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1

Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

2014-01-01

2

Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela.  

PubMed

Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni), 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa), and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle). This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70%) and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research. PMID:15558163

Salas, Viviana; Herrera, Emilio A

2004-10-01

3

Differences in natural antibody titres comparing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).  

PubMed

Natural antibodies are an important component of innate humoral immunity but have not been investigated to any great extent in wild mammals. In the current study, serum natural antibody titres were measured by hemagglutination assay for two South American herbivores, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Results indicated that capybaras had antibody titres on average more than four times higher than guanacos (median titres 1:256 and 1:4, respectively), suggesting differences in investment in constitutive humoral immunity between the two species. PMID:24321369

Racca, Andrea L; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Moreno, Pablo G; Baldi, Cecilia; Beldomenico, Pablo M

2014-02-01

4

Health evaluation and survey of zoonotic pathogens in free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).  

PubMed

Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodents and play an epidemiologic role in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including the causative agents of Brazilian spotted fever, leptospirosis, and others. We surveyed the health of 31 free-ranging capybaras at the Alberto Löfgren State Park, São Paulo, Brazil using a variety of diagnostic methods. Hematology and serum chemistry were consistent with mild malnutrition and parasitism but did not indicate severe physiologic imbalance or disease. All animals were serologically negative for Rickettsia rickettsii, Leishmania spp., and Trypanosoma sp., but antibodies against rabies virus (71%), Leptospira sp. (26%), and Toxoplasma sp. (23%) were detected. Salmonella sp. was not cultured from fecal samples. Frequently cultured enterobacteria included Escherichia coli (61%), Enterococcus casseiflavus (35%), Enterococcus faecalis (35%), Enterobacter aerogenes (32%), Klebisella pneumoniae (32%), and Serratia marcescens (32%). No potentially pathogenic fungi were cultured from hair samples. Fecal parasitology revealed infection by Protozoophaga sp. (58%), Viannella spp. (23%), Strongyloides spp. (10%), and Ancilostomatidae (10%). A total of 218 ticks was retrieved from the animals: Amblyomma sp. larvae and nymphs (43%), A. dubitatum adults (52%), and A. cajennense adults (5%). The capybaras were free from most potentially zoonotic pathogens evaluated; however, the presence of Amblyomma spp. ticks (potential vectors of Rickettsia spp.) and indirect evidence of exposure to the rabies virus, Leptospira sp., and Toxoplasma sp. warrant the maintenance of public health programs and wildlife health monitoring. PMID:24779462

Chiacchio, Rosely Gioia-Di; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Knöbl, Terezinha; Kolber, Milton; Miyashiro, Samantha Ive; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

2014-07-01

5

Presence of neutralizing antibodies to Orthopoxvirus in Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Cantagalo virus is a strain of vaccinia virus (genus Orthopoxvirus) and the etiological agent of an important vesicopustular disease that affects dairy cows and milkers in Brazil. The reservoirs involved in the maintenance of this virus in nature are unknown. In the present work, the detection of neutralizing antibodies to Orthopoxvirus in capybaras collected in São Paulo state is reported. Capybaras are the largest rodent species native to South America and have already been reported as putative reservoirs of other pathogenic microorganisms. Thirteen out of thirty-three serum samples were found positive in plaque-reduction neutralization tests, some of them showing high titers compared to positive controls. These results suggest that capybaras may play a role in the infection cycle of vaccinia virus in Brazil. PMID:25500667

Barbosa, André Victor; Medaglia, Maria Luiza G; Soares, Herbert S; Quixabeira-Santos, Jociane C; Gennari, Solange M; Damaso, Clarissa R

2014-01-01

6

A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.  

PubMed

Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana). PMID:22063568

Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

2008-11-01

7

Trypanosoma evansi in capybara from Venezuela.  

PubMed

During the slaughtering season of February and March 1991, 559 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) were tested for Trypanosoma evansi in two areas in Venezuela: El Frio Ranch and El Cedral Ranch. Blood and serum samples were evaluated for T. evansi. Forty-eight (9%) of 559 capybaras had T. evansi using the microcentrifugation technique. Further, 279 (50%) of the 559 capybaras had antibodies against T. evansi immunofluorescence test in both ranches. Thus, capybaras may be important in the epizootiology of T. evansi in this enzootic area. PMID:9131577

Arias, J F; García, F; Rivera, M; López, R

1997-04-01

8

Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

PubMed Central

Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes) separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast and syncytial streamers derived from the subplacenta. Conclusion All important characteristics of placental development and organization in the capybara resembled those found in smaller hystricognath rodents including the guinea pig. These features apparently do not dependent on body size. Clearly, placentation in hystricognaths adheres to an extraordinarily stable pattern suggesting they can be used interchangeably as models of human placenta. PMID:19493333

Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M

2009-01-01

9

Establishment of Tunga trimamillata (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

Tunga trimamillata is a species of sand flea occurring in Ecuador and Peru parasitizing cattle, goat, sheep, swine, and man. This is the first report of this species in Brazil, having been found on the hooves of cows in Barretos, São Paulo State, and Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, and previously misidentified as Tunga penetrans. A previous report concerning Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Rio Novo, Minas Gerais State, may also be attributed to that species of sand flea, a possible the primary host. Given the large geographical distribution of T. trimamillata, the vast cattle population in Brazil, and the high number of individuals subject to the risk of tungiasis, the number of cases attributed to this sand flea will most likely increase over time. PMID:23797275

Linardi, Pedro Marcos; De Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Filho, Elias Jorge Facury

2013-09-01

10

Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

2012-01-01

11

Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.  

PubMed

In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

2010-09-01

12

Intra-phylum and inter-phyla associations among gastrointestinal parasites in two wild mammal species.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature reveals that the interactions among the parasite community may be strong and significant for parasite dynamics. There may be inter-specific antagonistic interactions as a result of competition and cross-effective immune response, or synergistic interactions where infection by one parasite is facilitated by another one, either by an impoverishment of the host's defenses, parasite-induced selective immunosuppression, or trade-offs within the immune system. The nature of these interactions may depend on how related are the parasite species involved. Here we explored the presence of associations among gastrointestinal parasites (coccidia and helminths) in natural populations of two wild mammal species, the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The associations explored were between the oocyst outputs of a selected Eimeria species and the other coccidia of that parasite community, and between Eimeria spp. and the predominant nematodes. The statistical analysis included adjustment for potential confounders or effect modifiers. In guanacos, the prevailing interactions were synergistic among the coccidia and between coccidia and nematodes (Nematodirus spp.). However, in capybaras, the interaction between nematodes (Viannaiidae) and Eimeria spp. depended on environmental and host factors. The relationship was positive in some circumstances (depending on season, year, sex, or animal size), but it appeared to become antagonistic under different scenarios. These antagonist interactions did not follow a particular seasonal pattern (they occurred in autumn, spring, and summer), but they were predominantly found in females (when they depended on sex) or in 2010 and 2011 (when they depended on the sampling year). These results suggest that the relationship between coccidia and nematodes in capybaras may be context dependent. We propose that the context-dependent immune investment documented in capybaras may be the cause of these varying interactions. PMID:23820605

Moreno, P G; Eberhardt, M A T; Lamattina, D; Previtali, M A; Beldomenico, P M

2013-09-01

13

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.  

PubMed

The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G

2013-12-01

14

Rickettsial infection in ticks collected from road-killed wild animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

During 2008-2010, ticks were collected from road-killed wild animals within the Serra dos Orgãos National Park area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 193 tick specimens were collected, including Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann and Amblyomma cajennense (F.) from four Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann and A. cajennense from four Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) and A. cajennense from five Cerdocyon thous L., Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) from one Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier), Amblyomma varium Koch from three Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and A. cajennense from one Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham). Molecular analyses based on polymerase chain reaction targeting two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA) on tick DNA extracts showed that 70.6% (12/17) of the A. dubitatum adult ticks, and all Amblyomma sp. nymphal pools collected from capybaras were shown to contain rickettsial DNA, which after DNA sequencing, revealed to be 100% identical to the recently identified Rickettsia sp. strain Pampulha from A. dubitatum ticks collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis with concatenated sequences (gltA-ompA) showed that our sequence from A. dubitatum ticks, referred to Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos, segregated under 99% bootstrap support in a same cluster with Old World rickettsiae, namely R. tamurae, R. monacensis, and Rickettsia sp. strain 774e. Because A. dubitatum is known to bite humans, the potential role of Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos as human pathogen must be taken into account, because both R. tamurae and R. monacencis have been reported infecting human beings. PMID:23270184

Spolidorio, Mariana G; Andreoli, Guilherme S; Martins, Thiago F; Brandão, Paulo E; Labruna, Marcelo B

2012-11-01

15

Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level. PMID:20084537

Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; González, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

2010-08-01

16

Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 38, No. 3-4, 278-281 Copyright 2002 College of Arts and Sciences  

E-print Network

, 1993), but fossil remains of three additional rodent taxa and a ground sloth have been reported from capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Hooijer, 1959), and the enigmatic sloth Paulocnus petrificans (Hooijer

McFarlane, Donald A.

17

Estimate of size and total number of neurons in superior cervical ganglion of rat, capybara and horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior (cranial) cervical ganglion was investigated by light microscopy in adult rats, capybaras ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) and horses. The ganglia were vascularly perfused, embedded in resin and cut into semi-thin sections. An unbiased stereological procedure (disector method) was used to estimate ganglion neuron size, total number of ganglion neurons, neuronal density. The volume of the ganglion was 0.5 mm 3

Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel Ribeiro; Christine Davis; Giorgio Gabella

2004-01-01

18

Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri". PMID:19411142

dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

2009-07-01

19

Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.  

PubMed

From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B

2010-11-01

20

[Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].  

PubMed

We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

2006-09-01

21

Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

2014-01-01

22

Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July) and two in the dry season (September and November) in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (X2=23.79, df=5, p<0.001). A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267) or between communities (N=6, t=-5, p=0.42), although SLo Francisco das Chagas have significantly higher consumption of game meat (X2=370.41, df=25, p<0.001). Fishing is an activity of paramount importance to these communities, and factors that lead to decreased availability of fish may lead to subsequent increase in hunting pressure. For the conservation of preserve of both wildlife natural resources and practices of subsistence of riverine communities of the Tapajós National Forest, it is necessary to ensure the maintenance of fish stocks and the protection of the Tapajós River areas large enough to maintain viable populations of wild animals and more tolerant to hunting and habitat loss. PMID:23894979

Fonseca, Raphael Alves; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

2013-03-01