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Sample records for hydrocarbon gravimetric method

  1. Downward continuation methods for gravimetric geoid modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Véronneau, M.

    2003-04-01

    The determination of a gravimetric geoid model based on the Stokes integral requires that gravity anomalies must be on the geoid and that the anomalous potential must be harmonic above the geoid. To fulfill these requirements, gravity observations (or gravity anomalies) collected on the surface of the Earth need to be reduced to the geoid by a) removing the masses above the geoid and compensating for this removal; and b) continuing the gravity anomalies downward to the geoid. A well-known case is the determination of the Helmert gravity anomalies on the geoid in terms of Helmert's 2nd condensation method (e.g. Martinec et al. 1993). There are two procedures to follow for the evaluation of the Helmert gravity anomalies on the geoid: a) the Helmert gravity anomalies are evaluated on the irregular Earth surface, then are continued downward to the geoid, i.e., masses above the geoid are removed and restored as a condensed layer on the geoid prior to the downward continuation; b) alternatively the refined Bouguer anomalies on the surface of the Earth are downward-continued to the geoid, then the Helmert gravity anomalies are evaluated on the geoid, i.e., the condensed masses are restored after the downward continuation. Both procedures are theoretically equivalent (Huang et al. 2002a). In theory, the inclusion of the downward continuation should improve the geoid regardless of the approach chosen. However, different authors arrive at contradictory conclusions pertaining to its applications (e.g. Pavlis 1998; Ardalan 2000; Jekili and Serpas 2002; Véronneau and Huang 2002). This raises an open question as to how researchers should evaluate the downward continuation in order to improve geoid modeling. In this research, the two procedures described above are used to determine the geoid in Canada. The downward continuations are evaluated using the Poisson and Moritz methods (e.g. Moritz 1980; Sideris 1988; Vanícek et al. 1996; Martinec 1996; Sjöberg 1998; Nahavandchi 2000

  2. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  3. Gravimetric method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre; Nilsen, Jon K; Tronstad, Christian; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Hongsig; Shin, Kunsoo; Naderi, Majid; Thielmann, Frank

    2008-02-01

    A novel method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements is presented. The method combines gravimetric and electrical measurements and reveals an exponential dependency of measured electrical susceptance to absolute water content in the epidermal stratum corneum. The results also show that absorption of water into the stratum corneum exhibits three different phases with significant differences in absorption time constant. These phases probably correspond to bound, loosely bound, and bulk water. PMID:18270010

  4. Gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow.

    PubMed

    Steele, J E; Skarlatos, S; Brand, P H; Metting, P J; Britton, S L

    1993-10-01

    The rate of urine formation is a primary index of renal function, but no techniques are currently available to accurately measure low rates of urine flow on a continuous basis, such as are normally found in rats. We developed a gravimetric method for the dynamic measurement of urine flow in anesthetized rats. Catheters were inserted directly into the ureters close to the renal pelves, and a siphon was created to collect all of the urine formed as rapidly as it was produced. Urine flow was determined by measuring the weight of the urine using a direct-reading analytical balance interfaced to a computer. Basal urine flow was measured at 2-sec intervals for 30 to 60 min. The dynamic response of urine flow to a rapid decrease in arterial pressure produced by a bolus intravenous injection of acetylcholine (0.5 micrograms) was also measured. Intrinsic drift, evaporative losses, and the responsiveness of the system to several fixed pump flows in the low physiologic range were evaluated in vitro. The gravimetric method described was able to continuously measure basal urine flows that averaged 37.3 +/- 12.4 microliters/min. Error due to drift and evaporation was negligible, totaling less than 1% of the measured urine flow. Acetylcholine-induced declines in arterial pressure were followed within 8 sec by a decline in urine flow. These data demonstrate that this new gravimetric method provides a simple, inexpensive, dynamic measurement of urine flow in the microliter/min range. PMID:8372099

  5. Comparison of Karl Fischer titrimetric and gravimetric methods for determination of moisture content in BCG vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shi, M; Klegerman, M E; Groves, M J

    1989-01-01

    A model 447 Coulomatic K-F titrimeter was used to determine the water content of seventeen lots of freeze-dried Tice-substrain BCG vaccine. The results were compared with corresponding moisture contents determined by a standard gravimetric method at the time of manufacture. The advantages of the titrimetric method include simplicity, rapidity, convenience, sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity, whereas the gravimetric method is tedious and time-consuming. Although moisture content determined by the K-F titrimeter tended to be higher than that determined by the gravimetric method, the results correlated significantly (r = 0.882, P less than 10(-5]. Alteration of national and international regulations to permit use of the K-F titrimeter is recommended. PMID:2770557

  6. Measuring intestinal fluid transport in vitro: Gravimetric method versus non-absorbable marker.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Genz, Janet; Grosell, Martin; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-04-01

    The gut sac is a long-standing, widely used in vitro preparation for studying solute and water transport, and calculation of these fluxes requires an accurate assessment of volume. This is commonly determined gravimetrically by measuring the change in mass over time. While convenient this likely under-estimates actual net water flux (Jv) due to tissue edema. We evaluated whether the popular in vivo volume marker [(14)C]-PEG 4000, offers a more representative measure of Jvin vitro. We directly compared these two methods in five teleost species (toadfish, flounder, rainbow trout, killifish and tilapia). Net fluid absorption by the toadfish intestine based on PEG was significantly higher, by almost 4-fold, compared to gravimetric measurements, compatible with the latter under-estimating Jv. Despite this, PEG proved inconsistent for all of the other species frequently resulting in calculation of net secretion, in contrast to absorption seen gravimetrically. Such poor parallelism could not be explained by the absorption of [(14)C]-PEG (typically <1%). We identified a number of factors impacting the effectiveness of PEG. One was adsorption to the surface of sample tubes. While it was possible to circumvent this using unlabelled PEG 4000, this had a deleterious effect on PEG-based Jv. We also found sequestration of PEG within the intestinal mucus. In conclusion, the short-comings associated with the accurate representation of Jv by gut sac preparations are not overcome by [(14)C]-PEG. The gravimetric method therefore remains the most reliable measure of Jv and we urge caution in the use of PEG as a volume marker. PMID:26794612

  7. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. PMID:26926783

  8. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. The Uganda Gravimetric Geoid Model 2014 Computed by The KTH Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.; Gidudu, A.; Ssengendo, R.

    2015-05-01

    For many developing countries such as Uganda, precise gravimetric geoid determination is hindered by the low quantity and quality of the terrestrial gravity data. With only one gravity data point per 65 km2, gravimetric geoid determination in Uganda appears an impossible task. However, recent advances in geoid modelling techniques coupled with the gravity-field anomalies from the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission have opened new avenues for geoid determination especially for areas with sparse terrestrial gravity. The present study therefore investigates the computation of a gravimetric geoid model overUganda (UGG2014) using the Least Squares Modification of Stokes formula with additive corrections. UGG2014 was derived from sparse terrestrial gravity data from the International Gravimetric Bureau, the 3 arc second SRTM ver4.1 Digital Elevation Model from CGIAR-CSI and the GOCE-only global geopotential model GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM_R5. To compensate for the missing gravity data in the target area, we used the surface gravity anomalies extracted from the World Gravity Map 2012. Using 10 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)/levelling data points distributed over Uganda, the RMS fit of the gravimetric geoid model before and after a 4-parameter fit is 11 cm and 7 cm respectively. These results show that UGG2014 agrees considerably better with GNSS/levelling than any other recent regional/ global gravimetric geoid model. The results also emphasize the significant contribution of the GOCE satellite mission to the gravity field recovery, especially for areas with very limited terrestrial gravity data.With an RMS of 7 cm, UGG2014 is a significant step forward in the modelling of a "1-cm geoid" over Uganda despite the poor quality and quantity of the terrestrial gravity data used for its computation.

  10. A simple, gravimetric method to quantify inorganic carbon in calcareous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total carbon (TC) in calcareous soils has two components: inorganic carbon (IC) as calcite and or dolomite and organic carbon (OC) in the soil organic matter. The IC must be measured and subtracted from TC to obtain OC. Our objective was to develop a simple gravimetric technique to quantify IC. Th...

  11. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  12. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  13. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  14. Investigations on vertical crustal movements in the Venezuelan Andes by gravimetric methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drewes, H.

    1978-01-01

    A precise gravimetric network has been installed in the Venezuelan Andes to study eventual gravity changes due to vertical tectonic movements. The design and the measurements of the network are described and the accuracy is estimated. In the center of the region a local gravity network has been reobserved three times. The detected variations are discussed. In order to obtain a genuine statement as far as possible about the significance of observed gravity changes, requirements for the procedure of monitoring precise gravity networks are pointed out.

  15. Comparison of the gravimetric, phenol red, and 14C-PEG-3350 methods to determine water absorption in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model.

    PubMed

    Sutton, S C; Rinaldi, M T; Vukovinsky, K E

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the gravimetric method provided an accurate measure of water flux correction and to compare the gravimetric method with methods that employ nonabsorbed markers (eg, phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350). Phenol red,14C-PEG-3350, and 4-[2-[[2-(6-amino-3-pyridinyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino]ethoxy]-, methyl ester, (R)-benzene acetic acid (Compound I) were co-perfused in situ through the jejunum of 9 anesthetized rats (single-pass intestinal perfusion [SPIP]). Water absorption was determined from the phenol red,14C-PEG-3350, and gravimetric methods. The absorption rate constant (ka) for Compound I was calculated. Both phenol red and 14C-PEG-3350 were appreciably absorbed, underestimating the extent of water flux in the SPIP model. The average +/- SD water flux microg/h/cm) for the 3 methods were 68.9 +/- 28.2 (gravimetric), 26.8 +/- 49.2 (phenol red), and 34.9 +/- 21.9 (14C-PEG-3350). The (average +/- SD) ka for Compound I (uncorrected for water flux) was 0.024 +/- 0.005 min(-1). For the corrected, gravimetric method, the average +/- SD was 0.031 +/- 0.001 min(-1). The gravimetric method for correcting water flux was as accurate as the 2 "nonabsorbed" marker methods. PMID:11741276

  16. Determination of total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Champ, Martine; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37 degrees C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 11.57 to 47.83%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02 followed by the isolation and gravimetric procedures of AOAC Methods 985.29 and 991.43 results in quantitation of HMWDF. The filtrate from the quantitation of HMWDF is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the LMWSDF, i.e., all nondigestible oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization > or =3. TDF is calculated as the sum of HMWDF and LMWSDF. Repeatability standard deviations (Sr) ranged from 0.41 to 1.43, and reproducibility standard deviations (S(R)) ranged from 1.18 to 5.44. These results are comparable to other official dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action. PMID:20334184

  17. Determination of insoluble, soluble, and total dietary fiber (CODEX definition) by enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; DeVries, Jonathan W; Rader, Jeanne I; Cohen, Gerald; Prosky, Leon; Mugford, David C; Okuma, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within

  18. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Energies from the PMO Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    Details a procedure for accurately calculating the quantum mechanical energies of hydrocarbons using the perturbational molecular orbital (PMO) method, which does not require the use of a computer. (BT)

  19. Method for determining permeability in hydrocarbon wells

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, D.E.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method of determining at the earth's surface the permeability of a subsurface earth formation having a known nominal hydrocarbon pore saturation value. The formation is tranversed by a borehole resulting from drilling with a drill bit.

  20. Economical difference methods for solving direct problems in gravimetric and magnetic prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.; Pulatov, P. A.

    1984-05-01

    A method is proposed for the solution of direct problems in gravimetry and magnetometry based on solution of Dirichlet difference problems for the Poisson equation in the selected region. An effective computation scheme is developed for solution of direct problems for bodies of an arbitrary configuration and variable density. The algorithm, given here in detail, was tested in solution of a number of model problems. Although the algorithm is written up for a plane (two dimensional) problem, it could easily be adapted to a three dimensional case, although the solution of the latter requires a far larger computer memory. The merits of the algorithm include the following: (1) possibility of finding both external and internal fields; (2) possibility of aolution of direct problems with arbitrary laws of density distribution in regions of arbitrary configuration. Accordingly, it is suggested that the proposed algorithm will have a broad field of applicability, particularly in the interpretation of data from surface and borehole (mine) observations in ore geophysics.

  1. Geochemical methods of prospecting for hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Duchscherer, W. Jr.

    1980-12-01

    Because the commonly used reflection-seismograph exploration technique misses many marginal low-relief structural prospects and regardless of its electronic computer sophistication, overlooks almost all stratigraphic traps, the hydrocarbon exploration industry should take a look at geochemical prospecting methods, which detect geochemical anomalies in the near-surface soils by measuring the thermal dissociation of the soil carbonates that are found overlying hydrocarbon accumulations. To promote understanding of such prospecting techniques, Geochemical Surveys reviews the methods used, the soil-alteration patterns, the lateral and vertical migration of hydrocarbon gases, the halo phenomenon (a ring or annual anomaly), the geochemical modification of sediments, and the data-interpretation and exploration procedures involved in a carbonate ..delta.. C analysis, which measures the residual, stable, cumulative effect of hydrocarbon migration.

  2. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom.

  3. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  4. Method for collecting and analyzing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellette, G.P.; Larter, S.R.; Fox, J.R.

    1988-12-20

    This patent describes a method for separating and collecting hydrocarbons which include methane from a gas obtained from the vicinity of an earth formation and obtaining information from such a gas which is useful in predicting the hydrocarbon potential of such an earth formation, the method comprising the steps of: obtaining a sample of a gas from the vicinity of an earth formation, the sample including methane; removing any water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide from the sample and passing the sample through a cryogenic trap to separate and collect any interfering gases and hydrocarbons having at least two carbon atoms from the sample into the cryogenic trap. The removing and passing steps produce a first gas which contains the methane from the sample but which is free of water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, interfering gases, and hydrocarbons having at least two carbon atoms; converting the methane in the first gas to form a condensed carbon dioxide sample; carrying out the removing, passing, and converting steps under a continuous subatmospheric pressure in such a manner as to prevent condensation of any oxygen in the cryogenic trap and to prevent any atmospheric carbon dioxide from entering into the sample, the first gas, the cryogenic trap, and the condensed carbon dioxide sample; determining the stable carbon isotope ratio of the condensed carbon dioxide sample which can be then be used to predict the hydrocarbon potential of the earth formation.

  5. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  6. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  7. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  8. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Mallinson, Richard G.; Lobban, Lance; Liu, Chang-jun

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  9. The gravimetric geodesy investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The Gravimetric Geodesy Investigation which will utilize altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data from GEOS-C, ATS-F, and other spacecraft as appropriate to improve our knowledge of the earth's gravitational field is discussed. This investigation is interrelated with the study of oceanographic phenomena such as those associated with tides and currents, hence the latter are considered together with gravitational effects in the analysis of the data. The oceanographic effects, each of the order of a meter or two in amplitude and with still smaller uncertainties does not seriously hamper the altimeter gravimetric studies at the five meter level. Laser and satellite-to-satellite tracking data, when combined with the altimeter results, should provide the basis for such studies over wide areas of the ocean surface. Laser and conventional geodetic tracking data from ISAGEX and succeeding campaigns will provide a valuable framework for these analyses.

  10. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reagen, William Kevin; Janikowski, Stuart Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  11. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  12. Spatial distribution of soil moisture obtained from gravimetric and TDR methods for SMOS validation, at the Polesie test site SVRT 3275, in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, B.; Marczewski, W.; Lipiec, J.; Usowicz, J. B.; Sokolowska, Z.; Dabkowska-Naskret, H.; Hajnos, M.; Lukowski, M. I.

    2009-04-01

    The purpose is obtaining trustful ground based measurement data of SM (Soil Moisture) for validating SMOS, respectively to spatial and temporal distribution and variations. A use of Time Domain Reflectometric (TDR) method is fast, simple and less destructive, to the soil matter, than a usual standard gravimetric method. TDR tools operate efficiently, enable nearly instant measurements, and allow on collecting many measurements from numerous sites, even when operated manually in short time intervals. The method enables also very frequent sampling of SM at few selected fixed sites, when long terms of temporal variations are needed. In effect one obtains reasonably large data base for determining spatial and temporal distributions of SM. The study is devoted to determining a plan on collecting TDR data, in the scales of small and large field areas, and checking their relevance to those available from gravimetric methods. Finally, the ground based SM distributions are needed for validating other SM distributions, available remotely in larger scales, from the satellite data of ENVISAT-ASAR, and from SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission) when it becomes operational. The ground based evaluations are served mainly by geo-statistical analysis. The space borne estimations are retrieved by image processing and physical models, proper to relevant Remote Sensing (RS) instruments on the orbit. Finally, validation must engage again the geo-statistical evaluations, to assess the agreement between direct and remote sensing means, and provide a measure of trust for extending the limited scales of the ground based data, on concluding the agreement in scales proper to the satellite data. The study is focused mainly on trustful evaluating data from the ground, provided independently on satellite data sources. SM ground based data are collected permanently at 2 selected tests sites, and temporary in areas around the tests sites, in one day sessions, repeated several times per

  13. Chromatographic method for determining fouling tendency of liquid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1988-06-21

    A method is described for determining the tendency of a liquid hydrocarbon stream to foul equipment comprising the steps of: (a) depositing a sample of liquid hydrocarbon from a liquid hydrocarbon stream onto a surface of a thin film in the presence of an asphaltene antisolvent, wherein the thin film is made up of a chromatographic separation material; (b) letting the sample of liquid hydrocarbon migrate radially outward within the film for sufficient time so that hydrocarbon compatible fractions in the sample separate from any hydrocarbon-incompatible asphaltenes in the sample, wherein the hydrocarbon compatible fractions form a matrix portion in the film and any hydrocarbon-incompatible asphaltenes form a dark ring within the matrix portion and wherein any ring formed is disposed within a central region of the matrix portion and is distinguished from the matrix portion by a dark area having a boundary with respect to a lighter area; and (c) determining the tendency of the liquid hydrocarbon stream to fuel equipment by comparing the matrix portion with any dark ring formed from any hydrocarbon-incompatible asphaltenes in the sample, wherein the area and intensity of any ring formed in relation to the matrix portion provides an indication of the tendency of the liquid hydrocarbon stream to foul equipment.

  14. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  15. Method of increasing the efficiency of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, H.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a method of increasing the efficiency of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. The method consists of the steps of repeatedly and alternately subjecting the fuel to a magnetic field and to radioactive rays.

  16. Comparison of a direct-reading device to gravimetric methods for evaluating organic dust aerosols in an enclosed swine production environment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J

    2001-01-01

    The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency. Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to most agricultural enterprises. Development of a simple, cost-effective method for measuring organic dust levels would be useful in evaluating and controlling exposures in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the direct reading MIE PDM-3 Miniram for estimating organic dust concentrations in enclosed swine production facilities. Responses from the MIE PDM-3 Miniram were compared to gravimetric methods for total and inhalable dust. Total dust determinations were conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 0500. Inhalable particulate mass (IPM) sampling was conducted using SKC brand IOM (Institute of Occupational Medicine) sampling cassettes, which meet the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH criteria for inhalable dust sampling. This study design also allowed for the comparison of traditional total dust method to the IPM method, in collecting organic dusts in an agricultural setting. Fifteen sets of side-by-side samples (Miniram, total dust, and IPM) were collected over a period of six months in a swine confinement building. There were statistically significant differences in the results provided by the three sampling methods. Measurements for inhalable dust exceeded those for total dust in eleven of fifteen samples. The Miniram time-weighted average (TWA) response to the organic dust was always the lower of the three methods. A high degree of correlation was found among all three methods. The Miniram performed well under

  17. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  18. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Guy R. B.; Barraclough, Bruce L.; Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  19. Catalysts for converting syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Fei; Yan, Qiangu; Batchelor, William

    2016-03-15

    The presently-disclosed subject matter includes methods for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas. In some embodiments the syngas is obtained from biomass and/or comprises a relatively high amount of nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide. In some embodiments the present methods can convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons through a one-stage process. Also provided are catalysts for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas, wherein the catalysts include a base material, a transition metal, and a promoter. In some embodiments the base material includes a zeolite-iron material or a cobalt-molybdenum carbide material. In still further embodiments the promoter can include an alkali metal.

  20. Method and apparatus for detecting gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, deceased, William G.; Anderson, legal representative, Johanna S.

    1990-01-01

    A method and optrode for detecting gem polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in a sample fluid based on a single phase Fujiwara reaction as provided. The method comprises contacting a reaction mixture with a sample fluid which contains the gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. The reaction mixture comprises an aqueous solution of pyridine or derivative thereof and a hindered nitrogen base. Upon contact a fluorescent and/or chromgenic reaction product forms whose fluorescence and/or absorbance is related to the concentration of gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in the sample fluid.

  1. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  2. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  3. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  4. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  5. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  6. Method for coupling a hydrocarbon containing molecular species

    SciTech Connect

    Lingwood, C.A.

    1986-07-01

    A method is described of covalently coupling two molecular species comprising: (a) combining (i) a first molecular species having a functionality reactive with hydrocarbon when photo-activated; and (ii) a solution of at least one, hydrocarbon containing, molecular species in the absence of photo-radiation to which the functionality is sensitive; (b) removing the solvent; (c) irradiating the mixture with photo-radiation to which the functionality is photosensitive.

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Monagle, Matthew; Coogan, John J.

    1997-01-01

    A halogenated hydrocarbon (HHC) detector is formed from a silent discharge (also called a dielectric barrier discharge) plasma generator. A silent discharge plasma device receives a gas sample that may contain one or more HHCs and produces free radicals and excited electrons for oxidizing the HHCs in the gas sample to produce water, carbon dioxide, and an acid including halogens in the HHCs. A detector is used to sensitively detect the presence of the acid. A conductivity cell detector combines the oxidation products with a solvent where dissociation of the acid increases the conductivity of the solvent. The conductivity cell output signal is then functionally related to the presence of HHCs in the gas sample. Other detectors include electrochemical cells, infrared spectrometers, and negative ion mobility spectrometers.

  8. Gravimetric gas determinations for volume calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    Gravimetric measurement of gases is one of the methods available for calibrating gas volumes. By inputting a known quantity of gas and measuring the resulting pressure and temperature, the system volume can be calculated using gas law principles. Historically, this method has been less accurate due to the difficulty in the mass determination. This difficulty comes from several sources. Two examples are the large tare weight of the gas container relative to the weight of gas and the external volume of the gas container relative to the standards. The application of a gravimetric gas determination to tank volume calibrations at the Savannah River Site is discussed. Mass determinations on a 25,000 gram gas container were such that a 1500 gram quantity of gas was routinely determined to within {plus minus}0.2 gram at the 99% confidence level. The weighing design and the methods used to address the difficulties of the mass determination are detailed.

  9. Gravimetric gas determinations for volume calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P.W.

    1991-12-31

    Gravimetric measurement of gases is one of the methods available for calibrating gas volumes. By inputting a known quantity of gas and measuring the resulting pressure and temperature, the system volume can be calculated using gas law principles. Historically, this method has been less accurate due to the difficulty in the mass determination. This difficulty comes from several sources. Two examples are the large tare weight of the gas container relative to the weight of gas and the external volume of the gas container relative to the standards. The application of a gravimetric gas determination to tank volume calibrations at the Savannah River Site is discussed. Mass determinations on a 25,000 gram gas container were such that a 1500 gram quantity of gas was routinely determined to within {plus_minus}0.2 gram at the 99% confidence level. The weighing design and the methods used to address the difficulties of the mass determination are detailed.

  10. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOEpatents

    Huettenhain, Horst; Benz, August D.; Getsoian, John

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  11. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  12. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  13. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  14. Means and method for producing hydrocarbons from an earth formation during the RF retorting of a hydrocarbon stratum

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, K.D.

    1987-01-27

    A method is described for obtaining hydrocarbon liquid from a hydrocarbon strata of an earth formation traversed by a borehole, the hydrocarbon strata being subjected to RF electromagnetic energy retorting, comprising the steps of: (a) forming metal tubing so as to create a tubing coil having a predetermined electrical inductance, (b) connecting straight metal tubing with the metal tubing of step (a) so that the tubing of steps (a) and (b) form a production string, and (c) pumping the hydrocarbon liquid from the borehole through the production string to the surface of the earth formation.

  15. Method of hydrorefining asphaltenic hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Gleim, W.K.

    1981-07-21

    A method of hydrorefining an asphaltenic charge stock is described which comprises effecting said reaction utilizing a titanium sulfide catalyst in a hydrogen sulfide-containing H2 atmosphere. The catalyst may be employed in slurry form or composited with a high surface area coke support. Preferably chloride is also present in the catalyst. The hydrogen sulfide suitably is present in the gas phase in an amount of from about 10 to about 25 mol percent based on the moles of H2 present.

  16. Method for production of hydrocarbons from hydrates

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Patrick L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of recovering natural gas entrapped in frozen subsurface gas hydrate formations in arctic regions. A hot supersaturated solution of CaCl.sub.2 or CaBr.sub.2, or a mixture thereof, is pumped under pressure down a wellbore and into a subsurface hydrate formation so as to hydrostatically fracture the formation. The CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 solution dissolves the solid hydrates and thereby releases the gas entrapped therein. Additionally, the solution contains a polymeric viscosifier, which operates to maintain in suspension finely divided crystalline CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 that precipitates from the supersaturated solution as it is cooled during injection into the formation.

  17. Active geophysical monitoring of hydrocarbon reservoirs using EM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribenko, A.; Black, N.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) technology has been successfully established as an effective tool for offshore hydrocarbon (HC) exploration. In this paper we consider another application of the MCSEM method for HC reservoir monitoring. We demonstrate that EM methods can be successfully used for the monitoring of producing wells in connection with the enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons. We have developed a new powerful EM modeling technique based on the integral equation method with an inhomogeneous background conductivity (IE IBC). This new method and the corresponding computer software make it possible to model the EM response over a realistic complex model of a sea-bottom HC reservoir. The numerical modeling results demonstrate that the MCSEM method has the ability to map changes in resistivity caused by the production of hydrocarbons over time. In addition, the EM data help to visualize the changes in the location of the oil-water contact within the reservoir. This result opens the possibility for practical application of the EM method in HC reservoir monitoring.

  18. EPA (ENVIONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 20, METHOD 610--PNA'S (POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study conducted to provide precision and accuracy statements for the proposed EPA Method 610 for 16 selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons(PNA's) which may be present in municipal and industrial aqueous discharges. Metho...

  19. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 22. METHOD 612-CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interlaboratory study in which 20 laboratories participated was conducted to provide precision and accuracy statements for the proposed EPA Method 612 - Chlorinated Hydrocarbons for measuring concentrations of the Category 3 chemicals hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, 2-c...

  20. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  1. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  2. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Janoski, Edward J.; Hollstein, Elmer J.

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  3. Method for recovering hydrocarbons from molten metal halides

    DOEpatents

    Pell, Melvyn B.

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy carbonaceous materials by contacting such carbonaceous materials with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst to produce hydrocarbons having lower molecular weights and thereafter recovering the hydrocarbons so produced from the molten metal halide, an improvement comprising injecting into the spent molten metal halide, a liquid low-boiling hydrocarbon stream is disclosed.

  4. Combination Gravimetric/Volumetric Sorption Instrument for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethea, Donald; Burress, Jacob

    The use of gaseous fuels such as hydrogen and methane (natural gas) will reduce emissions. Unfortunately, the storage of hydrogen and methane at room temperature is difficult because they are both supercritical gases, making the adoption of these fuels cumbersome. One means of overcoming the storage problem is to use physisorption-based systems which exploit the van der Waals interaction between the gas and a nanoporous material to compress the gases to near liquid densities. To measure the amount of gas in these materials, gravimetric or volumetric methods are employed. Gravimetric weighs the amount of gas and volumetric uses differences in gas pressures. Gravimetric systems typically have problems with buoyancy corrections. Volumetric systems normally have larger uncertainties that propagate through the isotherm. A modified system will be presented which allows for both gravimetric and volumetric gas sorption measurements. Additionally, the buoyancy corrections for the gravimetric measurements are significantly small and less than the uncertainties in the measurement. This apparatus can take measurements of most gases at room temperature and up to 200 bar.

  5. Novel method for cleaning a vacuum chamber from hydrocarbon contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wanzenboeck, H. D.; Roediger, P.; Hochleitner, G.; Bertagnolli, E.; Buehler, W.

    2010-11-15

    A novel method for cleaning a high vacuum chamber is presented. This method is based on concurrent in situ high-energetic UV light activation of contaminants located in the residual gas and at the vacuum chamber surfaces as well as the in situ generation of highly reactive ozone. Ozone oxidizes the contaminants to volatile species. Investigations by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis of residual gas depositions and mass-spectroscopy measurements of the residual gas in the vacuum chamber identify the contaminant species as hydrocarbons. After a cleaning period of 8 h, a decrease in measured chamber contamination by about 90% could be achieved according to atomic force microscope analysis. Mass spectroscopy measurements using a residual gas analyzer indicate the creation of volatile, carbonaceous species during the cleaning process.

  6. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  7. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOEpatents

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO2/H2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  8. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  9. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOEpatents

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  11. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Li, Ruijian; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  12. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  13. Sample preparation for thermo-gravimetric determination and thermo-gravimetric characterization of refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Robinson, T; Bronson, B; Gogolek, P; Mehrani, P

    2016-02-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a useful method for characterizing fuels. In the past it has been applied to the study of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and related materials. However, the heterogeneity of RDF makes the preparation of small representative samples very difficult and this difficulty has limited the effectiveness of TGA for characterization of RDF. A TGA method was applied to a variety of materials prepared from a commercially available RDF using a variety of procedures. Applicability of TGA method to the determination of the renewable content of RDF was considered. Cryogenic ball milling was found to be an effective means of preparing RDF samples for TGA. When combined with an effective sample preparation, TGA could be used as an alternative method for assessing the renewable content of RDF. PMID:26611398

  14. Exploration method using electron spin resonance signals from hydrocarbon crude

    SciTech Connect

    Nicksic, S.W.; Starke, G.W.

    1986-08-19

    An exploration method is described for mapping the subsurface course of crude petroleum accumulated in a producible subsurface reservoir by distinguishing crude petroleum based electron spin resonance signals from electron spin resonance signals from other constituent materials in earth formation samples. The method consists of: (a) collecting samples of subsurface earth formation materials from known positions within a formation from wells having known locations; (b) subjecting the earth formation samples to suitable conditions for the establishment of electron spin resonance of electrons present in the samples, and detecting electron spin resonance from the samples; (c) selecting those earth formation samples from which the electron spin resonance signals were detected and contacting the selected samples with a solution containing iodine; (d) subjecting the selected and contacted samples to the suitable conditions for establishment of electron spin resonance of electrons present in the samples, and detecting electron spin resonance signals from the selected samples; (e) identifying from the first selected samples those earth formation samples from which enhanced electron spin resonance signals were detected attributable to the contacting with the solution containing iodine as samples containing electrons associated with crude petroleum; (f) mapping the presence of the crude petroleum materials; (g) producing a representation of potential migration paths of hydrocarbon crudes within the formation; and (h) locating the origin of the identified samples demonstrating the enhanced electron spin resonance signals in distance, direction and depth with respect to the subsurface reservoir by using the mapped potential migration paths.

  15. Method for direct production of carbon disulfide and hydrogen from hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Frank Q.; Erekson, Erek James

    1998-12-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide to carbon disulfide and hydrogen is provided comprising contacting the hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide to a bi-functional catalyst residing in a controlled atmosphere for a time and at a temperature sufficient to produce carbon disulfide and hydrogen. Also provided is a catalyst for converting carbon sulfides and hydrogen sulfides to gasoline range hydrocarbons comprising a mixture containing a zeolite catalyst and a hydrogenating catalyst.

  16. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-02-09

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600/sup 0/-1300/sup 0/F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water.

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOEpatents

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  18. Nonthermal plasma systems and methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2005-05-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  19. The Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Intercomparison Experiment (NOMHICE): Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Eric C.; Calvert, Jack G.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.

    1994-08-01

    The NOMHICE program has been designed to evaluate current methods being used to determine the ambient levels of various atmospheric nonmethane hydrocarbons, to identify existing problems in these analyses, to correct these problems, and to help ensure quality control of hydrocarbon analyses made by atmospheric scientists throughout the world. To accomplish this, a series of planned experiments (tasks) is now under way which involves all the common classes of the atmospheric hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the terpenes. The various tasks of the study have been scheduled in order of increasing complexity so that problems can be addressed as they arise. Preliminary results are presented for task 1 and task 2 of a multitask program. Each laboratory used its own analysis and calibration procedures. The first task of NOMHICE involved the circulation of a two-component, gravimetrically prepared, hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and unknown concentration to 36 participating scientific groups from laboratories throughout the world. This experiment was planned to check on the reliability of the standards employed by each of the participating groups. Task 2 involved the circulation, to participant laboratories, of a more complex, gravimetrically prepared, 16-component hydrocarbon mixture (unknown composition and concentration) to determine whether suitable separation, identification, and quantification can be made of the individual hydrocarbons present in the mixture. Further tasks are described which will be carried out in the future.

  20. The Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Intercomparison Experiment (NOMHICE): Tasks 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, E.C.; Calvert, J.G.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.

    1994-08-20

    The NOMHICE program has been designed to evaluate current methods being used to determine the ambient levels of various atmospheric nonmethane hydrocarbons, to identify existing problems in these analyses, to correct these problems, and to help ensure quality control of hydrocarbon analyses made by atmospheric scientists throughout the world. To accomplish this, a series of planned experiments (tasks) is now under way which involves all the common classes of the atmospheric hydrocarbons: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the terpenes. The various tasks of the study have been scheduled in order of increasing complexity so that problems can be addressed as they arise. Preliminary results are presented for task 1 and task 2 of a multitask program. Each laboratory used its own analysis and calibration procedures. The first task of NOMHICE involved the circulation of a two-component, gravimetrically prepared, hydrocarbon mixture of known composition and unknown concentration to 36 participating scientific groups from laboratories throughout the world. This experiment was planned to check on the reliability of the standards employed by each of the participating groups. Task 2 involved the circulation, to participant laboratories, of a more complex, gravimetrically prepared, 16-component hydrocarbon mixture (unknown composition and concentration) to determine whether suitable separation, identification, and quantification can be made of the individual hydrocarbons present in the mixture. Further tasks are described which will be carried out in the future. 16 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Compounds and methods for the production of long chain hydrocarbons from biological sources

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Cameron; Silks, Louis A; Sutton, Andrew D; Wu, Ruilian; Schlaf, Marcel; Waldie, Fraser; West, Ryan; Collias, Dimitris Ioannis

    2016-08-23

    The present invention is directed to the preparation of oxygenated, unsaturated hydrocarbon compounds, such as derivatives of furfural or hydroxymethyl furfural produced by aldol condensation with a ketone or a ketoester, as well as methods of deoxidatively reducing those compounds with hydrogen under acidic conditions to provide saturated hydrocarbons useful as fuels.

  2. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  3. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOEpatents

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  4. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOEpatents

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  5. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1994-06-28

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400 C to 1000 C where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100 C to 1600 C to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process. 5 figures.

  6. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  7. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.

    1997-05-06

    A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

  9. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    1997-01-01

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  10. Flow Injection as a Teaching Tool for Gravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartini, Raquel P.; Zagatto, Elias A. G.; Oliveira, Cláudio C.

    2000-06-01

    A flow-injection system to carry out gravimetric analysis is presented. Students are faced with an instrumental approach for gravimetric procedures. Crucibles, muffle furnaces, and desiccators are not required. A flowing suspension is established by simultaneously injecting an aqueous sample and a precipitating reagent into two merging carrier streams. The precipitate is accumulated on a minifilter hanging under the plate of an analytical balance and is weighed inside the main stream. Since Archimedes' principle holds, a drying step is not needed. After measurement, the precipitate is dissolved and disposed of. As an application, the determination of phosphate based on precipitation with ammonium and magnesium ions in slightly alkaline medium is chosen. The proposed system is very stable and well suited for demonstration. When applied to analysis of fertilizer extracts with 0.10-1.00% w/v P, it yields precise results (RSD < 0.042) in agreement with an official spectrophotometric method.

  11. Delineation of Hydrocarbon Contamination of Soils and Sediments With Environmental Magnetic Methods: Laboratory and Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijal, M. L.; Appel, E.; Porsch, K.; Kappler, A.; Blaha, U.; Petrovsky, E.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of soils and sediments is a worldwide environmental problem. The present research focuses on the study of magnetic properties of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments using environmental magnetic methods both on field sites as well as in laboratory batch experiments. The main objectives of this research are i) to determine a possible application of magnetic proxies for the delineation of organic contamination in soils and sediments and ii) to examine the role of bacteria in changing soil magnetic properties after hydrocarbon contamination. A former oil field and a former military site which are heavily contaminated with hydrocarbons were studied. Additionally, three different types of natural clean soils were investigated in laboratory experiments by simulating hydrocarbon contamination in sterile and microbial active setups. Magnetic properties, soil properties, iron bioavailability, iron redox state and hydrocarbon content of samples were measured. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility (MS) was monitored weekly in laboratory batch set-ups during several months. Results from the field sites showed that there is an increase of MS and a good correlation between MS and hydrocarbon content. A weekly monitored MS result from the laboratory study clearly indicated~~10% change (increase as well as decrease) of initial MS of respective soils only in microbial active set-ups with saturation after a few weeks of experimental period. This depicts that there is a change of MS caused by microbial iron mineral transformation in presence of hydrocarbon contamination in soils. The results from the field study demonstrate that magnetic proxies can be used to localize hydrocarbon contamination. However, more field sites with hydrocarbon contaminated soils and sediments need to be investigated by using environmental magnetic methods for better understanding the factors driving such changes in magnetic properties.

  12. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  13. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR STUDYING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational Methods for Studying the Interaction between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Biological Macromolecules .

    The mechanisms for the processes that result in significant biological activity of PAHs depend on the interaction of these molecules or their metabol...

  14. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  15. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  16. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOEpatents

    Bala, Gregory A.; Thomas, Charles P.

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  17. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOEpatents

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  18. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOEpatents

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  19. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOEpatents

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  20. New method for determining heats of combustion of gaseous hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Puster, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    As a spin off of a system developed for monitoring and controlling the oxygen concentration in the Langley 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel, a highly accurate on-line technique was developed for determining heats of combustion of natural gas samples. It is based on measuring the ratio m/n, where m is the (volumetric) flowrate of oxygen required to enrich the carrier air in which the test gas flowing at the rate n is burned, such that the mole fraction of oxygen in the combustion product gases equals that in the carrier air. The m/n ratio is directly related to the heats of combustion of the saturated hydrocarbons present in the natural gas. A measurement of the m/n ratio for the test gas can provide a direct means of determination of its heat of combustion by using the calibration graph relating the m/n values for pure saturated hydrocarbons with their heats of combustion. The accuracy of the technique is determine solely by the accuracy with which the flowrates m and n can be measured and is of the order of 2 percent in the present study. The theoretical principles and experimental results are discussed.

  1. Advances on Empirical Mode Decomposition-based Time-Frequency Analysis Methods in Hydrocarbon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. X.; Xue, Y. J.; Cao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which is a data-driven adaptive decomposition method and is not limited by time-frequency uncertainty spreading, is proved to be more suitable for seismic signals which are nonlinear and non-stationary. Compared with other Fourier-based and wavelet-based time-frequency methods, EMD-based time-frequency methods have higher temporal and spatial resolution and yield hydrocarbon interpretations with more statistical significance. Empirical mode decomposition algorithm has now evolved from EMD to Ensemble EMD (EEMD) to Complete Ensemble EMD (CEEMD). Even though EMD-based time-frequency methods offer many promising features for analyzing and processing geophysical data, there are some limitations or defects in EMD-based time-frequency methods. This presentation will present a comparative study on hydrocarbon detection using seven EMD-based time-frequency analysis methods, which include: (1) first, EMD combined with Hilbert transform (HT) as a time-frequency analysis method is used for hydrocarbon detection; and (2) second, Normalized Hilbert transform (NHT) and HU Methods respectively combined with HT as improved time-frequency analysis methods are applied for hydrocarbon detection; and (3) three, EMD combined with Teager-Kaiser energy (EMD/TK) is investigated for hydrocarbon detection; and (4) four, EMD combined with wavelet transform (EMDWave) as a seismic attenuation estimation method is comparatively studied; and (5) EEMD- and CEEMD- based time-frequency analysis methods used as highlight volumes technology are studied. The differences between these methods in hydrocarbon detection will be discussed. The question of getting a meaningful instantaneous frequency by HT and mode-mixing issues in EMD will be analysed. The work was supported by NSFC under grant Nos. 41430323, 41404102 and 41274128.

  2. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  3. Method and apparatus for recovering fractions from hydrocarbon materials, facilitating the removal and cleansing of hydrocarbon fluids, insulating storage vessels, and cleansing storage vessels and pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Klaila, W.J.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a method for sequentially recovering fractions from hydrocarbon material. It comprises: generating electromagnetic energy in the frequency range of from about 300 megahertz to abut 300 gigahertz; broadcasting the generated electromagnetic energy to a deflector, the deflector deflecting the electromagnetic energy towards a plurality of locations in the hydrocarbon material for exposure thereto; exposing the hydrocarbon material at the plurality of locations to the electromagnetic energy; sensing the temperature of the hydrocarbon material by means of sensors that are positioned at the plurality of locations; moving the deflector and deflecting the electromagnetic energy towards the hydrocarbon material as a function of the temperature sensed at the plurality of locations to control the temperature of the hydrocarbon material at the plurality of locations; continuously generating the electromagnetic energy while selectively changing the locations of the deflector relative to the hydrocarbon material in response to the temperature sensed by the sensors to concentrate the electromagnetic energy in different locations of the hydrocarbon material as a function of the temperature sensed at the plurality of locations.

  4. Use of the Complex Conductivity Method to Monitor Hydrocarbon Degradation in Brackish Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Beaver, C. L.; Kimak, C.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of the subsurface is a global environmental problem. The size, location and recurrence rate of contamination very often inhibits active remediation strategies. When there is no direct threat to humans, and direct/invasive remediation methods are prohibited, monitored natural attenuation is often the remediation method of choice. Consequently, long-term monitoring of hydrocarbon degradation is needed to validate remediation. Geophysical methods, frequently utilized to characterize subsurface contamination, have the potential to be adopted for long term monitoring of contaminant degradation. Over the last decade, the complex conductivity method has shown promise as a method for monitoring hydrocarbon degradation processes in freshwater environments. We investigated the sensitivity of complex conductivity to natural attenuation of oil in a brackish setting, being more representative of the conditions where most oil spills occur such as in coastal environments. We performed a series of laboratory hydrocarbon biodegradation experiments whilst continuously monitoring complex conductivity. Sediments from a beach impacted by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill were used to provide the hydrocarbon degraders, while fluids with three different salinities, ranging from fresh water to brackish water, were used as the supporting media. All experimental columns, including two abiotic controls, were run in duplicate. Early results show a dependence of the complex conductivity parameters (both electrolytic and interfacial) on biodegradation processes. Despite the small signals relative to freshwater conditions, the imaginary part of the complex conductivity appears to be sensitive to biodegradation processes. The columns with highest salinity fluids - similar to the salinites for the site where the sediments were collected - showed distinctive complex conductivity responses similar to microbial growth curves. Geochemical monitoring confirmed elevated rates

  5. Estimation of the gravimetric pole tide by stacking long time-series of GGP superconducting gravimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Yann; Hinderer, Jacques; Rogister, Yves; Rosat, Séverine

    2016-04-01

    We compute the gravimetric factor at the Chandler wobble (CW) frequency using time-series from superconducting gravimeters (SG) longer than a decade. We first individually process the polar motion and data at each individual gravity station to estimate the gravimetric factor amplitude and phase, then we make a global analysis by applying a stacking method to different subsets of up to seven SG stations. The stacking is an efficient way of getting rid of local effects and improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the combined data sets. Using the stacking method, we find a gravimetric factor amplitude and phase of 1.118 ± 0.016 and -0.45 ± 0.66 deg, respectively, which is smaller in amplitude than expected. The sources of error are then carefully considered. For both local and global analyses, the uncertainties on our results are reliably constrained by computing the standard deviation of the estimates of the gravimetric factor amplitude and phase for increasing length of the time-series. Constraints on the CW anelastic dissipation can be set since any departure of the gravimetric factor from its elastic value may provide some insights into the dissipative processes that occur at the CW period. In particular, assuming given rheological models for the Earth's mantle enables us to make the link between the gravimetric factor phase and the CW quality factor.

  6. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  7. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

  8. Rapid method for determination of content of unsaturated hydrocarbons in naphtha cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhaiko, V.N.; Seleznev, V.D.

    1988-03-01

    The method to determine total content of unsaturated hydrocarbons in naphtha cuts from reforming, cracking, and pyrolysis consisted of exhaustive catalytic hydrogenation of the unsaturated hydrocarbons, with detection of the hydrogen consumed in the hydrogenation reaction. The analyses were performed in a KhL-4 chromatography; the gas flow plan is shown. Preliminary experiments with saturated hydrocarbons (hexane, octane, decane) were performed. Naphthene experiments (methylcyclopentane, cyclohexane) showed no peak to indicate an increase in hydrogen concentration. No hydrogenation was observed in experiments with benzene and toluene. A comparison was made from analyses using the GOST 2070-82 and the rapid method as applied to IBP-180/sup 0/C cuts from reformer naphthas produced under varying conditions of severity.

  9. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  10. Method for predicting fouling tendency of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-07-23

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock fouling tendency for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  11. Groundwater storage change detection using micro-gravimetric technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Diasty, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, new perspectives and developments in applying a ground-based micro-gravimetric method to detect groundwater storage change in Waterloo Moraine are investigated. Four epochs of gravity survey were conducted using absolute gravimeter (FG5), two relative gravity meters (CG5) and two geodetic global positioning systems (GPS) in the Waterloo Moraine in May and August of 2010 and 2011, respectively. Data were processed using the parametric least-squares method and integrated with geological and hydrological studies. The gravity differences between May and August for 2010 and 2011 epochs were inverted to provide the estimated total water storage changes. Changes in soil water content obtained from land surface models of Ecological Assimilation of Land and Climate Observations (EALCO) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) program were employed to estimate the groundwater storage change. The ratios between the estimated groundwater storage changes and measured water table changes (specific yields) were determined at a local monitoring well located in the survey area. The results showed that the estimates of specific yields between May and August of 2010 and 2011 were consistent at a significant confidence level and are also within the range of the specific yield from geological and hydrological studies. Therefore, the micro-gravimetric (absolute and relative gravity meters) technology has demonstrated the great potential in detecting groundwater storage change and specific yield for local scale aquifers such as Waterloo Moraine.

  12. Source apportionment of urban particulate aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, I G; Koutrakis, P; Tsapakis, M; Lagoudaki, E; Stephanou, E G; Von Baer, D; Oyola, P

    2001-06-01

    Samples of organic aerosol were collected in Santiago de Chile. An activated-charcoal diffusion denuder was used to strip out organic vapors prior to particle collection. Both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Organic particle sources were resolved using both concentration diagnostic ratios and multivariate methods such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA). Four factors were identified based on the loadings of PAHs and n-alkanes and were attributed to the following sources: (1) high-temperature combustion of fuels; (2) fugitive emissions from oil residues; (3) biogenic sources; and (4) unburned fuels. Multilinear regression (MLR) analysis was used to determine emission profiles and contributions of the sources. The reconstructed concentrations of particle phase aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were in good agreement (R2 > 0.70) with those measured in Santiago de Chile. PMID:11414034

  13. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  14. COMPARISON OF QUANTUM MECHANICAL METHODS TO COMPUTE THE BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT REACTIVITIES OF CYCLOPENTA POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In computational studies to understand the interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) with biomolecular systems, the semi-empirical method AM1 has been used to determine the geometry of the PAH, its metabolites and relevant intermediates. umber of studies have shown t...

  15. An interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons based on the modified embedded-atom method.

    PubMed

    Nouranian, S; Tschopp, M A; Gwaltney, S R; Baskes, M I; Horstemeyer, M F

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we developed an interatomic potential for saturated hydrocarbons using the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM), a reactive semi-empirical many-body potential based on density functional theory and pair potentials. We parameterized the potential by fitting to a large experimental and first-principles (FP) database consisting of (1) bond distances, bond angles, and atomization energies at 0 K of a homologous series of alkanes and their select isomers from methane to n-octane, (2) the potential energy curves of H2, CH, and C2 diatomics, (3) the potential energy curves of hydrogen, methane, ethane, and propane dimers, i.e., (H2)2, (CH4)2, (C2H6)2, and (C3H8)2, respectively, and (4) pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data of a dense high-pressure methane system with the density of 0.5534 g cc(-1). We compared the atomization energies and geometries of a range of linear alkanes, cycloalkanes, and free radicals calculated from the MEAM potential to those calculated by other commonly used reactive potentials for hydrocarbons, i.e., second-generation reactive empirical bond order (REBO) and reactive force field (ReaxFF). MEAM reproduced the experimental and/or FP data with accuracy comparable to or better than REBO or ReaxFF. The experimental PVT data for a relatively large series of methane, ethane, propane, and butane systems with different densities were predicted reasonably well by the MEAM potential. Although the MEAM formalism has been applied to atomic systems with predominantly metallic bonding in the past, the current work demonstrates the promising extension of the MEAM potential to covalently bonded molecular systems, specifically saturated hydrocarbons and saturated hydrocarbon-based polymers. The MEAM potential has already been parameterized for a large number of metallic unary, binary, ternary, carbide, nitride, and hydride systems, and extending it to saturated hydrocarbons provides a reliable and transferable potential for atomistic

  16. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN MUNICIPAL SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method provides a procedure for analysis of pesticides and PCB's in municipal sludge. The method includes extraction by a centrifuge technique of the chlorinated compounds from the sludge matrix; clean-up of the extract to remove interferences by sulfur precipitation as mercu...

  17. Photocatalytic silver enhancement reaction for gravimetric immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyejung; Joo, Jinmyoung; Ko, Wooree; Jung, Namchul; Jeon, Sangmin

    2010-12-01

    A novel microgravimetric immunosensor has been developed using TiO2 nanoparticle-modified immunoassay and silver enhancement reaction. An antibody-conjugated TiO2 nanoparticle is bound to the AFP antigen immobilized on a quartz resonator. When the nanoparticles are exposed to UV light in a silver nitrate solution, the photocatalytic reduction of silver ions results in the formation of metallic silver onto the nanoparticles and induces a decrease in the resonance frequency. The frequency change by this photocatalytic reduction reaction is three orders of magnitude larger than the change by antigen binding alone. The efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction has been found to increase with the fraction of anatase crystallites in the nanoparticles and the concentration of the AgNO3 solution. The results highlight the potential of the photocatalytic nanoparticles for the detection of low concentrations of target molecules using gravimetric sensors.

  18. Gravimetric examination of Hagia Sophia's subsurface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jürgen; Gerstenecker, Carl; Gürkan, Onur

    1996-10-01

    The subsurface structure of Hagia Sophia, one of the oldest sacred monuments in the world built between 532 537 under the reign of Justinian in today's Istanbul, has been investigated by using two relative LaCoste-Romberg gravimeters in order to detect hidden cavities which have also served as earthquake dampers in similar constructions. On the building's ground floor a grid of 100 points with a grid size of about 4.m was measured. The mean gravimetric point error was ± 3.10-8 ms-2. The result of the examination is that cavities were not detected in the inner central part of Hagia Sophia with a larger diameter than 8.m down to a depth of about 20.m, and Hagia Sophia's foundation was found to be a slope of natural rock with a downward inclination to the East that has a small crest symmetrical to the building's East-West axis.

  19. DNA-based stable isotope probing coupled with cultivation methods implicates Methylophaga in hydrocarbon degradation

    PubMed Central

    Mishamandani, Sara; Gutierrez, Tony; Aitken, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the oxidation and ultimate removal of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. Those with an almost exclusive ability to utilize hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source have been found confined to just a few genera. Here we used stable isotope probing (SIP), a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in coastal North Carolina sea water (Beaufort Inlet, USA) with uniformly labeled [13C]n-hexadecane. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from n-hexadecane enrichments) were identified to belong to the genus Alcanivorax, with ≤98% sequence identity to the closest type strain—thus representing a putative novel phylogenetic taxon within this genus. Unexpectedly, we also identified 13C-enriched sequences in heavy DNA fractions that were affiliated to the genus Methylophaga. This is a contentious group since, though some of its members have been proposed to degrade hydrocarbons, substantive evidence has not previously confirmed this. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Alcanivorax and Methylophaga to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled n-hexadecane. Both showed substantial increases in gene copy number during the experiments. Subsequently, we isolated a strain representing the SIP-identified Methylophaga sequences (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity) and used it to show, for the first time, direct evidence of hydrocarbon degradation by a cultured Methylophaga sp. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the marine environment. PMID:24578702

  20. Methods for treating hydrocarbon recovery operations and industrial waters

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, N.E.S.; Asperger, R.G.

    1989-05-02

    This patent describes a method for consisting adding to the emulsion an effective demulsifying amount of a composition comprising a compound containing: an alkane triyl group of 1 to 30 carbon atoms; an alkylene group of 1 to 30 carbon atoms; and an alkali or alkaline earth metal group or an ammonium group.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon

  2. Long life hydrocarbon conversion catalyst and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12

    The present invention includes a catalyst that has at least four layers, (1) porous support, (2) buffer layer, (3) interfacial layer, and optionally (4) catalyst layer. The buffer layer provides a transition of thermal expansion coefficient from the porous support to the interfacial layer thereby reducing thermal expansion stress as the catalyst is heated to high operating temperatures. The method of the present invention for making the at least three layer catalyst has the steps of (1) selecting a porous support, (2) solution depositing an interfacial layer thereon, and optionally (3) depositing a catalyst material onto the interfacial layer; wherein the improvement comprises (4) depositing a buffer layer between the porous support and the interfacial layer.

  3. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  4. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  5. The hydrocarbon accumulations mapping in crystalline rocks by mobile geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, A.

    2013-05-01

    Sedimentary-migration origin theory of hydrocarbons dominates nowadays. However, a significant amount of hydrocarbon deposits were discovered in the crystalline rocks, which corroborates the theory of non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. During the solving of problems of oil and gas exploration in crystalline rocks and arrays so-called "direct" methods can be used. These methods include geoelectric methods of forming short-pulsed electromagnetic field (FSPEF) and vertical electric-resonance sounding (VERS) (FSPEF-VERS express-technology). Use of remote Earth sounding (RES) methods is also actual. These mobile technologies are extensively used during the exploration of hydrocarbon accumulations in crystalline rocks, including those within the Ukrainian crystalline shield. The results of explorations Four anomalous geoelectric zones of "gas condensate reservoir" type were quickly revealed as a result of reconnaissance prospecting works (Fig. 1). DTA "Obukhovychi". Anomaly was traced over a distance of 4 km. Approximate area is 12.0 km2. DTA"Korolevskaya". Preliminary established size of anomalous zone is 10.0 km2. The anomalous polarized layers of gas and gas-condensate type were determined. DTA "Olizarovskaya". Approximate size of anomaly is about 56.0 km2. This anomaly is the largest and the most intense. DTA "Druzhba". Preliminary estimated size of anomaly is 16.0 km2. Conclusions Long experience of a successful application of non-classical geoelectric methods for the solving of variety of practical tasks allow one to state their contribution to the development of a new paradigm of geophysical researches. Simultaneous usage of the remote sensing data processing and interpretation method and FSPEF and VERS technologies can essentially optimize and speed up geophysical work. References 1. S.P. Levashov. Detection and mapping of anomalies of "hydrocarbon deposit" type in the fault zones of crystalline arrays by geoelectric methods. / S.P. Levashov, N.A. Yakymchuk, I

  6. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels and fuel gas from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by the use of molten metal halide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the spent molten metal halide with oxygen in a liquid phase gasification zone at a temperature and pressure sufficient to vaporize from about 25 to about 75 weight percent of the spent metal halide, the oxygen being introduced in an amount sufficient to remove from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the carbon contained in the spent molten metal halide to produce a fuel gas and regenerated metal halide; and (d) incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combusting carbon and sulfur compounds contained therein.

  7. Precision gravimetric survey at the conditions of urban agglomerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Tatiana; Lygin, Ivan; Fadeev, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Large cities growth and aging lead to the irreversible negative changes of underground. The study of these changes at the urban area mainly based on the shallow methods of Geophysics, which extensive usage restricted by technogenic noise. Among others, precision gravimetry is allocated as method with good resistance to the urban noises. The main the objects of urban gravimetric survey are the soil decompaction, leaded to the rocks strength violation and the karst formation. Their gravity effects are too small, therefore investigation requires the modern high-precision equipment and special methods of measurements. The Gravimetry division of Lomonosov Moscow State University examin of modern precision gravimeters Scintrex CG-5 Autograv since 2006. The main performance characteristics of over 20 precision gravimeters were examined in various operational modes. Stationary mode. Long-term gravimetric measurements were carried at a base station. It shows that records obtained differ by high-frequency and mid-frequency (period 5 - 12 hours) components. The high-frequency component, determined as a standard deviation of measurement, characterizes the level of the system sensitivity to external noise and varies for different devices from 2 to 5-7 μGals. Midrange component, which closely meet to the rest of nonlinearity gravimeter drifts, is partially compensated by the equipment. This factor is very important in the case of gravimetric monitoring or observations, when midrange anomalies are the target ones. For the examined gravimeters, amplitudes' deviations, associated with this parameter may reach 10 μGals. Various transportation modes - were performed by walking (softest mode), lift (vertical overload), vehicle (horizontal overloads), boat (vertical plus horizontal overloads) and helicopter. The survey quality was compared by the variance of the measurement results and internal convergence of series. The measurement results variance (from ±2 to ±4 μGals) and its

  8. Method for recovery of viscous hydrocarbons by electromagnetic heating in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.; Bridges, J.E.; Dev, H.; Snow, R.H.

    1984-12-04

    A method of electromagnetic heating in situ recovers liquid hydrocarbons from an earth formation containing viscous hydrocarbonaceous liquid and water in an inorganic matrix where the formation is substantially impermeable to fluids under native conditions. A block of earth formation is substantially uniformly heated with electromagnetic power to a temperature at which the viscous hydrocarbonaceous liquid is relatively fluid and a portion of the water vaporizes to water vapor at a pressure sufficient to overcome the capillary pressure of the liquid in the matrix. Water vapor thereupon escaping from the block under such pressure is recovered with hydrocarbonaceous liquid driven thereby. The magnitude of the electromagnetic power is controlled to limit the current recovery ratio of water vapor to hydrocarboneous liquid below a predetermined limit assuring substantial recovery of the hydrocarbonaceous liquid prior to the driving off of substantially all the water.

  9. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  10. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  11. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  12. Comparison of gravimetric and spectroscopic approaches to quantify stratum corneum removed by tape-stripping.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, D; Yang, Q; Guy, R H; Matts, P J; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2012-09-01

    Skin surface tape-stripping is an extensively used technique to examine the distribution profile, penetration and safety of various active compounds. It is also a widely accepted method to probe skin barrier properties and more specifically, those of the stratum corneum (SC). The amount of SC removed by tape-stripping is generally determined either gravimetrically or by extraction and measurement of SC proteins. A novel infra-red densitometry (IRD) technique has recently been introduced to measure SC protein content. In the present study, IRD was investigated as an alternative method to measure the mass of SC removed by tape-stripping. Tape-stripping experiments were conducted on human volunteers. The weight of the stratum corneum removed was assessed by the gravimetric approach and by IRD. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was also measured before and after each tape-strip. A linear correlation coefficient was obtained for the data from the gravimetric and IRD measurements (r(2)=0.65; n=240). IRD is therefore proposed as a rapid, non-destructive alternative to the gravimetric approach to estimate the amount of SC removed by tape-stripping in vivo. PMID:22713518

  13. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  14. Oxygenated hydrocarbons in ambient air: Methods and measurements using solid-phase microextraction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; McLaren, R.

    1999-07-01

    A method is described for the measurement of oxygenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air that combines the use of solid-phase microextraction with GC-MS. The method has proven to be sensitive enough to measure a range of species above the detection limit at urban and rural locations. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed following the discussion of calibration and measurement methods. Measured mixing ratios are reported for oxygenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban city of Toronto and at a rural forested site in Borden, Ontario. Correlations between different species are used to identify possible sources. At the Borden site, measurements at two levels on a tower through the forest canopy are used to discuss possible sources of species at that site. A unifying theme for both sites is the observation of similar and high median levels of methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde. The comparison of data from the urban and forested sites in this study do not provide evidence for a significant biogenic source of methanol as seen in the southern USA, although it is not discounted.

  15. Description of heat flux measurement methods used in hydrocarbon and propellant fuel fires at Sandia.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methods commonly used to measure heat flux in fire applications at Sandia National Laboratories in both hydrocarbon (JP-8 jet fuel, diesel fuel, etc.) and propellant fires. Because these environments are very severe, many commercially available heat flux gauges do not survive the test, so alternative methods had to be developed. Specially built sensors include 'calorimeters' that use a temperature measurement to infer heat flux by use of a model (heat balance on the sensing surface) or by using an inverse heat conduction method. These specialty-built sensors are made rugged so they will survive the environment, so are not optimally designed for ease of use or accuracy. Other methods include radiometers, co-axial thermocouples, directional flame thermometers (DFTs), Sandia 'heat flux gauges', transpiration radiometers, and transverse Seebeck coefficient heat flux gauges. Typical applications are described and pros and cons of each method are listed.

  16. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  17. A simple method for calculating growth rates of petroleum hydrocarbon plumes.

    PubMed

    Bekins, Barbara A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Curtis, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of aquifer Fe(III) during biodegradation of ground water contaminants may result in expansion of a contaminant plume, changing the outlook for monitored natural attenuation. Data from two research sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons show that toluene and xylenes degrade under methanogenic conditions, but the benzene and ethylbenzene plumes grow as aquifer Fe(III) supplies are depleted. By considering a one-dimensional reaction front in a constant unidirectional flow field, it is possible to derive a simple expression for the growth rate of a benzene plume. The method balances the mass flux of benzene with the Fe(III) content of the aquifer, assuming that the biodegradation reaction is instantaneous. The resulting expression shows that the benzene front migration is retarded relative to the ground water velocity by a factor that depends on the concentrations of hydrocarbon and bioavailable Fe(III). The method provides good agreement with benzene plumes at a crude oil study site in Minnesota and a gasoline site in South Carolina. Compared to the South Carolina site, the Minnesota site has 25% higher benzene flux but eight times the Fe(III), leading to about one-sixth the expansion rate. Although it was developed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, the growth-rate estimation method may have applications to contaminant plumes from other persistent contaminant sources. PMID:16324003

  18. A simple method for calculating growth rates of petroleum hydrocarbon plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Curtis, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of aquifer Fe(III) during biodegradation of ground water contaminants may result in expansion of a contaminant plume, changing the outlook for monitored natural attenuation. Data from two research sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons show that toluene and xylenes degrade under methanogenic conditions, but the benzene and ethylbenzene plumes grow as aquifer Fe(III) supplies are depleted. By considering a one-dimensional reaction front in a constant unidirectional flow field, it is possible to derive a simple expression for the growth rate of a benzene plume. The method balances the mass flux of benzene with the Fe(III) content of the aquifer, assuming that the biodegradation reaction is instantaneous. The resulting expression shows that the benzene front migration is retarded relative to the ground water velocity by a factor that depends on the concentrations of hydrocarbon and bioavailable Fe(III). The method provides good agreement with benzene plumes at a crude oil study site in Minnesota and a gasoline site in South Carolina. Compared to the South Carolina site, the Minnesota site has 25% higher benzene flux but eight times the Fe(III), leading to about one-sixth the expansion rate. Although it was developed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes, the growth-rate estimation method may have applications to contaminant plumes from other persistent contaminant sources. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Matrix solid phase dispersion method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in moss.

    PubMed

    Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; De Nicola, Flavia; Aboal, Jesús R; Rey-Asensio, Ana Isabel; Giordano, Simonetta; Reski, Ralf; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2015-08-01

    In this work a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, followed by programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination is proposed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples. A devitalized, cultivated Sphagnum palustre L. moss clone obtained from the "Mossclone" EU-FP7 Project was used for the optimization and validation of the proposed method. Good trueness (84-116%), precision (intermediate precision lower than 11%) and sensitivity (quantitation limits lower than 1.7ngg(-1)) were obtained. The proposed method was compared with other procedures applied for this complex matrix, achieving a considerable reduction of sample amount, solvent volume and time consumption. The procedure was successfully tested for the analysis of PAHs in exposed moss clone samples for the monitoring of air pollution. Finally, the method was also tested for its suitability in the analysis of PAHs in other moss species as well as a lichen species. PMID:26105781

  20. Does mode mixing matter in EMD-based highlight volume methods for hydrocarbon detection? Experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ya-juan; Cao, Jun-xing; Du, Hao-kun; Zhang, Gu-lan; Yao, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based spectral decomposition methods have been successfully used for hydrocarbon detection. However, mode mixing that occurs during the sifting process of EMD causes the 'true' intrinsic mode function (IMF) to be extracted incorrectly and blurs the physical meaning of the IMF. We address the issue of how the mode mixing influences the EMD-based methods for hydrocarbon detection by introducing mode-mixing elimination methods, specifically ensemble EMD (EEMD) and complete ensemble EMD (CEEMD)-based highlight volumes, as feasible tools that can identify the peak amplitude above average volume and the peak frequency volume. Three schemes, that is, using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are employed in the EMD-, EEMD- and CEEMD-based highlight volume methods. When these methods were applied to seismic data from a tight sandstone gas field in Central Sichuan, China, the results demonstrated that the amplitude anomaly in the peak amplitude above average volume captured by EMD, EEMD and CEEMD combined with Hilbert transforms, whether using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are almost identical to each other. However, clear distinctions can be found in the peak frequency volume when comparing results generated using all IMFs, selected IMFs, or weighted IMFs. If all IMFs are used, the influence of mode mixing on the peak frequency volume is not readily discernable. However, using selected IMFs or a weighted IMFs' scheme affects the peak frequency in relation to the reservoir thickness in the EMD-based method. Significant improvement in the peak frequency volume can be achieved in EEMD-based highlight volumes using selected IMFs. However, if the weighted IMFs' scheme is adopted (i.e., if the undesired IMFs are included with reduced weights rather than excluded from the analysis entirely), the CEEMD-based peak frequency volume provides a more accurate reservoir thickness estimate compared with the other two methods. This

  1. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  2. Aromatic hydrocarbons of mineral oil origin in foods: method for determining the total concentration and first results.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Maurus; Fiselier, Katell; Grob, Koni

    2009-10-14

    An online normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID) method was developed for the determination of the total concentration of the aromatic hydrocarbons of mineral oil origin with up to at least five rings in edible oils and other foods. For some samples, the olefins in the food matrix were epoxidized to increase their polarity and remove them from the fraction of the aromatic hydrocarbons. This reaction was carefully optimized, because also some aromatics tend to react. To reach a detection limit of around 1 mg kg(-1) in edible oils, an off-line enrichment was introduced. Some foods contained elevated concentrations of white paraffin oils (free of aromatics), but the majority of the mineral oils detected in foods were of technical grade with 20-30% aromatic hydrocarbons. Many foods contained mineral aromatic hydrocarbons in excess of 1 mg kg(-1). PMID:19728727

  3. A Review on Prediction Methods for Molar Enthalpies of Vaporization of Hydrocarbons: The ELBA Method as the Best Answer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Rui C.; Leal, João P.

    2012-12-01

    A review on prediction methods for molar enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K of hydrocarbons is presented. A new method is proposed and compared with six of the most common used ones from the literature. This new method, the extended Laidler bond additivity (ELBA), was applied to the prediction of standard molar enthalpies of vaporization of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, polyenes, poly-ynes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, benzene compounds, biphenyl compounds, and polyphenyl compounds) at T = 298.15 K. A total of 260 experimental standard molar enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K were used for the parameters optimization. Comparison between the experimental values and those calculated using ELBA led to an average absolute difference of 0.35 kJ mol-1, corresponding to an average relative error of 0.92%. In addition, this new method proves to be better than the ones used for comparison with an independent set of 83 experimental standard molar enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K.

  4. Interpretation of Gravimetric and Aeromagnetic Data of the Tecoripa Chart in Southeast Sonora, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Retama, S.; Montaño-Del Cid, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Tecoripa chart H12-D64 is located southeast of the state of Sonora, México, south of Arizona. The geology is represented by sedimentary rocks of the Ordovician and Triassic, volcanic rocks of the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, intrusive rocks from the Upper Cretaceous- Tertiary and sedimentary rocks of the Cenozoic. In this paper a gravimetric study was conducted to determine the configuration and depth of the basement and to develop a structural model of the subsurface. For this purpose a consistent gravimetric survey in 3 profiles was conducted. To complement this study, gravimetric data obtained by INEGI (96 gravimetric stations spaced every 4000 m) that correspond to a regional survey was also used. The two sets of data were corrected and processed with the WinGLink software. The profiles were then modeled using the Talwani method. 4 Profiles corresponding to the gravimetric survey and 5 data profiles from INEGI were modeled. Aeromagnetic data from the total field of Tecoripa chart were also processed. The digital information was integrated and processed by generating a data grid. Processes applied to data consisted of reduction to the pole, regional-residual separation and upward continuations. In general, the obtained structural models show intrusive bodies associated with well-defined high gravimetric and magnetic and low gravimetric and magnetic are associated with basins and sedimentary rocks. The obtained geological models show the basement represented by volcanic rocks of the Tarahumara Formation from the Upper Cretaceous which are in contact with sedimentary rocks from the Barranca Group from Upper Cretaceous and limestones from the Middle Ordovician. Both volcanic and sedimentary rocks are intruded by granodiorite- granite with ages of the Tertiary-Oligocene. Based on the superficial geology as well as in the configuration of the basement and the obtained structural model the existence of faults with NW-SE orientation that originate Horst and

  5. Field studies: Test method for on-line continuous measurement of total hydrocarbons (THC) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in stack gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, H.H.; Lai, C.C.; Chu, H.W.; Cheng, H.

    1999-07-01

    A new method for on-line monitoring of total hydrocarbons and non-methane hydrocarbons in stack gas simultaneously was developed in this study. Based on the principle of on-line GC/FID, the method was developed and can be considered as a new modification of the Method 25 and 25A of US EPA. Major advantages of the method included (1) capability of distinguishing methane as Method 25; (2) near-real-time results; (3) broad species coverage; (4) monitoring methane in straightforward manner; (5) low operation and maintenance costs. In the proposed method, test samples were continuously pumped from detection sources and loaded with a two-loop sampling valve. The samples were then injected into two GC columns-empty and molecular sieve columns. The empty column was used for detection of THC, and the molecular sieve column was for methane. The detector in this GC was FID. NMHC concentration was obtained by subtracting methane from THC. The tests were carried out to measure the THC and methane in waste gas in various industries, including surface coating, semiconductor manufacturing, synthetic leather industries. Recovery rates of THC in the samples were between 86% to 114% for about 100 m of transfer line of samples. For the standard gas, the recovery rate was about 101%, 6.6 % of measurement precision, and 88%--114% of accuracy. The results showed the promising and reliable measurement of the test method for THC and methane in waste gas.

  6. An analytical method of predicting Lee-Kesler-Ploecker binary interaction coefficients: Part 1, For non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    An analytical method is proposed for finding numerical values of binary interaction coefficients for non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures when the Lee-Kesler (LK) equation of state is applied. The method is based on solving simultaneous equations, which are Ploecker`s mixing rules for pseudocritical parameters of a mixture, and the Lee-Kesler equation for the saturation line. For a hydrocarbon mixture, the method allows prediction of {kappa}{sub ij} interaction coefficients (ICs) which are close to values obtained by processing experimental p-v-t data on the saturation line and subsequent averaging. For mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules containing from 2 to 9 carbon atoms, the divergence between calculated and experimentally based ICs is no more than {plus_minus}0.4%. The possibility of extending application of this method to other non-polar substances is discussed.

  7. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.; Gersh, M.E.; Goldstein, N.

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution. 14 figs.

  8. Systems and methods for optically measuring properties of hydrocarbon fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz; Gersh, Michael E.; Goldstein, Neil

    1998-10-13

    A system and method for optical interrogation and measurement of a hydrocarbon fuel gas includes a light source generating light at near-visible wavelengths. A cell containing the gas is optically coupled to the light source which is in turn partially transmitted by the sample. A spectrometer disperses the transmitted light and captures an image thereof. The image is captured by a low-cost silicon-based two-dimensional CCD array. The captured spectral image is processed by electronics for determining energy or BTU content and composition of the gas. The innovative optical approach provides a relatively inexpensive, durable, maintenance-free sensor and method which is reliable in the field and relatively simple to calibrate. In view of the above, accurate monitoring is possible at a plurality of locations along the distribution chain leading to more efficient distribution.

  9. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites

    PubMed Central

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:27471499

  10. Development of an Efficient Bacterial Consortium for the Potential Remediation of Hydrocarbons from Contaminated Sites.

    PubMed

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined. The purpose of the study was to isolate TPH degrading bacterial strains from various petroleum contaminated soil of Assam, India and develop a robust bacterial consortium for bioremediation of crude oil of this native land. From a total of 23 bacterial isolates obtained from three different hydrocarbons contaminated samples five isolates, namely KS2, PG1, PG5, R1, and R2 were selected as efficient crude oil degraders with respect to their growth on crude oil enriched samples. Isolates KS2, PG1, and R2 are biosurfactant producers and PG5, R1 are non-producers. Fourteen different consortia were designed involving both biosurfactant producing and non-producing isolates. Consortium 10, which comprises two Bacillus strains namely, Bacillus pumilus KS2 and B. cereus R2 (identified by 16s rRNA sequencing) has shown the best result in the desired degradation of crude oil. The consortium showed degradation up to 84.15% of TPH after 5 weeks of incubation, as revealed from gravimetric analysis. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) and GCMS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer) analyses were correlated with gravimetric data which reveals that the consortium has removed a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons in comparison with abiotic control including different aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:27471499

  11. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  12. Seismic and gravimetric monitoring of deep creep in rock slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, E.; Pregesbauer, M.; Ullrich, C.

    2003-04-01

    Deep creep of rock slopes is frequently observed in high mountain areas. Over a time span of some thousand years many of these slopes developed according the pattern of a "Sackung" and obtained a stable equilibrium at present. However, there are also examples of deep creep changing unexpectedly to a rapid and catastrophic sliding motion. The intention of the seismic and gravimetric monitoring presented here is dedicated to the prediction of this change from deep creep to rapid sliding. During IDNDR several mass movements were investigated in Austria by geodetic (Brunner et. al., 2000), geophysical (Brückl, 2001) and remote sensing methods (Rott et. al., 2000). For the monitoring program we selected two of these rock slopes, which represent deep creep in an active and rather early state (Gradenbach, Carinthia and Hochmais-Atemskopf, Tyrol). Even there is no imminent danger, we cannot exclude a transition to a rapid and catastrophic rock slide for these slopes in future time. The two rock slopes are also monitored by geodetic methods by other organizations. Deep creep in rock slopes is accompanied by the development of cracks and may generate low magnitude earthquakes. The monitoring of these events supplies significant and unique information about the state and process of deep creep. The monitoring time we realized on the two rock slopes (Gradenbach and Hochmais-Atemskopf) comprises a total of 30 d with up to 10 seismic stations. At an average about one event per day was detected and localized. Magnitudes and seismic moments of the events and their pattern in space-time will be shown. Irreversible displacements associated with the seismic events are compared with the displacements measured by geodetic methods and the seismic efficiency is estimated. The ground water level belongs to the most important factors influencing the process of deep creep in rock slopes. Although it can be measured in boreholes, there are good reasons to develop and apply appropriate

  13. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  14. Determination of Phosphates by the Gravimetric Quimociac Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Lee Alan

    2008-01-01

    The determination of phosphates by the classic quimociac gravimetric technique was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate analytical chemistry course. Phosphate-containing compounds are dissolved in acid and converted to soluble orthophosphate ion (PO[subscript 4][superscript 3-]). The soluble phosphate is easily…

  15. Evaluation of gravimetric techniques to estimate the microvascular filtration coefficient.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2011-06-01

    Microvascular permeability to water is characterized by the microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)). Conventional gravimetric techniques to estimate K(f) rely on data obtained from either transient or steady-state increases in organ weight in response to increases in microvascular pressure. Both techniques result in considerably different estimates and neither account for interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. We therefore developed a theoretical framework to evaluate K(f) estimation techniques by 1) comparing conventional techniques to a novel technique that includes effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return, 2) evaluating the ability of conventional techniques to reproduce K(f) from simulated gravimetric data generated by a realistic interstitial fluid balance model, 3) analyzing new data collected from rat intestine, and 4) analyzing previously reported data. These approaches revealed that the steady-state gravimetric technique yields estimates that are not directly related to K(f) and are in some cases directly proportional to interstitial compliance. However, the transient gravimetric technique yields accurate estimates in some organs, because the typical experimental duration minimizes the effects of interstitial fluid storage and lymphatic return. Furthermore, our analytical framework reveals that the supposed requirement of tying off all draining lymphatic vessels for the transient technique is unnecessary. Finally, our numerical simulations indicate that our comprehensive technique accurately reproduces the value of K(f) in all organs, is not confounded by interstitial storage and lymphatic return, and provides corroboration of the estimate from the transient technique. PMID:21346245

  16. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  17. 40 CFR 1065.290 - PM gravimetric balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM gravimetric balance. 1065.290 Section 1065.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Pm Measurements § 1065.290 PM...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.290 - PM gravimetric balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PM gravimetric balance. 1065.290 Section 1065.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Pm Measurements § 1065.290 PM...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.290 - PM gravimetric balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PM gravimetric balance. 1065.290 Section 1065.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Pm Measurements § 1065.290 PM...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.290 - PM gravimetric balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PM gravimetric balance. 1065.290 Section 1065.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Pm Measurements § 1065.290 PM...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.290 - PM gravimetric balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PM gravimetric balance. 1065.290 Section 1065.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Pm Measurements § 1065.290 PM...

  2. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    DOEpatents

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  3. Sensitive method for the determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the human diet.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Barbara; Weiss, Richard; Pfannhauser, Werner

    2003-01-01

    The presence of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) as contaminants in foods is nowadays a legitimate cause of concern, as they are reported to be strong direct-acting mutagens and carcinogens that may pose a risk to human health. Nevertheless, their concentrations in foods are in the ultra-trace region. In this study, we present a very sensitive analytical method for the determination of this compound class in complex food matrices. Special emphasis was put on sample extraction and clean up. Recoveries of 75% could be obtained for 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene; for all other compounds investigated the recoveries were >/=94%. The determination of the compounds was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the use of negative chemical ionization (NCI) increases the sensitivity by one order of magnitude in comparison to electron impact ionization (EI) (limits of detection 0.07-0.25 micro g kg(-1) for EI and 0.01-0.02 micro g kg(-1) for NCI). The influence of the sample matrix on the sensitivity of the method is demonstrated with extracts of a sample from a duplicate diet study. Due to the lack of a certified reference material the suitability of the method is demonstrated with pumpkin seed oil that was spiked with nitro-PAHs at two different concentration levels. PMID:12520455

  4. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Weavers, Linda K; Taerakul, Panuwat; Walker, Harold W

    2006-01-01

    In this study, traditional Soxhlet, automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction techniques were employed to determine the speciation and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples collected from the baghouse of a spreader stoker boiler. To test the efficiencies of different extraction methods, LSD ash samples were doped with a mixture of 16 US EPA specified PAHs to measure the matrix spike recoveries. The results showed that the spike recoveries of PAHs were different using these three extraction methods with dichloromethane (DCM) as the solvent. Traditional Soxhlet extraction achieved slightly higher recoveries than automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. Different solvents including toluene, DCM:acetone (1:1 V/V) and hexane:acetone (1:1 V/V) were further examined to optimize the recovery using ultrasonic extraction. Toluene achieved the highest spike recoveries of PAHs at a spike level of 10 microg kg(-1). When the spike level was increased to 50 microg kg(-1), the spike recoveries of PAHs also correspondingly increased. Although the type and concentration of PAHs detected on LSD ash samples by different extraction methods varied, the concentration of each detected PAH was consistently low, at microg kg(-1) levels. PMID:15990154

  5. EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF NICOTINE AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was performed to determine whether one sampling system and one analytical method can be used to measure both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nicotine. he PAH collection efficiencies for both XAD-2 and XAD-4 adsorbents are very similar, but the nicotine collect...

  6. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  7. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, L.G.; Mitchell, W.L.; Bentley, J.M.; Thijssen, J.H.J.

    2000-07-04

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone within the first vessel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone directed into a steam reforming zone. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones may be employed for further fuel processing.

  8. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  9. Investigations into a novel method for atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon monitoring.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patricia B C; Rohwer, Egmont R

    2009-01-01

    A novel analytical method for atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of samples on quartz multi-channel polydimethylsiloxane traps. A tunable dye laser with a frequency doubling crystal provided the excitation radiation, and a double monochromator with a photomultiplier tube detected emitted fluorescence. The method allowed for the rapid (<5 min), cost effective analysis of samples. Those yielding interesting results could be further analysed by direct thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS, with limits of detection of approximately 0.3 ng m(-3)), as photodegradation was minimal (<10% over 5 min irradiation). Small amounts of naphthalene photodegradation products identified by TD-GC-MS after >15 min irradiation, included phenol, benzyl alcohol and phthalic anhydride. Without any signal optimization, a LIF detection limit of approximately 1 microg m(-3) was established for naphthalene using a diffusion tube (diffusion rate of 2 ng s(-1)) and 292 nm excitation. PMID:19345458

  10. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for analyzing extractable petroleum hydrocarbons in water and soil.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Stacy K; Bandurski, Steven V; Brown, Robert G; McCurry, James D; Seeley, John V

    2007-01-01

    A flow-switching two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) apparatus has been constructed that can operate at temperatures as high as 340 degrees C. This system is employed to analyze complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as diesel fuel, gas-oil, motor oil, and petroleum contaminated environmental samples. The GCxGC system generates two-dimensional chromatograms with minimal overlap between the aliphatic and aromatic regions This allows these compound classes to be independently quantitated without prior fractionation. The GCxGC system is used to analyze extracts of spiked water samples, wastewater, and soil. The accuracy of the method is compared to that of the Massachusetts Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (MA EPH) method. The GCxGC system generates a quantitative accuracy similar to the MA EPH method for the analysis of spiked water samples. The GCxGC method and the MA EPH method generate comparable levels of total hydrocarbons when wastewater is analyzed, but the GCxGC method detects a significantly higher aromatic content and lower aliphatic content. Both the GCxGC method and MA EPH method measure comparable levels of aromatics in the soil samples. PMID:18078573

  11. Method and apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H.J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for converting hydrocarbon fuel or an alcohol into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide. The apparatus includes a first vessel having a partial oxidation reaction zone and a separate steam reforming reaction zone that is distinct from the partial oxidation reaction zone. The first vessel has a first vessel inlet at the partial oxidation reaction zone and a first vessel outlet at the steam reforming zone. The reformer also includes a helical tube extending about the first vessel. The helical tube has a first end connected to an oxygen-containing source and a second end connected to the first vessel at the partial oxidation reaction zone. Oxygen gas from an oxygen-containing source can be directed through the helical tube to the first vessel. A second vessel having a second vessel inlet and second vessel outlet is annularly disposed about the first vessel. The helical tube is disposed between the first vessel and the second vessel and gases from the first vessel can be directed through second vessel.

  12. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in raw menhaden fish oil using fluorescence spectroscopy: Method development.

    PubMed

    Pena, Edwin A; Ridley, Lauren M; Murphy, Wyatt R; Sowa, John R; Bentivegna, Carolyn S

    2015-09-01

    Raw menhaden fish oil was developed for biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using fluorescence spectroscopy. Menhaden (Genus Brevoortia) were collected in 2010 and/or 2011 from Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA; James River, Virginia, USA; Vermillion Bay, Louisiana, USA (VBLA); and Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA (BBLA). Barataria Bay, Louisiana received heavy oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Method development included determining optimal wavelengths for PAH detection, fish oil matrix interferences, and influence of solvent concentration on extraction. Results showed that some fish oils contained high molecular weight PAH-like compounds in addition to other fluorescent compounds such as albumin and vitamin A and vitamin E. None of these naturally occurring compounds interfered with detection of high molecular weight PAHs. However, data suggested that the lipid component of fish oil was altering fluorescence spectra by supporting the formation of PAH excimers. For example, the most intense excitation wavelength for hydroxypyrene shifted from Ex285/Em430 to Ex340/Em430. Comparison of Deepwater Horizon crude oil and fish oil spectra indicated that some fish oils contained crude oil-like PAHs. Using wavelengths of Ex360/Em430, fish oil concentrations were calculated as 3.92 μg/g, 0.61 μg/g, and 0.14 μg/g for a Delaware Bay sample, BBLA 2011, and VBLA 2011, respectively. Overall, these results supported using menhaden fish oil to track PAH exposures spatially and temporally. PMID:25867932

  13. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2000-09-26

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

  14. Study of the profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles (PM 10) using multivariate methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallarosa, Juliana Braga; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Pires, Marçal; Fachel, Jandyra

    The scope of the present study is to identify and quantify the main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Candiota region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Four sampling sites at a distance of 50 km from the emission source were selected: Aceguá, Aeroporto, 8 de Agosto and Pedras Altas. Samples were collected from February 2001 to October 2001, using an HV PM 10 sampler for high volumes during a continuous period of 24 h every 15 days. The filters containing the particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in soxhlet and later analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The average concentrations of PAHs varied from 0.051 to 1.791 ng m -3. The analysis of their distribution amongst the main emission sources was done through the diagnosis of concentration ratios of PAHs, as well as using statistical methods like factor analysis. The statistical analysis separated the 13 compounds studied in 3 Factors, grouping under Factor 1 emissions from the combustion of coal and wood, under Factor 2 vehicular emissions from the combustion of diesel oil and gasoline and under Factor 3 emissions from unburned diesel oil and gasoline.

  15. Correction factors for gravimetric measurement of peritumoural oedema in man.

    PubMed

    Bell, B A; Smith, M A; Tocher, J L; Miller, J D

    1987-01-01

    The water content of samples of normal and oedematous brain in lobectomy specimens from 16 patients with cerebral tumours has been measured by gravimetry and by wet and dry weighing. Uncorrected gravimetry underestimated the water content of oedematous peritumoural cortex by a mean of 1.17%, and of oedematous peritumoural white matter by a mean of 2.52%. Gravimetric correction equations calculated theoretically and from an animal model of serum infusion white matter oedema overestimate peritumoural white matter oedema in man, and empirical gravimetric error correction factors for oedematous peritumoural human white matter and cortex have therefore been derived. These enable gravimetry to be used to accurately determine peritumoural oedema in man. PMID:3268140

  16. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  17. A New, Rapid, Precise and Sensitive Method for Chlorine Stable Isotope Analysis of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Acker, M. R.; Shahar, A.; Young, E. D.; Coleman, M. L.

    2005-12-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) are recognized common groundwater contaminants. Because of their physico-chemical properties, their lifespan in groundwater is in the order of decades (Pankow and Cherry, 1996). Stable isotopes can play a role in determining the rate and extent of CAH attenuation (Slater, 2003). The use of chlorine has been hampered by the current time consuming and insensitive analytical methods. We present a new analytical procedure to measure chlorine stable isotope values using a gas chromatograph coupled to a multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometer (GC-MC-ICP-MS). The GC has a Porapack Q packed column. The carrier gas was helium and the temperature was constant at 160°C. The GC was coupled to the MC-ICP-MS by heated stainless steel tubing. Our high resolution spectra showed that 37Cl is free of its main interference 36Ar-H over a range of 0.004 amu. Two pure CAH, trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE), were used for zero enrichment (sample relative to itself) and standard-sample difference measurements. Integrations and background corrections of transient signals were performed using Microsoft Excel after import of the raw data from the MC-ICPMS acquisition software. Zero enrichment tests with TCE and PCE yielded δ37Cl of -0.04±0.16‰ and -0.03±0.17‰, respectively, results for sample injections of 0.12 to 0.02 microliters. Accuracy was tested by injecting 0.24 microliters of a 50/50 mixture of TCE and PCE of known isotopic compositions as the difference between the two solvents was of paramount interest. The δ37Cl(TCE) value of PCE was -1.99±0.16‰. A highly satisfactory comparison with the conventional method is shown by published values for TCE and PCE, -2.04±0.12‰ and -0.30±0.14‰, respectively (Jendrzejewski et al., 2001), giving a δ37Cl(TCE) value for PCE of -2.34±0.18‰. These tests of the GC-MC-ICP-MS method showed that we can obtain reproducible and accurate Cl isotope values using an

  18. Removal of surfactants from hydrocarbons with alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, R.P.; Poling, D.E.; Stefanidakis, G.

    1984-02-07

    A method is disclosed for removing hydrocarbon-soluble anionic surfactants from gasoline or kerosene boiling range hydrocarbons. The method comprises (a) contacting a hydrocarbon mixture containing surfactants with a lower alcohol which is miscible with the hydrocarbon mixture to extract the surfactants; (b) contacting the mixture with water or caustic solution to extract the lower alcohol and surfactants from the hydrocarbon mixture; (c) separating the water or caustic solution from the hydrocarbons; and (d) removing the hydrocarbons.

  19. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.

    2016-07-01

    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments <0.23 and densities from 500 to 1200 kg\\cdot hbox {m}^{-3}. The predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The proposed expressions eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  20. Lidar differential method of sulphur-containing hydrocarbon ultralow-concentration detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charty, Pavel V.; Privalov, Vadim E.; Shemanin, Valery G.

    2002-02-01

    The detailed study of the influence degree of different pollutants on an environment requires differential pollution monitoring that nowadays becomes possible due to development of measuring instruments such as laser systems for remote sensing. Until recently pollution exhaust monitoring from petroleum sources was reduced to the hydrocarbons sum quantity. The hydrocarbons with the small contents of sulphur low permissible level (LPL) is equal to 5 mg/m3. Such approach did not reflect the real situation, since the chemical composition of exhaust was not taken into account.

  1. Sampling and analytical method development and hand wipe measurements of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, Mark; Neumeister, Charles; Booth-Jones, Angela

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the laboratory assessment of a hand and surface wipe sampling method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The analytical method employed extraction of the wipe samples into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) flourometric detection of pyrene, a predominant PAH in used gasoline engine oils (UGEO). Recovery of pyrene was evaluated for two different sampling media by first contaminating the hands of a small number of volunteers with UGEO, followed by applying a small amount of corn oil to the palms, and by wiping the skin with a Whatman cellulostic filter paper or a polyester fabric wipe (i.e., Alpha wipes). In summary, using either Whatman or Alpha wipes, the mean recovery of pyrene from the UGEO that was applied to the hands and contained within three consecutive wipes was 69% and 54%, respectively. However, the relative recovery of the first to second wipe was on average 47% and 75% for the two media, respectively. These results indicate that the Alpha wipes were more efficient at recovering pyrene in the first wipe but less efficient overall when all three consecutive samples were included. Even though this sampling was performed in a controlled laboratory environment, the minimum and maximum amount of pyrene recovered in the individual composite samples using either method spanned a range of twofold. Overall, intra-and interpersonal variability, as measured by coefficient of variation, were 22% and 19%, respectively, and were not statistically different by type of media used. This method was used in a pilot field survey to sample the hands of 18 automotive repair technicians and 18 office workers. Detectable amounts of pyrene (>0.2 microg/sample) were found on the hands of 61% and 0% of these two groups, respectively, with the highest measured quantity equal to 1.06 microg. Samples from the upper surfaces of automobile motors were generally low to nondetectable (<0.027 microg/sample), while

  2. Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Willms, R. Scott; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbon feed material. The feed material is caused to flow over a heated catalyst which fosters the water-gas shift reaction (H.sub.2 O+COH.sub.2 +CO.sub.2) and the methane steam reforming reaction (CH.sub.4 +H.sub.2 O3 H.sub.2 +CO). Both of these reactions proceed only to partial completion. However, by use of a Pd/Ag membrane which is exclusively permeable to hydrogen isotopes in the vicinity of the above reactions and by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side of the membrane, product hydrogen isotopes are removed and the reactions are caused to proceed further toward completion. A two-stage palladium membrane reactor was tested with a feed composition of 28% CQ.sub.4, 35% Q.sub.2 O (where Q=H, D, or T), and 31% Ar in 31 hours of continuous operation during which 4.5 g of tritium were processed. Decontamination factors were found to increase with decreasing inlet rate. The first stage was observed to have a decontamination factor of approximately 200, while the second stage had a decontamination factor of 2.9.times.10.sup.6. The overall decontamination factor was 5.8.times.10.sup.8. When a Pt/.alpha.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is employed, decoking could be performed without catalyst degradation. However, by adjusting the carbon to oxygen ratio of the feed material with the addition of oxygen, coking could be altogether avoided.

  3. A Monte Carlo simulation method for assessing biotransformation effects on groundwater fuel hydrocarbon plume lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, Walt W.

    2001-02-01

    Biotransformation of dissolved groundwater hydrocarbon plumes emanating from leaking underground fuel tanks should, in principle, result in plume length stabilization over relatively short distances, thus diminishing the environmental risk. However, because the behavior of hydrocarbon plumes is usually poorly constrained at most leaking underground fuel tank sites in terms of release history, groundwater velocity, dispersion, as well as the biotransformation rate, demonstrating such a limitation in plume length is problematic. Biotransformation signatures in the aquifer geochemistry, most notably elevated bicarbonate, may offer a means of constraining the relationship between plume length and the mean biotransformation rate. In this study, modeled plume lengths and spatial bicarbonate differences among a population of synthetic hydrocarbon plumes, generated through Monte Carlo simulation of an analytical solute transport model, are compared to field observations from six underground storage tank (UST) sites at military bases in California. Simulation results indicate that the relationship between plume length and the distribution of bicarbonate is best explained by biotransformation rates that are consistent with ranges commonly reported in the literature. This finding suggests that bicarbonate can indeed provide an independent means for evaluating limitations in hydrocarbon plume length resulting from biotransformation.

  4. MODELS AND METHODS FOR PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON RISK ASSESSMENT: ONSITE, LUSTRISK, AND HSSM

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA has developed three tiers of models for analysis of fuel releases from underground storage tank (UST) systems: 1) OnSite; 2) LUSTRisk, and 3) the Hydrocarbon Spill Screening Model (HSSM). The tiered approach to modeling allows users to select a model based upon the amoun...

  5. VEHICLE-RELATED HYDROCARBON SOURCE COMPOSITIONS FROM AMBIENT DATA: THE GRACE/SAFER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The composition of three volatile hydrocarbon sources (emissions from vehicles in motion, evaporation of whole gasoline, and gasoline headspace vapor) have been derived from 550 ambient, hourly concentration measurements of 37 C2 - C9 volatile organic compounds (VOC). he measurem...

  6. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  7. EVALUATION OF EMISSION TEST METHODS FOR HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS. VOLUME II. CH2CL2, CH3CCL3, CF2CLCFCL2, AND CH2BRCH2BR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test method for halogenated hydrocarbons has been evaluated and information is provided for the user. Four compounds were investigated, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, Freon 113 and ethylene dibromide. Cylinder gases used for calibration and auditing were tested for stab...

  8. Apparatus and methods for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-04-25

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  9. Method for forming a potential hydrocarbon sensor with low sensitivity to methane and CO

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2003-12-02

    A hydrocarbon sensor is formed with an electrolyte body having a first electrolyte surface with a reference electrode depending therefrom and a metal oxide electrode body contained within the electrolyte body and having a first electrode surface coplanar with the first electrolyte surface. The sensor was formed by forming a sintered metal-oxide electrode body and placing the metal-oxide electrode body within an electrolyte powder. The electrolyte powder with the metal-oxide electrode body was pressed to form a pressed electrolyte body containing the metal-oxide electrode body. The electrolyte was removed from an electrolyte surface above the metal-oxide electrode body to expose a metal-oxide electrode surface that is coplanar with the electrolyte surface. The electrolyte body and the metal-oxide electrode body were then sintered to form the hydrocarbon sensor.

  10. A method for measuring electrokinetic coefficients of porous media and its potential application in hydrocarbon exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. G.; Shan, F. K.; Jin, H. M.; Zhou, L. W.; Sheng, Ping

    We have designed and constructed a compact cell to measure the electrokinetic coefficients in the frequency range of interest to hydrocarbon exploration, 20 to 100 Hz. Experimental results are presented on the frequency dependence of the electrokinetic coefficients, and dynamic permeability of a porous rock saturated with either 0.1 mole brine or transformer oil. In particular, the brine-saturated electro-osmosis coefficient is found to be two orders of magnitude larger than that saturated with transformer oil; whereas for the streaming potential the ratio of the two cases is in the reverse. These results, when combined with viscosity and electrical conductivity values, lead consistently to the fact that the electrokinetic Onsager coefficient of brine-saturated samples is three orders of magnitude larger than that of oil-saturated samples. This difference provides a strong motivation to further explore the potential application of electrokinetic Onsager coefficient as a hydrocarbon indicator.

  11. BOREAS HYD-8 1996 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandes, Richard; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the southern study area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1996 to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. Data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from July to August 1996. To collect these data, a nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in ASCII text files. The HYD-08 1996 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. BOREAS HYD-8 1994 Gravimetric Moss Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-8 team made measurements of surface hydrological processes that were collected at the Northern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (NSA-OBS) Tower Flux site in 1994 and at Joey Lake, Manitoba, to support its research into point hydrological processes and the spatial variation of these processes. The data collected may be useful in characterizing canopy interception, drip, throughfall, moss interception, drainage, evaporation, and capacity during the growing season at daily temporal resolution. This particular data set contains the gravimetric moss moisture measurements from June to September 1994. A nested spatial sampling plan was implemented to support research into spatial variations of the measured hydrological processes and ultimately the impact of these variations on modeled carbon and water budgets. These data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-08 1994 gravimetric moss moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  13. Novel Approach for Evaluating Secondary Organic Aerosol from Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Unified Method for Predicting Aerosol Composition and Formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijie; Tang, Ping; Nakao, Shunsuke; Kacarab, Mary; Cocker, David R

    2016-06-21

    Innovative secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composition analysis methods normalizing aerosol yield and chemical composition on an aromatic ring basis are developed and utilized to explore aerosol formation from oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. SOA yield and chemical composition are revisited using 15 years of University of California, Riverside/CE-CERT environmental chamber data on 17 aromatic hydrocarbons with HC:NO ranging from 11.1 to 171 ppbC:ppb. SOA yield is redefined in this work by normalizing the molecular weight of all aromatic precursors to the molecular weight of the aromatic ring [Formula: see text], where i is the aromatic hydrocarbon precursor. The yield normalization process demonstrates that the amount of aromatic rings present is a more significant driver of aerosol formation than the vapor pressure of the precursor aromatic. Yield normalization also provided a basis to evaluate isomer impacts on SOA formation. Further, SOA elemental composition is explored relative to the aromatic ring rather than on a classical mole basis. Generally, four oxygens per aromatic ring are observed in SOA, regardless of the alkyl substitutes attached to the ring. Besides the observed SOA oxygen to ring ratio (O/R ∼ 4), a hydrogen to ring ratio (H/R) of 6 + 2n is observed, where n is the number of nonaromatic carbons. Normalization of yield and composition to the aromatic ring clearly demonstrates the greater significance of aromatic ring carbons compared with alkyl carbon substituents in determining SOA formation and composition. PMID:27177154

  14. Method of generating hydrocarbon reagents from diesel, natural gas and other logistical fuels

    DOEpatents

    Herling, Darrell R.; Aardahl, Chris L.; Rozmiarek, Robert T.; Rappe, Kenneth G.; Wang, Yong; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2010-06-29

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  15. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    DOEpatents

    Herling, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  16. Modelling of the density inhomogeneities with the geoid data (Gravimetric Tomography)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greku, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    models after procedure of the isostatic compensation are coordinated with the available seismic tomography models. Density inhomogeneities in the crust body and the sedimentary layers are discovered on the tomographic images. At the same time, a low radial resolution at large depths in the gravimetric tomography method does not allow to identify low velocity anomalous heterogeneity on the core-mantle boundary. However, there is a quite high lateral and radial resolution at the smaller depths. The EGM2008 geoid model shows more detail density distribution than the EGM96 geoid for the Ukrainian territory. Therefore, joint modelling of seismic and gravimetric tomography data may be fruitful. 1. Greku, R. Kh. and Greku, T. R. (2006), Mantle and crustal structure of Antarctic along 170°W and 44°E meridians with the gravimetric tomography technique, in: Terra Antarctica Reports, No. 12, pp 145-154, Terra Antarctica Publication, Siena, Italy; 2. Moritz H. 1990. The Figure of the Earth. Theoretical Geodesy and the Earth's Interior. Wichmann, Karlsruhe; 3. Ishii M. and J.Tromp (2001), Even-degree lateral variations in the Earth's mantle constrained by free oscillations and the free-air gravity anomaly, Geophys. J. Int., 145, 77-96; 5. Ishii M. and J.Tromp (2004), Constraining large-scale mantle heterogeneity using mantle and inner-core sensitive normal modes, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 146, 113-124; 5. Ritzwoller, M. H., N. M. Shapiro, A. L. Levshin and G. M. Leahy (2001), Crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Antarctica and surrounding oceans, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 12, 30645-30670. 6. Turcotte, D. L. & Schubert, G. 2002. Geodynamics, 2nd ed. Pp. 456.

  17. Prediction of ecotoxicity of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using physicochemical parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Chai, E.Y.; Chu, K.K.; Dorn, P.B.

    1999-11-01

    The physicochemical properties of eight hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were used to predict toxicity to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants. The toxicity of these preremediated soils was assessed using earthworm avoidance, survival, and reproduction and seed germination and root growth in four plant species. No-observed-effect and 25% inhibitory concentrations were determined from the earthworm and plant assays. Physical property measurements and metals analyses of the soils were conducted. Hydrocarbon contamination was characterized by total petroleum hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and GC boiling-point distribution. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used to examine relationships between physical and chemical properties and biological endpoints. Soil groupings based on physicochemical properties and toxicity from cluster and principal component analyses were generally similar. Correlation analysis identified a number of significant relationships between soil parameters and toxicity that were used in univariate model development. Total petroleum hydrocarbons by gas chromatography and polars were identified as predictors of earthworm avoidance and survival and seed germination, explaining 65 to 75% of the variation in the data. Asphaltenes also explained 83% of the variation in seed germination. Gravimetric total petroleum hydrocarbons explained 40% of the variation in earthworm reproduction, whereas 43% of the variation in plant root growth was explained by asphaltenes. Multivariate one-component partial least squares models, which identified predictors similar to those identified by the univariate models, were also developed for worm avoidance and survival and seed germination and had predictive powers of 42 and 29%, respectively.

  18. A rapid column technique for trapping and collecting of volatile fungal hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives.

    PubMed

    Booth, Eric; Strobel, Gary; Knighton, Berk; Sears, Joe; Geary, Brad; Avci, Recep

    2011-10-01

    A custom-made stainless steel column was designed to contain various materials that would trap the hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives during the processes of fungal fermentation ultimately yielding preparative amounts of volatile organic substances (VOCs). Trapping materials tested in the column were Carbotrap materials A and B (Supelco) as well as bentonite-shale from the oil bearing areas of Eastern Montana, the former allowed for the effective and efficient trapping of VOCs from purged cultures of Hypoxylon sp. Trapping efficiencies of various materials were measured by both gravimetric as well as proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopy with the Carbotraps A and B being 99% efficient when tested with known amounts of 1,8-cineole. Trapped fungal VOCs could effectively be removed and recovered via controlled heating of the stainless steel column followed by passage of the gases through a liquid nitrogen trap at a recovery rate of ca 65-70%. This method provides for the recovery of mg quantities of compounds normally present in the gas phase that may be needed for spectroscopy, bioassays and further separation and analysis and may have wide applicability for many other biological systems involving VOCs. Other available Carbotraps could be used for other applications. PMID:21660573

  19. Gravimetric Analysis of Particulate Matter using Air Samplers Housing Internal Filtration Capsules

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Sean; O'Connor, Paula Fey; Feng, H. Amy

    2015-01-01

    Summary An evaluation was carried out to investigate the suitability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) internal capsules, housed within air sampling devices, for gravimetric analysis of airborne particles collected in workplaces. Experiments were carried out using blank PVC capsules and PVC capsules spiked with 0,1 – 4 mg of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material® (NIST SRM) 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) and Arizona Road Dust (Air Cleaner Test Dust). The capsules were housed within plastic closed-face cassette samplers (CFCs). A method detection limit (MDL) of 0,075 mg per sample was estimated. Precision Sr at 0,5 - 4 mg per sample was 0,031 and the estimated bias was 0,058. Weight stability over 28 days was verified for both blanks and spiked capsules. Independent laboratory testing on blanks and field samples verified long-term weight stability as well as sampling and analysis precision and bias estimates. An overall precision estimate Ŝrt of 0,059 was obtained. An accuracy measure of ±15,5% was found for the gravimetric method using PVC internal capsules. PMID:26435581

  20. Combustion of viscous hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.E.; Hrebenar, K.R.; Murphy, P.L.; Futch, L.E. Jr.; Deal, J.F. III; Bolden, P.L. Jr.

    1987-08-04

    A method is described for utilizing viscous hydrocarbons as combustible pre-atomized fuels, comprising: (A) forming a hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion using an effective amount of a surfactant package comprising at least one water-soluble surfactant, the hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion (1) comprising a hydrocarbon characterized by API gravity of about 20/sup 0/ API or less, viscosity of about 1000 centipoise or greater at 212/sup 0/F., a paraffin content of about 50% by weight or less and, an aromatic content of about 15% by weight or greater, and (2) having a hydrocarbon water ratio from about 60:40 to about 90:10 by volume; and (B) burning the resultant hydrocarbon-in-water emulsion.

  1. A street deposit sampling method for metal and hydrocarbon contamination assessment.

    PubMed

    Bris, F J; Garnaud, S; Apperry, N; Gonzalez, A; Mouchel, J M; Chebbo, G; Thévenot, D R

    1999-09-01

    Urban surface contamination, by atmospheric deposits as well as human activities, is a major concern for urban pollution management. Besides coarse street deposits which are clearly perceived and easily removed, suspended solid (SS) surface loads and contamination by heavy metals and hydrocarbons are rarely assessed although they could be of major importance with regards to combined or separate server overflow (CSO and SSO) impacts. Both dry and wet vacuum sampling procedures have been first compared, in the laboratory, using dry and sieved clay or street deposits. Then the wet vacuum sampling procedure has been refined, coupling the injection of water and the hand-brushing of the surface prior to its vacuum cleaning, and evaluated on a car parking area close to the University. Finally this procedure has been assessed in Béarn Street within the 'Le Marais' district in Paris centre, and 34 samples have been analysed for metal and eight for aromatic hydrocarbon contamination. Heavy metal concentrations (0.1-1.7 g kg-1 dry wt. Cu, 0.9-6.1 g kg-1 dry wt. Pb and 1.5-4.6 g kg-1 dry wt. Zn) within street deposit samples collected in Paris centre, indicate a high contamination, especially for copper and zinc, as compared to reported data. Total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are in the 3-11 mg kg-1 dry wt. range, thus approximately 10 times less contaminated than dry atmospheric deposits. This paper presents data obtained and discusses the difficulties encountered when sampling street deposits in busy areas of a city like Paris. The water jet street cleaning procedure used by Paris city workers was tested for its efficiency, by comparison of surface loads before and after the cleaning procedure. Although solids cleaning efficiency is highly variable (20-65%) and somewhat higher for particles larger than 100 microns, particulate metal cleaning efficiency is even more variable (0-75%) and particulate PAHs appear not to be significantly removed. PMID:10535121

  2. Use of two SPE-GC/MS methods for field isolation and quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Gates, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing sensitivity and subsequently improving method-detection limits for a variety of organic contaminant compounds is an ongoing effort in environmental analytical chemistry. Several field-deployable isolation techniques have been developed for concentrating hydrophobic organic contaminants from large (> 1 liter) volumes of aqueous samples. The capacity of large-volume solid-phase extraction (LV-SPE) was used as part of a simple, efficient, field-operable technique for isolating microgram-per-liter to nanogram-per-liter quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 4- to 8-liter ground-water samples from a petroleum- contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minn.

  3. Method and apparatus for separating wax/water from hydrocarbon mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, D.J.; Gleason, A.M.

    1986-04-08

    A method is described of separating wax particles and/or water droplets from a hydrocarbon oil mixture boiling in the lubricating oil range, in which mixture the wax/water forms a dispersion. The free excess electric charge which is net unipolar is introduced into the wax/water-containing oil mixture and the charged wax/water-containing oil mixture and at least one collector surface are brought into contact with one another so that the wax/water collects, due to the electrophoretic migration of the wax/water caused by the introduced electric charge, and accumulates on the collector surface(s).

  4. Development and validation of a cleanup method for hydrocarbon containing samples for the analysis of semivolatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, E.W.; Stromatt, R.W.; Campbell, J.A.; Steele, M.J.; Jones, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    Samples obtained from the Hanford single shell tanks (SSTs) are contaminated with normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) as hydrostatic fluid from the sampling process or can be native to the tank waste. The contamination is usually high enough that a dilution of up to several orders of magnitude may be required before the sample can be analyzed by the conventional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. This can prevent detection and measurement of organic constituents that are present at lower concentration levels. To eliminate or minimize the problem, a sample cleanup method has been developed and validated and is presented in this document.

  5. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation and use thereof. [DOE patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1981-08-14

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  6. Machine method for determining the presence and location of hydrocarbon deposits within a subsurface earth formation

    SciTech Connect

    Clavier, C.M.; Khatchikian, A.

    1983-09-06

    In accordance with illustrative embodiments of the present invention, techniques are shown for processing well logging data to provide improved results. More particularly, a technique is disclosed for determining the reliability of well logging computations. Another technique is disclosed for making a preliminary pass of the well logging data to automatically select certain input parameter. Still another technique is disclosed for automatically determining the minimum possible hydrocarbon density for each formation level. This last technique is contrasted with the prior art technique with set one minimum value for the entire length of a borehole.

  7. BOREAS HYD-6 Ground Gravimetric Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas; Knapp, David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Peck, Eugene L.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-6 team collected several data sets related to the moisture content of soil and overlying humus layers. This data set contains percent soil moisture ground measurements. These data were collected on the ground along the various flight lines flown in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA) during 1994 by the gamma ray instrument. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-06 ground gravimetric soil moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Determination of soil moisture distribution from impedance and gravimetric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen G.; Layman, Robert; Campbell, Jeffrey E.; Walsh, John; Mckim, Harlan J.

    1992-01-01

    Daily measurements of the soil dielectric properties at 5 and 10 cm were obtained at five locations throughout the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) test site during the 1987 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). An automated vector voltmeter was used to monitor the complex electrical impedance, at 10 MHz, of cylindrical volumes of soil delineated by specially designed soil moisture probes buried at these locations. The objective of this exercise was to test the hypothesis that the soil impedance is sensitive to the moisture content of the soil and that the imaginary part (that is, capacitive reactance) can be used to calculate the volumetric water content of the soil. These measurements were compared with gravimetric samples collected at these locations by the FIFE staff science team.

  9. The gravimetric boundary value problem in spheroidal approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panou, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation the linear gravimetric boundary value problem is discussed in spheroidal approximation. The input to the problem is gravity disturbances, using the known Earth's topography as boundary and corresponds to an oblique derivative problem. From the physical viewpoint, it has many advantages and can serve as the basis in establishing a world vertical datum. Adopting the spheroidal approximation in this boundary value problem, an integral equation results which can be solved analytically using successive approximations. However, the mathematical model becomes simpler and can be solved more easily by applying certain permissible approximations: neglecting the Earth's topography, a spheroidal normal derivative (Neumann) problem is obtained. Under the spherical approximation, the result is a normal derivative problem plus suitable corrections. In this case, neglecting the Earth's topography, the solution corresponds to the well-known spherical Hotine integral. Finally, the relative errors in the above approximations and derivations are quantitatively estimated.

  10. A principal-component and least-squares method for allocating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment to multiple sources

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, W.A.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Bence, A.E.; Page, D.S.; Parker, K.R.

    1997-06-01

    A method was developed to allocate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples to the PAH sources from which they came. The method uses principal-component analysis to identify possible sources and a least-squares model to find the source mix that gives the best fit of 36 PAH analytes in each sample. The method identified 18 possible PAH sources in a large set of field data collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, including diesel oil, diesel soot, spilled crude oil in various weathering states, natural background, creosote, and combustion products from human activities and forest fires. Spill oil was generally found to be a small increment of the natural background in subtidal sediments, whereas combustion products were often the predominant sources for subtidal PAHs near sites of past or present human activity. The method appears to be applicable to other situations, including other spills.

  11. Evaluation of methods for simultaneous collection and determination of nicotine and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Kuhlman, M.R.; Wilson, N.K.

    1990-01-01

    A study was performed to determine whether one sampling system and one analytical method can be used to measure both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nicotine. The PAH collection efficiencies for both XAD-2 and XAD-4 adsorbents are very similar, but the nicotine collection efficiency was greater for XAD-4. The spiked perdeuterated PAH were retained well in both adsorbents after exposure to more than 300 cu m of air. A two-step Soxhlet extraction, dichloromethane followed by ethylacetate, was used to remove nicotine and PAH from XAD-4. The extract was analyzed by positive chemical ionization or electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine nicotine and PAH. It is shown that one sampling system (quartz fiber filter and XAD-4 in series) and one analytical method (Soxhlet extraction and GC/MS) can be used to measure both nicotine and PAH in indoor air.

  12. Evaluation of methods for simultaneous collection and determination of nicotine and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Kuhlman, M.R. ); Wilson, N.K. )

    1990-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether one sampling system and one analytical method can be used to collect and measure both polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nicotine. PAH collection efficiencies for both XAD-2 and XAD-4 adsorbents were very similar, but nicotine collection efficiency was greater for XAD-4. Spiked perdeuterated PAHs were retained well in both adsorbents after exposure to more than 300 m{sup 3} of air. A two-step Soxhlet extraction, dichloromethane followed by ethyl acetate, was used to remove nicotine and PAHs from XAD-4. The extract was analyzed by positive chemical ionization or electron impact gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine nicotine and PAHs. It is shown that one sampling system (quartz fiber filter and XAD-4 in series) and one analytical method (Soxhlet extraction and GC/MS) can be used for both nicotine and PAHs in indoor.

  13. Airborne Gravity Data Enhances NGS Experimental Gravimetric Geoid in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, S. A.; Childers, V. A.; Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Geodetic Survey [NGS], through their Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum [GRAV-D] program, continues to update its gravimetry holdings by flying new airborne gravity surveys over a large fraction of the USA and its territories. By 2022, NGS intends that all orthometric heights in the USA will be determined in the field by using a reliable national gravimetric geoid model to transform from geodetic heights obtained from GPS. Several airborne campaigns have already been flown over Alaska and its coastline. Some of this Alaskan coastal data have been incorporated into a new NGS experimental geoid model - xGEOID14. The xGEOID14 model is the first in a series of annual experimental geoid models that will incorporate NGS GRAV-D airborne data. This series provides a useful benchmark for assessing and improving current techniques by which the airborne and land-survey data are filtered and cleaned, and then combined with satellite gravity models, elevation data (etc.) with the ultimate aim of computing a geoid model that can support a national physical height system by 2022. Here we will examine the NGS GRAV-D airborne data in Alaska, and assess its contribution to xGEOID14. Future prospects for xGEOID15 will also be considered.

  14. Gravimetric determination of the continental-oceanic boundary of the Argentine continental margin (from 36°S to 50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecco, María Alejandra; Ruiz, Francisco; Pizarro, Guillermo; Giménez, Mario; Martínez, Patricia; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the gravimetric analysis together with seismic data as an integral application in order to identify the continental-oceanic crust boundary (COB) of the Argentine continental margin from 36°S to 50°S in a continuous way. The gravimetric and seismic data are made up of large grids of data obtained from satellite altimetry and marine research. The methodology consists of three distinct methods: (i) the application of enhancement techniques to gravimetric anomalies, (ii) the calculation of crustal thinning from 3-D gravity inversion modelling of the crust-mantle discontinuity and (iii) 2-D gravimetric modelling supported by multichannel reflection and refraction seismic profiles. In the first method, the analytic signal, Theta map, and tilt angle and its horizontal derivative were applied. In the second method, crustal thickness was obtained as the difference in the depths of the crystalline basement and the crust-mantle discontinuity; the latter was obtained via gravimetric inversion. Finally, 2-D modelling was performed from free-air anomalies in two representative sections by considering as restriction surfaces those coming from the interpretation of seismic data. The results of the joint application of enhancement techniques and 2-D and 3-D modelling have enabled continuous interpretation of the COB. In this study, the COB was determined continuously from the integration of 2-D profiles of the enhancement techniques, taking account of crustal thickness and performing 2-D gravimetric modelling. The modelling technique was complemented by regional studies integrated with multichannel seismic reflection and seismic refraction lines, resulting in consistent enhancement techniques.

  15. Availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Controlling processes and comparison of testing methods.

    PubMed

    Roskam, Gerlinde D; Comans, Rob N J

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the availability and leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from two contaminated materials, a tar-containing asphalt granulate (Sigma16 US-EPA PAHs 3412mg/kg) and gasworks soil (SigmaPAHs 900mg/kg), by comparing results from three typical types of leaching tests: a column, sequential batch, and two different availability tests. The sequential batch test was found to largely resemble the column test. However, the leaching of particularly the larger PAHs (>5 aromatic rings) was found to be enhanced in the batch test by up to an order of magnitude, probably due to their association with large DOC (dissolved organic carbon) molecules generated by the vigorous mixing. The release of PAHs in the two availability tests, in which the leaching is facilitated by either a high concentration of DOC or Tenax resin, was similar, although the latter test was easier to perform and yielded more repeatable results. The availability was much higher than the amount leached in the column and sequential batch tests. However, biodegradation had apparently occurred in the column test and the total amount of PAHs released by either leaching or biodegradation, 9% and 26% for asphalt granulate and gasworks soil, respectively, did equal the amount leached in the availability tests. Therefore, the availability was found to provide a relevant measure of the PAH fraction that can be released from the solid phase. These results stress the importance of using the available instead of the total amount of contaminant in the risk analysis of solid materials in utilization or disposal. PMID:18554897

  16. A real-time polymerase chain reaction method for monitoring anaerobic, hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria based on a catabolic gene.

    PubMed

    Beller, Harry R; Kane, Staci R; Legler, Tina C; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2002-09-15

    We have developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that can quantify hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in sediment samples based on a catabolic gene associated with the first step of anaerobic toluene and xylene degradation. The target gene, bssA, codes for the alpha-subunit of benzylsuccinate synthase. The primer-probe set for real-time PCR was based on consensus regions of bssA from four denitrifying bacterial strains; bssA sequences for two of these strains were determined during this study. The method proved to be sensitive (detection limit ca. 5 gene copies) and had a linear range of >7 orders of magnitude. We used the method to investigate how gasohol releases from leaking underground storage tanks could affect indigenous toluene-degrading bacteria. Microcosms inoculated with aquifer sediments from four different sites were incubated anaerobically with BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and nitrate in the presence and absence of ethanol. Overall, population trends were consistent with observed toluene degradation activity: the microcosms with the most rapid toluene degradation also had the largest numbers of bssA copies. In the microcosms with the most rapid toluene degradation, numbers of bssA copies increased 100-to 1000-fold over the first 4 days of incubation, during which time most of the toluene had been consumed. These results were supported by slot blot analyses with unamplified DNA and by cloning and sequencing of putative bssA amplicons, which confirmed the real-time PCR method's specificity for bssA. Use of a companion real-time PCR method for estimating total eubacterial populations (based on 16S rDNA) indicated that, in some cases, ethanol disproportionately supported the growth of bacteria that did not contain bssA. The real-time PCR method for bssA could be a powerful tool for monitored natural attenuation of BTEX in fuel-contaminated groundwater. To our knowledge, this is the first reported molecular method that

  17. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE.

    PubMed

    Pfannkoch, Edward A; Stuff, John R; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A; Blevins, John M; Seely, Kathryn A; Moran, Jeffery H

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65-138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  18. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    PubMed Central

    Pfannkoch, Edward A.; Stuff, John R.; Whitecavage, Jacqueline A.; Blevins, John M.; Seely, Kathryn A.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2015-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. PMID:25873967

  19. Development of Hydrocarbon Flow Calibration Facility as a National Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Doihara, Ryouji; Terao, Yoshiya; Takamoto, Masaki

    A new primary standard for hydrocarbon flow measurements has been constructed at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The facility was designed for the calibration of hydrocarbon flowmeters in the flow rate range between 3 and 300 m3/h. The expanded uncertainty is estimated to be 0.03 % for volumetric flow rate and 0.02 % for mass flow rate (coverage factor: k = 2). The primary standard is based on a static and gravimetric method with a flying start and finish. The facility consists of two test rigs using kerosene and light oil as working fluids. The test lines for the flowmeters are 50, 100 and 150 mm in diameter and three servo positive displacement meters are used as working standards. To verify the calibration performance, a Coriolis flowmeter, a turbine meter and a positive displacement flowmeter have been calibrated at both test rigs. Furthermore, an international comparison with SP, Swedish National Testing Research Institute, was carried out. A screw-type positive displacement flowmeter was selected as the transfer standard and was calibrated at NMIJ and SP. The result shows that the two national standards at the two institutes agree within the quoted expanded uncertainties.

  20. Magnetic solid phase extraction and static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ying; Yan, Zhihong; Wang, Lijia; NguyenVan, Manh; Cai, Qingyun

    2016-01-15

    A magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) protocol combining a static headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) method has been developed for extraction, and determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water samples. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and modified by cholesterol chloroformate. Transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the cholesterol-functionalized sorbents, and the main parameters affecting the extraction as well as HS sampling, such as sorbent amount, extraction time, oven temperature and equilibration time have been investigated and established. Combination with HS sampling, the MSPE procedure was simple, fast and environmentally friendly, without need of any organic solvent. Method validation proved the feasibility of the developed sorbents for the quantitation of the investigated analytes at trace levels obtaining the limit of detection (S/N=3) ranging from 0.20 to 7.8 ng/L. Good values for intra and inter-day precision were obtained (RSDs ≤ 9.9%). The proposed method was successfully applied to drinking water samples. PMID:26724892

  1. A new spectral deconvolution - selected ion monitoring method for the analysis of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Robbat, Albert; Wilton, Nicholas M

    2014-07-01

    A new gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method is proffered for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their alkylated homologs in complex samples. Recent work elucidated the fragmentation pathways of alkylated PAH, concluding that multiple fragmentation patterns per homolog (MFPPH) are needed to correctly identify all isomers. Programming the MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to detect homolog-specific MFPPH ions delivers the selectivity and sensitivity that the conventional SIM and/or full scan mass spectrometry methods fail to provide. New spectral deconvolution software eliminates the practice of assigning alkylated homolog peaks via pattern recognition within laboratory-defined retention windows. Findings show that differences in concentration by SIM/molecular ion detection of C1-C4 PAH, now the standard, yield concentration differences compared to SIM/MFPPH of thousands of percent for some homologs. The SIM/MFPPH methodology is also amenable to the analysis of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH) and their alkylated homologs, since many PASH have the same m/z ions as those of PAH and, thus, are false positives in SIM/1-ion PAH detection methods. PMID:24840423

  2. EVALUATION OF EPA METHOD 8120 FOR DETERMINATION OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Method 8120 of EPA Manual SW-846 has been evaluated in a single-laboratory study. Modifications made to the current method invlude expansion of the list of target compounds from 15 to 22; replacement of the packed gas chromatographic columns with 2 megabore fused-silica open tubu...

  3. Field test of a generic method for halogenated hydrocarbons. Report for September 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.; McAllister, R.A.; McGaughey, J.F.

    1993-07-07

    The objective of the program was to perform a field validation of the VOST and SemiVOST methods as written at a coal fired power plant in a manner that will allow the collection of sufficient valid data to be able to establish the bias and precision of the methods for the halogenated organic compounds listed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofurans were excluded from the study because EPA specific methods already exist for these compounds. To achieve this objective, a field test site was selected to allow access for the quadruple sampling trains required for testing. Collection and evaluation of the data followed one of the acceptable approaches detailed in the EPA Method 301.

  4. Remote detection of hydrocarbon seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Barringer, A. R.

    1985-05-14

    A method of detecting hydrocarbon seeps in a sea or in earth is disclosed. The method involves interrogating aerosols formed above the sea or earth surface with an intense beam of primary light radiation generated aboard an aircraft or other vehicle. The spectral composition of the beam is selected to induce secondary light radiation in certain hydrocarbon materials contained in aerosols generated by hydrocarbon seeps rising to the sea or earth surface. The secondary light radiation is detected aboard the aircraft and subjected to spectral analysis to determine whether the composition of the aerosols is characteristic of aerosols generated by hydrocarbon seeps. Apparatus for implementing the method is also disclosed.

  5. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Wamsley, Paula R.; Weimer, Carl S.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    2003-01-01

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  6. A novel and cost-effective method for the determination of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in low volume rainwater samples.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Amado, M; Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2016-08-01

    A novel single-step method was developed for the determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at ultratrace levels in rainwater by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-fluorescence detection. This paper is focused on a study of the IT-SPME coupling and optimization, its application to rainwater and other environmental waters and the stability of PAH rainwater solutions. In order to solve the different extractive behavior of PAHs, several IT-SPME parameters were optimized, with the type and percentage of organic modifier playing a decisive role. In the kinetic study on stability of PAH solutions, the organic modifier has proven to be effective as a preservative, avoiding the loss of the higher-molecular weight PAHs. The proposed method presents a wide interval of linearity (10-1500ngL(-1)) and a good relative standard deviation between 3.4% and 14.6% for the PAHs analyzed. Detection and quantification limits between 2.3 and 28ngL(-1) and 5.7 and 65ngL(-1) were obtained respectively, taking into account the values of the procedure blanks. Recoveries for different kinds of real water samples were within the range of 72-110%. Low and medium-molecular weight PAHs predominate in daily and monthly rainwater samples analyzed. In comparison with other methods reported, the proposed method achieves a significant reduction of the sample volume, the organic solvent consumption and time of sample treatment, allowing a cost-effective analysis of environmental waters. The method is especially suitable for samples from the precipitation events of low intensity or short duration for which sample volume is limiting. PMID:27216671

  7. Comparison of photoacoustic radiometry to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    A comparison of two methods of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and a nondispersive infrared technique, photoacoustic radiometry (PAR), is presented in the context of field monitoring a disposal site. First is presented an historical account describing the site and early monitoring to provide an overview. The intent and nature of the monitoring program changed when it was proposed to expand the Radiological Waste Site close to the Hazardous Waste Site. Both the sampling methods and analysis techniques were refined in the course of this exercise.

  8. Preparation of gravimetric standards for measurements of atmospheric oxygen and reevaluation of atmospheric oxygen concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohjima, Yasunori; Machida, Toshinobu; Watai, Tomonori; Akama, Isao; Amari, Taketo; Moriwaki, Yasushi

    2005-06-01

    Fourteen standard mixtures composed of ambient levels of CO2, Ar, O2, and N2 have been prepared in 10-L high-pressure aluminum cylinders by a gravimetric technique for atmospheric O2 measurements. A highly precise balance with a precision of 2.5 mg is used to determine the masses of individual components in the cylinders. To balance the buoyant forces on both sides of the balance beam during weighing the gravimetric standard cylinder, a same sized cylinder is placed on a pan on the opposite side of the beam. In addition, the cylinders of the gravimetric standards and a tare cylinder are alternately weighed to compensate for the drift of the zero-point of the balance. To determine the mole fractions accurately, the mass of each component is corrected for the buoyancy changes caused by the expansion of the cylinder, and the molecular masses of the source O2 and N2 gases are corrected for their isotopic compositions. The differences in the O2 mole fractions of the 14 gravimetric standards range about 100 ppm (μmol mol-1). The gravimetric mole fractions are compared with the analyzed values of CO2, Ar, O2 + Ar, and (O2 + Ar)/N2. The reproducibility of the gravimetric technique is determined from the standard deviations of the differences between the gravimetric and analyzed values, and is quantified as 15.5 per meg for the O2/N2 ratio and 2.9 ppm for the O2 mole fraction. The gravimetric scale is applied to the measurements from air samples collected at Hateruma Island, Japan. The average Ar mole fraction for the air samples collected from June 2003 through June 2004 is 9333 ± 2 ppm. On the basis of this Ar mole fraction, the annual average mole fractions of O2 and N2 in 2000 are evaluated to be 209392 ± 3 ppm and 780876 ± 2 ppm, respectively.

  9. DELINEATION OF SUBSURFACE HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION USING A DIRECT PUSH RESISTIVITY METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct push resistivity method was evaluated as a complementary screening tool to provide rapid in-situ contaminant detection to aid in better defining locations for drilling, sampling, and monitoring well installation at hazardous waste sites. Nine continuous direct push resi...

  10. Method of viscosifying aqueous fluids and process for recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Borchardt, J.K.

    1985-04-02

    The present invention relates to a method of viscosifying aqueous fluids and a viscosifying composition which when admixed with an aqueous fluid produces a viscosity increase in the fluid in excess of the additive viscosity of the individual composition components. The viscosifying composition comprises xanthan gum and at least one memeber selected from the group consisting of the ammonium, hydrogen or alkali metal salts of polystyrene sulfonate, polyvinyl sulfonate and hydrolyzed copolymers of styrene sulfonate and maleic anhydride.

  11. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2010-03-23

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  12. A cost effective, sensitive, and environmentally friendly sample preparation method for determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in solid samples

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Chika; Lee, Wen-Yee

    2010-01-01

    A simple, cost effective, and yet sensitive sample preparation technique was investigated for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solid samples. The method comprises ultrasonic extraction, Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE), and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD – GC/MS) to increase analytical capacity in laboratories. This method required no clean-up and satisfied PAHs recovery and significantly advances cost performance over conventional extraction methods, such as Soxhlet and Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE). This study evaluated three operational parameters for ultrasonic extraction: solvent composition, extraction time, and sample load. A standard material, SRM 1649 a (urban dust), was used as the solid sample matrix, and 12 priority PAHs on the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) list were analyzed. Combination of non-polar and polar solvents ameliorated extraction efficiency. Acetone/hexane mixtures of 2:3 and 1:1 (v/v) gave the most satisfactory results: recoveries ranged from 63.3 % to 122 %. Single composition solvents (methanol, hexane, and dichloromethane) showed fewer recoveries. Comparing 20 minutes with 60 minutes sonication, longer sonication diminished extraction efficiencies in general. Furthermore, sample load became a critical factor in certain solvent systems, such as MeOH. MAE was also compared to the ultrasonic extraction, and results determined that the 20-minutes ultrasonic extraction using acetone / hexane (2:3 v/v) was as potent as MAE. The SBSE method using 20 mL of 30 % alcohol-fortified solution rendered a limit of detection ranging from 1.7 to 32 ng L−1 and a limit of quantitation ranging from 5.8 to 110 ng L−1 for the 16 US EPA PAHs. PMID:20851399

  13. Machine method for determining the presence and location of hydrocarbon deposits within a subsurface earth formation

    SciTech Connect

    Clavier, Ch. M.; Dumanoir, J. L.; Dumestre, A. C.

    1985-02-26

    In accordance with illustrative embodiments of the present invention, methods for processing well logging data comprises deriving measurements of a plurality of earth formations parameters and combining these measurements in a new manner to enable interpretation of shales and shaly sand type formations. More particularly, measurements of a plurality of the hydrogen index, bulk density, radially deep and shallow resistivity, spontaneous potential, acoustic travel time and natural formation radioactivity content are made and combined in a manner to produce data useful in evaluating shales and shaly sand type formations.

  14. Method of viscosifying aqueous fluids and process for recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Borchardt, J. K.

    1985-06-18

    The present invention relates to a method of viscosifying aqueous fluids and a viscosifying composition which when admixed with an aqueous fluid produces a viscosity increase in the fluid in excess of the additive viscosity of the individual composition components. The viscosifying composition comprises at least one member selected from the group consisting of sulfonated guar and a compound comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of xanthan gum, guar, hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxypropyl guar derivatives, hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose derivatives and cationic guar and a compound comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxypropyl guar derivatives, hydroxyethyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose derivatives.

  15. Application of InSAR and gravimetric surveys for developing construction codes in zones of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction: case study of Aguascalientes, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Martínez, J.; Wdowinski, S.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Hernández-Marín, M.; Ortiz-Lozano, J. A.; Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Havazli, E.

    2015-11-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has become a valuable tool for surface deformation monitoring, including land subsidence associated with groundwater extraction. Another useful tools for studying Earth's surface processes are geophysical methods such as Gravimetry. In this work we present the application of InSAR analysis and gravimetric surveying to generate valuable information for risk management related to land subsidence and surface faulting. Subsidence of the city of Aguascalientes, Mexico is presented as study case. Aguascalientes local governments have addressed land subsidence issues by including new requirements for new constructions projects in the State Urban Construction Code. Nevertheless, the resulting zoning proposed in the code is still subjective and not clearly defined. Our work based on gravimetric and InSAR surveys is aimed for improving the subsidence hazard zoning proposed in the State Urban Code in a more comprehensive way. The study includes a 2007-2011 ALOS InSAR time-series analysis of the Aguascalientes valley, an interpretation of the compete Bouguer gravimetric anomaly of the Aguascalientes urban area, and the application of time series and gravimetric anomaly maps for improve the subsidence hazard zoning of Aguascalientes City.

  16. Evaluation of field methods for estimating exposure of children in low-income families to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, N.K.; Chuang, J.C.; Lyu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Children in low-income families may have higher exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related compounds than children in higher-income families. These higher exposures could result from the location of their homes, nearer to industrial sites and traffic; from poorer diet; from environmental tobacco smoke; or other causes. The study was designed to evaluate methods and estimate the range of total exposures of low-income children to PAH through various pathways. Nonsmoking participants with preschool children, incomes at or below the official US poverty level, and space heating in their homes were recruited. The PAH concentrations were measured in the household indoor and outdoor air, house dust, and yard soil, and in the diet of both an adult and a preschool child living in the home. An initial study in two homes and an additional study of nine homes, four urban and five rural, during the heating season were completed. The problems and successes encountered in the recruitment process and selected results of the heating season measurements are summarized in the paper.

  17. Studies on the dissolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated materials using a novel dialysis tubing experimental method

    SciTech Connect

    Woolgar, P.J. Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling ); Jones, K.C. )

    1999-06-15

    Assessment of risk and remediation strategies at contaminated sites requires that both the amounts of contaminants present and their potential for release from materials and soils be evaluated. The release, or dissolution, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated materials to water was therefore investigated. To facilitate investigations of PAH dissolution from physically disparate materials such as solid coal tars, creosote, oil, and spent oxide, an experimental method for measuring dissolved PAHs was developed employing dialysis tubing in batch-type system. This was validated and compared to aqueous-phase PAH concentrations measured using more traditional techniques and also predicted using Raoult's law. The experimental procedure was successfully used to determine near equilibrium aqueous concentrations of PAHs, but it could only be used to determine relative rates of approach to equilibrium as the dialysis tubing effected the rate constants. It was found that the contaminant materials influenced dissolution, in particular the close to equilibrium concentrations. For materials chemically similar to PAHs, such as nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs), the concentrations could be predicted using Raoult's law. For materials that were chemically dissimilar to PAHs, such as spent oxide, release was more thermodynamically favorable than for NAPLs.

  18. Identifying sources of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a residential area in Italy using the integral pumping test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Luca; Lombi, Silvia; Zanini, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The results of integral pumping tests (IPTs) performed in the city of Fabriano, Italy, are presented. The IPT methodology was developed by the European Union project INCORE, as a tool for groundwater investigation and source localization in contaminated areas. This methodology consists of a multiple-well pumping test in which the wells are positioned along a control plane downstream of suspected contaminant source zones and perpendicular to the mean groundwater flow direction. During the pumping, concentration time series of target contaminants are measured. In Fabriano, two control planes were realized to identify a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon plume, to estimate the mass fluxes and draw up a ranked list of the main contamination sources. A numerical flow model was implemented to support the IPT design and to interpret the results. This study revealed low-level trichloroethylene contamination (concentration below 8 μg/l), tetrachloroethylene contamination (mean concentration up to 500 μg/l) and a mass flow rate of about 300 g/day. Through the application of the IPT method, the mean contaminant concentrations, the spatial distribution of concentration values along the control planes, and the total contaminant mass flow rates were evaluated, and the investigation area was reduced for further and deeper investigation activities.

  19. Evaluation of Chemical Analysis Method and Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content from Seafood and Dairy Products

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Lee, Jee-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate contents of 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from frequently consumed seafood and dairy products and to evaluate their chemical analysis methods. Samples were collected from markets of 9 cities in Korea chosen as the population reference and evaluated. The methodology involved saponification, extraction with n-hexane, clean-up on Sep-Pak silica cartridges and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analysis. Validation proceeded on 2 matrices. Recoveries for 8 PAHs ranged from 86.87 to 103.57%. The limit of detection (LOD) 8 PAHs was 0.04~0.20 µg/kg, and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8 PAHs was 0.12~0.60 µg/kg. The mean concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was 0.34 µg/kg from seafood and 0.34 µg/kg from dairy products. The total PAHs concentration was 1.06 µg/kg in seafood and 1.52 µg/kg in dairy products. PMID:26483885

  20. The potential of solvent-minimized extraction methods in the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish oils.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Regueiro, Jorge; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-08-15

    Fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the level of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in feed products. The determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish oils is complicated due to the fat matrix, which affects both extraction efficiency and analytical quality. This article reviews and addresses two of the most relevant analytical methods for determining 11 mutagenic and carcinogenic PAHs, as well as two EPA indicator PAHs in fish oils. We discuss and critically evaluate two different extraction procedures, such as ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction (USAE) and ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME). Clean-up of extracts was performed by solid-phase extraction using C18 and glass columns containing silica gel and florisil for USAE or only C18 for USAEME. Detection of the selected PAHs was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection for determination. Optimization of the variables affecting extraction by the selected extraction techniques was conducted and recoveries ranged from 70% to 100% by USAE and from 70% to 108% by USAEME with estimated quantification limits between 0.020 and 2.6 μg/kg were achieved. Moreover, the applicability of the selected methods was evaluated by the analysis of real samples. To our knowledge, this is the first time that USAEME has been applied to the determination of PAHs in food matrices, such as oil fish samples. The methods proposed were applied to the determination of the target PAHs in fish samples from different countries, and it was found that the low PAH contamination of the selected fish oils could mainly occur by atmospheric sources. PMID:23561207

  1. Decontamination of produced water containing petroleum hydrocarbons by electrochemical methods: a minireview.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Elisama Vieira; Bezerra Rocha, Jessica Horacina; de Araújo, Danyelle Medeiros; de Moura, Dayanne Chianca; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Produced water (PW) is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. The drilling and extraction operations that are aimed to maximize the production of oil may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated water (called PW) with pollutants, such as heavy metals, dissolved/suspended solids, and organic compounds. PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms, because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, major research efforts are being developed with innovative technologies for treating PW in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. Among them, electrochemical technologies have been proposed as a promising alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewaters. Then, this paper presents a minireview of efficient electrochemical technologies used until now for treating PW generated by petrochemical industry. PMID:24671399

  2. Method for recovery of hydrocarbons form contaminated soil or refuse materials

    DOEpatents

    Ignasiak, Teresa; Turak, Ali A.; Pawlak, Wanda; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.; Guerra, Carlos R.; Zwillenberg, Melvin L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for separating an inert solid substantially inorganic fraction comprising sand or soil from a tarry or oily organic matter in a feedstock. The feedstock may be contaminated soil or tarry waste. The feedstock is combined with pulverized coal and water. The ratio (oil or tar to dry weight of coal) of about 1.0:10 to about 4.0:10 at a temperature in the range of 60.degree.-95.degree. C. The mixture is agitated, the coarse particles are removed, and up to about 0.10% by weight (based on weight of coal) of a frothing agent is added. The mixture is then subjected to flotation, and the froth is removed from the mixture.

  3. A Study on Gravimetric Geoid Determination Using Analytical Downward Continuation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen, Erdinç; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yıldız, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    The Stokes' formula requires the gravity anomaly on the Earth's surface be downward continued to the geoid and the mass above the geoid be removed. Although the Earth Gravity Field Models (EGMs) are used to compute quasi geoid models, gravimetric geoid determination is possible taking into account the topographic effects. Analytical or harmonic downward continuation of external gravity potential of the Earth into the topographic masses results in "analytical downward continuation error" or "topographic bias". One of the alternatives to compute topographic bias is spherical harmonic expansion of reciprocal distance including functional coefficients of Earth's radius and topographic height depending on the position. Spherical harmonic coefficients are then expanded into binomial series to compute the difference between the topographical potential and its downward continuation. On any coordinates on the Earth, topographic bias can easily be computed using these coefficients. Topographic bias provides a practical way to compute a regional geoid model transforming height anomalies computed from EGMs to geoid undulations. Using this technique, regional geoid models are determined in two test areas, the Auvergne, France and New Mexico, U.S.A, and compared with the GNSS/levelling geoid undulations and the regional geoid models computed using Least Squares Modification of Stokes' Formula (KTH method). Keywords: Analytical downward continuation, topographic bias, geoid determination, Earth Gravity Model, Least Squares Modification of Stokes' Formula (KTH method).

  4. First Release of Gravimetric Geoid Model over Saudi Arabia Based on Terrestrial Gravity and GOCE Satellite Data: KSAG01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, Abdulaziz; Elsaka, Basem

    2016-04-01

    A new gravimetric quasi-geoid, known as KSAG0, has been developed recently by Remove-Compute-Restore techniques (RCR), provided by the GRAVSOFT software, using gravimetric free air anomalies. The terrestrial gravity data used in this computations are: 1145 gravity field anomalies observed by ARAMCO (Saudi Arabian Oil Company) and 2470 Gravity measurements from BGI (Bureau Gravimétrique International). The computations were carried out implementing the least squares collocation method through the RCR techniques. The KSAG01 is based on merging in addition to the terrestrial gravity observations, GOCE satellite model (Eigen-6C4) and global gravity model (EGM2008) have been utilized in the computations. The long, medium and short wavelength spectrum of the height anomalies were compensated from Eigen-6C4 and EGM2008 geoid models truncated up to Degree and order (d/o) up to 2190. KSAG01 geoid covers 100 per cent of the kingdom, with geoid heights range from - 37.513 m in the southeast to 23.183 m in the northwest of the country. The accuracy of the geoid is governed by the accuracy, distribution, and spacing of the observations. The standard deviation of the predicted geoid heights is 0.115 m, with maximum errors of about 0.612 m. The RMS of geoid noise ranges from 0.019 m to 0.04 m. Comparison of the predicted gravimetric geoid with EGM, GOCE, and GPS/Levelling geoids, reveals a considerable improvements of the quasi-geoid heights over Saudi Arabia.

  5. Physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon using the Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Rong; Shi, Guo-Liang; Tian, Ying-Ze; Wang, Yi-Nan; Zhang, Cai-Yan; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2015-01-01

    An improved physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) technology using the Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method was proposed and applied to quantify the sources of PM10- and PM2.5-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Chengdu in winter time. Sixteen priority PAH compounds were detected with mean ΣPAH concentrations (sum of 16 PAHs) ranging from 70.65 ng/m(3) to 209.58 ng/m(3) and from 59.17 ng/m(3) to 170.64 ng/m(3) for the PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. The ME2-SR and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models were employed to estimate the source contributions of PAHs, and these estimates agreed with the experimental results. For the PMF model, the highest contributor to the ΣPAHs was vehicular emission (81.69% for PM10, 82.06% for PM2.5), followed by coal combustion (12.68%, 12.11%), wood combustion (5.65%, 4.45%) and oil combustion (0.72%, 0.88%). For the ME2-SR method, the highest contributions were from diesel (43.19% for PM10, 47.17% for PM2.5) and gasoline exhaust (34.94%, 32.44%), followed by wood combustion (8.79%, 6.37%), coal combustion (12.46%, 12.37%) and oil combustion (0.80%, 1.22%). However, the PAH ratios calculated for the factors extracted by ME2-SR were closer to the values from actual source profiles, implying that the results obtained from ME2-SR might be physically constrained and satisfactory. PMID:25240101

  6. QuEChERS Method Followed by Solid Phase Extraction Method for Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Mona; Souaya, Eglal R.; Hamzawy, Ahmed H.; Mohammed, Moustapha N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GCMS) method was developed and validated for determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for extraction and solid phase extraction for sample cleanup to remove most of the coextract combined with GCMS for determination of low concentration of selected group of PAHs in homogenized fish samples. PAHs were separated on a GCMS with HP-5ms Ultra Inert GC Column (30 m, 0.25 mm, and 0.25 µm). Mean recovery ranged from 56 to 115%. The extraction efficiency was consistent over the entire range where indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene showed recovery (65, 69%), respectively, at 2 µg/kg. No significant dispersion of results was observed for the other remaining PAHs and recovery did not differ substantially, and at the lowest and the highest concentrations mean recovery and RSD% showed that most of PAHs were between 70% and 120% with RSD less than 10%. The measurement uncertainty is expressed as expanded uncertainty and in terms of relative standard deviation (at 95% confidence level) is ±12%. This method is suitable for laboratories engaged daily in routine analysis of a large number of samples. PMID:25873966

  7. QuEChERS Method Followed by Solid Phase Extraction Method for Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fish.

    PubMed

    Khorshid, Mona; Souaya, Eglal R; Hamzawy, Ahmed H; Mohammed, Moustapha N

    2015-01-01

    A gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GCMS) method was developed and validated for determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for extraction and solid phase extraction for sample cleanup to remove most of the coextract combined with GCMS for determination of low concentration of selected group of PAHs in homogenized fish samples. PAHs were separated on a GCMS with HP-5ms Ultra Inert GC Column (30 m, 0.25 mm, and 0.25 µm). Mean recovery ranged from 56 to 115%. The extraction efficiency was consistent over the entire range where indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene showed recovery (65, 69%), respectively, at 2 µg/kg. No significant dispersion of results was observed for the other remaining PAHs and recovery did not differ substantially, and at the lowest and the highest concentrations mean recovery and RSD% showed that most of PAHs were between 70% and 120% with RSD less than 10%. The measurement uncertainty is expressed as expanded uncertainty and in terms of relative standard deviation (at 95% confidence level) is ±12%. This method is suitable for laboratories engaged daily in routine analysis of a large number of samples. PMID:25873966

  8. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  9. Method of using an aqueous chemical system to recover hydrocarbon and minimize wastes from sludge deposits in oil storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Goss, M.L.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a process for separating and removing a hydrocarbon, water and solid components of sludge deposited in an oil storage tank. It comprises: introducing a sufficient amount of a nonionic surfactant in an aqueous solution to form a layer of the solution above the sludge layer; the nonionic surfactant comprising: C{sub 8}-C{sub 12} alkylphenol-ethylene oxide adducts of about 55%-75% by weight ethylene oxide, and at least one castor oil-ethylene oxide adduct of about 55%-75% by weight ethylene oxide; the nonionic surfactant being present in a quantity sufficient to separate hydrocarbon component from the sludge without forming an emulsion, adding a diluent, immiscible with the aqueous layer, for extracting the hydrocarbons, and separately draining the diluent layer and aqueous layer from the tank.

  10. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499