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1

Hydraulic turbines for electric power generation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction and applications of hydraulic turbines used for electric power generation. Erosion, corrosion, fatigue cracking, cavitation and runners in hydraulic turbines are discussed. Performance evaluations for design innovations of hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage of regulated and unregulated turbines as well as vibration analysis of hydro units in hydroelectric power plants are included. (Contains a minimum of 142 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-12-01

2

Hydraulic turbines for electric power generation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction and applications of hydraulic turbines used for electric power generation. Erosion, corrosion, fatigue cracking, cavitation and runners in hydraulic turbines are discussed. Performance evaluations for design innovations of hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage of regulated and unregulated turbines as well as vibration analysis of hydro units in hydroelectric power plants are included. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

3

Dynamic real-time simulator for hydraulic turbine generating unit based on programmable computer controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic real-time simulator for hydraulic turbine generating unit based on programmable computer controller has been developed. The basic mathematical models of each component of the hydraulic turbine generating unit were analyzed. The hardware configuration and the software implementation of the dynamic real-time simulator were described in detail. With the simulator, the transients of the different operating conditions of the

Fang Hong-qing; Shen Zu-yi

2004-01-01

4

The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis

S. Onufreiczuk

1978-01-01

5

The application of hydraulics in the 2,000 kW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2000 kW turbine generator using hydraulic power in two of its control systems is being built under the management of NASA Lewis Research Center. The hydraulic systems providing the control torques and forces for the yaw and blade pitch control systems are discussed. The yaw-drive-system hydraulic supply provides the power for positioning the nacelle so that the rotary axis is kept in line with the direction of the prevailing wind, as well as pressure to the yaw and high speed shaft brakes. The pitch-change-mechanism hydraulic system provides the actuation to the pitch change mechanism and permits feathering of the blades during an emergency situation. It operates in conjunction with the overall windmill computer system, with the feather control permitting slewing control flow to pass from the servo valve to the actuators without restriction.

Onufreiczuk, S.

1978-01-01

6

Investigations of Hydraulic Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of the initial degree of turbulence on the hydrodynamic coefficients of the blade systems of axial hydraulic turbines; Accuracy of determining the flow around straight blade cascades; Application of Stanitz and Prian's approximate theory...

G. A. Svinarev

1969-01-01

7

Development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing of the hydraulic turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hydropower plant, a large quantities of turbine oil is used as machine control pressure oil and lubricating oil. If the oil leak out from hydropower plant, it flows into a river. And such oil spill has an adverse effect on natural environment because the oil does not degrade easily. Therefore the KANSAI and Hitachi Mitsubishi Hydro developed the water-lubricated thrust bearing for vertical type hydraulic turbine generator. The water-lubricated bearing has advantages in risk avoidance of river pollution because it does not need oil. For proceeding the development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing, we studied following items. The first is the examination of the trial products of water lubricating liquid. The second is the study of bearing structure which can satisfy bearing performance such as temperature characteristic and so on. The third is the mock-up testing for actual application in the future. As a result, it was found that the water-lubricated thrust bearing was technically applicable to actual equipments.

Inoue, K.; Deguchi, K.; Okude, K.; Fujimoto, R.

2012-11-01

8

Adjusment of the loads between segments in the hydraulic thrust bearing of a turbine-generator unit  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important stages in the assembly and repair of the thrust bearing of a turbine-generator unit is adjustment of the load on the segments. The generally accepted method of adjusting the loads between segments in a hydraulic thrust bearing is based on measuring the axial deformation of the elastic chambers of indicators and equalizing it. Here it is assumed that sagging of the chambers is plane-parallel. Certain problems that occurred when lining the bearings with Babbitt segments, for example, a decrease of sagging of the chambers with time from 0.2-0.3 mm to almost zero, i.e., an apparent increase of rigidity of the chambers, compelled doubting this.

Zakharov, A.A.

1995-11-01

9

Study of hydraulic transients in hydropower plants through simulation of nonlinear model of penstock and hydraulic turbine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of hydraulic transients in hydropower plants specifically in hydraulic turbine units, with penstock, spiral case and draft tube-is necessary due to power and frequency oscillations which normally occur in generator units, mainly during load rejections. In turn, this causes large pressure and subpressure oscillations in turbine hydraulic systems and must be evaluated to avoid mechanical failures. In this context,

N. Barbieri; A. H. M. Santos

1999-01-01

10

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

DOEpatents

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01

11

Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

Shi, Q.

2010-08-01

12

Water turbine generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water turbine generator system for use in a stream or river, said system having a catch basin formed by an end wall, a plurality of water chutes downstream of the catch basin and in communication with the catch basin by gates and closures and a plurality of turbines and associated generators journalled in the chutes for rotation by water

Brankovics

1982-01-01

13

Study of the UEO-50-4\\/12. 5 electrodialysis unit for use in providing coolant water for hydraulic turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for obtaining water suitable for cooling hydraulic turbines in hydroelectric power plants are discussed. These methods are ionite desalination and electrodialysis. The desalination method was found to be unsatisfactory but the electrodialysis method was largely free of the disadvantages of the desalination method. The performance of the electrodialysis method is discussed.

S. P. Vysotskii; V. S. Parykin; S. A. Vlasova; V. G. Keshelava; Z. G. Khodorchenko

1983-01-01

14

Stand alone induction generator with terminal impedance controller and no turbine controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction generators with hydraulic turbines are often used for cogeneration. The same turbine generator configuration can be used for stand-alone generation if an impedance controller is connected to the generator terminals; this configuration requires no hydraulic controls on the turbine. The authors propose an electronic impedance controller to control the voltage and the frequency of a stand-alone induction generator. The

R. Bonert; G. Hoops

1990-01-01

15

Assessment of the effectiveness of overhauling the cores of hydraulic turbine generators by injecting compound under the insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cores of hydraulic turbogenerator stator windings that have been damaged by ionization are being repaired without having to be removed from the stator. This is accomplished by injecting a thermo-reactive compound under the insulation. Tests were conducted to assess results obtained from using this method. It was found that the use of this compound under the insulation improves the

V. B. Kulakovskii; V. V. Maslov; S. I. Lomakin

1983-01-01

16

Superconducting wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

Abrahamsen, A. B.; Mijatovic, N.; Seiler, E.; Zirngibl, T.; Træholt, C.; Nørgård, P. B.; Pedersen, N. F.; Andersen, N. H.; Østergård, J.

2010-03-01

17

Application study of magnetic fluid seal in hydraulic turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waterpower resources of our country are abundant, and the hydroelectric power is developed, but at present the main shaft sealing device of hydraulic turbine is easy to wear and tear and the leakage is great. The magnetic fluid seal has the advantages of no contact, no wear, self-healing, long life and so on. In this paper, the magnetic fluid seal would be used in the main shaft of hydraulic turbine, the sealing structure was built the model, meshed the geometry, applied loads and solved by using MULTIPHYSICS in ANSYS software, the influence of the various sealing structural parameters such as tooth width, height, slot width, sealing gap on the sealing property were analyzed, the magnetic fluid sealing device suitable for large-diameter shaft and sealing water was designed, the sealing problem of the hydraulic turbine main shaft was solved effectively which will bring huge economic benefits.

Yu, Z. Y.; Zhang, W.

2012-11-01

18

Failure analysis of hydraulic turbine shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of major failure of 28MW horizontal hydro turbine shaft. The analysis of load carrying capacity of critical radius and fractography analysis are presented. Special emphasize is on metallurgical failure analysis of in-service crack initiation. The analysis of stresses is obtained by the finite element method and the developed model and load conditions are described. Finite

Dejan Mom?ilovi?; Zoran Odanovi?; Radivoje Mitrovi?; Ivana Atanasovska; Tomaž Vuherer

19

Hydrodynamics automatic optimization of runner blades for reaction hydraulic turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to optimize the hydrodynamics of the runner blades of hydraulic turbines. The runner presented is an axial Kaplan one, but the methodology is common also to Francis runners. The whole methodology is implemented in the in-house software QTurbo3D. The effect of the runner blades geometry modification upon its hydrodynamics is shown both from energetic and cavitation points of view.

Balint, D.; Câmpian, V.; Nedelcu, D.; Megheles, O.

2012-11-01

20

Effective Lightning Protection For Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine generator is the most exposed of all types of generators connected to electric utility systems. Wind turbines are most often erected in hostile lightning environments. Lightning damage to wind turbines is costly in terms of repair and replacement of equipment. Lightning damage is the single largest cause of unplanned downtime in wind turbines, and that downtime is

Bruce Glushakow

2007-01-01

21

Governor Characteristics for Large Hydraulic Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In considering appropriate parameters for large hydropower generating units, the choice of control characteristics to satisfy power system needs strongly influences the economics of design. Parameters fundamental to control characteristics which can be de...

F. R. Schleif

1971-01-01

22

Sequential tripping of steam turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of tripping the generator breakers immediately following a boiler\\/turbine trip exposes a steam turbine generator to a potentially damaging overspeed operating condition. This paper describes the use of the sequential trip mode as a means of minimizing the exposure to possible unit damage following a boiler\\/turbine trip. Included is a comparison of the application of devices used by

Everett Fennell; Kevin Kozminski; M. Bajpai; S. Easterday-McPadden; W. Elmore; C. Fromen; J. Gardell; W. Hartmann; J. Hurley; P. Kerrigan; K. Khunkhun; C. Mozina; G. Nail; S. Patel; G. Pence; A. Pierce; D. Smaha; S. Usman; P. Waudby; M. Yalla

1998-01-01

23

Dynamics and Stability of Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the dynamic and stability properties of wind turbine generators connected to power systems. Both synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed

E. N. Hinrichsen; P. J. Nolan

1982-01-01

24

Dynamics and stability of wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synchronous and induction generators are considered. A comparison is made between wind turbines, steam, and hydro units. The unusual phenomena associated with wind turbines are emphasized. The general control requirements are discussed, as well as various schemes for torsional damping such as speed sensitive stabilizer and blade pitch control. Integration between adjacent wind turbines in a wind farm is also considered.

Hinrichsen, E. N.; Nolan, P. J.

1981-01-01

25

Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microprocessor based system was used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

1978-01-01

26

Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

1978-01-01

27

An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

1971-01-01

28

Economics of large wind turbine generators  

SciTech Connect

This study demonstrates that established utility system planning methods are applicable to studying wind turbine generators, with minor modifications. A total utility cost approach was used to evaluate the economics of wind turbine generators. The limitations of the busbar energy cost method rule out its use. Three analytic models are studied: the wind plant performance model, the generation system reliability model, and the generation system production cost model. The results of generation, transmission, and distribution studies are interpreted. The results are then integrated to give a single measure of the value of distributed wind turbines. These results demonstrate that the value of distributed wind turbines is dominated by the generation energy and capacity value. The quality and availability of the wind resource far outweighs credits achievable from an optimal electrical location.

Oplinger, J.L.

1982-06-01

29

Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting bubble of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the co...

2001-01-01

30

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator were considered. Systems considered for large wind turbine generators were: (1) dc generator with line commutated inverted bridge; (2) synchronous generator with thyristor rectifier and inverter; (3) doubly fed induction generator with dc current link rectifier and inverter; (4) doubly fed induction generator with dc voltage link rectifier and inverter; and (5) doubly fed induction generator and cycloconverter. Those systems considered for smaller wind turbine generators were: (1) dc generator with copper based dc voltage link; (2) induction generator with dc voltage link; (3) induction generator with cycloconverter; (4) induction generator with high frequency link converter; and (5) permanent magnet generator configuration. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified.

Lipo, T. A.

1984-06-01

31

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

2003-03-01

32

Installation of electric generators on turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installation of generators on turbine aircraft is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of the samarium cobalt generator. Potential advantages of an electric secondary power system at the engine level are listed. The integrated generator and the externally mounted generator are discussed. It is concluded that the integrated generator is best used in turbojet and low bypass ratio engines where there is no easy way of placing generators externally without influencing frontal areas.

Demel, H. F.

1983-01-01

33

Advances in steam turbine technology for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains articles presented at the 1990 International Joint Power Generation Conference. It is organized under the following headings: Solid particle erosion in steam turbines, Steam turbine failure analysis, Steam turbine upgrades, steam turbine blading development, Boiler feed pumps and auxiliary steam turbine drives.

Bellanca

1990-01-01

34

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-01-01

35

Simulation model of radial vibration for a large hydro-turbine generator unit and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating to predict the dynamic response of large hydro-turbine generator units (hydro-units) is of great significance. In this paper, a rotordynamic model of radial vibration is presented, which takes into account guide bearing, thrust bearing, unbalanced magnetic pull, hydraulic force and unbalanced force. The brief and practical database method is employed to model the guide bearing. Taking advantage of the

Yong Xu; Zhaohui Li; Xide Lai

2011-01-01

36

Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan

2004-01-01

37

Effect of water compressibility on nonstationary characteristics of hydraulic turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the effect of water compressibility on the nonstationary characteristics of turbines connected with the ability of the liquid to execute natural hydroacoustic vibrations in the setting of hydroelectric units. We have constructed a model of the setting up of forced hydroacoustic vibrations in the water conduit due to the precession of the vortex core running off the turbine. The conditions for the possibility that low-frequency hydroacoustic natural vibrations will arise have been considered.

Kurzin, V. B.

2013-09-01

38

Study on stress characteristics of Francis hydraulic turbine runner based on two-way FSI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, cracking phenomenon occurs in many large-sized turbines both nationally and internationally, which has threatened the stable operation of hydraulic turbines. Consequently, Stress characteristics calculation and analysis of a Francis hydraulic turbine runner by application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technology become significantly important. In order to introduce two-way coupling technology to hydraulic machinery, two-way FSI technology is applied in this article to calculate and analyze stress characteristics. Through coordinate system transformation, the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations in the Cartesian coordinates system are firstly transformed to ALE coordinates system. The fluid field control equations are then constructed and discrete equations can be obtained by using flow-condition-based interpolation (FBIC-C). The structure static mechanics equations used are established in rotation coordinate system, and modeled with the finite method. Two-way coupling is computed by using iteration method. The fluid equations and structure equations are iterated until coupling coefficients converge. According to structure result, the maximum stress, displacement as well as its location can be found. As a result, the most easily wear position can be discovered which provides valuable basis for optimized design and stable operation of Francis hydraulic turbines. After comparing the results with that of one-way coupling, it is discovered that displacements is the key factors which affects the results of one-way and two-way coupling.

Zhu, W. R.; Xiao, R. F.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.; Wang, F. J.

2012-11-01

39

An electric conversion for mechanical-hydraulic governors of water wheel turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conversion system for upgrading performance of conventional mechanical governors for hydraulic turbines was developed. The conversion retains the proven long term stability of the bail head speed reference but replaces the dashpot function with tentative terms from an independent frequency sensor. The result upgrades the governor system from temporary-droop type to a higher order double-derivable type. Installation is simple.

C. L. Clemans; L. E. Eilts; F. R. Schleif

1979-01-01

40

Generator Power Measurements for Turbine Performance Testing at Bureau of Reclamation Powerplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve low uncertainty in a hydroelectric turbine performance test, the measured parameters should be obtained in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Power Test Code for Hydraulic Turbines and Pump-Turbines (PTC-18) or the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) International Code for the Field Acceptance Tests of Hydraulic Turbines (IEC 60041). When the results of past runner replacement

James DeHaan; David Hulse

41

Infrasound emission generated by wind turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. Such systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors, which are accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to humans. At infrasound station IGADE, north of Bremen, a constantly increasing background noise has been observed throughout the years since its installation in 2005. The spectral peaks are reflecting well the blade passing harmonics, which vary with prevailing wind speeds. Overall, a decrease is noted for the infrasound array's detection capability. This aspect is particularly important for the other two sites of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica, because plans for installing wind turbines near these locations are being under discussion. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise. Therefore data obtained during a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations for measuring the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine have been revisited. The results of this experiment successfully validate a theoretical model which estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and makes it possible to specify the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. Since the theoretical model also takes wind turbine design parameters into account, suitable locations for planned infrasound stations outside the determined disturbance range can be found, which will be presented; and vice versa, the model calculations' results for fixing the minimum distance for wind turbines planned for installation in the vicinity of an existing infrasound array.

Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph

2014-05-01

42

A Dynamic Wind Turbine Simulator of the Wind Turbine Generator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study dynamic performances of wind turbine generator system (WTGS), and to determine the control structures in laboratory. The dynamic torque generated by wind turbine (WT) must be simulated. In there paper, a dynamic wind turbine emulator (WTE) is designed, which consider wind shear and tower shadow effect, and a dynamic torque compensation scheme is also developed to compensate the

Lei Lu; Zhen Xie; Xing Zhang; Shuying Yang; Renxian Cao

2012-01-01

43

Understanding the unbalanced-voltage problem in wind turbine generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most wind turbines are equipped with line-connected induction generators. Induction generators are very attractive as wind turbine generators due to their low cost, ruggedness, and the need for little or no maintenance. At constant frequency, the induction generator operates in a small range of speeds and, therefore, it operates with a small range of slips with respect to synchronous speed.

E. Muljadi; D. Yildirim; T. Batan; C. P. Butterfield

1999-01-01

44

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

45

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

46

On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kW tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated. A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 MW tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation s 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one MW per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine s Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 MPa, 2900 psi) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, watermiscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC s cross-flow turbines are also discussed. For 15 MW of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimbrall, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

2012-01-01

47

Hydraulic accumulator-motor-generator energy regeneration system for a hybrid hydraulic excavator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the traditional energy regeneration system(ERS) which used a hydraulic motor and a generator in hybrid excavators can regenerate part of the energy, the power of the motor and the generator should be larger and the time for regenerating energy is so short. At first, the structure of new ERS that combines the advantages of an electric and hydraulic accumulator is analyzed. The energy can be converted into both the electric energy and the hydraulic energy at the lowering of the boom and the generator can still works when the boom stops going down. Then, a method how to set the working pressure of the hydraulic accumulator is proposed. To avoid the excess loss, extra noise and shock pressure, a two-level pressure threshold method that the generator starts to work at the rising edge of the high pressure threshold and stops working at the falling edge of the low pressure threshold is presented to characterize the working mode of the generator. The control strategies on how to control the boom velocity at the lowering of the boom and how to improve the recovery efficiency when the boom stops going down are presented. The test bench of hybrid excavator with ERS is constructed, with which the studies on the influences of ERS on energy conversion efficiency and control performance are carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed ERS features better speed control performance of the boom than traditional ERS. It is also observed that an estimated 45% of the total potential energy could be regenerated at the lowering of the boom in the proposed ERS, and the power level of the generator and the hydraulic motor could be reduced by 60%. Hence, the proposed ERS has obvious advantages over the traditional ERS on the improvement of energy regeneration time, energy efficiency, control performance and economy.

Lin, Tianliang; Wang, Qingfeng

2012-11-01

48

Model 0A wind turbine generator FMEA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA.

Klein, William E.; Lalli, Vincent R.

1989-01-01

49

Control of large wind turbine generators connected to utility networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an investigation of the control requirements for variable pitch wind turbine generators connected to electric power systems. The requirements include operation in very small as well as very large power systems. Control systems are developed for wind turbines with synchronous, induction, and doubly fed generators. Simulation results are presented. It is shown how wind turbines and power system controls can be integrated. A clear distinction is made between fast control of turbine torque, which is a peculiarity of wind turbines, and slow control of electric power, which is a traditional power system requirement.

Hinrichsen, E. N.

1983-01-01

50

Failure analysis of gas turbine generator cooling fan blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the optimum operation of a generator is highly affected by increasing in temperature, a cooling system is used to control the temperature. Employing a fan as a cooling system for the generator at the end sides of its rotor is a practical method [Montazer Ghaem Gas Turbine Power Plant. Gas turbine generator manual, Iran, 2004]. In some cases, fracture

S. E. Moussavi Torshizi; S. M. Yadavar Nikravesh; A. Jahangiri

2009-01-01

51

Methods of Electrical Modelling of the Hydraulic Sections of Air Cooling Systems of Gas Turbines with the Aid of Series Integrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical method is proposed for the electrical modelling of the hydraulic sections of gas turbine air cooling systems in order to permit increased efficiency through the use of higher temperatures in the working environment of turbine assemblies. The...

L. A. Kozdoba A. F. Moshnyanskii I. I. Rotav V. N. Chelabchi

1969-01-01

52

Experimental identification and study of hydraulic resonance test rig with Francis turbine operating at partial load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonance in hydraulic systems is characterized by pressure fluctuations of high amplitude which can lead to undesirable and dangerous effects, such as noise, vibration and structural failure. For a Francis turbine operating at partial load, the cavitating vortex rope developing at the outlet of the runner induces pressure fluctuations which can excite the hydraulic system resonance, leading to undesirable large torque and power fluctuations. At resonant operating points, the prediction of amplitude pressure fluctuations by hydro-acoustic models breaks down and gives unreliable results. A more detailed knowledge of the eigenmodes and a better understanding of phenomenon occurring at resonance could allow improving the hydro-acoustic models prediction.This paper presents an experimental identification of a resonance observed in a close-looped hydraulic system with a Francis turbine reduced scale model operating at partial load. The resonance is excited matching one of the test rig eigenfrequencies with the vortex rope precession frequency. At this point, the hydro-acoustic response of the test rig is studied more precisely and used finally to reproduce the shape of the excited eigenmode.

Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Avellan, F.

2012-11-01

53

Hydraulic Turbines: The Pelton Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Pelton turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

54

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

2010-02-01

55

Sequential tripping of steam turbine generators: Working Group report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of tripping generator breakers immediately following a boiler\\/turbine trip exposes a steam turbine-generator to a potentially damaging overspeed operating condition. This paper describes the use of the sequential trip mode as a means of minimizing the exposure to possible unit damage following a boiler\\/turbine trip. Included is a comparison of the application of devices used by several major

Everett Fennell; Kevin Kozminski; M. Bajpai; S. Easterday-McPadden; W. Elmore; C. Fromen; J. Gardell; W. Hartmann; J. Hurley; P. Kerrigan; K. Khunkhun; C. J. Mozina; G. Nail; S. Patel; G. Pence; K. Pierce; D. Smaba; S. Usman; P. Waudby; M. Yalla

1998-01-01

56

Review of failures and condition monitoring in wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing wind power generation quantity in power systems needs obviously reliable operation. Therefore, accurate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis are almost mandatory. This paper aims to report recent works on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis for wind turbine generators. Wind turbines are subjected to different sort of failures, thus before stating condition monitoring and fault diagnosis methods it is necessary

Z. Daneshi-Far; G. A. Capolino; H. Henao

2010-01-01

57

Recent experience of IFFM PAS in the design process of lowhead propeller hydraulic turbines for Small Hydro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper contains the short description of the design process of the axial flow turbines for Small Hydro. The crucial elements of the process are: ARDES programme for 1D inverse problem (containing the statistic information of the well performed hydraulic units, applying the lifting aerofoil theory); determination of universal hill diagram and optimization of the runner blades geometry by utilization of the 3D CFD codes. As the result of design process with utilization of both design steps, the generated runner blades geometry (1D inverse problem) and some computational results of 3D CFD solver have been presented. As the conclusion some crucial remarks of the designed process have been brought forward.

Kaniecki, M.; Krzemianowski, Z.

2010-08-01

58

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

59

Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

1975-01-01

60

46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting...that provides the cranking torque and engine starting RPM recommended by the engine manufacturer. The hydraulic...

2009-10-01

61

46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting...that provides the cranking torque and engine starting RPM recommended by the engine manufacturer. The hydraulic...

2010-10-01

62

46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the...

2013-10-01

63

Using genetic algorithm to define the governor parameters of a hydraulic turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several governor architectures, but in general, all of them are designed to maintain the controlled variable fluctuations within acceptable range. The Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) governor is one of the types used to regulate a hydraulic turbine, in which the deviation of the variable controlled is corrected through earnings proportional, integral and derivative. For a definition of the governor parameters and its stability analysis there are several methods that in general can be classified into a time domain and frequency domain. The frequency domain method, based on the control theory, have ease application, expeditious manner of obtaining the parameters, but the physical phenomena involved are linearized. However the time domain methods are more difficult to be applied, but have the advantage of being able to take into account the non-linearities presents in physical phenomena. Despite the time-domain method offers advantages, it does not provides a structured way to optimize the parameters of the governor, since the parameters are obtained through simulations with adopted values. This paper presents a methodology to obtain the turbine governor appropriate parameters through a hybrid model (simulation and optimization model), based on method of characteristic to the hydraulic simulation (time domain) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain appropriate values. Examples are presented showing the application of the proposed methodology.

Andrade, J. G. P.; Júnior, E. L.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

2010-08-01

64

Design evolution of large wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

Spera, D. A.

1979-01-01

65

Multi-speed electrical generator application to wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost-effective method to achieve increased energy conversion from wind turbine generators is presented. Most large wind turbines designed to supply electricity to a power have been optimized at a single rotor speed to maintain synchronism with the grid. Suboptimal performance results from spatial and temporal variation in actual wind speeds. Use of mechanical or electrical devices to allow variable

T. S. Andersen; H. S. Kirschbaum

1980-01-01

66

Using neural networks to estimate wind turbine power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data collected at Central and South West Services Fort Davis wind farm (USA) to develop a neural network based prediction of power produced by each turbine. The power generated by electric wind turbines changes rapidly because of the continuous fluctuation of wind speed and direction. It is important for the power industry to have the capability to

Shuhui Li; Donald C. Wunsch; Edgar A. O'Hair; Michael G. Giesselmann

2001-01-01

67

Representing wind turbine electrical generating systems in fundamental frequency simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of wind turbines are being erected. In the near future, they may start to influence the dynamics of electrical power systems by interacting with conventional generation equipment and with loads. The impact of wind turbines on the dynamics of electrical power systems therefore becomes an important subject, studied by means of power system dynamics simulations. Various types of

J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2003-01-01

68

Short circuit signatures from different wind turbine generator types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in the network, subjected to the fault clearance and following grid code demands. Beside voltage support during faults, the wind turbine fault current contribution is important to establish the correct settings for the relay of the protections. The following wind turbine generator during faults have been studied: (i)

Jorge Martinez; Philip C. Kjar; Pedro Rodriguez; Remus Teodorescu

2011-01-01

69

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These instructional materials provide an orientation to hydraulics for use at the postsecondary level. The first of 12 sections presents an introduction to hydraulics, including discussion of principles of liquids, definitions, liquid flow, the two types of hydraulic fluids, pressure gauges, and strainers and filters. The second section identifies…

Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

70

Durability Challenges for Next Generation of Gas Turbine Engine Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aggressive fuel burn and carbon dioxide emission reduction goals for future gas turbine engines will require higher overall pressure ratio, and a significant increase in turbine inlet temperature. These goals can be achieved by increasing temperature capability of turbine engine hot section materials and decreasing weight of fan section of the engine. NASA is currently developing several advanced hot section materials for increasing temperature capability of future gas turbine engines. The materials of interest include ceramic matrix composites with 1482 - 1648 C temperature capability, advanced disk alloys with 815 C capability, and low conductivity thermal barrier coatings with erosion resistance. The presentation will provide an overview of durability challenges with emphasis on the environmental factors affecting durability for the next generation of gas turbine engine materials. The environmental factors include gaseous atmosphere in gas turbine engines, molten salt and glass deposits from airborne contaminants, impact from foreign object damage, and erosion from ingestion of small particles.

Misra, Ajay K.

2012-01-01

71

15. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE PIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE PIT TO RIGHT AND POWERHOUSE TO LEFT - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

72

9. PENSTOCK RECEIVER AND ISOLATION VALVE, WITH #4 GENERATOR TURBINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. PENSTOCK RECEIVER AND ISOLATION VALVE, WITH #4 GENERATOR TURBINE SHUTOFF VALVE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

73

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.

Unknown

2001-12-05

74

A Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Scale Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a permanent magnet generator for small scale wind turbines. The generator has been designed for ease of manufacture so that it can be made by small mechanical engineering companies with limited electrical engineering knowledge. The generator has also been designed to have no cogging torque so that it can be used with all horizontal

J. R. Bumby; N. Stannard; R. Martin

2007-01-01

75

Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use in courses where students are expected to become proficient in the area of hydraulics, including diesel engine mechanic programs, this curriculum guide is comprised of fourteen units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Introduction, (2) Fundamentals of Hydraulics, (3) Reservoirs, (4) Lines, Fittings, and Couplers, (5) Seals,…

Decker, Robert L.

76

Design and Performance Study of an Ocean Current Turbine Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relatively constant flow of the ocean currents carries large amounts of energy that can be captured and converted to a usable form. In this paper, design and performance simulation of a horizontal axial ocean current turbine (OCT) are studied. Also, study on varying the turbine duct housing design parameters and a series of simulation analyses were performed. Our model simulations with and without the turbine duct housing design were compared with existing literature results and very good agreements were obtained. The results also showed that unducted ocean current turbine power output is proportional to the cube of the current speed. Therefore, if we can increase the flow rate, the ocean current turbine generator performance is expected to be greatly enhanced. By adding the turbine duct housing, under the current velocity of 1 and 2 m/s, parametric studies including the duct housing type, duct entrance area, tilt angle, and duct length-to-diameter ratio are performed. After obtaining the optimized set of design values for our current design, a complete system analysis of the ocean current turbine generator was performed to provide future design guidelines.

Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Lin, Chen-Yin; Hsu, Chih-Neng

2013-09-01

77

Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on

Cheney Jr

1985-01-01

78

Radar signature control of wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the prime locations for wind farms in the UK are on exposed landscapes close to regional airports. However, planning permission for such installations is often being denied because the moving blades of the wind turbines interfere with the operation of airport radar systems. Airport surveillance radars track the position and speed of aircraft in their surrounding airspace using

A. Tennant; B. Chambers

2005-01-01

79

ERCOT's Dynamic Model of Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

By the end of 2003, the total installed wind farm capacity in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system was approximately 1 gigawatt (GW) and the total in the United States was about 5 GW. As the number of wind turbines installed throughout the United States increases, there is a greater need for dynamic wind turbine generator models that can properly model entire power systems for different types of analysis. This paper describes the ERCOT dynamic models and simulations of a simple network with different types of wind turbine models currently available.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Conto, J.; Donoho, K.

2005-08-01

80

Advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry. PWR-Volume 26  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a collection of the papers on advances in steam turbine technology for the power generation industry presented at the 1994 International Joint Power Generation Conference. The topics include advances in steam turbine design, application of computational fluid dynamics to turbine aerodynamic design, life extension of fossil and nuclear powered steam turbine generators, solid particle erosion control technologies, and

1994-01-01

81

Voltaic turbine - A paradigm shift proposed in generating electricity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable demand for electric power results in a warehouse that naturally favors development of wind turbines that are significantly quieter and more efficient for generating electricity than today's fleet. Achieving this will require a revolutionary new concept, in particular "Magneto Voltaic Power plant" that generate electricity with the help of repulsive force which cause the turbine blades to rotate. The magneto voltaic power plant triggered the original development of wind turbines raising its energy and output power. This paper outlines the main issues involved in replacing the wind source to that of the repulsive force. It's shown that implementation of repulsive force generates electric power at a feasible cost and this would clearly be the enabling technology for generating electricity of the future.

V, Meera

2013-12-01

82

Short circuit current contribution for different wind turbine generator types  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. This paper presents simulation

Eduard Muljadi; Nader A. Samaan; Vahan Gevorgian; Jun Li; Subbaiah Pasupulati

2010-01-01

83

MOD1 wind turbine generator program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a status of the MOD-1 wind turbine generator program for the first megawatt class machine WTG. The MOD-1 WTG is described with attention drawn to its rotor design, drive train, power generation\\/control system, nacelle structure, yaw drive, weight, and tower and ground equipment. WTG performance and economics are considered along with factory assembly and test, site preparation,

R. H. Poor

1979-01-01

84

Coast Guard Evaluation of a Wave Activated Turbine Generator Buoy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wave activated turbine generator buoys were tested at Chesapeake Light (14 miles off Cape Henry, Virginia) and in Boston Harbor. The buoys were instrumented to record cumulative power generated and later modified to record sea state as well as other varia...

D. J. Hilliker J. W. Cutler W. E. Colburn

1977-01-01

85

Dynamics of Type3 Wind Turbine Generator Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of wind turbine generators (WTGs) on power system dynamic performance is becoming increasingly important as wind generation grows. The dynamic behavior of WTGs should therefore be thoroughly understood. The paper analyzes dynamic models of type-3 WTGs, and in particular the WECC generic model. The behavior of such models is governed by interactions between the continuous dynamics of state

Ian A. Hiskens

2012-01-01

86

Combination wind turbine generator and solar hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This demonstration combined two renewable sources of energy, wind and solar, to meet the needs for a hot water system and electrical generation. A new and unique wind blade design called a Helical Wind Turbine was used. The solar hot water system used was commercially produced. The project has demonstrated that wind generators are feasible in Harford County, Maryland.

J. L. Jr

1983-01-01

87

Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper covers the operation of variable-speed wind turbines with pitch control. The system the authors considered is controlled to generate maximum energy while minimizing loads. The maximization of energy was only carried out on a static basis and only drive train loads were considered as a constraint. In low to medium wind speeds, the generator and the power converter

Eduard Muljadi; C. P. Butterfield

2001-01-01

88

9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL EXCITER AND GENERATOR RHEOSTATS ATOP CONTROL PANEL AT REAR. CONTROL PANEL IS ORIGINAL EXCEPT FOR HORIZONTAL TOP PANEL WITH CLOCK AT LEFT AND SYNCHROSCOPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

89

The development of a 10 meter wind turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 kW, 10 m-diameter horizontal axis wind system whose prototype has been recently tested is described. The wind turbine is suitable for use in dispersed, interconnected applications. After prototype development, the design was refined and re-engineered for volume production. Power is generated by means of a direct-drive, permanent magnet alternator which operates over a variable speed range. This feature allows fixed turbine blade pitch operation up to rated wind speed, while maintaining optimum aerodynamic characteristics. Attention is given to the helicopter-like flapping rotor design, generator configuration, and tower erection method.

Meyer, H.

1982-03-01

90

The 100 kW experimental wind turbine generator project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Energy Research and Development Administration and the NASA Lewis Research Center engaged jointly in a Wind Energy Program which included the design and erection of a 100 kW wind turbine generator. This test machine consists of a rotor turbine, transmission, shaft, alternator, and tower. The rotor, measuring 125 feet in diameter and consisting of two variable pitch blades, operates at 40 rpm and generates 100 kW of electrical power at a wind velocity of 18 mph. The entire assembly is placed on top of a tower 100 feet above ground level. The machine was scheduled to be ready for operation in August, 1975.

Puthoff, R. L.; Sirocky, P.

1975-01-01

91

Optical fiber instrumentation of a high power generator and turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instrumentation of a high power generator and its complementary systems including the turbine bearings is presented and discussed. The generator consists of a 175MW hydroelectric generator installed in the Salto Osório power plant in the southern region of Brazil. Results show good agreement with the already existing instrumentation and demonstrate the technology potential for a full optical fiber sensing system to monitor these large machines.

da Silva, Erlon Vagner; Dreyer, Uilian José; de Morais Sousa, Kleiton; Babinski, Valderi Junot; Somenzi, Jonas; Mezzadri, Felipe; de Lourenço Junior, Ivo; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

2013-05-01

92

Electrical generation using a vertical-axis wind turbine  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, windmills have been of the propeller or multiblade types, both of which have their rotational axis parallel to the flow of the wind. A vertical-axis wind turbine has its rotational axis perpendicular to the flow of wind and requires no orientation to keep the rotor in the windstream. The vertical-axis wind turbine operates on the same principle as an airfoil and produces lift and drag as any airfoil. A newly designed 100-kW vertical-axis wind turbine has been operated for one year at the USDA Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, TX. The turbine has an induction generator and supplies power to a sprinkler irrigation system with excess power being sold to the electric utility. The turbine begins producing power at 5.5 m/s windspeed and reaches its rated output of 100-kW at 15 m/s. The unit has obtained a peak efficiency of 48% at a windspeed of 8 m/s or 81% of theoretical maximum. Using 17 years of windspeed data from the National Weather Service, the annual energy output is estimated at 200,000 kWh. The unit has experienced several operational problems during its initial testing. Guy cables were enlarged to provide greater stiffness to reduce blade stress levels, lightning shorted the main contactor, and the brake system required a complete redesign and modification. The turbine was operational about 60% of the time.

Clark, R.N.

1982-12-01

93

Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array  

PubMed Central

A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T2eff and longitudinal relaxation time T1 were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T2eff,long and T1,long. This indicates that the T2eff,long and T1,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines.

Guo, Pan; He, Wei; Garcia-Naranjo, Juan C.

2014-01-01

94

Degradation of phosphate ester hydraulic fluid in power station turbines investigated by a three-magnet unilateral magnet array.  

PubMed

A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T2eff and longitudinal relaxation time T1 were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T2eff,long and T1,long. This indicates that the T2eff,long and T1,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines. PMID:24736132

Guo, Pan; He, Wei; García-Naranjo, Juan C

2014-01-01

95

Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY; Garg, Jivtesh (Schenectady, NY) [Schenectady, NY; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee (Alplaus, NY) [Alplaus, NY; Carl, Jr., Ralph James (Clifton Park, NY)

2008-10-28

96

EMTP Simulation Model of a Wind Turbine Generator using Induction Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an EMTP simulation model for the wind turbine generator using induction generator. This model was developed to add the model of a wind turbine portion to the precision model using the standard specification data and operation data of induction generator. It verified that the inrush current at starting and the residual voltage at islanding state were analyzed, and measured data could be reproduced by this model.

Tokunaga, Yoshitaka; Iio, Naotaka; Tanomura, Kenichi; Shinohara, Hirofumi

97

Hydraulics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These interactive learning objects, created by instructors from Fox Valley Technical College and other colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College program, focus on concepts that cover a broad-based electromechanical program. Here visitors will find learning objects in Hydraulics with over 25 lessons in Actuators, Relief Valves, Basic Concepts, and Directional Control Valves.

2011-01-03

98

Wind turbine generator with improved operating subassemblies  

DOEpatents

A wind turbine includes a yaw spring return assembly to return the nacelle from a position to which it has been rotated by yawing forces, thus preventing excessive twisting of the power cables and control cables. It also includes negative coning restrainers to limit the bending of the flexible arms of the rotor towards the tower, and stop means on the rotor shaft to orient the blades in a vertical position during periods when the unit is upwind when the wind commences. A pendulum pitch control mechanism is improved by orienting the pivot axis for the pendulum arm at an angle to the longitudinal axis of its support arm, and excessive creep is of the synthetic resin flexible beam support for the blades is prevented by a restraining cable which limits the extent of pivoting of the pendulum during normal operation but which will permit further pivoting under abnormal conditions to cause the rotor to stall.

Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. (24 Stonepost Rd., Glastonbury, CT 06033)

1985-01-01

99

Modeling and Control of Micro-Turbine Based Distributed Generation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro turbine generation is currently attracting lot of attention to meet users need in the distributed generation market due to the deregulation of electric power utilities, advancement in technology, environmental concerns. In this paper modeling of micro-turbine distributed generation system has been implemented and a new converter controller for a simulation of dynamic model of a micro-turbine generation system (MTG)

Ashwani Kumar; K. S. Sandhu; S. P. Jain; P. Sharath Kumar

100

Steam turbine generator excitation system modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many power plants built 20-30 years ago are facing problems associated with the excitation system used for controlling generator output voltage. After years of reliable operation, generation is experiencing increased down time due to maintenance associated with the existing excitation equipment. Reliability of the excitation system has become an issue, especially where many of these generation plants may be critical

Richard C. Schaefer

1995-01-01

101

Numerical simulation of thermal-hydraulic generators running in a single regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the basis for the design of thermal-hydraulic generators running in a single regime. The thermal-hydraulic generators in a single regime running represent an absolute novelty worldwide (a pioneer invention). Based on the methodology concerning this subject, the design calculus for an experimental model was developed.

Chioreanu, Nicolae; Mitran, Tudor; Rus, Alexandru; Beles, Horia

2014-04-01

102

Control systems of wind turbine generators: an Italian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system of a wind turbine plays a crucial role in determining its dynamic performances in all the possible operating conditions, along the generator start-up and shut-down maneuvers, as well as during the production phase. In particular the regulation of blade pitch and nacelle alignment to the wind direction permit to maximize the power production or to limit the

S. Corsi; M. Pozzi

2003-01-01

103

11. VIEW NORTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE FIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW NORTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE FIT WITH INTAKE TRASH RACK AT WATER LINE AND SWITCH GEAR ON TOP - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

104

Dynamic modeling of doubly fed induction generator wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now recognized that many large wind farms will employ doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) variable speed wind turbines. A number of such wind farms are already in operation and more are planned or under construction. With the rising penetration of wind power into electricity networks, increasingly comprehensive studies are required to identify the interaction between the wind farm(s)

Janaka B. Ekanayake; Lee Holdsworth; XueGuang Wu; Nicholas Jenkins

2003-01-01

105

Sensorless Control of Permanent Magnet Generator in Wind Turbine Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a new and simple speed estimator, to be used by a permanent magnet generator, for maximum power tracking in a small size variable speed wind turbine. Moreover, a vector control approach is introduced to control the output voltage and current of a single-phase voltage source inverter, such that the active and reactive power can be controlled independently.

R. Esmaili; Longya Xu

2006-01-01

106

Wind turbine generators with active radar signature control blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large radar cross section of wind turbine generator (WTG) blades combined with high tip speeds can produce significant Doppler returns when illuminated by a radar. Normally, an air traffic control radar system will filter out large returns from stationary targets, however the Doppler shifts introduced by the WTG are interpreted as moving aircraft that can confuse radar operators and

Alan Tennant; Barry Chambers

2004-01-01

107

Site matching of wind turbine generators: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Site matching of wind turbine generators is investigated based on the appropriate selection of statistical models and means of wind speed data. The wind speed means are computed using arithmetic mean, root mean square and cubic mean cuberoot. Wind speed frequency distributions are modelled using Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. Wind speed data of an existing wind power station,

S. H. Jangamshetti; V. G. Rau

1999-01-01

108

Towards Quantification of Condition Monitoring Benefit for Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition monitoring systems are increasingly installed in wind turbine generators with the goal of providing component-specific information to the wind farm operator and hence increase equipment availability through maintenance and operating actions based on this information. In some cases, however, the economic benefits of such systems are unclear. A quantitative measure of these benefits may therefore be of value to

David McMillan; Graham Ault

109

Torsional Performance of Turbine Generator Shafts Especially Under Resonant Excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction between the electrical transmission system and the turbine generator may induce torsional stresses to the shaft system whose magnitude and risk of damage have to be carefully analyzed in advance to ensure undisturbed operation and to preclude any damage from the unit. Within this task, the present paper investigates the torsional stressing which arise as a result of torsional

D. Lambrecht; T. Kulig

1982-01-01

110

Signature management of radar returns from wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large radar cross section of wind turbine generator (WTG) blades combined with high tip speeds can produce significant Doppler returns when illuminated by a radar. Normally, an air traffic control radar system will filter out large returns from stationary targets, but the Doppler shifts introduced by the WTG blades are interpreted as moving aircraft that can confuse radar operators

A. Tennant; B. Chambers

2006-01-01

111

Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

2002-01-01

112

Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

Frost, Susan

2010-01-01

113

Failure analysis of a Francis turbine runner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable demand on the energy market requires great flexibility in operating hydraulic turbines. Therefore, turbines are frequently operated over an extended range of regimes. Francis turbines operating at partial load present pressure fluctuations due to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone. This phenomenon generates strong vibrations and noise that may produce failures on the mechanical elements of

D. Frunzaverde; S. Muntean; G. Marginean; V. Câmpian; L. Marsavina; R. Terzi; V. Serban

2010-01-01

114

Automation of Experimental Work on Test Stands of the Hydraulic Turbine Laboratory of KhTGZ (Avtomatizatsya Eksperimentalnykh Pabot NA Stendakh Gidroturbinoi Laboratorii KhTGZ im. S. M. Kirova).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The test stands and measuring equipment of the Khar'kov Turbine Plant's hydraulic turbine laboratory were fully automated to meet the heavy workload and reduce operating personnel. Automation was particularly needed for those test stands (1) covering a la...

S. F. Artyukh A. N. Marinyak

1969-01-01

115

The Parameter of Automatic Voltage Regulator's Effect on Steady State Stability Limit of Turbine Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady state stability limit of turbine generator with automatic voltage regulator (AVR) extends steam turbine's safe range under exciting operation compared to generator without AVR. Therefore, Paper analyzes the parameter of AVR's effect on steady state stability limit of turbine generator, and verifies the conclusion with the simulation model in Matlab\\/Simulink environment.

Yong-Gang Li; Jun-Jie Fu; Yan-Jun Zhao; Qiang Liu

2008-01-01

116

Pitch angle control of wind turbine generator using less conservative robust control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the pitch angle control design problem of wind turbine generator is considered. Dynamic characteristics of wind turbine system vary according to the wind speed and also the generator speed. But it is required to maintain the generator speed at the optimal one in spite of such variations. For this purpose, the pitch angle control of wind turbine

Hitoshi Takaai; Yuichi Chida; Kimi Sakurai; Takashi Isobe

2009-01-01

117

Fire-retardant lubricant for turbine generators. Final report. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The use of a fire resistant fluid in steam turbine generator lubrication systems would reduce the fire risks associated with current mineral lubricating oils. This project was directed toward determining the fesibility of modifying an existing Westinghouse lubrication system to use a phosphate ester lubricating fluid. The effects of the fluid on major components of the lubrication system including oil supply system, bearings, and generator hydrogen seal system were investigated. Performance and material compatibility impact on system components are identified and modifications recommended where required. Estimates of major modification costs are presented. The results of this study indicate that, with appropriate system modifications, a phosphate ester fluid can be an effective and reliable steam turbine generator lubricant. Recommendations are presented for component verification testing.

Pankowiecki, J.

1983-01-01

118

Hybrid Power Generation System Using Offshore-Wind Turbine and Tidal Turbine for Power Fluctuation Compensation (HOT-PC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid power generation system using Offshore-wind turbine and Tidal turbine for Power fluctuation Compensation (HOT-PC) is an autonomous power system. Electric power is generated from both offshore wind and tidal and is distributed over the load system. Power quality problems such as frequency fluctuations and voltage sags, which arise due to a fault or a pulsed load, can cause interruptions

Mohammad Lutfur Rahman; Shunsuke Oka; Yasuyuki Shirai

2010-01-01

119

Power fluctuations smoothing and regulations in wind turbine generator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is one of the most popular renewable energy sources and it has the potential to become the biggest energy source in future. Since the wind does not always blow constantly, the output wind power is not constant which may make some problem for the power grid. According to the grid code which is set by independent system operator, ISO, wind turbine generator systems need to follow some standards such as the predetermined acceptable power fluctuations. In order to smooth the output powers, the energy storage system and some power electronics modules are employed. The utilized power electronics modules in the wind turbine system can pursue many different goals, such as maintaining the voltage stability, frequency stability, providing the available and predetermined output active and reactive power. On the other side, the energy storage system can help achieving some of these goals but its main job is to store the extra energy when not needed and release the stored energy when needed. The energy storage system can be designed in different sizes, material and also combination of different energy storage systems (hybrid designs). Combination of power electronics devises and also energy storage system helps the wind turbine systems to smooth the output power according to the provided standards. In addition prediction of wind speed may improve the performance of wind turbine generator systems. In this research study all these three topics are studied and the obtained results are written in 10 papers which 7 of them are published and three of them are under process.

Babazadehrokni, Hamed

120

Case study of wind turbine generator siting in complex terrain  

SciTech Connect

A cost-effective wind turbine generator siting method is described, along with the results of a preliminary application of the method in the complex terrain of the New Hampshire mountains. The approach followed stressed the use of advanced planning, map interpretation, candidate-site aerial examination, and on-site studies in which TALA (Tethered Aerodynamically Lifting Anemometer) kite measurements and the examination of wind-deformed vegetation were conducted. The study results in a condensed list of sites that are candidates for the installation of meteorological sensors and the recording of a minimum of one year of wind data before recommending a site for the installation of a wind turbine (WT) generator.

Vachon, W.A.; Downey, W.T.; Madio, F.R.

1980-01-01

121

Crack Growth Prediction of the Steam Turbine Generator Shaft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power network in China is encountering great changes and large-scale network is increasingly implemented for long distance power transmission as well as various kinds of power electronic devices, which bring in the risk of the torsional vibration of the turbine generator shafts, may cause the fatigue damage and cracks in the product life cycle. The paper analyzed the failed coupling of some 600MW steam turbine generator and calculated the local stress of the assembly under torsional load caused by the network disturbance. Then the crack propagation was analyzed with the predicted crack initiation position and crack propagation routine. The assembled coupling contains shaft, coupling and keys with interferences between the parts. Therefore the contact analysis was included. Extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is used to calculate the crack propagation and that the mesh needs not to be regenerated with the crack propagation, which is beneficial for engineering applications.

Jiang, Dongxiang; Liu, Chao

2011-07-01

122

Torsional vibration analysis of turbine-generator-blade coupled system  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-generator sets are major components of electricity generating power plants. Pretwisted turbine blades, fixed on a rotating shaft by means of mounting disks, vibrate in both tangential and axial directions. The tangential component of blade vibrations is coupled with torsional vibrations of the shaft. This problem of a coupled shaft-blade torsional vibration in turbine-generator sets requires an equivalent reduction modeling technique used for coupled vibrating systems; however, to date, the shaft system and the blade system were modeled separately. The designers of a rotating shaft system analyze its torsional vibration ignoring the flexibility of the blade and of the disks. The shaft is modeled as a beam element using the finite element method (FEM). This FEM beam model is then used to calculate and design the shaft natural frequencies such that resonance is avoided with unbalanced torque excitations which have twice the line frequency (2f). This paper shows explicitly how to determine the modeling masses and spring constants to obtain the equivalent reduction of the real sub-system.

Matsushita, O.; Namura, K. Yoshida, T. (Mechanical Engineering Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., 502 Kandatsu-machi, Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki (JP)); Kaneko, R.; Okabe, A. (Hitachi Works, Hitachi, Ltd., 3-1-1 Saiwai-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (JP))

1989-01-01

123

Flicker study on variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD\\/EMTDC. Flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators is investigated during continuous operation, and the dependence of flicker emission on

Tao Sun; Zhe Chen; F. Blaabjerg

2005-01-01

124

Dynamic modelling of a wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of increasing environmental concern, more and more electricity is generated from renewable sources. One way of generating electricity from renewable sources is to use wind turbines. A tendency to erect more and more wind turbines can be observed. As a result of this, in the near future wind turbines may start to influence the behaviour of electrical

J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2001-01-01

125

Turbine set with a generator feeding a network of constant frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a turbine set with an axial flow which is traversed by water and which is coupled to a generator feeding a network of constant frequency, the flow turbine is a propeller turbine with nonadjustable blades. The stator winding of the generator is connected to the network by means of a frequency-controllable converter, in particular a direct converter. The speed

Spirk

1983-01-01

126

Hydropower Stations. Generating Equipment and Its Installation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first part of the book describes hydropower sets. Fundamental concepts concerning the use of hydraulic energy are explained, as are the general theory of hydraulic turbines, their layout and design, the design of hydropower generators, governors, and ...

A. N. Goncharov

1975-01-01

127

Axial flux, modular, permanent-magnet generator with a toroidal winding for wind turbine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent-magnet generators have been used for wind turbines for many years. Many small wind turbine manufacturers use direct-drive permanent-magnet generators. For wind turbine generators, the design philosophy must cover the following characteristics: low cost; light weight; low speed; high torque; and variable speed generation. The generator is easy to manufacture and the design can be scaled up for a larger

E. Muljadi; C. P. Butterfield; Yih-Huei Wan

1998-01-01

128

A hybrid generation system using variable speed wind turbines and diesel units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study of a power system consisting of wind turbines and diesel generation units. In the study, a direct drive modular permanent magnet generator is used for the wind turbine and a normal permanent magnet generator is used for the diesel generation unit. Both types of generation units are connected to the load via power electronic converters

Z. Chen; Y. Hu

2003-01-01

129

Torsional performance of turbine generator shafts especially under resonant excitation  

SciTech Connect

Interaction between the electrical transmission system and the turbine generator may induce torsional stresses to the shaft system whose magnitude and risk of damage have to be carefully analyzed in advance to ensure undisturbed operation and to preclude any damage from the unit. Within this task, the present paper investigates the torsional stressing which arise as a result of torsional resonance induced by pulsating components in the electrical torque of the generator and presents a method for assessing the susceptibility of natural torsional modes to excitation.

Lambrecht, D.; Kulig, T.

1982-10-01

130

Apparatus for generating hydraulic shock waves in a well  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for the discharge of electrical energy into a fluid bearing formation of a borehole to produce a hydraulic shock wave for assisting in the removal of fluid from the formation. It comprises: a bank of capacitors positioned at a surface location for the storage of electrical energy; a source of electrical energy to provide electrical

Stock

1991-01-01

131

Life extension of gas turbines used for power generation  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbines have traditionally been used by electric utilities to supplement generating capacity during peak demand periods. As they age, the utility is faced with the decision of either replacing the units to maintain a reliable source of generating capacity, or extending the life of the units through the use of improved maintenance and monitoring techniques. This paper discusses some of the considerations for extended life operation of gas turbines. To perform this study, actual operating and failure data for 50 Pratt Whitney FT-4 gas turbines were collected from a cooperating utility and analyzed to identify predominant failure causes and components most frequently failed. Failure rates for individual engine modules were calculated as a function of engine age to identify time-dependent trends and their effect on engine reliability. Mean time between failures and engine availability were also determined and are presented. Based on the results of the analysis, potential improvements to operation and maintenance methods were identified and are discussed. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Lofaro, R.; Villaran, M.

1990-01-01

132

Wind Turbine Power Generation Emulation Via Doubly Fed Induction Generator Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, we emulate a Wind Turbine Generator by driving a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) via a DC motor with variable input torque capability. The two circuits of concern are the DFIG and Supply-side circuits. They are electrically coupled w...

G. W. Edwards

2009-01-01

133

Emergency generator startup study of a hydro turbine unit for a nuclear generation facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the implementation of synchronous generator, induction machine, hydro turbine, and governor system, and excitation and automatic voltage regulator system models for transient stability study. These models are frequency dependent and are suitable for system transient studies involving drastic frequency changes, including generator startup and emergency load startup. A computer simulation program has been developed using these models

J. J. Dai; Di Xiao; Farrokh Shokooh; Christopher Schaeffer; Aldean Benge

2004-01-01

134

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

135

Superconducting light generator for large offshore wind turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore wind market demands higher power rate and reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational cost. These requests are difficult to overcome with conventional generator technologies due to a significant weight and cost increase with the scaling up. Thus superconducting materials appears as a prominent solution for wind generators, based on their capacity to held high current densities with very small losses, which permits to efficiently replace copper conductors mainly in the rotor field coils. However the state-of-the-art superconducting generator concepts still seem to be expensive and technically challenging for the marine environment. This paper describes a 10 MW class novel direct drive superconducting generator, based on MgB2 wires and a modular cryogen free cooling system, which has been specifically designed for the offshore wind industry needs.

Sanz, S.; Arlaban, T.; Manzanas, R.; Tropeano, M.; Funke, R.; Ková?, P.; Yang, Y.; Neumann, H.; Mondesert, B.

2014-05-01

136

Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter  

DOEpatents

A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility. 14 figs.

Muljadi, E.

1998-08-25

137

Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter  

DOEpatents

A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO

1998-01-01

138

Variable Speed Wind Turbine Generator with Zero-sequence Filter  

DOEpatents

A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO

1998-08-26

139

Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine.

A. J. Scalzo; R. L. Bannister; M. DeCorso; G. S. Howard

1996-01-01

140

Development of a New Procedure for Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the impact of wind generation on system reliability is developed. This method combines the effects of wind turbine forced outage rates and varying power output due to wind speed variations. Since individual wind turbines on a windfarm all have an output related to wind speed, each turbine's output cannot be assumed to be independent random variables.

Paul Giorsetto; Kent F. Utsurogi

1983-01-01

141

Normalized Power Curves as a Tool for Identification of Optimum Wind Turbine Generator Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method of matching wind turbine generators to a site using normalized power and capacity factor curves. The site matching is based on identifying optimum turbine speed parameters from the turbine performance index curve, which is obtained from the normalized curves, so as to yield higher energy production at a higher capacity factor. The wind speeds

V. G. Rau; S. H. Jangamshetti

2001-01-01

142

Performance of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype 3kW horizontal upwind type wind turbine generator of 4m in diameter has been designed and examined under real wind conditions. The machine was designed based on the concept that even small wind turbines should have a variable pitch control system just as large wind turbines, especially in Japan where typhoons occur at least once a year. A characteristic

Baku M. Nagai; Kazumasa Ameku; Jitendro Nath Roy

2009-01-01

143

Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of Hydrokinetic Turbine and Low- speed High-Thrust Permanent Magnet Generator Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

River-based hydrokinetic turbine power generation systems have been studied to introduce an effective energy flow control method. Hydrokinetic turbine systems share a lot of similarities with wind turbine systems in terms of physical principles of operati...

H. Zhou

2012-01-01

144

Thermal, Hydraulic, and Corrosion Aspects of PWR Steam Generator Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of PWR steam generators are in use: recirculating steam generators (RSGs) and once-through steam generators (OTSGs). Most of the units and vertical and this review will be limited to vertical units. Some of these steam generators have operated with a minimum of problems while other steam generator designs have experienced a variety of corrosion and mechanically induced problems.

STANLEY J. GREEN

1988-01-01

145

RELAP5\\/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5\\/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered

Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga

2006-01-01

146

Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

2009-01-01

147

Variable Speed Generator Application on the MOD-5A 7.3 Mw Wind Turbine Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the application of a Scherbiustat type variable speed subsystem in the MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator. As designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Cente...

R. S. Barton

1995-01-01

148

Modeling of Wind Turbine Driving Permanent Magnet Generator with Maximum Power Point Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on the analysis and simulation of 15 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) driving low speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) using PSIM computer simulation program. The system consists of wind turbine, permanent magnet generator, three-phase diode rectifier, boost converter, and voltage source inverter models. In the WTG model, the best performance coefficient has been determined according to

Ali M. Eltamaly

2007-01-01

149

Variable speed of the wind turbine generator with DFIG connected to electric grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable speed wind turbine generator with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is today widely used concept. This paper presents a control system of the doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine with focus on the control strategies and on active power reference value choice. The present control method is designed for super- synchronous, subsynchronous and synchronous working modes. In order to investigate

M. Zellagui

2008-01-01

150

Design of direct-driven permanent-magnet generators for wind turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents an investigation of how a direct-driven wind turbine generator should be designed and how small and efficient such a generator will be. Advantages and disadvantages of various types of direct-driven wind turbine generators are discuss...

A. Grauers

1996-01-01

151

Stabilization of Wind Turbine Generator System by STATCOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently voltage-source or current-source inverter based various FACTS devices have been used for flexible power flow control, secure loading, damping of power system oscillation and even for the stabilization of wind energy generation. In this paper, we propose the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based on voltage source converter (VSC) PWM technique to stabilize grid connected wind generator system. A simple control strategy of STATCOM is adopted where only measurement of rms voltage at the wind generator terminal is needed. Fuzzy logic controller rather than conventional PI controller is proposed as the control methodology of STATCOM. Multi-mass shaft model of wind turbine generator system (WTGS) is also considered as shaft modeling has a big influence on the transient performance of WTGS. Transient performance of STATCOM connected WTGS is compared also with that of pitch controlled WTGS. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed. Moreover, the steady state performance of STATCOM connected WTGS is analyzed. It is reported that STATCOM can reduce the voltage fluctuation significantly. Finally STATCOM is applied to a wind park model with multiple wind generators. Comprehensive results are presented to assess the performance of STATCOM connected WTGS, where the simulations have been done by PSCAD/EMTDC.

Muyeen, S. M.; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Ali, Mohd. Hasan; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji

152

Study of sediment erosion in hydraulic turbine using rotating disc apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are huge potential for hydropower development in Himalayan region in general and Nepal is particular. However, there are also technical challenges for hydropower development due to sediment erosion problem. Erosion not only reduces efficiency and life of hydropower turbines but also causes problems in operation and maintenance. A large number of factors can influence the process of sediment erosion

Hari Prasad Neopane; Surendra Sujakhu; Sanjay Shrestha; Khsitij Subedi; Anil Basnet

2012-01-01

153

Turbine generator evaluation for the Eesti-Energia Estonia and Baltic power plants. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report evaluates the feasibility of 200 MW turbines and generators modernization in two Estonian power plants in order to improve performance and/or availability. This is Volume 1 and it includes the following: (1) scope; (2) evaluation approach; (3) summary of major recommendations; (4) performance tests descriptions; (5) current technology -- component description; (6) recommended studies; (7) recommendations; (8) district heating; (9) description of turbine K-200-130; (10) turbine evaluation results; (11) generator; (12) estimation of modernization costs.

NONE

1995-12-01

154

Short-Circuit Current of Wind Turbines With Doubly Fed Induction Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-circuit current contribution of wind turbines has not received much attention so far. This paper considers the short-circuit behavior, especially the short-circuit current of wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator. Mostly, these wind turbines have a crowbar to protect the power electronic converter that is connected to the rotor windings of the induction generator. First, the maximum

Johan Morren; Sjoerd W. H. de Haan

2007-01-01

155

Wind turbine generator interaction with diesel generators on an isolated power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a dynamic interaction investigation to characterize any disturbances caused by interfacing the Mod 0A wind turbine (150 kW configuration) with the Block Island utility diesel generator grid are reported. The tests were run when only two diesel generators were on line, and attention was given to power, frequency, and voltage time profiles. The interconnected system was examined in the start-up and synchronization phase, normal shutdown and cut-out of the wind turbine, during fixed pitch generation, and during variable pitch operation. Governors were installed on the diesel generators to accommodate the presence of wind-derived electricity. The blade pitch control was set to maintain power at 150 kW or below. Power and voltage transients were insignificant during start-up and shutdown, and frequency aberrations were within the range caused by load fluctuations. It is concluded that wind turbine generation can be successfully implemented by an isolated utility, even with a significant penetration to the total grid output.

Scott, G. W.; Wilreker, V. F.; Shaltens, R. K.

1983-01-01

156

Thermal, hydraulic, and corrosion aspects of PWR steam generator problems  

SciTech Connect

Two types of PWR steam generators are in use: recirculating steam generators (RSGs) and once-through steam generators (OTSGs). Most of the units and vertical and this review will be limited to vertical units. Some of these steam generators have operated with a minimum of problems while other steam generator designs have experienced a variety of corrosion and mechanically induced problems. The discussion will focus more on the designs that have experienced problems and the effort expended to correct them. Corrosion problems include denting, wastage, intergranular attack, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, pitting on the outside surfaces of the tubes, and stress corrosion cracking the inner surfaces of the tubes. Mechanical concerns have included water hammer, thermal stratification in feed-water pipes, fretting and wear of the tubes caused by excessive tube vibration, and erosion-corrosion. These problems have caused unscheduled outages and expensive repairs.

Green, S.J.

1988-01-01

157

Design Study of 10 kW Superconducting Generator for Wind Turbine Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed a design study of a 10 kW superconducting slow rotating generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale wind turbine, where the drive train only consists of the turbine blades connected directly to the generator. The flux density in the superconducting rotor is chosen as B = 1 Tesla to be similar to the performance of permanent

A. B. Abrahamsen; N. Mijatovic; E. Seiler; M. P. Sorensen; M. Koch; P. B. Norgard; N. F. Pedersen; C. Traeholt; N. H. Andersen; J. Ostergard

2009-01-01

158

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator...

1984-01-01

159

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator....

1984-01-01

160

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the first of five ...

1984-01-01

161

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator....

1984-01-01

162

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

1984-08-01

163

High-order sliding mode control of a Marine Current Turbine driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based marine current turbine (MCT). Indeed, to increase the generated power and therefore the efficiency of an MCT, a nonlinear controller has been proposed. PMSG has been already considered for similar applications particularly wind turbine systems using mainly PI controllers. However, such kinds of controllers do not

S. E. Ben Elghali; M. E. H. Benbouzid; J. F. Charpentier; T. Ahmed-Ali; I. Munteanu

2009-01-01

164

A novel approach for modeling wind turbine generators for reliability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel algorithm to model wind turbine generators for reliability evaluation. The model is based on dividing the speed power curve into four states. The range of each state is determined based on the ratio between the output power and the rated power of the wind turbine generator. The mean time to fail and mean time to

Eman Beshr; Yasser Hegazy; Yasser Galal; M. A. Badr

2008-01-01

165

Design of a 100 W, 500000 rpm permanent-magnet generator for mesoscale gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoscale gas turbine generator systems are a promising solution for high energy and power density portable devices. This paper focuses on the design of a 100 W, 500000 rpm generator suitable for use with a gas turbine. The design procedure selects the suitable machine type and bearing technology, and determines the electromagnetic characteristics. The losses caused by the high frequency

C. Zwyssig; J. W. Kolar; W. Thaler; M. Vohrer

2005-01-01

166

Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Wind Turbine Driven Permanent Magnet Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Maximum Power Point Control for variable speed wind turbine driven permanent-magnet generator. The wind turbine generator is operated such that the rotor speed varies according to wind speed to adjust the duty cycle of power converter and maximizes Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) efficiency. The maximum power point for each speed value is traced using Maximum Power

R. Bharanikumar; A. C. Yazhini; A. N. Kumar

2008-01-01

167

Rise in gas-fired power generation tracks gains in turbine efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas-fueled gas turbines--in both simple and combined-cycle configurations--will account for most power generation capacity additions through 2000. It is widely agreed that gas turbines will remain the dominant form of technology for power generation for the next decade or two, making them the power generation technology of choice for today and the future. The pre-eminent stature of gas turbines can be attributed to their low capital costs, high efficiency, low emissions, short permitting and construction lead times, and proven reliability. The versatility of gas turbines also makes them unique among power generation technologies, as they can economically serve a wide spectrum of applications and sizes--from distributed generation to industrial cogeneration and central station generation. Three primary factors contribute to the growing interest in gas turbine-based power generation and the role gas turbines will play in the future power generation market: An optimistic outlook for the supply and price of natural gas; technology advances that have produced substantial improvements in efficiency and emissions; and emissions regulations that may favor the use of gas turbines over traditional fossil-fueled steam turbines. These three factors are discussed.

Bautista, P. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-08-12

168

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

1984-01-01

169

Dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines for power system stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing installation capacity and energy production, wind power plays more important role in power systems. In transient stability analysis, detailed modeling to each induction generator and wind turbine will introduce lots of calculation effort, which necessitates dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines in the same wind farm, or wind farms closely located. In this paper, weighted equivalence

Shenghu Li; Zhengkai Liu; Xinjie Hao; Shusen Jia

2010-01-01

170

Catalytic Combustor Demonstration on a Gas Turbine-Driven Generator Set for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a catalytic combustor on a gas-turbine generator set for HEV applications. When successfully developed, the catalytic combustor would be used on a 24 kW gas-turbine generator set bein...

1994-01-01

171

Large Current Lightning Mimic Test for FRP Blades of Wind Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, lightning damage to FRP blades of wind turbine generators has been increasing in parallel with the recent increase in the installation of wind turbine generators. Therefore, we established a test method, while clarifying the destructive climate of lightning, and examined a method of preventing destruction. A high-voltage test clearly showed that lightning easily penetrates FRP that is not

Masahiro Hanai; Hisatoshi Ikeda; Masumi Nakadate; Haruo Sakamoto

2007-01-01

172

Removal of Dioxin Contamination for Gas Turbine Generator Set Repair  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination projects are typically undertaken in the interest of reducing disposal costs. This goal can be achieved because decontamination concentrates the contaminant into a smaller volume or changes its form so that a lower cost disposal technology becomes available. Less frequently, decontamination adds value back to the fouled structure or contaminated piece of equipment. This removal of dioxins from a gas turbine generator set is one of the latter cases. A multi-million dollar piece of equipment could have been destined for the scrap pile. Instead, an innovative, non-destructive decontamination technology, developed under EPA and DOE demonstration programs has was employed so that the set could repaired and put back into service. The TechXtractchemical decontamination technology reduced surface dioxin / furan concentrations from as high as 24,000 ng / m2 to less than 25 ng / m2 and below detection limits.

Fay, W. S.; Borah, R.E.

2003-02-25

173

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of turbine intake hydraulics at a hydropower plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District is considering blocking the upper 12.3m of the turbine intakes at The Dalles Dam, Oregon with a J-shaped blocked trashrack (a steel panel in front of the existing trashrack). The objective is to create a forebay flow pattern aiding the downstream migration of juvenile fish. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics

Liaqat A. Khan; Edward A. Wicklein; Mizan Rashid; Laurie L. Ebner; Natalie A. Richards

2004-01-01

174

Effect of tip clearance on performance of small axial hydraulic turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first two stages of a six stage liquid oxygen turbine were tested in water. One and two stage performance was determined for one shrouded and two unshrouded blade end configurations over ranges of clearance and blade-jet speed ratio. First stage, two stage, and second stage efficiencies are included as well as the effect of clearance on mass flow for two stage operation.

Boynton, J. L.; Rohlik, H. E.

1976-01-01

175

Multimode control system for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-mode electronic wind turbine control system establishes a reference blade angle for a two-bladed, horizontal axis, variable pitch wind turbine rotor, the blade angle being regulated by a hydraulic pitch change mechanism. The rotor, via appropriate shafts and a gearbox, is coupled to a synchronous generator to produce electrical energy which is fed to a power utility grid. The

K. I. Harner; J. M. Kos; J. P. Patrick

1980-01-01

176

Synchronization of wind turbine generators against an infinite bus under gusting wind conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of synchronizing a wind turbine generator against an infinite bus are performed on a digital computer. In the digital simulation, wind gusts of different magnitudes and durations are hypothesized. Prior to the synchronization, differences of the frequency and phase position between voltages of the alternator and the bus are also included in the simulation. Solutions for rotor speed, generator power angle, electromagnetic torque, wind turbine torque, wind turbine blade pitch angle, and armature current are simulated and presented graphically. The ERDA-NASA 100-kW wind turbine is used as a case study. The results so obtained will thus have immediate applications.

Hwang, H. H.; Gilbert, L. J.

1978-01-01

177

Effect of ballast zone on the hydraulic stability of a direct-flow steam generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic stability analysis is an important stage in the designer a direct-flow heat exchanger, in particular a steam generator in a nuclear power plant, as one has to consider the channels in the heating surface and the characteristic working conditions. Two main forms of flow instability occur in a boiling channel: static or aperiodic and dynamic or oscillatory [i, 2].

I. I. Belyakov; M. A. Kvetnyi; D. A. Loginov

1985-01-01

178

Ocean thermal gradient hydraulic power plant.  

PubMed

Solar energy stored in the oceans may be used to generate power by exploiting ploiting thermal gradients. A proposed open-cycle system uses low-pressure steam to elevate vate water, which is then run through a hydraulic turbine to generate power. The device is analogous to an air lift pump. PMID:17813707

Beck, E J

1975-07-25

179

Designing Drive Trains for the Next Generation of Wind Turbines (FloDesign Wind Turbine Corporation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's wind turbines have nearly reached their maximum possible efficiency and are limited to sites with a narrow profile of wind patterns. The patent-pending Mixer Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept proposed by FloDesign promises to outperform existing wind turbines by a factor of three or more in a much wider range of wind resources. Olin College’s FloDesign SCOPE team was

Mateen Abdul; Kelcy Adamec; Gavin Boggs; Matthew Crawford; Kevin Sihlanick; Russell Torres

2009-01-01

180

Analytical investigation of thermal barrier coatings on advanced power generation gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation of present and advanced gas turbine power generation cycles incorporating thermal barrier turbine component coatings was performed. Approximately 50 parametric points considering simple, recuperated, and combined cycles (including gasification) with gas turbine inlet temperatures from current levels through 1644K (2500 F) were evaluated. The results indicated that thermal barriers would be an attractive means to improve performance and reduce cost of electricity for these cycles. A recommended thermal barrier development program has been defined.

Amos, D. J.

1977-01-01

181

Precision manufacturing of key components for an ultra miniature gas turbine unit for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced and precise manufacturing is presented for two key components: a compressor and a turbine impeller (Ø 20 mm) for\\u000a an ultra miniature gas turbine system as fuel-based power generation system. The total system fits in a cylinder with a diameter\\u000a of 110 mm and a length of 120 mm. At this scale, major components such as turbine and compressor are subjected to

Kun Liu; Tobias Waumans; Jan Peirs; Dominiek Reynaerts

2009-01-01

182

Dynamic modelling and simulation of a Micro-turbine generation system in the microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnection of MW scale micro-turbine as a set of small, modular generation system at the LV distribution level have a significant impact on micro-grid performance. According to the dynamic characteristics of the Micro-turbine system, a complete mathematic model which considers the Micro-turbine and other electrical components as a whole is established in PACAD\\/EMTDC. The proposal model is built based

Huang Wei; Zhang Jianhua; Wu Ziping; Niu Ming

2008-01-01

183

Study of steam, helium and supercritical CO 2 turbine power generations in prototype fusion power reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power generation systems such as steam turbine cycle, helium turbine cycle and supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) turbine cycle are examined for the prototype nuclear fusion reactor. Their achievable cycle thermal efficiencies are revealed to be 40%, 34% and 42% levels for the heat source outlet coolant temperature of 480°C, respectively, if no other restriction is imposed. In the current technology, however,

Shintaro Ishiyama; Yasushi Muto; Yasuyoshi Kato; Satoshi Nishio; Takumi Hayashi; Yasunobu Nomoto

2008-01-01

184

Sound measurements of the MOD-2 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sound measurements were made for the MOD-2 wind turbine generator for wind conditions of 7.6 to 13.4 m/sec and for output power ratings of about 1 to 2 NW. Both broad band and narrow band data wre obtained for a range of distances and azimuth angles from the machine. The rotor sound spectra are random in character and peak in the frequency ranges 30 to 50 Hz and 800 to 1300 Hz. Both peaks are predictable from experience with helicopter rotors and propellers. Results suggest that the lower frequency peak is due to the effects of inflow turbulence and the higher frequency peak is due to the interactions of the turbulent boundary layers with the trailing edges of the blades. The boundary layer related sound is the dominant component in the audible frequency range and determines the detectability of the machine. It could be detected at a distance of 1350 m in the upwind direction where the background noise was 30 dB (A) and at distances in excess of 2100 m in the downwind direction. Discrete frequency sound components associated with the power generation equipment are measurable in the direction normal to the axis of rotation but are not believed to be significant for detection or community response.

Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F. W.

1981-01-01

185

Wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine to convert wind energy into hydraulic energy by a positive displacement hydraulic pump driven by a wind mill. To the oil outlet of the hydraulic pump, a thermo-sensitive control element is attached, which functions when the oil temperature exceeds a certain limit. By the control element, the oil outlet is closed, suppressed, or opened to ensure safety

Kita

1983-01-01

186

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

2010-05-01

187

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

David Liscinsky

2002-10-20

188

Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

Sathiyanarayanan, J. S.; Senthil Kumar, A.

2014-01-01

189

Research on energy loss analysis of steam turbine generating unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize the performance of steam turbine unit performance monitoring system, the assessment indicators of which are not enough and limited to main operating parameters at present, more parameters are presented and their energy loss algorithms are given. The energy loss of these parameters aiming at an imported domestic 600MW supercritical steam turbine are analyzed, and their feather

Feng He; Niansu Hu; Tianjing Fan; Chunlin Zhang; Qiping Chen; Gaoming Huang

2011-01-01

190

Control of wind turbine generators connected to power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique simulation model based on a Mode-O wind turbine is developed for simulating both speed and power control. An analytical representation for a wind turbine that employs blade pitch angle feedback control is presented, and a mathematical model is formulated. For Mode-O serving as a practical case study, results of a computer simulation of the model as applied to

H. H. Hwang; H. V. Mozeico; L. J. Gilbert

1978-01-01

191

Electrical generation using a vertical-axis wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, windmills have been of the propeller or multiblade types, both of which have their rotational axis parallel to the flow of the wind. A vertical-axis wind turbine has its rotational axis perpendicular to the flow of wind and requires no orientation to keep the rotor in the windstream. The vertical-axis wind turbine operates on the same principle as an

1982-01-01

192

Numerical prediction for effects of guide vane blade numbers on hydraulic turbine performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using unstructured hybrid grid technique and SIMPLEC algorithm,a general three-dimensional simulation based on Reynolds Navier- stocks in multiple reference frames and the RNG k-? turbulence model, is presented for the reversal centrifugal pump (PAT) with a guide vane. Four different schemes are designed by a change of the number of guide vane blade of PAT. The inner flow field in every scheme is simulated, accordingly, the external characteristic and static pressure distribution in flow field in PAT is obtained. The results obtained show that the efficiency can be improved by adding a guide vane for the PAT, besides, the high efficiency area is wider than before. Guide blade numbers changed, external characteristics of turbine changed, and the external characteristic changed. The optimal value is existent for the guide vane blade number, which has a great impact on the distribution of pressure in runner inlet.

Shi, F. X.; Yang, J. H.; Wang, X. H.; Li, C. E.

2013-12-01

193

Power control of permanent magnet generator based variable speed wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the wind power accounts for a large portion of the grid, it will be required to regulate the active power and reactive power. This paper investigates a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The power control capabilities of two kinds of control schemes conducted respectively on this wind turbine under two conditions, including

Fujin Deng; Zhe Chen

2009-01-01

194

Modeling of the wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator for grid integration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its many advantages such as the improved power quality, high energy efficiency and controllability, etc. the variable speed wind turbine using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is becoming a popular concept and thus the modeling of the DFIG based wind turbine becomes an interesting research topic. Fundamental frequency models have been presented but these models are often

Yazhou Lei; Alan Mullane; Gordon Lightbody; Robert Yacamini

2006-01-01

195

Condition Monitoring of the Power Output of Wind Turbine Generators Using Wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasing number of wind turbines being erected offshore, there is a need for cost-effective, predictive, and proactive maintenance. A large fraction of wind turbine downtime is due to bearing failures, particularly in the generator and gearbox. One way of assessing impending problems is to install vibration sensors in key positions on these subassemblies. Such equipment can be costly

Simon Jonathan Watson; Beth J. Xiang; Wenxian Yang; Peter J. Tavner; Christopher J. Crabtree

2010-01-01

196

Simulation of a wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator by FAST and Simulink  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fully study the electrical, mechanical and aerodynamic aspects of a wind turbine with a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), a detailed model that considers all these aspects must be used. A drawback of many works in the area of wind turbine simulation is that either a very simple mechanical model is used with a detailed electrical model, or

R. Fadaeinedjad; M. Moallem; G. Moschopoulos

2008-01-01

197

Variable speed wind turbine based on multiple generators drive-train configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable speed wind turbine is presented in this paper, where multiple permanent magnet synchronous generators (MPMSGs) drive-train configuration is employed in the wind turbine. A cascaded multilevel converter interface based on the MPMSGs is developed to synthesize a desired high ac sinusoidal output voltage, which could be directly connected to the grids. What is more, such arrangement has been

Fujin Deng; Zhe Chen

2010-01-01

198

Steady-state stability limit of turbine-generators in consideration of AVR  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Hurwitz's criterion, this paper deduces the steady state borderline of steam turbine with AVR on the map of reactive capability curves, using the mathematical model of one machine infinite bus system. It extends steam turbine's safe range under exciting operation compared to generator without AVR, and presents a proposal for the reactive power service market.

Liu Qiang; Li Yong-gang; Li Hai-bo

2007-01-01

199

Next Generation Turbine Program Technical Progress Report. (Final Report, August 16, 2000-June 14, 2002).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turn...

2002-01-01

200

An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops,

Yusaku Kyozuka

2008-01-01

201

Turbine noise generation and suppression. [prediction method linking acoustic modes with aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical method for the prediction of turbine generated noise is discussed. The method links the duct acoustic modes with the turbomachinery aerodynamics. The results of the analysis are compared with turbine component and engine results. Component data on the effects of the variation of axial spacing between blade rows on turbine aerodynamics and acoustics are presented. The results of an experimental evaluation of the relative importance of turbine noise on highly suppressed bypass turbofans are discussed. The development of high temperature acoustic treatment and its application to high bypass turbofans are presented.

Benzakein, M. J.; Smith, E. B.

1973-01-01

202

Development of an axial microturbine for a portable gas turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A miniature gas turbine is under development with the aim of generating electrical energy from fuel. This system consists of a compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and generator. The turbine is a single-stage axial impulse turbine (Laval turbine) with a rotor diameter of 10 mm, made of stainless steel using die-sinking electro-discharge machining. It has been tested with compressed air to speeds up to 160 000 rpm and generates a maximum mechanical power of 28 W with an efficiency of 18.4%. When coupled to a small generator, it generates 16 W of electrical power, which corresponds to an efficiency for the total system of 10.5%. The power density is mainly limited by the maximal speed of the ball bearings. The main losses are the blade profile losses and the exit losses. Higher speeds can considerably reduce the exit losses and therefore increase efficiency and power density. An improved turbine has been tested at temperatures up to 360 °C and generates up to 44 W of electrical energy with a total efficiency of 16%. A 20 mm diameter centrifugal compressor matching the pressure and flow characteristics of the turbine has been designed and is currently under construction.

Peirs, Jan; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Verplaetsen, Filip

2003-07-01

203

Implementation of a Two-Axis Servo-Hydraulic System for Full-Scale Fatigue Testing of Wind Turbine Blades  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the blade fatigue testing capabilities at NREL were upgraded from single-axis to two-axis loading. To implement this, several practical challenges were addressed, as hardware complexity increased dramatically with two actuators applying the loads at right angles to each other. A custom bellcrank was designed and implemented to minimize the load angle errors and to prevent actuator side loading. The control system was upgraded to accept load and displacement feedback from two actuators. The inherent long strokes uniquely associated with wind turbine blade-tests required substantial real-time corrections for both the control and data systems. A custom data acquisition and control system was developed using a National Instruments LabVIEW platform that interfaces with proprietary servo-hydraulic software developed by MTS Corporation. Before testing, the program is run under quasi-static (slow speed) conditions and iterates to determine the correct operational control parameters for the controller, taking into consideration geometry, test speed, and phase angle errors between the two actuators. Comparisons are made between single-axis and two-axis test loads using actual test load data and load uncertainties are qualitatively described. To date, two fatigue tests have been completed and another is currently ongoing using NREL's two-axis capability.

Hughes, S. D.; Musial, W. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Stensland, T. [Stensland Technologies (US)

1999-09-09

204

The 1st Scandinavian Conference on Viscous and T urbulent Flow in Hydraulic Machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight papers are presented which related to modeling, computation and measurement of viscous and turbulent flow with reference to fans, pumps, and hydraulic turbines. Examples of grid generation and flow analysis are given for different geometrical shapes.

Kurt Alming; J. Vassenden

1988-01-01

205

Hydraulic resistance and convective heat transfer within independent power generation micro sources (IPM) channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of new structural materials and technologies contributes to the efficiency increase for the compact IPMs used in various branches of engineering. Use of a driving high-temperature (TIT600K), regenerative (the regeneration ratio is E>85%) micro gas turbine engine ?GTE, major components which are made of structural ceramics, allows not only to maintain the effective efficiency at ?e=26-30%, but, also, sharply reduce the material consumption rate for the micro source as a whole. Application of the laser prototyping technique to manufacture the air heater, which is a part of ?GTE, increases the IPM compactness. Miniaturization of the air heater, manufactured by the structural ceramics laser fusion, can significantly reduce the hydraulic diameter (dh<=1.0 mm) of the channels, designed to transport the working media inside it. Reducing dh leads to a significant increase in the hydraulic resistance of the micro channels. The associated increase in the energy consumption for ?GTE's own needs is compensated by increasing the TIT, E, and heat transfer coefficients in micro channels, and by eliminating the need in cooling for high temperature IPM components.

V, Sudarev A.; V, Sudarev B.; A, Suryaninov A.

2012-05-01

206

A permanent magnet generator for small scale wind and water turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and development of a 5 kW, 150 rpm, air-cored, axial flux generator for use as a direct drive generator with small wind and water turbines. The generator uses trapezoidal shaped magnets to obtain a greater active length than that provided by circular magnets. The armature coils are also trapezoidal. A prototype generator has been tested

J. R. Bumby; N. Stannard; J. Dominy; N. McLeod

2008-01-01

207

Tow tank testing and performance evaluation of a permanent magnet generator based small vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical axis turbines using permanent magnet generators are being considered as options for use in hydrokinetic energy conversion. As a precursor to development of full-scale systems, scale-model turbines need to be tested in controlled environment. In this article, the results of tow tank testing of a small vertical axis turbine employing a permanent magnet generator are presented. Effects of rotor

M. J. Khan; M. T. Iqbal; J. E. Quaicoe

2008-01-01

208

Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a westinghouse model f steam generator. Volume 2. Appendix A, numerical results. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Appendix presents the thermal-hydraulic information contained in the computer output of the CALIPSOS model for the Westinghouse Model f steam generator. Some of the preliminary information appearing in the computer output will not be defined or explained in this volume. Specific reference is made to overall performance data and to the dependent variable fields that convey the thermal-hydraulic characteristics

J. G. Thakkar; Fanselau; J. W. R. W. Hiestand; D. Cassell

1981-01-01

209

Fiber Composite Retaining Rings for Turbine-Driven Generators. Volume 1: Material Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objectives of the Fiber Composite Retaining Rings for Turbine Driven Generators Program were to develop composite design data, construction techniques and methods of attachment that would support the application of graphite epoxy composites fo...

W. A. Logsdon R. H. Marloff D. S. Kim

1982-01-01

210

Mathematical Model of the Double Fed Induction Generator for Wind Turbines and its Control Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fast growing of the wind energy makes the market of wind generators much larger and competitive. Nowadays, three main wind turbine types are developed. Nevertheless, every manufacturer introduces some \\

E. Spahic; J. Morren; G. Balzer; G. Michalke

2007-01-01

211

Options for variable speed operation of horizontal axis wind turbine generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages and disadvantages of variable speed operation of horizontal axis wind turbine generators are quantified where possible. Among the attributes considered are increased energy capture, reduction in gearbox cost, noise, increased losses due to ...

1989-01-01

212

Power Production at Federal Dams Could Be Increased By Modernizing Turbines and Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing Federal hydroelectric plants could increase power production by modernizing turbines to increase efficiencies and capacities and by modernizing generators to increase capacities. Increasing hydroelectric power production will (1) increase the Nat...

1977-01-01

213

Pedotransfer functions for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity: implications for modeling storm flow generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the performance of nine published pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in modeling the stormflow generated in a rainforest catchment. Using available input data consisting of particle size distribution, bulk density, and saturated moisture content information, these empirically-based PTFs were found to be inadequate in estimating Ks for this catchment. At shallow depths (0–0.1m), PTFs

J. A Sobieraj; H Elsenbeer; R. A Vertessy

2001-01-01

214

An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

Kyozuka, Yusaku

215

Acoustic emission during run-up and run-down of a power generation turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of acoustic emission (AE) activity at the bearings of power generation turbines is evolving into a viable complementary diagnostic technique especially adept at indicating the early stages of shaft-seal rubbing. This paper reports on an ongoing investigation on the application of acoustic emission for shaft-seal rub detection in power generation turbines. A pre-requisite in developing such a technique

C. Zuluaga-Giraldo; M. Smart

2004-01-01

216

Electromagnetic transients of a micro-turbine based distributed generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the electromagnetic transients of a micro-turbine based distributed generation system that includes an AC-DC-AC converter. An outline of modelling the micro-turbine based generation system including the AC-DC-AC converter is presented. A controller for the converter, that consists of a number of single-input single-output sub-controllers, is designed based on the developed model of the system. Furthermore, the thermodynamic

H. Nikkhajoei; R. Iravani

2007-01-01

217

Torsional Fatigue of Turbine-Generator Shafts Caused by Different Electrical System Faults and Switching Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The torsional stresses that occur in large steam turbine- generator shafts due to both planned and unplanned system switching operations are discussed. These operations include routine line switching, reclosing line-to-ground faults by either triple-pole or single-pole breaker operation, reclosing line-to-line and three-phase faults, malsynchronization and load rejection. The calculation of cumulative fatigue of individual turbine-generator shafts from computer-plotted torsional swing

John S. Joyce; Tadeusz Kulig; Dietrich Lambrecht

1978-01-01

218

Dynamic modeling and control of doubly fed induction generators driven by wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different models are presented and developed in PSCAD\\/EMTDC to represent a variable-speed wind turbine equipped with a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). One is the most detailed switching-level (SL) model. The other is a simplified fundamental-frequency (FF) model. The effect of different shaft system representations on the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine generator (WTG) system and the issue

Wei Qiao

2009-01-01

219

Pitch-control for wind turbine generator based on Action Dependent Heuristic Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitch-control is a main method to maintain the output power stable when wind speed above the rated in Large and medium-sized variable pitch wind turbine generator. Because wind turbine generator is a complex nonlinear system of multi-interference and strong coupling, traditional pitch controller can not satisfactorily solve the problems of low convergence speed and large steady-state error. A new type

Lianyou An; Bilian Liao; Shaojian Song; Xiaofeng Lin

2011-01-01

220

Modeling and control of distributed generation systems including PEM fuel cell and gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concentrates on the modeling and control of distributed generation systems including fuel cell and gas turbine. The fuel cell is connected to the power system through a dc\\/ac converter, which is equipped with both voltage- and power-control loops. The gas turbine is also assumed to be equipped with both voltage-control and generation (or frequency)-control loops. Moreover the gas

Rekha T. Jagaduri; Ghadir Radman

2007-01-01

221

Application of Fuzzy-PI controller on water turbine generator set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water turbine generator set has the characters of non-linearity, parameter time-variability and non- minimum phase. After researching on PID speed controller of water turbine generator set, it is found that PID controller has the problem of integral saturations and poor robustness. To improve the running state, Fuzzy-PI controller has been put forward in this paper which combines fuzzy control

Sun Huiqin; Liu Jianye; Fu Zhanwen

2010-01-01

222

PGT21S gas turbine features Russia`s Saturn gas generator  

SciTech Connect

Presented in this paper is the new PGT21S gas turbine, which is based on an AL 31 gas generator from Saturn. The AL 31 gas generator is a two-spool engine that has a four-stage, low-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage, low-pressure turbine and a nine-stage, high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage, high-pressure turbine. After testing, these units will be installed at the Gazprom Almasnaja compressor station in order to undergo actual operations. 3 figs.

Chellini, R.

1994-07-01

223

Axial-flux modular permanent-magnet generator with a toroidal winding for wind-turbine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent-magnet (PM) generators have been used for wind turbines for many years. Many small wind-turbine manufacturers use direct-drive PM generators. For wind turbine-generators, the design philosophy must cover the following characteristics: low cost, light weight, low speed, high torque and variable-speed generation. The generator is easy to manufacture and the design can be scaled up for a larger size without

Eduard Muljadi; C. P. Butterfield; Yih-Huie Wan

1999-01-01

224

Comparison of direct-drive and geared generator concepts for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to compare five different generator systems for wind turbines, namely the doubly-fed induction generator with three-stage gearbox (DFIG3G), the direct-drive synchronous generator with electrical excitation (DDSG), the direct-drive permanent-megnet generator (DDPMG), the permanent-magnet generator with single stage gearbox (PMG1G), and the doubly-fed induction generator with single-stage gearbox (DFIG1G). The comparison is based on cost

Henk Polinder; Frank F. A. van der Pijl; Gert-Jan de Vilder; Peter J. Tavner

2006-01-01

225

Statistical Safety Evaluation of BWR Turbine Trip Scenario Using Coupled Neutron Kinetics and Thermal Hydraulics Analysis Code SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) method has been prepared for the regulatory cross-check analysis at Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) on base of the three-dimensional neutron-kinetics/thermal- hydraulics coupled code SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0. In the preparation, TRACE5.0 is verified against the large-scale thermal-hydraulic tests carried out with NUPEC facility. These tests were focused on the pressure drop of steam-liquid two phase flow and void fraction distribution. From the comparison of the experimental data with other codes (RELAP5/MOD3.3 and TRAC-BF1), TRACE5.0 was judged better than other codes. It was confirmed that TRACE5.0 has high reliability for thermal hydraulics behavior and are used as a best-estimate code for the statistical safety evaluation. Next, the coupled code SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0 was applied to turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom-2 BWR4 Plant. The turbine trip event shows the rapid power peak due to the voids collapse with the pressure increase. The analyzed peak value of core power is better simulated than the previous version SKETCH-INS/TRAC-BF1. And the statistical safety evaluation using SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0 was applied to the loss of load transient for examining the influence of the choice of sampling method.

Ichikawa, Ryoko; Masuhara, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Fumio

226

Thermal-Hydraulic Simulation of Localized Flow Characteristics in a Steam Generator  

SciTech Connect

Multidimensional thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the secondary side of a steam generator (SG) are simulated by way of flow-boiling models. These models essentially belong to the so-called first-principle models that are derived from the conservation laws. The calculated results can provide the whole picture of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the localized distributions of velocity, pressure, enthalpy, and void fraction, etc. in the secondary side of the SG. In addition, with the help of these localized flow characteristics, the forcing sources can be estimated for predicting flow-induced vibration (FIV) damage suspected in the tube bundles around the U-bend region. These calculated results can provide important information to help the FIV prediction for SG U-tubes and to find where the most possible FIV damage is located.

Ferng, Y.-M. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Ma Yinpang [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Kang, J.-C. [Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China)

2001-11-15

227

New-generation gas turbine helping brewery lighten energy costs  

SciTech Connect

In nearly any manufacturing industry, the loss of electrical power can have a severe impact on the manufacturing process. The case of Labatt's Ontario Breweries in particular, the loss of electrical service puts a crimp in the brewmaster's art by forcing the company to dump large quantities of it's Labatt's Blue. To solve the problem, the company has installed a gas-turbine-drive cogeneration system to guard against brownout. The new 501-KB7 was developed from the well-established 501-KB5 turbine. It has improved power output over the 501-KB7 design, up from 4025 to 5225 kw, a higher 13.5:1 pressure ratio, and a 32% increased in airflow (20.4 kg/s). The Labatt's installation which became operational in 1993 reduced the Breweries energy cost because of 501-KB7 turbine's higher energy output. 3 figs.

Brezonick, M.

1994-10-01

228

Development of Micromachine Gas Turbine for Portable Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micromachine gas turbine with centrifugal impellers of 10mm diameter fabricated by 5-axis micro-milling is under development at Tohoku University, in conjunction with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), Tohoku-Gakuin University, and Sankyo Seiki Mfg. Co., Ltd. The development is currently at the stage of proving the feasibility of the gas turbine cycle by component tests. Micro-combustors have been developed for both hydrogen and methane fuel. Over 99.9% of the combustion efficiency has been realized in both combustors and the baseline configuration of the combustor for the gas turbine is set. A compressor of 10mm diameter has been developed as a micromachined turbocharger. The performance test of the micromachined turbocharger has been started, and ran up to 566000rpm, which is approximately 65% of the design speed. Compressor performance has been successfully measured along a constant speed line at 55% of the design speed.

Isomura, Kousuke; Tanaka, Shuji; Togo, Shinichi; Kanebako, Hideki; Murayama, Motohide; Saji, Nobuyoshi; Sato, Fumihiro; Esashi, Masayoshi

229

Probabilistic reliability criterion for expansion planning of grids including wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alternative method, derived from a simulation model, for expansion planning for grids considering wind turbine generators in a composite power system. The proposed model includes capacity limitations and uncertainties of the generators and transmission lines. It proposes to handle the uncertainties of system elements (generators, lines, transformers and wind resources of WTG, etc.) by a Composite

Kyeonghee Cho; Taegon Oh; Jaeseok Choi; A. A. El-Keib; Mohammad Shahidehpour

2011-01-01

230

Terminal voltage control of a wind turbine driven isolated induction generator using stator oriented field control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the voltage build up process and terminal voltage control in an isolated wind powered induction generator driven by a variable speed wind turbine using stator flux oriented vector control. Here three-phase induction generator is excited using a PWM inverter\\/rectifier connected to a single capacitor on the DC side. Wind powered isolated induction generators have an input, wind,

D. Seyoum; M. F. Rahman; C. Grantham

2003-01-01

231

Slip power recovery induction generators for large vertical axis wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation results are presented for the performance of a slip power recovery induction generator coupled to a vertical-axis wind turbine. The suitability of this type of generator for wind-driven applications is discussed. A qualitative comparison with two other alternatives is made, highlighting the basic features of the generator configuration studied. Quantitative simulation analysis showed that it is possible to reduce

H. L. Nakra; B. Dube

1988-01-01

232

ADVANCED CONTROLS FOR MITIGATION OF FLICKER USING DOUBLY-FED ASYNCHRONOUS WIND TURBINE-GENERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interconnection of wind generation with power distribution systems may result in rapid voltage variations, or flicker, much more readily than for HV transmission interconnections. Wind turbine generators employing doubly- fed asynchronous generators provide a means to rapidly control reactive power, as well as to smooth variations in real power. This capability is exploited to minimize flicker, despite rapid variations of

R. A. Walling; K. Clark; N. W. Miller; J. J. Sanchez-Gasca

2005-01-01

233

Recent advances in variable speed electrical generator systems for large wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

Major variable speed electrical generator system design objectives have been verified through large-scale experiment. Full exploitation of variable speed generator benefits can revolutionize large wind turbine design. The greatest advantages come not only from the improved aerodynamic efficiency of keeping tip speed proportional to wind speed, but from dramatic reduction in drive train resonances, elimination of dissipative damping losses, easy motorized turbine start, and isolation of turbine dynamics from the electrical network. Experimental verification proceeded by two steps: first, actual control hardware and software were verified with a hybrid simulation of a full wind turbine system; then the controls were combined with power thyristor bridges configured as a cycloconverter and motor-generator test train to implement a variable speed generator and a simulated wind-turbine/drive train. Although the existing equipment presented several constraints on testing latitude, major features demonstrated include: (1) variable frequency motoring to 50% speed for quick, efficient turbine start-up; (2) synchronization below, at, and above synchronous speeds, both steady state and transient; (3) net power output up to 120 kW with stable response to 50 kW step changes in demand within one second and similarly responsive control of VARs; (4) steady power and VAR output throughout speed transients from ten percent below to ten percent above synchronous speed; (5) output voltage waveform with less than five percent total harmonic distortion; and (6) damping of simulated drive train resonance at 0.2 Hz.

Andersen, T.S.; Hughes, P.S.; Klein, F.F.; Mutone, G.A.

1983-01-01

234

Development of Intelligent Wind Turbine Generator with Tandem Wind Rotors and Double Rotational Armatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the superior wind turbine generator, which is composed of the tandem wind rotors and the double rotational armature type generator without the conventional stator. The large-sized front wind rotor and the small-sized rear wind rotor drive respectively the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, in keeping the rotational torque counter-balanced. Such operating conditions enable to make the output higher than the conventional wind turbine and to keep the output constant in the rated operating mode without using the brake and/or the pitch control mechanisms. Such wonderful advantages in the generating mode are discussed and verified experimentally with the model turbine generator.

Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Galal, Ahmed Mohamed

235

Evaluation of a wind turbine electric power generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technical assessment of the aerodynamic performance of the wind wheel turbine (WWT) is reported. The potential of the WWT in utilizing wind as an alternate power source was evaluated. Scaling parameters were developed to predict the aerodynamic performance of WWT prototype sized to produce 3, 9, 30, and 100 kw outputs in a 6.7 m/sec wind.

Swim, W. B.

1981-01-01

236

Control of wind turbine generators connected to power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique simulation model based on a Mode-O wind turbine is developed for simulating both speed and power control. An analytical representation for a wind turbine that employs blade pitch angle feedback control is presented, and a mathematical model is formulated. For Mode-O serving as a practical case study, results of a computer simulation of the model as applied to the problems of synchronization and dynamic stability are provided. It is shown that the speed and output of a wind turbine can be satisfactorily controlled within reasonable limits by employing the existing blade pitch control system under specified conditions. For power control, an additional excitation control is required so that the terminal voltage, output power factor, and armature current can be held within narrow limits. As a result, the variation of torque angle is limited even if speed control is not implemented simultaneously with power control. Design features of the ERDA/NASA 100-kW Mode-O wind turbine are included.

Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Gilbert, L. J.

1978-01-01

237

Candidate wind turbine generator site: annual data summary, January 1981-December 1981  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for 34 candidate and wind turbine generator sites for calendar year 1981 are presented. These data are collected for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, wind speed, direction, and distribution data are given in eight tables. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.; Abbey, O.B.

1982-07-01

238

Candidate wind turbine generator site annual data summary for January 1980 through December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for fourteen candidate and wind turbine generator sites are presented in this report. These data are collected for the Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, data are given in eight tables and one figure. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.

1981-04-01

239

Candidate wind turbine generator site annual data summary for January 1979 through December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for fifteen candidate and wind turbine generator sites are presented in this report. These data are collected for the Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the wind energy potential at these sites and are used to assist in selection of potential sites for installation and testing of large wind turbines in electric utility systems. For each site, data are given in eight tables and one figure. Use of information from these tables, with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.

1981-03-01

240

Directly-Coupled Gas Turbine Permanent Magnet Generator Sets for Prime Power Generation On Board Electric Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prime power generation on board all-electric ships presents several options that affect fuel consumption, power density, operational effectiveness, and survivability. A study that aims at understanding the effects of some of these options has been conducted and results are reported in this paper. It is found that direct coupling of gas turbines to permanent magnet generators reduces system mass and

S. Z. Vijlee; A. Ouroua; L. N. Domaschk; J. H. Beno

2007-01-01

241

Multiple Model Predictive Control for Wind Turbines With Doubly Fed Induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multivariable control strategy based on model predictive control techniques for the control of variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbines is proposed. The proposed control strategy is described for the whole operating region of the wind turbine, i.e., both partial and full load regimes. Pitch angle and generator torque are controlled simultaneously to maximize en- ergy capture, mitigate drive train transient loads,

Mostafa Soliman; O. P. Malik; David T. Westwick

2011-01-01

242

Sensorless control for small wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a robust sensorless control system for variable-speed, fixed-pitch wind turbines with direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator. It covers both the partial-load and full-load operating regimes. In partial-load, the aim of the control action is to maximize the harvested energy form the wind while keeping the wind turbine stable. In full-load operation mode, a second controller limits the

I. Serban; C. Marinescu

2011-01-01

243

Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

1979-01-01

244

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the first of five books of volume four. It contains structural design criteria, generator step-up transformer specs, specs for design, fabrication and testing of the system, specs for the ground control enclosure, systems specs, slip ring specs, and control system specs.

1984-08-01

245

Application of Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch (MERS) to Improve Output Power of Wind Turbine Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental results of an innovative power conversion technology using magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS) in a wind turbine system with a synchronous generator to improve the output power and the efficiency are presented. The MERS can compensate for the reactance voltage of the generator. The output voltage of the system increases and the excitation power of the generator can be significantly reduced. The data indicate a great potential of the new power conversion technology to make the actual wind turbine system compact and to improve the efficiency.

Takaku, Taku; Homma, Gen; Isobe, Takanori; Kato, Shuhei; Igarashi, Seiki; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Ryuichi

246

Performance analysis of a miniature turbine generator for intracorporeal energy harvesting.  

PubMed

Replacement intervals of implantable medical devices are commonly dictated by battery life. Therefore, intracorporeal energy harvesting has the potential to reduce the number of surgical interventions by extending the life cycle of active devices. Given the accumulated experience with intravascular devices such as stents, heart valves, and cardiac assist devices, the idea to harvest a small fraction of the hydraulic energy available in the cardiovascular circulation is revisited. The aim of this article is to explore the technical feasibility of harvesting 1?mW electric power using a miniature hydrodynamic turbine powered by about 1% of the cardiac output flow in a peripheral artery. To this end, numerical modelling of the fluid mechanics and experimental verification of the overall performance of a 1:1 scale friction turbine are performed in vitro. The numerical flow model is validated for a range of turbine configurations and flow conditions (up to 250?mL/min) in terms of hydromechanic efficiency; up to 15% could be achieved with the nonoptimized configurations of the study. Although this article does not entail the clinical feasibility of intravascular turbines in terms of hemocompatibility and impact on the circulatory system, the numerical model does provide first estimates of the mechanical shear forces relevant to blood trauma and platelet activation. It is concluded that the time-integrated shear stress exposure is significantly lower than in cardiac assist devices due to lower flow velocities and predominantly laminar flow. PMID:24646095

Pfenniger, Alois; Vogel, Rolf; Koch, Volker M; Jonsson, Magnus

2014-05-01

247

Development of Trouble Diagnosis Technology of 50W Grade Small Wind Turbine Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Establishment of an early trouble diagnosis system is demanded to prevent damage of wind turbine generator. Therefore, AE signal occurring by the damage of a wind blade was detected with the AE sensor which installed to the body of wind turbine generator and a pole. In this study, length of a blade of a small wind turbine generator was changed as simulated trouble in the constant wind velocity. The AE signal which occurred at this time was measured with an AE sensor. The signal was processed by FFT analysis, and a change of spectrum strength was examined. Then, trouble diagnosis technology of 50W grade small wind turbine generator was developed. As the results, a method to count the number of times more than threshold of AE signals was suggested by a wave pattern of an AE signal. It was understood that the number of the count was decided as standard to judge normality or abnormality of 50W grade small wind turbine generator.

Takaoka, Masashige; Inohata, Kazuki; Miyake, Takuma; Tashima, Daisuke; Otsubo, Masahisa; Bouno, Toshio

248

Wind Turbine Generator Physics: Gear Boxes and Blades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, produced by the Wind Technician TV project from Highland Community College, introduces students to the gear boxes and blades of wind turbines. The module consists of four lessons: gear box solids and liquids, blades- force analysis, gear box heat transfer and gearbox force and stress analysis. The lessons include audio and animated visuals as well as interactive simulations. Each lesson includes a PDF document with the lesson's text and images. Skill check activities are also included.

2012-10-24

249

Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD`s study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD`s study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC`s General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency.

Ornstein, H.L.

1995-04-01

250

Development of PD on-line monitoring system for large turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feature of partial discharge (PD) is an important aspect of generators' insulation. The paper introduces an automatic online PD monitoring system for large turbine generators. By using digital signal processor (DSP) sampling technology, the system can obtain a long duration PD signal with high sampling rate. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, finite impulse response (FIR) filter, Adaptive filter and

Chengjun Huang; Weiyong Yu; Wei Wei

2002-01-01

251

Output Power Maximization of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Stand-alone Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes output power maximization control of wind energy system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed wind energy system. In order to achieve the maximum power control of wind turbine across a wide range of wind speeds, a dynamic modeling and simulation of wind system with battery energy storage

T. Tafticht; K. Agbossou; A. Cheriti; M. L. Doumbia

2006-01-01

252

Modelling and ride-through capability of variable speed wind turbines with permanent magnet generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for a variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet, multipole, synchronous generator is developed and implemented in the simulation tool PSS\\/E as a user-written model. The model contains representations of the permanent magnet generator, the frequency converter system with control, the aerodynamic rotor and a lumped mass representation of the shaft system. This model complexity is needed

Vladislav Akhmatov

2006-01-01

253

Nonlinear control for variable-speed wind turbines with permanent magnet generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposed a nonlinear control algorithm for a variable-speed wind turbine without wind speed measurement. The measured permanent magnet generator output current, terminal voltage and shaft speed are used to estimate the electromagnetic torque of the permanent magnet generator by using Kalman filter. Then the wind speed is estimated by Newton-Raphson method after obtaining the estimated power of the

Jianzhong Zhang; Ming Cheng; Zhe Chen

2007-01-01

254

An improved model and its applied adaptive control for power turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an improved model and its applied adaptive controller for a waste heat recovery generation system using a power turbine generator (PTG) with an accurate model on shipboard that is employed by an identification method on the basis of an overall system model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The PTG system has been developed

Nobumasa Matsui; Fujio Kurokawa; Keiichi Shiraishi

2011-01-01

255

Output power leveling of wind turbine Generator for all operating regions by pitch angle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which causes the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuation, different methods are available to control the pitch angle of blades of windmill. In a previous work, we proposed the pitch angle control using minimum variance control,

Tomonobu Senjyu; Ryosei Sakamoto; Naomitsu Urasaki; Toshihisa Funabashi; Hideki Fujita; Hideomi Sekine

2006-01-01

256

Executive summary: Mod-1 wind turbine generator analysis and design report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities leading to the detail design of a wind turbine generator having a nominal rating of 1.8 megawatts are reported. Topics covered include (1) system description; (2) structural dynamics; (3) stability analysis; (4) mechanical subassemblies design; (5) power generation subsystem; and (6) control and instrumentation subsystem.

1979-01-01

257

A steam turbine-generator vibration fault diagnosis method based on rough set  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to turbine-generator vibration characteristic spectrum, a discretized generator fault attribute decision table and condition. attribute set reduction method based on rough set theory are presented in this paper, though the key character which influences classifying is picked up. BP network input dimension is reduced and training time is saved. Experiment shows that the result is effective.

Ou Jian; Sun Cai-xin; Bi Weimin; Zhang Bide; Liao Ruijin

2002-01-01

258

Torque and power limitations of variable speed wind turbines using pitch control and generator power control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable speed operation of wind turbines has the potential to in crease energy capture and reduce fatigue damage, compared with fixed speed operation. Cage induction generators with their brush-less and rigid structure are at present widely used for fixed speed wind systems. To make the cage induction generators widely used also at variable speed systems, proper control strategies should be

N. Horiuchi; T. Kawahito

2001-01-01

259

CM-scale air turbine and generator for energy harvesting from low-speed flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a 2-cm-diameter, shrouded wind turbine with an integrated axial flux permanent magnet generator. The device was fabricated using a combination of rapid prototyping, traditional machining and flexible printed circuit board technology, and employs jewel bearings for low friction. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on prototypes with 6 and 12 blades. The 12-blade design achieves a generator

A. Bansal; D. A. Howey; A. S. Holmes

2009-01-01

260

Locating Hybrid Fuel Cell-Turbine Power Generation Units under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid gas turbine-solid oxide fuel cell power generation has the potential to create a positive economic and environmental impact. Annually, the U.S. spends over $235 billion on electricity, and elec- tric utilities emit 550 million metric tons of carbon. The integration of distributed hybrid generation can reduce these emissions and costs through increased efficiencies. In this paper, a model is

Laura A. Schaefer; Andrew J. Schaefer

2004-01-01

261

Kinetic Energy of Wind-Turbine Generators for System Frequency Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wind power penetration increases and fossil plants are retired, it is feared that there will be insufficient kinetic energy (KE) from the plants to support the system frequency. This paper shows the fear is groundless because the high inertias (H cong 4 seconds) of wind turbine-generators (WTGs) can be integrated to provide frequency support during generation outage.

Ping-Kwan Keung; Pei Li; Hadi Banakar; Boon Teck Ooi

2009-01-01

262

Impact of Increased Penetration of DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Generators on Transient and Small Signal Stability of Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The targeted and current development of wind energy in various countries around the world reveals that wind power is the fastest growing power generation technology. Among the several wind generation technologies, variable speed wind turbines utilizing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) are gaining momentum in the power industry. With the increase in penetration of these wind turbines, the power system

Durga Gautam; Vijay Vittal; Terry Harbour

2009-01-01

263

Simulation studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential electrical problems that may be inherent in the inertia of clusters of wind turbine generators and an electric utility network were investigated. Preliminary and limited results of an analog simulation of two MOD-2 wind generators tied to an infinite bus indicate little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus. The system demonstrated transient stability for the conditions considered.

Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

1979-01-01

264

Efficiency and dynamic performance of Digital Displacement™ hydraulic transmission in tidal current energy converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal current turbines extract kinetic energy from tidal current in much the same way as wind turbines do with wind. Tidal current velocities are by nature slow and variable, whereas electricity generation typically requires fast and steady rotary motion. This article investigates the performance of a hydraulic transmission system based on Digital DisplacementTM techno- logy, which allows variable speed of

G S Payne; A E Kiprakis; M Ehsan; W H S Rampen; J P Chick; A R Wallace

2007-01-01

265

The Thermal Hydraulics of Tube Support Fouling in Nuclear Steam Generators  

SciTech Connect

It is hypothesized that the thermal-hydraulic environment plays a role in the fouling of tube supports in nuclear steam generators. Experiments were performed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic environment near various designs of supports. Pressure loss, local velocity, turbulence intensity, and local void fraction were measured to characterize the effect of the support. Fouling mechanisms specific to supports were inferred from these experimental data and from actual steam generator inspection results. An analytical model was developed to predict the rate of particulate deposition on the supports, to better understand the complex processes involved.This paper presents the following set of tools for assessing the fouling propensity of a given support design: (1) proposed fouling mechanisms, (2) criteria for support fouling propensity, (3) correlation of fouling with parameters such as mass flux and quality, (4) descriptions of experimental tools such as flow visualization and measurement of pressure-loss profiles, and (5) analytical tools.An important conclusion from this and our previous work is that the fouling propensity is greater with broached support plates, both trefoil and quatrefoil, than with lattice bar supports and formed bar supports, in which significant cross flows occur.

Rummens, Helena E.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada); Rogers, J.T. [Carleton University (Canada); Turner, C.W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada)

2004-12-15

266

Wind shear climatology for large wind turbine generators  

SciTech Connect

Climatological wind shear analyses relevant to the design and operation of multimegawatt wind turbines are provided. Insight is provided for relating the wind experienced by a rotating blade in a shear flow to the analysis results. A simple analysis of the wind experienced by a rotating blade for three types of wind shear profiles under steady-state conditions is presented in graphical form. Comparisons of the magnitude and frequency of the variations in 1) the wind sensed by a single blade element, 2) the sum, and 3) the difference of the winds sensed by opposite blade elements show strong sensitivity to profile shape. These three items represent forcing functions that can be related to 1) flatwise bending moment, 2) torque on the shaft, and 3) teeter angle. A computer model was constructed to simulate rotational sampling of 10-s sampled winds from a tall tower for three different types of large wind turbines. Time series produced by the model indicated that the forcing functions on a rotating blade vary according to the shear profile encountered during each revolution as opposed to a profile derived from average wind conditions, e.g., hourly average winds. An analysis scheme was developed to establish a climatology of wind shear profiles derived from 10-s sampled winds and hourly average winds measured over a one-year period at several levels on a tall tower. Because of the sensitivity of the forcing function variability to profile shape, the analyses performed and presented are in the form of joint frequency distributions of velocity differences of the the top-to-hub versus the hub-to-bottom portion of disks of rotation for the three turbine configurations.

Elliott, D.L.; Wendell, L.L.; Heflick, S.K.

1982-10-01

267

Validation of the MSG (Multidimensional Thermal-hydraulics Analysis Code for Steam Generators) for CFD Modelling of Sodium Heated Steam Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CFD code, MSG (Multi-dimensional Thermal-hydraulics Analysis code for Steam Generators), which is optimized for the helical coil type steam generators of the MONJU Fast Breeder Reactor at Tsuruga, Japan, has been developed. The purpose of this study is to validate the MSG code against experimental data recorded at MONJU and at the 50 MW steam generator test facility (SGTF)

Peter METZ; Shinji YOSHIKAWA

2001-01-01

268

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This is the second book of volume four. Some of the items it contains are specs for the emergency shutdown panel, specs for the simulator software, simulator hardware specs, site operator terminal requirements, control data system requirements, software project management plan, elastomeric teeter bearing requirement specs, specs for the controls electronic cabinet, and specs for bolt pretensioning.

1984-08-01

269

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This volume contains 5 books of which this is the fourth, providing drawings 47A380128 through 47A387125. In addition to the parts listing and where-used list, the logic design of the controller software and the code listing of the controller software are provided. Also given are the aerodynamic profile coordinates.

1984-08-01

270

Experimental investigation of dynamic characteristics of turbine generators and low-tuned foundations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbine generator (T-G) units with low tuned concrete foundations were investigated experimentally during both startup and normal operating conditions. The dynamic response of the turbine generators and their foundation systems were characterized by resonance curves obtained during the startup transient and by vibration mode shapes at the normal operating condition. No severe resonance at the fundamental frequencies of the system was observed. The deflection or displacement of the foundation pedestal does not lead to unacceptable T-G vibration. The experimental results are compared and discussed with some previous theoretical studies.

Ying, S. P.; Forman, M. E.; Drumm, R. R.

1979-01-01

271

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator are documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. This volume contains 5 books of which this is the fourth, providing drawings 47A380128 through 47A387125. In addition to the parts listing and where-used list, the logic design of the controller software and the code listing of the controller software are provided. Also given are the aerodynamic profile coordinates.

1984-01-01

272

Large unbalance vibration analysis of steam turbine generators. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to pursue in more depth than earlier work the analysis of large-unbalance vibration in large steam turbine units. The earlier work served to identify a previously unrecognized mode of potentially massive failure, namely, high amplitude subharmonic resonance of the rotor/bearing system. This phenomenon appears to have possibly played a major role in three massive failures that are briefly reviewed herein. The more extensive results of the analyses performed in this project provide a greatly enhanced definition of what typical level of unbalance is required to trigger large amplitude subharmonic resonance. It was found on turbines operating below the oil-whip threshold speed that a critical magnitude of unbalance exists above which relatively small additional amounts of unbalance cause a rapid increase in subharmonic and overall vibrations to potentially catastrophic levels. Simultaneous occurrence of oil-whip vibration and a large rotor unbalance is shown to produce even substantially higher vibration and dynamic force levels than with the large unbalance alone. It was also found that the previously shown superiority of pivoted-pad journal bearings in controlling subharmonic resonance exists with or without pad preloading and with either rigid or typically flexible pivots for the bearing pads.

Adams, M.L. Jr.

1984-09-01

273

DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF COATINGS FOR FUTURE POWER GENERATION TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

The NETL-Regional University Alliance (RUA) continues to advance technology development critical to turbine manufacturer efforts for achieving DOE Fossil Energy (FE's) Advanced Turbine Program Goals. In conjunction with NETL, Coatings for Industry (CFI), the University of Pittsburgh, NASA GRC, and Corrosion Control Inc., efforts have been focused on development of composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) architectures that consist of an extreme temperature coating, a commercially applied 7-8 YSZ TBC, a reduced cost bond coat, and a diffusion barrier coating that are applied to nickel-based superalloys or single crystal airfoil substrate materials for use at temperatures >1450 C (> 2640 F). Additionally, construction of a unique, high temperature ({approx}1100 C; {approx}2010 F), bench-scale, micro-indentation, nondestructive (NDE) test facility at West Virginia University (WVU) was completed to experimentally address in-situ changes in TBC stiffness during extended cyclic oxidation exposure of coated single crystal coupons in air or steam containing environments. The efforts and technical accomplishments in these areas are presented in the following sections of this paper.

Alvin, Maryanne; Klotz, K.; McMordie, B.; Gleeson, B.; Zhu, D.; Warnes, B.; Kang, B.; Tannenbaum, J.

2012-01-01

274

New high voltage insulation system for air-cooled turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

For competitive power generation all over the world, air-cooled turbine generators tend to be used with large capacity up to a few hundred MVA, while hydrogen-cooling was adopted ten years ago. At the same time, the customers require compact, cost-effective generators. To meet such a new trend of power market, Mitsubishi Electric has developed a new high-voltage global impregnation insulation

N. Urakawa; S. Takada; M. Tsukiji; W. Bito; A. Yamada; T. Umemoto

1999-01-01

275

Wind turbine generators using superconducting coils and bulks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind power generation has been expected as a promising clean energy source in the world. Recently, generation capacity produced by wind power generators has been growing with increasing size of windmills. However, huge nacelles result in extreme load for towers supporting them. We have focused on a wind power generator using superconducting wires and superconducting bulks to solve the problem. Large currents may flow through superconducting wires with zero DC resistance. Superconducting bulks are magnetic shielding materials. These enable reduction of size and weight of nacelles. In addition, large generators using these materials can generate an output power of 10 MW with very large power densities. This paper describes calculation of generated magnetic field and power generation characteristics using three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) analysis of the generators using high temperature superconducting coils and bulks.

Ohsaki, H.; Terao, Y.; Sekino, M.

2010-06-01

276

Wind turbine generator interaction with conventional diesel generators on Block Island, Rhode Island. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Primary results are summarized for a three-part study involving the effects of connecting a MOD-OA wind turbine generator to an isolated diesel power system. The MOD-OA installation considered was the third of four experimental nominal 200 kW wind turbines connected to various utilities under the Federal Wind Energy Program and was characterized by the highest wind energy penetration levels of four sites. The study analyses address: fuel displacement, dynamic interaction, and three modes of reactive power control. These analyses all have as their basis the results of the data acquisition program conducted on Block Island, Rhode Island.

Wilreker, V. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Kruse, V. J.; Smith, R. F.

1984-01-01

277

Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 3. Final Design and System Description, Book 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, dri...

1984-01-01

278

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 3: Final design and system description, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. Volume 3, book 1 describes the performance and characteristics of the MOD-5A wind turbine generator in its final configuration. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation is described in detail.

1984-08-01

279

Modelling and Control of a Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Turbine driven Synchronous Generator Connected to the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the modelling and control design for a wind energy conversion scheme using synchronous generator. The wind turbine is coupled to a synchronous generator connected to grid trough a static converter. The objective of the proposed control strategy is to maximize energy captured from the wind turbine. The adapting control law used for extracting maximum power from the

O. HASNAOUI; I. B. SALEM; M. F. MIMOUNI; R. DHIFAOUI

2006-01-01

280

Nonlinear Robust Control to Maximize Energy Capture in a Variable Speed Wind Turbine Using a Separately Excited DC Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of wind turbine systems for electric power generation can help satisfy the growing global demand. This paper proposes a control strategy to maximize the wind energy captured in a variable speed wind turbine, with a separately excited DC internal generator, at low to medium wind speeds. The proposed strategy controls the tip speed ratio, via the rotor angular

E. Iyasere; M. Salah; D. Dawson; J. Wagner

281

Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

Not Available

1992-02-01

282

Design of permanent-magnet generators for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much interest and studies in high efficiency wind generators with permanent magnet excitation due to the increasing availability of permanent magnet materials, especially NdFeB. The present paper aims to outline the design and analysis of such a PM generator. The generator that is being used will be an 8-pole permanent magnet generator rated at 5 kW and

J. Rizk; M. Nagrial

2000-01-01

283

Wind turbine generator interaction with conventional diesel generators on Block Island, Rhode Island. Volume 2: Data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Assessing the performance of a MOD-OA horizontal axis wind turbine connected to an isolated diesel utility, a comprehensive data measurement program was conducted on the Block Island Power Company installation on Block Island, Rhode Island. The detailed results of that program focusing on three principal areas of (1) fuel displacement (savings), (2) dynamic interaction between the diesel utility and the wind turbine, (3) effects of three models of wind turbine reactive power control are presented. The approximate two month duration of the data acquisition program conducted in the winter months (February into April 1982) revealed performance during periods of highest wind energy penetration and hence severity of operation. Even under such conditions fuel savings were significant resulting in a fuel reduction of 6.7% while the MOD-OA was generating 10.7% of the total electrical energy. Also, electrical disturbance and interactive effects were of an acceptable level.

Wilreker, V. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scott, G. W.; Kruse, V. J.; Smith, R. F.

1984-01-01

284

Axial flux, modular, permanent-magnet generator with a toroidal winding for wind turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

Permanent-magnet generators have been used for wind turbines for many years. Many small wind turbine manufacturers use direct-drive permanent-magnet generators. For wind turbine generators, the design philosophy must cover the following characteristics: low cost, light weight, low speed, high torque, and variable speed generation. The generator is easy to manufacture and the design can be scaled up for a larger size without major retooling. A modular permanent-magnet generator with axial flux direction was chosen. The permanent magnet used is NdFeB or ferrite magnet with flux guide to focus flux density in the air gap. Each unit module of the generator may consist of one, two, or more phases. Each generator can be expanded to two or more unit modules. Each unit module is built from simple modular poles. The stator winding is formed like a torus. Thus, the assembly process is simplified and the winding insertion in the slot is less tedious. The authors built a prototype of one unit module and performed preliminary tests in the laboratory. Follow up tests will be conducted in the lab to improve the design.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Wan, Y.H.

1998-07-01

285

Multi-physical coupling calculation of 1000MW supercritical turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis model of supercritical turbine generator was established. After calculating the mathematical field, the eddy loss distribution and winding resistance enhanced coefficient of hollow and solid strands at different positions were obtained. Based on that, the temperature field and fluid field were calculated with coupling, from which temperature and fluid velocity in hollow stand and ventilation duct were

Li Weili; Guan Chunwei; Huo Feiyang

2010-01-01

286

MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 4. Drawings and Specifications, Book 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing...

1984-01-01

287

Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 1. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discuss...

1984-01-01

288

Mod-0A 200 kw Wind Turbine Generator Design and Analysis Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, analysis, and initial performance of the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator at Clayton, NM is documented. The MOD-OA was designed and built to obtain operation and performance data and experience in utility environments. The project requirem...

T. S. Anderson C. A. Bodenschatz A. G. Eggers P. S. Hughes R. F. Lampe

1980-01-01

289

Dunlite-model 81\\/002550 wind turbine generator. Failure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical and Scanning Electron Microscope examinations of a failed blade from a Dunlite Wind Turbine Generator were made to determine the mode of failure. The failure was a fatigue failure which began on the flat or upwind side of the blade. The mode of loading this area was reversed bending about an axis perpendicular to the long axis of the

K. K. Higashi; M. J. Carr; V. K. Grotzky

1979-01-01

290

Aggregated dynamic model for wind farms with doubly fed induction generator wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of increasing wind farms penetration in power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and thus the modelling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. Nowadays, doubly fed induction generator based on wind turbine is the most widely used technology for wind farms due to its main advantages such as high-energy efficiency and

Luis M. Fernández; Francisco Jurado; José Ramón Saenz

2008-01-01

291

Low-Speed Permanent-Magnet Generators for Gearless Wind Turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with the optimization and comparison of two types of low-speed surface-mounted permanent-magnet generators for gearless wind turbines. The machines have different kinds of stator winding. The conventional machine has a three-phase, fractio...

P. Lampola

2001-01-01

292

A compact, high efficiency contra-rotating generator suitable for wind turbines in the urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the design, development and performance testing of a permanent magnet (PM) generator for wind turbine applications in urban areas. The radially interacting armature windings and magnet array are carried on direct drive, contra-rotating rotors, resulting in a high torque density and efficiency. This topology also provides improved physical and mechanical characteristics such as compactness, low

J. D. Booker; P. H. Mellor; R. Wrobel; D. Drury

2010-01-01

293

Small power systems fed by hydro, photovoltaic, wind turbines and diesel generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents software simulation and experimental verification of the dynamic behaviour of small autonomous power systems with alternative power sources, such as Wind Turbines, small Hydroelectrics and Photovoltaics. The combination of the Hydroelectric power plants and the Diesel generators is of great interest since they have very different rates of power change. For the effective integration of the Photovoltaic

A. Karlis; P. Dokopoulos

1996-01-01

294

Status of Evaluating the Fatigue of Large Steam Turbine-Generators Caused by Electrical Disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The torsional fatigue impact of different and successive electrical transients on the shafts of nearby turbine-generators is explained and quantitatively compared for various fault conditions and system switching operations. The basis for evaluating fatigue is explained and the many contributory factors are discussed. Results of measurements of the damping of shaft torsional oscillations are presented. The operating principle of the

John Joyce; Dietrich Lambrecht

1980-01-01

295

Connecting two wind turbine generators to the grid using only one three level NPC inverter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the possibility of connecting two Wind Turbine Generators (WTG) to the grid using a single three level inverter. In the proposed system the rectified output of one WTG is connected across the upper dc-link capacitor of a standard diode clamped three level inverter. Similarly the rectified output of the other WTG is connected across the lower capacitor.

S. D. G. Jayasinghe; D. M. Vilathgamuwa; U. K. Madawala

2010-01-01

296

Status of the Southern California Edison Company 3 MW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) demonstration project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To demonstrate the concept of utility scale electricity production from a high wind energy resource, a program was initiated to construct and test a 3 megawatt (3,000 kW) Schachle wind turbine generator near Palm Springs, California. The background and current status of this program are presented along with a summary of future planned program activities.

Scheffler, R. L.

1979-01-01

297

Control Design and Performance Analysis of a 6 MW Wind Turbine-Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an approach to the modeling and performance for the preliminary design phase of a large (6.2 MW) horizontal axis wind turbine generator (WTG). Two control philosophies are presented, both of which are based on linearized models of the WT mechanical and electrical systems. The control designs are compared by showing the performance through detailed non-linear time simulation.

A. Murdoch; J. R. Winkelman; S. H. Javid; R. S. Barton

1983-01-01

298

Ridethrough of wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generator during a voltage dip  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a solution is described that makes it possible for wind turbines using doubly-fed induction generators to stay connected to the grid during grid faults. The key of the solution is to limit the high current in the rotor in order to protect the converter and to provide a bypass for this current via a set of resistors

Johan Morren; Sjoerd W. H. de Haan

2005-01-01

299

Control design for a wind turbine-generator using output feedback  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The modeling and approach to control design for a large horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) generator are presented. The control design is based on a suboptimal output regulator which allows coordinated control of WT blade pitch angle and field voltage for the purposes of regulating electrical power and terminal voltage. Results of detailed non-linear simulation tests of this controller are shown.

Javid, S. H.; Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.

1981-01-01

300

Reliability and availability data for gas turbine generator procurement: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication presents information intended to be helpful in directing gas turbine generation system procurement specifications toward higher reliability and availability. Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) considerations were derived from actual operating and maintenance experience on similar equipment. The publication was compiled from data gathered in previous EPRI projects, interviews with operating and maintenance personnel of several EPRI member utilities,

G. Shimko; J. Carlton; D. Hornady; A. Smith

1988-01-01

301

Synchronization of the DOE/NASA 100-kilowatt wind turbine generator with a large utility network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The DOE/NASA 100 kilowatt wind turbine generator system was synchronized with a large utility network. The system equipments and procedures associated with the synchronization process were described. Time history traces of typical synchronizations were presented indicating that power and current transients resulting from the synchronizing procedure are limited to acceptable magnitudes.

Gilbert, L. J.

1977-01-01

302

New Armature Winding Concepts for EHV and High CFCT Applications of Superconducting Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of superconducting turbine generators to benefit the design of electric utility power systems in new and exceptional ways has been appreciated for a number of years. Potential benefits include major reductions in losses and capital costs, possibilities of designing for exceptionally high voltage ratings, and improved transient stability performance. New armature winding concepts are required for the full

C. Flick

1979-01-01

303

Fault diagnosis of steam turbine-generator using CMAC neural network approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a CMAC (cerebellar model articulation controller) neural network diagnosis system of turbine-generator is proposed. This novel fault diagnosis system contains an input layer, quantization layer, binary coding layer, and fired up memory addresses coding unit. Firstly, we construct the configuration of diagnosis system depending on the fault patterns. Secondly, the known fault patterns were used to train

Chin-Pao Hung; Mang-Hui Wang; Chin-Hsing Cheng; Wen-Lang Lin

2003-01-01

304

Effects of Trends in Large Steam Turbine Driven Generator Parameters on Power System Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend in turbine-generator characteristics as unit sizes become larger is in an adverse direction from the standpoint of power system stability. Results of specific studies as well as a general rule of thumb for evaluating this effect are given. The effectiveness of independent pole switching and other control measures available to the system planner are shown.

C. Concordia; P. G. Brown

1971-01-01

305

Design of adaptive PID for pitch control of large wind turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitch control system plays an important role in large wind turbine generator (LWTG) because of the direction and intensity of wind is changing every moment. Therefore, the system of pitch control is difficult to be set up the tuning parameters of controller. Conventional PID controller is not suit for all operating point. Because, tuning parameters of conventional PID controller are

Jin-Sung Kim; Jonghyun Jeon; Hoon Heo

2011-01-01

306

Conceptual Design of a Fixed-Pitch Wind Turbine Generator System Rated at 400 Kilowatts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The s...

A. Pintz J. Spring R. Kasuba

1984-01-01

307

Turbine-Generator Shaft Torques and Fatigue: Part I - Simulation Methods and Fatigue Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first of two papers concerned with the effects of power system disturbances and operating practices upon turbine-generator shafts. The paper presents techniques for the analysis of shaft fatigue damage due to torsional oscillations. The detailed development of a fatigue model is presented. An example illustrates the use of the techniques for calculation of the loss of

M. C. Jackson; S. D. Umans; R. D. Dunlop; S. H. Horowitz; A. C. Parikh

1979-01-01

308

Parallel Operation of Wind Turbine, Fuel Cell, and Diesel Generation Sources: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We investigated a small isolated hybrid power system that used a parallel combination of dispatchable and non-dispatchable power generation sources. The non-dispatchable generation came from a nature-dependent wind turbine, and the dispatchable generations were a fuel cell and a diesel generator. On the load side, the non-dispatchable portion was the village load, and the dispatchable portion was the energy storage, which could be in many different forms (e.g., space/water heater, electrolysis, battery charger, etc.) The interaction among different generation sources and the loads was investigated. Simulation results showed the effect of the proposed system on voltage and frequency fluctuations.

Muljadi, E.; Wang, C.; Nehrir, M. H.

2004-06-01

309

A Novel 500kW High-Speed Turbine PM Synchronous Generator Set for Distributed Power Generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a power generation system based on the cogeneration of heat and electricity with a novel high speed turbogenerator. The machine consists of a single stage steam turbine and a directly coupled permanent magnet synchronous generator in one constructional unit. A PWM IGBT rectifier is the load to the generator and a PWM IGBT three-phase four-wire inverter feeds the power into the low voltage mains. In order to increase the turbine efficiency at light load, variable speed operation of the turbogenerator is realized. Different control schemes for mains parallel operation and stand alone operation are presented. The control schemes allow for the use of a lookup table based control with a speed-power-characteristic or for the use of a maximum power point tracker. Measurement results from the successfully tested turbogenerator set are presented.

Wendt, Sven; Benecke, Frank; Güldner, Henry

310

Wake Studies at the Flowind Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Generator Site.  

SciTech Connect

In a continuing effort to study and characterize various types and sizes of wind turbine generator wakes a test program was conducted at the FloWind 170 kW vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) near Ellensburg, Washington. Oregon State University (OSU) scientists measured the wake behind the 90 ft. tall Darrieus VAWT using fixed place and portable kite anemometers. Downwind velocity deficits were measured from 3-9 diameters along the wake centerline at rotor midpoint (55 ft.) and perpendicular to the wake. Wake turbulence characteristics were also measured. The measured velocity deficits were compared to wake model calculations.

Baker, Robert W.; Walker, Stel Nathan; Katen, Paul C.

1984-03-01

311

Advances in Thermal Spray Coatings for Gas Turbines and Energy Generation: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional coatings are widely used in energy generation equipment in industries such as renewables, oil and gas, propulsion engines, and gas turbines. Intelligent thermal spray processing is vital in many of these areas for efficient manufacturing. Advanced thermal spray coating applications include thermal management, wear, oxidation, corrosion resistance, sealing systems, vibration and sound absorbance, and component repair. This paper reviews the current status of materials, equipment, processing, and properties' aspects for key coatings in the energy industry, especially the developments in large-scale gas turbines. In addition to the most recent industrial advances in thermal spray technologies, future technical needs are also highlighted.

Hardwicke, Canan U.; Lau, Yuk-Chiu

2013-06-01

312

Large Current Lightning Mimic Test for FRP Blades of Wind Turbine Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, lightning damage to FRP blades of wind turbine generators has been increasing in parallel with the recent increase in the installation of wind turbine generators. Therefore, we established a test method, while clarifying the destructive climate of lightning, and examined a method of preventing destruction. A high-voltage test clearly showed that lightning easily penetrates FRP that is not processed to be conductive. Moreover, after developing a test method, an examination with a large current successfully reproduced blade damage, and revealed the failure mechanism, which explains breakdowns of actual machines. If lightning penetrates a FRP blade, the air temperature inside the blade rises. As a result, pressure increases and the blade is damaged. Moreover, the breakdown of positive polarity (winter) lightning can be examined with a large current that is generated by a short circuit generator.

Hanai, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Nakadate, Masumi; Sakamoto, Haruo

313

Stationary gas turbine-generator set acceptance testing procedures, methods, and instructions. Special report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for acceptance testing gas turbine-generator sets intended for installation in fixed military facilities are described. The new test procedures, numbered CE-TP-2001 through 2003, are designed for use by Corps of Engineers Division and District personnel. Also included are lists of MIL-STD-705B test methods and Corps of Engineers diesel engine generator set test procedures that apply directly to acceptance testing

E. M. Takemori; S. W. Lee

1977-01-01

314

Development of a Direct Drive Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this program, TIAX performed the conceptual design and analysis of an innovative, modular, direct-drive permanent magnet generator (PMG) for use in small wind turbines that range in power rating from 25 kW to 100 kW. TIAX adapted an approach that has been successfully demonstrated in high volume consumer products such as direct-drive washing machines and portable generators. An electromagnetic

Allan Chertok; David Hablanian; Paul McTaggart; DOE Project Officer

2004-01-01

315

Design of Conductor-Cooled Steam Turbine-Generators and Application to Modern Power Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles which influence the design, application, and operation of conductor-cooled turbine-generators with liquid-cooled stator windings and gap-pickup rotors are defined. Thermal design practice applying for continuous operation at steady-state load conditions is described, and the practical attainment of design temperatures is verified by the results of generator tests in the factory and in the field. Temperature-time relationships resulting from short-time

N. H. Jones; M. Temoshok; R. L. Winchester

1965-01-01

316

A study of a turbine-generator system for low-head hydropower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is outlined for determining the optimum operating conditions of a turbine-generator unit installed across a low-head irrigation structure for electrical power generation. For a given regulator's characteristic, the unit's rated power and design parameters are determined such that its cost-benefit ratio is minimum. The economical feasibility of the microhydro plant is studied by comparing its life-time cost to

R. R. Mankbadi; S. Mikhail

1985-01-01

317

Self-Excited Induction Generator for Micro-Hydro Plants Using Water Current Turbines Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of a micro-hydro run-of-the-river project using a squirrel cage induction generator is presented. A water current turbine, propeller type, is considered. A three-phase voltage source inverter is used to establish with deadbeat control on the AC side, the required currents to excite the generator. A DC control loop with PI controller is used to maintain the DC bus

J. Faria; E. Margato; M. J. Resende

2005-01-01

318

Tungsten fiber reinforced FeCralY: A first generation composite turbine blade material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tungsten-fiber/FeCrAlY (W/FeCrAlY) was identified as a promising aircraft engine, first generation, turbine blade composite material. Based on available data, W/FeCrAlY should have the stress-rupture, creep, tensile, fatigue, and impact strengths required for turbine blades operating from 1250 to 1370 K. It should also have adequate oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling damage resistance as well as high thermal conductivity. Concepts for potentially low cost blade fabrication were developed. These concepts were used to design a first stage JT9D convection cooled turbine blade having a calculated 50 K use-temperature advantage over the directionally solidified superalloy blade.

Petrasek, D. W.; Winsa, E. A.; Westfall, L. J.; Signorelli, R. A.

1979-01-01

319

Design and construction of a thermophotovoltaic generator using turbine combustion gas  

SciTech Connect

This US Naval Academy project involves the development of a prototype thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator that uses a General Electric T-58 helicopter gas turbine as the heat source. The goals of this project were to demonstrate the viability of using TPV and external combustion gases to generate electricity, and develop a system which could also be used for materials testing. The generator was modularly designed so that different materials could be tested at a later date. The combustion gas was tapped from the T-58`s combustor through one of the two igniter ports and extracted through a silicon carbide matrix ceramic composite tube into a similarly constructed ceramic composite radiant emitter. The ceramic radiant emitters is heated by the combustion gas via convection, and then serves the TPV generator by radiating the heat outwards where it can be absorbed by thermophotovoltaic cells and converted directly into electricity. The gas turbine and generator module are monitored by a data acquisition system that performs both data collection and control functions. This paper details the design of the TPV generator. It also gives results of initial tests with the gas turbine.

Erickson, T.A.; Lindler, K.W.; Harper, M.J. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean, and Marine Engineering

1997-07-01

320

Advanced Seal Technology Role in Meeting Next Generation Turbine Engine Goals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cycle studies have shown the benefits of increasing engine pressure ratios and cycle temperatures to decrease engine weight and improve performance in next generation turbine engines. Advanced seals have been identified as critical in meeting engine goals for specific fuel consumption, thrust-to-weight, emissions, durability and operating costs. NASA and the industry are identifying and developing engine and sealing technologies that will result in dramatic improvements and address the goals for engines entering service in the 2005-2007 time frame. This paper provides an overview of advanced seal technology requirements and highlights the results of a preliminary design effort to implement advanced seals into a regional aircraft turbine engine. This study examines in great detail the benefits of applying advanced seals in the high pressure turbine region of the engine. Low leakage film-riding seals can cut in half the estimated 4% cycle air currently used to purge the high pressure turbine cavities. These savings can be applied in one of several ways. Holding rotor inlet temperature (RIT) constant the engine specific fuel consumption can be reduced 0.9%, or thrust could be increased 2.5%, or mission fuel burn could be reduced 1.3%. Alternatively, RIT could be lowered 20 'F resulting in a 50% increase in turbine blade life reducing overall regional aircraft maintenance and fuel bum direct operating costs by nearly 1%. Thermal, structural, secondary-air systems, safety (seal failure and effect), and emissions analyses have shown the proposed design is feasible.

Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Munson, John

1999-01-01

321

A Parametric Study of the Thermal-Hydraulic Response of Supercritical Light Water Reactors During Loss-of-Feedwater and Turbine-Trip Events  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in investigating the feasibility of supercritical light water reactors for low-cost electric power production through a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project sponsored by the United State Department of Energy. The project is evaluating a variety of technical issues related to the fuel and reactor design, material corrosion, and safety characteristics. This paper presents the results of parametric calculations using the RELAP5 computer code to characterize the thermal-hydraulic response of supercritical reactors to transients initiated by loss-of-feedwater and turbine-trip events. The purpose of the calculations was to aid in the design of the safety systems by determining the time available for the safety systems to respond and their required capacities.

Cliff B. Davis; Jacopo Buongiorno; Philip E. MacDonald

2003-09-01

322

Vertical-axis wind turbine modeling and performance with axial-flux permanent magnet synchronous generator for battery charging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling and simulation of a 1kW vertical-axis direct drive topology wind turbine are implemented. An axial flux permanent magnet synchronous generator with multi-pole is directly connected to the wind turbine shaft. The wind turbine system is controlled to operate at constant tip-speed ratio and hence maximizing the power extracted from the wind. For battery charging applications, a modified version

Ahmad M. Eid; Mazen Abdel-Salam; M. Tharwat Abdel-Rahman

2006-01-01

323

An optimal design of coreless direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet generator for wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of generators are currently being used in wind power technology. The commonly used are induction generator (IG), doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). However, the use of PMSG is rapidly increasing because of advantages such as higher power density, better controllability and higher reliability. This paper presents an innovative design of a low-speed modular, direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator with coreless stator and rotor for a wind turbine power generation system that is developed using mathematical and analytical methods. This innovative design is implemented in MATLAB / Simulink environment using dynamic modelling techniques. The main focus of this research is to improve efficiency of the wind power generation system by investigating electromagnetic and structural features of AFPM generator during its operation in wind turbine. The design is validated by comparing its performance with standard models of existing wind power generators. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed model for the wind power generator exhibits number of advantages such as improved efficiency with variable speed operation, higher energy yield, lighter weight and better wind power utilization.

Ahmed, D.; Ahmad, A.

2013-06-01

324

Grid integration of offshore superconducting wind turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent technological trend for offshore wind power generation is toward multi-MW direct-drive units. Because conventional direct-drive generators tend to be large and heavy, high power density superconducting synchronous machines have been proposed. However such machines have unique requirements that must be satisfied for their correct operation and optimal grid integration. This paper investigates power electronic systems for superconducting wind

L. Queval; H. Ohsaki

2012-01-01

325

Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

1978-01-01

326

A study of a turbine-generator system for low-head hydropower  

SciTech Connect

A method is outlined for determining the optimum operating conditions of a turbine-generator unit installed across a low-head irrigation structure for electrical power generation. For a given regulator's characteristic, the unit's rated power and design parameters are determined such that its cost-benefit ratio is minimum. The economical feasibility of the microhydro plant is studied by comparing its life-time cost to its lifetime benefit. The benefit is determined by the cost of the corresponding energy generated through a dieseldriven generator set. The microhydro plant was found to be economically feasible over a wide range of inflation and interest rates.

Mankbadi, R.R.; Mikhail, S.

1985-03-01

327

Background and system description of the Mod 1 wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mod-1 wind turbine considered is a large utility-class machine, operating in the high wind regime, which has the potential for generation of utility grade power at costs competitive with other alternative energy sources. A Mod-1 wind turbine generator (WTG) description is presented, taking into account the two variable-pitch steel blades of the rotor, the drive train, power generation/control, the Nacelle structure, and the yaw drive. The major surface elements of the WTG are the ground enclosure, the back-up battery system, the step-up transformer, elements of the data system, cabling, area lighting, and tower foundation. The final system weight (rotor, Nacelle, and tower) is expected to be about 650,000 pounds. The WTG will be capable of delivering 1800 kW to the utility grid in a wind-speed above 25 mph.

Ernst, E. H.

1978-01-01

328

Development of a Direct Drive Permanent Magnet Generator for Small Wind Turbines  

SciTech Connect

In this program, TIAX performed the conceptual design and analysis of an innovative, modular, direct-drive permanent magnet generator (PMG) for use in small wind turbines that range in power rating from 25 kW to 100 kW. TIAX adapted an approach that has been successfully demonstrated in high volume consumer products such as direct-drive washing machines and portable generators. An electromagnetic model was created and the modular PMG design was compared to an illustrative non-modular design. The resulting projections show that the modular design can achieve significant reductions in size, weight, and manufacturing cost without compromising efficiency. Reducing generator size and weight can also lower the size and weight of other wind turbine components and hence their manufacturing cost.

Chertok, Allan; Hablanian, David; McTaggart, Paul; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

2004-11-16

329

Measures to reduce the level of vibrations of turbine-generator units  

SciTech Connect

Work are carried out on an umbrella-type SVCh 790/106-52 generator with one generator bearing located in the same oil bath with the thrust bearing through which the load is transmitted to the turbine cover, in order to determine the causes and to reduce the level of increased vibration. An analysis of the oscillograms obtained during the vibration tests show the causes of increased vibration. Deviations from the geometrically regular form of the bore of the generator stator were measured simultaneously through the ventilation channels of the rotor by means of a device consisting of a rod with a dial indicator fastened on it. The developed form of the rotor with respect to the poles and contour is given. The work on centering the unit with consideration of the natural sagging of the turbine block made it possible to reduce vibration of components of the unit by more than 50%.

Kolesnikov, V.I.; Dolgopolov, A.S.; Engel', V.E.

1987-01-01

330

Optimized working conditions for a thermoelectric generator as a topping cycle for gas turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a model for a theoretical maximum efficiency of a thermoelectric generator integrated with a Brayton-cycle engine. The thermoelectric cycle is presented in two configurations as a topping cycle and a preheating topping cycle. For the topping cycle configuration, the thermoelectric generator receives heat from a high-temperature heat source and produces electrical work before rejecting heat to a Brayton cycle. For the preheating topping cycle, the rejected heat from the thermoelectric generator partially heats the compressed working fluid of the Brayton cycle before a secondary heater delivers heat to the working fluid directly from the heat source. The thermoelectric topping cycle efficiency increases as the temperature difference between the hot- and cold-side increases; however, this limits the heat transfer possible to the Brayton cycle, which in turn reduces power generation from the Brayton cycle. This model identifies the optimum operating parameters of the thermoelectric and Brayton cycles to obtain the maximum thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In both configurations, efficiency gains are larger at low-temperature Brayton cycles. Although a thermoelectric generator (TEG) topping cycle enhances efficiency for a low temperature turbine, efficiency cannot exceed a high temperature gas turbine. Using a TEG topping cycle is limited to cases when space or price for a high temperature turbine cannot be justified. A design to achieve the preheating thermoelectric topping cycle is also presented.

Brady Knowles, C.; Lee, Hohyun

2012-10-01

331

Analysis on oscillation in electro-hydraulic regulating system of steam turbine and fault diagnosis based on PSOBP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oscillation in electro-hydraulic regulating system is one of the main reasons leading to the oscillation of electric power system. In this article the influence of internal leakage and plugging of servo valve on the characteristic of the regulating system was analyzed. With the simulation in AMESIM it was found that the leakage of the power stage spool, the plugging

Xuanyin Wang; Xiaoxiao Li; Fushang Li

2010-01-01

332

Wind turbine generator low voltage ride through requirements and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilities have responded to the significant increase in the number of installed and proposed wind farms by developing specific grid codes derived from those used for conventional generators. The presentation summarizes the main grid code requirements, related to reactive power and voltage control, low voltage ride through (LVRT), and other issues such as control of real power. It provides a

G. Joos

2008-01-01

333

Dynamics and stability of wind and diesel turbine generators with superconducting magnetic energy storage unit on an isolated power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic system analysis is carried out on an isolated electric power system consisting of a diesel generator and a wind-turbine generator. The 150 kW wind turbine is operated in parallel with a diesel generator to serve an average load of 350 kW. A comprehensive digital computer model of the interconnected power system including the diesel and wind-power dynamics with a

S. C. Tripathy; M. Kalantar; R. Balasubramanian

1991-01-01

334

An Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator for a Direct-Coupled Wind-Turbine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unique axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous generator (AFPMSG), which is suitable for both vertical-axis and horizontal-axis wind turbine generation systems. An outer-rotor design facilitates direct coupling of the generator to the wind turbine, while a coreless armature eliminates the magnetic pull between the stationary and moving parts. The design and construction features of the AFPMSG are reviewed. The

T. F. Chan; L. L. Lai

2007-01-01

335

A novel control strategy of wind turbine MPPT implementation for direct-drive PMSG wind generation imitation platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind power imitation platform is an essential requirement for its research, development and product test. It's more efficient and flexible to demonstrate control strategies including the wind turbine's maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Conventionally, many control strategies of the motor's speed or torque are used to implement the turbine MPPT imitation, which, however,

Kun Han; Guo-zhu Chen

2009-01-01

336

Bidimensional simulation of oil and gas generation and entrapment across Northern Viking graben (Norway), with emphasis on hydraulic regime  

SciTech Connect

A bidimensional forward numerical model was used to reconstruct the history of sedimentation, compaction, heat transfer, hydrocarbon generation, and migration along a 150-km southeast-northwest cross section in the Northern Viking graben. The model is based on the heat equation and on the diphasic Darcy's law. An empirical relationship between porosity and effective stress was used to study the pressure regime. The model takes into account hydraulic fracturing and subsequent relaxation of pressures. A kinetic model describes the generation of hydrocarbon.

Burrus, J.; Ungerer, P.; Doligez, B.; Rabiller, P.

1988-01-01

337

An Experimental Study of Lightning Overvoltages in Wind Turbine Generation Systems Using a Reduced-Size Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine generation systems are built at locations where few tall structures are found nearby so as to obtain good wind conditions, and thus, they are often struck by lightning. To promote wind power generation, lightning-protection methodologies for such wind turbine generation systems have to be established. This paper presents the result of an experimental study of lightning overvoltages in wind turbine generation systems using a reduced-size wind turbine model. Overvoltages observed at wavefronts of lightning surges are focused on in this study. In the experiments, lightning strokes to one of the blades and to the nacelle were considered, and voltages and currents at various positions of the wind turbine model were measured. The following points have been deduced from the results: (i) The voltage rise due to the tower footing resistance can cause a significant voltage difference between the tower foot and an incoming conductor led from a distant point. Also, a voltage difference between the bottom of down conductors installed inside the tower and an incoming conductor can be of significance. (ii) The lightning current flowing through the tower body induces voltages in main and control circuits which form loops, and the induced voltages can cause overvoltages and malfunctions. (iii) Traveling-wave phenomena in a wind turbine generation system for a lightning strike to the tip of a blade and to the nacelle have been made clear from the measured waveforms. This information can be used for developing an EMTP simulation model of wind turbine generation systems.

Yamamoto, Kazuo; Noda, Taku; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Ametani, Akihiro

338

Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator  

DOEpatents

A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY

2008-04-22

339

The internal flow pattern analysis of a tidal power turbine operating on bidirectional generation-pumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using tidal energy can reduce environment pollution, save conventional energy and improve energy structure, hence it presents great advantage and is developing potential. Influenced by flood tide and low tide, a fully functional tidal power station needs to experience six operating modes, including bidirectional generation, pumping and sluice; the internal unsteady flow pattern and dynamic characters are very complicated. Based on a bidirectional tidal generator unit, three-dimensional unsteady flows in the flow path were calculated for four typical operating conditions with the pressure pulsation characteristics analyzed. According to the numerical results, the internal flow characteristics in the flow path were discussed. The influence of gravity to the hydraulic performance and flow characteristics were analysed. The results provide a theoretical analysis method of the hydraulic optimization design of the same type unit as well as a direction for stable operation and optimal scheduling of existing tidal power unit.

Y Luo, Y.; Xiao, Y. X.; Wang, Z. W.

2013-12-01

340

Electromagnetic design analysis and performance improvement of axial field permanent magnet generator for small wind turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial field permanent magnet (AFPM) generators are widely applied for the small wind turbine. The output power of conventional AFPM generator, AFER-NS (Axial Field External Rotor-Non Slotted) generator, is limited by the large reluctance by the long air-gap flux paths. In this paper, the novel structure of AFPM generator, AFIR-S (Axial Field Inner Rotor-Slotted) generator, is suggested to improve the output characteristics. The electromagnetic design analysis and the design improvement of the suggested AFIR-S generator are studied. Firstly, the electromagnetic design analysis was done to increase the power density. Secondly, the design optimizations of the rotor pole-arc ratio and skew angle to increase the output power and to reduce the cogging torque. Finally, the output performances of AFER-NS and AFIR-S generator are compared with each other.

Jung, Tae-Uk

2012-04-01

341

Analyzing the requirements for mass production of small wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass producibility of small wind turbine generators to give manufacturers design and cost data for profitable production operations is discussed. A 15 kW wind turbine generator for production in annual volumes from 1,000 to 50,000 units is discussed. Methodology to cost the systems effectively is explained. The process estimate sequence followed is outlined with emphasis on the process estimate sheets compiled for each component and subsystem. These data enabled analysts to develop cost breakdown profiles crucial in manufacturing decision-making. The appraisal also led to various design recommendations including replacement of aluminum towers with cost effective carbon steel towers. Extensive cost information is supplied in tables covering subassemblies, capital requirements, and levelized energy costs. The physical layout of the plant is depicted to guide manufacturers in taking advantage of the growing business opportunity now offered in conjunction with the national need for energy development.

Anuskiewicz, T.; Asmussen, J.; Frankenfield, O.

342

Conceptual design of the 7 megawatt Mod-5B wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Similar to MOD-2, the MOD-5B wind turbine generator system is designed for the sole purpose of providing electrical power for distribution by a major utility network. The objectives of the MOD-2 and MOD-5B programs are essentially identical with one important exception; the cost-of-electricity (COE) target is reduced from 4 cent/Kwhr on MOD-2 to 3 cent/Kwhr on MOD-5B, based on mid 1977 dollars and large quantity production. The MOD-5B concept studies and eventual concept selection confirmed that the program COE targets could not only be achieved but substantially bettered. Starting from the established MOD-2 technology as a base, this achievement resulted from a combination of concept changes, size changes, and design refinements. The result of this effort is a wind turbine system that can compete with conventional power generation over significant geographical areas, increasing commercial market potential by an order of magnitude.

Douglas, R. R.

1982-01-01

343

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing drawings 47A380074 through 47A380126. A full breakdown parts listing is provided as well as a where used list.

1984-08-01

344

Transient, Three-Dimensional, Finite-Element Analysis of Heat Flow in Turbine-Generator Rotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of three-dimensional, transient heat flow in the rotors of large turbine-generators is solved using a finite element formulation and employing new arch-shaped elements. Applications to negative sequence current heating and to rotor mechanical unbalance caused by thermal asymmetries are discussed. The method is shown to agree well with analytical calculations for heat flow in cylinders. Isothermal plots on

A. F. Armor

1980-01-01

345

A new control method of permanent magnet generator for maximum power tracking in wind turbine application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a new and simple control method for maximum power tracking in a variable speed wind turbine by using a step-up dc-dc converter. The output voltage of permanent magnet generator is connected to a fixed dc-link through a three-phase rectifier and the dc-dc converter. A maximum power-tracking algorithm calculates the speed command that corresponds to maximum power output

R. Esmaili; L. Xu; D. K. Nichols

2005-01-01

346

Direct and Quadrature-Axis Equivalent Circuits for Solid-Rotor Turbine Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct- and quadrature-axis equivalent circuits are developed for solid-rotor turbine generators. The equivalent circuits model, in considerable detail, important current-carrying paths in the rotor in addition to the excitation winding. Impedance equations are formulated so that a valid representation can be obtained over a wide range of frequencies. Operational solution of the equivalent circuits provides a powerful means for accurate

William Jackson; Robert Winchester

1969-01-01

347

Comparison of measured and calculated sound pressure levels around a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are reported from a large number of simultaneous acoustic measurements around a large horizontal axis downwind configuration wind turbine generator. In addition, comparisons are made between measurements and calculations of both the discrete frequency rotational harmonics and the broad band noise components. Sound pressure time histories and noise radiation patterns as well as narrow band and broadband noise spectra are presented for a range of operating conditions. The data are useful for purposes of environmental impact assessment.

Shepherd, Kevin P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

1989-01-01

348

Control design and performance analysis of a 6 MW wind turbine-generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses an approach to the modeling and performance for the preliminary design phase of a large (6.2 MW) horizontal axis wind turbine generator (WTG). Two control philosophies are presented, both of which are based on linearized models of the WT mechanical and electrical systems. The control designs are compared by showing the performance through detailed non-linear time simulation. The disturbances considered are wind gusts, and electrical faults near the WT terminals.

Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.; Javid, S. H.; Barton, R. S.

1983-01-01

349

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. This volume contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. This volume is divided into 5 books of which this is the third, containing drawings 47A380074 through 47A380126. A full breakdown parts listing is provided as well as a where used list.

1984-01-01

350

Practical contaminant analysis of lubricating oil in a steam turbine-generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the level of contamination of lubricating oil in a turbine-generator at a local power plant, contaminant analysis was conducted. The contaminant analysis was also used to assess the condition of tribo-components such as bearings, gears and bearing deflectors. Oil samples were taken and the debris in the used lubricating oil were analysed off-line to provide information

H. S. Ahn; E. S. Yoon; D. G. Sohn; O. K. Kwon; K. S. Shin; C. H. Nam

1996-01-01

351

Probability assessment of turbine-generator shaft torque following severe disturbances on the system supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a probabilistic approach to the evaluation of the maximum torsional torques induced in turbine generator shafts following severe supply network disturbances with clearance, during high-speed auto-reclosure, and resulting from mal-synchronisation. In this context the investigations have been conducted on a range of machines taking into consideration the uncertainty of several factors associated with the practical operation of

T. J. Hammons; C. K. Lim

1999-01-01

352

Application of Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller on Water Turbine Generator Set Based on TS Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water turbine generator set has the characters of non-linearity, parameter time-variability and non-minimum phase. It is found that PID controller has the problem of integral saturation and poor robustness and the traditional fuzzy controller has a subjective subordinate degree. To improve the running state, a fuzzy neural network based on T-S model is designed by imitating the structure of

Huiqin Sun; Jianye Liu; Zhanwen Fu; Yun Du; Suzhi Wang

2010-01-01

353

A 1?1 prototype of power generation system based upon cross-flow water turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the conception and building of an electrical power generation prototype based upon the cross-flow water turbines. The structure has been tested in grid-connected conditions in order to identify the hydrodynamic characteristics of the prime mover and to evaluate the energy efficiency of the overall energy conversion chain. The real-world tests confirm the preliminary conclusion issued from

M. Hauck; A. Rumeau; I. Munteanu; A. I. Bratcu; S. Bacha; D. Roye; A. Hably

2012-01-01

354

Next Generation Thermal Barrier Coatings for the Gas Turbine Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop the next generation of production ready air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating with a low conductivity and long lifetime. A number of coating architectures were produced using commercially available plasma spray guns. Modifications were made to powder chemistry, including high purity powders, dysprosia stabilized zirconia powders, and powders containing porosity formers. Agglomerated & sintered and homogenized oven spheroidized powder morphologies were used to attain beneficial microstructures. Dual layer coatings were produced using the two powders. Laser flash technique was used to evaluate the thermal conductivity of the coating systems from room temperature to 1200 °C. Tests were performed on as-sprayed samples and samples were heat treated for 100 h at 1150 °C. Thermal conductivity results were correlated to the coating microstructure using image analysis of porosity and cracks. The results show the influence of beneficial porosity on reducing the thermal conductivity of the produced coatings.

Curry, Nicholas; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Li, Xin-Hai; Tricoire, Aurélien; Dorfman, Mitch

2011-01-01

355

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

2011-07-01

356

Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?  

PubMed Central

When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric

2014-01-01

357

Algebraic grid generation for coolant passages of turbine blades with serpentine channels and pin fins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to study numerically details of the flow and heat transfer within coolant passages of turbine blades, a method must first be developed to generate grid systems within the very complicated geometries involved. In this study, a grid generation package was developed that is capable of generating the required grid systems. The package developed is based on an algebraic grid generation technique that permits the user considerable control over how grid points are to be distributed in a very explicit way. These controls include orthogonality of grid lines next to boundary surfaces and ability to cluster about arbitrary points, lines, and surfaces. This paper describes that grid generation package and shows how it can be used to generate grid systems within complicated-shaped coolant passages via an example.

Shih, T. I.-P.; Roelke, R. J.; Steinthorsson, E.

1991-01-01

358

Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combined experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines (>1OOMW). T...

A. A. Ameri R. S. Bunker

1999-01-01

359

Turbine speed control for an ocean wave energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a hydraulic turbine speed governor is proposed in view of its application in an isolated electric generation system based on an ocean wave energy converter (WEC). The proposed strategy is based on cascade closed-loop control combined with feedforward of load disturbances. The main characteristics of a WEC are presented and a dynamic model of the generating unit

Paula B. Garcia-Rosa; J. P. V. S. Cunha; Fernando Lizarralde

2009-01-01

360

Integration of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines into power grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is seeing an ever-increasing demand for electrical energy. The future growth of electrical power generation needs to be a mix of technologies including fossil fuels, hydro, nuclear, wind, and solar. The federal and state energy agencies have taken several proactive steps to increase the share of renewable energy in the total generated electrical power. In 2005, 11.1% of the total 1060 GW electricity generation capacity was from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the US. The power capacity portfolio included 9.2% from hydroelectric, 0.87% from wind, and 0.7% from biomass. Other renewable power capacity included 2.8 GW of geothermal, 0.4 GW of solar thermal, and 0.2 GW of solar PV. Although the share of renewable energy sources is small compared with the total power capacity, they are experiencing a high and steady growth. The US is leading the world in wind energy growth with a 27% increase in 2006 and a projected 26% increase in 2007, according to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). The US Department of Energy benchmarked a goal to meet 5% of the nation's energy need by launching the Wind Powering America (WPA) program. Although renewable energy sources have many benefits, their utilization in the electrical grid does not come without cost. The higher penetration of RES has introduced many technical and non-technical challenges, including power quality, reliability, safety and protection, load management, grid interconnections and control, new regulations, and grid operation economics. RES such as wind and PV are also intermittent in nature. The energy from these sources is available as long as there is wind or sunlight. However, these are energies that are abundant in the world and the power generated from these sources is pollution free. Due to high price of foundation of wind farms, employing variable speed wind turbines to maximize the extracted energy from blowing wind is more beneficial. On the other hand, since wind power is intermittent, integrating energy storage systems with wind farms has attracted a lot of attention. These two subjects are addressed in this dissertation in detail. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG) are used in variable speed wind turbines. In this thesis, the dynamic of the PMSG is investigated and a power electronic converter is designed to integrate the wind turbine to the grid. The risks of PMSG wind turbines such as low voltage ride through and short circuits, are assessed and the methods of mitigating the risks are discussed. In the second section of the thesis, various methods of smoothing wind turbine output power are explained and compared. Two novel methods of output power smoothing are analyzed: Rotor inertia and Super capacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are explained and the dynamic model of each method is developed. The performance of the system is evaluated by simulating the wind turbine system in each method. The concepts of the methods of smoothing wind power can be implemented in other types of wind turbines such as Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbines.

Abedini, Asghar

361

Dynamic analysis of a grid-connected induction generator driven by a wave-energy turbine through hunting networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of forced oscillations occurring in a Wells turbine driven grid-connected induction generator enables one to seek a solution by considering the analogy between the dynamics of Wells turbine driven systems with those associated with diesel-engine driven generators or electric motors driving reciprocating compressors, where also such forced oscillations occur, although there they occur in synchronism with shaft-position or

S. S. Yegna Narayanan; B. K. Murthy; G. Sridhara Rao

1999-01-01

362

Analysis on the roundness of bulb turbine generator based on the unbalanced magnetic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of design, manufacture, installation and operation, there are some relatively eccentric in bulb tubular turbine units under operating condition. It easily caused uneven air gap, unbalanced magnetic field, unbalanced magnetic pull and torque. It could also increase the bending and torsion vibration of generator,at the same time, the roundness of stator and rotor would be aggravated which often caused by accidents such as generator sweep chamber. In this paper, basing on the design, installation and operation experience, the reasons of the unbalanced magnetic pull, mechanism and operation research were analyzed by theoretical calculation and the prototype test.

Li, Z. G.; Yang, F. Y.; Chen, J. H.; Si, G. L.

2012-11-01

363

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report period were to complete the development of the Gas Generator design, which was done; fabricate and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas Gas Generator, which has been postponed. Focus during this report period has been to complete the brazing and bonding necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continue making preparations for fabricating and testing the Gas Generator, and continuing the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware in preparation for the test program. Fabrication is more than 95% complete and is expected to conclude in early May 2002. the test schedule was affected by relocation of the testing to another test supplier. The target test date for hot fire testing is now not earlier than June 15, 2002.

Unknown

2002-03-31

364

Low-frequency noise and air vibration generated by a simple cycle gas turbine installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard noise regulations, measurement techniques, and acoustic treatments can fail to address energy emitted by certain problem gas turbine installations in the form of low-frequency noise and air vibrations. Survey and treatment of the entire acoustic environment is necessary to diagnose and solve these annoyance problems. The presence of ground-borne vibrations, infrasound, and noise in the lower octave bands complicates environmental noise assessment and limits mitigation options. Variability in the perception, effects, and annoyance level of low-frequency noise and air vibrations prevents this relatively common problem from being well understood by industry. Particular attention must be paid to propagation paths when the dynamic range of air-borne and ground-borne vibrations overlaps. This paper is the case study of a 2002 analysis, by ATCO Noise Management, of an installation consisting of 3-120 MW combustion generator turbines causing such low-frequency noise and air vibrations.

Giesbrecht, Chris; Hertil, Salem

2005-04-01

365

Prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

Grosveld, F. W.

1984-01-01

366

Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

1995-01-01

367

Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?  

PubMed

When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices. PMID:24558073

Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

2014-05-01

368

A study on power system's transient stability in determination of the appropriate generator type for wind turbines: Comparison between fixed-speed induction generator equipped with energy storage system and doubly-fed induction generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an ever-increasing importance of wind power generation in power systems, the necessity of choosing the appropriate type of technology for the wind turbine generators becomes more significant. In the current paper, fixed and variable speed wind turbines and the application of energy storage system (ESS) to smoothen the wind farm output power are studied. A detailed analysis of the

Maryam Bahramipanah; Saeed Afsharnia; Azin Aslani

2011-01-01

369

Design Study of Coated Conductor Direct Drive Wind Turbine Generator for Small Scale Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting ?eld windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 68 meters of tape. The active mass of the generators has been investigated as function of the number of poles and a 4 pole generator is suggested as a feasible starting point of an in-?eld demonstration of the system reliability. An active mass of m = 421 kg and a usage of 3.45 km of tape will be needed to realize such a generator with a peak ?ux density in the airgap of B0 = 1.5 T.

Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Jensen, Bogi B.

370

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, completion of the hardware and ancillary hardware fabrication and commence the Test Preparations for the testing of the non-polluting unique power turbine driven Gas Generator. Focus during this report period has been on completing the Gas Generator fabrication of hardware and ancillary hardware, and completion of unit closeout brazing and bonding. Because of unacceptable delays encountered in a previously competitively selected test site, CES initiated a re-competition of our testing program and selected an alternate test site. Following that selection, CES used all available resources to make preparations for testing the 10 Mw Gas Generator at the new testing site facilities of NTS at Saugus, CA.

E.W. (Gene) Baxter

2002-06-30

371

Development and testing of vortex generators for small horizontal axis wind turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vortex generators (VGs) for a small (32 ft diameter) horizontal axis wind turbine, the Carter Model 25, have been developed and tested. Arrays of VGs in a counterrotating arrangement were tested on the inbound half-span, outboard half-span, and on the entire blade. VG pairs had their centerlines spaced at a distance of 15% of blade chord, with a spanwise width of 10% of blade chord. Each VG had a length/height ratio of 4, with a height of between 0.5% and 1.0% of the blade chord. Tests were made with roughness strips to determine whether VGs alleviated the sensitivity of some turbines to an accumulation of bugs and dirt on the leading edge. Field test data showed that VGs increased power output up to 20% at wind speeds above 10 m/s with only a small (less than 4%) performance penalty at lower speeds. The VGs on the outboard span of the blade were more effective than those on inner sections. For the case of full span coverage, the energy yearly output increased almost 6% at a site with a mean wind speed of 16 mph. The VGs did reduce the performance loss caused by leading edge roughness. An increase in blade pitch angle has an effect on the power curve similar to the addition of VGs. VGs alleviate the sensitivity of wind turbine rotors to leading edge roughness caused by bugs and drift.

Gyatt, G. W.

1986-01-01

372

Strategies for Refining IEC 61400-2: Wind Turbine Generator Systems - Part 2: Safety of Small Wind Turbines: Preprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a status of the changes currently being made by IEC Maintenance Team 02 (MT02) to the existing IEC 61400-2 ''Safety of small wind turbines.'' In relation to the work done by IEC MT02, work has been done by NREL and Windward Engineering under the DOE\\/NREL Small Wind Turbine (SWT) Project. Aeroelastic models were built and measurements taken

J. J. D. van Dam; T. L. Forsyth; A. C. Hansen

2001-01-01

373

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

2010-09-01

374

An online technique for condition monitoring the induction generators used in wind and marine turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction generators have been successfully applied to a variety of industries. However, their operation and maintenance in renewable wind and marine energy industries still face challenges due to harsh environments, limited access to site and relevant reliability issues. Hence, further enhancing their condition monitoring is regarded as one of the essential measures for improving their availability. To date, much effort has been made to monitor induction motors, which can be equally applied to monitoring induction generators. However, the achieved techniques still have constrains in particular when dealing with the condition monitoring problems in wind and marine turbine generators. For example, physical measurements of partial discharge, noise and temperature have been widely applied to monitoring induction machinery. They are simple and cost-effective, but unable to be used for fault diagnosis. The spectral analysis of vibration and stator current signals is also a mature technique popularly used in motor/generator condition monitoring practice. However, it often requires sufficient expertise for data interpretation, and significant pre-knowledge about the machines and their components. In particular in renewable wind and marine industries, the condition monitoring results are usually coupled with load variations, which further increases the difficulty of obtaining a reliable condition monitoring result. In view of these issues, a new condition monitoring technique is developed in this paper dedicated for wind and marine turbine generators. It is simple, informative and less load-dependent thus more reliable to deal with the online motor/generator condition monitoring problems under varying loading conditions. The technique has been verified through both simulated and practical experiments. It has been shown that with the aid of the proposed technique, not only the electrical faults but also the shaft unbalance occurring in the generator become detectable despite the external loading conditions. Moreover, the rotor and stator winding faults can be readily discriminated through observing the variation tendencies of the proposed condition monitoring criteria.

Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.; Court, R.

2013-07-01

375

Output Power Leveling of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control Using H? Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause fluctuating power of wind turbine generator (WTG). In order to reduce the fluctuating power of WTG, this paper presents a output power leveling technique of WTG by pitch angle control using H? control. H? control is required to consider the measurement deviation and modeling error. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for WTG show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Sakamoto, Ryosei; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Takagi, Teruo; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki

376

Opportunities for ice storage to provide ancillary services to power grids incorporating wind turbine generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power generation using wind turbines increases the electrical system balancing, regulation and ramp rate requirements due to the minute to minute variability in wind speed and the difficulty in accurately forecasting wind speeds. The addition of thermal energy storage, such as ice storage, to a building's space cooling equipment increases the operational flexibility of the equipment by allowing the owner to choose when the chiller is run. The ability of the building owner to increase the power demand from the chiller (e.g. make ice) or to decrease the power demand (e.g. melt ice) to provide electrical system ancillary services was evaluated.

Finley, Christopher

377

Model-OA wind turbine generator - Failure modes and effects analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) conducted for wind-turbine generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems, which are also reflected in this FMEA.

Klein, William E.; Lali, Vincent R.

1990-01-01

378

Candidate wind turbine generator site, Culebra, Puerto Rico. Annual data summary, October 1978-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes wind speed and direction data collected on meteorological towers at 14 candidate and wind turbine generator installation sites from October 1978 through September 1979. The basic method of data collection is by digital data cassette recording systems. For the digital data reported, an instantaneous sample is recorded every 2 minutes. An explanation is provided for each data summary table as well as information on how specific values were computed. The rest of the report presents the annual summarized data for each site.

Not Available

1980-07-01

379

The dynamic performance of an isolated self-excited induction generator driven by a variable-speed wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the analysis, design and simulation or wind-powered self-excited induction generator (SEIG). The three-phase SEIG is driven by a variable-speed prime mover (VSPM) such as a wind turbine for the clean alternative renewable energy in rural areas. The VSPM is modeled by as a variable-speed separately-excited DC motor to simulate to the wind turbine. Also, the paper describes

M. M. Neam; F. F. M. El-Sousy; M. A. Ghazy; M. A. Abo-Adma

2006-01-01

380

The Dynamic Performance of an Isolated Self-Excited Induction Generator Driven by a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the analysis, design and simulation of wind-powered self-excited induction generator (SEIG). The three -phase SEIG is driven by a variable-speed prime mover (VSPM) such as a wind turbine for the clean alternative renewable energy in rural areas. The VSPM is modeled by as a variable-speed separately-excited DC motor to simulate to the wind turbine. Also, the paper

Mahmoud M. Neam; Fayez F. M. El-Sousy; Mohamed A. Ghazy; Maged A. Abo-Adma

2007-01-01

381

Industrial gas turbine combustion performance test of DME to use as an alternative fuel for power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

DME (dimethyl ether, CH3OCH3) is both a good alternative fuel for transportation and power generation and an LPG substitute owing to its cleanliness, multi-source productivity and the ease with which it is transported. This study was conducted to verify whether DME is a good fuel for gas turbines and to identify potential problems in fuelling a commercial gas turbine with

Min Chul Lee; Seok Bin Seo; Jae Hwa Chung; Yong Jin Joo; Dal Hong Ahn

2009-01-01

382

Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic viability of producing baseload wind energy was explored using a cost-optimization model to simulate two competing systems: wind energy supplemented by simple- and combined cycle natural gas turbines (“wind+gas”), and wind energy supplemented by compressed air energy storage (“wind+CAES”). Pure combined cycle natural gas turbines (“gas”) were used as a proxy for conventional baseload generation. Long-distance electric transmission

Jeffery B. Greenblatt; Samir Succar; David C. Denkenberger; Robert H. Williams; Robert H. Socolow

2007-01-01

383

MOD-0A 200 kW wind turbine generator design and analysis report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, analysis, and initial performance of the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator at Clayton, NM is documented. The MOD-OA was designed and built to obtain operation and performance data and experience in utility environments. The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation, safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the wind turbine are discussed. The design and analysis of the rotor, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electricl system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub, and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control are discussed. Systems analyses on dynamic loads and fatigue are presented.

Anderson, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

1980-08-01

384

Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods  

DOEpatents

A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

Bagepalli, Bharat (Niskayuna, NY) [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R. (Delanson, NY) [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D. (Rexford, NY) [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G. (Schenectady, NY); Jarczynski, Emil D. (Scotia, NY) [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh (Cambridge, MA) [Cambridge, MA

2008-09-23

385

EEMD-based wind turbine bearing failure detection using the generator stator current homopolar component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure detection has always been a demanding task in the electrical machines community; it has become more challenging in wind energy conversion systems because sustainability and viability of wind farms are highly dependent on the reduction of the operational and maintenance costs. Indeed the most efficient way of reducing these costs would be to continuously monitor the condition of these systems. This allows for early detection of the generator health degeneration, facilitating a proactive response, minimizing downtime, and maximizing productivity. This paper provides then an assessment of a failure detection techniques based on the homopolar component of the generator stator current and attempts to highlight the use of the ensemble empirical mode decomposition as a tool for failure detection in wind turbine generators for stationary and non-stationary cases.

Amirat, Yassine; Choqueuse, Vincent; Benbouzid, Mohamed

2013-12-01

386

Preliminary study of power generation from vertical-axis turbines in the Gulf Stream  

SciTech Connect

A system consisting of paired, vertical-axis turbines suspended from a tethered, buoyant, submerged platform that contains the generators is proposed as a method for power generation from the Gulf Stream. Drilled piles are the most likely kind of mooring system that would have the holding capacity needed. Successful extraction of electrical energy from the Gulf Stream will require very careful consideration of the environment, as well as its effects on potential materials and surface features of the power-generating system. Because of its topography, the region called the Straits of Florida contains the fastest-flowing water masses (known as the Florida Current) found in the Gulf Stream system. The warm, fast-flowing, deep, salty water contains myriad life forms, and presents a highly corrosive environment to most common building materials. The minimization of galvanic and crevice types of corrosion offers the most formidable challenge to the designer.

Carnicom, M.L.; Sheldahl, R.E.

1981-01-01

387

The MOD-OA 200 kilowatt wind turbine generator design and analysis report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the MOD-OA 200 kw wind turbine generator are discussed. The components, the rotor, driven train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electrical system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control and Dynamic loads and fatigue are analyzed.

Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.

1980-08-01

388

Variable speed generator application on the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the application of a Scherbiustat type variable speed subsystem in the MOD-5A Wind Turbine Generator. As designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, the MOD-5A utilizes the subsystem for both starting assistance in a motoring mode and generation in a controlled airgap torque mode. Reactive power control is also provided. The Scherbiustat type arrangement of a wound rotor machine with a cycloconverter in the rotor circuit was selected after an evaluation of variable speed technologies that followed a system evaluation of drivetrain cost and risk. The paper describes the evaluation factors considered, the results of the evaluations and summarizes operating strategy and performance simulations.

Barton, Robert S.

1995-01-01

389

Turbine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbines for most space propulsion applications, such as the hydrogen and oxygen pump turbines for the Vulcain engine, are characterized by a high pressure ratio, a highly energetic working fluid, and a small size. Data on Vulcain turbines are given. The following topics are reviewed: turbine concept design and design tools; blade design; losses occurring in a blade which are due to friction, secondary flow, tip clearance and shock formation; and turbine testing. The purpose of any turbine is to provide power for other parts of an engineering system (compressors, electrical generators, pumps) or to drive mechanical components such as wheels or propellers to give propulsion to a vehicle. It should therefore always be the performance and cost effectiveness of this larger system and not of the isolated turbine that are the main objectives for the turbine design engineer.

Andersson, Per

390

DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report period was to continue the development of the Gas Generator design, fabrication and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive Gas Generator. Focus during this past report period has been to continue completion the Gas Generator design, completing the brazing and bonding experiments to determine the best method and materials necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continuing to making preparations for fabricating and testing this Gas Generator and commencing with the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware. Designs have been completed sufficiently such that Long Lead Items [LLI] have been ordered and upon arrival will be readied for the fabrication process. The keys to this design are the platelet construction of the injectors that precisely measures/meters the flow of the propellants and water all throughout the steam generating process and the CES patented gas generating cycle. The Igniter Assembly injector platelets fabrication process has been completed and bonded to the Igniter Assembly and final machined. The Igniter Assembly is in final assembly and is being readied for testing in the October 2001 time frame. Test Plan dated August 2001, was revised and finalized, replacing Test Plan dated May 2001.

Unknown

2002-01-31

391

Proposal and Development of Radial Air-gap Coreless Generator Suitable for Small Wind Turbine using in Urban Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent distributed generations using small wind turbines are widely spread as increasing of wind power generation. Installation of small wind turbines in densely-populated urban area is not only useful from the viewpoint of digging up wind power source in weak-wind area but also for enlightenment of renewable energy due to closing power supplies to consumptions. From the point of view, the authors proposed “urban wind power generation" using collective system with a number of small vertical wind turbines and have developed a suitable generator for low-speed vertical wind turbines such as Savonius windmill. Standardized on a coreless generator, the proposed generator is designed to let direction of magnetic fluxes radial in order to install the magnets and coils on the outer end of the generator. The change of magnet composition and flux direction gives realization of maximized speed of flux change and output voltage in the limited space. With above composition, the power of the proposed one is independent on the diameter. In this report, we describe evaluated fundamental performance of a prototype of the proposed generator. As the result of the experiments, the maximum output power of 283W was obtained. The obtained starting torque is enough small to begin to rotate at weak wind condition of no more than 1m/s. Therefore, it is clear that the proposed “radial” coreless generator is suitable for self-starting and producing high power at low speed wind.

Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ohmoto, Shingo; Hara, Takehisa

392

Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2. A technical report  

SciTech Connect

The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

Not Available

1992-02-01

393

Self-excited induction generator for variable-speed wind turbine generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When an induction generator is connected to a utility bus, the voltage and frequency at the terminal of the generator are the same as the voltage and frequency of the utility. The reactive power needed by the induction generator is supplied by the utility...

E. Muljadi B. Gregory D. Broad

1996-01-01

394

Portable Hydraulic Powerpack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable hydraulic powerpack functions as lightweight, compact source of mechanical energy. Self-contained hydraulic powerpack derives energy from solid chemical charge. Combustion of charge initiated by small hammer, and revolving feeder replaces charges expended. Combustion gases cool during expansion in turbine and not too hot for release to atmosphere. Unit has applications driving wheelchairs and operating drills, winches, and other equipment in remote areas. Also replaces electric motors and internal-combustion engines as source of power in explosive atmospheres.

Anderson, L. A.; Henry, R. L.; Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

1986-01-01

395

Effects of the Blade Shape on the Trailing Vortices in Liquid Flow Generated by Disc Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle image velocimetry technique was used to analyze the trailing vortices and elucidate their relationship with turbulence properties in a stirred tank of 0.48 m diameter, agitated by four different disc turbines, including Rushton turbine, concaved blade disk turbine, half elliptical blade disk turbine, and parabolic blade disk turbine. Phase-averaged and phase-resolved flow fields near the impeller blades were measured

Jing ZHAO; Zhengming GAO; Yuyun BAO

2011-01-01

396

Water turbine technology for small power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

T. Salovaara

1980-01-01

397

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 2: Conceptual and preliminary design, book 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind tunnel generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 2 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The development tests, which determined or characterized many of the materials and components of the wind turbine generator, are described.

1984-08-01

398

MPPT and yawing control of a new horizontal-axis wind turbine with two parallel-connected generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the following structure: two or three blades, a nacelle which contains power converting equipments, generators, and a tower which supports the nacelle. The generated power is transmitted from the nacelle to the ground. Due to this structure, the power transmission lines are twisted when the nacelle is yawing. Thus, slip ring or additional

Kooksun Lee; Jongwook Im; Ick Choy; Whang Cho; Juhoon Back

2011-01-01

399

SVM-Based Multiclass Cost-sensitive Classification with Reject Option for Fault Diagnosis of Steam Turbine Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steam turbine generator faults not only damage the generator itself, but also cause outages and loss of profits, for this reason, many researchers work on the fault diagnosis. But misdiagnosing may also lead to serious losses. In order to improve the diagnosis reliability and reduce the loss caused by misdiagnosis, in this paper, cost integrated multiclass SVM with reject

Chao Zou; En-hui Zheng; Hong-wei Xu; Le Chen

2010-01-01

400

Modeling of Frequency and Power Control in An Autonomous Power System with Wind Turbines and Diesel Generation Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study about the frequency and power control in an autonomous power system consisting of wind turbines, diesel generation units and energy storage devices. The system configuration and operation principles of the power system are presented. The characteristics of the generation units are described. The frequency and power control is discussed on the basis of the characteristics

Y. Hu; Z. Chen

2005-01-01

401

Comparison of the response of doubly fed and fixed-speed induction generator wind turbines to changes in network frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous and fixed-speed induction generators release the kinetic energy of their rotating mass when the power system frequency is reduced. In the case of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines, their control system operates to apply a restraining torque to the rotor according to a predetermined curve with respect to the rotor speed. This control system is not based

J. Ekanayake; N. Jenkins

2004-01-01

402

Neural network based modeling of a large steam turbine-generator rotor body parameters from on-line disturbance data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique to estimate and model rotor-body parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time disturbance data is presented. For each set of disturbance data collected at different operating conditions, the rotor body parameters of the generator are estimated using an output error method (OEM). Artificial neural network (ANN) based estimators are later used to model the nonlinearities

H. Bora Karayaka; Ali Keyhani; Gerald Thomas Heydt; Baj L. Agrawal; Douglas A. Selin

2001-01-01

403

Turbine-Generator Shaft Torques and Fatigue: Part II - Impact of System Distribances and High Speed Reclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second of two papers concerned with the effects of power system disturbances and operating practices upon turbine-generator shafts. This paper presents the results of various simulations for which the type of disturbance and the resulting generator shaft torsional oscillations are correlated with potential loss of life to the shaft system, using techniques described in the companion

R. D. Dunlop; S. H. Horowitz; A. C. Parikh; M. C. Jackson; S. D. Umans

1979-01-01

404

Measured effects of wind turbine generation at the Block Island Power Company  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data measurements made on the NASA MOD-OA 200-kw wind-turbine generator (WTG) installed on a utility grid form the basis for an overall performance analysis. Fuel displacement/-savings, dynamic interactions, and WTG excitation (reactive-power) control effects are studied. Continuous recording of a large number of electrical and mechanical variables on FM magnetic tape permit evaluation and correlation of phenomena over a bandwidth of at least 20 Hz. Because the wind-power penetration reached peaks of 60 percent, the impact of wind fluctuation and wind-turbine/diesel-utility interaction is evaluated in a worst-case scenario. The speed-governor dynamics of the diesel units exhibited an underdamped response, and the utility operation procedures were not altered to optimize overall WTG/utility performance. Primary findings over the data collection period are: a calculated 6.7-percent reduction in fuel consumption while generating 11 percent of the total electrical energy; acceptable system voltage and frequency fluctuations with WTG connected; and applicability of WTG excitation schemes using voltage, power, or VARS as the controlled variable.

Wilreker, V. F.; Smith, R. F.; Stiller, P. H.; Scot, G. W.; Shaltens, R. K.

1984-04-01

405

Performance analysis of a counter-rotating tubular type micro-turbine by experiment and CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro hydraulic turbines have a growing interest because of its small and simple structure, as well as a high possibility of using in micro and small hydropower applications. The differential pressure existing in city water pipelines can be used efficiently to generate electricity in a way similar to that of energy being generated through gravitational potential energy in dams. The pressure energy in the city pipelines is often wasted by using pressure reducing valves at the inlet of water cleaning centers. Instead of using the pressure reducing valves, a micro counter-rotating hydraulic turbine can be used to make use of the pressure energy. In the present paper, a counter-rotating tubular type micro-turbine is studied, with the front runner connected to the generator stator and the rear runner connected to the generator rotor. The performance of the turbine is investigated experimentally and numerically. A commercial ANSYS CFD code was used for numerical analysis.

Lee, N. J.; Choi, J. W.; Hwang, Y. H.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, Y. H.

2012-11-01

406

Endwall shape modification using vortex generators and fences to improve gas turbine cooling and effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas turbine is one of the most important parts of the air-breathing jet engine. Hence, improving its efficiency and rendering it operable under high temperatures are constant goals for the aerospace industry. Two types of flow within the gas turbine are of critical relevance: The flow around the first row of stator blades (also known as the nozzle guide vane blade - NGV) and the cooling flow inside the turbine blade cooling channel. The subject of this thesis work was to search for methods that could improve the characteristics of these two types of flows, thus enabling superior engine performance. The innovative aspect of our work was to apply an endwall shape modification previously employed by non-aerospace industries for cooling applications, to the gas turbine cooling flow which is vital to aerospace propulsion. Since the costs of investigating the possible benefits of any idea via extensive experiments could be quite high, we decided to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) followed by experimentation as our methodology. We decided to analyze the potential benefits of using vortex generators (VGs) as well as the rectangular endwall fence. Since the pin-fins used in cooling flow are circular cylinders, and since the boundary layer flow is mainly characterized by the leading edge diameter of the NGV blade, we modeled both the pin-fins and the NGV blade as vertical circular cylinders. The baseline case consisted of the cylinder(s) being subjected to cross flow and a certain amount of freestream turbulence. The modifications we made on the endwall consisted of rectangular fences. In the case of the cooling flow, we used triangular shaped, common flow up oriented, delta winglet type vortex generators as well as rectangular endwall fences. The channel contained singular cylinders as well as staggered rows of multiple cylinders. For the NGV flow, a rectangular endwall fence and a singular cylinder were utilized. Using extensive CFD modeling and analysis, we confirmed that placing a rectangular endwall fence upstream of the cylinder created additional turbulent mixing in the domain. This led to increased mixing of the cooler flow in the freestream and the hotter flow near the endwall. As a result, we showed that adding a rectangular fence created a 10% mean heat transfer increase downstream of the cylinder. When vortex generators are used, as the flow passes over the sharp edges of the vortex generators, it separates and continues downstream in a rolling, helical pattern. Combined with the effect generated by the orientation of the vortex generators, this flow structure mixes the higher momentum fluid in the freestream with lower momentum fluid in the boundary layer. Similar turbulent mixing behavior is observed over the entire domain, near the cylinders and the side walls. As a result, the heat transfer levels over the wall surfaces are increased and improved cooling is achieved. The improvements in heat transfer are obtained at the expense of acceptable pressure losses across the cooling channel. When the vortex generators are used, the CFD modeling studies showed that overall heat transfer improvements as high as 27% compared to the baseline case are observed inside a domain containing multiple rows of cylinders. A price in the form of 13% pressure loss increase across the channel is paid for the heat transfer benefits. Experiments conducted in the open loop wind tunnel of the Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory of the Department of Aerospace Engineering of Penn State University supported the general positive trend of these findings, with a 14% overall increase in heat transfer over the constant heat flux surface when vortex generators are installed, accompanied by an 8% increase in pressure loss. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gokce, Zeki Ozgur

407

Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

Ben Plamp

2008-06-30

408

Macroscopic cross section generation and application for coupled spatial kinetics and thermal hydraulics analysis with SAS-DIF3DK  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of modeling the transient behavior of multigroup cross sections in the context of coupled reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic computations with the SAS-DIF3DK computer code. The MACOEF macroscopic cross section methodology is presented. Results from benchmark verification calculations with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo are reported. Analysis of the Chernobyl accident is made using correlated WIMS-D4M generated group constants with special emphasis placed on the impact of modeling assumptions on the progression of the accident simulation.

Turski, R.B.; Morris, E.E.; Taiwo, T.A.; Cahalan, J.E.

1997-08-01

409

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. It is a power performance test that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW small wind turbine.

Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

2009-12-01

410

Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 2: Conceptual and preliminary design, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 1 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The conceptual design studies, which defined a baseline configuration and determined the weights, costs and sizes of each subsystem, are described. The development and optimization of the wind turbine generator are presented through the description of the ten intermediate configurations between the conceptual and final designs. Analyses of the system's load and dynamics are presented.

1984-08-01

411

Effect of wind turbine generator model and siting on wind power changes out of large WECS arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls are discussed. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

Schleuter, R. A.; Park, G. L.; Lotfalian, M.; Dorsey, J.; Shayanfar, H.

1981-01-01

412

Cogging Torque Reduction in a Permanent Magnet Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate three design options to minimize cogging torque: uniformity of air gap, pole width, and skewing. Although the design improvement is intended for small wind turbines, it is also applicable to larger wind turbines.

Muljadi, E.; Green, J.

2002-01-01

413

Novel sensorless generator control and grid fault ride-through strategies for variable-speed wind turbines and implementation on a new real-time simulation platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of MW-size variable-speed wind turbines as sources of energy has increased significantly during the last decade. Advantages over fixed-speed wind turbines include more efficient wind power extraction, reduced grid power fluctuation, and improved grid reactive power support. Two types of typical generation systems for large-size variable-speed wind turbines exist. One is the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) with a

Sheng Yang

2010-01-01

414

Generation of a composite grid for turbine flows and consideration of a numerical scheme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A composite grid was generated for flows in turbines. It consisted of the C-grid (or O-grid) in the immediate vicinity of the blade and the H-grid in the middle of the blade passage between the C-grids and in the upstream region. This new composite grid provides better smoothness, resolution, and orthogonality than any single grid for a typical turbine blade with a large camber and rounded leading and trailing edges. The C-H (or O-H) composite grid has an unusual grid point that is connected to more than four neighboring nodes in two dimensions (more than six neighboring nodes in three dimensions). A finite-volume lower-upper (LU) implicit scheme to be used on this grid poses no problem and requires no special treatment because each interior cell of this composite grid has only four neighboring cells in two dimensions (six cells in three dimensions). The LU implicit scheme was demonstrated to be efficient and robust for external flows in a broad flow regime and can be easily applied to internal flows and extended from two to three dimensions.

Choo, Y.; Yoon, S.; Reno, C.

1986-01-01

415

Three-dimensional unsteady flow calculations in an advanced gas generator turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper deals with the application of a three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes code for predicting the unsteady flow in a single stage of an advanced gas generator turbine. The numerical method solves the three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations, using a system of overlaid grids, which allow for relative motion between the rotor and stator airfoils. Results in the form of time averaged pressures and pressure amplitudes on the airfoil surfaces will be shown. In addition, instantaneous contours of pressure, Mach number, etc. will be presented in order to provide a greater understanding of the inviscid as well as the viscous aspects of the flowfield. Also, relevant secondary flow features such as cross-plane velocity vectors and total pressure contours will be presented. Prior work in two-dimensions has indicated that for the advanced designs, the unsteady interactions can play a significant role in turbine performance. These interactions affect not only the stage efficiency but can substantially alter the time-averaged features of the flow. This work is a natural extension of the work done in two-dimensions and hopes to address some of the issues raised by the two-dimensional calculations. These calculations are being performed as an integral part of an actual design process and demonstrate the value of unsteady rotor-stator interaction calculations in the design of turbomachines.

Rangwalla, Akil A.

1993-01-01

416

Attenuation of upstream-generated low frequency noise by gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic transfer functions of low frequency (below 3500 Hz) noise through aircraft turbines were investigated. Model test results were compared with theoretical predictions in order to assess the validity of the theory. Component tests were conducted on both high pressure and low pressure model turbines. The influence of inlet temperature and turbine speed attenuation was evaluated, while the effects of turbine pressure ratio, blade-row choking, and additional downstream stages were determined. Preliminary identification of pertinent aeroacoustic correlating parameters was made.

Doyle, V. L.; Matta, R. K.

1977-01-01

417

Optimal Cycle Scheme of Direct Cycle Supercritical CO2 Gas Turbine for Nuclear Power Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supercritical CO2 turbine cycle can achieve a considerably high cycle thermal efficiency at medium turbine inlet temperatures of 500-650°C at high pressure such as 20 MPa, which is too high to produce a reactor pressure vessel within the existing fabrication limits. To solve this problem, a dual expansion turbine cycle is effective; its application was examined for both the

Yasushi Muto; Yasuyoshi Kato

2008-01-01

418

Power generation and blade flow measurements of a full scale wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research has been completed using a custom designed and built 4m wind turbine in a university operated wind facility. The primary goals of turbine testing were to determine the power production of the turbine and to apply the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to produce flow visualization images and velocity vector maps near the tip of a blade. These

Brian Gaunt

2009-01-01

419

Evaluation of gas turbine and gasifier-based power generation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a technology in early commercial phase, research work is needed to provide evaluation of the effects of alternative designs and technology advances and provide guidelines for development direction of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in future. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential pay-offs as well as risks of technological infeasibility for IGCC systems and to provide insight regarding desired strategies for the future development of advanced IGCC systems. Texaco gasifier process is widely used in power generation. A process simulation model for a base Texaco gasifier-based IGCC system, including performance (e.g., efficiency), emissions, and cost, was implemented in the ASPEN Plus. The model is calibrated and verified based on other design studies. To find out the implications of the effects of coal compositions on IGCC plant, the Illinois No.6, Pittsburgh No.8, and West Kentucky coal are selected for comparison. The results indicate that the ash content and sulfur content of coal have effects on performance, SO2 emissions, and capital cost of IGCC system. As the main component for power generation, the effects of the most advanced Frame 7H and the current widely used Frame 7F gas turbine combined cycles on IGCC system were evaluated. The results demonstrated the IGCC system based on 7H gas turbine (IGCC-7H) has higher efficiency, lower CO2 emission, and lower cost of electricity than the 7FA based system (IGCC-7FA). A simplified spreadsheet model is developed for estimating mass and energy balance of gas turbine combined cycle. It demonstrated that an accurate and sensitive model can be implemented in a spreadsheet. This study implicated the ability to do desktop simulations to support policy analysis. Uncertainty analysis is implemented to find out the risks associated with the IGCC systems, i.e., there is about 80% probability that the uncertain results of the efficiency of IGCC-7FA system are lower than the deterministic result. The IGCC-7H system is superior to IGCC-7FA despite the uncertainty of inputs. Gasifier carbon conversion and project uncertainty are identified as the key uncertain inputs. The implications of the results provide guidelines for research direction and plant operation. Integration of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine has been used in some IGCC projects. The effects of different integration methods are evaluated. The results indicate that the integration method of nitrogen injection is preferred. The integrated IGCC design has higher efficiency and lower cost than nonintegrated design. Recommendations are provided based on the simulation and evaluation work, and main conclusions obtained in this study. The Frame 7H gas turbine is a promising technology to enable IGCC to be cost-competitive. Nitrogen injection is preferred for integration design. One or more standard IGCC systems should be developed to provide a consistent basis for benchmarking, verification, and comparison.

Zhu, Yunhua

420

Conceptual design of the 6 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOD-5A wind turbine system must generate electricity for 3.75 c/KWH (1980) or less. During the conceptual design phase, the MOD-5A WTC system size and features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy (COE). This led to a 400' rotor diameter size. The MCD-5A system which resulted is defined along with the operational and environmental factors that drive various portions of the design. Development of weight and cost estimating relationships and their use in optimizing the MOD-5A are discussed. The results of major tradeoff studies are also presented. Subsystem COE contributions for the 100th unit are shown along with the method of computation. The major subsystems are described in order that the results of the various trade and optimization studies can be more readily visualized.

Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

421

Development of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind-turbine generator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Electric Company Advanced Energy Programs Department is designing, under DOE/NASA sponsorship through Contract DEN 3-153, the MOD-5A wind-turbine system, which must generate electricity for less than 3.75 cents/kWh (1980 dollars). During the conceptual and preliminary design phases, the basic features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy. During the past year, the program has been in the final design phase, and a reassessment to minimize risk has received strong emphasis in the design process. The program has progressed to the point that an agreement of sale has been reached for the first unit.

Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

1983-12-01

422

Model OA Wind Turbine Generator FEMA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at Level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Klein, W.E. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Sandusky, OH (USA). Plum Brook Station); Lalli, V.R. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center)

1989-10-01

423

Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.

Timothy F. Price

2007-02-01

424

Low NO{sub x} turbine power generation utilizing low Btu GOB gas. Final report, June--August 1995  

SciTech Connect

Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is second only to carbon dioxide as a contributor to potential global warming. Methane liberated by coal mines represents one of the most promising under exploited areas for profitably reducing these methane emissions. Furthermore, there is a need for apparatus and processes that reduce the nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from gas turbines in power generation. Consequently, this project aims to demonstrate a technology which utilizes low grade fuel (CMM) in a combustion air stream to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in the operation of a gas turbine. This technology is superior to other existing technologies because it can directly use the varying methane content gases from various streams of the mining operation. The simplicity of the process makes it useful for both new gas turbines and retrofitting existing gas turbines. This report evaluates the feasibility of using gob gas from the 11,000 acre abandoned Gateway Mine near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania as a fuel source for power generation applying low NO{sub x} gas turbine technology at a site which is currently capable of producing low grade GOB gas ({approx_equal} 600 BTU) from abandoned GOB areas.

Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.; Gabrielson, J.; Glickert, R.

1995-08-01

425

Effects of sounds generated by a dental turbine and a stream on regional cerebral blood flow and cardiovascular responses.  

PubMed

Effects of sound generated by a dental turbine and a small stream (murmur) and the effects of no sound (null, control) on heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hemodynamic changes (oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations) in the frontal cortex were measured in 18 young volunteers. Questionnaires completed by the volunteers were also evaluated. Near-infrared spectroscopy and the Finapres technique were employed to measure hemodynamic and vascular responses, respectively. The subjects assessed the murmur, null, and turbine sounds as "pleasant," "natural," and "unpleasant," respectively. Blood pressures changed in response to the murmur, null, and turbine sound stimuli as expected: lower than the control level, unchanged, and higher than the control level, respectively. Mean blood pressure values tended to increase gradually over the recording time even during the null sound stimulation, possibly because of the recording environment. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations decreased drastically in response to the dental turbine sound, while deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations remained unchanged and thus total hemoglobin concentrations decreased (due to the decreased oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations). Hemodynamic responses to the murmuring sound and the null sound were slight or unchanged, respectively. Surprisingly, heart rate measurements remained fairly stable in response to the stimulatory noises. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that sound generated by a dental turbine may affect cerebral blood flow and metabolism as well as autonomic responses. PMID:15490306

Mishima, Riho; Kudo, Takumu; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Yamamura, Chie; Yamada, Yoshiaki

2004-09-01

426

Steam Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

1981-01-01

427

Axial-flux modular permanent-magnet generator with a toroidal winding for wind-turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

Permanent-magnet (PM) generators have been used for wind turbines for many years. Many small wind-turbine manufacturers use direct-drive PM generators. For wind-turbine generators, the design philosophy must cover the following characteristics: low cost, light weight, low speed, high torque, and variable-speed generation. The generator is easy to manufacture and the design can be scaled up for a larger size without major retooling. A modular PM generator with axial flux direction was chosen. The permanent magnet used is NdFeB or ferrite magnet with flux guide to focus flux density in the air gap. Each unit module of the generator may consist of one, two, or more phases. Each generator can be expanded to two or more unit modules. Each unit module is built from simple modular poles. The stator winding is formed like a torus. Thus, the assembly process is simplified and the winding insertion in the slot is less tedious. The authors built a prototype of one unit module and performed preliminary tests in the laboratory. Follow-up tests will be conducted in the laboratory to improve the design.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Wan, Y.H.

1999-08-01

428

Proceedings of the fifth nuclear thermal hydraulics  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the fifth proceedings of Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics. Topics covered include: General Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling and Experiments; Thermal-Hydraulics Aspects of Passive Safety and New Generation Reactors; Thermal Hydraulics of Severe Accidents and Degraded Cores; General Thermal-Hydraulics Modeling and Experiments; Scaling and Uncertainties in Computer Code Predictions; Thermal Hydraulics of Reactor Operations; Thermal-Hydraulic Aspects of Passive Safety and New Generation Reactors; Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Systems; and Thermal-Hydraulic Aspects of Passive Safety and New Generation Reactors.

Not Available

1989-01-01

429

Mod-5A Wind Turbine Generator Program Design Report. Volume 2. Conceptual and Preliminary Design, Book 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. In Volume 2, book 1 the requirements and criteria for the design are presented. The conceptual design studies, which defined a baseline...

1984-01-01

430

Comparative study on the performance of control systems for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines operating with power regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the increasing wind power penetration on power systems, the wind farms are today required to participate actively in grid operation by an appropriate generation control. This paper presents a comparative study on the performance of three control strategies for DFIG wind turbines. The study focuses on the regulation of the active and reactive power to a

L. M. Fernandez; C. A. Garcia; F. Jurado

2008-01-01

431

Modeling and control of the wind turbine with the Direct Drive Permanent Magnet Generator integrated to power grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a model of the wind turbine (WT) with direct-drive permanent magnet generator (DDPMG) and its associated controllers is presented, based on which a small signal model is derived. The small signal stability analysis shows that the WT with DDPMG with the proposed controller is stable. To evaluate the control capability of the proposed controller, simulations are performed

Feng Wu; Xiao-Ping Zhang; Ping Ju

2008-01-01

432

Evaluation of Voltage Sag Ride-Through of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine with Series Grid Side Converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

With steadily increasing wind turbine penetration, regulatory standards for grid interconnection have evolved to require that wind generation systems ride- through disturbances such as faults and support the grid during such events. Conventional ride-through accommodations result in high currents and torque or are unable to ride-through down to zero volts. This paper explores two DFIG configurations in which a series

P. S. Flannery; G. Venkataramanan

2007-01-01

433

Dynamic modeling of GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW wind turbine-generators for stability simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

GE power systems has an ongoing effort dedicated to development of models of GE wind turbine generators (WTG) suitable for use in system impact studies. This paper documents the present recommendations for dynamic modeling of the GE 1.5 and 3.6 MW WTG for use in system impact studies. The paper includes recommended model structure and data, as well the assumptions,

N. W. Miller; J. J. Sanchez-Gasca; W. W. Price; R. W. Delmerico

2003-01-01

434

Control of a doubly fed induction generator in a wind turbine during grid fault ride-through  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the ability of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) in a wind turbine to ride through a grid fault and the limitations to its performance. The fundamental difficulty for the DFIG in ride-through is the electromotive force (EMF) induced in the machine rotor during the fault, which depends on the dc and negative sequence components in the

Dawei Xiang; Li Ran; P. J. Tavner; S. Yang

2006-01-01

435

Identification of armature, field, and saturated parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from operating data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a step by step identification procedure of armature, field and saturated parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time operating data. First, data from a small excitation disturbance is utilized to estimate armature circuit parameters of the machine. Subsequently, for each set of steady state operating data, saturable mutual inductances Lads and Laqs are estimated. The

H. Bora Karayaka; Ali Keyhani; Baj L. Agrawal; Douglas A. Selin; Gerald Thomas Heydt

2000-01-01

436

Power generation costs and ultimate thermal hydraulic power limits in hypothetical advanced designs with natural circulation  

SciTech Connect

Maximum power limits for hypothetical designs of natural circulation plants can be described analytically. The thermal hydraulic design parameters are those which limit the flow, being the elevations, flow areas, and loss coefficients. WE have found some simple ``design`` equations for natural circulation flow to power ratio, and for the stability limit. The analysis of historical and available data for maximum capacity factor estimation shows 80% to be reasonable and achievable. The least cost is obtained by optimizing both hypothetical plant performance for a given output,a nd the plant layout and design. There is also scope to increase output and reduce cost by considering design variations of primary and secondary pressure, and by optimizing component elevations and loss coefficients. The design limits for each are set by stability and maximum flow considerations, which deserve close and careful evaluation.

Duffey, R.B.; Rohatgi, U.S.

1996-12-31

437

MOD-5A wind turbine generator program design report: Volume 1: Executive Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.

1984-08-01

438

Evaluation of an Integrated Gas-Cooled Reactor Simulator and Brayton Turbine-Generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-loop brayton cycle, powered by a fission reactor, offers an attractive option for generating both planetary and in-space electric power. Non-nuclear testing of this type of system provides the opportunity to safely work out integration and system control challenges for a modest investment. Recognizing this potential, a team at Marshall Space Flight Center has evaluated the viability of integrating and testing an existing gas-cooled reactor simulator and a modified commercially available, off-the-shelf, brayton turbine-generator. Since these two systems were developed independently of one another, this evaluation had to determine if they could operate together at acceptable power levels, temperatures, and pressures. Thermal, fluid, and structural analyses show that this combined system can operate at acceptable power levels and temperatures. In addition, pressure drops across the reactor simulator, although higher than desired, are also viewed as acceptable. Three potential working fluids for the system were evaluated: N2, He/Ar, and He/Xe. Other potential issues, such as electrical breakdown in the generator and the operation of the brayton foil bearings using various gas mixtures, were also investigated.

Hissam, David Andy; Stewart, Eric T.

2006-01-01

439

Numerical Investigation for Net Enhancement in Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Compact Fin-Tube Heat Exchangers with Vortex Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic numerical simulations are carried out for a steady-state, laminar and constant-property air flow through a passage of a compact fin-tube heat exchanger specified with a constant wall temperature distribution and a uniform inlet velocity profile. A pair of delta winglet-type vortex generators (VGs) is punched out of the plain fin surface near the tube as a heat transfer enhancement device. A variety of VG configurations are investigated and their effects on the thermal-hydraulic (heat transfer) performance of the compact fin-tube heat exchanger are presented in terms of the Colburn factor j and the friction factor f for a specific Reynolds number (Re=400). In addition, the highest net enhancement in the thermal-hydraulic performance, defined as the ratio of the heat transfer enhancement to the pressure loss penalty, is sought. It is found that a moderate degree of the upstream shifting and the spanwise shifting of VG toward the tube contribute to the net enhancement. Nearly 9% of the net enhancement is achieved with an optimum configuration investigated presently.

Song, Gil-Dal; Nishino, Koichi

440

Multiloop model and simulation research of turbine generator with inter-turn short circuits fault of field windings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inter-turn short circuits fault of field windings is one common fault in generators. It will cause serious damages if such faults are not handled properly in time?For this reason, according to the multi-loop method of AC machines this paper proposes multi-loop mathematical model of turbine generators with inter-turn short circuits fault of field windings. The inductance parameters are calculated

Ji-yong Hou; He-ming Li; Jun-qing Li; hong-yu Wang; Jing Fan

2009-01-01

441

Candidate wind-turbine-generator site summarized meteorological data for December 1976-December 1981. [Program WIND listed  

SciTech Connect

Summarized hourly meteorological data for 16 of the original 17 candidate and wind turbine generator sites collected during the period from December 1976 through December 1981 are presented. The data collection program at some individual sites may not span this entire period, but will be contained within the reporting period. The purpose of providing the summarized data is to document the data collection program and provide data that could be considered representative of long-term meteorological conditions at each site. For each site, data are given in eight tables and a topographic map showing the location of the meteorological tower and turbine, if applicable. Use of information from these tables, along with information about specific wind turbines, should allow the user to estimate the potential for long-term average wind energy production at each site.

Sandusky, W.F.; Renne, D.S.; Hadley, D.L.

1982-09-01

442

Detection of low frequency impulsive noise from large wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thresholds of detection of low frequency, impulsive wind turbine sounds in the presence of background noise were examined. Seven wind turbine sounds, six of which were synthesized, were used in conjunction with three background noise conditions; quiet, 35, and 45 dB(A). The results indicate that thresholds of detection are predictable based on assumed characteristics of the auditory system. The synthesized wind turbine sounds were found to adequately represent a real recording.

Shepherd, K. P.

1985-01-01

443

A Review of Current Issues in Lightning Protection of New-Generation Wind-Turbine Blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salient issues related to lightning protection of long wind-turbine blades are discussed in this paper. We show that the lightning protection of modern wind turbines presents a number of new challenges due to the geometrical, electrical, and mechanical particularities of the turbines. The risk assessment for the lightning-protection-system design is solely based today on downward flashes. We show in

Farhad Rachidi; Marcos Rubinstein; Joan Montanya; JosÉ-Luis Bermudez; RubÉn Rodriguez Sola; GlÒria Sola; Nikolay Korovkin

2008-01-01

444

Wind shear for large wind turbine generators at selected tall tower sites  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study described in this report is to examine the nature of wind shear profiles and their variability over the height of large horizontal-axis wind turbines and to provide information on wind shear relevant to the design and opertion of large wind turbines. Wind turbine fatigue life and power quality are related through the forcing functions on the blade to the shapes of the wind shear profiles and their fluctuations over the disk of rotation.

Elliott, D.L.

1984-04-01

445

Heat Transfer Measurements and Predictions on a Power Generation Gas Turbine Blade  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed heat transfer measurements and predictions are given for a power generation turbine rotor with 129 deg of nominal turning and an axial chord of 137 mm. Data were obtained for a set of four exit Reynolds numbers comprised of the design point of 628,000, -20%, +20%, and +40%. Three ideal exit pressure ratios were examined including the design point of 1.378, -10%, and +10%. Inlet incidence angles of 0 deg and +/-2 deg were also examined. Measurements were made in a linear cascade with highly three-dimensional blade passage flows that resulted from the high flow turning and thick inlet boundary layers. Inlet turbulence was generated with a blown square bar grid. The purpose of the work is the extension of three-dimensional predictive modeling capability for airfoil external heat transfer to engine specific conditions including blade shape, Reynolds numbers, and Mach numbers. Data were obtained by a steady-state technique using a thin-foil heater wrapped around a low thermal conductivity blade. Surface temperatures were measured using calibrated liquid crystals. The results show the effects of strong secondary vortical flows, laminar-to-turbulent transition, and also show good detail in the stagnation region.

Giel, Paul W.; Bunker, Ronald S.; VanFossen, G. James; Boyle, Robert J.

2000-01-01

446

Evaluation of Advanced Hydraulic Turbomachinery for Underground Pumped Hydroelectric Storage. Part 2. Two-Stage Regulated Pump/Turbines for Operating Heads of 1000 to 1500 M.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This UPHS report applies to Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines regulated with gating systems. The first report, however, covered single-stage regulations; this report covers two-stage regulations. Development of a two-stage regulated pump/turbine appe...

C. A. Blomquist A. A. Frigo J. R. Degnan

1979-01-01

447

A micro Tesla turbine for power generation from low pressure heads and evaporation driven flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the design, fabrication and testing of a low pressure head Tesla microturbine. We began developing this technology as a means of scavenging energy from fluids flows induced in plant-like evaporative systems. Unlike traditional inertial turbines, Tesla turbines have high efficiency when driven with low pressure flows, are relatively simple to manufacture and scale down very favorably. The

Vedavalli G. Krishnan; Zohora Iqbal; Michel M. Maharbiz

2011-01-01

448

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques.

E. Muljadi; B. McNiff

1997-01-01

449

Aggregation of doubly fed induction generators wind turbines under different incoming wind speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing wind power penetration in power systems requires the development of adequate wind farms models to be included in power system simulation software in order to represent the behavior of wind farms in power systems. The modeling of wind farms with high number of wind turbines requires the development of a high order model if all the wind turbines

L. M. Fernandez; C. A. Garcia; F. Jurado; J. R. Saenz

2005-01-01

450

Capacitive sensor for active tip clearance control in a palm-sized gas turbine generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of a gas turbine has an inverse relationship to the clearance between the rotor blades and the casing. Recent efforts in miniaturization of micro gas turbine engines have created a new challenge in blade tip clearance measurement. This paper describes the development of a capacitive tip clearance measurement system, based on a synchronous detection of a phase-modulated signal,

Tibor Fabian; Friedrich B. Prinz; Georg Brasseur

2005-01-01

451

Urban energy generation: Influence of micro-wind turbine output on electricity consumption in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small scale wind turbines installed within the built environment is classified as microgeneration technology. Such turbines may soon become a commercial reality in the UK as a result of both advancements in technology and new financial incentives provided by the government. In addition, microgeneration technologies, especially those with appreciable resource, have the potential to reduce built environment related CO2 emissions

A. S. Bahaj; L. Myers; P. A. B. James

2007-01-01

452

Verification of a Flow3d Mathematical Model by a Physical Hydraulic Model of a Turbine Intake Structure of a Small Hydropower Plant and a Practical Use of the Mathematical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Drava Power Plants Utility company is the owner of all hydropower plants on the Drava River, Slovenia. On the flood waves relief structure of the Zlatoli?je HPP headrace channel the construction of a turbine intake structure for the Melje small hydropower plant is planned. The Melje small HPP shall exploit the biological minimum discharge for electricity production. Since the structure shall be small, the price of a physical hydraulic model research, in comparison with the price of the structure itself, would be too high. Consequently, the client decided to test the designed structure in the cheapest possible way and ordered a 3D mathematical model of the turbine intake structure. By this mathematical model the designed form of the intake structure should be verified, or, in case of non-compliance, a modified form of such structure which would meet the required modes of the SHPP operation should be proposed. Since such a 3D mathematical model hasn't been used for a hydraulic modelling of this type yet, the project performers were slightly mistrustful of the results obtained by it. Regarding our long years' experiences with physical modelling we decided to construct also a physical hydraulic model in order to be able to verify the designed form of the intake structure and then to use the results for the 3D mathematical model calibration. A partial physical hydraulic model was constructed in the Laboratory for Hydraulic Research in Ljubljana in a model scale of 1:20. For construction and implementation of all the necessary research only 30 days were needed. Simultaneously with the physical model all the preparatory arrangements for the geometry of the mathematical model were going on. During the further development of the mathematical model, also some additional researches on the physical model were performed. Considering the time needed to fully establish the functionality of the mathematical model, it showed up to be very time consuming even in comparison to the construction, all necessary adaptations and the research on the physical model. A commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) program, which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, was used to model physical model setup. The mathematical model was applied for the modelling of the zone of the same size as that on the physical model. The measurements of the water flow velocity, which were performed on the physical model, served us for the verification of results, obtained by means of the mathematical model. This paper gives a comparison of physical and mathematical models research results. However, it presents the results of the project form, as well as those of the proposed form, too.

Vosnjak, S.; Mlacnik, J.

2009-04-01

453

Conceptual design of the 6 MW Mod-5A wind turbine generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, is designing under DOE/NASA sponsorship the MOD-5A wind turbine system which must generate electricity for 3.75 cent/KWH (1980) or less. During the Conceptual Design Phase, completed in March, 1981, the MOD-5A WTG system size and features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy (COE). This led to a 400' rotor diameter size. The MOD-5A system which resulted is defined in this paper along with the operational and environmental factors that drive various portions of the design. Development of weight and cost estimating relationships (WCER's) and their use in optimizing the MOD-5A are discussed. The results of major tradeoff studies are also presented. Subsystem COE contributions for the 100th unit are shown along with the method of computation. Detailed descriptions of the major subsystems are given, in order that the results of the various trade and optimization studies can be more readily visualized.

Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

454

Conceptual design of a fixed-pitch wind turbine generator system rated at 400 kilowatts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The specifications for this WTG concept were as follows: (1) A fixed pitch, continuous wooden rotor was to be provided by the Gougeon Bros. Co. (2) An 8 leg hyperboloid tower that showed promise as a low cost structure was to be used. (3) Only commercially available components and parts that could be easily fabricated were to be considered. (4) Design features deemed desirable based on recent NASA research efforts were to be incorporated. Detailed costs and weight estimates were prepared for the second machine and a wind farm of 12 WTG's. The calculated cost of energy for the fixed pitch, twelve unit windfarm is 11.5 cents/kW hr not including the cost of land and access roads. The study shows feasibility of fixed pitch, intermediate power WTG operation.

Pintz, A.; Kasuba, R.; Spring, J.

1984-01-01

455

Comparisons Between Unsteady Aerodynamic Events in a Gas Turbine Generator and an Identical Compressor Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive testing done on a T55-L-712 turboshaft engine compressor in a compressor test rig is being followed by engine tests in progress as part of the Army Non-Recoverable Stall Program. Goals include a greater understanding of the gas turbine engine start cycle and compressor/engine operation in the regions 'beyond' the normal compressor stall line (rotating stall/surge). Rig steady state instrumentation consisted of 497 steady state pressure sensors and 153 temperature sensors. Engine instrumentation was placed in similar radial/axial locations and consists of 122 steady state pressure sensors and 65 temperature sensors. High response rig instrumentation consisted of 34 wall static pressure transducers. Rig and engine high response pressure transducers were located in the same axial/radial/circumferential locations in front of the first three stages. Additional engine high response instrumentation was placed in mach probes in front of the engine and on the compressor hub. This instrumentation allows for the generation of detailed stage characteristics, overall compressor mapping, and detailed analysis of dynamic compressor events.

Owen, A. Karl

1996-01-01

456

Comparison of Water Turbine Characteristics using Different Blades in Darrieus Water Turbines used for Tidal Current Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of renewable energies has been focused on for preserving environments and coping with the shortage of future energy supplies. In oceans, a tide reverses its current direction every six hours, and the current velocity changes into a sine wave after a period of time. Tidal current generation uses a generator to produce energy, changing the kinetic energy of

Mitsuhiro Shiono; Katsuyuki Suzuki; Seiji Kiho

2003-01-01

457

Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

1984-01-01

458

PIV and Hotwire Measurement and Analysis of Tip Vortices and Turbulent Wake Generated by a Model Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding vortical flow structures and turbulence in the wake flow behind a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) has widespread applications in efficient blade design. Moreover, the knowledge of wake-turbine interactions allows us to devise optimal operational parameters, such as the spatial allocation and control algorithms of wind turbines, for a densely populated wind farm. To understand the influence of tip vortices on energy containing mean flow and turbulence, characteristics of vortical structures and turbulence must be quantified thoroughly. In this study, we conduct phase-locked Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow before and after a model HAWT, which is located in a zero-pressure gradient wind tunnel with a cross section of 1.7 × 1.7 m and a test section of 16 m in length. A three-blade model HAWT with a diameter of 605 mm and tip-speed ratio of 5 is used. PIV images are recorded by a 2048 × 2048 CCD camera and streamed at 6 Hz continuously; and phased locked with the passage of the blade at its vertical position. Each PIV measurement covers a 0.13 × 0.13 m2 sample area with the spatial resolution of 63 ?m and a vector spacing of 0.5 mm. All experiments are conducted at the free-stream wind speed of 10 m/s. Flow fields at thirty consecutive downstream locations up to six rotor diameters and 144 mid chord lengths are measured. At each location, we obtain at least 10,000 instantaneous PIV realizations or 20,000 images. Three different configurations: single, dual, and trio turbines located at 5 rotor diameter upstream to each other, are examined experimentally. The flow statistics include mean wake velocity distributions, characteristics of tip vortices evolving downstream, fluctuation velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, stresses, and energy spectra. We find that tip vortices decay much faster in the wake of the upstream turbines (multiple-turbine configurations), whereas they maintain the coherence and strength behind a single turbine. The tip vortices entrain the high speed free-stream fluids and subsequently replenish the loss of momentum into the wake. Such a mechanism is greatly mitigated in the multiple-turbine scenarios. On-going analysis is to elucidate the generation, evolution and dissipation of the tip vortices in the various configurations.

Green, D.; Tan, Y. M.; Chamorro, L. P.; Arndt, R.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sheng, J.

2011-12-01

459

Estimating of a nonlinear power curve for a Wind Turbine Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output power from a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) is an intermittent resource, due to the high variability of the atmospheric wind at all spatial or temporal scales ranging from large scale variations to very short variations. Generally, a function transfer or a power curve of WTG is estimated with the IEC standard 61400 - 12 giving a relation of coupling between the measured wind speed and the output power for the considered WTG. However, this relation is a statistical representation and not takes into account the dynamics of the power output, more precisely on small time scales. The goal is to provide a method to estimate and to model the function transfer of a WTG, in order to synthesize the output power mimicking the statistical and the dynamical properties of the real output power. For that, we study the statistics of power curve in the multifractal framework motivated by the presence of spectral scaling for the wind speed and the output power data from a WTG. The first step consists to quantify the power curve or the transfer function of two intermittent stochastic processes such as the wind speed u(t) and the output power p(t) at all temporal scales and at all intensities. In this study, firstly, we define the time increment of the wind speed measurement u'(t) = u(t + ?) - u(t) and the time increment of the output power measurement p'(t) = p(t + ?) - p(t) characterized by mth and nth order structure functions to estimate the exponent functions ?u'(m) and ?p'(n) that characterize respectively the multifractal properties of the wind speed fluctuations u'(t) and the output power fluctuations p'(t) from the WTG. The exponent function ? defines the types of scaling behavior of a process: if ? is linear the statistical behavior is monoscaling corresponding to a monofractal process. If ? is nonlinear and concave, the statistical behavior is multiscaling corresponding to a multifractal process. The concavity of this function is a characteristic of the intermittency, the more the curve is concave, the more the process is intermittent [1,2]. Secondly, we apply a technique given in Seuront & Schmitt 2005 [3], to estimate the power curve of joint fluctuations < u'(t)mp'(t)n > at all scales and at all intensities, by the function Su'p'(m,n): Su'p'(m,n ) = ?u'(m )+ ?p'(n)- r(m,n) (1) where r(n,m) is estimated as the slope of the power law of c(n,m) versus ? in a log-log plot, that is defined as [3]: -- -r(m,n) c(m, n) = < u'm >< p'n > ~ ? (2) the brackets < . > defines the statistical average. The analysis presented in this work, is performed with simultaneous time series of wind speed u(t) and output power p(t) for two types of WTGs, loaded from the Database of Wind Characteristics of the Technical University of Denmark [4]: i) a 300 kW Nordtank wind turbine located in the North Jutland, on the south bank of the Limfjord, about 36 km west of Alborg and 8 km north east of Loegstoer, Denmark. The wind speed and the output power are measured with a sampling rate at 20 Hz during 746 hours. The measurement are obtained at 31 m above the ground. ii) a 2 MW wind turbine at Tjaereborg, Esbjerg, Denmark. The wind speed and the output power are measured with a sampling rate at 25 Hz during 64 hours. The measurement are obtained at 90 m above the ground.

Calif, R.; Schmitt, F. G.

2012-04-01

460

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the frequency of lightning strikes on wind turbines compared to risk assessment predictions, and the effectiveness of some protection techniques. A Web page will be assembled to provide resources for designers and operators and feedback for issues as they arise. Also, a database of lightning events (and corresponding damage) will be collected to assist in maturing the understanding of wind turbine lightning protection.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)] [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

1997-09-01

461

Design and finite-element analysis of an outer-rotor permanent-magnet generator for directly coupled wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and finite-element analysis of a permanent-magnet generator using neodymium-iron-boron magnets for directly coupled wind turbines. For the sake of small size and light weight with extra low speed for direct coupling, the outer rotor structure is used. The simple magnetic equivalent circuit approach is used for initial design iteration, and the finite-element method is applied

Jianyi Chen; Chemmangot V. Nayar; Longya Xu

2000-01-01

462

Operational mechanism and characteristic analysis of directly driven wind turbine with complex structure and permanent magnet synchronous generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore wind energy resources have been paid more and more attention due to its advantages.This paper addresses the issues associated with modeling directly driven turbine with complex structure and permanent magnet synchronous generator(DC-PMSG) which is applicable to build big offshore windfarms.The operational mechanism of the DC-PMSG and the interconnection topology between the DC-PMSG are studied. The operational characteristics of the

Liangping Shen; Hao Wang; Xianzhong Duan

2008-01-01

463

Investigation of the levels of electromagnetic radiation generated by wind turbines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue of electromagnetic interference is arising with some regularity as various wind energy projects throughout the UK reach the stage where local authority planning approval is sought. To many of the parties involved, wind turbines represent an unkn...

C. A. Morgan

1992-01-01

464

New Thermal Protection Concepts for the Next Generation Gas Turbines and Hypersonic Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal protection of gas turbine blades, combustors and some rocket nozzles is generally provided by thin superficial layer coatings of yttria- stabilized zirconia (YSZ). This material, deposited by either electron-beam physical vapor deposition or plasm...

D. R. Clarke

2008-01-01

465

Advanced natural gas-fired turbine system utilizing thermochemical recuperation and/or partial oxidation for electricity generation, greenfield and repowering applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance, economics and technical feasibility of heavy duty combustion turbine power systems incorporating two advanced power generation schemes have been estimated to assess the potential merits of these advanced technologies. The advanced technol...

1997-01-01

466

Optimal Operation Planning of Wind Farm Installed BESS Using Wind Power Forecast Data of Wind Turbine Generators Considering Forecast Error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to solve the problems of global warming and depletion of energy resource, renewable energy systems such as wind generation are getting attention. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed, and it is difficult to perfectly forecast wind power. This paper describes a method to use power forecast data of wind turbine generators considering wind power forecast error for optimal operation. The purpose in this paper is to smooth the output power fluctuation of a wind farm and to obtain more beneficial electrical power for selling.

Ogimi, Kazuki; Kamiyama, Shota; Palmer, Michael; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

2013-06-01

467

A medium frequency transformer with multiple secondary windings for medium voltage converter based wind turbine power generating systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in magnetic materials have led to the development of compact and light weight, medium and high frequency transformers, which would be a possible solution to reducing the size and weight of wind turbine power generating systems. This paper presents the overall design and analysis of a Metglas amorphous alloy 2605SA1 based medium frequency transformer to generate the isolated balanced multiple DC supplies for medium voltage converter systems. A comprehensive electromagnetic analysis is conducted on the proposed design based on experimental results. The test stand, data analysis, and test results are discussed.

Islam, Md Rabiul; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo

2013-05-01

468

Bioelectricity generation in continuously-fed microbial fuel cell: effects of anode electrode material and hydraulic retention time.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study is to investigate the bioelectricity production in continuously-fed dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). Initially, MFC was operated with different anode electrode material at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2d to evaluate the effect of electrode material on electricity production. Pt electrode yielded about 642 mW/m(2) power density, which was 4 times higher than that of the MFC with the mixed metal oxide titanium (Ti-TiO2). Further, MFC equipped with Pt electrode was operated at varying HRT (2-0.5d). The power density generation increased with decreasing HRT, corresponding to 1313 mW/m(2) which was maximum value obtained during this study. Additionally, decreasing HRT from 2 to 0.5d resulted in increasing effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 1.92 g/L to 2.23 g/L, corresponding to DOC removal efficiencies of 46% and 38%, respectively. PMID:24140850

Akman, Dilek; Cirik, Kevser; Ozdemir, Sebnem; Ozkaya, Bestamin; Cinar, Ozer

2013-12-01

469

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force is described. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2,500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump

P. H. Paul; D. J. Rakestraw

2000-01-01

470

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a

Phillip H. Paul; David J. Rakestraw

2000-01-01

471

Radial Turbine Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radial turbines have been used extensively in many applications including small ground based electrical power generators, automotive engine turbochargers and aircraft auxiliary power units. In all of these applications the turbine inlet temperature is lim...

R. J. Roelke

1992-01-01

472

Wind Power predictability a risk factor in the design, construction and operation of Wind Generation Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summit: The wind power predictability is often a forgotten decision and planning factor for most major wind parks, both onshore and offshore. The results of the predictability are presented after having examined a number of European offshore and offshore parks power predictability by using three(3) mesoscale model IRIE_GFS and IRIE_EC and WRF. Full description: It is well known that the potential wind production is changing with latitude and complexity in terrain, but how big are the changes in the predictability and the economic impacts on a project? The concept of meteorological predictability has hitherto to some degree been neglected as a risk factor in the design, construction and operation of wind power plants. Wind power plants are generally built in places where the wind resources are high, but these are often also sites where the predictability of the wind and other weather parameters is comparatively low. This presentation addresses the question of whether higher predictability can outweigh lower average wind speeds with regard to the overall economy of a wind power project. Low predictability also tends to reduce the value of the energy produced. If it is difficult to forecast the wind on a site, it will also be difficult to predict the power production. This, in turn, leads to increased balance costs and a less reduced carbon emission from the renewable source. By investigating the output from three(3) mesoscale models IRIE and WRF, using ECMWF and GFS as boundary data over a forecasting period of 3 months for 25 offshore and onshore wind parks in Europe, the predictability are mapped. Three operational mesoscale models with two different boundary data have been chosen in order to eliminate the uncertainty with one mesoscale model. All mesoscale models are running in a 10 km horizontal resolution. The model output are converted into "day a head" wind turbine generation forecasts by using a well proven advanced physical wind power model. The power models are using a number of weather parameters like wind speed in different heights, friction velocity and DTHV. The 25 wind sites are scattered around in Europe and contains 4 offshore parks and 21 onshore parks in various terrain complexity. The "day a head" forecasts are compared with production data and predictability for the period February 2010-April 2010 are given in Mean Absolute Errors (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Errors (RMSE). The power predictability results are mapped for each turbine giving a clear picture of the predictability in Europe. . Finally a economic analysis are shown for each wind parks in different regimes of predictability will be compared with regard to the balance costs that result from errors in the wind power prediction. Analysis shows that it may very well be profitable to place wind parks in regions of lower, but more predictable wind ressource. Authors: Ivan Ristic, CTO Weather2Umberlla D.O.O Tomislav Maric, Meteorologist at Global Flow Solutions Vestas Wind Technology R&D Line Gulstad, Manager Global Flow Solutions Vestas Wind Technology R&D Jesper Thiesen, CEO ConWx ApS

Thiesen, J.; Gulstad, L.; Ristic, I.; Maric, T.

2010-09-01

473

Water Transport of the Odd-Shaped Heavy Runners of Large Francis Hydraulic Turbines (Transportirovka Vodnym Putem Negabritnykh Tyazhelovesnykh Rabochnikh Koles Moshchnykh Radialno-Osevykh Gidroturbin).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 1965 the first two runners for the Krasnoiarsk 508-mw turbines were successfully transported from the Leningrad Metalworks (LMZ) pier to the construction site of the hydrocomplex on the Enisei River in Siberia. The runners were loaded...

M. I. Galperin A. V. Chekulaev

1966-01-01

474

Control system design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW wind turbine generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides descriptions of the requirements analysis, hardware development and software development phases of the Control System design for the MOD-5A 7.3 mW Wind Turbine Generator. The system, designed by General Electric Company, Advanced Energy Programs Department, under contract DEN 3-153 with NASA Lewis Research Center and DOE, provides real time regulation of rotor speed by control of both generator torque and rotor torque. A variable speed generator system is used to provide both airgap torque control and reactive power control. The wind rotor is designed with segmented ailerons which are positioned to control blade torque. The central component of the control system, selected early in the design process, is a programmable controller used for sequencing, alarm monitoring, communication, and real time control. Development of requirements for use of aileron controlled blades and a variable speed generator required an analytical simulation that combined drivetrain, tower and blade elastic modes with wind disturbances and control behavior. An orderly two phase plan was used for controller software development. A microcomputer based turbine simulator was used to facilitate hardware and software integration and test.

Barton, Robert S.; Hosp, Theodore J.; Schanzenbach, George P.

1995-01-01

475

ENVIRONMENTAL HYDRAULICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The thermal, chemical, and biological quality of water in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and near coastal areas is inseparable from a consideration of hydraulic engineering principles: therefore, the term environmental hydraulics. In this chapter we discuss the basic principles of w...

476

MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering drawings and the detailed mechanical and electrical design of a horizontal-axis wind turbine designed for DOE at the NASA Lewis Research Center and installed in Clayton, New Mexico are discussed. The drawings show the hub, pitch change mechanism, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive system, tower, foundation, electrical power systems, and the control and safety systems.

Andersen, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.

1980-08-01

477

Automatic generation control of a wind farm with variable speed wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind farms are considered to be negative loads from the point of view of a utility manager. Modern variable-speed wind turbines offer the possibility for controlling active and reactive power separately. This paper presents a new integrated control system of a wind farm according to the utility manager's requirements. This control system is based on two control levels: a supervisory

José Luis Rodríguez-Amenedo; Santiago Arnalte; Juan Carlos Burgos

2002-01-01

478

National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper will describe the NREL program for addressing lightning protection for wind turbines. A test program will begin this summer at the Central and South West Services Inc. (CSW) wind farm near Fort Davis, Texas, to assess lightning risk, the freque...

E. Muljadi, B. McNiff

1997-01-01

479

Impact study on the use of biomass-derived fuels in gas turbines for power generation  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the properties of fuels derived from biomass, both gaseous and liquid, against the fuel requirements of gas turbine systems for gernating electrical power. The report attempts to be quantitative rather than merely qualitative to establish the significant variations in the properties of biomass fuels from those of conventional fuels. Three general categories are covered: performance, durability, and storage and handling.

Moses, C.A.; Bernstein, H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-01-01

480

Sampled Data Automatic Generation Control Analysis with Reheat Steam Turbines and Governor Dead-Band Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a systematic method of choosing the frequency bias parameter and the integrator gain of the sampled data supplementary control is presented by using the discrete version of the Lyapunov technique. The reheat effect of the steam turbines is considered in the state space model. The effect of governor deadband nonlinearity is considered by using the describing function

S. C. Tripathy; T. S. Bhatti; C. S. Jha; O. P. Malik; G. S. Hope

1984-01-01

481

Small-Hydroelectric-Turbine Generating System. Final Report, June 30, 1981-December 31, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The historical development of the Pelton waterwheel and the basics of impulse turbines are reviewed. A guide is given for do-it-yourself construction of small hydroelectric plants. Steps to follow in determining the requirements for a do-it-yourself plant...

B. W. Kennedy

1983-01-01

482

Effect of Generalized Wind Characteristics on Annual Power Estimates from Wind Turbine Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is presented for estimating the average power output of a wind turbine using, as the wind characteristic input, only the mean annual wind magnitude. Hourly wind speeds are assumed to have a Rayleigh frequency distribution which requires a sing...

W. C. Cliff

1977-01-01

483

Hydroblasting of turbine generator lube oil system cuts duration of flush by one-quarter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how the Arkansas Power and Light Co., found that hydro-cleaning the turbine lube oil system at the Independence steam electric station Unit 2 significantly reduced the flush duration. The hydro-cleaning operation in addition to the use of a short cycle flush prior to the main bearing header flush resulted in a flush duration of 15 days. Not

Matthey

1984-01-01

484

Vertical Water-Wheel Turbine Clearance Adjustment Through Controlled Deflection of Generator Thrust-Bearing Supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the test data available it is felt that the controlled deflections and the runner clearance adjustments requested by the customer will be successfully achieved. This may lead to further use of the sealing feature on future pumpturbine applications. If future applications do develop, the turbine manufacturer and the customer are in a position to exploit this development because the

D. K. Venus; C. C. Sargeant

1957-01-01

485

CFD investigating thermal-hydraulic characteristics and hydrogen generation from graphite–water reaction after SG tube rupture in HTR-10 reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With inherent safety performance and high conversion efficiency, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are the possible candidates for next-generation energy sources. A transient three-dimensional compressible CFD model is developed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics within the core under steady-state and accident conditions. The HTR-10, a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with a pebble bed core is selected for the present simulations. Four postulated

Y. M. Ferng; C. T. Chen

2011-01-01

486

Surface pressure measurements on the blade of an operating Mod-2 wind turbine with and without vortex generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure measurements covering a range of wind velocities were made at one span location on the surface of an operating Mod-2, 2500 kW, wind turbine blade. The data, which were taken with and without vortex generators installed on the leading edge, show the existence of higher pressure coefficients than would be expected from two-dimensional wind tunnel data. These high pressure ratios may be the result of three-dimensional flow over the blade, which delays flow separation. Data are presented showing the repetitiveness of abrupt changes in the pressure distribution that occur as the blade rotates. Calculated values of suction and flap coefficients are also presented.

Nyland, Ted W.

1987-01-01

487

Steam turbine blade failure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A last stage turbine blades failure was experienced in two units of 660MW. These units have one high-pressure turbine and two tandem-compound low-pressure turbines with 44-in. last-stage blades. The blades that failed were in a low pressure (LP) turbine connected to the high pressure turbine (LP1) and in LP turbine connected to the generator (LP2). The failed blades had cracks

Zdzislaw Mazur; Rafael Garcia-Illescas; Jorge Aguirre-Romano; Norberto Perez-Rodriguez

2008-01-01

488

Hydraulics Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the WindTech TV project provides a link to lectures created by Jim Pytel for his hydraulics course at Columbia Gorge Community College. The lectures consist of live videos and screen capture style presentations and may be viewed free of charge. Clicking on the video link in the center of the page will lead users to a YouTube page with 31 lectures. Topics include hydraulics math, hydraulic safety, basic hydraulic schematics, viscosity, piston pumps, actuators, troubleshooting and more. These lectures would be extremely useful for technical and community college students taking a fundamental hydraulics course. Flash is required to view the videos.

Pytel, Jim