Science.gov

Sample records for hydraulic power pack

  1. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1998-12-15

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode is described. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell. 15 figs.

  2. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  3. VMEbus packs multiprocessing power

    SciTech Connect

    Victor, J.

    1987-04-01

    VMEbus is on the move. With support from more than 300 board vendors, the bus continues to add a formidable array of powerful products aimed at high-throughput, fast-I/O, multiprocessing and real-time industrial-control tasks. In fact, the capabilities of these integrated boards and software center on certain key areas: A slew of 32-bit-processor-based boards with clock speeds up to 25 MHz; Zero wait-state access up to 4M bytes of on-board, dual-ported RAM; Multiple high-speed intelligent I/O channels; A variety of multitasking, multiuser and real-time operating systems; Data and/or instruction caches and high-speed local buses for fast memory access; Integrated math coprocessors and memory-management chips; and Fast signal-processing boards. This article discusses some of the products that are available.

  4. Recover Power with Hydraulic Motors 

    E-print Network

    Brennan, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Anywhere liquid pressure is reduced across a throttling device, there is a potential application for a hydraulic power recovery motor (HPRM). Cost of power makes HPRM's attractive with recoveries as small as 25 hp on a ...

  5. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  6. Gas-to-hydraulic power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, C. W. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A gas piston driven hydraulic piston pump is described in which the gas cycle is of high efficiency by injecting the gas in slugs at the beginning of each power stroke. The hydraulic piston is disposed to operate inside the as piston, and the two pistons, both slidably but nonrotatably mounted, are coupled together with a rotating but non-sliding motion transfer ring extending into antifriction grooves in the sidewalls of the two pistons. To make the hydraulic piston move at a constant speed during constant hydraulic horsepower demand and thus exert a constant pressure on the hydraulic fluid, these grooves are machined with variable pitches and one is the opposite of the other, i.e., the gas piston groove increases in pitch during its power stroke while the hydraulic piston groove decreases. Any number of piston assembly sets may be used to obtain desired hydraulic horsepower.

  7. Space Shuttle Upgrades Advanced Hydraulic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three Auxiliary Power Units (APU) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter each provide 145 hp shaft power to a hydraulic pump which outputs 3000 psi hydraulic fluid to 41 hydraulic actuators. A hydrazine fuel powered APU utilized throughout the Shuttle program has undergone many improvements, but concerns remain with flight safety, operational cost, critical failure modes, and hydrazine related hazards. The advanced hydraulic power system (AHPS), also known as the electric APU, is being evaluated as an upgrade to replace the hydrazine APU. The AHPS replaces the high-speed turbine and hydrazine fuel supply system with a battery power supply and electric motor/pump that converts 300 volt electrical power to 3000 psi hydraulic power. AHPS upgrade benefits include elimination of toxic hydrazine propellant to improve flight safety, reduction in hazardous ground processing operations, and improved reliability. Development of this upgrade provides many interesting challenges and includes development of four hardware elements that comprise the AHPS system: Battery - The battery provides a high voltage supply of power using lithium ion cells. This is a large battery that must provide 28 kilowatt hours of energy over 99 minutes of operation at 300 volts with a peak power of 130 kilowatts for three seconds. High Voltage Power Distribution and Control (PD&C) - The PD&C distributes electric power from the battery to the EHDU. This 300 volt system includes wiring and components necessary to distribute power and provide fault current protection. Electro-Hydraulic Drive Unit (EHDU) - The EHDU converts electric input power to hydraulic output power. The EHDU must provide over 90 kilowatts of stable, output hydraulic power at 3000 psi with high efficiency and rapid response time. Cooling System - The cooling system provides thermal control of the Orbiter hydraulic fluid and EHDU electronic components. Symposium presentation will provide an overview of the AHPS upgrade, descriptions of the four hardware elements, and a summary of development results to date.

  8. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented.

  9. Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.

    PubMed

    Beck, E J

    1975-07-25

    Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

  10. Autoerotic fatalities with power hydraulics.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, R L; Dietz, P E

    1993-03-01

    We report two cases in which men used the hydraulic shovels on tractors to suspend themselves for masochistic sexual stimulation. One man developed a romantic attachment to a tractor, even giving it a name and writing poetry in its honor. He died accidentally while intentionally asphyxiating himself through suspension by the neck, leaving clues that he enjoyed perceptual distortions during asphyxiation. The other man engaged in sexual bondage and transvestic fetishism, but did not purposely asphyxiate himself. He died when accidentally pinned to the ground under a shovel after intentionally suspending himself by the ankles. We compare these cases with other autoerotic fatalities involving perceptual distortion, cross-dressing, machinery, and postural asphyxiation by chest compression. PMID:8454997

  11. Lightweight, Flexible, Thin, Integrated Solar-Power Packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible, thin, one-piece, solar-power packs are undergoing development. Each power pack of this type is a complete, modular, integrated power-supply system comprising three power subsystems that, in conventional practice, have been constructed as separate units and connected to each other by wires. These power packs are amenable to a variety of uses: For example, they could be laminated to the tops of tents and other shelters to provide or augment power for portable electronic equipment in the field, and they could be used as power sources for such small portable electronic systems as radio transceivers (including data relays and cellular telephones), laptop computers, video camcorders, and Global Positioning System receivers.

  12. Hydraulic power unit for measurement while drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Peppers, J. M.; Shaikh, F. A.

    1984-11-20

    A hydraulic power unit is provided for a downhole instrument of a measurement while drilling system for a well drilling. The hydraulic power unit is enclosed within a drill collar that is connected in the drill string of a rotary drilling rig. An outer body sleeve is rigidly mounted in the instrument drill collar. A fixed inner sleeve is connected to the outer body sleeve in a concentric relation with a longitudinally movable plunger assembly supported therebetween and movable in the telescopic fashion between an extended position and a retracted position to provide hydraulic power fluid for the hydraulically powered circuits of the instrument.

  13. Centre Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan -Mechanical Engineering Fluid Power and Controls

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Centre Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan - Mechanical Engineering ­ Fluid Power and Controls ID: FP0003 Rev: 001 Date: May 31, 2010 Page: 1 of 7 Centre Hydraulic Power Supply;Centre Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan - Mechanical Engineering ­ Fluid Power

  14. East Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan -Mechanical Engineering Fluid Power and Controls

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    East Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan - Mechanical Engineering ­ Fluid Power and Controls ID: FP0004 Rev: 001 Date: May 31, 2010 Page: 1 of 7 East Hydraulic Power Supply and Test Bench. Approved By: Primary Contact: Doug Bitner Rm: 1B15.1 966-5462 Secondary Contact: #12;East Hydraulic Power

  15. HYPower Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan -Mechanical Engineering Fluid Power and Controls

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    HYPower Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan - Mechanical Engineering ­ Fluid Power and Controls ID: FP0002 Rev: 002 Date: May 31, 2010 Page: 1 of 7 Hydraulic Power Supply (HYPower-5462 Secondary Contact: #12;HYPower Hydraulic Power Supply Unit University of Saskatchewan - Mechanical

  16. Control issues for a hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented. (Schilling`s Titan II hydraulic manipulators are the slave manipulators and the master manipulators are from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed Advanced Servo Manipulator.)

  17. Power-law friction in closely-packed granular materials

    E-print Network

    Takahiro Hatano

    2007-05-08

    In order to understand the nature of friction in closely-packed granular materials, a discrete element simulation on granular layers subjected to isobaric plain shear is performed. It is found that the friction coefficient increases as the power of the shear rate, the exponent of which does not depend on the material constants. Using a nondimensional parameter that is known as the inertial number, the power-law can be cast in a generalized form so that the friction coefficients at different confining pressures collapse on the same curve. We show that the volume fraction also obeys a power-law.

  18. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  19. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric...

  20. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric...

  1. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric...

  2. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section 111...SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric...

  3. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

  4. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials...Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials...flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and control...

  5. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tanks containing a...

  6. A NEW PASSIVE CONTROLLER FOR A HYDRAULIC HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIER Perry Y. Li

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    A NEW PASSIVE CONTROLLER FOR A HYDRAULIC HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIER Perry Y. Li Department of Mechanical A new, intrinsically passive controller for hydraulic human power amplifier is presented. The hydraulic that humans manipulate directly, but have the ability to attenuate or amplify the apparent power

  7. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  8. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  9. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  10. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  11. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  12. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  13. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  14. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  15. Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Robert L.

    Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

  16. Powered orthosis and attachable power-assist device with Hydraulic Bilateral Servo System.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kengo; Saito, Yukio; Oshima, Toru; Higashihara, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the developments and control strategies of exoskeleton-type robot systems for the application of an upper limb powered orthosis and an attachable power-assist device for care-givers. Hydraulic Bilateral Servo System, which consist of a computer controlled motor, parallel connected hydraulic actuators, position sensors, and pressure sensors, are installed in the system to derive the joint motion of the exoskeleton arm. The types of hydraulic component structure and the control strategy are discussed in relation to the design philosophy and target joints motions. PMID:24110321

  17. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section...Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric...operated watertight door system that uses a hydraulic system common to more than one...

  18. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same... watertight door system that uses a hydraulic system common to more than one watertight door must be...

  19. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same... watertight door system that uses a hydraulic system common to more than one watertight door must be...

  20. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same... watertight door system that uses a hydraulic system common to more than one watertight door must be...

  1. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same... watertight door system that uses a hydraulic system common to more than one watertight door must be...

  2. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same... watertight door system that uses a hydraulic system common to more than one watertight door must be...

  3. Hydraulic turbines for electric power generation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction and applications of hydraulic turbines used for electric power generation. Erosion, corrosion, fatigue cracking, cavitation and runners in hydraulic turbines are discussed. Performance evaluations for design innovations of hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage of regulated and unregulated turbines as well as vibration analysis of hydro units in hydroelectric power plants are included. (Contains a minimum of 142 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Hydraulic turbines for electric power generation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction and applications of hydraulic turbines used for electric power generation. Erosion, corrosion, fatigue cracking, cavitation and runners in hydraulic turbines are discussed. Performance evaluations for design innovations of hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage of regulated and unregulated turbines as well as vibration analysis of hydro units in hydroelectric power plants are included. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Power-law friction in closely packed granular materials.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2007-06-01

    In order to understand the nature of friction in dense granular materials, a discrete element simulation on granular layers subjected to isobaric plain shear is performed. It is found that the friction coefficient increases as the power of the shear rate, the exponent of which does not depend on the material constants. Using a nondimensional parameter that is known as the inertial number, the power law can be cast in a generalized form so that the friction coefficients at different confining pressures collapse on the same curve. We show that the volume fraction also obeys a power law. PMID:17677206

  6. FUTURE POWER GRID INITIATIVE GridPACK: Grid Parallel Advanced

    E-print Network

    customized for the Power Grid domain. Users will be able to combine these modules to produce custom the lab's inception in 1965. For more information, please visit the FPGI website or contact: gridoptics

  7. Aalborg Universitet Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack -Modelling and

    E-print Network

    Berning, Torsten

    membrane technology used in high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells has great advantages when usingAalborg Universitet Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Power Pack - Modelling., Korsgaard, A., Nielsen, M. P., & Kær, S. K. (2006). Development of a 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

  8. Geomorphological and hydrological implications of a given hydraulic geometry relationship, beyond the power-law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongChun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Channel geometry and hydraulic characteristics of a given river network, i.e., spatio-temporal variability of width, depth, and velocity, can be described as power functional relationships of flow discharge, named 'hydraulic geometry' (Leopold and Maddock, 1953). Many studies have focused on the implication of this power-law itself, i.e., self-similarity, and accordingly its exponents. Coefficients of the power functional relationships, on the contrary, have received little attention. They are often regarded as empirical constants, determined by 'best fitting' to the power-law without significant scientific implications. Here, we investigate and claim that power-law coefficients of hydraulic geometry relationships carry vital information of a given river system. We approach the given problem on the basis of 'basin hydraulic geometry' formulation (Stall and Fok, 1968) which decomposes power-law coefficients into more elementary constants. The linkage between classical power-law relationship (Leopold and Maddock, 1953) and the basin hydraulic geometry is provided by Paik and Kumar (2004). On the basis of this earlier study, it can be shown that coefficients and exponents of power-law hydraulic geometry are interrelated. In this sense, we argue that more elementary constants that constitute both exponents and coefficients carry important messages. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how these elementary constants vary over a wide range of catchments provided from Stall and Fok (1968) and Stall and Yang (1970). Findings of this study can provide new insights on fundamental understanding about hydraulic geometry relationships. Further, we expect that this understanding can help interpretation of hydraulic geometry relationship in the context of flood propagation through a river system as well. Keywords: Hydraulic geometry; Power-law; River network References Leopold, L. B., & Maddock, T. J. (1953). The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic implications. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 252. Paik, K., & Kumar, P. (2004). Hydraulic geometry and the nonlinearity of the network instantaneous response, Water Resource Research, 40, W03602. Stall, J. B., & Fok, Y. S. (1968). Hydraulic geometry of Illinois streams. University of Illinois Water Resources Center Research Report, 15. Stall, J. B., & Yang, C. T. (1970). Hydraulic geometry of 12 selected stream systems of the United States. University of Illinois Water Resources Center Research Report, 32.

  9. Power trench gate MOSFET with an integrated 6-pack configuration for a 3-phase inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong-Il; Koo, Jin-Gun; Cho, Doo-Hyung; Park, Kun-Sik; Yang, Yil-Suk; Kim, Sang-Gi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new 6-pack power module for a 3-phase inverter that is integrated with the six trench gate double diffused metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (TDMOS) on a single chip. An integration of each power device is performed through a trench isolation technique using deep reactive-ion etching trench technologies. Through this new technology, the integrated power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) produces a high current of above 30 A at a gate bias of 10 V. In addition, each trench power MOSFET (1-pack) has a minimum specific on-resistance of 21 mohm.cm2 and a typical breakdown voltage of 95 V. The trench isolation provides good isolation up to 120 V. The measurement results show that this 6-pack structure can successfully be integrated with other analog/driver integrated circuit on a single chip. Furthermore, to monitor the operating current of the MOSFET under an inverter-operating condition, sensing FET is integrated a FET into the main MOSFET source region without compromising either the area or the operation of the MOSFET.

  10. Paper Number Sizing and Optimal Operation of a Power Split Hydraulic

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    configurations can often be found in heavier vehicles and applications with frequent start and stop, like garbage trucks or delivery trucks. This is due to the power density advantage of the hydraulic components. Other

  11. NEUTRONIC AND THERMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGNS OF ANNULAR FUEL FOR HIGH POWER DENSITY BWRS

    E-print Network

    Morra, P.

    As a promising new fuel for high power density light water reactors, the feasibility of using annular fuel for BWR services is explored from both thermal hydraulic and neutronic points of view. Keeping the bundle size ...

  12. A power pack based on organometallic perovskite solar cell and supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobao; Li, Shaohui; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Graetzel, Michael; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Wang, Mingkui

    2015-02-24

    We present an investigation on a power pack combining a CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor and evaluate its performance as an energy pack. The package achieved an energy storage efficiency of 10%, which is much higher than that of other systems combining a PV cell with a supercapacitor. We find a high output voltage of 1.45 V for the device under AM 1.5G illumination when the CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cell is connected in series with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor. This system affords continuous output of electric power by using CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cell as an energy source mitigating transients caused by light intensity fluctuations or the diurnal cycle. PMID:25611128

  13. GridPACK Toolkit for Developing Power Grid Simulations on High Performance Computing Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Bruce J.; Perkins, William A.; Glass, Kevin A.; Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Callahan, Charles D.

    2013-11-30

    This paper describes the GridPACK™ framework, which is designed to help power grid engineers develop modeling software capable of running on todays high performance computers. The framework contains modules for setting up distributed power grid networks, assigning buses and branches with arbitrary behaviors to the network, creating distributed matrices and vectors, using parallel linear and non-linear solvers to solve algebraic equations, and mapping functionality to create matrices and vectors based on properties of the network. In addition, the framework contains additional functionality to support IO and to manage errors.

  14. Control of a Hydraulically-Powered, Differential Lift Project Proposal

    E-print Network

    to raise and lower the load. A pump draws hydraulic oil from a reservoir through a four-port, three-position, tandem center spool valve where the fluid experiences a non-linear resistance, Rv. Depending upon into the reservoir. A pulley is attached to the end of the rod protruding from the cylinder. A belt attached

  15. Portable ammonia-borane-based H2 power-pack for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Eun; Kim, Yujong; Kim, Yongmin; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Dae Hyung; Kim, Yeongcheon; Shin, Seock Jae; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung-Yug; Kim, Taegyu; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo

    2014-05-01

    An advanced ammonia borane (AB)-based H2 power-pack is designed to continually drive an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for 57 min using a 200-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In a flight test with the UAV platform integrated with the developed power-pack, pure hydrogen with an average flow rate of 3.8 L(H2) min-1 is generated by autothermal H2-release from AB with tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (T4EGDE) as a promoter. During take-off, a hybridized power management system (PMS) consisting of the fuel cell and an auxiliary lithium-ion battery supplies 500 We at full power simultaneously, while the fuel cell alone provides 150-200 We and further recharges the auxiliary battery upon cruising. Gaseous byproducts identified by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy during AB dehydrogenation are sequestrated using a mixed absorbent in an H2 purification system. In addition, a real-time monitoring system is employed to determine the remaining filter capacity of the purifier at a ground control system for rapidly responding unpredictable circumstances during flight. Separate experiments are conducted to screen potential materials and methods for enhancing filter capacity in the current H2 refining system. A prospective reactor concept for long-term fuel cell applications is proposed based on the results.

  16. The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.

  17. Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Shi, Juan; Liang, Peng; Wei, Jincheng; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Chuanyi; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-08-01

    Catalysts and catalyst binders are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. Packed-bed air-cathodes were constructed without expensive binders or diffusion layers using four inexpensive carbon-based materials. Cathodes made from activated carbon produced the largest maximum power density of 676 ± 93 mW/m(2), followed by semi-coke (376 ± 47 mW/m(2)), graphite (122 ± 14 mW/m(2)) and carbon felt (60 ± 43 mW/m(2)). Increasing the mass of activated carbon and semi-coke from 5 to ? 15 g significantly reduced power generation because of a reduction in oxygen transfer due to a thicker water layer in the cathode (?3 or ?6 cm). These results indicate that a thin packed layer of activated carbon or semi-coke can be used to make inexpensive air-cathodes for MFCs. PMID:23732924

  18. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC's current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  19. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC`s current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described.

  20. An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    An Integrated Power Pack of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell and Li Battery Based on Double-Sided TiO2 harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye- sensitized solar cell material.11,15 Compared with other integrated solar power supplies,16,17 double-sided TiO2 NTs with large

  1. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimball, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kilowatt tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated.A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 megawatt tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation's 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one megawatt per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine's Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 megapascals, 2900 pounds per square inch) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, water-miscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC's cross-flow turbines are also discussed.For 15 megawatt of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  2. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimbrall, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kW tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated. A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 MW tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation s 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one MW per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine s Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 MPa, 2900 psi) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, watermiscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC s cross-flow turbines are also discussed. For 15 MW of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  3. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  4. The role of filament-packing dynamics in powering amoeboid cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Long; Vanderlinde, Orion; Liu, Jun; Grant, Richard P.; Wouterse, Alan; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Philipse, Albert; Stewart, Murray; Roberts, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Although several models have been proposed to account for how cytoskeleton polymerization drives protrusion in cell motility, the precise mechanism remains controversial. Here, we show that, in addition to force exerted directly against the membrane by growing filaments, the way elongating filaments pack also contributes to protrusion by generating an expansion of the cytoskeleton gel. Tomography shows that filament packing in the major sperm protein (MSP) -based nematode sperm-motility machinery resembles that observed with rigid rods. Maximum rod-packing density decreases dramatically as the rods lengthen. Therefore, as filaments elongate, the cytoskeleton gel expands to accommodate their packing less densely. This volume expansion combines with polymerization to drive protrusion. Consistent with this hypothesis, an engineered MSP mutant that generates shorter filaments shows higher filament-packing density and slower movement. PMID:18385381

  5. Analysis of hydraulic power transduction in regenerative rotary shock absorbers as function of working fluid kinematic viscosity

    E-print Network

    Avadhany, Shakeel N

    2009-01-01

    This investigation seeks to investigate the relationship of kinematic fluid viscosity to the effective power transduction seen by a hydraulic motor. Applications of this research specifically relate to energy recovery from ...

  6. Raising the Bar: Increased Hydraulic Pressure Allows Unprecedented High Power Densities in Pressure-Retarded Osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, AP; Yip, NY; Elimelech, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has the potential to generate sustainable energy from salinity gradients. PRO is typically considered for operation with river water and seawater, but a far greater energy of mixing can be harnessed from hypersaline solutions. This study investigates the power density that can be obtained in PRO from such concentrated solutions. Thin-film composite membranes with an embedded woven mesh were supported by tricot fabric feed spacers in a specially designed crossflow cell to maximize the operating pressure of the system, reaching a stable applied hydraulic pressure of 48 bar (700 psi) for more than 10 h. Operation at this increased hydraulic pressure allowed unprecedented power densities, up to 60 W/m(2) with a 3 M (180 g/L) NaCl draw solution. Experimental power densities demonstrate reasonable agreement with power densities modeled using measured membrane properties, indicating high-pressure operation does not drastically alter membrane performance. Our findings exhibit the promise of the generation of power from high-pressure PRO with concentrated solutions.

  7. Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis of sectored compact reactor for lunar surface power

    SciTech Connect

    Schriener, T. M.; El-Genk, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The liquid NaK-cooled, fast-neutron spectrum, Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe-N 5) concept has been developed at the Univ. of New Mexico for lunar surface power applications. It is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel pins in a triangular lattice, and nominally operates at exit and inlet coolant temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. This long-life reactor generates up to 1 MWth continuously for {>=} 20 years. To avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling, the core is divided into 6 sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. This paper performs a 3-D the thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCoRe--N 5 at nominal operation temperatures and a power level of 1 MWth. In addition, the paper investigates the potential of continuing reactor operation at a lower power in the unlikely event that one sector in the core experiences a loss of coolant (LOC). Redesigning the core with a contiguous steel matrix enhances the cooling of the sector experiencing a LOC. Results show that with a core sector experiencing a LOC, SCORE-N 5 could continue operating safely at a reduced power of 166.6 kWth. (authors)

  8. Asymmetric Base-Bleed Effect on Aerospike Plume-Induced Base-Heating Environment During Power-Pack Out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Droege, Alan; D'Agostino, Mark; Lee, Young-Ching; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A computational heat transfer design methodology was developed to study tbe dual-engine linear aerospike plume-induced base-heating environment during one power-pack out, in ascent flight. It includes a three-dimensional, finite volume, viscous, chemically reacting, and pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, a special base-bleed boundary condition, and a three-dimensional, finite volume, and spectral-line-based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption computational radiation heat transfer formulation. A separate radiation model was used for diagnostic purposes. The computational methodology was systematically benchmarked. in this study, near-base radiative heat fluxes were computed, and they compared well with those measured during static linear aerospike engine tests. The base-heating environment of 18 trajectory points secected from three power-pack out scenarios was computed. The computed asymmetric base-heating physics were analyzed. The power-pack out condition has the most impact on convective base heating when it happens early in flight. The soume of its impact comes from the asymmetric and reduced base bleed.

  9. Design of a hydraulic power take-off system for the wave energy device with an inverse pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-hai; Li, Wei; Zhao, Hai-tao; Bao, Jing-wei; Lin, Yong-gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a dual-stroke acting hydraulic power take-off (PTO) system employed in the wave energy converter (WEC) with an inverse pendulum. The hydraulic PTO converts slow irregular reciprocating wave motions to relatively smooth, fast rotation of an electrical generator. The design of the hydraulic PTO system and its control are critical to maximize the generated power. A time domain simulation study and the laboratory experiment of the full-scale beach test are presented. The results of the simulation and laboratory experiments including their comparison at full-scale are also presented, which have validated the rationality of the design and the reliability of some key components of the prototype of the WEC with an inverse pendulum with the dual-stroke acting hydraulic PTO system.

  10. Numerical and field tests of hydraulic transients at Piva power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giljen, Z.

    2014-03-01

    In 2009, a sophisticated field investigation was undertaken and later, in 2011, numerical tests were completed, on all three turbine units at the Piva hydroelectric power plant. These tests were made in order to assist in making decisions about the necessary scope of the reconstruction and modernisation of the Piva hydroelectric power plant, a plant originally constructed in the mid-1970s. More specifically, the investigation included several hydraulic conditions including both the start-up and stopping of each unit, load rejection under governor control from different initial powers, as well as emergency shut-down. Numerical results were obtained using the method of characteristics in a representation that included the full flow system and the characteristics of each associated Francis turbine. The impact of load rejection and emergency shut-down on the penstock pressure and turbine speed changes are reported and numerical and experimental results are compared, showing close agreement.

  11. Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design

    SciTech Connect

    Krotiuk, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation.

  12. Modeling the performance of the piston ring-pack with consideration of non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system in internal combustion engines

    E-print Network

    Liu, Liang, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    The performance of the piston ring-pack is directly associated with the friction, oil consumption, wear, and blow-by in internal combustion engines. Because of non-axisymmetric characteristics of the power cylinder system, ...

  13. Current evaluation of hydraulics to replace the cable force transmission system for body-powered upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M

    1990-01-01

    Present body-powered upper-limb prostheses use a cable control system employing World War II aircraft technology to transmit force from the body to the prosthesis for operation. The cable and associated hardware are located outside the prosthesis. Because individuals with arm amputations want prostheses that are natural looking with a smooth, soft outer surface, a design and development project was undertaken to replace the cable system with hydraulics located inside the prosthesis. Three different hydraulic transmission systems were built for evaluation, and other possibilities were explored. Results indicate that a hydraulic force transmission system remains an unmet challenge as a practical replacement for the cable system. The author was unable to develop a hydraulic system that meets the necessary dynamic requirements and is acceptable in size and appearance. PMID:10149042

  14. Aortic impedance and hydraulic power in the chick embryo from stages 18 to 29.

    PubMed

    Zahka, K G; Hu, N; Brin, K P; Yin, F C; Clark, E B

    1989-06-01

    Little is known about the hemodynamic properties of the rapidly expanding arterial bed during embryonic development. Using a servo-null pressure system and 20-MHz pulsed Doppler velocity meter, we recorded simultaneous dorsal aortic pressure and velocity waveforms. The waveforms were digitized at 3-msec intervals and subjected to Fourier analysis. We calculated hydraulic energy and the impedance spectrum to 10 Hz. From stages 18 to 29, heart rate (148 +/- 3 to 193 +/- 9 beats/min), systolic pressure (1.14 +/- 0.12 to 3.04 +/- 0.10 mm Hg), and mean dorsal aortic blood flow (21 +/- 2 to 214 +/- 19 mm3/min) increased. Peripheral vascular resistance (Z0: 30.4 +/- 4.8 to 6.4 +/- 0.7 dyne x sec/mm5), and the impedance moduli (Z1: 6.5 +/- 1.0 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 dyne x sec/mm5; Z2: 6.1 +/- 1.2 to 1.7 +/- 0.1 dyne x sec/mm5; Z3: 7.3 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 dyne x sec/mm5) decreased. Total hydraulic power increased from 48 +/- 7 to 2,606 +/- 96 nW, while the proportion of oscillatory energy increased from 29 +/- 2% to 65 +/- 4%. With development hydraulic load decreases, total external work increases and the dorsal aorta and embryonic vascular bed becomes more compliant. A greater proportion of total energy is expanded in pulsatile blood flow, suggesting that ventricular-arterial coupling is less efficient later in development. PMID:2720913

  15. Advanced EV/HEV battery pack testing using the ABC-150 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.

    1997-12-01

    The ABC-150 battery test system is the first system designed for the demanding requirements of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery testing. With high accuracy, fast response and flexible test automation capabilities, the ABC-150 provides the most advanced set of capabilities for EV/HEV battery pack testing. These features are described and several examples of actual use are given.

  16. Supporting Information Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    E-print Network

    activated carbon (GAC), (B) granular semicoke (GS), (C) carbon felt cube (CFC), and (D) granular graphite (GG). #12;3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Voltage(V) Time (h) GAC GS Fig. S2 Voltage generation by packed-bed air-cathode MFCs with GAC and GS (under 1000 ) #12;4 0 100 200 300 400

  17. Problems of ensuring the safety of hydraulic structures of power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Lashchenov, S.Ya.

    1994-06-01

    The relatively high reliability of domestic hydraulic structures promotes the creation of the illusion of their absolute safety. However, would experience and recently the practice of operating hydraulic structures in Russia and countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) convincingly indicate the need for a substantial review of our attitude toward practical activities with respect to ensuring the safety of hydraulic structures.

  18. Simultaneous transient operation of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station in the same hydraulic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cervantes, M. J.; C?linoiu, C.; Isb??oiu, E. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an on-site experimental analysis of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station, in an interconnected complex hydraulic scheme during simultaneous transient operation. The investigated hydropower site has a unique structure as the pumping station discharges the water into the hydropower plant penstock. The operation regimes were chosen for critical scenarios such as sudden load rejections of the turbines as well as start-ups and stops with different combinations of the hydraulic turbines and pumps operation. Several parameters were simultaneously measured such as the pumped water discharge, the pressure at the inlet pump section, at the outlet of the pumps and at the vane house of the hydraulic power plant surge tank. The results showed the dependence of the turbines and the pumps operation. Simultaneous operation of the turbines and the pumps is possible in safe conditions, without endangering the machines or the structures. Furthermore, simultaneous operation of the pumping station together with the hydropower plant increases the overall hydraulic efficiency of the site since shortening the discharge circuit of the pumps.

  19. An integrated power pack of dye-sensitized solar cell and Li battery based on double-sided TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxi; Xue, Xinyu; Wang, Sihong; Lin, Changjian; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach to fabricate an integrated power pack by hybridizing energy harvest and storage processes. This power pack incorporates a series-wound dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a lithium ion battery (LIB) on the same Ti foil that has double-sided TiO(2) nanotube (NTs) arrays. The solar cell part is made of two different cosensitized tandem solar cells based on TiO(2) nanorod arrays (NRs) and NTs, respectively, which provide an open-circuit voltage of 3.39 V and a short-circuit current density of 1.01 mA/cm(2). The power pack can be charged to about 3 V in about 8 min, and the discharge capacity is about 38.89 ?Ah under the discharge density of 100 ?A. The total energy conversion and storage efficiency for this system is 0.82%. Such an integrated power pack could serve as a power source for mobile electronics. PMID:22519631

  20. Extending PowerPack for Profiling and Analysis of High Performance Accelerator-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Chang, Hung-Ching; Song, Shuaiwen; Su, Chun-Yi; Meyer, Timmy; Mooring, John; Cameron, Kirk

    2014-12-01

    Accelerators offer a substantial increase in efficiency for high-performance systems offering speedups for computational applications that leverage hardware support for highly-parallel codes. However, the power use of some accelerators exceeds 200 watts at idle which means use at exascale comes at a significant increase in power at a time when we face a power ceiling of about 20 megawatts. Despite the growing domination of accelerator-based systems in the Top500 and Green500 lists of fastest and most efficient supercomputers, there are few detailed studies comparing the power and energy use of common accelerators. In this work, we conduct detailed experimental studies of the power usage and distribution of Xeon-Phi-based systems in comparison to the NVIDIA Tesla and at SandyBridge.

  1. Pack Saddle

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is a pack saddle used by Arnold Hague in the late 1800s. The wooden saddle has leather straps and a cinch used for the animal's comfort when carrying especially large loads. Pack saddles could be used to carry panniers or other large objects. Object ID: USGS-000014...

  2. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  3. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of cross-shaped spiral fuel in high power density BWRs

    E-print Network

    Conboy, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of the cross-shaped spiral (CSS) fuel assembly suggests great thermal-hydraulic upside. According to computational models, the increase in rod surface area, combined with an increase in coolant turbulence ...

  4. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

  5. Abstract--Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping rehabilitation applications. I. INTRODUCTION A. Background An ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) is a device that assists

  6. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  7. Reactor thermal-hydraulic FY 1986 status report for the multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krotiuk, W.J.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-10-01

    PNL's 1986 activities can be divided into three basic areas: code assessment, correlation assessment and experimental activities. The ultimate goal of all these activities is developing computer codes and verifying their use to perform the thermal-hydraulic analysis and design of the reactor core and plenum of the various proposed concepts. To perform this task as assessment is made of existing computer codes, models, correlations, and microgravity experimental data.

  8. Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pan; He, Wei; García-Naranjo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T2eff and longitudinal relaxation time T1 were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T2eff,long and T1,long. This indicates that the T2eff,long and T1,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines. PMID:24736132

  9. Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells Xiaoyuan Zhang a,b

    E-print Network

    and semi- coke air-cathodes were most cost- effective. Oxygen transfer limited performance with thicker form 3 May 2013 Accepted 5 May 2013 Available online 16 May 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Packed-bed air-cathode Granular activated carbon Granular semi-coke Oxygen transfer a b s t r a c t Catalysts

  10. International Journal of Fluid Power Vol. 5(2). pp. 43-56, 2004. PASSIVE BILATERAL TELEOPERATION OF A HYDRAULIC

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    OF A HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR USING AN ELECTROHYDRAULIC PASSIVE VALVE Perry Y. Li and Kailash Krishnaswamy Department and the hydraulic actuator converges to zero for sufficiently low manipulation bandwidth. Experimental results verify the characteristics of the control scheme. Keywords: hydraulic teleoperation, bilateral

  11. Automatic Differentiation: A Powerful Device for the Estimation of Hydraulic Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, R. M.; Guerrero, J.

    2008-12-01

    Our aim is to estimate the hydraulic transmission parameter T, in the confined aquifer equation: [1] ? / ? x}( T ? h} / ? x}) + ? / ? y}( T ? h} / ? y})=S ? h} / ? t}+q, which is typical case of an ill posed inverse problem. A widely used strategy to solve (1) in practice is to estimate T as the T0 solution of a certain kind of a nonlinear optimization problem such as: [2] minT F(T), F(T)= | hk(T)-h0 |2, where h0 is a real observations vector and hk(T) is the solution of (1) related to the actual Tk solution of (2), obtained by some iterative process. We shall present computational results of estimating T for the cuban Ariguanabo aquifer, emphasizing the use of automatic differentiation to solve the optimization problem (2), by comparing this alternative with the use of the divided differences method.

  12. The influence of pulmonary blood flow rate on vascular input impedance and hydraulic power in the sympathetically and noradrenaline stimulated cat lung.

    PubMed

    Piene, H

    1976-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SN) and alpha-adrenergic receptor stimulation (alphaS) on the pulmonary vascular input impedance and hydraulic power output of the right heart during variations of cardiac output (CO). An open chest cat preparation was used and pulsatile pressure and flow in the pulmonary artery were measured by high frequency response transducers. Calculations showed that vascular resistance (VR) was inversely dependent on CO, but input impedance of the unstimulated lung was not influenced by CO variations. NS or alphaS increased VR and input impedance significantly, and the relation pulsatile hydraulic power/total hydraulic power (Wp/Wt) increased 40%, indicating that such stimulation has larger relative influence on impedance than on resistance. The reduction of arterial compliance during NS (maximal stimulus) was calculated to be 60%, independent of CO. Input impedance during NS or alphaS was reduced by CO elevations, probably because the concomitant distension of the arterial bed reduced arterial resistance and inertance. The ratio Wp/CO, which expresses the fraction of pulsatile hydraulic power lost per ml mean arterial flow, was found to be flow dependent both in control and stimulated conditions: Wp/CO was positively correlated to CO in control condition and weakly negatively correlated to CO during stimulation. At high CO the arterial vessels could be stimulated and stiffened without much extra load on the right heart. PMID:970156

  13. Portable Hydraulic Powerpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

  14. Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmissions for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    .g. Toyota Prius) that require one planetary gear set; and compound power-splits ([1], [2], [6]) that require two planetary gear sets. In [1], [2], [6] where an extra planetary gear set is used, it is only of gear ratios, a generalized kinematic relation is used to avoid redundant computation. This captures

  15. Investigation of alternate power source for Space Shuttle Orbiter hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Young, Fred M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation consists of a short-term feasibility study to determine whether or not an alternate electrical power source would trade favorably from a performance, reliability, safety, operation, and weight standpoint in replacing the current auxiliary power unit subsystems with its attendant components (water spray boiler, hydrazine fuel and tanks, feed and vent lines, controls, etc.), operating under current flight rules. Results of this feasibility study are used to develop recommendations for the next step (e.g., to determine if such an alternate electrical power source would show an advantage given that the current operational flight mode of the system could be modified in such a way as not to constrain the operational capability and safety of the vehicle). However, this next step is not within the scope of this investigation. This study does not include a cost analysis, nor does it include investigation of the integration aspects involved in such a trade, except in a qualitative sense for the determination of concept feasibility.

  16. Polyhedra and Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steurer, Walter; Deloudi, Sofia

    A packing is an arrangement of non-interpenetrable objects touching each other. In crystallography, dense packings play a special role for crystal structure modeling. Depending on the structure, it may be useful to describe it as packing of atoms or of larger structural units such as chains, columns, bands, layers or polyhedra. In this chapter, we will focus on polyhedra and their ways of space-filling packing. The emphasis is on periodic packings of Platonic and Archimedean solids. Quasiperiodic packings will be discussed on the example of polyhedra with icosahedral symmetry, in particular of triacontahedra and its related zonohedra.

  17. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  18. Carbonization and activation of inexpensive semicoke-packed electrodes to enhance power generation of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jincheng; Liang, Peng; Zuo, Kuichang; Cao, Xiaoxin; Huang, Xia

    2012-06-01

    A simple and low-cost modification method was developed to improve the power generation performance of inexpensive semicoke electrode in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). After carbonization and activation with water vapor at 800-850?°C, the MFC with the activated coke (modified semicoke) anode produced a maximum power density of 74 Wm(-3) , 17 Wm(-3) , and 681 mWm(-2) (normalized to anodic liquid volume, total reactor volume, and projected membrane surface area, respectively), which was 124 % higher than MFCs using a semicoke anode (33 Wm(-3) , 8 Wm(-3) , and 304 mWm(-2) ). When they were used as biocathode materials, activated coke produced a maximum power density of 177 Wm(-3) , 41 Wm(-3) , and 1628 mWm(-2) (normalized to cathodic liquid volume, total reactor volume, and projected membrane surface area, respectively), which was 211 % higher than that achieved by MFCs using a semicoke cathode (57 Wm(-3) , 13 Wm(-3) , and 524 mWm(-2) ). A substantial increase was also noted in the conductivity, C/O mass ratio, and specific area for activated coke, which reduced the ohmic resistance, increased biomass density, and promoted electron transfer between bacteria and electrode surface. The activated coke anode also produced a higher Coulombic efficiency and chemical oxygen demand removal rate than the semicoke anode. PMID:22639403

  19. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer. PMID:24571417

  20. On Discrete Hyperbox Packing 

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiafeng

    2010-01-14

    Bin packing is a very important and popular research area in the computer science field. Past work showed many good and real-world packing algorithms. How- ever, due to the complexity of the problem in multiple-dimensional bin packing, also called...

  1. A method for dense packing discovery

    E-print Network

    Yoav Kallus; Veit Elser; Simon Gravel

    2010-08-04

    The problem of packing a system of particles as densely as possible is foundational in the field of discrete geometry and is a powerful model in the material and biological sciences. As packing problems retreat from the reach of solution by analytic constructions, the importance of an efficient numerical method for conducting \\textit{de novo} (from-scratch) searches for dense packings becomes crucial. In this paper, we use the \\textit{divide and concur} framework to develop a general search method for the solution of periodic constraint problems, and we apply it to the discovery of dense periodic packings. An important feature of the method is the integration of the unit cell parameters with the other packing variables in the definition of the configuration space. The method we present led to improvements in the densest-known tetrahedron packing which are reported in [arXiv:0910.5226]. Here, we use the method to reproduce the densest known lattice sphere packings and the best known lattice kissing arrangements in up to 14 and 11 dimensions respectively (the first such numerical evidence for their optimality in some of these dimensions). For non-spherical particles, we report a new dense packing of regular four-dimensional simplices with density $\\phi=128/219\\approx0.5845$ and with a similar structure to the densest known tetrahedron packing.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF AN AERIAL VARIABLE-RATE APPLICATION SYSTEM WITH A HYDRAULICALLY POWERED CHEMICAL PUMP AND SPRAY VALVE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance was evaluated for a variable-rate system that consisted of a SATLOC M3 with AirTrac software with WAAS corrected DGPS (5 Hz position update) and an AutoCal II automatic flow controller. This system was installed on an Air Tractor 402B equipped with an auxiliary hydraulic package tha...

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT III, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULICS (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO INTRODUCE BASIC HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES AND PROVIDE AN UNDERSTANDING OF HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE WHY USE HYDRAULICS, REVIEWING BASIC PHYSICS LAWS IN RELATION TO HYDRAULICS, UNDERSTANDING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, AND DEVELOPING A BASIC HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. THE MODULE…

  4. Small Hydraulic Set-Up 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) is a new concept that would destroy actinides in spent fuel and produce electrical power. This study explores the possibility of modeling the thermo-hydraulics of this system with computational fluid...

  5. Stationary Apollonian Packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Christian; Delaney, Gary; Schmidt, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The notion of stationary Apollonian packings in the d-dimensional Euclidean space is introduced as a mathematical formalization of so-called random Apollonian packings and rotational random Apollonian packings, which constitute popular grain packing models in physics. Apart from dealing with issues of existence and uniqueness in the entire Euclidean space, asymptotic results are provided for the growth durations and it is shown that the packing is space-filling with probability 1, in the sense that the Lebesgue measure of its complement is zero. Finally, the phenomenon is studied that grains arrange in clusters and properties related to percolation are investigated.

  6. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, Stanley C. (Alameda, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA); Salas-Morales, Juan (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged.

  7. Hydraulic resistance to emulsion flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakov, V.I.; Blokhin, A.V.; Shevelev, A.V.

    1984-03-01

    This article demonstrates how the starting emulsion viscosity can be used to calculate hydraulic resistance. The emulsions for the experiments were prepared by saturating the liquid in an apparatus with a stirrer by a gas or a second liquid (water) acting as the disperse phase. The hydraulic resistance in emulsion flow through straight tubes was determined by measuring the pressure differential in a 1-m-long tube section in a circulation type apparatus by using tubes of different diameters. Water-in-oil type emulsion is formed in oil exploitation and desalination processes as well as in polymer synthesis when the polymer and its solution is washed off the catalyst residues with water. It is determined that in calculating the hydraulic resistance it is proper to use the starting emulsion viscosity since the end value under real conditions will be unknown because it depends on the initial state of dispersion of the water drops and the packing parameters which determine the packing capacity from drop enlargements.

  8. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  9. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  10. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  11. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  12. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  13. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  14. Harvesting and Packing Peaches. 

    E-print Network

    Lanham, W. B.

    1916-01-01

    Mechallical College of Texas (In co-operation with the United States Department of Agriculture.) MAY, 1916 EXTENSION SERVICE No. 8-22 Harvesting and Packing Peaches Fig. O.-A well packed basket of peaches. Address CLARENCE OUSLEY Director of Extension Service.... College Station. Texas HARVESTING AND PACKING PEACHES By W. B. Lanham, Horticulturist, Extension Service, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas The first thing to be considered in harvesting the peach crop is the equipment. As soon as danger...

  15. Thermal hydraulic calculations to support increase in operating power in McClellen Nuclear Radiation Center(MNRC) TRIGA reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R. T.

    1998-05-05

    The RELAP5/Mod3.1 computer program has been used to successfully perform thermal-hydraulic analyses to support the Safety Analysis for increasing the MNRC reactor from 1.0 MW to 2.0 MW. The calculation results show the reactor to have operating margin for both the fuel temperature and critical heat flux limits. The calculated maximum fuel temperature of 705 C is well below the 750 C operating limit. The critical heat flux ratio was calculated to be 2.51.

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of mortars as a tool in studying specific hydraulic components: application to the study of ancient Naxos aqueduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Galanos, A.; Doganis, I.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

    2011-07-01

    Mortars and plasters from the ancient aqueduct on the island of Naxos, Greece, were studied with regard to mineralogical and chemical composition, grain size distribution, raw materials and hydraulic properties, in order to assess their characteristics and design compatible repair mortars. The authentic materials contained lime, crushed-brick, siliceous and calcitic aggregates, in different proportions according to mortar type. Crushed-bricks fired at low temperatures and lightweight volcanic aggregates contained amorphous phases, which upon reaction with lime yielded hydraulic components capable of protecting the construction from the continuous presence of water. Hydraulic calcium silicate/aluminate hydrates, the proportions and the perfect packing of the raw materials, along with the diligent application justify the longevity and durability of the studied samples. The hydraulic properties of samples were pointed out through (a) the well-established CO2/H2O ratio derived from the thermogravimetric analysis and (b) by introducing two powerful indices issued from the chemical analysis, namely CaOhydr and soluble SiO2 hydr. These indices improved the clustering of hydraulic mortars and provided better correlation between mortars, plasters and their binders. By comparing grain size distribution and hydraulicity indices it was possible to distinguish among the construction phases. Based on this study, repair mortars were formulated by hydraulic lime, siliceous sand, calcareous and crushed-brick aggregates, with the optimal water content, ensuring optimum workability and compatible appearance with the authentic ones.

  17. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  18. Design, modeling, fabrication and testing of a piezoelectric microvalve for high pressure, high frequency hydraulic applications

    E-print Network

    Roberts, David C. (David Christopher)

    2002-01-01

    A piezoelectrically-driven hydraulic amplification microvalve for use in high specific power hydraulic pumping applications was designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. High frequency, high force actuation ...

  19. Electric versus hydraulics versus pneumatics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers from a conference which considered the advantages and disadvantages of electric, hydraulic and pneumatic drives and actuators. The volume follows on the success of the 1983 conference on electric and hydraulic drives. Topics considered include fork lift trucks - an ideal application for regenerative transmissions; a hybrid-electric power system with hydrostatic transmission; electrics and hydraulics on roadheader machinery; hydraulic, electrical, pneumatic control - which way to go. an electrically-powered servo to drive the two axes of a missile launching platform - pros and cons when compared with the traditional hydraulic solution; the encapsulation of a novel intrinsically safe displacement transducer; mobile cryogenic pumping systems; automation of a wood-turning machine, hydraulic or electric. The choice of a servo motor for a specific application; developments in the design and control of pneumatic linear actuators; compressed air purification for instrumentation in the high technology industries; trends in prime mover choice for powered hand tools; and choosing the drive system for the right application.

  20. Experimental investigations of thermal-hydraulic processes arising during operation of the passive safety systems used in new projects of nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Kalyakin, D. S.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained from experimental investigations into thermal-hydraulic processes that take place during operation of the passive safety systems used in new-generation reactor plants constructed on the basis of VVER technology are presented. The experiments were carried out on the model rigs available at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The processes through which interaction occurs between the opposite flows of saturated steam and cold water moving in the vertical steam line of the additional system for passively flooding the core from the second-stage hydro accumulators are studied. The specific features pertinent to undeveloped boiling of liquid on a single horizontal tube heated by steam and steam-gas mixture that is typical for of the condensing operating mode of a VVER reactor steam generator are investigated.

  1. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  2. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward (Avella, PA); Kolsun, George J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  3. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  4. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the...

  5. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the...

  6. Development, setup and testing of a dynamic hydraulic fracture conductivity apparatus 

    E-print Network

    Pongthunya, Potcharaporn

    2009-06-02

    One of the most critical parameters in the success of a hydraulic fracturing treatment is to have sufficiently high fracture conductivity. Unbroken polymers can cause permeability impairment in the proppant pack and/or in the matrix along...

  7. Tiber winding pack design

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.

    1985-08-19

    A preliminary winding pack design was performed with the goal of showing feasibility of producing 10-T maximum field with a pack current density of 40 A.mm/sup -2/ while accepting 2.7 kW per coil nuclear heating. A cable-in-conduit conductor design (CIC), reported at the 6th Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy, was based on several key issues.

  8. Random Packing of Platonic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersum, Taber; Lacasse, Martin-D.; King, Hubert

    2008-03-01

    While a large amount of literature has been devoted to the packing of spheres, very little is known about the packing of regular polyhedra, such as platonic solids. This presentation will describe numerical work on the packing of model systems in which mono-disperse tetrahedra, cubes, dodecahedra, and icosahedra are randomly packed.

  9. Pessimal shapes for packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallus, Yoav

    2014-03-01

    The question of which convex shapes leave the most empty space in their densest packing is the subject of Reinhardt's conjecture in two dimensions and Ulam's conjecture in three dimensions. Such conjectures about pessimal packing shapes have proven notoriously difficult to make progress on. I show that the regular heptagon is a local pessimum among all convex shapes, and that the 3D ball is a local pessimum among origin-symmetric shapes. Any shape sufficiently close in the space of shapes to these local pessima can be packed at a greater efficiency than they. In two dimensions and in dimensions above three, the ball is not a local pessimum, so the situation in 3D is unusual and intriguing. I will discuss what conditions conspire to make the 3D ball a local pessimum and whether we can prove that it is also a global pessimum.

  10. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  11. Hydraulic turbines for electric power generation. (Latest citations from Information Services in Mechanical Engineering database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and performance of water turbines for electric power generation. Among the topics discussed are fatigue testing and problems associated with water purity and corrosion, flow measurement criteria and methods, governing systems, and the efficiency of steam turbines. Francis and Kaplan turbines are prominently mentioned. (Contains a minimum of 90 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58...and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The requirements...inspection. (b) The fluid used in hydraulic power transmission systems shall...

  13. An interactive Bayesian geostatistical inverse protocol for hydraulic tomography

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    An interactive Bayesian geostatistical inverse protocol for hydraulic tomography Michael N. Fienen April 2008; published 25 July 2008. [1] Hydraulic tomography is a powerful technique for characterizing, necessitate subdivision into zones across which there is no correlation among hydraulic parameters. We propose

  14. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  15. Effect of packing method on the randomness of disc packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. P.; Yu, A. B.; Oakeshott, R. B. S.

    1996-06-01

    The randomness of disc packings, generated by random sequential adsorption (RSA), random packing under gravity (RPG) and Mason packing (MP) which gives a packing density close to that of the RSA packing, has been analysed, based on the Delaunay tessellation, and is evaluated at two levels, i.e. the randomness at individual subunit level which relates to the construction of a triangle from a given edge length distribution and the randomness at network level which relates to the connection between triangles from a given triangle frequency distribution. The Delaunay tessellation itself is also analysed and its almost perfect randomness at the two levels is demonstrated, which verifies the proposed approach and provides a random reference system for the present analysis. It is found that (i) the construction of a triangle subunit is not random for the RSA, MP and RPG packings, with the degree of randomness decreasing from the RSA to MP and then to RPG packing; (ii) the connection of triangular subunits in the network is almost perfectly random for the RSA packing, acceptable for the MP packing and not good for the RPG packing. Packing method is an important factor governing the randomness of disc packings.

  16. Optimization of blended battery packs

    E-print Network

    Erb, Dylan C. (Dylan Charles)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reviews the traditional battery pack design process for hybrid and electric vehicles, and presents a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm that eases the process of cell selection and pack design, especially ...

  17. Sensitivity study of the assembly averaged thermal-hydraulic models of the MEKIN computer code in power transients / by Thomas Rodack [and] Lothar Wolf

    E-print Network

    Rodack, Thomas

    1977-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic (T-H) models and solution schemes employed by the MEKIN computer code have been examined. The effects of T-H input parameters on- predicted fuel temperatures and coolant densities were determined in ...

  18. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons...3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for...

  19. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons...3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for...

  20. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons...3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for...

  1. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons...3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for...

  2. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons...3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for...

  3. BWR 9 X 9 Fuel Assembly Thermal-Hydraulic Tests (2): Hydraulic Vibration Test

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiaki Tsukuda; Katsuichiro Kamimura; Toshiitsu Hattori; Akira Tanabe; Noboru Saito; Masahiko Warashina; Yuji Nishino

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted thermal-hydraulic projects for verification of thermal-hydraulic design reliability for BWR high-burnup 8 x 8 and 9 x 9 fuel assemblies, entrusted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the NUPEC thermal-hydraulic projects, hydraulic vibration tests using full-scale test assemblies simulating 9 x 9 fuel assemblies were carried out to evaluate BWR fuel integrity. The test data were applied to development of a new correlation for the estimation of fuel rod vibration amplitude. (authors)

  4. Jamming of frictional spheres and random loose packing

    E-print Network

    Leonardo E. Silbert

    2011-07-29

    The role of friction coefficient, $\\mu$, on the jamming properties of disordered, particle packings is studied using computer simulations. Compressed, soft-sphere packings are brought towards the jamming transition - the point where a packing loses mechanical stability - by decreasing the packing fraction. The values of the packing fraction at the jamming transition, $\\phi^{\\mu}_{c}$, gradually decrease from the random close packing point for zero friction, to a value coincident with random loose packing as the friction coefficient is increased over several orders of magnitude. This is accompanied by a decrease in the coordination number at the jamming transition, $z^{\\mu}_{c}$, which varies from approximately six to four with increasing friction. Universal power law scaling is observed in the pressure and coordination number as a function of distance from the generalised, friction-dependent jamming point. Various power laws are also reported between the $\\phi^{\\mu}_{\\rm c}$, $z^{\\mu}_{\\rm c}$, and $\\mu$. Dependence on preparation history of the packings is also investigated.

  5. Better sieve tray. Add packing

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, A.B.S.H.; Alsaygh, A.A.

    1988-05-01

    Some conclusions from the authors' investigation are as follows: Packing on sieve trays significantly improves mass transfer by increasing interfacial area. Packing increases the average degree of separation of sieve tray tower more than 20%. Stacked stainless steel packing of 11.5 cm height gave the highest purity. Optimum height may be about 10 cm for our tower. A pressure drop increase of about 30% results in the case of using packing. Using packing gives an increase of 21% in the overall tower efficiency and 22.5% in the Murphree efficiency of the vapor phase.

  6. Enumerating rigid sphere packings

    E-print Network

    Miranda C. Holmes-Cerfon

    2015-05-08

    Packing problems, which ask how to arrange a collection of objects in space to meet certain criteria, are important in a great many physical and biological systems, where geometrical arrangements at small scales control behaviour at larger ones. In many systems there is no single, optimal packing that dominates, but rather one must understand the entire set of possible packings. As a step in this direction we enumerate rigid clusters of identical hard spheres for $n\\leq 14$, and clusters with the maximum number of contacts for $n\\leq 19$. A rigid cluster is one that cannot be continuously deformed while maintaining all contacts. This is a nonlinear notion that arises naturally because such clusters are the metastable states when the spheres interact with a short-range potential, as is the case in many nano- or micro-scale systems. We expect these lists are nearly complete, except for a small number of highly singular clusters (linearly floppy but nonlinearly rigid.) The data contains some major geometrical surprises, such as the prevalence of hypostatic clusters: those with less than the $3n-6$ contacts generically necessary for rigidity. We discuss these and several other unusual clusters, whose geometries may shed insight into physical mechanisms, pose mathematical and computational problems, or bring inspiration for designing new materials.

  7. Superdense Crystal Packings of Ellipsoids

    E-print Network

    Aleksandar Donev; Frank H. Stillinger; P. M. Chaikin; Salvatore Torquato

    2004-03-10

    Particle packing problems have fascinated people since the dawn of civilization, and continue to intrigue mathematicians and scientists. Resurgent interest has been spurred by the recent proof of Kepler's conjecture: the face-centered cubic lattice provides the densest packing of equal spheres with a packing fraction $\\phi\\approx0.7405$ \\cite{Kepler_Hales}. Here we report on the densest known packings of congruent ellipsoids. The family of new packings are crystal (periodic) arrangements of nearly spherically-shaped ellipsoids, and always surpass the densest lattice packing. A remarkable maximum density of $\\phi\\approx0.7707$ is achieved for both prolate and oblate ellipsoids with aspect ratios of $\\sqrt{3}$ and $1/\\sqrt{3}$, respectively, and each ellipsoid has 14 touching neighbors. Present results do not exclude the possibility that even denser crystal packings of ellipsoids could be found, and that a corresponding Kepler-like conjecture could be formulated for ellipsoids.

  8. Electrically recharged battery employing a packed/spouted bed metal particle electrode

    DOEpatents

    Siu, S.C.; Evans, J.W.; Salas-Morales, J.

    1995-08-15

    A secondary metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode, is described. More specifically a zinc air cell well suited for use in electric vehicles which is capable of being either electrically or hydraulically recharged. 5 figs.

  9. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and...

  10. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and...

  11. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged according to approved and... that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in which they are packed, and...

  12. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  13. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-06-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  14. Packing Products: Polystyrene vs. Cornstarch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Packing materials such as polystyrene take thousands of years to decompose, whereas packing peanuts made from cornstarch, which some companies are now using, can serve the same purpose, but dissolve in water. The author illustrates this point to her class one rainy day using the sculptures students made from polystyrene and with the cornstarch…

  15. Method for gravel packing wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, C.S.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a method for gravel packing a perforated well which penetrates a formation or reservoir. It comprises placing into a solution a shear-thickening composition in an amount sufficient to form a carrier fluid having a viscosity sufficient to suspend gravel packing sand therein for a time sufficient to pack the well; adding gravel packing sand into the fluid thereby suspending the sand therein; injecting the carrier fluid and sand mixture into the well under conditions sufficient to cause the mixture to shear thicken so as to provide for transportation of the sand to perforations in the well without spreading from the mixture; and directing the mixture into the perforations which diminishes shear forces acting on the mixture thereby causing a reduction in viscosity of the carrier fluid, sand separation from the fluid, improved fluid leak-off into the formation, and uniform gravel packing of the perforations.

  16. Low-profile flat pack: a high-power fiber coupled laser diode package for low-cost high-reliability applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raj; Heminway, Trebor; Krasnick, Richard; Griffin, Peter; Powers, Michael

    2004-06-01

    In recent years, high power diode lasers have become established in many applications like material processing, fiber laser and amplifier pumping, free space communication, direct printing and medical diagnosis and procedures. In particular, advances in laser diode packaging have resulted in devices with high wall-plug efficiency, enhanced reliability and low cost of ownership. Despite the advances of recent years, packaging, testing and reliability assurance still account for a majority of the cost of a fiber coupled laser diode. At MKPA-Panasonic, we are developing new fiber coupled laser diode package designs to enable low cost, high reliability assemblies that are amenable to high volume manufacturing. In this paper, we present a new low-profile, uncooled package for single-emitter high power laser diode packaging applications. Detailed design information, thermal modeling and reliability data for this small footprint, low profile optical flat package (OFP) with 4W output power in a 0.15NA, 100 micron core fiber is presented. The unique packaging technology resulting in good thermal and reliability performance in uncooled environments is discussed. All the assembly processes for the package are performed in a flux-free environment. The package is devoid of epoxy and can be hermetically sealed for high reliability operation. A reduced bill of materials and assembly steps result in significant cost savings. The design eliminates all non-vertical assembly processes for ease of assembly. Other features include passive die attach and integrated fiber mount. This package is specifically designed to address the fiber laser pump, industrial material processing, solid state laser pumping, printing and medical application markets.

  17. The EMSL Hydraulic Properties Apparatus: A Fully Automated Tool for Hydraulic Conductivity and Soil Moisture Retention Determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietsma, T. W.; Oostrom, M.; Covert, M. A.; Fayer, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Knowledge of hydraulic properties, such as hydraulic conductivity and soil moisture retention, is crucial for understanding flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface. Hydraulic properties are often important input parameters for numerical simulation of flow and transport. Unfortunately, acquisition of these properties is usually time consuming and costly because of the manual labor associated with the currently available laboratory techniques. Another drawback of standard techniques is that different packings or cores are used to determine different properties, which might result in inconsistent data sets. Lately, there has been increased interest in automating laboratory techniques to reduce analysis time and improve data consistency. The newly designed fully automated Hydraulic Properties Apparatus (HPA), located in EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Experimental Laboratory, provides enhanced capabilities. The HPA is unique in that it can determine a consistent set of hydraulic properties for a single packing or core using multiple techniques (i.e., falling- head, constant-head, constant flux, multistep, and soil moisture retention relations). This paper demonstrates the new apparatus and presents data sets for standard laboratory Accusand and a Hanford Site porous media.

  18. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research vessels. Heretofore, electrically actuated hydraulic pumps have been used for this purpose. By eliminating the demand for electrical energy for pumping, the use of the thermally actuated hydraulic pumps could prolong the intervals between battery charges, thus making it possible to greatly increase the durations of undersea exploratory missions.

  19. 7 CFR 51.1005 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Standard Pack § 51.1005 Standard pack. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size, and when place packed in...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1005 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Standard Pack § 51.1005 Standard pack. (a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size, and when place packed in...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3055 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Florida Avocados Standard Pack § 51.3055 Standard pack. (a) The avocados shall be packed in accordance with...fruit in the container. Size of the avocados may be specified by count....

  2. 7 CFR 51.3055 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Florida Avocados Standard Pack § 51.3055 Standard pack. (a) The avocados shall be packed in accordance with...fruit in the container. Size of the avocados may be specified by count....

  3. 7 CFR 51.3055 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Florida Avocados Standard Pack § 51.3055 Standard pack. (a) The avocados shall be packed in accordance with...fruit in the container. Size of the avocados may be specified by count....

  4. 7 CFR 51.3055 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Florida Avocados Standard Pack § 51.3055 Standard pack. (a) The avocados shall be packed in accordance with...fruit in the container. Size of the avocados may be specified by count....

  5. 7 CFR 51.3055 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Florida Avocados Standard Pack § 51.3055 Standard pack. (a) The avocados shall be packed in accordance with...fruit in the container. Size of the avocados may be specified by count....

  6. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown...

  7. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment - Duration: 17 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  8. Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity

    E-print Network

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity: Part 1. Shear, hybrid, and tensile events of hydraulic- fracturing-induced microseismicity. Microseismic events are commonly used to discern stimulation patterns and hydraulic fracture evolution; however, techniques beyond fracture mapping are required

  9. Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity

    E-print Network

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity: Part 2. Stress state determination Seth Busetti and Ze'ev Reches ABSTRACT We investigate the hydraulic fracturing process by analysis, stress shadowing adjacent to large parent hydraulic fractures, and crack tip stress perturbations. Data

  10. Frac-and-pack stimulation: Application, design, and field experience

    SciTech Connect

    Roodhart, L.P.; Fokker, P.A.; Davies, D.R.; Shlyapobersky, J.; Wong, G.K.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the criteria for selecting wells to be frac-and-packed. The authors show how systematic study of the inflow performance can be used to assess the potential of frac-and-packed wells, to identify the controlling factors, and to optimize design parameters. They also show that fracture conductivity is often the key to successful treatment. This conductivity depends largely on proppant size; formation permeability damage around the created fracture has less effect. Appropriate allowance needs to be made for flow restrictions caused by the presence of the perforations, partial penetration, and non-Darcy effects. They describe the application of the overpressure-calibrated hydraulic fracture model in frac-and-pack treatment design, and discuss some operational considerations with reference to field examples. The full potential of this promising new completion method can be achieved only if the design is tailored to the individual well. This demands high-quality input data, which can be obtained only from a calibration test. This paper presents their strategy for frac-and-pack design, drawing on examples from field experience. They also point out several areas that the industry needs to address, such as the sizing of proppant in soft formations and the interaction between fracturing fluids and resin in resin-coated proppant.

  11. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  12. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  13. Hard sphere packings within cylinders

    E-print Network

    Lin Fu; William Steinhardt; Hao Zhao; Joshua E. S. Socolar; Patrick Charbonneau

    2015-11-26

    The packing of hard spheres (HS) of diameter $\\sigma$ in a cylinder has been used to model experimental systems, such as fullerenes in nanotubes and colloidal wire assembly. Finding the densest packings of HS under this type of confinement, however, grows increasingly complex with the cylinder diameter, $D$. Little is thus known about the densest achievable packings for $D>2.873\\sigma$. In this work, we extend the identification of the packings up to $D=4.00\\sigma$ by adapting Torquato-Jiao's adaptive-shrinking-cell formulation and sequential-linear-programming (SLP) technique. We identify 17 new structures, almost all of them chiral. Beyond $D\\approx2.85\\sigma$, most of the structures consist of an outer shell and an inner core that compete for being close packed. In some cases, the shell adopts its own maximum density configuration, and the stacking of core spheres within it is quasiperiodic. In other cases, an interplay between the two components is observed, which may result in simple periodic structures. In yet other cases, the very distinction between core and shell vanishes, resulting in more exotic packing geometries, including some that are three-dimensional extensions of structures obtained from packing hard disks in a circle.

  14. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  15. The impact of gravity segregation on multiphase non-Darcy flow in hydraulically fractured gas wells 

    E-print Network

    Dickins, Mark Ian

    2008-10-10

    Committee: Dr. Duane McVay Multiphase and non-Darcy flow effects in hydraulically fractured gas wells reduce effective fracture conductivity. Typical proppant pack laboratory experiments are oriented in such a way such that phase segregation... is not possible, which results in mixed flow. Tidwell and Parker (1996), however, showed that in proppant packs, gravity segregation occurs for simultaneous gas and liquid injection at laboratory scale (1500 cm2). Although the impact of gravity on flow...

  16. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid enantiomers.

  17. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2013-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid enantiomers.

  18. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H. (Potomac, MD); Angeles, Rosalie M. (Germantown, MD); Keller, Suzanne (Rockville, MD)

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  19. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-print Network

    Hallett, William L.H.

    , this was the main means of burning coal, wood, coke and charcoal - up to 7 tons/hr (. 50MW heat release (radiative/kinetic) - for 3.2cm coke particles (carbon combustion only) #12;Packed Bed Combustion

  20. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  1. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  2. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  3. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  4. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  5. Are proteins well-packed?

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J; Dill, K A

    2001-01-01

    The average packing density inside proteins is as high as in crystalline solids. Does this mean proteins are well-packed? We go beyond average densities, and look at the full distribution functions of free volumes inside proteins. Using a new and rigorous Delaunay triangulation method for parsing space into empty and filled regions, we introduce formal definitions of interior and surface packing densities. Although proteins look like organic crystals by the criterion of average density, they look more like liquids and glasses by the criterion of their free volume distributions. The distributions are broad, and the scalings of volume-to-surface, volume-to-cluster-radius, and numbers of void versus volume show that the interiors of proteins are more like randomly packed spheres near their percolation threshold than like jigsaw puzzles. We find that larger proteins are packed more loosely than smaller proteins. And we find that the enthalpies of folding (per amino acid) are independent of the packing density of a protein, indicating that van der Waals interactions are not a dominant component of the folding forces. PMID:11463623

  6. Packing microstructure and local density variations of experimental and computational pebble beds

    SciTech Connect

    Auwerda, G. J.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Lathouwers, D.; Van Der Hagen, T. H. J. J.

    2012-07-01

    In pebble bed type nuclear reactors the fuel is contained in graphite pebbles, which form a randomly stacked bed with a non-uniform packing density. These variations can influence local coolant flow and power density and are a possible cause of hotspots. To analyse local density variations computational methods are needed that can generate randomly stacked pebble beds with a realistic packing structure on a pebble-to-pebble level. We first compare various properties of the local packing structure of a computed bed with those of an image made using computer aided X-ray tomography, looking at properties in the bulk of the bed and near the wall separately. Especially for the bulk of the bed, properties of the computed bed show good comparison with the scanned bed and with literature, giving confidence our method generates beds with realistic packing microstructure. Results also show the packing structure is different near the wall than in the bulk of the bed, with pebbles near the wall forming ordered layers similar to hexagonal close packing. Next, variations in the local packing density are investigated by comparing probability density functions of the packing fraction of small clusters of pebbles throughout the bed. Especially near the wall large variations in local packing fractions exists, with a higher probability for both clusters of pebbles with low (<0.6) and high (>0.65) packing fraction, which could significantly affect flow rates and, together with higher power densities, could result in hotspots. (authors)

  7. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S. Standard bushel baskets, or half-bushel baskets,...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S....

  9. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S....

  10. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S. Standard bushel baskets, or half-bushel baskets,...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S. Standard bushel baskets, or half-bushel baskets,...

  12. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged.... 3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in...

  13. 7 CFR 51.310 - Packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Packing Requirements § 51.310 Packing requirements. (a) Apples tray packed or cell packed in cartons shall be arranged.... 3 2 “Fairly tight” means that apples are of the proper size for molds or cell compartments in...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1270 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1270 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1311 - Packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1311 Packing...Each package shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably...of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any container shall be...

  3. Hydraulic Fracturing Sand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fine-grained silica sand is mixed with chemicals and water before being pumped into rock formations to prevent the newly created artificial fractures from closing after hydraulic fracturing is completed....

  4. Hydraulic hoisting and backfilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauermann, H. B.

    In a country such as South Africa, with its large deep level mining industry, improvements in mining and hoisting techniques could result in substantial savings. Hoisting techniques, for example, may be improved by the introduction of hydraulic hoisting. The following are some of the advantages of hydraulic hoisting as against conventional skip hoisting: (1) smaller shafts are required because the pipes to hoist the same quantity of ore hydraulically require less space in the shaft than does skip hoisting equipment; (2) the hoisting capacity of a mine can easily be increased without the necessity of sinking new shafts. Large savings in capital costs can thus be made; (3) fully automatic control is possible with hydraulic hoisting and therefore less manpower is required; and (4) health and safety conditions will be improved.

  5. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  6. Fluid flow through packings of rotating obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Rafael S.; Andrade, José S.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate through numerical simulation the nonstationary flow of a Newtonian fluid through a two-dimensional channel filled with an array of circular obstacles of distinct sizes. The disks may rotate around their respective centers, modeling a nonstationary, inhomogeneous porous medium. Obstacle sizes and positions are defined by the geometry of an Apollonian packing (AP). To allow for fluid flow, the radii of the disks are uniformly reduced by a factor 0.6 ?s ?0.8 for assemblies corresponding to the four first AP generations. The investigation is targeted to elucidate the main features of the rotating regime as compared to the fixed disk condition. It comprises the evaluation of the region of validity of Darcy's law as well as the study of the nonlinear hydraulic resistance as a function of the channel Reynolds number, the reduction factor s , and the AP generation. Depending on a combination of these factors, the resistance of rotating disks may be larger or smaller than that of the corresponding static case. We also analyze the flow redistribution in the interdisk channels as a result of the rotation pattern and characterize the angular velocity of the disks. Here, the striking feature is the emergence of a stable oscillatory behavior of the angular velocity for almost all disks that are inserted into the assemblies after the second generation.

  7. Reenvisioning cross-sectional at-a-station hydraulic geometry as spatially explicit hydraulic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, R. L.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2015-10-01

    Transect-based hydraulic geometry is well established but depends on a complex set of subjective fieldwork and computational decisions that sometimes go unexplained. As a result, it is ripe for reenvisioning in the light of the emergence of meter-scale, spatially explicit data and algorithmic geospatial analysis. This study developed and evaluated a new spatially explicit method for analyzing discharge-dependent hydraulics coined 'hydraulic topography' that not only increases accuracy but also eliminates several sample- and assumption-based inconsistencies. Using data and hydrodynamic simulations from the regulated, gravel-cobble-bed lower Yuba River in California, power functions were fitted to discharge-dependent average width, depth, and depth-weighted velocity for three spatial scales and then their corresponding exponents and coefficients were compared across scales and against ones computed using traditional approaches. Average hydraulic values from cross sections at the segment scale spanned up to 1.5 orders of magnitude for a given discharge. Transect-determined exponents for reach-scale depth and velocity relations were consistently over- and underestimated, respectively, relative to the hydraulic topography benchmark. Overall, 73% of cross-sectional power regression parameters assessed fell between 10 and 50 absolute percent error with respect to the spatially explicit hydraulic topography baseline. Although traditional transect-based sampling may be viable for certain uses, percent errors of this magnitude could compromise engineering applications in river management and training works.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT IX, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OIL FLOW WITHIN HYDRAULIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE GENERAL DESCRIPTION, HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS, AND BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT AND OPERATION. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "LEARNING ABOUT THE ALLISON…

  13. 29 CFR 1926.305 - Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacks-lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. 1926.305... Power § 1926.305 Jacks—lever and ratchet, screw, and hydraulic. (a) General requirements. (1) The... secured at once. (ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an...

  14. Valve packings conquer fugitive emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    In the early 1990s, when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington, D.C.) declared its intent to regulate fugitive emissions from valve-stem leakage, much of the chemical process industries (CPI) responded with fear and uncertainty. The biggest fear was that valve packing would not meet the required limits on leak rates and that expensive bellows seals may be required on many applications. The uncertainly was about how much it would cost. Today, for the most part, these concerns have been mitigated. It is estimated that about 80--90% of valves satisfy the emission requirements. The rest need some improvement in their packing systems to meet the regulations. Generally, these valves can be brought within compliance if the packing designers follow a few basic principles: Employ less-pliable outer rings and more-pliable inner rings; and don`t use excessive packing. While interest in valve packing remains high, mechanical seals continue to become more user-friendly. Many of those covered below are designed to run dry, and some can even tolerate high shaft-wobble without damage. Also look for improved flange gaskets and a host of seals to protect bearings. Twenty-one summaries are presented on new products and services.

  15. Steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of hydride fueled BWRs

    E-print Network

    Ferroni, Paolo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    (cont.) Since the results obtained in the main body of the analysis account only for thermal-hydraulic constraints, an estimate of the power reduction due to the application of neutronic constraints is also performed. This ...

  16. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  17. Radial deformations of working cylinder of hydraulic Legs depending on their extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyalich, G. D.; Buyalich, K. G.; Voyevodin, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    Current methods of calculation of parameters of hydraulic legs of powered supports are in most cases analytical and do not consider all complex of factors. Finite element model was developed to study this problem and used to analyze the influence of hydraulic legs extension on radial deformations of cylinder of different producers of powered supports at variation of hydraulic fluid pressure. It was revealed that radial deformations of cylinders along the axis of hydraulic legs increase in magnitude in direct proportion to the hydraulic fluid pressure and extension. Research results can be recommended to define optimal geometric parameters of hydraulic legs in respect to the minimal radial deformations of hydraulic cylinder increasing its impermeability and improving the work of cup seals. It is recommended to use the obtained results at power support designing.

  18. Packing of elastic wires in spherical cavities

    E-print Network

    N. Stoop; J. Najafi; F. K. Wittel; M. Habibi; H. J. Herrmann

    2011-05-26

    We investigate the morphologies and maximum packing density of thin wires packed into spherical cavities. Using simulations and experiments, we find that ordered as well as disordered structures emerge, depending on the amount of internal torsion. We find that the highest packing densities are achieved in low torsion packings for large systems, but in high torsion packings for small systems. An analysis of both situations is given in terms of energetics and comparison is made to analytical models of DNA packing in viral capsids.

  19. Bridges in three-dimensional granular packings: experiments and simulations

    E-print Network

    Yixin Cao; Bandan Chakrabortty; G. C. Barker; Anita Mehta; Yujie Wang

    2013-05-10

    In this letter, we present the first experimental study of bridge structures in three-dimensional dry granular packings. When bridges are small, they are predominantly 'linear', and have an exponential size distribution. Larger, predominantly 'complex' bridges, are confirmed to follow a power-law size distribution. Our experiments, which use X-ray tomography, are in good agreement with the simulations presented here, for the distribution of sizes, end-to-end lengths, base extensions and orientations of predominantly linear bridges. Quantitative differences between the present experiment and earlier simulations suggest that packing fraction is an important determinant of bridge structure.

  20. Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads and tracer data

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Geostatistical inference of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivities from hydraulic heads; accepted 25 April 2006; published 10 August 2006. [1] In groundwater, hydraulic heads and solute arrival times depend primarily on the hydraulic conductivity field and hydraulic boundary conditions. The spread

  1. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. Ecology and Energy Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these elementary school-level instructional materials are for use as an introduction to existing units of study, supplements to a textbook, or a source of special projects for environmental education. Contents include these six units: Make Your Own Ecology Mini-spinner, Let's Look at a Food Chain, Drip the…

  3. Packing the PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory

    2011-01-01

    NASA Engineers design spacesuits for ultimate protection and functionality in the extreme environment of space. The spacesuit is often referred to as a "personal spacecraft" because it provides the astronaut with everything he or she needs to survive and work in space outside of the vehicle or habitat. The systems within the spacesuit include the pressure garment system (PGS), the Portable Life Support System (PLSS), and the power, avionics, and software (PAS) system. These elements are necessary to protect crewmembers and allow them to work effectively in the pressure and temperature extremes of space environments. Development of the spacesuit system is necessary to support future human extravehicular exploration activities to Lunar, Martian, microgravity, and possibly other space destinations. Although all the systems that makeup the space suit are important, the PLSS is one of the most complex. The PLSS provides the life support needed by the astronaut and consists of the oxygen (O2) subsystem, ventilation subsystem, and thermal control subsystem. Within each subsystem, there are many different components, a few of which are explained as follows. The oxygen tanks hold the oxygen that the crewmember uses to breath and pressurizes the suit. The primary oxygen tank is responsible during normal operations and the secondary oxygen tank kicks on in the case of an emergency. The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) canister is used to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2) and extra humidity in the crewmember's ventilation/breathing gas. The fan moves the oxygen around the suit. Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is used within the thermal control loop to cool the water that is used to maintain a comfortable temperature for both the crew member and the other equipment inside the suit. Another component is the battery, which supplies the power needed to operate all these and the many other pieces. The battery is one of the biggest and heavies components within the PLSS. These are just a few of the components that encompass the PLSS. Each component has a weight and a certain volume that the NASA Engineers must take into account when building the PLSS, because the weight and volumes affect the crewmembers center of gravity (CG). [See the Notes Section for the link to an Apollo video that demonstrates the issues some of the crewmembers had picking up tools and dealing with center of gravity/tools on the surface of the Moon.] In this activity, students will simulate engineering design techniques that NASA Engineers and Designers are currently implementing to configuring the components within the PLSS. Through testing, students will consider the comfort, mobility, and center of gravity for their test subjects and how that changes after adjusting the placement of their simulated PLSS components.

  4. Efficient hydraulic properties of root systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechmann, Marcel; Schneider, Christoph; Carminati, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of ecosystem root water uptake (RWU) is paramount for parameterizing hydrological models. With the increase in computational power it is possible to calculate RWU explicitly up to the single plant scale using physical models. However, application of these models for increasing our understanding of ecosystem root water uptake is hindered by the deficit in knowledge about the detailed hydraulic parameter distribution within root systems. However, those physical models may help us to identify efficient parameterizations and to describe the influence of these hydraulic parameters on RWU profiles. In this research, we investigated the combined influence of root hydraulic parameters and different root topologies on shaping efficient root water uptake. First, we use a conceptual model of simple branching structures to understand the influence of branching location and transitions in root hydraulic properties on the RWU patterns in typical sub root structures. Second, we apply a physical model called "aRoot" to test our conclusions on complex root system architectures of single plants. aRoot calculates the distribution of xylem potential within arbitrary root geometries to satisfy a given water demand depending on the available water in the soil. Redistribution of water within the bulk soil is calculated using the Richards equation. We analyzed results using a measure of uptake efficiency, which describes the effort necessary for transpiration. Simulations with the conceptual model showed that total transpiration in sub root structures is independent of root hydraulic properties over a wide range of hydraulic parameters. On the other hand efficiency of root water uptake depends crucially on distribution hydraulic parameters in line with root topology. At the same time, these parameters shape strongly the distribution of RWU along the roots, and its evolution in time, thus leading to variable individual root water uptake profiles. Calculating RWU of three dimensional root architectures unveiled that the same effects can be observed at the single plant scale. Total transpiration is almost independent of root hydraulic properties. On the other hand, the arrangement of hydraulic properties significantly influences RWU efficiency. Furthermore the vertical root water uptake profiles are governed by the different root properties. They result from two combined re-distribution patterns over time: One within a rooting branch similar to the results mentioned above, and a second one between the different rooting branches within the root system. This leads to complex vertical uptake profiles, which cannot be predicted from a combination of root abundance and soil moisture, and depend strongly on the individual morphology.

  5. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... packed” means the plums or prunes are the proper size for the mold or cell compartments in which they are packed, and the molds or cells are filled in such a way that movement is not allowed. (b) Marking....

  6. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance with any of the pack specifications...

  7. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance with any of the pack specifications...

  8. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance with any of the pack specifications...

  9. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance with any of the pack specifications...

  10. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling...internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance with any of the pack specifications...

  11. 7 CFR 984.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.15 Pack. Pack means to bleach, clean, grade, shell or otherwise prepare walnuts for market as inshell or shelled walnuts....

  12. 7 CFR 984.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.15 Pack. Pack means to bleach, clean, grade, shell or otherwise prepare walnuts for market as inshell or shelled walnuts....

  13. 7 CFR 984.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.15 Pack. Pack means to bleach, clean, grade, shell or otherwise prepare walnuts for market as inshell or shelled walnuts....

  14. 7 CFR 984.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.15 Pack. Pack means to bleach, clean, grade, shell or otherwise prepare walnuts for market as inshell or shelled walnuts....

  15. 7 CFR 984.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.15 Pack. Pack means to bleach, clean, grade, shell or otherwise prepare walnuts for market as inshell or shelled walnuts....

  16. Packing Dimension Profiles and Levy Processes

    E-print Network

    Khoshnevisan, Davar; Xiao, Yimin

    2011-01-01

    We extend the concept of packing dimension profiles, due to Falconer and Howroyd (1997) and Howroyd (2001), and use our extension in order to determine the packing dimension of an arbitrary image of a general Levy process.

  17. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A cold pack is a...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A cold pack is a...

  19. 7 CFR 958.16 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR...Definitions § 958.16 Pack. Pack means a quantity of onions in any type of container and which falls within specific...

  20. 7 CFR 984.15 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...984.15 Pack. Pack means to bleach, clean, grade, shell or otherwise prepare walnuts for market as inshell or...

  1. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-03-02

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

  2. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  3. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2011-02-14

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  4. Integration in Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sworder, Steven C.

    This paper presents an application of integration to the field of hydraulics. An integral relation for the time required to drop the fluid contained in a cylindrical tank from one level to another using a hole in the tank wall is derived. Procedures for constructing the experimental equipment and procedures for determining the coefficient of…

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  6. Hydraulic Shutdown Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, S. T.; Harrington, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Adding switch allows inappropriate control actions to be overridden. Four-pole, double-throw switch added to front panel of controller to disable tracking-error and endpoint-error circuitry yet still retain overload-detection capability. Previously, it was necessary to use adjustable-voltage-level detection equipment connected with cables to hydraulic "dump" or shutdown circuitry in controller.

  7. Aalborg Universitet Hydraulic Yaw System

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Henrik C.

    Aalborg Universitet Hydraulic Yaw System Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Mørkholt, M, M. (2012). Hydraulic Yaw System. Poster session presented at AWEA Windpower 2012, Georgia, Atlanta of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines. 2011. [10] S. Stubkier and H. C. Pedersen. Design

  8. Viscous Hydraulic Jumps Submitted by

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W.M.

    Viscous Hydraulic Jumps Submitted by Jeffrey M. Aristoff, Jeffrey D. Leblanc, Annette E. Hosoi, and John W. M. Bush, Massachusetts Institute of Technology We examine the form of the viscous hydraulic of height 2­10 mm. Elegaard et al.1 first demonstrated that the axial symme- try of the viscous hydraulic

  9. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food...Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A cold pack is a device intended for medical...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food...Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A cold pack is a device intended for medical...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food...Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A cold pack is a device intended for medical...

  12. Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Climate Change Action Pack Climate & Habitats B A C K G R O U DN C H E C K ! Habitat, Food, Water the potential to affect plants,animals and humans around the globe. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 158 Habitat out in shapes of hills, waves, leaves, and berries. #12;Climate Change Action Pack 159 PROCEDURE

  13. Probability and Statistics for Disordered Sphere Packings

    E-print Network

    Picka, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Developing useful physical models based on sphere packings requires that the disorder within each packing be seen as `random' in a very different way from the disorder seen in configurations of points arising from Gibbs processes. Careful consideration of this disorder has deep implications for how sphere packings can be fit to data, and to how a thermodynamics of granular materials can be developed.

  14. It's getting hot in here : temperature gradients in lithium-ion battery packs

    E-print Network

    Niewood, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 5 channel, 40A battery cycler was constructed for the purpose of carrying out thermal studies on Lithium-ion battery packs. Boston Power Swing Key 442 battery blocks were tested to determine the magnitude of the temperature ...

  15. Design and fabrication of retrofit e-bike powertrain and custom lithium-ion battery pack

    E-print Network

    Wang, Helena

    2015-01-01

    A chopper-style bicycle was converted to a functional e-bike with electric powertrain, involving a hub motor, a custom power source, and throttle speed control. A custom battery pack was designed to meet system performance ...

  16. Diffusion in Jammed Particle Packs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolintineanu, Dan S.; Grest, Gary S.; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Silbert, Leonardo E.

    2015-08-01

    Using random walk simulations we explore diffusive transport through monodisperse sphere packings over a range of packing fractions ? in the vicinity of the jamming transition at ?c . Various diffusion properties are computed over several orders of magnitude in both time and packing pressure. Two well-separated regimes of normal "Fickian" diffusion, where the mean squared displacement is linear in time, are observed. The first corresponds to diffusion inside individual spheres, while the latter is the long-time bulk diffusion. The intermediate anomalous diffusion regime and the long-time value of the diffusion coefficient are both shown to be controlled by particle contacts, which in turn depend on proximity to ?c . The time required to recover normal diffusion t* scales as (? -?c)-0.5 and the long-time diffusivity D?˜(? -?c)0.5 , or D?˜1 /t* . It is shown that the distribution of mean first passage times associated with the escape of random walkers between neighboring particles controls both t* and D? in the limit ? ??c.

  17. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  18. Adhesive loose packings of small dry particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Baule, Adrian; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-08-28

    We explore adhesive loose packings of small dry spherical particles of micrometer size using 3D discrete-element simulations with adhesive contact mechanics and statistical ensemble theory. A dimensionless adhesion parameter (Ad) successfully combines the effects of particle velocities, sizes and the work of adhesion, identifying a universal regime of adhesive packings for Ad > 1. The structural properties of the packings in this regime are well described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function that includes the correlation between bulk and contact spheres. Our theoretical and numerical results predict: (i) an equation of state for adhesive loose packings that appear as a continuation from the frictionless random close packing (RCP) point in the jamming phase diagram and (ii) the existence of an asymptotic adhesive loose packing point at a coordination number Z = 2 and a packing fraction ? = 1/2(3). Our results highlight that adhesion leads to a universal packing regime at packing fractions much smaller than the random loose packing (RLP), which can be described within a statistical mechanical framework. We present a general phase diagram of jammed matter comprising frictionless, frictional, adhesive as well as non-spherical particles, providing a classification of packings in terms of their continuation from the spherical frictionless RCP. PMID:26186271

  19. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  20. Combustion waves in hydraulically resisted systems.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, I; Kagan, L; Sivashinsky, G

    2012-02-13

    The effects of hydraulic resistance on the burning of confined/obstacle-laden gaseous and gas-permeable solid explosives are discussed on the basis of recent research. Hydraulic resistance is found to induce a new powerful mechanism for the reaction spread (diffusion of pressure) allowing for both fast subsonic as well as supersonic propagation. Hydraulic resistance appears to be of relevance also for the multiplicity of detonation regimes as well as for the transitions from slow conductive to fast convective, choked or detonative burning. A quasi-one-dimensional Fanno-type model for premixed gas combustion in an obstructed channel open at the ignition end is discussed. It is shown that, similar to the closed-end case studied earlier, the hydraulic resistance causes a gradual precompression and preheating of the unburned gas adjacent to the advancing deflagration, which leads (after an extended induction period) to a localized autoignition that triggers an abrupt transition from deflagrative to detonative combustion. In line with the experimental observations, the ignition at the open end greatly encumbers the transition (compared with the closed-end case), and the deflagration practically does not accelerate up to the very transition point. Shchelkin's effect, that ignition at a small distance from the closed end of a tube facilitates the transition, is described. PMID:22213662

  1. Hydraulic contacts controlling water flow across porous grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, A.; Kaestner, A.; Flühler, H.; Lehmann, P.; Or, D.; Lehmann, E.; Stampanoni, M.

    2007-08-01

    Water flow between porous grains varies widely depending on the water distribution in contacts between grains. The hydraulic behavior of contacts varies from highly conductive when water fills the contacts to a bottleneck to flow as water pressure drops and contact asperities rapidly drain. Such changes greatly impact the hydraulic conductivity of porous grain packs such as aggregated soil. The dominant driving force of water flow across contacts is capillarity, often quantified relative to gravity and viscous forces using the capillary and Bond numbers. For fast water infiltration, viscous forces dominate. For simplicity we modeled the water distribution between spherical porous grains whose surfaces are covered by spherical bumps of much smaller radii. We provide experimental evidence obtained by neutron radiography and synchrotron-based x-ray tomographic microscopy documenting transitions in the flow behavior across contacts.

  2. Hydraulic root water uptake models: old concerns and new insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvreur, V.; Carminati, A.; Rothfuss, Y.; Meunier, F.; Vanderborght, J.; Javaux, M.

    2014-12-01

    Root water uptake (RWU) affects underground water dynamics, with consequences on plant water availability and groundwater recharge. Even though hydrological and climate models are sensitive to RWU parameters, no consensus exists on the modelling of this process. Back in the 1940ies, Van Den Honert's catenary approach was the first to investigate the use of connected hydraulic resistances to describe water flow in whole plants. However concerns such as the necessary computing when architectures get complex made this approach premature. Now that computing power increased dramatically, hydraulic RWU models are gaining popularity, notably because they naturally produce observed processes like compensatory RWU and hydraulic redistribution. Yet major concerns remain. Some are more fundamental: according to hydraulic principles, plant water potential should equilibrate with soil water potential when the plant does not transpire, which is not a general observation when using current definitions of bulk or average soil water potential. Other concerns regard the validation process: water uptake distribution is not directly measurable, which makes it hard to demonstrate whether or not hydraulic models are more accurate than other models. Eventually parameterization concerns exist: root hydraulic properties are not easily measurable, and would even fluctuate on an hourly basis due to processes like aquaporin gating. While offering opportunities to validate hydraulic RWU models, newly developed observation techniques also make us realize the increasing complexity of processes involved in soil-plant hydrodynamics, such as the change of rhizosphere hydraulic properties with soil drying. Surprisingly, once implemented into hydraulic models, these processes do not necessarily translate into more complex emerging behavior at plant scale, and might justify the use of simplified representations of the soil-plant hydraulic system.

  3. Shearing of frictional sphere packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métayer, J.-F.; Suntrup, D. J., III; Radin, C.; Swinney, H. L.; Schröter, M.

    2011-03-01

    We measure shear response in packings of glass beads by pulling a thin, rough, metal plate vertically through a bed of volume fraction phi, which is set, before the plate is pulled, in the range from 0.575 to 0.628. The yield stress is velocity independent over 4 decades and increases exponentially with phi, with a transition at phi?0.595. An analysis of the measured force fluctuations indicates that the shear modulus is significantly smaller than the bulk modulus.

  4. Shearing of frictional sphere packings

    E-print Network

    Jean-François Métayer; Donald J. Suntrup III; Charles Radin; Harry L. Swinney; Matthias Schröter

    2011-04-19

    We measure shear response in packings of glass beads by pulling a thin, rough, metal plate vertically through a bed of volume fraction phi, which is set, before the plate is pulled, in the range 0.575 to 0.628. The yield stress is velocity independent over 4 decades and increases exponentially with phi, with a transition at phi approximately 0.595. An analysis of the measured force fluctuations indicates that the shear modulus is significantly smaller than the bulk modulus.

  5. Packing defects functionalize soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel

    2015-04-13

    This work explores the participation of protein packing defects, the so-called dehydrons, in biochemical events. We delineate the enabling role of dehydrons as activators of nucleophilic groups. This activation results from the induction of chemical basicity in interfacial water molecules, promoting deprotonation of adjacent nucleophiles. Through multiple steering molecular dynamics with pulling along the proton-displacement coordinate, we show that nucleophilic groups are functionally enabled by nearby dehydrons that promote proton transference. The computations are validated against experimentally determined pKa decreases at functional sites and biochemical probes of deregulated catalytic activity arising from dehydron-generating mutations. PMID:25771861

  6. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  7. Random Packing Density of Platonic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Jessica; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by the relation between particle shape and packing, we investigate the volume fraction occupied by faceted particles as a function of number of particle sides. Such particles are arguably better representative of natural sand than spheres. For simplicity, we focus on the highly symmetric five Platonic solids which are polygons with congruent sides, vertices and angles, and experimentally measure their packing densities. Plastic dice with 4, 6, 8, 12, and 20 sides are fluidized or shaken randomly to find configurations corresponding to the loosest stable packing and densest packing, respectively. We find that the packing fraction obtained by both protocols peak at the cube and then monotonically decrease below the corresponding values obtained for spheres. Interestingly, the overall trend is similar but systematically lower that the maximum volume fractions reported for frictionless platonic solid particles. The effect of friction of the particles and the shape of the boundary shape on observed packing fractions is also investigated.

  8. Theory of cylindrical dense packings of disks

    E-print Network

    Adil Mughal; Denis Weaire

    2013-12-28

    We have previously explored cylindrical packings of disks and their relation to sphere packings. Here we extend the analytical treatment of disk packings, analysing the rules for phyllotactic indices of related structures and the variation of the density for line-slip structures, close to the symmetric ones. We show that rhombic structures, which are of a lower density, are always unstable i.e. can be increased in density by small perturbations

  9. Circle Packing for Origami Design Is Hard

    E-print Network

    Demaine, Erik D; Lang, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    We show that deciding whether a given set of circles can be packed into a rectangle, an equilateral triangle, or a unit square are NP-hard problems, settling the complexity of these natural packing problems. On the positive side, we show that any set of circles of total area 1 can be packed into a square of size 8/pi=2.546... These results are motivated by problems arising in the context of origami design.

  10. Hydraulic mining method

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Lester H. (Kent, WA); Knoke, Gerald S. (Kent, WA)

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  11. 110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. TUBING FOR HYDRAULIC FLUID AT BACK OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON RIGHT; ACCUMULATOR FOR MAST RETRACTION ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Dual hydraulic safety valve

    SciTech Connect

    Leismer, D.D.; Blizzard, W.A. Jr.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a subsurface well safety valve for controlling the fluid flow through a well conduit and including a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling the fluid flow through the bore, a tubular member telescopically moving in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member. The improvement in fluid actuating means for actuating the valve closure member comprising, a first piston and cylinder assembly in the housing adapted to be connected to a hydraulic control line, the first assembly connected to the tubular member, a second piston and cylinder assembly in the housing adapted to be connected to a hydraulic control line, the second assembly disconnected from the tubular member, and means for disconnecting the first assembly from the tubular member and connecting the second assembly to the tubular member. The method of operating a subsurface well safety valve for controlling the fluid flow through a well conduit in which the valve includes a housing having a bore and a valve closure member moving between open and closed positions for controlling the fluid flow through the bore.

  14. Grain Packing Resistance to Particle Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, T. H.; Yager, E.; Buffington, J. M.; Hassan, M. A.; Fremier, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    We report model results for quantifying grain packing resistance to particle motion. Packing resistance was modeled as the difference between the total resistance acting on individual grains (measured with a load cell) and the resistance that occurs when grains interact with the geometry of their resting pocket (measured with a tilt board). Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to develop distributions of packing resistance from observed distributions of total and pocket angle resistance because paired measurements were not available. Results show that packing was the dominant form of resistance to grain motion, exceeding pocket angle resistance by up to 88%. Expressed as coefficients of friction, packing resistance was close to 18 times higher for smaller grains because such particles tend to be more embedded, increasing the extent of packing by surrounding grains. We developed a predictive equation from these data, expressing packing resistance as a function of grain size, embeddedness, and the standard deviation of grain sizes on the bed surface (sorting), which collectively control the frictional surface area of the grain. Including observed values of packing resistance in calculations of critical bed shear stress increased thresholds of grain motion by 8 to 46% (21% on average) over that calculated with pocket angle resistance. This has significant implications for bed load transport predictions, which are typically nonlinear functions of the difference between applied and critical shear stresses; as such, small differences in critical shear stress can cause large prediction errors. Given the importance of packing resistance, future studies are warranted to better understand the physical and biological controls on packing, as well as the mechanics of packing resistance.

  15. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It was molded into a polytechnic institute focusing on engineering in the nationwide restructuring of universities and colleges undertaken in 1952. At present, the university has 14 schools and 56 departments with faculties in science, engineering, humanities, law, medicine, history, philosophy, economics, management, education and art. The University now has over 25 900 students, including 13 100 undergraduates and 12 800 graduate students. As one of China's most renowned universities, Tsinghua has become an important institution for fostering talents and scientific research. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, and industrial processes. The IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community as a whole. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. The goals of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve the value of hydraulic machinery to the end user, to the societies, and to improve societies u

  16. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of the regenerative system.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed...

  18. Marginal stability in jammed packings: quasicontacts and weak contacts.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Yoav; Torquato, Salvatore

    2014-08-01

    Maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packing is a prototypical example of a system naturally poised at the margin between underconstraint and overconstraint. This marginal stability has traditionally been understood in terms of isostaticity, the equality of the number of mechanical contacts and the number of degrees of freedom. Quasicontacts, pairs of spheres on the verge of coming in contact, are irrelevant for static stability, but they come into play when considering dynamic stability, as does the distribution of contact forces. We show that the effects of marginal dynamic stability, as manifested in the distributions of quasicontacts and weak contacts, are consequential and nontrivial. We study these ideas first in the context of MRJ packing of d-dimensional spheres, where we show that the abundance of quasicontacts grows at a faster rate than that of contacts. We reexamine a calculation of Jin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 82, 051126 (2010)], where quasicontacts were originally neglected, and we explore the effect of their inclusion in the calculation. This analysis yields an estimate of the asymptotic behavior of the packing density in high dimensions. We argue that this estimate should be reinterpreted as a lower bound. The latter part of the paper is devoted to Bravais lattice packings that possess the minimum number of contacts to maintain mechanical stability. We show that quasicontacts play an even more important role in these packings. We also show that jammed lattices are a useful setting for studying the Edwards ensemble, which weights each mechanically stable configuration equally and does not account for dynamics. This ansatz fails to predict the power-law distribution of near-zero contact forces, P(f)?f(?). PMID:25215696

  19. Tractor Hydraulics. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Vocational Instructional Materials, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed to help provide a better understanding of how and why hydraulic principles serve the purposes of weight reduction, increase of physical effort, and more precise control to machines of all types. The four components that are necessary to have a workable hydraulic system--a reservoir, a pump, a valve, and a motor (cylinder)…

  20. Minimally packed phases in holography

    E-print Network

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2015-01-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of $D=4$ Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to $d=3$ CFTs held at constant chemical potential and magnetic field that spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  1. Chain packing in polycarbonate glasses.

    PubMed

    Stueber, Dirk; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Hess, Berk; Kremer, Kurt; O'Connor, Robert D; Schaefer, Jacob

    2010-03-14

    Chain packing in homogeneous blends of carbonate (13)C-labeled bisphenol A polycarbonate with either (i) CF(3)-labeled bisphenol A polycarbonate or (ii) ring-F-labeled bisphenol A polycarbonate has been characterized using (13)C{(19)F} rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance. In both blends, the (13)C observed spin was at high concentration, and the (19)F dephasing or probe spin was at low concentration. In this situation, an analysis in terms of a distribution of isolated heteronuclear pairs of spins is valid. Nearest-neighbor separation of (13)C and (19)F labels was determined by accurately mapping the initial dipolar evolution using a shifted-pulse version of REDOR. Based on the results of this experiment, the average distance from a ring-fluorine to the nearest (13)C=O is more than 1.2 A greater than the corresponding CF(3)-(13)C=O distance. Next-nearest and more-distant-neighbor separations of labels were measured in a 416-rotor-cycle constant-time version of REDOR for both blends. Statistically significant local order was established for the nearest-neighbor labels in the methyl-labeled blend. These interchain packing results are in qualitative agreement with predictions based on coarse-grained simulations of a specially adapted model for bisphenol A polycarbonate. The model itself has been previously used to determine static and dynamic properties of polycarbonate with results in good agreement with those from rheological and neutron scattering experiments. PMID:20232984

  2. Hydraulic properties of coarsely and finely ground woodchips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subroy, Vandana; Giménez, Daniel; Qin, Mingming; Krogmann, Uta; Strom, Peter F.; Miskewitz, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that leachate from woodchips stockpiled at recycling facilities could negatively impact water quality. Models that can be used to simulate water movement/leachate production require information on water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions of the stockpiled material. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions of woodchips with particle size distributions (PSDs) representative of field stockpiled material by modeling multistep outflow and (2) assess the performance of three pore structure models for their ability to simulate outflow. Six samples with contrasting PSDs were assessed in duplicate. Samples were packed in cylindrical columns (15.3 cm high, 12.1 cm wide) to measure saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), cumulative outflow and water content at equilibrium with pressure potentials of -2, -10 and -40 cm. Water retention at pressure potentials between -200 and -10,000 cm were obtained using pressure plate extractors and used to supplement data from the outflow experiment. Hydraulic parameters of the pore models were derived from these measurements using HYDRUS-1D run by DREAM(ZS). Ks was independent of PSD with values between 55 and 80 cm/h. Cumulative outflow at each pressure potential was correlated with the PSD geometric mean diameters, and was best predicted by a model having two interacting pore domains, each with separate hydraulic conductivity and water retention functions (DPeM). Unsaturated conductivities were predicted to drop on an average to 0.24 cm/h at -10 cm and 3 × 10-3 cm/h at -50 cm for the DPeM model, suggesting that water would move slowly through stockpiles except during intense rainfalls.

  3. Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.A.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

  4. Record high wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 m2 and summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a wolf pack on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada.

  5. Record high Wolf, Canis lupus, pack density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Tracy, S.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a year-around Wolf (Canis lupus) density of 18.2/100 km2 and a summer density of 30.8/100 km2, in a northeastern Minnesota Wolf pack. The previous record was a summer density of 14.1/100 km2, for a Wolf pack on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

  6. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...container. (4) “Tightly packed” means the plums or prunes are the proper size for the mold or cell compartments in which they are packed, and the molds or cells are filled in such a way that movement is not allowed. (b) Marking....

  7. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...container. (4) “Tightly packed” means the plums or prunes are the proper size for the mold or cell compartments in which they are packed, and the molds or cells are filled in such a way that movement is not allowed. (b) Marking....

  8. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...container. (4) “Tightly packed” means the plums or prunes are the proper size for the mold or cell compartments in which they are packed, and the molds or cells are filled in such a way that movement is not allowed. (b) Marking....

  9. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...container. (4) “Tightly packed” means the plums or prunes are the proper size for the mold or cell compartments in which they are packed, and the molds or cells are filled in such a way that movement is not allowed. (b) Marking....

  10. 7 CFR 51.1527 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...container. (4) “Tightly packed” means the plums or prunes are the proper size for the mold or cell compartments in which they are packed, and the molds or cells are filled in such a way that movement is not allowed. (b) Marking....

  11. 7 CFR 966.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables...the packs of tomatoes as defined and set forth in the United States...Agriculture (§§ 51.1855 to 51.1877 of this title), or any pack...recommended by the committee and approved by the...

  12. 7 CFR 966.11 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables...the packs of tomatoes as defined and set forth in the United States...Agriculture (§§ 51.1855 to 51.1877 of this title), or any pack...recommended by the committee and approved by the...

  13. Pack Density Limitations of Hybrid Parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwicker, Matthew L.; Sinclair, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and testing of the Orion crew capsule parachute system has provided a unique opportunity to study dense parachute packing techniques and limits, in order to establish a new baseline for future programs. The density of parachute packs has a significant influence on vibration loads, retention system stresses, and parachute mortar performance. Material compositions and pack densities of existing designs for space capsule recovery were compared, using the pack density of the Apollo main parachutes as the current baseline. The composition of parachutes has changed since Apollo, incorporating new materials such as Kevlar , Vectran , Teflon and Spectra . These materials have different specific densities than Nylon, so the densities of hybrid parachute packs cannot be directly compared to Nylon parachutes for determination of feasibility or volume allocation. Six parachute packs were evaluated in terms of weighted average solid density in order to achieve a non-dimensional comparison of packing density. Means of mitigating damage due to packing pressure and mortar firing were examined in light of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) and Apollo experience. Parachute design improvements including incorporation of modern materials and manufacturing processes serves to make CPAS the new knowledge base on which future spacecraft parachute systems will be built.

  14. Kid's PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fun and educational kit is designed specifically for elementary students. The "Kid's PACK" (Population Awareness Campaign Kit) entertains and informs children on the environment and human population growth through stories, games, and concrete ideas for making a difference. In three booklets, the "Kid's PACK" offers elementary students…

  15. Method of gravel packing a well

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S. W.; Himes, R. E.

    1985-11-12

    The present invention relates to a thermally stable crosslinked gel gravel packing fluid for use in the treatment of highly deviated well bores penetrating a subterranean formation. The gravel packing fluid comprises an aqueous liquid, a gelling agent comprising a selected modified cellulose ether, a crosslinking agent, a breaker, a particulate agent and any additional additives that may be present.

  16. Probe with integrated heater and thermocouple pack

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, R.W.; Dial, R.E.; Finnell, W.F.R.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a gamma thermometer probe for detecting heat produced within the thermometer probe. It comprises: an outer elongate thermometer sheath; an elongate rod; annular recesses; a longitudinal bore; and an integrated thermocouple pack. The thermocouple pack comprises: a first type wire, and second type wires. The second type wires comprises: an outer section; and an inner segment.

  17. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification....

  20. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification....

  1. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold pack. 890.5700 Section 890.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification....

  2. CirclePacking:A MathematicalTale

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Kenneth

    ? Nonetheless, some topics have fairly well-defined starting points. Kenneth Stephenson is professor of circle packing, a topic which is likely to be new to most readers. These packings are configurations gratefully acknowledges support of the National Science Foundation, DMS-0101324. #12;DECEMBER 2003 NOTICES

  3. Random lasing in closely packed resonant scatterers

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    Random lasing in closely packed resonant scatterers Xiaohua H. Wu, Alexey Yamilov, Heeso Noh and theoretical studies of the random lasing threshold and its fluctuation in an en- semble of highly packed- mental data. © 2004 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 290.4210, 140.3460. 1. INTRODUCTION The random

  4. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore »shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  5. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.

  6. The Centre for Power Transmission

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    systems, whether for aircraft control, robotic manipulation or other multi-axis applications that limit the leakage of fluid. Friction forces are usually overcome by the hydraulic actuation capability Bois) PTO #12;5. Modelling and Development of Low Noise Hydraulic Fluid Power Systems Hydraulic fluid

  7. Operation of Packed-Bed Reactors Studied in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a packed bed reactor (PBR) involves gas and liquid flowing simultaneously through a fixed-bed of solid particles. Depending on the application, the particles can be various shapes and sizes but are generally designed to force the two fluid phases through a tortuous route of narrow channels connecting the interstitial space. The PBR is the most common type of reactor in industry because it provides for intimate contact and high rates of transport between the phases needed to sustain chemical or biological reactions. The packing may also serve as either a catalyst or as a support for growing biological material. Furthermore, this type of reactor is relatively compact and requires minimal power to operate. This makes it an excellent candidate for unit operations in support of long-duration human space activities.

  8. Laboratory imaging of stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.; Parker, M.

    1996-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to physically investigate the processes governing stimulation fluid displacement from hydraulic fractures. Experiments were performed on two scales: meter-scale in a 1500 cm{sup 2} sand pack and core-scale in a 65 cm{sup 2} API linear conductivity cell. High-resolution light transmission imaging was employed at the meter-scale to visualize and quantify processes governing fluid displacement. For comparison, complimentary tests were performed using an API conductivity cell under ambient test conditions and at elevated closure stress. In these experiments viscous fingering and gravity drainage were identified as the dominant processes governing fluid displacement. Fluid viscosity was found to dictate the relative importance of the competing displacement processes and ultimately determine the residual liquid saturation of the sand pack. The process by which fluid displacement occurs was seen to effect the shape of both the gas and liquid phase relative permeability functions. Knowledge of such viscosity/relative permeability relationships may prove useful in bounding predictions of post-stimulation recovery of gels from the fracture pack.

  9. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  10. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device...

  15. The influence of hydraulic loads on depth filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkeun; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-02-01

    The influence of hydraulic loads on the detachment of particles from the collector surface or from previously retained particles was observed in a packed glass beads column. A hydraulic shock load (i.e., 20% increase of flow rate) was applied after 4 h of particle attachment at a constant flow rate. A single type of particle suspension (Min-U-Sil 5, nearly pure SiO(2)) and three different chemical conditions (pH control, alum and polymer destabilization) were utilized. The magnitude of particle detachment increased with increasing particle size for non-Brownian particles because more shear force was applied to large particles due to their large surface area. More favorable particles (i.e., particles with small surface charge) were detached to a lesser extent than unfavorable particles during the hydraulic shock loads application. This phenomenon can be caused by floc strength. In some cases, when the zeta potential of influent particles was relatively high, the magnitude of detachment of bigger particles (e.g., 4.0-5.0 ?m) was less than that of smaller particles (e.g., 3.0-4.0 ?m). This can be attributable to the breakup of detached flocs as an individual particle. It was also found that the shape of the curve relating the magnitude of particle detachment and particle size can be concave, linear, or convex depending on physicochemical conditions such as floc strength. PMID:22112925

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT X, AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS--HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS (PART II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (2) SERVICING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM, (3) EXAMINING THE RANGE CONTROL VALVE, (4) EXAMINING THE LOCK-UP AND FLOW VALVE, (5) EXAMINING THE MAIN REGULATOR…

  17. Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Liu, Weifeng; Guo, Jian; Sun, Dan; Pan, Bin; Ye, Yaoli; Ding, Weijun; Huang, Haobin; Li, Fujian

    2014-06-15

    Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ? 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria. PMID:24514078

  18. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  19. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  20. Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    I examine leadership in Wolf (Canis lupus) packs based on published observations and data gathered during summers from 1986 to 1998 studying a free-ranging pack of Wolves on Ellesmere Island that were habituated to my presence. The breeding male tended to initiate activities associated with foraging and travel, and the breeding female to initiate, and predominate in, pup care and protection. However, there was considerable overlap and interaction during these activities such that leadership could be considered a joint function. In packs with multiple breeders, quantitative information about leadership is needed.

  1. Packing, tiling, and covering with tetrahedra

    PubMed Central

    Conway, J. H.; Torquato, S.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that three-dimensional Euclidean space cannot be tiled by regular tetrahedra. But how well can we do? In this work, we give several constructions that may answer the various senses of this question. In so doing, we provide some solutions to packing, tiling, and covering problems of tetrahedra. Our results suggest that the regular tetrahedron may not be able to pack as densely as the sphere, which would contradict a conjecture of Ulam. The regular tetrahedron might even be the convex body having the smallest possible packing density. PMID:16818891

  2. [Sterile packing materials for formaldehyde sterilization].

    PubMed

    Fleck, H; Steiger, E

    1983-08-01

    Apart from the already widely applied sterilization by ethylene oxide, the sterilization by gaseous formaldehyde is another reliable procedure for the sterilization of thermolabile instruments. An essential advantage of the sterilization by gaseous formaldehyde over the so-called wet sterilization is that it can be performed in a recontamination-proof sterile packing. Packing materials produced in the GDR, the germ-tightness and toxicological safety of which were already known, were tested to evaluate their suitability for sterilization by gaseous formaldehyde. An appropriate packing variant was found and tested for microbiological reliability. PMID:6679444

  3. Powered Remote Manipulators Perform Hazardous Retrieval, Handling, and Size Reduction Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.D.; Owen, J.R.; Adams, S.R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new lightweight, powered remote manipulator (PRM) that S.A.Robotics has developed for remote material handling and size reduction in hazardous environments such as reactor decommissioning projects. PRMs can be mounted to various deployment platforms such as remote controlled track-driven vehicles, commercial All Terrain Vehicles, or crane-mounted arms. They can also be installed as replacements for traditional Master-Slave Manipulators (MSMs) in hot cells. The PRM is a six degree of freedom manipulator with carbon fiber structural components that can provide up to a 3 meter (10 foot) reach. Either electric or hydraulic power options can be used and a variety of hydraulic fluids are available to meet combustible material limitations. The PRM is operated with easy-to-use joystick controls that allow operators to sit in a comfortable work station and handle 90 kg (200 pound) loads with a hydraulic power pack or 45 kg (100 pounds) with electric servo-motor driven equipment. With a quick disconnect tool changer, the manipulator can operate grippers, drills, shears, saws, sampling and survey instruments, and the arm can also deploy cameras and lights to support a wide range of remote applications. (authors)

  4. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  5. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  6. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  7. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  8. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  10. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  11. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  13. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  17. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  19. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  1. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  2. Well servicing methods using a hydraulic actuated workover mast

    SciTech Connect

    Maroney, P.F.; Blalock, F.C.

    1988-07-12

    A method is described of removing a stuck object from a well by operating a hydraulically operated workover rig which has a mast with a crown and a traveling block, a first winch with a brake, a first hydraulic motor, a line connected to the winch, and tubing in a well, which comprises: (a) connecting the end of the line to the tubing; (b) providing hydraulic power fluid to drive the first motor to drive the first winch to put high stress on the tubing; (c) abruptly cutting off the hydraulic power fluid to the motor to allow the tubing to contract; (d) then operating the brake to impart a shock down the tubing; (e) repeating steps (b) and (d) above as necessary until the object becomes unstuck. A method is also described of lowering objects into a well bore using a mast having a crown block, a first drum on which a line is mounted, a first hydraulic motor for driving the first drum.

  3. Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuator

    E-print Network

    Yao, Bin

    Indirect Adaptive Robust Control of Electro-Hydraulic Systems Driven by Single-Rod Hydraulic) of electro-hydraulic systems driven by single- rod hydraulic actuators. Unlike the tracking that the proposed IARC achieves good tracking performance and accurate parameter estimation. INTRODUCTION Electro-hydraulic

  4. Production Hydraulic Packer Field Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, Tricia; Salas, Jose

    2000-06-30

    In October 1999, the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Halliburton Energy Services cooperated on a field test of Halliburton's new Production Hydraulic Packer technology on Well 46-TPX-10 at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Casper, WY. Performance of the packer was evaluated in set and unset operations. The packer's ability to seal the annulus between the casing and tubing was hydraulically tested and the results were recorded.

  5. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  6. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.13 Pack. ...arrangement, size, weight, count, or grade of a quantity of kiwifruit in a particular type and size of container, or any...

  7. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.13 Pack. ...arrangement, size, weight, count, or grade of a quantity of kiwifruit in a particular type and size of container, or any...

  8. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.13 Pack. ...arrangement, size, weight, count, or grade of a quantity of kiwifruit in a particular type and size of container, or any...

  9. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.13 Pack. ...arrangement, size, weight, count, or grade of a quantity of kiwifruit in a particular type and size of container, or any...

  10. 7 CFR 920.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.13 Pack. ...arrangement, size, weight, count, or grade of a quantity of kiwifruit in a particular type and size of container, or any...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (c) Boxes, flats, lugs, or cartons: (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard...” means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (c) Boxes, flats, lugs, or cartons: (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard...” means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In...

  13. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size... angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order to allow for variations incident to proper...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be... angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit. (h) Tolerances. In order to allow for...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size... angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order to allow for variations incident to proper...

  16. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be... angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit. (h) Tolerances. In order to allow for...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size... angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order to allow for variations incident to proper...

  18. Calligraphic Packing Jie Xu Craig S. Kaplan

    E-print Network

    Waterloo, University of

    -Photorealistic Rendering, Packing 1 INTRODUCTION Artists and art lovers have always been captivated by the interplay, fruits, and animals. Halsman's famous In Voluptate Mors is a portrait of Dal´i featuring a skull

  19. Packing and Entanglements in Polymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozisik, Rahmi; Sternstein, Sandy S.

    2004-03-01

    The idea of obtaining the properties of polymers simply from the chemical structure is a very attractive one. Recent work on entanglements and packing indicates that the entanglement molecular weight is related to packing length (= M/(? N_a), where M is the molecular weight, ? is the density, R is the end-to-end vector, and Na is the Avogadro number). The exact relationship is given as follows: Me = 218 ? p^3. This simple equation holds for a very large group of polymers and is temperature insensitive. In this study, we studied the packing and tried to obtain a scaling between packing and M_e, and extended the concept to cyclic polymers.

  20. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  1. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  2. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section...

  3. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions Provisions Relating to Fishing and Aquatic Products First Processing, Canning, Or Packing of Marine Products Under Section...

  4. A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

  5. Analysis of Small-Scale Hydraulic Actuation Jicheng Xia

    E-print Network

    Durfee, William K.

    of force and power while at the same time being relatively light weight compared to the equivalent to an equivalent electromechanical system comprised of off-the-shelf components. Calculation results revealed that high operating pressures are needed for small-scale hydraulics to be lighter than the equivalent

  6. View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south of hydraulic hammer in boilermakers shop (probably the oldest piece of equipment in the yard, originally powered by steam) nameplate: United Engineers and FDRY. Co. Pittsburgh, Pa, USA Davy Brothers LTD. Patents - Aug 1, 1905, Feb, 1901, Sept 8, 1908 - 10000 lbs. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Booki

    Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed down to a non-detectable level (<4mug/L) in both bioreactors with acetate as a carbon source and nutrients at loading rates less than 0.063 L/s (1 gpm; 0.34 L/m2s). The sand medium bioreactor could achieve complete-perchlorate removal up to flow rate of 0.126 L/s. A regular backwashing cycle (once a week) was an important factor for completely removing perchlorate in groundwater. Power generation directly from pure or mixed organic matter was examined using microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which were run either in batch or continuous mode. In batch experiments, both a pure culture (Geobactor metallireducens) and a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum) were used as the biocatalyst, and acetate was added as substrate in the anode chamber of the MFC. Power output in a membrane MFC with either inoculum was essentially the same, with 40 +/- 1 mW/m2 for G. metallireducens and 38 +/- 1 mW/m2 for mixed culture. A different type of the MFC containing a salt bridge instead of a membrane system was examined to generate power using the same substrate and pure culture as used in the membrane MFC. Power output in the salt bridge MFC was 2.2 mW/m 2. It was found that the lower power output was directly attributed to the higher internal resistance of the salt bridge system (19920 +/- 50 O) in comparison with that of the membrane system (1286 +/- 1 O). Continuous electricity generation was examined in a flat plate microbial fuel cell (FPMFC) using domestic wastewater and specific organic substrates. The FPMFC, containing a combined electrode/proton exchange membrane (PEM), was initially acclimated for one month to domestic wastewater, and then was operated as a plug flow reactor system. Power density using domestic wastewater as a substrate was 72 +/- 1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0.39 mL/min (1.1 hr hydraulic retention time, HRT), and COD removal was 42%. At a longer HRT of 4.0 hr, the COD removal increased to 79%, and power density was 43 mW/m2. Several organic compounds (about 1000 mg-COD/L) also generated high power densities including: glucose (212 +/- 2 mW/m2), acetate (286 +/- 3 mW/m2), butyrate (220 +/- 1 mW/m2), dextran (150 +/- 1 mW/m 2), and starch (242 +/- 3 mW/m2). Therefore, it was shown that power could be successfully generated in a continuous-mode MFC with a variety of organic substrates. Animal wastewater was also tested as substrate to generate power in an air-cathode single chamber MFC operated in batch mode. This preliminary experiment demonstrated that power generation could be sustained with animal wastewater and that wastewater strength and odors were substantially reduced in the reactor after only one day of operation.

  8. Water-packing techniques successful in gravel packing high-angle wells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.J.; Barrilleaux, M.F. )

    1991-07-08

    Prepacking and water packing techniques were successful in gravel packing the long, highly deviated completion intervals (up to 445 ft at angles approaching 70{degrees}) in the wells on the Lena guyed tower, located in the Gulf of Mexico. During 8 rig-years of operations, these techniques were used for both single and multizone completions. While some operators consider this technology antiquated, field experience at Lena demonstrates that water packing results in high-performance completions.

  9. Software For Nearly Optimal Packing Of Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Daughtrey, Rodney S.; Schwaab, Doug G.

    1994-01-01

    PACKMAN computer program used to find nearly optimal arrangements of cargo items in storage containers, subject to such multiple packing objectives as utilization of volumes of containers, utilization of containers up to limits on weights, and other considerations. Automatic packing algorithm employed attempts to find best positioning of cargo items in container, such that volume and weight capacity of container both utilized to maximum extent possible. Written in Common LISP.

  10. Aujeszky's disease in a pack of hounds.

    PubMed

    Gore, R; Osborne, A D; Darke, P G; Todd, J N

    1977-07-30

    Aujeszky's disease occurred in a pack of harrier hounds in the south west of England and caused the death of 11 of a pack of 51 animals. The onset appeared to have followed the feeding of pig carcase material from a very large fattening unit. No evidence of clinical disease was seen in pigs in this unit, but serological evidence of earlier infection was obtained. Interesting lesions in the intestinal wall of the hounds are described. PMID:906226

  11. A Hermite cubic collocation scheme for plane strain hydraulic fractures Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z2

    E-print Network

    Peirce, Anthony

    A Hermite cubic collocation scheme for plane strain hydraulic fractures A. Peirce Department Accepted 13 February 2010 Available online 4 March 2010 Keywords: Hydraulic fractures Integro the propagation of a hydraulic fracture in a state of plane strain. Special blended cubic Hermite-power­law basis

  12. Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Hertz, Joshua L; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Zachariah, Michael R; Tarlov, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Here we demonstrate a rapid and quantitative means to characterize the size and packing structure of small clusters of nanoparticles in colloidal suspension. Clustering and aggregation play important roles in a wide variety of phenomena of both scientific and technical importance, yet characterizing the packing of nanoparticles within small clusters and predicting their aerodynamic size remains challenging because available techniques can lack adequate resolution and sensitivity for clusters smaller than 100 nm (optical techniques), perturb the packing arrangement (electron microscopies), or provide only an ensemble average (light scattering techniques). In this article, we use electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA), a technique that exerts electrical and drag forces on the clusters, to determine the size and packing of small clusters. We provide an analytical model to determine the mobility size of various packing geometries based on the projected area of the clusters. Data for clusters aggregated from nominally 10 nm gold particles and nonenveloped viruses of various sizes show good agreement between measured and predicted cluster sizes for close-packed spheres. PMID:20481487

  13. Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, J H

    1988-01-01

    The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

  14. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Packing for Overseas... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing for Overseas Shipment (FEB 1988) Supplies shall be packed for overseas shipment in accordance with the...

  15. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packing for Overseas... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing for Overseas Shipment (FEB 1988) Supplies shall be packed for overseas shipment in accordance with the...

  16. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Packing for Overseas... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing for Overseas Shipment (FEB 1988) Supplies shall be packed for overseas shipment in accordance with the...

  17. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packing for Overseas... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing for Overseas Shipment (FEB 1988) Supplies shall be packed for overseas shipment in accordance with the...

  18. 48 CFR 452.247-73 - Packing for Overseas Shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing for Overseas... Packing for Overseas Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(c), insert the following clause: Packing for Overseas Shipment (FEB 1988) Supplies shall be packed for overseas shipment in accordance with the...

  19. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  20. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  1. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  2. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  3. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5760 - Chemical cold pack snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. 880.5760 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5760 Chemical cold pack snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A chemical cold pack snakebit kit is a device consisting of a chemical cold pack and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment...

  9. Optimization and Control of a Hydro-Mechanical Transmission based Hybrid Hydraulic Passenger Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    by retaining a mechanical transmission and by using a planetary gear set and two pump/motors so that the engine planetary differentials at the rear wheels to combine the powers of the mechanical and the hydraulic paths

  10. Determining the Molecular Packing Arrangements on Protein Crystal Faces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Huayu; Perozzo, Mary A.; Konnert, John H.; Nadarajan, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    Periodic Bond Chain (PBC) analysis of the packing of tetragonal lysozyme crystals have revealed that there are two possible molecular packing arrangements for the crystal faces. The analysis also predicted that only one of these, involving the formation of helices about the 4(sub 3) axes, would prevail during crystal growth. In this study high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to verify these predictions for the (110) crystal face. A computer program was developed which constructs the expected AFM image for a given tip shape for each possible molecular packing arrangement. By comparing the actual AFM image with the predicted images the correct packing arrangement was determined. The prediction of an arrangement involving 4(sub 3) helices was confirmed in this manner,"while the alternate arrangement was not observed. The investigation also showed the protein molecules were packed slightly closer about the 4(sub 3) axes than in the crystallographic arrangement of the crystal interior. This study demonstrates a new approach for determining the molecular packing arrangements on protein crystal faces. It also shows the power of combining a theoretical PBC analysis with experimental high resolution AFM techniques in probing protein crystal growth processes at the molecular level.

  11. THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.

    SciTech Connect

    KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.

    2003-05-04

    BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.

  12. Control apparatus for hydraulically driven generator

    SciTech Connect

    Beckwith, S.

    1985-08-06

    Apparatus for controlling a hydraulically driven generator for supplying electrical power to power mains. The generator is coupled to a turbine driven by a fluid flow through a duct. The duct has a one-fourth turn butterfly valve controlled by a fluid-actuated operator and the operator receives fluid from the duct by way of a normally closed valve which, when energized, creates water pressure on the operator for opening the butterfly valve. A second, normally open solenoid provides an emergency exit for the water from the operator to relieve the water pressure thereon and thereby close the butterfly valve when certain conditions exist, such as sudden loss of line voltage, overvoltage or deviation in frequency of the line voltage. A differential pressure switch across the turbine rotor also controls the starting of the system to assure proper flow of fluid through the duct before commencing operation of the generator itself.

  13. Optimizing hydraulic radius and acoustic field of the thermoacoustic engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Huifang; Li, Qing; Zhou, Gang

    2009-03-01

    It is well known that the acoustic field and the hydraulic radius of the regenerator play key roles in thermoacoustic processes. The optimization of hydraulic radius strongly depends on the acoustic field in the regenerator. This paper investigates the synthetical optimization of the hydraulic radius and the acoustic field which is characterized by the ratio of the traveling wave component over the standing wave component. In this paper, the normalized expressions of acoustic power gain and second law efficiency are derived and calculated, and then some useful calculated results are discussed. Some conclusions have been obtained, which are of significance to explain the optimum work conditions of existing engines and to guide the designs of new thermoacoustic devices. Finally, the operation factor of regenerator is discussed, which is a dimensionless parameter defined in this paper and highly relates to the working condition of the regenerator.

  14. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  15. Hydraulic pressure energy harvester enhanced by Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skow, Ellen; Koontz, Zachary; Cunefare, Kenneth; Erturk, Alper

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic pressure energy harvesters (HPEH) are devices that convert the dynamic pressure within hydraulic systems into usable electrical power through axially loaded piezoelectric stacks excited off-resonance by the fluid. Within hydraulic systems, the dominant frequency is typically a harmonic of the pump operating frequency. The pressure fluctuations coupled with the piezoelectric stack can be amplified by creating a housing design that includes a Helmholtz resonator tuned to the dominant frequency of the fluid excitation. A Helmholtz resonator is an acoustic device that consists of a cavity coupled to a fluid medium via a neck, or in this case a port connection to the fluid flow, that acts as an amplifier when within the bandwidth of its resonance. The implementation of a piezoelectric stack within the HPEH allows for a Helmholtz resonator to be included within the fluidic environment despite the significantly higher than air static pressures typical of fluid hydraulic systems (on the order of one to tens of MPa). The resistive losses within the system, such as from energy harvesting and viscous losses, can also be used to increase the bandwidth of the resonance; thus increasing the utility of the device. This paper investigates the design, modeling, and performance of hydraulic pressure energy harvesters utilizing a Helmholtz resonator design.

  16. Hydraulic processes on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Alluvial fans are among the most prominent landscape features in the American Southwest and throughout the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The importance of developing a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the hydraulic processes which formed, and which continue to modify, these features derives from their rapid and significant development over the past four decades. As unplanned urban sprawl moved from valley floors onto alluvial fans, the serious damage incurred from infrequent flow events has dramatically increased. This book presents a discussion of our current and rapidly expanding knowledge of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans. It addresses the subject from a multidisciplinary viewpoint, acquainting the reader with geological principles pertinent to the analysis of hydraulic processes on alluvial fans.

  17. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  18. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  19. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  20. Deterioration of organic packing materials commonly used in air biofiltration: effect of VOC-packing interactions.

    PubMed

    Lebrero, Raquel; Estrada, José M; Muñoz, Raúl; Quijano, Guillermo

    2014-05-01

    The abiotic deterioration of three conventional organic packing materials used in biofiltration (compost, wood bark and Macadamia nutshells) caused by their interaction with toluene (used as a model volatile organic compound) was here studied. The deterioration of the materials was evaluated in terms of structural damage, release of co-substrates and increase of the packing biodegradability. After 21 days of exposure to toluene, all packing materials released co-substrates able to support microbial growth, which were not released by the control materials not exposed to toluene. Likewise, the exposure to toluene increased the packing material biodegradability by 26% in wood bark, 20% in compost and 17% in Macadamia nutshells. Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the deterioration in the structure of the packing materials evaluated due to the exposure to toluene, Macadamia nutshells being the material with the highest resistance to volatile organic compound attack. PMID:24603032

  1. Inverse modeling of hydraulic tests in fractured crystalline rock based on a transition probability geostatistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blessent, Daniela; Therrien, René; Lemieux, Jean-Michel

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of a series of hydraulic interference tests conducted in crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto (Finland), a potential site for the disposal of the Finnish high-level nuclear waste. The tests are in a block of crystalline bedrock of about 0.03 km3 that contains low-transmissivity fractures. Fracture density, orientation, and fracture transmissivity are estimated from Posiva Flow Log (PFL) measurements in boreholes drilled in the rock block. On the basis of those data, a geostatistical approach relying on a transitional probability and Markov chain models is used to define a conceptual model based on stochastic fractured rock facies. Four facies are defined, from sparsely fractured bedrock to highly fractured bedrock. Using this conceptual model, three-dimensional groundwater flow is then simulated to reproduce interference pumping tests in either open or packed-off boreholes. Hydraulic conductivities of the fracture facies are estimated through automatic calibration using either hydraulic heads or both hydraulic heads and PFL flow rates as targets for calibration. The latter option produces a narrower confidence interval for the calibrated hydraulic conductivities, therefore reducing the associated uncertainty and demonstrating the usefulness of the measured PFL flow rates. Furthermore, the stochastic facies conceptual model is a suitable alternative to discrete fracture network models to simulate fluid flow in fractured geological media.

  2. Hydraulic jumps on an incline

    E-print Network

    Jean-Luc Thiffeault; Andrew Belmonte

    2010-09-01

    When a fluid jet strikes an inclined solid surface at normal incidence, gravity creates a flow pattern with a thick outer rim resembling a parabola and reminiscent of a hydraulic jump. There appears to be little theory or experiments describing simple aspects of this phenomenon, such as the maximum rise height of the fluid above the impact point, and its dependence on jet velocity and inclination angle. We address this with experiments, and present a simple theory based on horizontal hydraulic jumps which accounts for the rise height and its scaling, though without describing the shape of the parabolic envelope.

  3. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  4. 77 FR 55770 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...from the area of the landing gear's hydraulic power pack system. This proposed AD would require you inspect the aircraft's hydraulic power pack wiring for incorrect installation...from the area of the landing gear's hydraulic power pack system and resulted in a...

  5. Safety considerations for fabricating lithium battery packs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium cell safety is a major issue with both manufacturers and end users. Most manufacturers have taken great strides to develop the safest cells possible while still maintaining performance characteristics. The combining of lithium cells for higher voltages, currents, and capacities requires the fabricator of lithium battery packs to be knowledgable about the specific electrochemical system being used. Relatively high rate, spirally wound (large surface area) sulfur oxychloride cells systems, such as Li/Thionyl or Sulfuryl chloride are considered. Prior to the start of a design of a battery pack, a review of the characterization studies for the cells should be conducted. The approach for fabricating a battery pack might vary with cell size.

  6. GraSPI (Graphical Structured Packing Interface)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-10

    GraSPI is a collection of macros (computer programs) written to work in concert with Fluent Inc. software GAMBIT and FLUENT for modeling and design of structured packing columns used in the chemical industry (the application focus is in distillation but other applications such as gas absorbers, and other chemical contactors can also be analyzed). GraSPI is an accessory to GAMBIT and FLUENT that drives the process of complex geometry creation, domain setup, and mesh generation.more »In addition, GraSPI manages automatic flow analysis in the aforementioned domain via either serial or parallel computing using FLUENT. A library of typical commercial structured packing elements is included in GraSPI, so is the capability for user-defined creation of new packings.« less

  7. An integrated model of ring pack performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keribar, R.; Dursunkaya, Z.; Flemming, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated model developed for the detailed characterization and simulation of piston ring pack behavior in internal combustion engines and the prediction of ring pack performance. The model includes comprehensive and coupled treatments of (1) ring-liner hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication and friction; (2) ring axial, radial, and (toroidal) twist dynamics; (3) inter-ring gas dynamics and blowby. The physics of each of these highly inter-related phenomena are represented by submodels, which are intimately coupled to form a design-oriented predictive tool aimed at the calculation of ring film thicknesses, ring motions, land pressures, engine friction, and blowby. The paper also describes the results of a series of analytical studies investigating effects of engine speed and load and ring pack design parameters, on ring motions, film thicknesses, and inter-ring pressures, as well as ring friction and blowby.

  8. Spontaneous Crystallization in Athermal Polymer Packings

    PubMed Central

    Karayiannis, Nikos Ch.; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Laso, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We review recent results from extensive simulations of the crystallization of athermal polymer packings. It is shown that above a certain packing density, and for sufficiently long simulations, all random assemblies of freely-jointed chains of tangent hard spheres of uniform size show a spontaneous transition into a crystalline phase. These polymer crystals adopt predominantly random hexagonal close packed morphologies. An analysis of the local environment around monomers based on the shape and size of the Voronoi polyhedra clearly shows that Voronoi cells become more spherical and more symmetric as the system transits to the ordered state. The change in the local environment leads to an increase in the monomer translational contribution to the entropy of the system, which acts as the driving force for the phase transition. A comparison of the crystallization of hard-sphere polymers and monomers highlights similarities and differences resulting from the constraints imposed by chain connectivity. PMID:23263666

  9. Method for packed column separations and purifications

    DOEpatents

    Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA)

    2006-08-15

    The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

  10. Reducing hydraulic conductivity of porous media using CaCO? precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Eryürük, Ka?an; Yang, Suyin; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Iwao; Akatsuka, Tetsuji; Tsuchiya, Takayuki; Katayama, Arata

    2015-03-01

    The effect on hydraulic conductivity in porous media of CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC 11859) was investigated using continuous-flow columns containing glass beads between 0.01 mm and 3 mm in diameter. Resting S. pasteurii cells and a precipitation solution composed of 0.5 M CaCl2 and 0.5 M urea were introduced into the columns, and it was shown that the subsequent formation of CaCO3 precipitation reduced hydraulic conductivity from between 8.38 × 10(-1) and 3.27 × 10(-4) cm/s to between 3.70 × 10(-1) and 3.07 × 10(-5) cm/s. The bacterial cells themselves did not decrease the hydraulic conductivity. The amount of precipitation was proportional with the bacterial number in the column. The specific CaCO3 precipitation rate of the resting cells was estimated as 4.0 ± 0.1 × 10(-3) ?g CaCO3/cell. Larger amounts of CaCO3 precipitation were deposited in columns packed with small glass beads than in those packed with large glass beads, resulting in a greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of the columns containing small glass beads. Analysis using the Kozeny-Carman equation suggested that the effect of microbially induced CaCO3 precipitation on hydraulic conductivity was not due to the formation of individual CaCO3 crystals but instead that the precipitate aggregated with the glass beads, thus increasing their diameter and consequently decreasing the pore size in the column. PMID:25239069

  11. Extended Kalman filtering for battery management systems of LiPB-based HEV battery packs. Part 3. State and parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plett, Gregory L.

    Battery management systems in hybrid-electric-vehicle battery packs must estimate values descriptive of the pack's present operating condition. These include: battery state-of-charge, power fade, capacity fade, and instantaneous available power. The estimation mechanism must adapt to changing cell characteristics as cells age and therefore provide accurate estimates over the lifetime of the pack. In a series of three papers, we propose methods, based on extended Kalman filtering (EKF), that are able to accomplish these goals for a lithium ion polymer battery pack. We expect that they will also work well on other battery chemistries. These papers cover the required mathematical background, cell modeling and system identification requirements, and the final solution, together with results. This third paper concludes the series by presenting five additional applications where either an EKF or results from EKF may be used in typical BMS algorithms: initializing state estimates after the vehicle has been idle for some time; estimating state-of-charge with dynamic error bounds on the estimate; estimating pack available dis/charge power; tracking changing pack parameters (including power fade and capacity fade) as the pack ages, and therefore providing a quantitative estimate of state-of-health; and determining which cells must be equalized. Results from pack tests are presented.

  12. Robust Force Control of a 6-Link Electro-Hydraulic Manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyoungkwan; Yokota, Shinichi

    Uninterrupted power supply has become indispensable during the maintenance task of active electric power lines as a result of today's highly information-oriented society and increasing demand of electric utilities. This maintenance task has the risk of electric shock and the danger of falling from high place. Therefore it is necessary to realize an autonomous robot system using electro-hydraulic manipulator because hydraulic manipulators have the advantage of electric insulation and power/mass density. Meanwhile an electro-hydraulic manipulator using hydraulic actuators has many nonlinear elements, and its parameter fluctuations are greater than those of an electrically driven manipulator. So it is relatively difficult to realize not only stable contact work but also accurate force control for the autonomous assembly tasks using hydraulic manipulators. In this paper, the robust force control of a 6-link electro-hydraulic manipulator system used in the real maintenance task of active electic line is examined in detail. A nominal model for the system is obtained from experimental frequency responses of the system, and the deviation of the manipulator system from the nominal model is derived by a multiplicative uncertainty. Robust disturbance observers for force control are designed using this information in an H? framework, and implemented on the two different setups. Experimental results show that highly robust force tracking by a 6-link electro-hydraulic manipulator could be achieved even if the stiffness of environment and the shape of wall change.

  13. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  14. Characterizing aquifer heterogeneity using hydraulic tomography

    E-print Network

    Wachter, Brian James

    2008-07-29

    Fine-scale heterogeneity in a geologic medium determines rates and directions of flow and of contaminant transport. Traditional methods of determining hydraulic conductivity provide only average values of hydraulic ...

  15. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Location hydraulic studies. 650.111 Section 650...STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains § 650.111 Location hydraulic studies. (a) National...

  16. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. Correlation between Voronoi volumes in disc packings

    E-print Network

    Song-Chuan Zhao; Stacy Sidle; Harry L. Swinney; Matthias Schröter

    2011-12-19

    We measure the two-point correlation of free Voronoi volumes in binary disc packings, where the packing fraction $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$ ranges from 0.8175 to 0.8380. We observe short-ranged correlations over the whole range of $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$ and anti-correlations for $\\phi_{\\rm avg}>0.8277$. The spatial extent of the anti-correlation increases with $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$ while the position of the maximum of the anti-correlation and the extent of the positive correlation shrink with $\\phi_{\\rm avg}$. We conjecture that the onset of anti-correlation corresponds to dilatancy onset in this system.

  1. Hydraulic geometry of river cross sections; theory of minimum variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Garnett P.

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the rates at which mean velocity, mean depth, and water-surface width increase with water discharge at a cross section on an alluvial stream. Such relations often follow power laws, the exponents in which are called hydraulic exponents. The Langbein (1964) minimum-variance theory is examined in regard to its validity and its ability to predict observed hydraulic exponents. The variables used with the theory were velocity, depth, width, bed shear stress, friction factor, slope (energy gradient), and stream power. Slope is often constant, in which case only velocity, depth, width, shear and friction factor need be considered. The theory was tested against a wide range of field data from various geographic areas of the United States. The original theory was intended to produce only the average hydraulic exponents for a group of cross sections in a similar type of geologic or hydraulic environment. The theory does predict these average exponents with a reasonable degree of accuracy. An attempt to forecast the exponents at any selected cross section was moderately successful. Empirical equations are more accurate than the minimum variance, Gauckler-Manning, or Chezy methods. Predictions of the exponent of width are most reliable, the exponent of depth fair, and the exponent of mean velocity poor. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Climbing robot actuated by meso-hydraulic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Jason; Miller, Samuel; Saltzman, Jonah; Kim, Sangkyu; Lin, Yong; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the design, construction, experimental characterization, and system testing of a legged, wall-climbing robot actuated by meso-scale hydraulic artificial muscles. While small wall-climbing robots have seen increased research attention in recent years, most authors have primarily focused on designs for the gripping and adhesion of the robot to the wall, while using only standard DC servo-motors for actuation. This project seeks to explore and demonstrate a different actuation mechanism that utilizes hydraulic artificial muscles. A four-limb climbing robot platform that includes a full closed-loop hydraulic power and control system, custom hydraulic artificial muscles for actuation, an on-board microcontroller and RF receiver for control, and compliant claws with integrated sensing for gripping a variety of wall surfaces has been constructed and is currently being tested to investigate this actuation method. On-board power consumption data-logging during climbing operation, analysis of the robot kinematics and climbing behavior, and artificial muscle force-displacement characterization are presented to investigate and this actuation method.

  3. Hydraulic conductivity imaging from 3-D transient hydraulic tomography at several pumping/observation densities

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Hydraulic conductivity imaging from 3-D transient hydraulic tomography at several pumping August 2013; accepted 7 September 2013; published 13 November 2013. [1] 3-D Hydraulic tomography (3-D HT (primarily hydraulic conductivity, K) is estimated by joint inversion of head change data from multiple

  4. Introduction to Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide on hydraulics is part of a series of individualized instructional materials. The guide is provided to help the instructor make certain that each student gets the most benefit possible from both the student's manual and what he/she does on the job. Notes for the instructor contain suggestions on how the student should use…

  5. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation,

    E-print Network

    Pázsit, Imre

    THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation, flow measurements, evaluation methods FLOWACT, FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS IN PIPES WITH THE PULSED-NEUTRON ACTIVATION METHOD PER LINDÉN,* GUDMAR GROSSHÖG- neutron activation (PNA) in a specially designed test loop. A stationary neutron generator was used

  6. Water Resources: Hydraulics and Hydrology

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Water Resources: Hydraulics and Hydrology Interview with Margaret S. Petersen #12;This manuscript of History, Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alexandria, Virginia. MARGARET So PETERSEN WATER civilian and military engineers studied the behavior of rivers and the motion of water. They investigated

  7. Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agrophysical applications require knowledge of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. These properties reflect the ability of a soil to retain or transmit water and its dissolved constituents. The objective of this work was to develop an entry for the Encyclopedia of Agrophysics that w...

  8. Manual or hydraulic gearshifting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Kojima, Y.

    1986-04-08

    A vehicle transmission control apparatus is described which consists of: a plurality of shift members for operating a vehicle transmission; a lever adapted for linear movement into a plurality of positions, one each of the lever being operatively coupled to a different one of the shift members in each of the positions; the lever being further adapted for pivotal movement in response to which the one end of the lever actuates the operatively coupled shift member; a select actuator means comprising a select hydraulic cylinder and a select piston retained thereby, the select piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the linear movement thereof; a shift actuator means comprising a shift hydraulic cylinder and a shift piston retained thereby, the shift piston being coupled to the lever and hydraulically controlled to produce the pivotal movement thereof; a casing means retaining the lever, the select actuator means, and the shift actuator means; and a control member comprising a portion within the casing means and coupled to the lever and a manually accessible portion always disposed outside the casing means and having means adapted for manual actuation to produce either the linear or the pivotal movement of the lever.

  9. Introduction to Hydraulics. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Extension Instruction and Materials Center.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of individualized instructional materials for students. The manual is self-paced, but is designed to be used under the supervision of an instructor. The manual contains 10 assignments, each with all the information needed, a list of objectives that should be met, and exercise questions that can help in…

  10. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    ELM computer program is simple computational tool for modeling steady-state thermal hydraulics of flows of propellants through fuel-element-coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Evaluates various heat-transfer-coefficient and friction-factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with addition of heat. Comparisons possible within one program. Machine-independent program written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. A remotely controlled and powered artificial heart pump.

    PubMed

    Mussivand, T; Hendry, P J; Masters, R G; Holmes, K S; Hum, A; Keon, W J

    1996-12-01

    An intrathoracic pulsatile artificial heart pump has been developed. Transcutaneous energy transfer and biotelemetry systems provide continuous power and remote monitoring and control, with no percutaneous connections required. The electrohydraulic system can be used either as a ventricular assist device or with modifications as a total artificial heart. The device uses a unidirectional axial flow pump coupled with a pressure activated one-way valve to allow hydraulic fluid to passively return to the volume displacement chamber during diastole. The transcutaneous energy transfer system provides power to the device and recharges the implantable battery pack. A wearable external controller and external battery pack provide the patient enhanced mobility and thus an improved quality of life. The biotelemetry system allows control and monitoring of the device after implantation, as well as an added capability to monitor and control the device remotely over public communication lines. Early prototypes have functioned failure free for up to 3 years in vitro. The device has sustained circulation in vivo for up to 4 days. Design optimization is continuing, and chronic in vivo evaluation is planned. PMID:8947455

  13. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  17. Numerical Study of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Qun

    Numerical Study of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump Qun Zhao, Shubhra Misra, Ib. A. Svendsen and James T of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump ­ p.1/14 #12;Objective Our ultimate goal is to study the breaking waves. Numerical Study of a Turbulent Hydraulic Jump ­ p.2/14 #12;A moving bore Qiantang Bore China (Courtesy of Dr J

  18. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  4. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each constant head we repeated the test for three different rate of fiber compaction within the flow cell, corresponding to three different densities (146 kg/m3, 200 kg/m3 and 240 kg/m3). We observed that with increasing density of the fibers there is an increase of hydraulic conductivity. The importance of the experimental results on permeability acquires greater relevance when compared to the values of hydraulic conductivity already known from the literature for different soils types. In this study, special attention has been given to the value of hydraulic conductivity of this fiber, considering that in the framework of groundwater remediation strategies if the hydraulic conductivity in the barrier is lower than that of the surrounding aquifer, the plume may change its natural pathway, bypassing the barrier and veering towards larger hydraulic conductivity. Reference • Lee, B. G. and Rowell, R. M.: Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions using lignocellulosic fibers, J. Natural Fibers, 1, 97-108, 2004. • Troisi, S., Fallico, C., Straface, S., and Mazzuca, L.: Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. Brevetto dell'Università della Calabria (n.: CS2008A00018), 2008. • C. Fallico, S. Troisi, A. Molinari, and M. F. Rivera.: Characterization of broom fibers for PRB in the remediation of aquifers contaminated by heavy metals, Biogeosciences journal , 7, 2545-2556, 2010

  5. On Ulam's packing conjecture: is the ball the worst shape for packing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallus, Yoav

    2013-03-01

    The question of which convex shapes leave the most empty space in their densest packing is the subject of Reinhardt's conjecture in two dimensions and Ulam's conjecture in three dimensions. In two dimensions, a regular octagon whose corners have been smoothed to arcs of hyperbolas is known to be a local minimum of the optimal packing fraction and the circle is known to not be a local minimum. In three dimensions, we show that the ball is a local minimum: it is the worst packing shape among shapes of sufficiently low asphericity. We also discuss related results in higher dimensions and for the worst shape for other optimal arrangement problems.

  6. Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

    The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

  7. Development of the Packed Bed Reactor ISS Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Martin O.; Bruzas, Anthony E.; Rame, Enrique; Motil, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Packed bed reactors are compact, require minimum power and maintenance to operate, and are highly reliable. These features make this technology a leading candidate as a potential unit operation in support of long duration human space exploration. On earth, this type of reactor accounts for approximately 80% of all the reactors used in the chemical process industry today. Development of this technology for space exploration is truly crosscutting with many other potential applications (e.g., in-situ chemical processing of planetary materials and transport of nutrients through soil). NASA is developing an ISS experiment to address this technology with particular focus on water reclamation and air revitalization. Earlier research and development efforts funded by NASA have resulted in two hydrodynamic models which require validation with appropriate instrumentation in an extended microgravity environment. The first model developed by Motil et al., (2003) is based on a modified Ergun equation. This model was demonstrated at moderate gas and liquid flow rates, but extension to the lower flow rates expected in many advanced life support systems must be validated. The other model, developed by Guo et al., (2004) is based on Darcy s (1856) law for two-phase flow. This model has been validated for a narrow range of flow parameters indirectly (without full instrumentation) and included test points where the flow was not fully developed. The flight experiment presented will be designed with removable test sections to test the hydrodynamic models. The experiment will provide flexibility to test additional beds with different types of packing in the future. One initial test bed is based on the VRA (Volatile Removal Assembly), a packed bed reactor currently on ISS whose behavior in micro-gravity is not fully understood. Improving the performance of this system through an accurate model will increase our ability to purify water in the space environment.

  8. Pressure solution creep of random packs of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, Y.; Evans, B.

    2014-05-01

    We performed numerical calculations of compaction in aggregates of spherical grains, using Lehner and Leroy's (2004, hereinafter LL) constitutive model of pressure solution at grain contacts. That model is founded on a local definition of the thermodynamic driving force and leads to a fully coupled formulation of elastic deformation, dissolution, and diffusive transport along the grain boundaries. The initial geometry of the aggregate was generated by random packing of spheres with a small standard deviation of the diameters. During the simulations, isostatic loading was applied. The elastic displacements at the contacts were calculated according to Digby's (1981) nonlinear contact force model, and deformation by dissolution was evaluated using the LL formulation. The aggregate strain and porosity were tracked as a function of time for fixed temperature, applied effective pressure, and grain size. We also monitored values of the average and standard deviation of total load at each contact, the coordination number for packing, and the statistics of the contact dimensions. Because the simulations explicitly exclude processes such as fracturing, plastic flow, and transport owing to surface curvature, they can be used to test the influence of relative changes in the kinetics of dissolution and diffusion processes caused by contact growth and packing rearrangements. We found that the simulated strain data could be empirically fitted by two successive power laws of the form, ?x ? t?, where ? was equal to 1 at very early times, but dropped to as low as 0.3 at longer times. The apparent sensitivity of strain rate to stress found in the simulations was much lower than predicted from constitutive laws that assume a single dominant process driven by average macroscopic loads. Likewise, the apparent activation enthalpy obtained from the simulated data was intermediate between that assumed for dissolution and diffusion, and, further, tended to decrease with time. These results are similar to the experimental observations of Visser et al.'s (2012), who used an aggregate geometry and physical conditions closely resembling the present numerical simulations.

  9. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...chipped or crushed ice in wooden boxes, as in the case of shrimp, or placing the product in wooden boxes and covering with seaweed as in the case of lobsters. Where the trips are of long duration, as for several weeks or more, packing the...

  10. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...wooden boxes, as in the case of shrimp, or placing the product in wooden boxes and covering with seaweed as in the case of lobsters. Where the trips are of long duration, as for several weeks or more, packing the operations on fishing vessels...

  11. 29 CFR 784.135 - “Packing.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...wooden boxes, as in the case of shrimp, or placing the product in wooden boxes and covering with seaweed as in the case of lobsters. Where the trips are of long duration, as for several weeks or more, packing the operations on fishing vessels...

  12. Sun Packs Double Punch - Duration: 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 3, the sun packed a double punch, emitting a M6.0-class flare at 9:43 am EDT. This video is of the second, slightly stronger M9.3-class flare at 11:41 pm EDT. Both flares had significant ...

  13. 7 CFR 917.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pack. 917.13 Section 917.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 917.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 917.13 Section 917.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 917.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pack. 917.13 Section 917.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 917.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pack. 917.13 Section 917.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 917.13 - Pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pack. 917.13 Section 917.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  18. Porous bead packings for gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Woeller, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    Porous polyaromatic packing beads have low polarity, high efficiency, short retention time, and may be synthesized in size range of 50 to 150 micrometers (100 to 270 mesh). Mechanically strong beads may be produced using various materials depending on elements and compounds to be identified.

  19. Stuffed Derivatives of Close-Packed Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bodie E.

    2007-01-01

    Decades ago Buerger described and later Palmer reviewed stuffed silica crystal structures widely used by mineralogists. Many publications and books have discussed common crystal structures in terms of close-packing of one set of atoms or ions (P sites) with other atoms or ions in tetrahedral (T) or octahedral (O) sites. Douglas and Ho described…

  20. Covering and packing pumpkin models Dimitris Chatzidimitriou

    E-print Network

    Dimitrios, Thilikos

    Covering and packing pumpkin models Dimitris Chatzidimitriou Jean-Florent Raymond Ignasi Sau§ Dimitrios M. Thilikos§ Abstract Let r (the r-pumpkin) be the multi-graph containing two vertices and r. This graph is also known as the r-pumpkin and is denoted by r. In [7], Fiorini, Joret, and Sau proved

  1. Characteristics of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Compost" dairy barns are a relatively new housing system that generates a deep (0.9 to 1.5 m), stratified bedded pack (SBP) manure source. Bedding composed of sawdust, wood chips, or crop residues accumulates as additions are made to maintain a dry surface. Surface drying is promoted by a combinati...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  3. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit....

  4. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit....

  5. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  6. 7 CFR 989.9 - Packed raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packed raisins. 989.9 Section 989.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  7. 7 CFR 989.9 - Packed raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packed raisins. 989.9 Section 989.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  8. 7 CFR 989.9 - Packed raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packed raisins. 989.9 Section 989.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  9. 7 CFR 989.9 - Packed raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packed raisins. 989.9 Section 989.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 989.9 - Packed raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packed raisins. 989.9 Section 989.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. Packing morphology of wavy nanofiber arrays.

    PubMed

    Stein, Itai Y; Wardle, Brian L

    2015-12-23

    Existing theories for quantifying the morphology of nanofibers (NFs) in aligned arrays either neglect or assume a simple functional form for the curvature of the NFs, commonly known as the NF waviness. However, since such assumptions cannot adequately describe the waviness of real NFs, errors that can exceed 10% in the predicted inter-NF separation can result. Here we use a theoretical framework capable of simulating >10(5) NFs with stochastic three-dimensional morphologies to quantify NF waviness on an easily accessible measure of the morphology, the inter-NF spacing, for a range of NF volume fractions. The presented scaling of inter-NF spacing with waviness is then used to study the morphology evolution of aligned carbon nanotube (A-CNT) arrays during packing, showing that the effective two-dimensional coordination number of the A-CNTs increases much faster than previously reported during close packing, and that hexagonal close packing can successfully describe the packing morphology of the A-CNTs at volume fractions greater than 40 vol%. PMID:26658525

  12. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit....

  13. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit....

  15. 7 CFR 51.3152 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Nectarines packed in containers equipped with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of the proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit....

  16. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2338 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (1) Fruit packed in containers with cell compartments, cardboard fillers or molded trays shall be of proper size for the cells, fillers, or molds in which they are...measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. (f) In order...

  18. PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM BEEF PACKING EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The wastewater from a beef packing plant contained 4,600 mg/1 COD and 2,500 mg/1 of suspended solids. A physiochemical wastewater treatment process that recovers protein removed 80% of the oxygen demand and suspended solids, and 94% of the fat, oil, and grease. Total cost was $3 ...

  19. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  20. Queen Mary University of London Fundraising pack

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    way to get involved and support our students is by making a personal donation. Making a gift is quickQueen Mary University of London Fundraising pack Help our students, help our society! www.qmul.ac.uk/alumni/supportingqm/ 1 #12;Thank you for choosing to fundraise for Queen Mary University of London students

  1. Dense Packings of Polyhedra: Platonic and Archimedean Solids

    E-print Network

    S. Torquato; Y. Jiao

    2009-09-09

    We formulate the problem of generating dense packings of nonoverlapping, non-tiling polyhedra within an adaptive fundamental cell subject to periodic boundary conditions as an optimization problem, which we call the Adaptive Shrinking Cell (ASC) scheme. This novel optimization problem is solved here (using a variety of multi-particle initial configurations) to find the dense packings of each of the Platonic solids in three-dimensional Euclidean space R3 , except for the cube, which is the only Platonic solid that tiles space. We find the densest known packings of tetrahedra, icosahedra, dodecahedra, and octahedra with densities 0.823, 0.836, 0.904, and 0.947, respectively. It is noteworthy that the densest tetrahedral packing possesses no long-range order. Unlike the densest tetrahedral packing, which must not be a Bravais lattice packing, the densest packings of the other non-tiling Platonic solids that we obtain are their previously known optimal (Bravais) lattice packings. We also derive a simple upper bound on the maximal density of packings of congruent nonspherical particles, and apply it to Platonic solids, Archimedean solids, superballs and ellipsoids. Our simulation results, rigorous upper bounds, and other theoretical arguments lead us to the conjecture that the densest packings of Platonic and Archimedean solids with central symmetry are given by their corresponding densest lattice packings. In addition, we conjecture that the optimal packing of any convex, congruent polyhedron without central symmetry generally is not a lattice packing.

  2. Thermal hydraulic analysis of advanced Pb-Bi cooled NPP using natural circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novitrian, Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-01

    We present thermal hydraulic analysis for a low power advanced nuclear reactor cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic. In this work is to study the thermal hydraulic analysis of a low power SPINNOR (Small Power Reactor, Indonesia, No On-site Refuelling) reactor with 125 MWth which a design a core with very small volume and fuel column height, resulting in a negative coolant temperature coefficient and very low channel pressure drop. And also at full power the heat can be completely removed by natural circulation in the primary circuit, thus eliminating the needs for pumps.

  3. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  4. Barrier properties of k-mer packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebovka, N.; Khrapatiy, S.; Vygornitskyi; Pivovarova, N.

    2014-08-01

    This work discusses numerical studies of the barrier properties of k-mer packings by the Monte Carlo method. The studied variants of regular and non-regular arrangements on a square lattice included models of random sequential adsorption (RSA) and random deposition (RD). The discrete problem of diffusion through the bonds of a square lattice was considered. The k-mers were perfectly oriented perpendicular to the diffusion direction and blocked certain fraction of bonds fb against diffusion. The barrier efficiency was estimated by calculation of the ratio D/Do where D is diffusion coefficient in direction perpendicular to the orientation of k-mers and Do is the same value for diffusion on the square lattice without blocked bonds, i.e., at fb=0. The value of k varied from 1 to 512 and different lattice sizes up to L=8192 lattice units were used. For dense packings (p=1), the obtained D/Do versus fb dependences deviated from the theoretical prediction of effective medium (EM) theory and deviation was the most obvious for the regular non-staggered arrangement. For loose RSA and RD packings, the percolation like-behavior of D/Do with threshold at fb=p? was observed and the data evidenced that their barrier properties at large values of k may be more effective than those of some dense packings. Such anomalous behavior can reflect the details of k-mer spatial organization (aggregation) and structure of pores in RD and RSA packings. The contradictions between simulation data and predictions of EM theory were also discussed.

  5. Improving the Density of Jammed Disordered Packings using Ellipsoids

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Robert

    ratio close to that of M&M'S r Candies, and even approach 0.74 for general ellipsoids. We suggest of ordered and disordered (random) hard-sphere packings (1). Packing problems (2) are of current interest

  6. 7 CFR 319.37-9 - Approved packing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to shipment; such packing material is free from sand, soil, or earth (except for sand designated below); has not been used previously...expanded clay pellets. Buckwheat hulls. Coral sand from Bermuda, if the article packed in...

  7. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-print Network

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2840 - Export packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Export...Requirements § 51.2840 Export packing requirements. Onions specified as meeting Export Packing Requirements shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2840 - Export packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Export...Requirements § 51.2840 Export packing requirements. Onions specified as meeting Export Packing Requirements shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2840 - Export packing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Onions (Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Export...Requirements § 51.2840 Export packing requirements. Onions specified as meeting Export Packing Requirements shall...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1271 - Tolerances for standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Standard Pack § 51.1271 Tolerances for standard pack. (a) In order to allow for variations incident...

  12. Tight packing of a flexible rod in two-dimensional cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobral, T. A.; Gomes, M. A. F.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the injection and packing of a flexible polymeric rod of length L into a simply connected rectangular domain of area XY. As the injection proceeds, the rod bends over itself and it stores elastic energy in closed loops. In a typical experiment N of these loops can be identified inside the cavity in the jammed state. We have performed an extensive experimental analysis of the total length L(N, X, Y) in the tight packing limit, and have obtained robust power laws relating these variables. Additionally, we have examined a version of this packing problem when the simply connected domain is partially occupied with free discs of fixed size. The experimental results were obtained with 27 types of cavities and obey a single equation of state valid for the tight packing of rods in domains of different topologies. Besides its intrinsic theoretical interest and generality, the problem examined here could be of interest in a number of studies including packing models of DNA and polymers in several complex environments.

  13. The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onufreiczuk, S.

    1978-01-01

    A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis is kept in line with the direction of the prevailing wind, as well as pressure to the yaw and high speed shaft brakes. The pitch-change-mechanism hydraulic system provides the actuation to the pitch change mechanism and permits feathering of the blades during an emergency situation. It operates in conjunction with the overall windmill computer system, with the feather control permitting slewing control flow to pass from the servo valve to the actuators without restriction.

  14. Integrated power system

    SciTech Connect

    Waddington, C.

    1987-10-13

    An integrated power system is described for transmitting power from a gas turbine engine, including a gas producer and a free turbine engine, to the driving elements of a vehicle comprising: a pair of independent output shafts; a pair of combining planetary gear systems, each being drivingly coupled to an associated one of the output shafts; a variable speed transmission drivingly coupled to the free power turbine; drive means operatively connecting the transmission and each of the combining planetary gear systems; steering means operatively coupled to each of the combining planetary gear systems for selectively driving at least one of the combining planetary gear systems; the steering means including a variable displacement hydraulic motor in driving engagement with the planetary gear systems and an hydraulic pump in driving engagement with the transmission for supplying fluid under pressure to the hydraulic motor to thereby effect steering of the vehicle; a fuel control for controlling the power output of the gas turbine engine; and an adjustable relief valve operatively interposed between the hydraulic motor and the hydraulic pump, the valve being responsive to the fuel control to establish a maximum fluid pressure imparted by the hydraulic pump to the hydraulic motor.

  15. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    PubMed Central

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression maneuvers. After pressure equilibration cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics. PMID:25664452

  16. Downstream hydraulic geometry relations: 2. Calibration and testing 

    E-print Network

    Singh, Vijay P.; Yang, Chih Ted; Deng, Zhi-Qiang

    2003-12-04

    geometry relations: 2. Calibration and testing Vijay P. Singh Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA Chih Ted Yang 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins... geometry, maximum entropy, minimum energy dissipation, regime equations, stream power Citation: Singh, V. P., C. T. Yang, and Z.-Q. Deng, Downstream hydraulic geometry relations: 2. Calibration and testing, Water Resour. Res., 39(12), 1338, doi:10...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5710 - Hot or cold disposable pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hot or cold disposable pack. 890.5710 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 890.5710 Hot or cold disposable pack. (a) Identification. A hot or cold disposable pack is a device intended...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5710 - Hot or cold disposable pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot or cold disposable pack. 890.5710 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 890.5710 Hot or cold disposable pack. (a) Identification. A hot or cold disposable pack is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5710 - Hot or cold disposable pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hot or cold disposable pack. 890.5710 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 890.5710 Hot or cold disposable pack. (a) Identification. A hot or cold disposable pack is a device intended...

  20. 1. Contextual view looking west, showing packing house and Union ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Contextual view looking west, showing packing house and Union Ice building, which is located to the north of Packing House (right hand side in photo) - College Heights Lemon Packing House, 519-532 West First Street, Claremont, Los Angeles County, CA