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Sample records for hydrochoerus hydrochaeris isthmius

  1. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2016-03-01

    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids. J. Morphol. 277:286-305, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26626863

  2. Health evaluation and survey of zoonotic pathogens in free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Chiacchio, Rosely Gioia-Di; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Knöbl, Terezinha; Kolber, Milton; Miyashiro, Samantha Ive; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2014-07-01

    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodents and play an epidemiologic role in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including the causative agents of Brazilian spotted fever, leptospirosis, and others. We surveyed the health of 31 free-ranging capybaras at the Alberto Löfgren State Park, São Paulo, Brazil using a variety of diagnostic methods. Hematology and serum chemistry were consistent with mild malnutrition and parasitism but did not indicate severe physiologic imbalance or disease. All animals were serologically negative for Rickettsia rickettsii, Leishmania spp., and Trypanosoma sp., but antibodies against rabies virus (71%), Leptospira sp. (26%), and Toxoplasma sp. (23%) were detected. Salmonella sp. was not cultured from fecal samples. Frequently cultured enterobacteria included Escherichia coli (61%), Enterococcus casseiflavus (35%), Enterococcus faecalis (35%), Enterobacter aerogenes (32%), Klebisella pneumoniae (32%), and Serratia marcescens (32%). No potentially pathogenic fungi were cultured from hair samples. Fecal parasitology revealed infection by Protozoophaga sp. (58%), Viannella spp. (23%), Strongyloides spp. (10%), and Ancilostomatidae (10%). A total of 218 ticks was retrieved from the animals: Amblyomma sp. larvae and nymphs (43%), A. dubitatum adults (52%), and A. cajennense adults (5%). The capybaras were free from most potentially zoonotic pathogens evaluated; however, the presence of Amblyomma spp. ticks (potential vectors of Rickettsia spp.) and indirect evidence of exposure to the rabies virus, Leptospira sp., and Toxoplasma sp. warrant the maintenance of public health programs and wildlife health monitoring. PMID:24779462

  3. Rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense ticks and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is the deadliest spotted fever of the world. In most of the BSF-endemic areas, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the principal host for the tick Amblyomma cajennense, which is the main vector of BSF. Methods In 2012, a BSF case was confirmed in a child that was bitten by ticks in a residential park area inhabited by A. cajennense-infested capybaras in Itú municipality, southeastern Brazil. Host questing A. cajennense adult ticks were collected in the residential park and brought alive to the laboratory, where they were macerated and intraperitoneally inoculated into guinea pigs. A tick-inoculated guinea pig that presented high fever was euthanized and its internal organs were macerated and inoculated into additional guinea pigs (guinea pig passage). Tissue samples from guinea pig passages were also used to inoculate Vero cells through the shell vial technique. Infected cells were used for molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Blood serum samples were collected from 172 capybaras that inhabited the residential park. Sera were tested through the immunofluorescence assay using R. rickettsii antigen. Results A tick-inoculated guinea pig presented high fever accompanied by scrotal reactions (edema and marked redness). These signs were reproduced by consecutive guinea pig passages. Rickettsia was successfully isolated in Vero cells that were inoculated with brain homogenate derived from a 3rd passage-febrile guinea pig. Molecular characterization of this rickettsial isolate (designated as strain ITU) yielded DNA sequences that were all 100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. rickettsii in Genbank. A total of 83 (48.3%) out of 172 capybaras were seroreactive to R. rickettsii, with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 8192. Conclusions A viable isolate of R. rickettsii was obtained from the tick A. cajennense, comprising the first viable R. rickettsi isolate from this tick species during the last 60 years. Nearly half of the capybara population of the residential park was seroreactive to R. rickettsii, corroborating the findings that the local A. cajennense population was infected by R. rickettsii. PMID:24387674

  4. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Yai, Lucia Eiko Oishi; Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the importance of capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T. cruzi epimastigotes. None of the samples from capybara reacted positively with L. infantum promastigotes or with spores of E. cuniculi . Two (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to S. neurona merozoites, and 2 (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum tachyzoites. A serum sample from 1 capybara was positive for antibodies to both T. cruzi and N. caninum. None of the remaining 62 samples reacted with more than 1 parasite. PMID:20020808

  5. Experimental infection of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris by Rickettsia rickettsii and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks Amblyomma cajennense.

    PubMed

    Souza, Celso E; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Uchoa, Franscisco C; Horta, Mauricio C; Souza, Savina S L; Borba, Renata C M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-04-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) by Rickettsia rickettsii and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission of R. rickettsii to Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Two groups of two capybaras each were evaluated: on day 0, group 1 (G1) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks, and group 2 (G2) was inoculated intraperitoneally with R. rickettsii. Two additional groups were control groups, not exposed to R. rickettsii, being CG1 group the control of G1, and CG2 group the control of G2. Capybara rectal temperature was measured daily. Blood samples were collected every 3 days during 30 days, and used to (i) inoculate guinea pigs intraperitoneally; (ii) DNA extraction followed by real-time PCR targeting the rickettsial gene gltA; (iii) hematology; (iv) detection of R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Blood was also collected from G1 capybaras every approximately 10-30 days till the 146th day, to be tested by serology. Capybaras were infested by uninfected A. cajennense nymphs from the 3rd to the 18th day. Engorged nymphs were collected, allowed to molt to adults in an incubator. Thereafter, the subsequent flat ticks were tested by PCR. All G1 and G2 capybaras became infected by R. rickettsii, as demonstrated by guinea pig inoculation and seroconversion, but they showed no fever. Rickettsemia was continually detected from the 6th (G2 capybaras) or 9th (G1 capybaras) to the 18th day post inoculation or infestation with R. rickettsii-infected ticks. A total of 20-25% and 30-35% of the flat ticks previously fed on G1 and G2 capybaras, respectively, became infected by R. rickettsii. The study demonstrated that R. rickettsii was capable to infect capybaras without causing clinical illness, inducing rickettsemia capable to cause infection in guinea pigs and ticks. Our results indicate that capybaras act as amplifier host of R. rickettsii for A. cajennense ticks in Brazil. PMID:19147293

  6. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  7. ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of São...

  8. Feeding behavior and crop damage caused by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Felix, G A; Almeida Paz, I C L; Piovezan, U; Garcia, R G; Lima, K A O; Nääs, I A; Salgado, D D; Pilecco, M; Belloni, M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the yield loss caused by capybaras in rural areas of Dourados-MS, their feeding periods, crop preferences and the landscape characteristics of farms that may affect the occurrence of capybara's herds. Semi-structured interviews in 24 different farms were done during a period between April 2010 and August 2011. Field observations were held at different times of the day, and also during the night in order to record peaks of the feeding behavior in six farms. Direct counting of capybaras along with the group of animals reported as seen by the farmers during the interviews was used to estimate the size of herds. Data was analyzed using the Principal Components Analyses and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The average number of capybaras found in a regular herd was 18.8 ± 7.90 animals. The average number of capybara herd by farms was of 1.38 ± 0.92 while the average number of capybaras by farms was 32.33 ± 27.87. Capybaras selected rice (Oryza sativa) when it was available (14.5% of devastation in 1.18% of total planted area); however, the most eaten crop was corn (Zea mays) with 38.55% of loss rate in 16.17% of the total planted area. Capybaras ate mostly in the evening and during the night. The availability of water resources in the rural area predisposed the occurrence of capybara's herds. PMID:25627586

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) antibodies and DNA detected by IFAT and PCR.

    PubMed

    Truppel, Jessé Henrique; Reifur, Larissa; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Lange, Rogério Ribas; de Castro Vilani, Ricardo Guilherme D'Otaviano; Gennari, Solange Maria; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2010-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered nowadays as one of the most important foodborne diseases in the world. One of the emerging risks in acquiring infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the increasing popularity of wild animals and game meat. Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is the world's largest extant rodent and is used for human consumption in many areas of South America, and in case it carries T. gondii cysts, it may act as a source of infection. In the present study, we detected infection with T. gondii in capybaras from the south of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the serum of capybaras using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT > or = 1:16). Blood, liver, heart, lymph nodes, and spleen tissues were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for B1 gene and ITS1 region. The results showed that 61.5% (16/26) capybaras were seropositive to T. gondii. Titers of specific antibodies to T. gondii ranged from 1:16 to 1:512. Among the feral rodents studied, 7.7% (2/26) were PCR positive for B1 gene assay and 11.5% (3/26) were positive for ITS1 PCR assay; for both test, the prevalence was 15.4%. Liver, heart, and blood tissues were those which tested positive for the apicomplexan. Our findings show a high percentage of infection with T. gondii in asymptomatic capybaras. Based on those data, we hypothesize that the consumption of raw or undercooked capybara meat could be a source of infection for humans. PMID:20445992

  10. Effects of food supplementation on litter size and oestradiol concentration during gestation and oestrous cycle of capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Becker, G K; Pederassi, G C; Santos, E A; Colares, E P

    2003-04-01

    The present study analysed the response of adult female capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) to different dietary supplementation in relation to litter size per parturition and oestradiol secretion profile during pregnancy and the oestrous cycle. All four experimental groups received 'camerum' grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and water ad libitum and three of the groups were also fed a protein, lipid or protein and lipid supplement. Litter size per parturition did not show any significant difference among treatment groups, but was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control group. There was no significant difference in oestradiol concentrations among treatments and the control group, during each phase of the oestrous cycle or during gestation. The average oestradiol concentrations in dioestrous, oestrous and metoestrous phases were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the average oestradiol concentration in the pro-oestrous phase. In addition, average oestradiol concentrations increased after the second gestation month, but were significantly higher (P < 0.05) only after the fourth gestation month, achieving maximum value by the end of gestation. Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on hormonal concentrations during the oestrous cycle and gestational period. However, an increase in litter size per parturition was observed among female capybaras that received dietary supplementation. PMID:12683928

  11. Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F

    2009-10-01

    During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

  12. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes) separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast and syncytial streamers derived from the subplacenta. Conclusion All important characteristics of placental development and organization in the capybara resembled those found in smaller hystricognath rodents including the guinea pig. These features apparently do not dependent on body size. Clearly, placentation in hystricognaths adheres to an extraordinarily stable pattern suggesting they can be used interchangeably as models of human placenta. PMID:19493333

  13. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-10-01

    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country. PMID:25108780

  14. Assessment of historical fecal contamination in Curitiba, Brazil, in the last 400 years using fecal sterols.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina S; Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan; Figueira, Rubens C L; Ferreira, Paulo A L

    2014-09-15

    A 400-year sedimentary record of the Barigui River was investigated using fecal biomarkers and nutrient distribution. The temporal variability in cholesterol, cholestanol, coprostanol, epicoprostanol, stigmastanol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol, sitosterol, and campesterol between 1600 and 2011 was assessed. Anthropogenic influences, such as deforestation and fecal contamination from humans and livestock, were observed from 1840. The sterol ratios exhibit evidence of hens, horses, cows, and an unknown herbivore, which may be a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), from 1820 and has been observed more markedly from 1970 onward. Human fecal contamination was detected from 1840 and was observed more markedly from 1930 due to population growth. Thus, the sanitation conditions and demographic growth of Curitiba seemed to be the main factors of human sewage pollution, as the coprostanol concentration over time was strongly correlated with the population growth (r=0.71, p<0.001) although diagenetic processes have also been observed.(1.) PMID:25016471

  15. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  16. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23975565

  17. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.

    PubMed

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion. PMID:26385561

  18. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-02-01

    To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia. PMID:25700048

  19. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  20. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Camargo, G; Fischer, E

    2011-04-01

    Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant--for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare--for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger. PMID:21537603

  1. Rickettsial infection in ticks collected from road-killed wild animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Andreoli, Guilherme S; Martins, Thiago F; Brandão, Paulo E; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-11-01

    During 2008-2010, ticks were collected from road-killed wild animals within the Serra dos Orgãos National Park area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 193 tick specimens were collected, including Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann and Amblyomma cajennense (F.) from four Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann and A. cajennense from four Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) and A. cajennense from five Cerdocyon thous L., Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) from one Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier), Amblyomma varium Koch from three Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and A. cajennense from one Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham). Molecular analyses based on polymerase chain reaction targeting two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA) on tick DNA extracts showed that 70.6% (12/17) of the A. dubitatum adult ticks, and all Amblyomma sp. nymphal pools collected from capybaras were shown to contain rickettsial DNA, which after DNA sequencing, revealed to be 100% identical to the recently identified Rickettsia sp. strain Pampulha from A. dubitatum ticks collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis with concatenated sequences (gltA-ompA) showed that our sequence from A. dubitatum ticks, referred to Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos, segregated under 99% bootstrap support in a same cluster with Old World rickettsiae, namely R. tamurae, R. monacensis, and Rickettsia sp. strain 774e. Because A. dubitatum is known to bite humans, the potential role of Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos as human pathogen must be taken into account, because both R. tamurae and R. monacencis have been reported infecting human beings. PMID:23270184

  2. Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; González, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2010-08-01

    We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level. PMID:20084537

  3. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  4. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    PubMed

    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

  5. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2013-01-01

    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city–forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  6. CARDIOTHORACIC RATIO AND VERTEBRAL HEART SCALE IN CLINICALLY NORMAL BLACK-RUMPED AGOUTIS (DASYPROCTA PRYMNOLOPHA, WAGLER 1831).

    PubMed

    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laecio; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis. PMID:26056885

  7. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa. PMID:12563479

  8. Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-11-01

    From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080

  9. PULMONARY ARTERIAL DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH RIGHT-SIDED CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY AND CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE IN ZOO MAMMALS HOUSED AT 2,100 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

    PubMed

    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M

    2015-12-01

    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  10. Response of wild mammals to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mamede, S B; Alho, C J R

    2006-11-01

    The Pantanal is a large savanna wetland (138,183 km2 in Brazil), important for its wildlife, fed by tributaries of the upper Paraguay River, center of South America (Brazil, touching Bolivia and Paraguay). Uplands are plateaus (250-1,200 m high, 215,000 km2 in Brazil) and flatland is the Pantanal (80-150 m high, 147,574 km2 in Brazil). Rivers are slow moving when they meet the flatland (slope 0.3-0.5 m/km east-west; 0.03-0.15 m/km north-south), periodically overflowing their banks, creating a complex seasonal habitat range. Recurrent shallow flooding occupies 80% of the Pantanal; during the dry season flooded areas dry up. Fluctuating water levels, nutrients and wildlife form a dynamic ecosystem. A flooding regime forms distinct sub-regions within the Pantanal. A mammal survey was carried out in the sub-region of the Rio Negro from April, 2003 through March, 2004 to study the diversity and abundance of terrestrial mammals during the dry and flooding seasons. A total of 36 species were observed in the field. The capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris was the most frequent species, followed by the crab-eating-fox Cerdocyon thous and the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus. The highest abundance of species was observed during the dry season (August and September), when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Animal abundance (in terms of observed individual frequencies) varied during the dry and wet seasons and the seasonally flooded grassland was the most utilized habitat by mammals in the dry season. PMID:17299935

  11. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  12. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

  13. Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Raphael Alves; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito

    2013-03-01

    In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July) and two in the dry season (September and November) in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (X2=23.79, df=5, p<0.001). A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267) or between communities (N=6, t=-5, p=0.42), although SLo Francisco das Chagas have significantly higher consumption of game meat (X2=370.41, df=25, p<0.001). Fishing is an activity of paramount importance to these communities, and factors that lead to decreased availability of fish may lead to subsequent increase in hunting pressure. For the conservation of preserve of both wildlife natural resources and practices of subsistence of riverine communities of the Tapajós National Forest, it is necessary to ensure the maintenance of fish stocks and the protection of the Tapajós River areas large enough to maintain viable populations of wild animals and more tolerant to hunting and habitat loss. PMID:23894979