Sample records for hydrochoerus hydrochaeris isthmius

  1. Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Pezzone, Natalia; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Fernández, Analia; Garbaccio, Sergio; Zumárraga, Martín; Gioffré, Andrea; Magni, Carolina; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marini, M Rocío; Canal, Ana M


    This report describes the first case of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection with typical granulomatous lesions of mycobacteriosis in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). The individual was a captive-bred young female, part of the control group of an experimental study on stress. Multiple granulomatous lesions were detected in a mesenteric lymph node of this young female. Mycobacterial infection was confirmed by bacteriologic culture and molecular identification methods. Clinical lesions were characterized by histopathology. PMID:24450078

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma


    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  3. Evaluation of three immobilization combinations in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    King, Jay D; Congdon, Elizabeth; Tosta, Carolina


    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodent. Owing to its uniqueness, 50 AZA institutions in North America display this species. As shown by a survey, no standard anesthetic protocol has been developed for this species. As a part of an ongoing behavioral study in Venezuela, capybaras were surgically implanted with radio transmitters. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the three immobilization protocols: (1) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl, (2) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl, and (3) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl/Butorphanol tartrate. The protocol recommended for minimally invasive procedures when inhalant anesthetics are unavailable is a combination of Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl/Butorphanol tartrate. This is based on ease of administration, volume, onset of action, depth of anesthetic achieved, reversibility, safety, and costs. PMID:19645047

  4. The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) as a reservoir host for Trypanosoma evansi.


    Morales, G A; Wells, E A; Angel, D


    Discovery of two ill horses and three dogs naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi near an experimental station in the Eastern Plains of Colombia led to a search for reservoir hosts of the parasite. Infection was detected in 8/33 healthy capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), none of the remaining 14 horses, and none of 32 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), 18 paca (Cuniculus paca) and 20 spiny rats (Proechimys sp.). Contrary to common opinion, the results indicated a carrier state in the capybara. Diagnosis was based on morphology, behaviour in albino rats, and pathogenicity and host range in domestic animals. PMID:16502701

  5. Differences in natural antibody titres comparing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Racca, Andrea L; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Moreno, Pablo G; Baldi, Cecilia; Beldomenico, Pablo M


    Natural antibodies are an important component of innate humoral immunity but have not been investigated to any great extent in wild mammals. In the current study, serum natural antibody titres were measured by hemagglutination assay for two South American herbivores, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Results indicated that capybaras had antibody titres on average more than four times higher than guanacos (median titres 1:256 and 1:4, respectively), suggesting differences in investment in constitutive humoral immunity between the two species. PMID:24321369

  6. Life cycle of Amblyomma cooperi (Acari: Ixodidae) using capybaras ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) as hosts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo B. Labruna; Adriano Pinter; Rodrigo H. F. Teixeira


    The life cycle of Amblyomma cooperi was evaluated under laboratory conditions testing different host species. Larval infestations were performed on chickens\\u000a (Gallus gallus) and capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Nymphal infestations were performed on G. gallus, H. hydrochaeris, guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and wild mice (Calomys callosus). Infestations by adult ticks were performed only on capybaras. All free-living stages were observed in


    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of São...

  8. The Geographic Spread of “ El mal de las caderas ” in Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norberto Aníbal Maidana; Wilson Castro Ferreira


    The aim of this work is to describe an epidemiological model for a capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) population. The model\\u000a considers a tabanid (“mutuca”) population (Diptera: tabanidae), as a vector for the disease called “mal de las caderas” in Estero del Ibera, Corrientes, Argentina. The study of this problem has ecological and economical importance since the\\u000a meat and the hide of

  9. The geographic spread of "El mal de las caderas" in Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris).


    Maidana, Norberto Aníbal; Ferreira, Wilson Castro


    The aim of this work is to describe an epidemiological model for a capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) population. The model considers a tabanid ("mutuca") population (Diptera: tabanidae), as a vector for the disease called "mal de las caderas" in Estero del Ibera, Corrientes, Argentina. The study of this problem has ecological and economical importance since the meat and the hide of the capybara can be an exploitation resource. At first, a threshold value is determined as a function of the model parameters, obtaining a critical carrying capacity which determines the disease propagation or eradication. Then as the carrying capacity condition for the disease existence is satisfied, the existence of traveling wave solution is studied. Independent speeds are considered for the susceptible capybaras, the noninfected insect, and the disease. The speed of propagation for this model is obtained as function of model parameters followed by a discussion of strategies for controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:18228108

  10. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.


    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F


    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species. PMID:22731111

  11. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.


    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C


    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana). PMID:22063568

  12. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M


    Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes) separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast and syncytial streamers derived from the subplacenta. Conclusion All important characteristics of placental development and organization in the capybara resembled those found in smaller hystricognath rodents including the guinea pig. These features apparently do not dependent on body size. Clearly, placentation in hystricognaths adheres to an extraordinarily stable pattern suggesting they can be used interchangeably as models of human placenta. PMID:19493333

  13. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.


    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M


    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country. PMID:25108780

  14. Assessment of historical fecal contamination in Curitiba, Brazil, in the last 400 years using fecal sterols.


    Machado, Karina S; Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan; Figueira, Rubens C L; Ferreira, Paulo A L


    A 400-year sedimentary record of the Barigui River was investigated using fecal biomarkers and nutrient distribution. The temporal variability in cholesterol, cholestanol, coprostanol, epicoprostanol, stigmastanol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol, sitosterol, and campesterol between 1600 and 2011 was assessed. Anthropogenic influences, such as deforestation and fecal contamination from humans and livestock, were observed from 1840. The sterol ratios exhibit evidence of hens, horses, cows, and an unknown herbivore, which may be a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), from 1820 and has been observed more markedly from 1970 onward. Human fecal contamination was detected from 1840 and was observed more markedly from 1930 due to population growth. Thus, the sanitation conditions and demographic growth of Curitiba seemed to be the main factors of human sewage pollution, as the coprostanol concentration over time was strongly correlated with the population growth (r=0.71, p<0.001) although diagenetic processes have also been observed.(1.) PMID:25016471

  15. Capybaras in an anthropogenic habitat in Southeastern Brazil.


    Verdade, L M; Ferraz, K M P M B


    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are widely distributed in the Neotropics, living in both natural and anthropogenic habitats. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuating capybara population at the Campus "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, in Piracicaba, Southeastern Brazil from 1998 to 2000. To assess population fluctuation and growth rates, we used an abundance index based on direct weekly daylight counts. Population monitoring was carried out in an anthropogenic wetland associated with an agroecosystem. The observers bias was established as directly related to their distance from the animals. The capybara population density and biomass in the anthropogenic wetland in question were found to be significantly higher than in pristine habitats. The species seems to present a seasonal pattern of fluctuation, with a peak in late spring (Oct to Dec). Unlike young capybaras, adults and juveniles present similar seasonal fluctuation patterns. In this anthropogenic wetland, the carrying capacity may be as high as 195 individuals/Km2. At a conservative exploitation rate (17%) in anthropogenic wetlands of Southeastern Brazil, capybara productivity may reach approximately 630 Kg/Km2/year. PMID:16710529

  16. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central


    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  17. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.


    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick


    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

  18. Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae).


    Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; González, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A


    We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level. PMID:20084537

  19. Rickettsial infection in ticks collected from road-killed wild animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Andreoli, Guilherme S; Martins, Thiago F; Brandão, Paulo E; Labruna, Marcelo B


    During 2008-2010, ticks were collected from road-killed wild animals within the Serra dos Orgãos National Park area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 193 tick specimens were collected, including Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann and Amblyomma cajennense (F.) from four Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann and A. cajennense from four Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) and A. cajennense from five Cerdocyon thous L., Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) from one Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier), Amblyomma varium Koch from three Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and A. cajennense from one Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham). Molecular analyses based on polymerase chain reaction targeting two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA) on tick DNA extracts showed that 70.6% (12/17) of the A. dubitatum adult ticks, and all Amblyomma sp. nymphal pools collected from capybaras were shown to contain rickettsial DNA, which after DNA sequencing, revealed to be 100% identical to the recently identified Rickettsia sp. strain Pampulha from A. dubitatum ticks collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis with concatenated sequences (gltA-ompA) showed that our sequence from A. dubitatum ticks, referred to Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos, segregated under 99% bootstrap support in a same cluster with Old World rickettsiae, namely R. tamurae, R. monacensis, and Rickettsia sp. strain 774e. Because A. dubitatum is known to bite humans, the potential role of Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos as human pathogen must be taken into account, because both R. tamurae and R. monacencis have been reported infecting human beings. PMID:23270184

  20. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.


    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G


    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

  1. Intra-phylum and inter-phyla associations among gastrointestinal parasites in two wild mammal species.


    Moreno, P G; Eberhardt, M A T; Lamattina, D; Previtali, M A; Beldomenico, P M


    A growing body of literature reveals that the interactions among the parasite community may be strong and significant for parasite dynamics. There may be inter-specific antagonistic interactions as a result of competition and cross-effective immune response, or synergistic interactions where infection by one parasite is facilitated by another one, either by an impoverishment of the host's defenses, parasite-induced selective immunosuppression, or trade-offs within the immune system. The nature of these interactions may depend on how related are the parasite species involved. Here we explored the presence of associations among gastrointestinal parasites (coccidia and helminths) in natural populations of two wild mammal species, the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The associations explored were between the oocyst outputs of a selected Eimeria species and the other coccidia of that parasite community, and between Eimeria spp. and the predominant nematodes. The statistical analysis included adjustment for potential confounders or effect modifiers. In guanacos, the prevailing interactions were synergistic among the coccidia and between coccidia and nematodes (Nematodirus spp.). However, in capybaras, the interaction between nematodes (Viannaiidae) and Eimeria spp. depended on environmental and host factors. The relationship was positive in some circumstances (depending on season, year, sex, or animal size), but it appeared to become antagonistic under different scenarios. These antagonist interactions did not follow a particular seasonal pattern (they occurred in autumn, spring, and summer), but they were predominantly found in females (when they depended on sex) or in 2010 and 2011 (when they depended on the sampling year). These results suggest that the relationship between coccidia and nematodes in capybaras may be context dependent. We propose that the context-dependent immune investment documented in capybaras may be the cause of these varying interactions. PMID:23820605



    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; Diniz, Anaemilia das Neves; da Silva Moura, Laecio; Sousa, Francisco das Chagas Araújo; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro


    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca ( Cuniculus paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), rock cavy ( Kerodon rupestris ), guinea pig ( Cavia aperea ), and black-rumped agouti ( Dasyprocta prymnolopha ) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00 ± 0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11 ± 0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P > 0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51 ± 0.03 for males, and 0.52 ± 0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P > 0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r = 0.77 right decubitus and r = 0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72 ± 0.61 and 3.48 ± 0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61 ± 0.51 and 3.5 ± 0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis. PMID:26056885

  3. Life cycle and host specificity of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo B. Labruna; Eric Y. M. Fugisaki; Adriano Pinter; José Maurício B. Duarte; Matias J. P. Szabó


    We report biological data of two generations of Amblyomma triste in laboratory and compared the suitability of different host species. Infestations by larval and nymphal stages were performed\\u000a on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), chickens (Gallus gallus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), wild mice (Calomys callosus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Infestations by adult ticks were performed on

  4. Supplement 22, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda And Miscellaneous Phyla 

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Kirby, Margie D.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Zidar, Judith A.


    ., 1972, Brigham Young Univ. Sc. Bull., Biol, ser., v. 17 (4), 40 pp. Agouti paca Cebus nigrivittatus Cerdocyon thous Coendou prehensilis Dasyprocta sp. Echimys semivillosus Hydrochaeris hydrochoeris Homo sapiens Mazama americana Proechimys...

  5. Supplement 22, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla 

    E-print Network

    Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.


    meinertzhageni all from Africa Amblyomma spp. Jones, E. K.; et al., 1972, Brigham Young Univ. Sc. Bull., Biol, ser., v. 17 (4), 40 pp. Agouti paca Cebus nigrivittatus Cerdocyon thous Coendou prehensilis Dasyprocta sp. Echimys semivillosus Hydrochaeris...

  6. Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.


    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B


    From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080

  7. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].


    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso


    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  8. Diversification and biogeography of the Neotropical caviomorph lineage Octodontoidea (Rodentia: Hystricognathi).


    Upham, Nathan S; Patterson, Bruce D


    The rodent superfamily Octodontoidea comprises 6 families, 38 genera, and 193 living species of spiny rats, tuco-tucos, degus, hutias, and their relatives. All are endemic to the Neotropical Region where they represent roughly three-quarters of extant caviomorphs. Although caviomorph monophyly is well established and phylogenetic hypotheses exist for several families, understanding of octodontoid relationships is clouded by sparse taxon sampling and single-gene analyses. We examined sequence variation in one mitochondrial (12S rRNA) and three nuclear genes (vWF, GHR, and RAG1) across all caviomorph families (including 47 octodontoid species), all phiomorph families, and the sole remaining hystricognath family, using the gundi (Ctenodactylus) and springhaas (Pedetes) as outgroups. Our analyses support the monophyly of Phiomorpha, Caviomorpha, and the caviomorph superfamilies Cavioidea (Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae, and Caviidae, the latter including Hydrochoerus), Erethizontoidea, Chinchilloidea (including Dinomyidae), and Octodontoidea. Cavioids and erethizontoids are strongly supported as sisters, whereas chinchilloids appear to be sister to octodontoids. Among octodontoids, Abrocomidae is consistently recovered as the basal element, sister to a pair of strongly supported clades; one includes Octodontidae and Ctenomyidae as reciprocally monophyletic lineages, whereas the other includes taxa currently allocated to Echimyidae, Capromyidae and Myocastoridae. Capromys appears near the base of this clade, in keeping with current classification, but Myocastor is nested securely inside a clade of Echimyidae that also contains eumysopines, echimyines and dactylomyines. Another, more weakly supported clade of Echimyidae contains fossorial and scansorial taxa from the Chaco-Cerrado-Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest. Biogeographic analyses robustly recover the Patagonia-Southern Andes complex as ancestral for the Octodontoidea, with three component lineages emerging by the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (?23Ma): (1) stem abrocomids in the Central and Southern Andes; (2) a lineage leading to octodontids plus ctenomyids in Patagonia, later dispersing into the Chaco-Cerrado-Caatinga; and (3) a lineage leading to echimyids, capromyids, and myocastorids that subsequently radiated in more mesic biomes, including Amazonia, Atlantic Forest, and the Antilles. This reconstruction refutes earlier ideas that the diverse, generalized, mainly lowland family Echimyidae, which appears early in the fossil record, gave rise to the Andean lineages of octodontoids-instead, the reverse derivation appears to be true. We recommend formal synonymy of Myocastoridae with Echimyidae but defer a similar treatment of Capromyidae until additional hutia taxa and sequences can be analyzed. PMID:22327013

  9. Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil.


    Fonseca, Raphael Alves; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito


    In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July) and two in the dry season (September and November) in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (X2=23.79, df=5, p<0.001). A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267) or between communities (N=6, t=-5, p=0.42), although SLo Francisco das Chagas have significantly higher consumption of game meat (X2=370.41, df=25, p<0.001). Fishing is an activity of paramount importance to these communities, and factors that lead to decreased availability of fish may lead to subsequent increase in hunting pressure. For the conservation of preserve of both wildlife natural resources and practices of subsistence of riverine communities of the Tapajós National Forest, it is necessary to ensure the maintenance of fish stocks and the protection of the Tapajós River areas large enough to maintain viable populations of wild animals and more tolerant to hunting and habitat loss. PMID:23894979