evaporation rate of some common and widespread organic contaminants on the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer sand. Gasoline and its constituent chemicals-benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), isooctane- and trichloroethylene (TCE) were used to contaminate sand samples collected from the aquifer and vadose zone, at varying concentrations for extended periods of time. The goal was to study any change in the chemical makeup of the contaminants and its control on hydraulic conductivity of the sand. It was found that: (a) gasoline breaks down into constituent compounds when subjected to evaporation, e.g. during oil spills and leaks; and (b) lighter compounds volatilize faster and in the following order: TCE> benzene > isooctane > toluene > gasoline> ethylbenzene > xylene. In addition, these contaminants also caused a decrease in hydraulic conductivity of sand by up to 60% as compared to the uncontaminated sand. The inherent differences in the chemical structure of contaminating chemicals influenced hydraulic conductivity such that the observed decrease was greater for aliphatic than aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The presentation includes details of the experimental set up; evaporation rate, and geotechnical tests; X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope studies; and data analyses and interpretation. Rate of evaporation test indicates that residual LNAPLs will occupy a certain portion of the pores in the soil either as liquid or vapor phase in the vadose zone, and will create a coating on the adjacent solid mineral grains in the aquifer. Replacement of air by the LNAPLs along with grain coatings and the intramolecular forces would impede groundwater movement, thus affecting overall permeability of contaminated aquifers. Keywords: aquifer

  6. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maria S.; Fridley, Jason D.; Yin, Jingjing; Bauerle, Taryn L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons. PMID:24348490

  7. Design and operation of mechanical and hydraulic bit releases. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.N.A.

    1984-02-01

    The Deep Sea Drilling Project Technical Report documents the history, incentives and development details of the bit release technology used aboard the GLOMAR CHALLENGER. Descriptions of the most current models and operational guidelines for both the earlier Mechanical Bit Release (MBR) and the later Hydraulic Bit Release (HBR) are included. Operational deployments of both systems are summarized. Appendices are included with certain significant engineering calculations and machine drawings.

  8. Deciphering transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by vertical electrical sounding (VES) experiments in Northwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, Golam Shabbir; Keramat, Mumnunul; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2016-03-01

    The vertical electrical soundings (VESs) are carried out in 24 selective locations of Chapai-Nawabganj area of northwest Bangladesh to determine the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. Initially, the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity are determined from the pumping data of nearby available production wells. Afterwards, the T and K are correlated with geoelectrical resistance and the total resistivity of the aquifer. The present study deciphers the functional analogous relations of the geoelectrical resistance with the transmissivity and the total resistivity with the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer in northwest Bangladesh. It has been shown that the given equations provide reasonable values of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity where pumping test information is unavailable. It can be expected that the aquifer properties viz. transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of geologically similar area can be determined with the help of the obtained equations by conducting VES experiments.

  9. Toward A 3-D Picture of Hydraulic Conductivity With Multilevel Slug Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwee, C. D.; McElwee, C. D.; Ross, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    The GEMS (Geohydrologic Experiment and Monitoring Site) field area has been established (in the Kansas River valley near Lawrence, Kansas) for a variety of reasons relating to research and teaching in hydrogeology at the University of Kansas. Over 70 wells have been installed for various purposes. The site overlies an alluvial aquifer with a total thickness of about 70 feet. The water table is typically about 20 feet below the surface, giving a total saturated thickness of about 50 feet. The upper part of the aquifer is finer material consisting of silt and clay. Typically, the lower 35 feet of the aquifer is sand and gravel. A number of wells through out the site are fully screened through the sand and gravel aquifer. Some of these fully screened wells are larger diameters; however, most wells are constructed of 2 inch PVC casing. Slug tests are widely used in hydrogeology to measure hydraulic conductivity. Over the last several years we have been conducting research to improve the slug test method. We have previously reported the detailed structure of hydraulic conductivity that can be seen in a 5 inch well (McElwee and Zemansky, EOS, v. 80, no. 46, p. F397, 1999) at this site, using multilevel slug tests. The existing 2 inch, fully screened wells are spread out over the site and offer the opportunity for developing a 3-D picture of the hydraulic conductivity distribution. However, it is difficult to develop a system that allows multilevel slug tests to be done accurately and efficiently in a 2 inch well. This is especially true in regions of very high hydraulic conductivity, where the water velocity in the casing will be relatively high. The resistance caused by frictional forces in the equipment must be minimized and a model taking account of these forces must be used. We have developed a system (equipment, software, and technique) for performing multilevel slug tests in 2 inch wells. Some equipment configurations work better than others. The data that we have

  10. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity of an unconfined aquifer using cokriging of GPR and hydrostratigraphic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloaguen, Erwan; Chouteau, Michel; Marcotte, Denis; Chapuis, Robert

    2001-06-01

    Densely sampled geophysical data can supplement hydrogeological data for estimating the spatial distribution of porosity and hydraulic conductivity over an aquifer. A 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was performed over a shallow unconfined aquifer consisting of a coarse to medium sand sequence overlying an impermeable clay layer. The site is instrumented with piezometers and water levels are frequently monitored. Vertical determination of moisture and granulometry at a resolution of 10 cm were made at a few locations. The GPR reflection times were correlated with piezometric and stratigraphic information; cokriging of both data yields the spatial distribution of the radar velocities within the layers. Porosity and hydraulic conductivities are estimated using the Complex Refractive Index Method (CRIM) and Kozeny-Carman formulations, respectively. A pumping test and a tracer test, both done using a well in the center of the survey zone, provide a measure of the average hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy. The results from cokriging in the saturated zone show that the estimated parameters agree very well with the measured hydrogeological data. The geometric mean of the porosity is close to the laboratory measurements. The geometric mean of the GPR-derived hydraulic conductivities fits the values obtained from the pumping and tracer tests. The range of estimated hydraulic conductivities is quite large and indicates that flow could be faster or slower than the one predicted from the pumping test in some places. Radar attenuation is also found to be a good indicator of porosity distribution. From the observed (high) GPR attenuations and electrical conductivities of water sampled in the piezometers, porosity is determined using Archie's formula. In the vadose zone, moisture content estimated from the GPR velocities using either CRIM or Topp formulations agree well with the ones from the laboratory measurements. Cokriging of the radar reflection times and of

  11. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of slowly permeable and swelling materials from single-ring experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GéRard-Marchant, P.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Haverkamp, R.; Vauclin, M.; Groenevelt, P.; Elrick, D. E.

    1997-06-01

    The in situ determination of the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of low-permeability porous materials is a major concern for both geotechnics and soil physics with regards to environmental protection or water resources management. Recent early-time single-ring infiltration experiments, involving sequential constant head and falling head conditions, allow its efficient estimation. Nevertheless, the theory on which the interpretation was based was still strictly valid to nondeformable soils and implicity relied on a particular form of the hydraulic conductivity-soil water pressure head relationship. This theory is now extended to deformable materials, without any restrictive hypothesis. A new concept, bulk sorptivity, which characterizes the solid phase movement, is introduced. Field experiments, conducted on two liners of swelling and slowly permeable materials, revealed that neglecting the soil deformation induces an underestimation of the actual coefficient of permeability of the soil.

  12. The influence of topology on hydraulic conductivity in a sand-and-gravel aquifer.

    PubMed

    Morin, Roger H; LeBlanc, Denis R; Troutman, Brent M

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment consisting of geophysical logging and tracer testing was conducted in a single well that penetrated a sand-and-gravel aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Geophysical logs and flowmeter/pumping measurements were obtained to estimate vertical profiles of porosity phi, hydraulic conductivity K, temperature, and bulk electrical conductivity under background, freshwater conditions. Saline-tracer fluid was then injected into the well for 2 h and its radial migration into the surrounding deposits was monitored by recording an electromagnetic-induction log every 10 min. The field data are analyzed and interpreted primarily through the use of Archie's (1942) law to investigate the role of topological factors such as pore geometry and connectivity, and grain size and packing configuration in regulating fluid flow through these coarse-grained materials. The logs reveal no significant correlation between K and phi, and imply that groundwater models that link these two properties may not be useful at this site. Rather, it is the distribution and connectivity of the fluid phase as defined by formation factor F, cementation index m, and tortuosity alpha that primarily control the hydraulic conductivity. Results show that F correlates well with K, thereby indicating that induction logs provide qualitative information on the distribution of hydraulic conductivity. A comparison of alpha, which incorporates porosity data, with K produces only a slightly better correlation and further emphasizes the weak influence of the bulk value of varphi on K. PMID:19878327

  13. Estimation of hydraulic conductivities of Yucca Mountain tuffs from sorptivity and water retention measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1995-06-01

    The hydraulic conductivity functions of the matrix rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are among the most important data needed as input for the site-scale hydrological model of the unsaturated zone. The difficult and time-consuming nature of hydraulic conductivity measurements renders it infeasible to directly measure this property on large numbers of cores. Water retention and sorptivity measurements, however, can be made relatively rapidly. The sorptivity is, in principle, a unique functional of the conductivity and water retention functions. It therefore should be possible to invert sorptivity and water retention measurements in order to estimate the conductivity; the porosity is the only other parameter that is required for this inversion. In this report two methods of carrying out this inversion are presented, and are tested against a limited data set that has been collected by Flint et al. at the USGS on a set of Yucca Mountain tuffs. The absolute permeability is usually predicted by both methods to within an average error of about 0.5 - 1.0 orders of magnitude. The discrepancy appears to be due to the fact that the water retention curves have only been measured during drainage, whereas the imbibition water retention curve is the one that is relevant to sorptivity measurements. Although the inversion methods also yield predictions of the relative permeability function, there are yet no unsaturated hydraulic conductivity data against which to test these predictions.

  14. MICROBIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA; THE EFFECTS OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND INJECTION VELOCITY. (R825513C019)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hydraulic conductivity and injection velocity on microbial transport through porous media were investigated. Glass chromatography columns were packed separately with clean quartz sand of two diameters (0.368mm or 0.24O mm) and two hydraulic conductivities (1.37&...

  15. Identification, characterization, and analysis of hydraulically conductive fractures in granitic basement rocks, Millville, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Ollila, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    A suite of geophysical logs designed to identify and characterize fractures and water production in fractures was run in six bedrock boreholes at a ground-water contamination site near the towns of Millville and Uxbridge in south-central Massachusetts. The geophysical logs used in this study included conventional gamma, single-point resistance, borehole fluid resistivity, caliper, spontaneous potential, and temperature; and the borehole televiewer and heat-pulse flowmeter, which are not usually used to log bedrock water-supply wells. Downward flow under ambient hydraulic-head conditions was measured in three of the boreholes at the site, and the profile of fluid column resistivity inferred from the logs indicated downward flow in all six boreholes. Steady injection tests at about 1.0 gallon per minute were used to identify fractures capable of conducting flow under test conditions. Sixteen of 157 fracturesidentified on the televiewer logs and interpreted as permeable fractures in the data analysis were determined to conduct flow under ambient hydraulic-head conditions or during injection. Hydraulic-head monitoring in the bedrock boreholes indicated a consistent head difference between the upper and lower parts of the boreholes. This naturally occurring hydraulic-head condition may account, in part, for the transport of contaminants from the overlying soil into the bedrock aquifer. The downward flow may also account for the decrease in contaminant concentrations found in some boreholes after routine use of the boreholes as water-supply wells was discontinued.

  16. Estimating Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity from Soil Water Retention Curve using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Sohrabi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Study of soil hydraulic properties like saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is required in the environmental investigations. Since, direct measurement of soil hydraulic properties is time consuming and expensive, indirect methods such as pedotransfer function and artificial neural networks (ANN) have been developed based on the readily available soil characteristics. In this study, we used soil water retention data i.e. fractal dimension, air entry value and effective porosity, as well as bulk density and developed artificial neural networks in order to estimate saturated hydraulic conductivity. Total of 142 soil samples of the UNSODA, GRIZZLY and Puckett et al. (1985) databases was divided into two groups as 114 for the development and 28 for the validation of ANN model. We used multi-layer perceptron model with 4 layers as the inputs and one layer as the output of ANN model and back propagation algorithm for training procedure. The activation function was selected LOGSIG in the middle and exist layers. The values of statistical parameters such as coefficient of determination (R2) and mean square error (MSE) showed that the best number of neurons in the middle layer of ANN model was 24. We also compared the developed ANN model with Rawls et al. (1993) and Rawls et al. (1998) models using 28 soil samples. The results showed that developed ANN model estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity better than the other methods. The AIC values of ANN, Rawls et al. (1993) and Rawls et al. (1998) were obtained 291.8, 322.3 and 316.4, respectively.

  17. Polyacrylamide effect on hydraulic conductivity of hardsetting soils in Northeast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Laércio; Almeida, Brivaldo; Melo, Diego; Marques, Karina; Almeida, Ceres

    2013-04-01

    Among soil hydro-physical properties, hydraulic conductivity is more sensitive to changes in soil structure. Hydraulic conductivity describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and on the degree of saturation, and on the density and viscosity of the fluid. Hardsetting soils present very low hydraulic conductivity values. When dry, these soils show high penetration resistance and consistency extremely hard, but change to friable when moist. In this condition are poorly structured, slaking when moist, limit agricultural machinery use and it may reduce the growth of the root system. In Brazil, these soils occur throughout of coastal zone in flat areas called "coastal tableland". Chemical ameliorant, such as polymers based on anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), improve hydraulic conductivity of soil in hardsetting soils. The primary functions of polyacrylamide soil conditioners are to increase soil tilth, aeration, and porosity and reduce compaction and water run-off. PAM effect is attributed to its ability to expand when placed in water, storing it in soil pore space, releasing it gradually to the plants. This process occurs by reducing the water flow through the pores of the soil, due to water molecules can be absorbed by PAM, providing water gradually. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that PAM reduces the soil hardsetting character. The area is located in coastal zone in Goiana city, Pernambuco, northeastern of Brazil. This soil is typical hardsetting soil. Intact soil cores were collected from four horizons until 70cm depth. In the laboratory, the soil cores were saturated with different PAM concentrations (0.01, 0.005, 0.00125%) and H2O (control). Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was determined using a constant head method, according to Klute and Dirksen (1986). Four replicates were used for each horizon and Tukey test at 5% probability was used by

  18. Simple hydraulic conductivity estimation by the Kalman filtered double constraint method.

    PubMed

    El-Rawy, M A; Batelaan, O; Zijl, W

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the Kalman Filtered Double Constraint Method (DCM-KF) as a technique to estimate the hydraulic conductivities in the grid blocks of a groundwater flow model. The DCM is based on two forward runs with the same initial grid block conductivities, but with alternating flux-head conditions specified on parts of the boundary and the wells. These two runs are defined as: (1) the flux run, with specified fluxes (recharge and well abstractions), and (2) the head run, with specified heads (measured in piezometers). Conductivities are then estimated as the initial conductivities multiplied by the fluxes obtained from the flux run and divided by the fluxes obtained from the head run. The DCM is easy to implement in combination with existing models (e.g., MODFLOW). Sufficiently accurate conductivities are obtained after a few iterations. Because of errors in the specified head-flux couples, repeated estimation under varying hydrological conditions results in different conductivities. A time-independent estimate of the conductivities and their inaccuracy can be obtained by a simple linear KF with modest computational requirements. For the Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium, the DCM-KF yields sufficiently accurate calibrated conductivities. The method also results in distinguishing regions where the head-flux observations influence the calibration from areas where it is not able to influence the hydraulic conductivity. PMID:24854328

  19. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  20. Characterisation of river-aquifer exchange fluxes: The role of spatial patterns of riverbed hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Kurtz, W.; Brunner, P.; Vereecken, H.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between surface water and groundwater play an essential role in hydrology, hydrogeology, ecology, and water resources management. A proper characterisation of riverbed structures might be important for estimating river-aquifer exchange fluxes. The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is commonly used in subsurface flow and transport modelling for estimating states and parameters. However, EnKF only performs optimally for MultiGaussian distributed parameter fields, but the spatial distribution of streambed hydraulic conductivities often shows non-MultiGaussian patterns, which are related to flow velocity dependent sedimentation and erosion processes. In this synthetic study, we assumed a riverbed with non-MultiGaussian channel-distributed hydraulic parameters as a virtual reference. The synthetic study was carried out for a 3-D river-aquifer model with a river in hydraulic connection to a homogeneous aquifer. Next, in a series of data assimilation experiments three different groups of scenarios were studied. In the first and second group of scenarios, stochastic realisations of non-MultiGaussian distributed riverbeds were inversely conditioned to state information, using EnKF and the normal score ensemble Kalman filter (NS-EnKF). The riverbed hydraulic conductivity was oriented in the form of channels (first group of scenarios) or, with the same bimodal histogram, without channelling (second group of scenarios). In the third group of scenarios, the stochastic realisations of riverbeds have MultiGaussian distributed hydraulic parameters and are conditioned to state information with EnKF. It was found that the best results were achieved for channel-distributed non-MultiGaussian stochastic realisations and with parameter updating. However, differences between the simulations were small and non-MultiGaussian riverbed properties seem to be of less importance for subsurface flow than non-MultiGaussian aquifer properties. In addition, it was concluded that both En

  1. A Field Study of How Hydraulic Conductivity Heterogeneity Influences Hyporheic Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. J.; Boufadel, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    A conservative solute tracer experiment was conducted in Indian Creek, a small urban stream located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to investigate the role of bed sediment hydraulic conductivity on hyporheic (surface- subsurface) exchange. Sodium Bromide (NaBr) was used as a conservative tracer, and it was monitored in the surface water at two stations and in the upper bed sediments (shallow hyporheic zone extending from 7.5 cm to 10 cm below the streambed). The hydraulic conductivity (K) of the upper bed sediments and the lower bed sediments (10 cm to 12.5 cm below the streambed) was measured in situ. High tracer concentrations were observed in the upper layer at locations where the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was larger than that of the lower layer. Low concentrations in the upper layer were observed in the converse case. A statistically significant relationship between the mass retained in the upper layer and the difference of K values between layers was observed.

  2. Determination of hydraulic conductivities of low permeability materials in the Sierra Ladrones Formation, Albuquerque basin

    SciTech Connect

    Planert, C.S.

    1995-06-01

    Low permeability materials in the Sierra Ladrones Formation were sampled and analyzed to determine their hydraulic conductivities using the falling head centrifugation method (fc) as described by Nimmo et al. (1991). The method is similar to the traditional falling head method, only it uses greatly increased centrifugal forces, allowing measurements to make in a relatively short amount of time. Using these measurements, variations in saturated hydraulic conductivities between different sediment types were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Sampling resulted in useable data chiefly from the clay and silt facies of the formation. The range of conductivities determined are representative of brown and red clays, and silts which make up the overbank deposits of this region. Hydraulic conductivities for these overbank fines were found to range from approximately log K = {minus}9 m/s to log K = {minus}7 m/s. The upper measurement limit of the centrifuge apparatus was determined to be approximately 1.43 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} m/s and the lower limit was approximately 7.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m/s.

  3. Absolute hydraulic conductivity estimates from aquifer pumping and tracer tests in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Thorbjarnarson, K.W.; Huntley, D.; McCarty, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Independent estimates of absolute hydraulic conductivity were obtained by a standard aquifer pumping test and a forced-gradient tracer test in a highly heterogeneous aquifer. An aquifer hydraulic test was conducted to evaluate the average hydraulic conductivity (K), and to establish steady-state flow for the tracer test. An average K of 48 m/day was interpreted from the draw-down data in a fully screened well. Type-curve matching and simulation with MODFLOW of the hydraulic response in partially screened wells indicates K of 10 to 15 m/day for the upper section and 71 to 73 m/day for the deeper section. Iodide and fluorescent dye tracers were injected at low rates in wells located approximately 8 m upgradient of the production well. Tracer breakthrough was monitored in the production well and at ten depth intervals within the fully screened monitoring well. Interpretation of tracer response in the production well reveals tracer transport is limited to a 3.9 m thick section of the 20 m thick aquifer, with a hydraulic conductivity of 248 m/day. However, the depth distribution of these permeable strata cannot be determined from the production well tracer response. When sampled at 1.5 m depth intervals in the monitoring well, breakthrough was observed in only three intervals along the entire 18.2 m screened well. K estimates from tracer travel time within discrete high-permeability strata range from 31 to 317 m/day. Inclusion of permeameter K estimates for the lower permeability aquifer sands result in a range in relative K of 0.01 to 1.0. This field site has the highest absolute K estimate for a discrete stratum and the widest range in relative hydraulic conductivity among research field sites with K estimates for discrete strata. Within such a highly stratified aquifer, the use of an average K from an aquifer pumping test to predict solute transport results in great underestimation of transport distances for a given time period.

  4. An inverse procedure for estimating the unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of volcanic tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1993-12-31

    A procedure is developed for estimating the hydraulic conductivity function of unsaturated volcanic tuff, using measurements of the sorptivity and capillary pressure functions. The method assumes that the sorptivity is a linear function of the initial saturation, as is suggested by experimental data. The procedure is tested on a vitrified tuff from the Calico Hills unit at Yucca Mountain, and the predicted conductivities are in reasonable agreement with measured values. Further tests of this method are needed to establish whether or not it can be routinely used for conductivity predictions.

  5. An inverse procedure for estimating the unsaturated hydraulic conductivities of volcanic tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is developed for estimating the hydraulic conductivity function of unsaturated volcanic tuff, using measurements of the sorptivity and capillary pressure functions. The method assumes that the sorptivity is a linear function of the initial saturation, as is suggested by experimental data. The procedure is tested on a vitrified tuff from the Calico Hills unit at Yucca Mountain, and the predicted conductivities are in reasonable agreement with measured values. Further tests of this method are needed to establish whether or not it can be routinely used for conductivity predictions.

  6. The effects of overburden stress on the specific storage and hydraulic conductivity of artesian aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, N.; Zack, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical algorithm is developed to determine the depth-dependent profiles of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity resulting from overburden stress in horizontally isotropic artesian aquifers. Vertical variations in the void ratio of the aquifer matrix brought about by overburden stresses determine the pore-volume compressibility and matrix permeability at specific depths within the aquifers which, in turn, determine the depth-dependent profiles of specific storage and hydraulic conductivity. Time-drawdown curves are obtained for two sands subjected to different overburden stresses. For shallow artesian aquifers with low overburden stress and high aquifer matrix compressibility, noticeable vertical gradients in specific storage occur. These vertical gradients cause deviations from the classical time-drawdown curves defined by the Theis solution. These deviations are negligible for deep artesian aquifers. ?? 1991.

  7. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, James B.; Honeycutt, Thomas K.; Hubbell, Joel M.

    1996-01-01

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes, a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed.

  8. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOEpatents

    Sisson, J.B.; Honeycutt, T.K.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1996-05-28

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes: (a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; (b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; (c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and (d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed. 15 figs.

  9. Silicon Enhances Water Stress Tolerance by Improving Root Hydraulic Conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Han, Weihua; Feng, Ru; Hu, Yanhong; Guo, Jia; Gong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si's role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Zhongza No.9') under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance. PMID:26941762

  10. Silicon Enhances Water Stress Tolerance by Improving Root Hydraulic Conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Han, Weihua; Feng, Ru; Hu, Yanhong; Guo, Jia; Gong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) can improve drought tolerance in plants, but the mechanism is still not fully understood. Previous research has been concentrating on Si’s role in leaf water maintenance in Si accumulators, while little information is available on its role in water uptake and in less Si-accumulating plants. Here, we investigated the effects of Si on root water uptake and its role in decreasing oxidative damage in relation to root hydraulic conductance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Zhongza No.9’) under water stress. Tomato seedlings were subjected to water stress induced by 10% (w/v) polyethylene glycol-6000 in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM added silicate. The results showed that Si addition ameliorated the inhibition in tomato growth and photosynthesis, and improved water status under water stress. The root hydraulic conductance of tomato plants was decreased under water stress, and it was significantly increased by added Si. There was no significant contribution of osmotic adjustment in Si-enhanced root water uptake under water stress. The transcriptions of plasma membrane aquaporin genes were not obviously changed by Si under water stress. Water stress increased the production of reactive oxygen species and induced oxidative damage, while added Si reversed these. In addition, Si addition increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the levels of ascorbic acid and glutathione in the roots under stress. It is concluded that Si enhances the water stress tolerance via enhancing root hydraulic conductance and water uptake in tomato plants. Si-mediated decrease in membrane oxidative damage may have contributed to the enhanced root hydraulic conductance. PMID:26941762

  11. Bayesian Model Averaging of Artificial Intelligence Models for Hydraulic Conductivity Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadiri, A.; Chitsazan, N.; Tsai, F. T.; Asghari Moghaddam, A.

    2012-12-01

    This research presents a Bayesian artificial intelligence model averaging (BAIMA) method that incorporates multiple artificial intelligence (AI) models to estimate hydraulic conductivity and evaluate estimation uncertainties. Uncertainty in the AI model outputs stems from error in model input as well as non-uniqueness in selecting different AI methods. Using one single AI model tends to bias the estimation and underestimate uncertainty. BAIMA employs Bayesian model averaging (BMA) technique to address the issue of using one single AI model for estimation. BAIMA estimates hydraulic conductivity by averaging the outputs of AI models according to their model weights. In this study, the model weights were determined using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) that follows the parsimony principle. BAIMA calculates the within-model variances to account for uncertainty propagation from input data to AI model output. Between-model variances are evaluated to account for uncertainty due to model non-uniqueness. We employed Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy logic (TS-FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and neurofuzzy (NF) to estimate hydraulic conductivity for the Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran. BAIMA combined three AI models and produced better fitting than individual models. While NF was expected to be the best AI model owing to its utilization of both TS-FL and ANN models, the NF model is nearly discarded by the parsimony principle. The TS-FL model and the ANN model showed equal importance although their hydraulic conductivity estimates were quite different. This resulted in significant between-model variances that are normally ignored by using one AI model.

  12. The effect of the shape parameters of a sample on the hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucza, Jarosław; Ilek, Anna

    2016-03-01

    The present study is a complement to the research investigating a laboratory method for measuring the saturated hydraulic conductivity of mountain forest soils, the results of which were presented in a paper by Ilek and Kucza (2014). The aim of the study is to analyse the influence of variation of particular cross-sections of samples and their enlarged side surface on the hydraulic conductivity measurement. The results show that a narrowing in the upper section of the sample results in an approximately twice lower disturbance of the laminar water flow than the narrowing occurring inside the sample. For that reason, the extent of the effect of the cross-section narrowing on the hydraulic conductivity measurement error is dependent on the location of the narrowing. An enlarged side surface of a sample, as described by the coefficient of side surface development, is on average 30% larger than the surface of a sample having the same volume and the same average cross-sectional area but a regular shape. The values of the coefficient of side surface development for a given sample were adopted in the range of 1.10-1.56. Among the shape parameters of the analysed irregular soil samples, the greatest impact on the measurement error is exerted by their enlarged lateral surface, which almost entirely explains the whole error of hydraulic conductivity measurement. The variability of successive cross-sectional areas of samples appears to be of marginal importance for the occurrence of this error, whose mean value was 1.15%.

  13. Estimating the Hydraulic Conductivity of Glacial Tills From Soil Index Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boateng, S.; Lowery, J. B.

    2002-05-01

    The most important parameter in any groundwater flow or contaminant transport problem is hydraulic conductivity (K). However, for fine-grained soils, the measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) can be expensive and time-consuming. Previous attempts at estimating K for fine-grained soils have been marginally successful. In this study, 23 glacial till were sampled at seven sites in McLean County, Illinois. The samples were tested for saturated vertical K, grain-size distribution, porosity, plastic limit and plasticity index. Soil characteristics from the soil-index tests were mathematically manipulated into several variable forms and correlated to K by using the Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Variables that correlated significantly with K were then used to perform a step-wise multiple regression analysis, with K as the dependent variable. The resulting equation explained 75% of the variance in K. Plastic limit and clay content showed the strongest correlation to K. Plastic limit showed a positive correlation with K, along with clay contents above 23%. This is likely due to the effect that clay content and plasticity have on structure in shallow, unsaturated soils. Repeated expansion and contraction leads to fracturing in highly plastic soils, which increases K. This study shows the need for a closer examination into the importance of structure on the hydraulic conductivity of shallow, fine-grained soils.

  14. The effect of subsurface military detonations on vadose zone hydraulic conductivity, contaminant transport and aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Burman, Jan; Edlund, Christina; Simonsson, Louise; Berglind, Rune; Leffler, Per; Qvarfort, Ulf; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Meuken, Denise; Duvalois, Willem; Martel, Richard; Sjöström, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Live fire military training involves the detonation of explosive warheads on training ranges. The purpose of this experiment is to evaluate the hydrogeological changes to the vadose zone caused by military training with high explosive ammunition. In particular, this study investigates artillery ammunition which penetrates underground prior to exploding, either by design or by defective fuze mechanisms. A 105 mm artillery round was detonated 2.6 m underground, and hydraulic conductivity measurements were taken before and after the explosion. A total of 114 hydraulic conductivity measurements were obtained within a radius of 3 m from the detonation point, at four different depths and at three different time periods separated by 18 months. This data was used to produce a three dimensional numerical model of the soil affected by the exploding artillery round. This model was then used to investigate potential changes to aquifer recharge and contaminant transport caused by the detonating round. The results indicate that an exploding artillery round can strongly affect the hydraulic conductivity in the vadose zone, increasing it locally by over an order of magnitude. These variations, however, appear to cause relatively small changes to both local groundwater recharge and contaminant transport.

  15. Modeling water-table fluctuations in a sloping aquifer with random hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kirti; Rai, S.; Singh, R.

    2002-01-01

    To prevent environmental problems like water logging and increase in soil salinity which are responsible for the degradation of the top productive soils, an optimum ditch drainage design is required. For this purpose a knowledge of the spatio-temporal variation of the water table is essential. In this study the spatio-temporal variation of the water table in a sloping ditch drainage system has been modeled from a stochastic point of view, incorporating randomness in hydraulic conductivity to get the expression for the mean and the standard deviation of the water-table height. The hydraulic conductivity has been considered to be a realization of a log-normal distribution. Application of these expressions in the prediction of mean water-table variation with the associated error bounds has been demonstrated with the help of a ditch drainage problem of a sloping aquifer. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to see the effect of variability in the hydraulic conductivity on the water-table fluctuations. The error bounds quantified on the water-table height will thus help in the decision-making process for proper drainage design.

  16. Putative role of aquaporins in variable hydraulic conductance of leaves in response to light.

    PubMed

    Cochard, Hervé; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Barigah, Têtè Sévérien; Brunel, Nicole; Herbette, Stéphane; Guilliot, Agnès; Tyree, Melvin T; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2007-01-01

    Molecular and physiological studies in walnut (Juglans regia) are combined to establish the putative role of leaf plasma membrane aquaporins in the response of leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) to irradiance. The effects of light and temperature on K(leaf) are described. Under dark conditions, K(leaf) was low, but increased by 400% upon exposure to light. In contrast to dark conditions, K(leaf) values of light-exposed leaves responded to temperature and 0.1 mm cycloheximide treatments. Furthermore, K(leaf) was not related to stomatal aperture. Data of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that K(leaf) dynamics were tightly correlated with the transcript abundance of two walnut aquaporins (JrPIP2,1 and JrPIP2,2). Low K(leaf) in the dark was associated with down-regulation, whereas high K(leaf) in the light was associated with up-regulation of JrPIP2. Light responses of K(leaf) and aquaporin transcripts were reversible and inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating the importance of de novo protein biosynthesis in this process. Our results indicate that walnut leaves can rapidly change their hydraulic conductance and suggest that these changes can be explained by regulation of plasma membrane aquaporins. Model simulation suggests that variable leaf hydraulic conductance in walnut might enhance leaf gas exchanges while buffering leaf water status in response to ambient light fluctuations. PMID:17114274

  17. Predicting saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in undisturbed soils from soil water characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, T.G.; Loldrup, P.; Yamaguchi, Toshiko; Jacobsen, O.H.

    1999-12-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is likely the most important soil property controlling water and solute movement in soils. It is also one of the most variable and uncertain soil properties. Models for predicting soil hydraulic conductivity from other soil characteristics are, therefore, useful in both deterministic and stochastic transport studies. A new model for predicting saturated hydraulic conductivity (K{sub s}) in undisturbed soils from macroporosity ({epsilon}{sub 100}), defined as the air-filled porosity at a soil-water potential of {Psi} = {minus}100 cm H{sub 2}O, was developed using data for 23 undisturbed soils. The new K{sub s} model compared well with measurements when tested against independent data sets for 73 undisturbed soils from the UNSODA database and gave improved predictions compared with existing K{sub s} models. Two new models for predicting relative hydraulic conductivity (K/K{sub s}) in relatively moist, ({Psi} > {minus}350 cm H{sub 2}O) undisturbed soils from soil-water content ({theta}) and the Campbell soil-water retention parameter, b, were developed using conductivity and water retention data for the 73 soils from UNSODA. The new K/K{sub s} models represent modifications of the recently presented DLC and SLC models for predicting K/K{sub s} in sieved, repacked soils. The modified DLC and SLC models were combined with the new K{sub s} model, yielding new two-parameter ({epsilon}{sub 100}, b) models for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K({theta})) in undisturbed soil. The two new K({theta}) models were successfully tested against independent K({theta}) data. Also, the classical Campbell K/K{sub s} model, combined with the new, more accurate K{sub s} model, gave K({theta}) prediction accuracy almost as good as the modified DLC and SLC K({theta}) models. The suggested two-parameter K({theta}) models require knowledge of only the soil-water retention curve, including a measurement at {Psi} = {minus}100 cm H{sub 2}O, and seem promising for use

  18. Technical Conduct of the Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the technical conduct of the child-sexual-abuse medical examination and offers a research agenda. Introduction of the colposcope in the early 1980s is noted, as are other technological advances, such as the videocolposcopy and linkage with computer technology. Achievement highlights in the last 20 years of research are identified, along…

  19. 15 CFR 270.200 - Technical conduct of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... collapse. (vi) Conduct small and full-scale experiments to provide additional data and verify the computer... building(s) using computer models to identify the most probable technical cause (or causes) of the failure and the uncertainty(ies) associated with it (them). Such models may include initial damage,...

  20. 15 CFR 270.200 - Technical conduct of investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... collapse. (vi) Conduct small and full-scale experiments to provide additional data and verify the computer... building(s) using computer models to identify the most probable technical cause (or causes) of the failure and the uncertainty(ies) associated with it (them). Such models may include initial damage,...

  1. Respiratory complex I deficiency induces drought tolerance by impacting leaf stomatal and hydraulic conductances.

    PubMed

    Djebbar, Reda; Rzigui, Touhami; Pétriacq, Pierre; Mauve, Caroline; Priault, Pierrick; Fresneau, Chantal; De Paepe, Marianne; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Benhassaine-Kesri, Ghouziel; Streb, Peter; Gakière, Bertrand; Cornic, Gabriel; De Paepe, Rosine

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the role of plant mitochondria in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation was compared between Nicotiana sylvestris wild type (WT) plants and the CMSII respiratory complex I mutant, which has low-efficient respiration and photosynthesis, high levels of amino acids and pyridine nucleotides, and increased antioxidant capacity. We show that the delayed decrease in relative water content after water withholding in CMSII, as compared to WT leaves, is due to a lower stomatal conductance. The stomatal index and the abscisic acid (ABA) content were unaffected in well-watered mutant leaves, but the ABA/stomatal conductance relation was altered during drought, indicating that specific factors interact with ABA signalling. Leaf hydraulic conductance was lower in mutant leaves when compared to WT leaves and the role of oxidative aquaporin gating in attaining a maximum stomatal conductance is discussed. In addition, differences in leaf metabolic status between the mutant and the WT might contribute to the low stomatal conductance, as reported for TCA cycle-deficient plants. After withholding watering, TCA cycle derived organic acids declined more in CMSII leaves than in the WT, and ATP content decreased only in the CMSII. Moreover, in contrast to the WT, total free amino acid levels declined whilst soluble protein content increased in CMSII leaves, suggesting an accelerated amino acid remobilisation. We propose that oxidative and metabolic disturbances resulting from remodelled respiration in the absence of Complex I activity could be involved in bringing about the lower stomatal and hydraulic conductances. PMID:22002624

  2. Comparison of hydraulic conductivities for a sand and gravel aquifer in southeastern Massachusetts, estimated by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, L.P.; Church, P.E.; Turtora, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of a sand and gravel aquifer were estimated by three methods: constant- head multiport-permeameter tests, grain-size analyses (with the Hazen approximation method), and slug tests. Sediment cores from 45 boreholes were undivided or divided into two or three vertical sections to estimate hydraulic conductivity based on permeameter tests and grain-size analyses. The cores were collected from depth intervals in the screened zone of the aquifer in each observation well. Slug tests were performed on 29 observation wells installed in the boreholes. Hydraulic conductivities of 35 sediment cores estimated by use of permeameter tests ranged from 0.9 to 86 meters per day, with a mean of 22.8 meters per day. Hydraulic conductivities of 45 sediment cores estimated by use of grain-size analyses ranged from 0.5 to 206 meters per day, with a mean of 40.7 meters per day. Hydraulic conductivities of aquifer material at 29 observation wells estimated by use of slug tests ranged from 0.6 to 79 meters per day, with a mean of 32.9 meters per day. The repeatability of estimated hydraulic conductivities were estimated to be within 30 percent for the permeameter method, 12 percent for the grain-size method, and 9.5 percent for the slug test method. Statistical tests determined that the medians of estimates resulting from the slug tests and grain-size analyses were not significantly different but were significantly higher than the median of estimates resulting from the permeameter tests. Because the permeameter test is the only method considered which estimates vertical hydraulic conductivity, the difference in estimates may be attributed to vertical or horizontal anisotropy. The difference in the average hydraulic conductivities estimated by use of each method was less than 55 percent when compared to the estimated hydraulic conductivity determined from an aquifer test conducted near the study area.

  3. Impact Of Standing Water On Saltstone Placement II - Hydraulic Conductivity Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A. D.; Pickenheim, B. R.

    2012-12-06

    The amount of water present during placement and subsequent curing of saltstone has the potential to impact several properties important for grout quality. An active drain water system can remove residual standing water and expose the surface of the placed saltstone to air. Oxidation of the saltstone may result in an increase in the leachability of redox sensitive elements. A dry surface can lead to cracking, causing an increase in hydraulic conductivity. An inactive drain water system can allow standing water that generates unnecessary hydrostatic head on the vault walls. Standing water that cannot be removed via the drain system will be available for potential incorporation into subsequent grout placements. The objective of this work is to study the impact of standing water on grout quality pertaining to disposal units. A series of saltstone mixes was prepared and cured at ambient temperature to evaluate the impact of standing water on saltstone placement. The samples were managed to control drying effects on leachability by either exposing or capping the samples. The water to premix ratio was varied to represent a range of processing conditions. Samples were analyzed for density, leachability, and hydraulic conductivity. Report SRNL-STI-2012-00546 was issued detailing the experimental procedure, results, and conclusions related to density and leachability. In the previous report, it was concluded that: density tends to increase toward the bottom of the samples. This effect is pronounced with excess bleed water; drying of the saltstone during curing leads to decreased Leachability Index (more leaching) for potassium, sodium, rhenium, nitrite, and nitrate; there is no noticeable effect on saltstone oxidation/leachability by changing the water to premix ratio (over the range studied), or by pouring into standing water (when tested up to 10 volume percent). The hydraulic conductivity data presented in this report show that samples cured exposed to the atmosphere had

  4. Borehole Heat Exchanger Systems: Hydraulic Conductivity and Frost-Resistance of Backfill Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbergen, Hauke; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are economic solutions for both, domestic heating energy supply, as well as underground thermal energy storage (UTES). Over the past decades the technology developed to complex, advanced and highly efficient systems. For an efficient operation of the most common type of UTES, borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems, it is necessary to design the system for a wide range of carrier fluid temperatures. During heat extraction, a cooled carrier fluid is heated up by geothermal energy. This collected thermal energy is energetically used by the heat pump. Thereby the carrier fluid temperature must have a lower temperature than the surrounding underground in order to collect heat energy. The steeper the thermal gradient, the more energy is transferred to the carrier fluid. The heat injection case works vice versa. For fast and sufficient heat extraction, even over long periods of heating (winter), it might become necessary to run the BHE with fluid temperatures below 0°C. As the heat pump runs periodically, a cyclic freezing of the pore water and corresponding ice-lens growth in the nearfield of the BHE pipes becomes possible. These so called freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) are a critical state for the backfill material, as the sealing effect eventually decreases. From a hydrogeological point of view the vertical sealing of the BHE needs to be secured at any time (e.g. VDI 4640-2, Draft 2015). The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the BHE is influenced not only by the permeability of the grouting material itself, but by the contact area between BHE pipes and grout. In order to assess the sealing capacity of grouting materials a laboratory testing procedure was developed that measures the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the system BHE pipe and grout. The key features of the procedure are: • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity after simulation of freeze-thaw-cycle

  5. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  6. Hydraulic conductivity of sandstones in the Baltic Basin - a comparative study of pumping tests and grain size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkone, E.; Bikše, J.; Jātnieks, J.; Klints, I.; Delina, A.; Saks, T.; Raga, B.; Retike, I.

    2012-04-01

    Aquifer fluid conductivity properties describe ability of sediments to transmit groundwater, and consequently govern the groundwater flow. Studies and knowledge of hydraulic conductivity (K), transmissivity and storativity for the particular aquifer is of great importance for hydrogeological problem solving process. This study presents the results of the comparative study between hydraulic conductivity, grain size distribution, sediments lithology of the lower Devonian Emsian stage, middle Devonian Eifelian and Givetian stage, upper Devonian Frasnian stage, and Cambrian clastic sediments in the central part of the Baltic Basin. The aim of this study was to find characteristic hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer based on aquifer grain size distribution and lithology on the one hand and pumping test results one the other. For the calculation of the hydraulic conductivity one has to take into account not only grain size distribution but effective porosity, temperature and kinematic viscosity of the fluid as well, which are lacking in this study. Pumping test results provide a range of at least two orders of hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer. To characterize the typical values for each aquifer and further subdivide each aquifer into regions of different hydraulic conductivities, pumping test results were correlated with grain size distribution. As a limiting factor for the hydraulic conductivity in the sandstones the fraction of the fine particles with the size less than 0.05 mm were chosen. The correlation of hydraulic conductivity and grain size distribution was carried out by comparing the <0.05 mm fraction and respective hydraulic conductivity values in the wells. The results suggest that grain size distribution in general does not correlate with conductivity obtained from the pumping tests. In general comparing hydraulic conductivity values obtained from pumping tests with calculated values from grain size distribution, calculated values in

  7. Studies and projections of hydraulic conductivity of Devonian Plavinu and Daugava carbonate aquifers in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkone, E.; Delina, A.; Saks, T.; Raga, B.; Jātnieks, J.; Klints, I.; Popovs, K.; Babre, A.; Bikše, J.; Kalvāns, A.; Retike, I.; Ukass, J.

    2012-04-01

    Carbonate aquifers show a very wide range of hydrogeological characteristics. Carbonate rock hydrogeology display two extremes: on one hand hydrogeological properties of the carbonates are governed by the pathways of the preferential groundwater flow typical in karstic regions, on the other - some carbonate aquifers behave almost like a homogeneous, isotropic, porous medium. Most lie between these extremes, but these case variations complicates the study of carbonate aquifer properties. In this study the results of the hydraulic conductivity in carbonate aquifers measurements, hydraulic conductivity correlation between sediments lithology and the aquifer surface depth and fractures research is presented. Upper Devonian Frasnian stage Pļaviņu and Daugava carbonate aquifers in the Latvian part of the Baltic basin is considered. The aim of this research is to elaborate characteristic hydraulic conductivity values for each aquifer based on existing data of the pumping test results and other aquifer properties. Pļaviņu and Daugava carbonate aquifers mainly consist of jointed dolomite with intermediate layers of dolomitic marlstone, limestone, clays and gypsum. These aquifers are prevalent in most of the study area, except Northern and South - Eastern parts of the territory. In geological structure Daugava aquifer lies above Pļaviņu aquifer. Daugava aquifer depth changes from 10 - 20 and even less meters in Eastern part to 250 - 300 m in South - West part of study area, but thickness varies from few meters to 30 m. Pļaviņu aquifer surface depth varies from 20 - 30 m, but in uplands surface depth reaches more than 120 m, in Eastern part to more than 300 m in South - West part of study area. Aquifer average thickness varies from 20 - 40 m, but in areas with buried valleys thickness can be less than 10 meters. Outcrops of these sediments are occurring in banks of largest rivers and in some areas aquifers are karstified. In studies of the carbonate aquifers it is

  8. Hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and pumpage--High Plains aquifer system, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, Robert A.; Chen, Hsiu-Hsiung

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic data used to evalute the ground-water potential of the High Plains aquifer system in Nebraska are presented on maps showing the hydraulic conductivity and specific yield of the aquifer system and the volume and distribution of water pumped for irrigation from the aquifer system during 1980. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 177,000 square miles in parts of eight states, including 64,770 square miles in Nebraska. It consists of the Ogallala Formation and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that are saturated and hydraulically connected to the Ogallala. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system varies from greater than 200 feet per day in parts of the North Platte, Platte, Elkhorn, and Republican River valleys to less than 25 feet per day in the northwestern part of the state. Specific yield of the aquifer system ranges from 10 to 20 percent in most of the state and averages 16 percent. The estimated volume of water recoverable from the aquifer system in Nebraska is 2,237 million acre-feet. Inches of water withdrawn from the aquifer system during 1980 varied from less than 1.5 in the sandhills of north-central Nebraska to more than 12 in the Platte River and Blue River basins. This withdrawal represents about 6,703,000 acre-feet of ground water. (USGS)

  9. A novel approach to model hydraulic and electrical conductivity in fractal porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, B.; Daigle, H.; Sahimi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate prediction of conductivity in partially-saturated porous media has broad applications in various phenomena in porous media, and has been studied intensively since the 1940s by petroleum, chemical and civil engineers, and hydrologists. Many of the models developed in the past are based on the bundle of capillary tubes. In addition, pore network models have also been developed for simulating multiphase fluid flow in porous media and computing the conductivity in unsaturated porous media. In this study, we propose a novel approach using concepts from the effective-medium approximation (EMA) and percolation theory to model hydraulic and electrical conductivity in fractal porous media whose pore-size distributions exhibit power-law scaling. In our approach, the EMA, originally developed for predicting electrical conductivity of composite materials, is used to predict the effective conductivity, from complete saturation to some intermediate water content that represents a crossover point. Below the crossover water content, but still above a critical saturation (percolation threshold), a universal scaling predicted by percolation theory, a power law that expresses the dependence of the conductivity on the water content (less a critical water saturation) with an exponent of 2, is invoked to describe the effective conductivity. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the approach, experimental data were used from the literature. The predicted hydraulic conductivities for most cases are in excellent agreement with the data. In a few cases the theory underestimates the hydraulic conductivities, which correspond to porous media with very broad pore-size distribution in which the largest pore radius is more than 7 orders of magnitude greater than the smallest one. The approach is also used to predict the saturation dependence of the electrical conductivity for experiments in which capillary pressure data are available. The results indicate that the universal scaling of

  10. A mutation that eliminates bundle sheath extensions reduces leaf hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance and assimilation rates in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Zsögön, Agustin; Negrini, Ana Clarissa Alves; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Nguyen, Hoa Thi; Ball, Marilyn C

    2015-01-01

    Bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) are key features of leaf structure whose distribution differs among species and ecosystems. The genetic control of BSE development is unknown, so BSE physiological function has not yet been studied through mutant analysis. We screened a population of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants in the genetic background of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) model Micro-Tom and found a mutant lacking BSEs. The leaf phenotype of the mutant strongly resembled the tomato mutant obscuravenosa (obv). We confirmed that obv lacks BSEs and that it is not allelic to our induced mutant, which we named obv-2. Leaves lacking BSEs had lower leaf hydraulic conductance and operated with lower stomatal conductance and correspondingly lower assimilation rates than wild-type leaves. This lower level of function occurred despite similarities in vein density, midvein vessel diameter and number, stomatal density, and leaf area between wild-type and mutant leaves, the implication being that the lack of BSEs hindered water dispersal within mutant leaves. Our results comparing near-isogenic lines within a single species confirm the hypothesised role of BSEs in leaf hydraulic function. They further pave the way for a genetic model-based analysis of a common leaf structure with deep ecological consequences. PMID:25267094

  11. Field Estimation of Macropore Functioning and Surface Hydraulic Conductivity in a Fen Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Andrew J.

    1997-03-01

    A limitation of existing models of water and solute movement in fen peats is that they fail to represent processes in the unsaturated zone. This limitation is largely due to a lack of data on the hydraulic properties of unsaturated peat, in particular the relationship between hydraulic conductivity (K) and pressure head (). A tension infiltrometer was used to measure K() of a fen peat in Somerset, England. It was found that macropores could be important in water and solute movement in this soil type. It was also found that (i) variability of K in this peat was less than that reported for other peats and mineral soils, and (ii) the K data were better described by a log-normal distribution than a normal distribution in accord with findings from other peat and mineral soils. Recommendations on improving the understanding of water and solute movement in the unsaturated zone of this soil type are made.

  12. The influence of topology on hydraulic conductivity in a sand-and-gravel aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment consisting of geophysical logging and tracer testing was conducted in a single well that penetrated a sand-and-gravel aquifer at the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Geophysical logs and flowmeter/pumping measurements were obtained to estimate vertical profiles of porosity ??, hydraulic conductivity K, temperature, and bulk electrical conductivity under background, freshwater conditions. Saline-tracer fluid was then injected into the well for 2 h and its radial migration into the surrounding deposits was monitored by recording an electromagnetic-induction log every 10 min. The field data are analyzed and interpreted primarily through the use of Archie's (1942) law to investigate the role of topological factors such as pore geometry and connectivity, and grain size and packing configuration in regulating fluid flow through these coarse-grained materials. The logs reveal no significant correlation between K and ??, and imply that groundwater models that link these two properties may not be useful at this site. Rather, it is the distribution and connectivity of the fluid phase as defined by formation factor F, cementation index m, and tortuosity ?? that primarily control the hydraulic conductivity. Results show that F correlates well with K, thereby indicating that induction logs provide qualitative information on the distribution of hydraulic conductivity. A comparison of ??, which incorporates porosity data, with K produces only a slightly better correlation and further emphasizes the weak influence of the bulk value of ?? on K. Copyright ?? 2009 The Author(s) are Federal Government Employees. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Wall Extensibility and Cell Hydraulic Conductivity Decrease in Enlarging Stem Tissues at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Boyer, John S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements with a guillotine psychrometer (H Nonami, JS Boyer [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 1601-1609) indicate that the inhibition of stem growth at low water potentials (low ψw) is accompanied by decreases in cell wall extensibility and tissue hydraulic conductance to water that eventually limit growth rate in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). To check this conclusion, we measured cell wall properties and cell hydraulic conductivities with independent techniques in soybean seedlings grown and treated the same way, i.e. grown in the dark and exposed to low ψw by transplanting dark grown seedlings to vermiculite of low water content. Wall properties were measured with an extensiometer modified for intact plants, and conductances were measured with a cell pressure probe in intact plants. Theory was developed to relate the wall measurements to those with the psychrometer. In the elongation zone, the plastic deformability of the walls decreased when measured with the extensiometer while growth was inhibited at low ψw. It increased during a modest growth recovery. This behavior was the same as that for the wall extensibility observed previously with the psychrometer. Tissue that was killed before measurement with the extensiometer also showed a similar response, indicating that changes in wall extensibility represented changes in wall physical properties and not rates of wall biosynthesis. The elastic compliance (reciprocal of bulk elastic modulus) did not change in the elongating or mature tissue. The hydraulic conductivity of cortical cells decreased in the elongating tissue and increased slightly during growth recovery in a response similar to that observed with the psychrometer. We conclude that the plastic properties of the cell walls and the conductance of the cells to water were decreased at low ψw but that the elastic properties of the walls were of little consequence in this response. PMID:16667664

  14. Improved estimation of hydraulic conductivity by combining stochastically simulated hydrofacies with geophysical data

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Chen, Yun; Li, Xiaojuan; Chang, Xiang; Cui, Yijiao

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is a major parameter affecting the output accuracy of groundwater flow and transport models. The most commonly used semi-empirical formula for estimating conductivity is Kozeny-Carman equation. However, this method alone does not work well with heterogeneous strata. Two important parameters, grain size and porosity, often show spatial variations at different scales. This study proposes a method for estimating conductivity distributions by combining a stochastic hydrofacies model with geophysical methods. The Markov chain model with transition probability matrix was adopted to re-construct structures of hydrofacies for deriving spatial deposit information. The geophysical and hydro-chemical data were used to estimate the porosity distribution through the Archie’s law. Results show that the stochastic simulated hydrofacies model reflects the sedimentary features with an average model accuracy of 78% in comparison with borehole log data in the Chaobai alluvial fan. The estimated conductivity is reasonable and of the same order of magnitude of the outcomes of the pumping tests. The conductivity distribution is consistent with the sedimentary distributions. This study provides more reliable spatial distributions of the hydraulic parameters for further numerical modeling. PMID:26927886

  15. Improved estimation of hydraulic conductivity by combining stochastically simulated hydrofacies with geophysical data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Chen, Yun; Li, Xiaojuan; Chang, Xiang; Cui, Yijiao

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is a major parameter affecting the output accuracy of groundwater flow and transport models. The most commonly used semi-empirical formula for estimating conductivity is Kozeny-Carman equation. However, this method alone does not work well with heterogeneous strata. Two important parameters, grain size and porosity, often show spatial variations at different scales. This study proposes a method for estimating conductivity distributions by combining a stochastic hydrofacies model with geophysical methods. The Markov chain model with transition probability matrix was adopted to re-construct structures of hydrofacies for deriving spatial deposit information. The geophysical and hydro-chemical data were used to estimate the porosity distribution through the Archie's law. Results show that the stochastic simulated hydrofacies model reflects the sedimentary features with an average model accuracy of 78% in comparison with borehole log data in the Chaobai alluvial fan. The estimated conductivity is reasonable and of the same order of magnitude of the outcomes of the pumping tests. The conductivity distribution is consistent with the sedimentary distributions. This study provides more reliable spatial distributions of the hydraulic parameters for further numerical modeling. PMID:26927886

  16. Laboratory Studies to Examine the Impact of Polyacrylamide (PAM) on Soil Hydraulic Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, E. A.; Young, M. H.; Yu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is a long-chain synthetic polymer made of the monomer acrylamide (AMD). PAM has numerous uses ranging from food processing to drilling to wastewater treatment. More recently it has been proposed as a canal sealant in the western US to improve water conservation. To support a larger field-based experimental program being implemented in Grand Junction, CO, soil column experiments are being conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of how, and to what extent, PAM reduces soil hydraulic conductivity. The goal of the experiments is to find the optimum concentration and application method of PAM that reduces hydraulic conductivity to the greatest extent. Column tests were conducted, in triplicate, using a constant head method in acrylic columns of 15 cm length and 6.4 cm diameter. An unbalanced multi-factorial design was used with experimental variables including soil type (medium silica sand, locally-derived sand, and locally-derived loam), PAM concentration (11, 22, 44, 88 kg/canal-ha), turbidity (0, 100, 350 NTU), and application method (hydrated PAM on dry soil and powdered PAM applied to water column above saturated soil). Non-crosslinked anionic PAM with a molecular weight of 12 to 24 Mg/mol was used for all experiments. Additional experiments were conducted in graduated cylinders to evaluate interactions between PAM, turbidity and water chemistry. Results of the laboratory tests will be presented and discussed in the context of water conservation in the western US.

  17. Improved estimation of hydraulic conductivity by combining stochastically simulated hydrofacies with geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Gong, Huili; Chen, Yun; Li, Xiaojuan; Chang, Xiang; Cui, Yijiao

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is a major parameter affecting the output accuracy of groundwater flow and transport models. The most commonly used semi-empirical formula for estimating conductivity is Kozeny-Carman equation. However, this method alone does not work well with heterogeneous strata. Two important parameters, grain size and porosity, often show spatial variations at different scales. This study proposes a method for estimating conductivity distributions by combining a stochastic hydrofacies model with geophysical methods. The Markov chain model with transition probability matrix was adopted to re-construct structures of hydrofacies for deriving spatial deposit information. The geophysical and hydro-chemical data were used to estimate the porosity distribution through the Archie’s law. Results show that the stochastic simulated hydrofacies model reflects the sedimentary features with an average model accuracy of 78% in comparison with borehole log data in the Chaobai alluvial fan. The estimated conductivity is reasonable and of the same order of magnitude of the outcomes of the pumping tests. The conductivity distribution is consistent with the sedimentary distributions. This study provides more reliable spatial distributions of the hydraulic parameters for further numerical modeling.

  18. Soil hydraulic properties and REV study using X-ray microtomography and pore-scale modelling: saturated hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Kirill; Khirevich, Siarhei; Sizonenko, Timofey; Karsanina, Marina; Umarova, Aminat; Korost, Dmitry; Matthai, Stephan; Mallants, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    To verify pore-scale modelling approach for determination of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity properties we scanned three cylindrical soil samples taken from A, Ah and B horizons using X-ray microtomography method. Resulting 3D soil images with resolutions of 15.25-20.96 μm were segmented into pores and solids and their maximum inscribed cube subvolumes were used as input data for three major pore-scale modelling methods to simulate saturated flow - lattice-Boltzmann method, finite-difference solution of the Stokes problem, and pore-network model. Provided that imaging resolution is high enough to capture the backbone of effective porosity and the main conducting pores all three methods resulted in simulated soil permeabilities close to experimental values for Ah and B samples. The resolution of A sample was not enough for an accurate modelling and we concluded that this soil requires multi-scale imaging to cover all relevant heterogeneities. We demonstrate that popular SWV method to choose segmentation threshold resulted in oversegmentation and order of magnitude higher permeability values. Careful manual thresholding combined with local segmentation algorithm provided much more accurate results. Detailed analysis of water retention curves showed that air-filled porosity at relevant pressure stages cannot be used for verification of the segmentation results. Representativity analysis by simulating flow in increasing soil volume up to 2.8 cm3 revealed no representative elementary volume (REV) within Ah sample and non-uniqueness of REV for B sample. The latter was explained by soil structure non-stationarity. We further speculate that structures soil horizons can exhibit no REV at all. We discuss numerous advantages of coupled imaging and pore-scale modelling approach and show how it can become a successor of the conventional soil coring method to parametrize large scale continuum models.

  19. Statistical and simulation analysis of hydraulic-conductivity data for Bear Creek and Melton Valleys, Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, J.F.; Bailey, Z.C.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 338 single-well aquifer tests from Bear Creek and Melton Valley, Tennessee were statistically grouped to estimate hydraulic conductivities for the geologic formations in the valleys. A cross-sectional simulation model linked to a regression model was used to further refine the statistical estimates for each of the formations and to improve understanding of ground-water flow in Bear Creek Valley. Median hydraulic-conductivity values were used as initial values in the model. Model-calculated estimates of hydraulic conductivity were generally lower than the statistical estimates. Simulations indicate that (1) the Pumpkin Valley Shale controls groundwater flow between Pine Ridge and Bear Creek; (2) all the recharge on Chestnut Ridge discharges to the Maynardville Limestone; (3) the formations having smaller hydraulic gradients may have a greater tendency for flow along strike; (4) local hydraulic conditions in the Maynardville Limestone cause inaccurate model-calculated estimates of hydraulic conductivity; and (5) the conductivity of deep bedrock neither affects the results of the model nor does it add information on the flow system. Improved model performance would require: (1) more water level data for the Copper Ridge Dolomite; (2) improved estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone; and (3) more water level data and aquifer tests in deep bedrock. (USGS)

  20. Seasonal variability of near-saturated hydraulic conductivity on cultivated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klípa, Vladimír; Zumr, David; Sněhota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    The soil structure and hydraulic properties of arable soils considerably vary during the year due to the periodical tillage and fertilization activities, soil compaction, plant and root grow, climate impact etc. The knowledge of the effect of temporal soil variability is essential when assessing water regime and associated dissolved substance transport in soils. The main aim of this contribution is to describe the temporal development of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity on arable land during a year. The experimental site is located in Nucice catchment (Central Bohemia, Czech republic), where also rainfall-runoff and soil erosion processes are studied. The soil is classified as Cambisol, typical texture ranges from loam to clay loam classes. Soil is conservatively tilled till depth of approximately 17 cm, below the topsoil a compacted subsoil was observed. Tension infiltration experiments were performed repeatedly at single location in order to determine the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the topsoil. So far four tension infiltration campaigns were carried out under tension h0 = -3.0 cm with different field conditions: (i) young winter barley (October 2012), (ii) between postharvest stubble breaking and seeding (April 2013), (iii) full-grown oat (June 2013) and (iv) after fresh postharvest stubble breaking (October 2013). Measurements were carried out using newly introduced automated multi minidisk tension infiltrometer (Klipa et al., EGU2014-7230). All experiments were performed on the levelled soil surface after removing upper soil layer (1 to 3 cm). A thin layer of quartz sand (thickness 1 - 2 mm, grain size 0.1 - 0.6 mm) was applied to improve contact between the infiltrometer and the soil surface. Each infiltration campaign consisted of six tension infiltration experiments, the total number of 24 infiltration data sets was obtained for this study. Results show that unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly smaller in April, but rather the

  1. Interrelations among the soil-water retention, hydraulic conductivity, and suction-stress characteristic curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Kaya, Murat; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    The three fundamental constitutive relations that describe fluid flow, strength, and deformation behavior of variably saturated soils are the soil-water retention curve (SWRC), hydraulic conductivity function (HCF), and suction-stress characteristic curve (SSCC). Until recently, the interrelations among the SWRC, HCF, and SSCC have not been well established. This work sought experimental confirmation of interrelations among these three constitutive functions. Results taken from the literature for six soils and those obtained for 11 different soils were used. Using newly established analytical relations among the SWRC, HCF, and SSCC and these test results, the authors showed that these three constitutive relations can be defined by a common set of hydromechanical parameters. The coefficient of determination for air-entry pressures determined independently using hydraulic and mechanical methods is >0.99, >0.98 for the pore size parameter, and 0.94 for the residual degree of saturation. One practical implication is that one of any of the four experiments (axis-translation, hydraulic, shear-strength, or deformation) is sufficient to quantify all three constitutive relations.

  2. Role of leaf hydraulic conductance in the regulation of stomatal conductance in almond and olive in response to water stress.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Santana, Virginia; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Fernández, J Enrique; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The decrease of stomatal conductance (gs) is one of the prime responses to water shortage and the main determinant of yield limitation in fruit trees. Understanding the mechanisms related to stomatal closure in response to imposed water stress is crucial for correct irrigation management. The loss of leaf hydraulic functioning is considered as one of the major factors triggering stomatal closure. Thus, we conducted an experiment to quantify the dehydration response of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) and its impact on gs in two Mediterranean fruit tree species, one deciduous (almond) and one evergreen (olive). Our hypothesis was that a higher Kleaf would be associated with a higher gs and that the reduction in Kleaf would predict the reduction in gs in both species. We measured Kleaf in olive and almond during a cycle of irrigation withholding. We also compared the results of two methods to measure Kleaf: dynamic rehydration kinetics and evaporative flux methods. In addition, determined gs, leaf water potential (Ψleaf), vein density, photosynthetic capacity and turgor loss point. Results showed that gs was higher in almond than in olive and so was Kleaf (Kmax = 4.70 and 3.42 mmol s(-1) MPa(-1) m(-2), in almond and olive, respectively) for Ψleaf > -1.2 MPa. At greater water stress levels than -1.2 MPa, however, Kleaf decreased exponentially, being similar for both species, while gs was still higher in almond than in olive. We conclude that although the Kleaf decrease with increasing water stress does not drive unequivocally the gs response to water stress, Kleaf is the variable most strongly related to the gs response to water stress, especially in olive. Other variables such as the increase in abscisic acid (ABA) may be playing an important role in gs regulation, although in our study the gs-ABA relationship did not show a clear pattern. PMID:26846979

  3. Spatial variation in hydraulic conductivity determined by slug tests in the Canadian River alluvium near the Norman Landfill, Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Christenson, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    Slug tests were used to characterize hydraulic conductivity variations at a spatial scale on the order of meters in the alluvial aquifer downgradient of the Norman Landfill. Forty hydraulic conductivity measurements were made, most along a 215-meter flow path transect. Measured hydraulic conductivity, excluding clayey layers, ranged from 8.4 ? 10-7 to 2.8 ? 10-4 meters per second, with a median value of 6.6 ? 10-5 meters per second. The hydraulic conductivity measurements yield a preliminary concept of the permeability structure of the aquifer along this transect. A low hydraulic conductivity silt-clay layer at about 4 meters below the water table and a high hydraulic conductivity layer at the base of the aquifer appear to have the most potential to affect contaminant transport. Specific conductance measurements show the leachate plume along this transect becomes attenuated between 150 and 200 meters downgradient of the landfill, except at the base of the aquifer, where it extends at least 225 meters downgradient of the landfill.

  4. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  5. Effective Hydraulic Conductivity Scaling in a 2-Dimensional Geometrical Multifractal Model for Aquifer Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, R. W.; Perfect, E.; Sukop, M. C.

    2005-12-01

    Recent analyses of field data suggest that the spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity, K, within an aquifer may be multifractal. We investigated the implications of this finding for the scaling of effective hydraulic conductivity, , by performing numerical simulations of flow in 2-dimensional geometrical multifractal K fields. A theoretical framework for generating such fields is presented based on the parameters of the truncated binomial distribution, TBD. This leads to an approximate analytical expression showing that increases with increasing length scale as a power law, whose exponent, α, is determined by the TBD parameters. Five geometrical multifractal K fields were generated with different minimum length scales. Each domain was discretized using a block center grid consisting of 59,049 uniformly-spaced nodes. A unit cube aquifer was used for the numerical simulations. The boundary conditions were implemented with constant head (unit gradient) parallel planes, and corresponding zero flux planes on the normal axes. A finite difference simulation model based on MODFLOW 2000 was used, and "zone budget" was employed to calculate the flow balance. The discharge into and out of the unit cube was then used to calculate based on Darcy's law. The numerical simulations produced similar increases in with increasing length scale to those predicted by the analytical model. Nonlinear regression analyses yielded estimates of α from the numerical simulations that were within 10% of the analytical value for these fields. These simulations provide a theoretical explanation for effective hydraulic conductivity scaling in terms of multifractals. The advantage of such an approach is that the α-parameter, which controls the degree of scaling, is physically-based and can potentially be estimated from independent measurements.

  6. Reduction of Hydraulic Conductivity during Inhibition of Exudation from Excised Maize and Barley Roots 12

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Michael G.; Wellfare, Dale; Carter, Carolyn

    1981-01-01

    The uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) is shown to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of barley, maize, mung bean, and onion roots. In barley and maize, the reduction in exudation from excised roots is partly due to the reduction in the permeability of the root to water (Ip), but it can be inferred that the rate of salt release to the xylem, is also inhibited. The action of CCCP on Lp is suggested to be mainly in blocking the symplasmic pathway at the plasmodesmata. PMID:16661758

  7. A similarity law in botanic. The case of hydraulic conductivity of trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyra, A. G.; Zarragoicoechea, G. J.; Kuz, V. A.

    2011-03-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of xylem vascular systems is modelled via the Verhulst differential equation with the introduction of relevant dimensionless quantities. Sap pressure is scaled to the geometrical and elastic properties of the xylem tubes, and cavitation events are considered as a limited growth process. The self-similar solution of Verhulst equation is a sigmoidal function, that is the same empirical correlation used to fit the experimental data. An important result of this approach is to reveal the existence of a control parameter. This number, which embodies morphological and physicochemical properties of vascular system, characterizes the discharge of tense fluids.The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Relationship between hydraulic conductivity and formation factor of coarse-grained soils as a function of particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, H.; Kim, J.; Lee, W.; Lee, C.

    2016-04-01

    This theoretical and experimental study investigates the variations of both the hydraulic conductivity and the electrical conductivity of coarse-grained soils as a function of pore water conductivity, porosity, and median particle size, with the ultimate goal of developing the relationship between the hydraulic conductivity (K) and the formation factor (F) in coarse-grained soils as a function of particle size. To monitor the variations of both the hydraulic conductivity and electrical conductivity (formation factor) of six sands with varying particle sizes, a series of hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted using a modified constant head permeameter equipped with a four electrode resistivity probe. It is demonstrated that K of the tested coarse-grained soils is mainly determined by the porosity and particle size. In contrast, the effect of particle size on the measured electrical conductivity (or F) is negligible, and the variation of F of the tested soils is mainly determined by porosity. Because the porosity may act as a connecting characteristic between K and F, the relation between them in coarse-grained soils can be expressed as a function of particle size. Finally, simple charts are developed for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of coarse-grained soils from the measured particle sizes and formations factors.

  9. Internal hydraulic redistribution prevents the loss of root conductivity during drought.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Iván; Ryel, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs of the Great Basin desert in Utah are subjected to a prolonged summer drought with the potential consequence of reduced water transport capability of the xylem due to drought-induced cavitation. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is the passive movement of water from deep to shallow soil through plant roots. Hydraulic redistribution can increase water availability in shallow soil and ameliorate drought stress, providing better soil and root water status, which could affect shallow root conductivity (Ks) and native root embolism. We tested this hypothesis in an Artemisia tridentata Nutt. mono-specific stand grown in a common garden in Utah. We enhanced HR artificially by applying a once a week deep-irrigation treatment increasing the water potential gradient between deep and shallow soil layers. Plants that were deep-watered had less negative water potentials and greater stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than non-watered control plants. After irrigation with labeled water (δD), xylem water in stems and shallow roots of watered shrubs was enriched with respect to control shrubs, a clear indication of deep water uptake and HR. Shallow root conductivity was threefold greater and shrubs experienced lower native embolism when deep-watered. We found clear evidence of water transfer between deep and shallow roots through internal HR that delayed depletion of shallow soil water content, maintained Ks and prevented root embolism. Overall, our results show a positive effect of HR on root water transport capacity in otherwise dry soil, with important implications for plant water status. PMID:24436338

  10. Influence of streambed hydraulic conductivity on solute exchange with the hyporheic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Robert J.; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2006-11-01

    A conservative solute tracer experiment was conducted in Indian Creek, a small urban stream in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to investigate the role of subsurface properties on the exchange between streamwater and the hyporheic zone (subsurface surrounding the stream). Sodium Bromide (NaBr) was used as a conservative tracer, and it was monitored in the surface water at two stations and in the upper bed sediments (shallow hyporheic zone extending from 7.5 to 10 cm below the streambed). The hydraulic conductivity ( K) of the upper bed sediments and the lower bed sediments (10 12.5 cm below the streambed) was measured in situ. High tracer concentrations were observed in the upper layer at locations where the hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was larger than that of the lower layer. Low concentrations in the upper layer were observed in the converse case. A statistically significant relationship between the mass retained in the upper layer and the difference of K values between layers was observed.

  11. Scale effect of hydraulic conductivity measurements in Pre-Illinoian and Wisconsinan tills in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Bruner, D.R. . Geological Survey Bureau)

    1993-03-01

    Two long-term study sites have been established as the basis for a multi-year study of the hydrogeologic properties of glacial tills in Iowa. One is located in Eastern Iowa in Pre-Illinoian till and has had laboratory permeameter tests conducted on Shelby tube samples, collected during construction of piezometers, from the zone to be screen. These piezometers were used to run bailer tests and perform a pumping test. The other site is located in North-Central Iowa in Wisconsinan till and has piezometers constructed to run bailer and pumping tests. Results from both sites has shown that the bulk hydraulic conductivity increases as larger volumes of till are tested. There is consistently at least one order of magnitude increase between bailer and pumping test results. There is also at least three orders of magnitude increase between laboratory permeameter and pumping test results. A system is proposed to conduct pumping tests using vibrating wire transducers hydraulically pushed into the ground to monitor water levels before, during and after the test, and record the measurements to a datalogger.

  12. Quantifying Hydraulic Conductivity and Fluid Pressures in the Alpine Fault Hanging-Wall Using DFDP-2 Data and Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussens, J. P.; Woodman, N. D.; Menzies, C. D.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Sutherland, R.; Capova, L.; Cox, S.; Upton, P.; Townend, J.; Toy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid flow can play an important role in fault failure, due to the influence of pore pressure on effective confining stress and through chemical and thermal alteration of the fault zone. Rocks of the Alpine Fault Zone, both exposed at the surface and recovered in cores, show evidence for significant alteration by fluids. However, the fluid flow regime in the region is poorly constrained and its relationship with the behaviour of the fault is uncertain. In 2014 the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) drilled the DFDP-2B borehole, penetrating 893 m into the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault. Prior to drilling, a set of hydrogeological models for the Whataroa Valley region, encompassing the DFDP-2B drill site, were constructed using the modelling software FEFLOW. Models were constructed for a range of plausible hydraulic conductivity structures for the region. They predicted strongly artesian hydraulic heads of 50-150 m above surface elevation and temperatures exceeding 100 °C within 1 km depth in bedrock beneath the DFDP-2 drill site, with the exact hydraulic and thermal gradients dependent on the hydraulic conductivity structure chosen. During the drilling project hydraulic and thermal data from the borehole was collected. This included 33 slug test datasets, carried out at a range of borehole depths throughout the project. Estimates for hydraulic conductivity were obtained by analysis of slug test data. Steady state hydraulic heads for the borehole, across a range of depths, were estimated from the slug test measurements. Depth profiles of hydraulic head show rapid increases in hydraulic head with depth, in line with model predictions. Results show fluid pressures greatly exceeding hydrostatic pressure in the shallow crust, reflecting significant upward flow of groundwater beneath the Whataroa Valley. Hydraulic conductivity estimates provide constraints on the hydraulic conductivity structure of the region. All hydraulic conductivity structures modelled thus far

  13. Determining the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured limestone aquifer by simultaneous injection and geophysical logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Hess, A.E.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1988-01-01

    A field technique for assessing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in an aquifer was applied to a fractured carbonate formation in southeastern Nevada. The technique combines the simultaneous use of fluid injection and geophysical logging to measure in situ vertical distributions of fluid velocity and hydraulic head down the borehole; these data subsequently are analyzed to arrive at quantitative estimates of hydraulic conductivity across discrete intervals in the aquifer. The results of this analysis identified the contact margin between the Anchor and Dawn Members of the Monte Cristo Limestone as being the dominant transmissive unit. -from Authors

  14. Water Transport in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Roots (Changes of Axial and Radial Hydraulic Conductivities during Root Development).

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, W.; Steudle, E.

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic architecture of developing onion (Allium cepa L. cv Calypso) roots grown hydroponically was determined by measuring axial and radial hydraulic conductivities (equal to inverse of specific hydraulic resistances). In the roots, Casparian bands and suberin lamellae develop in the endodermis and exodermis (equal to hypodermis). Using the root pressure probe, changes of hydraulic conductivities along the developing roots were analyzed with high resolution. Axial hydraulic conductivity (Lx) was also calculated from stained cross-sections according to Poiseuille's law. Near the base and the tip of the roots, measured and calculated Lx values were similar. However, at distances between 200 and 300 mm from the apex, measured values of Lx were smaller by more than 1 order of magnitude than those calculated, probably because of remaining cross walls between xylem vessel members. During development of root xylem, Lx increased by 3 orders of magnitude. In the apical 30 mm (tip region), axial resistance limited water transport, whereas in basal parts radial resistances (low radial hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) controlled the uptake. Because of the high axial hydraulic resistance in the tip region, this zone appeared to be "hydraulically isolated" from the rest of the root. Changes of the Lpr of the roots were determined by measuring the hydraulic conductance of roots of different length and referring these data to unit surface area. At distances between 30 and 150 mm from the root tip, Lpr was fairly constant (1.4 x 10-7 m s-1 MPa-1). In more basal root zones, Lpr was considerably smaller and varied between roots. The low contribution of basal zones to the overall water uptake indicated an influence of the exodermal Casparian bands and/or suberin lamellae in the endodermis or exodermis, which develop at distances larger than 50 to 60 mm from the root tip. PMID:12231786

  15. Changes in hydraulic soil conductivity in the walls of zoogenic macropores due to the soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelíšek, Igor

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on assessement of the hydric functions and effectiveness of the preferential zoogenic routes (preferentially lumbricid burrows), with primary focus on the hydric functions and parameters of individual vertical tubular macropores and on the analysis of selected possible detailed effects on these functions. The effect of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the physical soil properties is notable. During burrowing, earthworms press the material in the vicinity of the hollowed burrows. Several variants of the relationship between the macropores and the soil compaction, permeability and erodibility were verified. Both measurements in the field and laboratory tests of intact collected samples and engineered samples were performed. With regard to preferential focus on the hydraulic processes in gravity macropores, to the limits of the instrumentation and the size of individual earthworms in agricultural soils in the Czech Republic, we assessed the processes in the macropores with diameter of ca 5 mm or larger. In some cases, saturated hydraulic conductivity of zoogenic macropore walls was reduced in order of tens of percent compared with hydraulic conductivity of soil matrix, and the increase of bulk density of soil in the macropore vicinity achieved 25%. The effect of repeated rise and water level stagnation (repeated macropore washing during multiple wetting cycles) was tested. Investigation of water erosion of macropores was limited by adjustable flow, vessel capacity and pump capacity of the accurate continuous infiltrometer. Investigation of the water inlet from above gave more data on the washed-off material in the selected time intervals. Analysis of water rise from below and macropore sealing provided one cumulative data for each testing period.

  16. The response of Pinus sylvestris to drought: stomatal control of transpiration and hydraulic conductance.

    PubMed

    Irvine, J.; Perks, M. P.; Magnani, F.; Grace, J.

    1998-06-01

    We investigated the impact of drought on the physiology of 41-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in central Scotland. Measurements were made of the seasonal course of transpiration, canopy stomatal conductance, needle water potential, xylem water content, soil-to-needle hydraulic resistance, and growth. Comparison was made between drought-treated plots and those receiving average precipitation. In response to drought, transpiration rate declined once volumetric water content (VWC) over the top 20 cm of soil reached a threshold value of 12%. Thereafter, transpiration was a near linear function of soil water content. As the soil water deficit developed, the hydraulic resistance between soil and needles increased by a factor of three as predawn needle water potential declined from -0.54 to -0.71 MPa. A small but significant increase in xylem embolism was detected in 1-year-old shoots. Stomatal control of transpiration prevented needle water potential from declining below -1.5 MPa. Basal area, and shoot and needle growth were significantly reduced in the drought treatment. In the year following the drought, canopy stomatal conductance and soil-to-needle hydraulic resistance recovered. Current-year needle extension recovered, but a significant reduction in basal area increment was evident one year after the drought. The results suggest that, in response to soil water deficit, mature Scots pine closes its stomata sufficiently to prevent the development of substantial xylem embolism. Reduced growth in the year after a severe soil water deficit is most likely to be the result of reduced assimilation in the year of the drought, rather than to any residual embolism carried over from one year to the next. PMID:12651364

  17. Burial diagenesis, hydraulic conductivity and pore water chemistry in the Marshall Sandstone regional aquifer, Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, K.F.; Sibley, D.F.; Long, D.T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Marshall Sandstone (MS) is a regional aquifer and local natural-gas reservoir in the Michigan basin. Hydraulic conductivities measured of sandstone cores range from 10[sup [minus]4] to 10[sup [minus]9] cm/s. Low hydraulic conductivities were measured in samples with abundant kaolinite, chlorite and illite; quartz and carbonate cemented sandstones have consistently higher values. Dissolved solids concentrations of the water from the MS range from 260 to 418, 169 mg/l. Geochemical modeling of pore water elemental composition and stable isotopes indicates mixing between meteoric water and evaporated seawater. The authors analyzed cements precipitated in the MS to determine whether or not they reflect this mixture of brine and meteoric water. Chlorite is a pre- to syn-compaction cement. Dolomite-ankerite is a syn- to post-compaction cement. Kaolinite and illite are post-compaction cements. Kaolinite overlies and therefore post-dates the carbonate cements. Illite overlies and therefore post-dates the kaolinite. Cement stable isotopes and a mineral paragenesis are consistent with carbonate and phyllosilicate precipitation during burial diagenesis at approximately 50--120 C in brine similar to the brine in the saline portion of the aquifer today. Cements occur throughout the basin, regardless of present pore water composition. Also, secondary porosity due to feldspar and carbonate dissolution occurs throughout the basin. Solid phase analyses and pore water analyses indicate that mixing of meteoric water and brine may have caused some carbonate cement dissolution but otherwise has not influenced mineral paragenesis or hydraulic properties.

  18. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention properties across a soil-slope transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.; Mousli, Zak

    2000-11-01

    The hydraulic properties of soil and their spatial structures are important for understanding soil moisture dynamics, land surface and subsurface hydrology, and contaminant transport. We investigated whether landscape features, including relative position on a slope, contribute to the variability of soil hydraulic properties in a complex terrain of a glacial till material. Using 396 undisturbed soil cores collected along two orthogonal transects, we measured saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and soil water retention functions at two (15 and 30 cm) depths across a glacial till landscape in central Iowa that encompassed two soil types (Nicollet loam with 1-3% slope on the hilltop position and Clarion loam with 2-5% slope on the shoulder position). The van Genuchten-Mualem model was fitted to the experimental data using the RETC optimization computer code. At the 15 cm depth a statistical comparison indicated significant differences in Ksat, saturated water content (θs), water content at permanent wilting point (θ15,000) and van Genuchten fitting parameters (α and n) between soil types and landscape positions. At the 30 cm depth, θs, θ15,000, and residual water content (θr) were found to be significantly different across the soil-slope transition. Available water content (θ333-15,000) did not show any significant difference across the soil-slope transition for either depth. No clear directional trend was observed, with some exceptions for Ksat, θs, and α on specific transect limbs and depths. Drifts in the soil hydraulic parameters due to soil-slope transition were removed using a mean-polishing approach. Geostatistical analyses of these parameters showed several important characteristics including the following: (1) The spatial correlation lengths and semivariogram patterns of the independently measured (or estimated) loge Ksat and θs at 30-cm depth matched extremely well; (2) better spatial structures with large correlation lengths were observed for

  19. Co-optimal Distribution of Leaf Nitrogen and Hydraulic Conductance in Plant Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R.

    2012-12-01

    Leaf properties vary significantly within plant canopies, due to the strong gradient in light availability through the canopy. Leaves near the canopy top have high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus content per unit leaf area, high leaf mass per area, and high photosynthetic capacity, compared to leaves deeper in the canopy. Variation of leaf properties has been explained by the optimal distribution of resources, particularly nitrogen, throughout the canopy. Studies of the optimal distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) within canopies have shown that, in the absence of other constraints, the optimal distribution of N is proportional to light. This is an important assumption in the big-leaf models of canopy photosynthesis and widely applied in current land-surface models. However, measurements have shown that the gradient of N in real canopies is shallower than the optimal distribution. One thing that has not yet been considered is how the constraints on water supply to leaves influence leaf properties in the canopy. Leaves with high stomatal conductance tend to have high stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, which suggests that for the the efficient operation of canopy, high light leaves should be serviced by more water. The rate of water transport depends on the hydraulic conductance of the soil-leaf pathway. We extend the work on optimal nitrogen gradients by considering the optimal co-allocation of nitrogen and water supply within plant canopies. We developed a simple "toy" two-leaf canopy model and optimised the distribution of N and hydraulic conductance (K) between the two leaves. We asked whether the hydraulic constraints to water supply can explain shallow N gradients in canopies. We found that the optimal N distribution within plant canopies is proportional to the light distribution only if hydraulic conductance is also optimally distributed. The optimal distribution of K is that where K and N are both proportional to incident light, such that optimal K is

  20. Measurement of soil and rock fractural hydraulic conductivities using falling head infiltration experiment of single-ring permeameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, Z. C.; Shi, P.; Cheng, Q. B.

    2012-04-01

    Southwest China Karst is a fragile area for ecological system because of thin soil and underlying rock fracures. Soil and rock fractural hydraulic conductivities in this area determine infiltration, runoff and water retaining in soil and rock fractures for plant utilization. Determination of soil and rock fractural hydraulic conductivities is very tough due to strong heterogeneous. In this paper, we designed a single-ring permeameter to measure the hydraulic conductivities based on falling head infiltration experiment. The experiments were conducted in two karst areas in southwest China: a hillslope in Huanjiang County, northwest Guangxi for measuring soil hydraulic conductivities and a profile at the small catchment of Chenqi in the Puding basin of Guizhou for measuring fractural hydraulic conductivities. The results show that surface soil hydraulic conductivity is 2.386×10-4 m/s, much larger than 2.004×10-5 m/s for the soil at 30cm depth. Soil hydraulic conductivities are generally increased from the bottom to the top along the hillslope, and this increase is particularly significant for the soil at 30cm depth. The fractural hydraulic conductivities were determined for the limestone profile with three fractures crossing in vertical and horizontal directions. The effective fractural aperture was determined according to calibration of water head variations of the ponded water in the single ring permeameter, which can be simulated by a numerical model based on Navier-Stokes equations and measured with an automatic observation equipment. The hydraulic conductivities were then estimated in terms of the cubic law equation. The estimated effective fractural aperture is 0.25mm for the horizontal fracture, and 0.25 and 0.5mm for the two vertical fractures crossing the horizontal in the right and left sides, respectively. The corresponding hydraulic conductivity is 0.051 m/s for the horizontal fracture and 0.051 and 0.204m/s for the two vertical fractures in the right

  1. Vertical series hydraulic conductance classes to characterize the unsaturated zone in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Ferrell, Gloria M.

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  2. Integrating multiple scales of hydraulic conductivity measurements in training image-based stochastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Sharma, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is one of the most critical and at the same time one of the most uncertain parameters in many groundwater models. One problem commonly faced is that the data are usually not collected at the same scale as the discretized elements used in a numerical model. Moreover, it is common that different types of hydraulic conductivity measurements, corresponding to different spatial scales, coexist in a studied domain, which have to be integrated simultaneously. Here we address this issue in the context of Image Quilting, one of the recently developed multiple-point geostatistics methods. Based on a training image that represents fine-scale spatial variability, we use the simplified renormalization upscaling method to obtain a series of upscaled training images that correspond to the different scales at which measurements are available. We then apply Image Quilting with such a multiscale training image to be able to incorporate simultaneously conditioning data at several spatial scales of heterogeneity. The realizations obtained satisfy the conditioning data exactly across all scales, but it can come at the expense of a small approximation in the representation of the physical scale relationships. In order to mitigate this approximation, we iteratively apply a kriging-based correction to the finest scale that ensures local conditioning at the coarsest scales. The method is tested on a series of synthetic examples where it gives good results and shows potential for the integration of different measurement methods in real-case hydrogeological models.

  3. Ecohydrological controls on soil moisture and hydraulic conductivity within a pinyon-juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lebron, I.; Madsen, M.D.; Chandler, D.G.; Robinson, D.A.; Wendroth, O.; Belnap, J.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of pinyon-juniper woodland encroachment on rangeland ecosystems is often associated with a reduction of streamflow and recharge and an increase in soil erosion. The objective of this study is to investigate vegetational control on seasonal soil hydrologic properties along a 15-m transect in pinyon-juniper woodland with biocrust. We demonstrate that the juniper tree controls soil water content (SWC) patterns directly under the canopy via interception, and beyond the canopy via shading in a preferred orientation, opposite to the prevailing wind direction. The juniper also controls the SWC and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity measured close to water saturation (K(h)) under the canopy by the creation of soil water repellency due to needle drop. We use this information to refine the hydrologic functional unit (HFU) concept into three interacting hydrologic units: canopy patches, intercanopy patches, and a transitional unit formed by intercanopy patches in the rain shadow of the juniper tree. Spatial autoregressive state-space models show the close relationship between K(h) close to soil water saturation and SWC at medium and low levels, integrating a number of influences on hydraulic conductivity. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Sand box experiments with bioclogging of porous media: Hydraulic conductivity reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Tracer experiments during clogging and de-clogging experiments in a 2D sand box were via an image analysis used to establish a data set on the relation between changes in hydraulic conductivity (K) and relative porosity (β). Clogging appears to create a finger-like tracer transport, which could be caused by an initial heterogeneous distribution of biomass in the sand box. De-clogging occurs at a slower rate possibly due to the presence of inert biomass that is not affected by the starvation conditions by sudden removal of the substrate source. The tracer front was observed to get disturbed closer and closer to the substrate source during the experiments suggesting that the zone of clogging moved upstream. Three clogging models, K(β), from the literature were tested for their ability to describe the temporal changes in clogging at the scale of the sand box; the model of Clement et al. (1996) that makes no assumption on biomass distribution, the plug formation model of Thullner et al. (2002a), and the biofilm-plug formation model of Vandevivere (1995). The plug formation and biofilm-plug formation models both match the observed changes between the hydraulic conductivity of the sand box and the relative porosity. Unfortunately our experiments did not reach low relative porosities where the two models predict different behaviors. The model by Clement et al. (1996) underestimates clogging.

  5. A new empirical model for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of low permeability media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, S.; Wen, Z.; Lu, C.; Shu, L.; Shao, J.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Huang, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the significant soil characteristics in terms of flow movement and solute transport. It has been recognized that K is statistically related to the grain-size distribution. Numerous models have been developed to reveal the relationship between K and the grain-size distribution of soil, but most of these are inappropriate for fine-grained media. Therefore, a new empirical model for estimating K of low permeability media was proposed in this study. In total, the values of K of 30 soil samples collected in the Jiangning District of Nanjing were measured using the single-ring infiltrometer method. The new model was developed using the percentages of sand, silt and clay-sized particles, and the first and the second rank moment of the grain-size through the moment method as predictor variables. Multivariate nonlinear regression analysis yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.75, indicating that this empirical model seems to provide a new approach for the indirect determination of hydraulic conductivity of low permeability media.

  6. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat.

    PubMed

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  7. Ear Rachis Xylem Occlusion and Associated Loss in Hydraulic Conductance Coincide with the End of Grain Filling for Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Neghliz, Hayet; Cochard, Hervé; Brunel, Nicole; Martre, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Seed dehydration is the normal terminal event in the development of orthodox seeds and is physiologically related to the cessation of grain dry mass accumulation and crop grain yield. For a better understanding of grain dehydration, we evaluated the hypothesis that hydraulic conductance of the ear decreases during the latter stages of development and that this decrease results from disruption or occlusion of xylem conduits. Whole ear, rachis, and stem nodes hydraulic conductance and percentage loss of xylem conductivity were measured from flowering to harvest-ripeness on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Récital grown under controlled environments. Flag leaf transpiration, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and grain and ear water potentials were also measured during grain development. We show that grain dehydration was not related with whole plant physiology and leaf senescence, but closely correlated with the hydraulic properties of the xylem conduits irrigating the grains. Indeed, there was a substantial decrease in rachis hydraulic conductance at the onset of the grain dehydration phase. This hydraulic impairment was not caused by the presence of air embolism in xylem conduits of the stem internodes or rachis but by the occlusion of the xylem lumens by polysaccharides (pectins and callose). Our results demonstrate that xylem hydraulics plays a key role during grain maturation. PMID:27446150

  8. Variations in hydraulic conductivity with scale of measurement during aquifer tests in heterogeneous, porous carbonate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Cherkauer, Douglas S.

    Previous studies have shown that hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer seems to increase as the portion of the aquifer tested increases. To date, such studies have all relied on different methods to determine hydraulic conductivity at each scale of interest, which raises the possibility that the observed increase in hydraulic conductivity is due to the measurement method, not to the scale. This study analyzes hydraulic conductivity with respect to scale during individual aquifer tests in porous, heterogeneous carbonate rocks in southeastern Wisconsin, USA. Results from this study indicate that hydraulic conductivity generally increases during an individual test as the volume of aquifer impacted increases, and the rate of this increase is the same as the rate of increase determined by using different measurement methods. Thus, scale dependence of hydraulic conductivity during single tests does not depend on the method of measurement. This conclusion is supported by 22 of 26 aquifer tests conducted in porous-flow-dominated carbonate units within the aquifer. Instead, scale dependency is probably caused by heterogeneities within the aquifer, a conclusion supported by digital simulation. All of the observed types of hydraulic-conductivity variations with scale during individual aquifer tests can be explained by a conceptual model of a simple heterogeneous aquifer composed of high-conductivity zones within a low-conductivity matrix. Résumé Certaines études ont montré que la conductivité hydraulique d'un aquifère semble augmenter en même temps que la partie testée de l'aquifère s'étend. Jusqu'à présent, ces études ont toutes reposé sur des méthodes de détermination de la conductivité hydraulique différentes pour chaque niveau d'échelle, ce qui a conduit à penser que l'augmentation observée de la conductivité hydraulique pouvait être due aux méthodes de mesure et non à l'effet d'échelle. Cette étude analyse la conductivité hydraulique par

  9. Soil hydraulic conductivity changes caused by irrigation with reclaimed waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, G.J.; Rosenthal, A.; Tarchitzky, J.; Shainberg, I.; Chen, Y.

    1999-10-01

    Use of reclaimed waste water (RWW) in arid and semiarid regions may alleviate problems of fresh water shortage; however, it also involves some potential risks among which are degradation of soil hydraulic properties. The objectives of the current study were to study the effects of organic matter (OM) loads found in RWW obtained from a secondary treatment plant in Tel Aviv, Israel, and different size fractions of the suspended solids in the RWW on the hydraulic conductivity (HC) of three Israeli soils. The hydraulic conductivity of a clayey grumusol (Typic Chromoxerert), a typic loamy loess (Calcic Haploxeralf), and a sandy loam hamra (Typic Rhodexeralf) was determined in the laboratory using soil columns, by leaching with RWW containing zero, low, or high OM load, followed by leaching with distilled water (DW). The effects of suspended solids' size fraction on the HC was determined by filtering RWW. Leaching with high OM load RWW caused the relative HC of the grumusol, loess and hamra to drop to final values of 13.9, 24.2, and 58.8%, respectively. Filtering out suspended solids {gt}1.2 {micro} in this water improved the HC of the hamra, but did not significantly affect the final relative HC of the grumusol and loess. Leaching with low OM load RWW did not significantly decrease the HC beyond the decrease attributed to the effects of the concentration and composition of the electrolytes present in the zero OM load RWW. Subsequent leaching with DW caused an additional decrease in HC, whose magnitude for a given soil did not depend on the quality of the RWW previously used. The presence of OM in the irrigation water did not seem to have significant residual effects on soil HC. Evidently, in high OM load RWW the OM fraction determines the soils' HC, whereas in low OM load RWW, it is the electrolyte concentration and composition in the water, that seem to pose the hazard to soil hydraulic properties, especially during subsequent leaching with DW.

  10. Field-Obtained Soil Water Characteristic Curves and Hydraulic Conductivity Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Ishimwe

    A compacted clay liner (test pad) was constructed and instrumented with volumetric water content and soil matric potential sensors to determine soil water characteristic curves (SWCC) and hydraulic conductivity (k) functions. Specifically, the compacted clay liner was subjected to an infiltration cycle during a sealed double ring infiltrometer (SDRI) test followed by a drying cycle. After the drying cycle, Shelby tube samples were collected from the compacted clay liner and flexible wall permeability (FWP) tests were conducted on sub-samples to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, two computer programs (RETC and UNSAT-H) were utilized to model the SWCCs and k-functions of the soil based on obtained measurements including the volumetric water content, the soil matric potential, and the saturated hudraulic conductivity (ks). Results obtained from the RETC program (s, r, α, n and ks) were ingested into UNSAT-H program to calculate the movement of water (rate and location) through the compacted clay liner. Although a linear wetting front (location of water infiltration as a function of time) is typically utilized for SDRI calculations, the use of a hyperbolic wetting front is recommended as a hyperbolic wetting front was modeled from the testing results. The suggested shape of the wetting front is associated with utilization of the desorption SWCC instead of the sorption SWCC and with relatively high values of ks (average value of 7.2E-7 cm/sec) were measured in the FWP tests while relatively low values of ks (average value of 1.2E-7 cm/sec) were measured in the SDRI test.

  11. Modelling the effect of rock fragment on soil saturated hydraulic conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Sergio; Costanza Andrenelli, Maria; Vignozzi, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Stoniness may be a key factor in determining the soil hydrological properties. Nevertheless, how coarse fraction takes part in some important processes (e.g., runoff, infiltration and percolation) is not univocally recognized, mainly because of the difficulties in obtaining reliable experimental data and, secondarily, for the employment of different approaches to evaluate the role of the coarse fraction. With that regard, equations developed by hydrogeologists to account for water fluxes in porous media, consider permeability as mere function of grain size distribution (particles >2 mm included), with permeability values increasing when passing from sand to gravel. Conversely, soil scientists consider the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of soil exclusively as function of the fine-earth fraction and attribute a contrasting effect to the coarse fraction, both in relation to the decrease of porosity and to the increase of flow path tortuosity. Nevertheless, the Soil Survey Handbook includes all fragmental soils (gravel content ≥35% by weight) into the highest class of soil hydraulic conductivity, and this partly disagrees with the mostly adopted soil scientists' approaches. At the same time, lab- experiments carried out by engineers on particle mixture point out that the addition of increasing amounts of coarse material to finer grains progressively reduces the overall porosity until a critical threshold is reached; beyond this level, the void proportion rises again. In relation to the engineers' results, the present paper attempts to conceptually approach the dual effects of rock fragment content on Ksat by considering a decay of the water transmission properties of the fine-earth fraction at low gravel contents and, conversely, a drastic improvement of the conductivity whenever the porosity increases. For that purpose a data set of 50 soils of different textural classes is used to define the procedure by virtually increasing the rock fragment fraction (SK

  12. Potential use of calcareous mudstones in low hydraulic conductivity earthen barriers for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Francisca, F M; Musso, T B; Musso, T B

    2013-01-01

    Earthen layers play a significant role in isolating contaminants in the subsurface, controlling the migration of contaminant plumes, and as landfill liners and covers. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of three calcareous mudstones from the Jagüel and Roca formations in North Patagonia, Argentina, are evaluated to determine their potential for the construction of liners. These mudstones were deposited in a marine environment in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene. The tested specimens mainly comprise silt and clay-sized particles, and their mineralogy is dominated by a smectite/illite mixed layer (70-90% Sm) and calcite in smaller proportion. Powdered mudstone samples have little viscosity and swelling potential when suspended in water. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted mudstones and sand-mudstone mixtures is very low (around 1-3 x 10(-10) m/s) and in good agreement with the expected hydraulic behaviour of compacted earthen layers. This behaviour can be attributed to the large amount of fine particles, high specific surface and the close packing of particles as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The tested materials also show a high cation exchange capacity (50-70 cmol/kg), indicating a high contaminant retardation capability. The calcareous mudstones show satisfactory mineralogical and chemical properties as well as an adequate hydraulic behaviour, demonstrating the potential use of these materials for the construction of compacted liners for the containment of leachate or as covers in landfills. These findings confirm the potential usage of marine calcareous mudstones as a low-cost geomaterial in environmental engineering projects. PMID:24527607

  13. Modeling effects of floods on streambed hydraulic conductivity and groundwater-surface water interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Scott C.; Meixner, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Flood events can induce temporal changes in streambed elevation and particle-size composition, which may influence the bed's hydraulic properties and stream-aquifer fluxes during and after an event. This study combines a set of previously developed modeling approaches to create a synthetic flood event during which bed sediment is entrained and deposited as a function of hydraulic conditions and particle size. One simulated river reach in a state of approximate dynamic equilibrium is chosen to investigate the impacts of size-selective sediment transport on stream-aquifer interaction. Along this reach, the preferential entrainment of fine sediment during the flood's rising limb leads to overall bed coarsening, and increases in vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kbv) and downward fluxes of floodwater into the streambed. Progressively finer sediment layers are deposited during the event's falling limb, causing the redevelopment of a colmation (clogging) layer on the bed surface and a decline in overall Kbv by the event's conclusion. This reduction in Kbv leads to prolonged retention of event water in the streambed (after the reach reverts from losing to gaining river conditions) when compared with what is expected if pre-event Kbv values are used to estimate river-aquifer exchanges. This process of sequential bed coarsening and fining during a flood event provides a mechanistic explanation for the event size-and-duration threshold, inferred in some systems, that must be exceeded for significant amounts of flood recharge to occur. The major consequences of these processes—enhanced infiltration and prolonged floodwater retention—have potentially major implications for groundwater-surface water interactions, water quality, contaminant transport, and riparian biogeochemistry.

  14. Interaction between soil mineralogy and the application of crop residues on aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, M.; Kiptoon, R.; Bar-Tal, A.; Wakindiki, I. I. C.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main goals of modern agriculture is to achieve sustainability by maintaining crop productivity while avoiding soil degradation. Intensive cultivation could lead to a reduction in soil organic matter that could affect the structure stability and hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Moreover, crops extract nutrients from the soil that are taken away from the field when harvested, and as a consequence, the addition of fertilizers to the soil is necessary to maintain crop productivity. One way to deal with these problems is to incorporate crop residues into the soil after harvest. Crop residues are a source of organic matter that could improve soil physical properties, such as aggregate stability and soil hydraulic conductivity. However, this effect could vary according to other soil properties, such as clay content, clay mineralogy, and the presence of other cementing materials in the soil (mainly carbonates and aluminum and iron oxides). In the present work, the interaction between the addition of chickpea crop residues to the soil and clay mineralogy on aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity were studied. Chickpea plant residues were added at a rate of 0.5% (w/w) to smectitic, kaolinitic, illitic and non-phyllosilicate soils from different regions. The soils without (control) and with chickpea residues were incubated for 0, 3, 7 and 30 days, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soils was measured in columns after each incubation time. The response of hydraulic conductivity to the addition of residues and incubation time was different in the soils with various mineralogies, although in general, the addition of chickpea residues increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity as compared with the control soils. This positive effect of crop residues on hydraulic conductivity was mainly a result of improved aggregate stability and resistance to slaking during wetting.

  15. Deep rooting plants influence on soil hydraulic properties and air conductivity over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uteau, Daniel; Peth, Stephan; Diercks, Charlotte; Pagenkemper, Sebastian; Horn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    Crop sequences are commonly suggested as an alternative to improve subsoil structure. A well structured soil can be characterized by enhanced transport properties. Our main hypothesis was, that different root systems can modify the soil's macro/mesopore network if enough cultivation time is given. We analyzed the influence of three crops with either shallower roots (Festuca arundinacea, fescue) or taproots (Cichorium intybus, chicory and Medicago sativa, alfalfa). The crops where cultivated on a Haplic Luvisol near Bonn (Germany) for one, two or three years. Undisturbed soil cores were taken for measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability. The unsaturated conductivity was measured using the evaporation method, monitoring the water content and tension at two depths of each undisturbed soil core. The van Genuchten-Mualem model (1991) was fitted to the measured data. Air permeability was measured in a permeameter with constant flow at low pressure gradient. The measurements were repeated at -1, -3, -6, -15, -30 and -50 kPa matric tension and the model of Ball et al. (1988) was used to describe permeability as function of matric tension. Furthermore, the cores equilibrated at -15 kPa matric tension were scanned with X-Ray computer tomography. By means of 3D image analysis, geometrical features as pore size distribution, tortuosity and connectivity of the pore network was analyzed. The measurements showed an increased unsaturated hydraulic conductivity associated to coarser pores at the taprooted cultivations. A enhanced pore system (related to shrink-swell processes) under alfalfa was observed in both transport measurements and was confirmed by the 3D image analysis. This highly functional pore system (consisting mainly of root paths, earthworm channels and shrinking cracks) was clearly visible below the 75 cm of depth and differentiated significantly from the other two treatments only after three years of cultivation, which shows the time

  16. Impact of fire on macropore flow and the hydraulic conductivity of near-surface blanket peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Wearing, Catherine; Palmer, Sheila; Jackson, Benjamin; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Brown, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands can be subject to wildfire or deliberate burning in many locations. Wildfires are known to impact soil properties and runoff production in most soil types but relatively little work has been conducted on peatlands. Furthermore in large parts of the UK uplands prescribed vegetation burning on peat has taken place at regular intervals (e.g. every 8-25 years) on patches of around 300-900 sq. metres over the past century to support increased grouse populations for sport shooting. However, there have been few studies on how these prescribed fires influence near-surface hydrology. It is known that macropores transport a large proportion of flow in near-surface peat layers and we investigated their role in flow transport for fire sites using tension infiltrometers. Measurements were performed, at replicated hillslope positions to control for slope position effects, on unburnt peat (U) and where prescribed burning had taken place two years (P2), four years (P4) and >15 years (P15+) prior to sampling. For the prescribed burning plots, vegetation burning had also occurred at around a 15-20 year interval for most of the past century. We also sampled a nearby wildfire site (W) with the same sampling design where wildfire had occurred four months prior to sampling. Both the contribution of macropore flow to overall infiltration, and the saturated hydraulic conductivity, were significantly lower in the recently burnt sites (W, P2, P4), compared to P15+ and U. There was no significant difference in macropore flow contributions, effective macroporosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity between P15+ and U. The results suggest fire influences the near-surface hydrological functioning of peatlands but that 'recovery' for some hydrological processes to prescribed vegetation burning may be possible within two decades if there are no further fires.

  17. Rapid shoot-to-root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Vandeleur, Rebecca K; Sullivan, Wendy; Athman, Asmini; Jordans, Charlotte; Gilliham, Matthew; Kaiser, Brent N; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how root hydraulic conductance (normalized to root dry weight, Lo ) is regulated by the shoot. Shoot topping (about 30% reduction in leaf area) reduced Lo of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) by 50 to 60%. More detailed investigations with soybean and grapevine showed that the reduction in Lo was not correlated with the reduction in leaf area, and shading or cutting single leaves had a similar effect. Percentage reduction in Lo was largest when initial Lo was high in soybean. Inhibition of Lo by weak acid (low pH) was smaller after shoot damage or leaf shading. The half time of reduction in Lo was approximately 5 min after total shoot decapitation. These characteristics indicate involvement of aquaporins. We excluded phloem-borne signals and auxin-mediated signals. Xylem-mediated hydraulic signals are possible since turgor rapidly decreased within root cortex cells after shoot topping. There was a significant reduction in the expression of several aquaporins in the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) family of both grapevine and soybean. In soybean, there was a five- to 10-fold reduction in GmPIP1;6 expression over 0.5-1 h which was sustained over the period of reduced Lo . PMID:23926961

  18. Verification of combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code FLOWNET/TRUMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Soh; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Kiso, Yoshihiro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Sudo, Yukio

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the verification results of the combined thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction analysis code, FLOWNET/TRUMP which has been utilized for the core thermal hydraulic design, especially for the analysis of flow distribution among fuel block coolant channels, the determination of thermal boundary conditions for fuel block stress analysis and the estimation of fuel temperature in the case of fuel block coolant channel blockage accident in the design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor(HTTR), which the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been planning to construct in order to establish basic technologies for future advanced very high temperature gas-cooled reactors and to be served as an irradiation test reactor for promotion of innovative high temperature new frontier technologies. The verification of the code was done through the comparison between the analytical results and experimental results of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop Multi-channel Test Section(HENDEL T(sub 1-M)) with simulated fuel rods and fuel blocks.

  19. In-Situ Hydraulic Conductivities of Soils and Anomalies at a Future Biofuel Production Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, M. F.; Jackson, C. R.; Hale, J. C.; Sletten, H. R.

    2010-12-01

    Forested hillslopes of the Upper Coastal Plain at the Savannah River Site, SC, feature a shallow clay loam argillic layer with low median saturated hydraulic conductivity. Observations from a grid of shallow, maximum-rise piezometers indicate that perching on this clay layer is common. However, flow measurements from an interflow-interception trench indicate that lateral flow is rare and most soil water percolates through the clay layer. We hypothesize that the lack of frequent lateral flow is due to penetration of the clay layer by roots of pine trees. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map the soil structure and potential anomalies, such as root holes, down to two meters depth at three 10×10-m plots. At each plot, a 1×10-m trench was later back-hoe excavated along a transect that showed the most anomalies on the GPR maps. Each trench was excavated at 0.5-m intervals until the clay layer was reached (two plots were excavated to a final depth of 0.875 m and the third plot was excavated to a final depth of 1.0 m). At each interval, compact constant-head permeameters (CCHPs) were used to measure in-situ hydraulic conductivities in the clay-loam matrix and in any visually apparent anomalies. Conductivity was also estimated using a second 1×10-m transect of CCHP measurements taken within randomly placed augur holes. Additional holes targeted GPR anomalies. The second transect was created in case the back-hoe impacted conductivity readings. High-conductivity anomalies were also visually investigated by excavating with a shovel. Photographs of soil wetness were taken at visually apparent anomalies with a multispectral camera. We discovered that all visually apparent anomalies found are represented on the GPR maps, but that not all of the predicted anomalies on the GPR maps are visually apparent. We discovered that tree root holes create anomalies, but that there were also many conductivity anomalies that could not be visually distinguished from low-conductivity

  20. On the effective hydraulic conductivity in mean vertical unsaturated steady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severino, Gerardo; Santini, Alessandro

    2005-09-01

    Water flow in partially saturated heterogeneous porous formations is modelled by regarding the hydraulic parameters as stationary random space functions (RSFs). As a consequence, the flow variables are also RSFs, and we aim to develop a procedure to derive the effective hydraulic conductivity (EHC). The methodology relies on a perturbation approach which regards the variances of the hydraulic parameters as small quantities. By using the Gardner's [Gardner WR. Some steady state solutions of unsaturated moisture flow equations with application to evaporation from a water table. Soil Sci 1958;85:228-32] two-parameters ( Ks, α) model for the local unsaturated conductivity, we obtain the EHC for any dimensionality d of the flow domain, and arbitrary correlation functions of the input RSFs. Unlike previous studies [e.g. Yeh T-CJ, Gelhar J, Gutjahr A. Stochastic analysis of unsaturated flow in heterogenous soils. 1. Statistically isotropic media. Water Resour Res 1985;21;447-56, Yeh T-CJ, Gelhar J, Gutjahr A. Stochastic analysis of unsaturated flow in heterogenous soils. 2. Statistically anisotropic media with variable α. Water Resour Res 1985:21:457-64], the EHC is represented here as product between the local scale conductivity valid for a domain of mean parameters, and a correction function κ∗ which depends on the medium heterogeneity structure and the mean pressure head. Generally, the correction function κ∗ is expressed by d-fold quadrature. These quadratures are further reduced after adopting specific (i.e. exponential and Gaussian) structure for the (cross) correlation functions involved in the computation of κ∗. We have also focused on some particular formation structures which are relevant for the applications, and permit simplification of the computational aspect, as well. We investigate effects of the heterogeneity formation properties as well as the mean head on the structure of κ∗. Overall, results suggest that, given the formation statistics

  1. Evolution of neural networks for the prediction of hydraulic conductivity as a function of borehole geophysical logs: Shobasama site, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Paul C.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of a project to develop a neural network for the prediction of the measured hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity in a series of boreholes at the Tono, Japan study site. Geophysical measurements were used as the input to EL feed-forward neural network. A simple genetic algorithm was used to evolve the architecture and parameters of the neural network in conjunction with an optimal subset of geophysical measurements for the prediction of hydraulic conductivity. The first attempt was focused on the estimation of the class of the hydraulic conductivity, high, medium or low, from the geophysical logs. This estimation was done while using the genetic algorithm to simultaneously determine which geophysical logs were the most important and optimizing the architecture of the neural network. Initial results showed that certain geophysical logs provided more information than others- most notably the 'short-normal', micro-resistivity, porosity and sonic logs provided the most information on hydraulic conductivity. The neural network produced excellent training results with accuracy of 90 percent or greater, but was unable to produce accurate predictions of the hydraulic conductivity class. The second attempt at prediction was done using a new methodology and a modified data set. The new methodology builds on the results of the first attempts at prediction by limiting the choices of geophysical logs to only those that provide significant information. Additionally, this second attempt uses a modified data set and predicts transmissivity instead of hydraulic conductivity. Results of these simulations indicate that the most informative geophysical measurements for the prediction of transmissivity are depth and sonic log. The long normal resistivity and self potential borehole logs are moderately informative. In addition, it was found that porosity and crack counts (clear, open, or hairline) do not inform predictions of

  2. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Kevin A; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M; Dawson, Todd E; Franks, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem-leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO₂ concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO₂ on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem-leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO₂ assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  3. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  4. Hydraulic conductivity and water quality of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface geophysical logs were correlated with logs of drill cuttings to determine the permeability of selected zones of the shallow aquifer, Palm Beach County, Fla. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is estimated to range from 1 to 130 feet per day, based on lithology and physical properties. The yield of wells penetrating this aquifer ranges from 100 to more than 1,000 gallons per minute. Water samples were collected from different depths throughout the county and analyzed for chemical constituents. Stiff diagrams illustrate the changes in types of water by depth and area. Water of suitable quality is in the eastern parts of the county. In this area the aquifer is the thickest and most permeable. The concentration of chemical constituents in the water increase in a westerly direction. The water in the western parts of the county is unsuitable for most purposes. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. The endothelial glycocalyx mediates shear-induced changes in hydraulic conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Sandra V.; Amaya, Ronny; Pahakis, Manolis; Tarbell, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have reported fluid shear stress-induced increases in endothelial layer hydraulic conductivity (Lp) that are mediated by an increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Other recent studies have shown that NO induction by shear stress is mediated by the glycocalyx that decorates the surface of endothelial cells. Here we find that a selective depletion of the major components of the glycocalyx with enzymes can block the shear stress-induced response of Lp. Heparinase and hyaluronidase block shear-induced increases in Lp, which is consistent with their effects on NO production. But chondroitinase, which does not suppress shear-induced NO production, also inhibits shear-induced Lp. A further surprise is that treatment with the general proteolytic enzyme pronase does not suppress the shear Lp response. We also find that heparinase does not alter baseline Lp significantly, whereas chondroitinase, hyaluronidase, and pronase increase it significantly. PMID:19286951

  6. UNSATURATED FLOW IN A CENTRIFUGAL FIELD: MEASUREMENT OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND TESTING OF DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Rubin, J.; Hammermeister, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed to establish steady flow of water in unsaturated soil sample spinning in a centrifuge. Theoretical analysis predicts moisture conditions in the sample that depend strongly on soil type and certain operating parameter. For Oakley sand, measurements of flux, water content, and matric potential during and after centrifugation verify that steady state flow can be achieved. Experiments have confirmed the theoretical prediction of a nearly uniform moisture distribution for this medium and have demonstrated that the flow can be effectively one-dimensional. The method was used for steady state measurements of hydraulic conductivity K for relatively dry soil, giving values at low as 7. 6 multiplied by 10** minus **1**1 m/s with data obtained in a few hours. Darcy's law was tested by measuring K for different centrifugal driving forces but with the same water content.

  7. Estimation of the change in hydraulic conductivity above mined longwall panels.

    PubMed

    Tammetta, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The change in hydraulic conductivity (K) above subsided longwall panels at underground coal mines is determined using a data base of pre-mining and post-mining K measurements made at multiple locations down the depth profile at each of a number of sites worldwide. Results show that, following caving of roof strata, there is a clear difference in the magnitude of changes in K above and below the top of the collapsed zone. Within the collapsed zone, relative increases in K are larger, even when taking account of measurements made in potentially unsaturated strata. A generalized conceptual model is presented for K change above subsided longwall panels. These results form a third independent database supporting the height of desaturation reported in an earlier study. PMID:24405232

  8. Soil hydraulic conductivities of latosols under pasture, forest and teak in Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Newton, Bradley E.; Dunne, Thomas; de Moraes, Jorge M.

    1999-06-01

    We investigated the changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ksat , with depth of latosols developed on Precambrian basement rocks under primary rainforest, pasture and teak. In all cases, Ksat decreased with depth, with most of the decrease occurring between the surface and a depth of 30 cm. In conjunction with prevailing rainfall intensities and frequencies, this anisotropy supports a pronounced lateral component of hillslope flow paths, and also of overland flow under pasture. Our results are at variance with data from other latosols where Ksat tends to increase with depth, and hence suggest that considerable restraint is needed in generalization and extrapolation until results from a co-ordinated effort at hydrology-oriented data collection become available.

  9. A new method for high-resolution characterization of hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Butler, J.J., Jr.; Bohling, G.C.; Reboulet, E.; Knobbe, S.; Hyndman, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new probe has been developed for high-resolution characterization of hydraulic conductivity (K) in shallow unconsolidated formations. The probe was recently applied at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Mississippi where K was rapidly characterized at a resolution as fine as 0.015 m, which has not previously been possible. Eleven profiles were obtained with K varying up to 7 orders of magnitude in individual profiles. Currently, high-resolution (0.015-m) profiling has an upper K limit of 10 m/d; lower-resolution (???0.4-m) mode is used in more permeable zones pending modifications. The probe presents a new means to help address unresolved issues of solute transport in heterogeneous systems. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Statistical Distribution of Streambed Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity along the Platte River, Nebraska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.; Song, J.; Chen, X.; Wang, D.

    2009-12-01

    Streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) plays an important role in understanding the stream-aquifer interactions. While several researchers have discussed the spatial variability of streambed horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kh) or Kv at one or several close-located sites in a river, they did not develop any statistical distribution analysis of streambed Kv at distant sites along a large river. In this study, the statistical distribution and spatial variation of streambed Kv at 18 test sites in a 300-km reach of the Platte River in Nebraska were presented. In-situ permeameter tests using the falling-head method were carried out to calculate the streambed Kv values. Streambed Kv values in the studied river reach can be placed into three groups decreasing downstream. The streambed Kv values between Schuyler and Woods Landing in the Platte River were lower than those values between Kearney and Central City, a result of contribution of fine-grained sediments from the Loup River downstream to the Platte River. The streambed Kv value at the Ashland site was even smaller, which can be attributed to the additional effects of lower-K sediments from the Elkhorn River deposited in the downstream Platte River. The streambed Kv values were normally distributed nearly at each test site. When the correlated Kv values were taken out from the grid sampling plots, the remaining sub-datasets of streambed Kv values were still in normal distribution at each test site. Furthermore, the combined streambed Kv values of nine test sites in the Platte River from Kearney to Central City was normally distributed, which may be due to the lack of tributaries in-between and thus streambed sediments were well distributed. In contrast, the combined streambed Kv values of seven sites between Schuyler and Woods Landing did not show normal distribution, instead, display somewhat bimodal distribution.