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Management implications of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) social behavior  

E-print Network

Management implications of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) social behavior Adriana Maldonado 2008 Keywords: Capybara Hydrochoerus hyrochaeris Infanticide Reproductive suppression Population model A B S T R A C T Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodent. Free

Grether, Gregory


Mamferos em estudos de avaliao ambiental A capivara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris  

E-print Network

: zooarqueologia, artefatos ósseos, capivara, sul do Brasil Abstract The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris of animals can be found. The goal of this study was to quantify the skeletal remains of capybaras found individuals were identified. The anatomic regions of the capybaras most sought-after by pre

Simões-Lopes, Paulo César


Management implications of capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) social behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the worlds largest rodent. Free-living populations are commercially harvested for their meat and leather in Colombia, Venezuela and Argentina; however, there is concern that legal and illegal harvesting is not sustainable. Since capybaras are considered an economic resource, there have been several attempts to explore the effect of different hunting strategies on its population dynamics. Two

Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro; Daniel T. Blumstein



Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of semi confined young capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris hydrochaeris L. 1766) meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of management with and without pond on the chemical composition and fatty acids profile of the commercial loin and ham cuts of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris hydrochaeris L. 1766) meat. Eighteen animals were used (12 males and 6 females) in the experiment and slaughtered at 9 months of age with a

Fernanda Girardi; Rejane M. Cardozo; Vera L. F. de Souza; Gentil V. de Moraes; Clovis R. dos Santos; Jesui V. Visentainer; Ricardo F. Zara; Nilson E. de Souza




Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty specimens of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were injected with neoprene latex in order to study the distribu- tion of vessels which compose the vertebro-basilar system and its derived branches in the encephalon. The right and left vertebral arteries anastomosed on the ventral surface of the encephalon to form the basilar artery, which gave rise to the caudal cerebellar (left and right,

Sueli Hoff Reckziegel; Tnia Lindemann; Rui Campos



Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the distribution of the caudal cerebral artery on the surface of the capybara brain and determined the territory irrigated by this vessel. A total of 68 brain hemispheres from female and male capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) were injected with Latex 603 or Latex Frasca, stained with red and blue pigments, and fixed in 20% formalin. The

Sueli Hoff Reckziegel; Felipe Lus Schneider; Maria Isabel Albano Edelweiss; Tnia Lindemann; Paulete Oliveira Vargas Culau


Reproductive performance of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in captivity under different management systems in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent of great eco- nomic interest and is easily domesticated. Variations in reproductive parameters for the capybaras depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which modulate the different stages of its reproduc- tion either in captivity or wildlife. In captivity, an intensive production system is feasible, offering an economical profit under

Martin R. Alvarez; Fernando O. Kravetz



Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) distribution in agroecosystems: a cross-scale habitat analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The aim of this study was to understand the spatial distribution of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) according to habitat attributes, using a multiscale approach based on fine- and broad-scale variables in agroecosystems. Location Piracicaba river basin, south-eastern Brazil (22? 00-23? 30 S; 45? 45- 48? 30 W). Methods Potential habitats for capybara were selected in order to evaluate species presence\\/absence

Katia Maria P. M. de Barros Ferraz; Silvio F. de Barros Ferraz; Jos Roberto Moreira; Hilton Thadeu Z. Couto; Luciano M. Verdade



Natural infection with zoonotic subtype of Cryptosporidium parvum in Capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 145 capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) fecal samples from the state of So Paulo, Brazil, were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts using the malachite green method. Eight samples (5.52%) showed positive results and were further submitted to nested PCR reaction for amplification of fragments of 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene for determination of species, alleles and subtypes

Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles; Rodrigo Martins Soares; Fbio Bonello; Solange Maria Gennari



Rickettsial infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from So Paulo, Brazil: serological evidence for infection by Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia parkeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduccin. En Brasil, los capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) son importantes huspedes para garrapatas del gnero Amblyomma, las cuales transmiten rickettsiosis a humanos y animales. Por lo tanto, estos roedores pueden ser potenciales centinelas para detectar infeccin por rickettsia. Objetivos. Este trabajo evalu la infeccin por rickettsia en capibaras de diferentes regiones del estado de So Paulo, donde las rickettsiosis nunca han

Richard C. Pacheco; Mauricio C. Horta; Jonas Moraes-Filho; Alexandre C. Ataliba; Adriano Pinter; Marcelo B. Labruna



Experimental infection of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris by Rickettsia rickettsii and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks Amblyomma cajennense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the infection of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) by Rickettsia rickettsii and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission of R. rickettsii to Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Two groups of two capybaras each were evaluated: on day 0, group 1 (G1) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks, and group 2 (G2) was inoculated intraperitoneally with R. rickettsii. Two

Celso E. Souza; Jonas Moraes-Filho; Maria Ogrzewalska; Franscisco C. Uchoa; Mauricio C. Horta; Savina S. L. Souza; Renata C. M. Borba; Marcelo B. Labruna



Rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense ticks and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area  

PubMed Central

Background Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is the deadliest spotted fever of the world. In most of the BSF-endemic areas, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the principal host for the tick Amblyomma cajennense, which is the main vector of BSF. Methods In 2012, a BSF case was confirmed in a child that was bitten by ticks in a residential park area inhabited by A. cajennense-infested capybaras in It municipality, southeastern Brazil. Host questing A. cajennense adult ticks were collected in the residential park and brought alive to the laboratory, where they were macerated and intraperitoneally inoculated into guinea pigs. A tick-inoculated guinea pig that presented high fever was euthanized and its internal organs were macerated and inoculated into additional guinea pigs (guinea pig passage). Tissue samples from guinea pig passages were also used to inoculate Vero cells through the shell vial technique. Infected cells were used for molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Blood serum samples were collected from 172 capybaras that inhabited the residential park. Sera were tested through the immunofluorescence assay using R. rickettsii antigen. Results A tick-inoculated guinea pig presented high fever accompanied by scrotal reactions (edema and marked redness). These signs were reproduced by consecutive guinea pig passages. Rickettsia was successfully isolated in Vero cells that were inoculated with brain homogenate derived from a 3rd passage-febrile guinea pig. Molecular characterization of this rickettsial isolate (designated as strain ITU) yielded DNA sequences that were all 100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. rickettsii in Genbank. A total of 83 (48.3%) out of 172 capybaras were seroreactive to R. rickettsii, with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 8192. Conclusions A viable isolate of R. rickettsii was obtained from the tick A. cajennense, comprising the first viable R. rickettsi isolate from this tick species during the last 60 years. Nearly half of the capybara population of the residential park was seroreactive to R. rickettsii, corroborating the findings that the local A. cajennense population was infected by R. rickettsii. PMID:24387674



The intertubular compartment morphometry in capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to characterize the intertubule element volume density, individual and total Leydig cells volume, Leydig cell number per testis and per gram of testis, and leydigosomatic index in adult capybaras. Eight capybaras from a commercial abattoir were utilized. The intertubular compartment volume density and the Leydig cells were 45.2 and 31.13%, respectively. The individual

D. S. Costa; T. A. R. Paula; S. L. P. Matta



Seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although capybara is the largest rodent in the world and largely distributed in Central and South America, there is no report in the literature concerning the cycle of seminiferous epithelium in this species. In the present study, the length of spermatogenic cycle was estimated using intratesticular injections of tritiated thymidine. Animals were sacrificed at 1 h, 8 days, and 17

T. A. R. Paula; H. Chiarini-Garcia; L. R. Frana



Capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris rodentia: Hydrochaeridae): A mammalian seagrass herbivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note reports an unknown trophic interaction between a mammalian herbivore, the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and the seagrassRuppia maritima (wigeongrass) and compares the feeding behavior of capybaras to other seagrass grazers. Observations were made in Spring\\u000a 2002 in the Barra Grande, a small, shallow, moderately stratified, bar-built estuary at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State,\\u000a southeast Brazil. The activities of

Joel C. Creed



Life cycle of Amblyomma cooperi (Acari: Ixodidae) using capybaras ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris ) as hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life cycle of Amblyomma cooperi was evaluated under laboratory conditions testing different host species. Larval infestations were performed on chickens\\u000a (Gallus gallus) and capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Nymphal infestations were performed on G. gallus, H. hydrochaeris, guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and wild mice (Calomys callosus). Infestations by adult ticks were performed only on capybaras. All free-living stages were observed in

Marcelo B. Labruna; Adriano Pinter; Rodrigo H. F. Teixeira




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of So Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...


Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from So Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT,

Lcia E. O. Yai; Alessandra M. A. Ragozo; Daniel M. Aguiar; Jos T. Damaceno; Luciana N. Oliveira; J. P. Dubey; Solange M. Gennari




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of So...


Determination of the causes of infanticide in capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) groups in captivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a wild rodent of great economical interest, which are easily domesticated. Breeding these animals in captivity constitutes a great problem due to the high rate of offspring mortality caused by infanticide. To determine the causes of the infanticides, 64 capybara births were analyzed in order to study the relation of offspring deaths with the lack

Selene Siqueira da Cunha Nogueira; Srgio Luiz Gama Nogueira-Filho; Emma Otta; Carlos Tadeu dos Santos Dias; Alessandra de Carvalho



Modeling the population dynamics of capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris: a first step towards a management plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is the largest living rodent, widely distributed in South America, with a considerable potential as an economic resource. There are large populations in the region of Esteros del Ibera that could be exploited in a sustainable manner and contribute positively to the development of the region. Such exploitation requires to be done responsibly and following a specially

Paula Federico; Graciela Ana Canziani



Genetic diversity among capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that Toxoplasma gondii isolates of many domestic hosts from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. However, little is known about genetics of T. gondii isolates from wild mammals in Brazil. In this study, genotypes of 36 T. gondii isolates from capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from six counties in So Paulo

Lucia E. O. Yai; Alessandra M. A. Ragozo; Rodrigo M. Soares; Hilda F. J. Pena; C. Su; Solange M. Gennari



Assessment of capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ) populations in the wetlands of Corrientes, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten sampling sites were selected to represent six distinct habitat types used by capybaras (clean lagoons, dirty lagoons, cutwaters, fens and marshes, gallery forests, and erosion ditches). The sites were sampled during winter (July and August); densities were expressed as number of capybaras per linear km of shoreline (C\\/LKS). The sites were classified as protected from poachers (P), under light

Rubn D. Quintana; Jorge E. Rabinovich



A note on comparative enclosure facility usage by wild and captive-born capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the use of the enclosure facilities (sheltered area, water-tank and exercise area) by wild versus captive-born capybaras. A total of 44 adult capybaras were kept in eight groups: four groups of animals born in the wild and caught as adults and four groups of those born and reared in captivity. Each group comprised one male and four

Selene S. C. Nogueira; La??s G. Bernardi; Srgio L. G. Nogueira-Filho



Histopathology of Tick-Bite Lesions in Naturally Infested Capybaras ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ) in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work features of tick-bite lesions were evaluated in capybaras naturally infested with Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. Gross appearance of tick bite site was characterized by a mild swelling and erythema. Microscopic examination revealed the cement cone, a tube-like homogenous eosinophilic mass penetrating deep into the dermis. This structure was surrounded in the dermis by a

Karin Marie van der Heijden; Matias Pablo Juan Szab; Mizue Imoto Egami; Marcelo Campos Pereira; Eliana Reiko Matushima



Cross checking censuses and a model of the annual cycle of mortality and reproduction in capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved management of capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) for meat and hide production requires better knowledge of the status of the population throughout the year, its density, as well as monthly rates of mortality and reproduction. This study was made on 50,500 ha of a ranch in the Llanos of Venezuela. A model of the annual cycle of mortality and reproduction of

Rexford D. Lord; Veronica R. Lord



Coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig ( Cavia porcellus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, LINNAEUS, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), a close relative. Capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. Undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response.

D. P. S Leito; A. C. M Polizello; Z Rothschild



Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris dabbenei ) oil, horse oil, and sardine oil in cholesterol-fed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various polyunsaturated fatty acids was compared in rats given cholesterol-enriched diets.\\u000a Capybara oil (CO, linoleic+?-linolenic acids), horse oil (HO, ?-linolenic acid), and sardine oil (SO, eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic\\u000a acids) were added to diets at 50 g\\/kg. The weight gain, food intake, and liver weight in the CO-fed group were significantly\\u000a higher than those in other groups during the

Michihiro Fukushima; Yasuyoshi Takayama; Tsuyoshi Habaguchi; Masuo Nakano



Experimental leptospirosis in capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona.  


Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), the largest rodent in the world, is widely distributed in South America. These animals live in areas with abundant water, which makes them a potential reservoir for Leptospira. The objective of this study was to investigate seroconversion, leptospiremia, and leptospiruria in capybaras experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. Seven capybaras were used: one control and six infected. Agglutinins against serovar Pomona were initially detected in serum 6 or 7 day after innoculation with Leptospira (10(9)-10(11) organisms, given i.v.), peaked (titer, approximately 3,200) between 9 and 27 day, and were still present at 83 day (end of study). The earliest and latest isolation of leptospires from the blood was from 2-12 day and from urine, 9-19 day after exposure. However, polymerase chain reaction and isolation results from kidney and liver samples were negative for leptospires. The control animal tested negative on all diagnostic tests. Hence, the capybara can serve as a host for Leptospira. PMID:20063819

Marvulo, Maria Fernanda Vianna; Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Ferreira, Patrcia Marques; de Morais, Zenaide Maria; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Doto, Daniela Sabatini; Paixo, Renata; Baccaro, Maria Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Ferreira Neto, Jos Soares



Detection of a novel hemoplasma based on 16S rRNA gene DNA in captive and free-ranging capybaras ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different species of hemoplasmas, Mycoplasma coccoides and M. haemomuris, are known to infect small rodents such as mice and rats. However, there are no previous reports of hemoplasma infection in capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). The aim of our study was to determine whether these hemoplasmas might infect capybaras from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 31 animals: 10 captive and 21

Rafael F. C. Vieira; Marcelo B. Molento; Leonilda C. dos Santos; Wanderlei Moraes; Zalmir S. Cubas; Andrea P. Santos; Ana M. S. Guimaraes; Ahmed Mohamed; Ivan R. Barros Filho; Alexander W. Biondo; Joanne B. Messick



Survey of broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris, marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus and capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris in the area to be inundated by Porto Primavera Dam, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris, marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus and capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris along the Paran River of southeastern Brazil in the area to be flooded by the Porto Primavera Dam. We conducted night-light counts along 124 km of the Paran River and its tributaries. The mean observed density was 012 caiman per km surveyed. We counted caiman nests,

Guilherme Mouro; Zilca Campos



Anim. Res. 55 (2006) 153164 153 c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2006  

E-print Network

article Reproductive performance of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in captivity under different in memoriam (Received 18 February 2005 ­ Accepted 13 December 2005) Abstract ­ The capybara (Hydrochoerus. Variations in reproductive parameters for the capybaras depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Distribution of Capybaras in an Agroecosystem, Southeastern Brazil, Based on Ecological Niche Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southeastern Brazil has seen dramatic landscape modifications in recent decades, due to expansion of agriculture and urban areas; these changes have influenced the distribution and abundance of vertebrates. We developed predictive models of ecological and spatial distributions of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) using ecological niche modeling. Most occurrences of capybaras were in flat areas with water bodies surrounded by sugarcane and

A. Townsend Peterson; Ricardo Scachetti-Pereira; Carlos A. Vettorazzi; Luciano M. Verdade



A note on the cecotrophy behavior in capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara is a species that is bred for its meat in Brazil due to its elevated reproductive potential and because, being a herbivore, it does not compete directly with humans. Controversies exist regarding cecotrophy behavior in this animal. Cecotrophy is observed in lagomorphs and certain rodents and consists of the ingestion of a specific type of excrement produced in

Alcester Mendes; Selene S. da C Nogueira; Abel Lavorenti; Srgio L. G Nogueira-Filho



Origin of the duplicated ribonuclease gene in guinea-pig: Comparison of the amino acid sequences with those of two close relatives: Capybara and cuis ribonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonuclease from capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and cuis (Galea musteloides) were determined. Both species belong to the same superfamily of the hystricomorph rodents as the guinea-pig. In guineapig\\u000a pancreas two ribonucleases are present as a result of a rencent gene duplication, but in capybara and cuis pancreas only one\\u000a single ribonuclease has been found.

Jaap J. Beintema; Ben Neuteboom



A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.  


Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana). PMID:22063568

Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C



Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid

Claudia Kanashiro; Tatiana C Santos; Maria Angelica Miglino; Andrea M Mess; Anthony M Carter



Twenty?four?hour activity and Coprophagy by Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the 24?hour cycle of activity in Capybaras in the llanos of Venezuela was made using visible red light for nocturnal activity. Observations were made during both the dry and rainy season. In both cases Capybaras showed 4 peaks of activity during the 24?hour cycle, but in the dry season 3 peaks were after dark while in the

Rexford D. Lord




Microsoft Academic Search

AIIsTRA(:T: A bacteriological and serological studs' of 201 wild capybara from the Ilanus, State of Apure, Venezuela was made to isolate Bruce\\/Ia from spleen and lymph node tissues and determine the role of this rodent as a reservoir of this bacteria. Twenty-three isolations were made, eight were identified as B. abortus and 15 as B. suis by oxidative metabolic techniques.

Veronica R. Lord



Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)  

PubMed Central

Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes) separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast and syncytial streamers derived from the subplacenta. Conclusion All important characteristics of placental development and organization in the capybara resembled those found in smaller hystricognath rodents including the guinea pig. These features apparently do not dependent on body size. Clearly, placentation in hystricognaths adheres to an extraordinarily stable pattern suggesting they can be used interchangeably as models of human placenta. PMID:19493333

Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M



Assessment of historical fecal contamination in Curitiba, Brazil, in the last 400 years using fecal sterols.  


A 400-year sedimentary record of the Barigui River was investigated using fecal biomarkers and nutrient distribution. The temporal variability in cholesterol, cholestanol, coprostanol, epicoprostanol, stigmastanol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol, sitosterol, and campesterol between 1600 and 2011 was assessed. Anthropogenic influences, such as deforestation and fecal contamination from humans and livestock, were observed from 1840. The sterol ratios exhibit evidence of hens, horses, cows, and an unknown herbivore, which may be a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), from 1820 and has been observed more markedly from 1970 onward. Human fecal contamination was detected from 1840 and was observed more markedly from 1930 due to population growth. Thus, the sanitation conditions and demographic growth of Curitiba seemed to be the main factors of human sewage pollution, as the coprostanol concentration over time was strongly correlated with the population growth (r=0.71, p<0.001) although diagenetic processes have also been observed.(1.) PMID:25016471

Machado, Karina S; Froehner, Sandro; Snez, Juan; Figueira, Rubens C L; Ferreira, Paulo A L



Placentation in the Capybara ( Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris ), Agouti ( Dasyprocta aguti ) and Paca ( Agouti paca )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placentae of three hystricimorph rodentscapybara, agouti and pacawere examined by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, and TUNEL staining. The placentae were divided into lobules of labyrinthine syncytium separated by interlobular and marginal trophoblast. The subplacenta comprised cytotrophoblasts, supported on lamellae of allantoic mesoderm, and syncytiotrophoblast. The central excavation was still apparent in the definitive placenta of capybara. In

M. A. Miglino; A. M. Carter; R. H. Dos Santos Ferraz; M. R. Fernandes Machado



Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070



Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.  


Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of So Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

Szab, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B



Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi in ticks from Cordoba, Colombia.  


The purpose of this study was to provide molecular evidence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from 2 sites of Cordoba. From May to June 2009, 1069 Amblyomma cajennense ticks were removed from 40 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a rural locality of Monteria. Furthermore, 458 Amblyomma sp. larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs were collected in a rural locality of Los Cordobas (Cordoba) by drag sampling on vegetation (n=1547). Ticks were grouped into pools and tested for rickettsial infection by real-time PCR targeting the rickettsial gene gltA. Subsequently, PCR targeting for gltA, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 10 (4.6%) out of 214 pools of ticks by RT-PCR. Five (33%) of free-living Amblyomma sp. larval pools were positive, as well as 5 (2.6%) pools from A. cajennense. Only the gltA gene was amplified from 5 pools of free-living larvae. The nucleotide sequences were 100% identical to R. bellii by BLAST. Only one pool from A. cajennense was positive for gltA, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA. The partial nucleotide sequences of these genes were 100% identical to nucleotide sequences of the same genes of a new proposed species Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. This is the first report of R. bellii in ticks in Colombia and the second report of detection of Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. These Rickettsia species are still considered of unknown pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to characterize the ecological and potential pathogenic role of these 2 Rickettsia species found in Cordoba. PMID:24378078

Miranda, Jorge; Mattar, Salim



Rickettsial infection in ticks collected from road-killed wild animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


During 2008-2010, ticks were collected from road-killed wild animals within the Serra dos Orgos National Park area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 193 tick specimens were collected, including Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann and Amblyomma cajennense (F.) from four Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann and A. cajennense from four Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) and A. cajennense from five Cerdocyon thous L., Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) from one Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier), Amblyomma varium Koch from three Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and A. cajennense from one Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham). Molecular analyses based on polymerase chain reaction targeting two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA) on tick DNA extracts showed that 70.6% (12/17) of the A. dubitatum adult ticks, and all Amblyomma sp. nymphal pools collected from capybaras were shown to contain rickettsial DNA, which after DNA sequencing, revealed to be 100% identical to the recently identified Rickettsia sp. strain Pampulha from A. dubitatum ticks collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis with concatenated sequences (gltA-ompA) showed that our sequence from A. dubitatum ticks, referred to Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgos, segregated under 99% bootstrap support in a same cluster with Old World rickettsiae, namely R. tamurae, R. monacensis, and Rickettsia sp. strain 774e. Because A. dubitatum is known to bite humans, the potential role of Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgos as human pathogen must be taken into account, because both R. tamurae and R. monacencis have been reported infecting human beings. PMID:23270184

Spolidorio, Mariana G; Andreoli, Guilherme S; Martins, Thiago F; Brando, Paulo E; Labruna, Marcelo B



Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of So Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the cityforest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

Szab, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.



Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.  


In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

Baa Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimares, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick



Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae).  


We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level. PMID:20084537

Nava, Santiago; Venzal, Jos M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Gonzlez, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A



Seasonal dynamics and hosts of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) in Argentina.  


The seasonal dynamics and host usage of Amblyomma triste in Argentina were analyzed. Adults of A. triste were present from early winter to mid-summer, with the peak of abundance from late winter to mid-spring (August to October). Larvae and nymphs were found from December to June, with the peak of abundance in summer. There were no differences among the biological parameters (pre-moult period of larvae and nymphs, pre-oviposition period of females, and minimum incubation period of eggs) of engorged ticks exposed to different photoperiod regimens at the laboratory, but the periods for each biological parameter obtained from ticks exposed in the field were significantly longer than those from the laboratory. Field results fit better with the data of seasonal distribution of each stage. Morphogenetic diapause was not detected, but complementary studies should test the presence of behavioral diapause. Rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Akodon azarae, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus rufus and Scapteromys aquaticus) are the principal hosts for immature stages of A. triste, the caviid Cavia aperea could be another potential host for these stages, and birds are exceptional hosts for larvae and nymphs. Regarding hosts of adults in Argentina, domestic and wild large-sized mammals belonging to different orders (cattle, dog, horse, Blastocerus dichotomus and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) serve as hosts for adults of this tick species. In conclusion, A. triste has a life cycle of 1 year with adults feeding on large endemic and introduced mammals and immature stages using sigmodontine and caviid rodents as hosts. PMID:21536384

Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Venzal, Jos M; Fracassi, Natalia; Guglielmone, Alberto A



Comparisons between Brains of a Large and a Small Hystricomorph Rodent: Capybara, Hydrochoerus and Guinea Pig, Cavia;Neocortical Projection Regions and Measurements of Brain Subdivisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic sensory, auditory and visual areas of cerebral neocortex were mapped in anesthetized capybaras using surface macroelectrode-evoked potential recording methods. The cortical motor area was mapped using electrical stimulation methods. The results of these experiments in the largest living rodent were similar to those found for the cortical sensory and motor areas of guinea pigs, a small rodent in a

G. B. Campos; W. I. Welker



Sustainability of a constructed wetland faced with a depredation event.  


A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) designed for effluent treatment was dominated by the emergent macrophyte Typha domingensis reaching a cover of roughly 80% for 5 years. Highly efficient metal and nutrient removal was reported during this period. In June 2009, a population of approximately 30 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) caused the complete depredation of the aerial parts of macrophytes. However, plant roots and rhizomes were not damaged. After depredation stopped, T.domingensis showed a luxuriant growth, reaching a cover of 60% in 30 days. The objective of this work was to evaluate the sustainability of the CW subjected to an extreme event. Removal efficiency of the system was compared during normal operation, during the depredation event and over the subsequent recovery period. The CW efficiently retained contaminants during all the periods studied. However, the best efficiencies were registered during the normal operation period. There were no significant differences between the performances of the CW over the last two periods, except for BOD. The mean removal percentages during normal operation/depredation event/recovery period, were: 84.9/73.2/74.7% Cr; 66.7/48.0/51.2% Ni; 97.2/91.0/89.4% Fe; 50.0/46.8/49.5% Zn; 81.0/84.0/80.4% NO3(-); 98.4/93.4/84.1% NO2(-); 73.9/28.2/53.2% BOD and 75.4/40.9/44.6% COD. SRP and TP presented low removal efficiencies. Despite the anoxic conditions, contaminants were not released from sediment, accumulating in fractions that proved to be stable faced with changes in the operating conditions of the CW. T.domingensis showed an excellent growth response, consequently the period without aerial parts lasted a few months and the CW could recover its normal operation. Plants continued retaining contaminants in their roots and the sediment increased its retention capacity, balancing the operating capacity of the system. This was probably due to the fact that the CW had reached its maturity, with a complete root-rhizome development. These results demonstrated that faced with an incidental problem, this mature CW was capable of maintaining its efficiency and recovering its vegetation, demonstrating the robustness of these treatment systems. PMID:23694854

Maine, M A; Hadad, H R; Snchez, G C; Mufarrege, M M; Di Luca, G A; Caffaratti, S E; Pedro, M C



Detection of Neospora caninum DNA in capybaras and phylogenetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of rodents in the sylvatic cycle of Neospora sp. and in the neosporosis epidemiology is still uncertain. The aim of the present work was to detect Neosporacaninum and to determine its prevalence in capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), to help elucidate the role of this rodent in the life cycle of the parasite. N.caninum DNA was detected by PCR using

Jess Henrique Truppel; Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira; Rogrio Ribas Lange; Ricardo Guilherme D'Otaviano de Castro Vilani; Larissa Reifur; Walter Boerger; Magda Clara Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol



Digestive physiology of wild capybara  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a hindgut fermenter whose digestive efficiency is comparable to that of ruminants on similar diets. It is an interesting case for study because it is the largest caecum fermenter and uses coprophagy as part of its digestive strategy. It practices coprophagy in the early morning and forages and defaecates in the evening. Its anatomy is

P. A. Borges; M. G. Dominguez-Bello; E. A. Herrera



Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in

Leonilda Correia dos Santos; Sandra Mara Rotter Curotto; Wanderlei de Moraes; Zalmir Silvino Cubas; Maria de Jesus Costa-Nascimento; Ivan Roque de Barros Filho; Alexander Welker Biondo; Karin Kirchgatter



Estimate of size and total number of neurons in superior cervical ganglion of rat, capybara and horse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior (cranial) cervical ganglion was investigated by light microscopy in adult rats, capybaras ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) and horses. The ganglia were vascularly perfused, embedded in resin and cut into semi-thin sections. An unbiased stereological procedure (disector method) was used to estimate ganglion neuron size, total number of ganglion neurons, neuronal density. The volume of the ganglion was 0.5mm 3

Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel Ribeiro; Christine Davis; Giorgio Gabella



A preliminary investigation of Ehrlichia species in ticks, humans, dogs, and capybaras from Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular epidemiologic investigation in two Brazilian states (Rondnia and So Paulo) was undertaken to determine if Ehrlichia species responsible for human and animal ehrlichioses in North America could be found in Brazilian vectors, potential natural mammalian reservoirs and febrile human patients with a tick bite history. Samples, including 376 ticks comprising 9 Amblyomma species, 29 capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) spleens,

Marcelo B. Labruna; Jere W. McBride; Luis Marcelo A. Camargo; Daniel M. Aguiar; Michael J. Yabsley; William R. Davidson; Ellen Y. Stromdahl; Phillip C. Williamson; Roger W. Stich; S. Wesley Long; Erney P. Camargo; David H. Walker



Life cycle and host specificity of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report biological data of two generations of Amblyomma triste in laboratory and compared the suitability of different host species. Infestations by larval and nymphal stages were performed\\u000a on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), chickens (Gallus gallus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), wild mice (Calomys callosus), dogs (Canis familiaris) and capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Infestations by adult ticks were performed on

Marcelo B. Labruna; Eric Y. M. Fugisaki; Adriano Pinter; Jos Maurcio B. Duarte; Matias J. P. Szab



Kurloff Cells in Peripheral Blood and Organs of Wild Capybaras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral blood and tissue from twenty-two free-ranging, hunter-killed capybar- as (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) collected be- tween December 1996 and April 1997 in Cas- anare, Colombia (58589N and 718339W), were examined by light microscopy for Kurloff cells (KCs). Kurloff cells were observed in the blood of one pregnant adult female, and in organs from all the animals, including spleen (21 of 22

Luis Fernando Jara; Jairo Mauricio Sanchez; Hernan Alvarado; Fernando Nassar-Montoya


This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and  

E-print Network

:// #12;Author's personal copy Purification and characterization of transducin from capybara Hydrochoerus-exchange chromatography, capybara T showed light- dependent ,-imido-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GMPPNP) binding and GTPase, and was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin. Capybara T bound GMPPNP with an apparent Kd of 18 n



Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine if the absence of vitamin C in the diet of capybaras (Hydro- choerus hydrochaeris) causes scurvy, a group of seven young individuals were fed food pellets without ascorbic acid, while another group of eight individuals received the same food with 1 g of ascorbic acid per animal per day. Animals in the first group developed signs

Gerardo Ruben Cueto; Roman Allekotte; Fernando Osvaldo Kravetz


Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.  


From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa. PMID:12563479

Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Ctia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dnis A



Comparative study on the forefoot and hindfoot intrinsic muscles of some cavioidea rodents (Mammalia, Rodentia).  


The present study compares the forefoot and hindfoot musculature of five representative species of Cavioidea rodents. In all species, the musculature of both forefeet and hindfeet have the same array regardless of the absence of digit I in the manus of Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris and Cavia porcellus. Our results suggest a tendency in these species towards a three-digit system, with a functional loss of digit V and a predominance of digit III in their forefeet. In the same way, the muscular reduction of digit I in the other rodents analyzed indicates a four-digit system with predominance of digit II in Myoprocta acouchy and Dasyprocta leporina and of digit V in Agouti paca. There seems to be an association between the muscular arrangement and functional axis of the foot, raising the general question why this axis runs between the third and forth digit, or along the third digit. PMID:17008077

Rocha-Barbosa, Oscar; Loguercio, Mariana F C; Renous, Sabine; Gasc, Jean-Pierre



Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.  


From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Arago on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080

Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Dbora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B



[Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mrio Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].  


We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mrio Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

Rocha, Ednaldo Cndido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastio Venncio; Barreto, Francisco Cndido Cardoso



Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of So Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of So Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288



Diversification and biogeography of the Neotropical caviomorph lineage Octodontoidea (Rodentia: Hystricognathi).  


The rodent superfamily Octodontoidea comprises 6 families, 38 genera, and 193 living species of spiny rats, tuco-tucos, degus, hutias, and their relatives. All are endemic to the Neotropical Region where they represent roughly three-quarters of extant caviomorphs. Although caviomorph monophyly is well established and phylogenetic hypotheses exist for several families, understanding of octodontoid relationships is clouded by sparse taxon sampling and single-gene analyses. We examined sequence variation in one mitochondrial (12S rRNA) and three nuclear genes (vWF, GHR, and RAG1) across all caviomorph families (including 47 octodontoid species), all phiomorph families, and the sole remaining hystricognath family, using the gundi (Ctenodactylus) and springhaas (Pedetes) as outgroups. Our analyses support the monophyly of Phiomorpha, Caviomorpha, and the caviomorph superfamilies Cavioidea (Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae, and Caviidae, the latter including Hydrochoerus), Erethizontoidea, Chinchilloidea (including Dinomyidae), and Octodontoidea. Cavioids and erethizontoids are strongly supported as sisters, whereas chinchilloids appear to be sister to octodontoids. Among octodontoids, Abrocomidae is consistently recovered as the basal element, sister to a pair of strongly supported clades; one includes Octodontidae and Ctenomyidae as reciprocally monophyletic lineages, whereas the other includes taxa currently allocated to Echimyidae, Capromyidae and Myocastoridae. Capromys appears near the base of this clade, in keeping with current classification, but Myocastor is nested securely inside a clade of Echimyidae that also contains eumysopines, echimyines and dactylomyines. Another, more weakly supported clade of Echimyidae contains fossorial and scansorial taxa from the Chaco-Cerrado-Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest. Biogeographic analyses robustly recover the Patagonia-Southern Andes complex as ancestral for the Octodontoidea, with three component lineages emerging by the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (?23Ma): (1) stem abrocomids in the Central and Southern Andes; (2) a lineage leading to octodontids plus ctenomyids in Patagonia, later dispersing into the Chaco-Cerrado-Caatinga; and (3) a lineage leading to echimyids, capromyids, and myocastorids that subsequently radiated in more mesic biomes, including Amazonia, Atlantic Forest, and the Antilles. This reconstruction refutes earlier ideas that the diverse, generalized, mainly lowland family Echimyidae, which appears early in the fossil record, gave rise to the Andean lineages of octodontoids-instead, the reverse derivation appears to be true. We recommend formal synonymy of Myocastoridae with Echimyidae but defer a similar treatment of Capromyidae until additional hutia taxa and sequences can be analyzed. PMID:22327013

Upham, Nathan S; Patterson, Bruce D



Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajs National Forest, Brazil.  


In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July) and two in the dry season (September and November) in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (X2=23.79, df=5, p<0.001). A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267) or between communities (N=6, t=-5, p=0.42), although SLo Francisco das Chagas have significantly higher consumption of game meat (X2=370.41, df=25, p<0.001). Fishing is an activity of paramount importance to these communities, and factors that lead to decreased availability of fish may lead to subsequent increase in hunting pressure. For the conservation of preserve of both wildlife natural resources and practices of subsistence of riverine communities of the Tapajs National Forest, it is necessary to ensure the maintenance of fish stocks and the protection of the Tapajs River areas large enough to maintain viable populations of wild animals and more tolerant to hunting and habitat loss. PMID:23894979

Fonseca, Raphael Alves; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito