Sample records for hydrochoerus hydrochaeris isthmius

  1. Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Pezzone, Natalia; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Fernández, Analia; Garbaccio, Sergio; Zumárraga, Martín; Gioffré, Andrea; Magni, Carolina; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marini, M Rocío; Canal, Ana M


    This report describes the first case of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection with typical granulomatous lesions of mycobacteriosis in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). The individual was a captive-bred young female, part of the control group of an experimental study on stress. Multiple granulomatous lesions were detected in a mesenteric lymph node of this young female. Mycobacterial infection was confirmed by bacteriologic culture and molecular identification methods. Clinical lesions were characterized by histopathology. PMID:24450078

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma


    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma


    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  4. Evaluation of three immobilization combinations in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    King, Jay D; Congdon, Elizabeth; Tosta, Carolina


    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodent. Owing to its uniqueness, 50 AZA institutions in North America display this species. As shown by a survey, no standard anesthetic protocol has been developed for this species. As a part of an ongoing behavioral study in Venezuela, capybaras were surgically implanted with radio transmitters. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the three immobilization protocols: (1) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl, (2) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl, and (3) Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl/Butorphanol tartrate. The protocol recommended for minimally invasive procedures when inhalant anesthetics are unavailable is a combination of Tiletamine HCl/Zolazepam HCl/Medetomidine HCl/Butorphanol tartrate. This is based on ease of administration, volume, onset of action, depth of anesthetic achieved, reversibility, safety, and costs. PMID:19645047

  5. Natural infestation of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris by Amblyomma dubitatum ticks.


    Debárbora, Valeria N; Mangold, Atilio J; Eberhardt, Ayelén; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago


    Natural infestation of Amblyomma dubitatum in relation to individual specific attributes of Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris such as sex, body mass and body condition was analyzed. The anatomical distribution of A. dubitatum on H. hyrochaeris was also evaluated. Prevalence of adults and nymphs were significantly higher than prevalence of larvae. Non-significant differences in the infestation levels were found among host sex. Multiple regression analysis did not show any statistically significant association among the level of infestation with ticks and body mass and body condition of the host. All parasitic tick stages were collected in all five anatomical areas of the host, but they exhibited significant differences in feeding site preference. Factors associated to the host which determine the high levels of infestation with A. dubitatum could be assigned to a combination of population-level properties of the host as abundance, ubiquity and aggregation, rather than individual specific attributes related to body condition, body mass or sex. PMID:24469297

  6. Purification and characterization of transducin from capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.


    Ortiz, Julio O; Rodríguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Bubis, José


    Polypeptides of approximately 39, 36 and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membranes following extensive isotonic and hypotonic washes, and were specifically released in the presence of GTP. These results identified them as the alpha-, beta-and gamma-subunits of transducin (T). Once purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography, capybara T showed light-dependent beta,gamma-imido-guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GMPPNP) binding and GTPase activities in the presence of bovine rhodopsin, was recognized by anti-bovine T polyclonal antibodies, and was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin. Capybara T bound GMPPNP with an apparent Kd of 18 nM, and the Scatchard and Hill plots revealed positive cooperativity for binding to photoactivated rhodopsin. Using a coupled enzymatic spectrophotometric assay, the initial velocity of its intrinsic light-dependent GTP hydrolytic capacity was calculated to be 0.1 mol of GTP hydrolyzed/min/mol of capybara T. Additionally, chromatography on omega-amino octylagarose of GTPgammaS-extracted capybara T demonstrated that this protein is composed by two functional units, the alpha-subunit and the betagamma-complex. All these results showed that capybara T possesses similar characteristics to other reported transducins. Interestingly, T is the first protein involved in phototransduction that is purified and characterized from H. hydrochaeris. PMID:17855138

  7. Intestinal helminths of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from Venezuela.


    Salas, Viviana; Herrera, Emilio A


    Quantitative parameters of intestinal helminth species and their potential relations to host characteristics in a population of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Venezuela are reported for the first time. The intestines of 40 capybaras were collected during the 1992-annual harvest at Hato El Cedral. Six helminth species were found: 2 cestodes (Monoecocestus macrobursatum, M. hagmanni), 2 nematodes (Viannella hydrochoeri, Protozoophaga obesa), and 2 trematodes (Hippocrepis hippocrepis, Taxorchis schistocotyle). This is the first report for M. macrobursatum in Venezuela. Helminth abundance did not differ between sexes or age classes. Although patterns of distribution for all helminth species were overdispersed, the high prevalence found for all species (over 70%) and the high abundance observed for nematodes made it difficult to assess the effect that these helminths may produce on capybaras. Nevertheless, the negative associations found between the body condition of capybaras and helminth intensity for M. macrobursatum and V. hydrochoeri, might be pointing out potential host population regulatory role for these parasites which require further research. PMID:15558163

  8. Acute phase protein response in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Bernal, Luis; Feser, Mariane; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; García-Martínez, Juan D; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando


    We evaluated the acute phase protein response in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Three animal groups were used: 1) healthy animals (n=30), 2) a group in which experimental inflammation with turpentine was induced (n=6), and 3) a group affected with sarcoptic scabies (n=14) in which 10 animals were treated with ivermectin. Haptoglobin (Hp), acid-soluble glycoprotein (ASG) and albumin were analyzed in all animals. In those treated with turpentine, Hp reached its maximum value at 2 wk with a 2.7-fold increase, whereas ASG increased 1.75-fold and albumin decreased 0.87-fold 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Capybaras affected with sarcoptic scabies presented increases in Hp and ASG of 4.98- and 3.18-fold, respectively, and a 0.87-fold decrease in albumin, compared with healthy animals. Haptoglobin and ASG can be considered as moderate, positive acute phase proteins in capybaras because they showed less than 10-fold increases after an inflammatory process and reached their peak concentrations 1 wk after the induction of inflammation. Conversely, albumin can be considered a negative acute phase protein in capybaras because it showed a reduction in concentration after inflammatory stimulus. PMID:22102653

  9. Vascular damage caused by Cruorifilaria tuberocauda in the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Morales, G A; Guzmań, V H; Angel, D


    Infection with Cruorifilaria tuberocauda caused vascular damage in the kidneys, lungs and heart of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). The most significant lesions observed were in the renal and pulmonary arteries. They consisted of villous endarteritis, intimal and medial hypertrophy of the vessel walls, and large rugose protuberances that encroached upon the lumen leading to pyramidal infarcts in the kidneys. Coronary vascular lesions were related to dead and calcified parasites. PMID:633511

  10. The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) as a reservoir host for Trypanosoma evansi.


    Morales, G A; Wells, E A; Angel, D


    Discovery of two ill horses and three dogs naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi near an experimental station in the Eastern Plains of Colombia led to a search for reservoir hosts of the parasite. Infection was detected in 8/33 healthy capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), none of the remaining 14 horses, and none of 32 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus), 18 paca (Cuniculus paca) and 20 spiny rats (Proechimys sp.). Contrary to common opinion, the results indicated a carrier state in the capybara. Diagnosis was based on morphology, behaviour in albino rats, and pathogenicity and host range in domestic animals. PMID:16502701

  11. Rumen ophryoscolecid protozoa in the hindgut of the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Dehority, B A


    Rumen ophryoscolecid protozoa were observed in feces obtained from two capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) housed at the Columbus Zoo, Columbus, Ohio. Total numbers were 58.1 X 10(4) and 19.0 X 10(4) per gram of wet feces in a male and female capybara, respectively. Four common rumen species of Entodinium were observed in the feces from both animals, with low numbers of Eudiplodinium maggii and Elytroplastron bubali also occurring in the male. Establishment of rumen ophryoscolecid ciliates in the intestinal tract of non-ruminant herbivores has not been reported previously. PMID:3108491

  12. Differences in natural antibody titres comparing free-ranging guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Racca, Andrea L; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Moreno, Pablo G; Baldi, Cecilia; Beldomenico, Pablo M


    Natural antibodies are an important component of innate humoral immunity but have not been investigated to any great extent in wild mammals. In the current study, serum natural antibody titres were measured by hemagglutination assay for two South American herbivores, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris). Results indicated that capybaras had antibody titres on average more than four times higher than guanacos (median titres 1:256 and 1:4, respectively), suggesting differences in investment in constitutive humoral immunity between the two species. PMID:24321369

  13. A fibrosarcoma in the skeletal muscle of a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Stoffregen, D A; Prowten, A W; Steinberg, H; Anderson, W I


    An 8-yr-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), a resident of an urban zoological collection in upstate New York (USA), had a mass posteroventral to its left stifle; it was of unknown duration. The mass was a fibrosarcoma based on invasive sheets of interwoven spindle-shaped neoplastic cells with moderate associated extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers. Supportive immunohistochemical staining was positive for vimentin but negative for cytokeratins, desmin, and myoglobin. The animal subsequently died of unknown causes. This is the first known report of a neoplasm in a capybara. PMID:8487388

  14. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.


    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M


    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids. J. Morphol. 277:286-305, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26626863

  15. [Genetic structure of a group of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae) in the Colombian Eastern Llanos].


    Maldonado-Chaparro, Adriana; Bernal-Parra, Luz Mery; Forero-Acosta, Gustavo; Ruiz-Garcia, Manuel


    The capybaras are the biggest rodents in the world but, however, there are not extensive population genetics studies on them. In the current work, we studied the genetic structure of a troop of 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) sampled in Hato Corozal, Casanare Department at the Colombian Eastern Llanos, by means of five microsatellite markers. The gene diversity was 0.61 and the average allele number was 5.2, which is a medium-low level for markers of this nature. Out five markers employed, three were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium meanwhile one showed a significant homozygote excess and other presented a significant heterozygote excess. There were not significant genetic differences between males and females inside this troop. The application of different procedures to determine possible historical demographic changes (population expansions or bottlenecks) clearly showed that the population analyzed crossed over a very narrow recent bottleneck. The illegal hunt is the possibly cause of this strong genetic bottleneck. PMID:22208092

  16. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from a nonendemic area in Brazil.


    Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Soares, João Fabio; Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia


    In South America, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) as well as coatis (Nasua nasua) are the reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma evansi. Capybaras from a T. evansi nonendemic area in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, were culled because of an ongoing outbreak of Brazilian spotted fever; serum samples from these capybaras were tested for antibodies to T. evansi. Of the 172 sera tested, 17 (9.9%) were seropositive by card agglutination test, with antibody titers of 1:8-1:128; 14 (8.1%) of these 17 seropositive sera were also seropositive by indirect fluorescent antibody test, with antibody titers of 1:16-1:256. Both serologic techniques proved to be efficient, with similar results for detection of antibodies to T. evansi in capybaras from a nonendemic area in Brazil. PMID:26965238

  17. Bacterial diversity in the cecum of the world's largest living rodent (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    García-Amado, M Alexandra; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren M; Andersen, Gary L; Herrera, Emilio A; Domínguez-Bello, Maria G


    The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the world's largest living rodent. Native to South America, this hindgut fermenter is herbivorous and coprophagous and uses its enlarged cecum to digest dietary plant material. The microbiota of specialized hindgut fermenters has remained largely unexplored. The aim of this work was to describe the composition of the bacterial community in the fermenting cecum of wild capybaras. The analysis of bacterial communities in the capybara cecum is a first step towards the functional characterization of microbial fermentation in this model of hindgut fermentation. We sampled cecal contents from five wild adult capybaras (three males and two females) in the Venezuelan plains. DNA from cecal contents was extracted, the 16S rDNA was amplified, and the amplicons were hybridized onto a DNA microarray (G2 PhyloChip). We found 933 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 182 families in 21 bacterial phyla in the capybara cecum. The core bacterial microbiota (present in at least four animals) was represented by 575 OTUs. About 86% of the cecal bacterial OTUs belong to only five phyla, namely, Firmicutes (322 OTUs), Proteobacteria (301 OTUs), Bacteroidetes (76 OTUs), Actinobacteria (69 OTUs), and Sphirochaetes (37 OTUs). The capybara harbors a diverse bacterial community that includes lineages involved in fiber degradation and nitrogen fixation in other herbivorous animals. PMID:22083250

  18. Natural infection with zoonotic subtype of Cryptosporidium parvum in Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Brazil.


    Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Bonello, Fábio; Gennari, Solange Maria


    A total of 145 capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) fecal samples from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts using the malachite green method. Eight samples (5.52%) showed positive results and were further submitted to nested PCR reaction for amplification of fragments of 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene for determination of species, alleles and subtypes of Cryptosporidium. Sequencing of the PCR products of the 18S rRNA gene fragments and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene fragments showed that for both genes all Cryptosporidium isolates from capybara were respectively 100% genetically similar to a bovine isolate of C. parvum and to C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in this rodent. The finding of zoonotic C. parvum infection in a semi-aquatic mammal that inhabits anthroponotic habitats raises the concern that human water supplies may be contaminated with zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts from wildlife. PMID:17467175

  19. Health evaluation and survey of zoonotic pathogens in free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Chiacchio, Rosely Gioia-Di; Prioste, Fabiola Eloisa Setim; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Knöbl, Terezinha; Kolber, Milton; Miyashiro, Samantha Ive; Matushima, Eliana Reiko


    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the world's largest rodents and play an epidemiologic role in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including the causative agents of Brazilian spotted fever, leptospirosis, and others. We surveyed the health of 31 free-ranging capybaras at the Alberto Löfgren State Park, São Paulo, Brazil using a variety of diagnostic methods. Hematology and serum chemistry were consistent with mild malnutrition and parasitism but did not indicate severe physiologic imbalance or disease. All animals were serologically negative for Rickettsia rickettsii, Leishmania spp., and Trypanosoma sp., but antibodies against rabies virus (71%), Leptospira sp. (26%), and Toxoplasma sp. (23%) were detected. Salmonella sp. was not cultured from fecal samples. Frequently cultured enterobacteria included Escherichia coli (61%), Enterococcus casseiflavus (35%), Enterococcus faecalis (35%), Enterobacter aerogenes (32%), Klebisella pneumoniae (32%), and Serratia marcescens (32%). No potentially pathogenic fungi were cultured from hair samples. Fecal parasitology revealed infection by Protozoophaga sp. (58%), Viannella spp. (23%), Strongyloides spp. (10%), and Ancilostomatidae (10%). A total of 218 ticks was retrieved from the animals: Amblyomma sp. larvae and nymphs (43%), A. dubitatum adults (52%), and A. cajennense adults (5%). The capybaras were free from most potentially zoonotic pathogens evaluated; however, the presence of Amblyomma spp. ticks (potential vectors of Rickettsia spp.) and indirect evidence of exposure to the rabies virus, Leptospira sp., and Toxoplasma sp. warrant the maintenance of public health programs and wildlife health monitoring. PMID:24779462

  20. Cruorifilaria tuberocauda gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris in colombia.


    Eberhard, M L; Morales, G A; Orihel, T C


    Cruorifilaria tuberocauda gen. et sp. n. is described from blood vessels of the kidney, heart, and lungs of the capybara, Hyrochoerus hydrochaeris, in Colombia, S.A. The adult worms are robust, of moderate size (females approximately 42 mm long, males about 27 mm long), and tapered at both ends. The males have unequal, dissimilar spicules, lack a gubernaculum and possess both pre- and postanal papillae. The unsheathed microfilaria is found in the peripheral blood. Even though a severe tissue response is seen in the walls of the blood vessels occupied by the adult worms, it appears to be a common parasite in the population of capybaras surveyed. PMID:957038

  1. Rickettsial infection in Amblyomma cajennense ticks and capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area

    PubMed Central


    Background Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, is the deadliest spotted fever of the world. In most of the BSF-endemic areas, capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the principal host for the tick Amblyomma cajennense, which is the main vector of BSF. Methods In 2012, a BSF case was confirmed in a child that was bitten by ticks in a residential park area inhabited by A. cajennense-infested capybaras in Itú municipality, southeastern Brazil. Host questing A. cajennense adult ticks were collected in the residential park and brought alive to the laboratory, where they were macerated and intraperitoneally inoculated into guinea pigs. A tick-inoculated guinea pig that presented high fever was euthanized and its internal organs were macerated and inoculated into additional guinea pigs (guinea pig passage). Tissue samples from guinea pig passages were also used to inoculate Vero cells through the shell vial technique. Infected cells were used for molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, and ompB). Blood serum samples were collected from 172 capybaras that inhabited the residential park. Sera were tested through the immunofluorescence assay using R. rickettsii antigen. Results A tick-inoculated guinea pig presented high fever accompanied by scrotal reactions (edema and marked redness). These signs were reproduced by consecutive guinea pig passages. Rickettsia was successfully isolated in Vero cells that were inoculated with brain homogenate derived from a 3rd passage-febrile guinea pig. Molecular characterization of this rickettsial isolate (designated as strain ITU) yielded DNA sequences that were all 100% identical to corresponding sequences of R. rickettsii in Genbank. A total of 83 (48.3%) out of 172 capybaras were seroreactive to R. rickettsii, with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 8192. Conclusions A viable isolate of R. rickettsii was obtained from the tick A. cajennense, comprising the first viable R. rickettsi isolate from this tick species during the last 60 years. Nearly half of the capybara population of the residential park was seroreactive to R. rickettsii, corroborating the findings that the local A. cajennense population was infected by R. rickettsii. PMID:24387674

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum in Capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, from São Paulo State, Brazil.


    Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Yai, Lucia Eiko Oishi; Rosypal, Alexa C; Lindsay, David S


    Little is known about the importance of capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, as reservoirs for parasites of zoonotic or veterinary importance. Sera from 63 capybaras, from 6 counties in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were examined for antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, and Neospora caninum using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Five (8%) of the 63 capybaras had antibodies to T. cruzi epimastigotes. None of the samples from capybara reacted positively with L. infantum promastigotes or with spores of E. cuniculi . Two (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to S. neurona merozoites, and 2 (3%) of the serum samples were positive for antibodies to N. caninum tachyzoites. A serum sample from 1 capybara was positive for antibodies to both T. cruzi and N. caninum. None of the remaining 62 samples reacted with more than 1 parasite. PMID:20020808

  3. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Itu Municipality, São Paulo.


    Abreu, Juliana Aizawa Porto de; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Nunes, Fernanda Passos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus


    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are the largest rodents found in South America. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in 170 free-living capybaras in a residential park area in Itu Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for T. gondii (IFAT ≥ 1:16) and N. caninum (IFAT ≥ 1:50). Among the 170 samples analyzed, 10% (17/170) and 0% (0/170) were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. This study confirms the widespread presence of T. gondii and reinforces the role of capybaras in the life cycle of this parasite. Capybaras may not be important as intermediate hosts of N. caninum in the studied environment. PMID:26982562

  4. [Dipetalonema (Alafilaria) hydrochoerus Yates (1983)].


    Campo-Aasen, I


    Four filariae are known to parasitize the capybara "Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris" namely the "Cruorifilaria tuberocauda", Eberhard, Morales & Orihel, 1976; the "Dipetalonema (Alafilaria) hydrochoerus", Yates & Jorgenson, 1983, and "Mansonella longicapita" and "Mansonella rotundicapita [corrected]", Eberhard, Campo-Aasen & Orihel, 1983. In this study we describe briefly the adult parasites and, the microfilaria of the species "Dipetalonema (Alafilaria) hydrochoerus" which were isolated from skin nips and we have found that the capybara "Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris" is parasitized in a proportion of 80% in the 16 animals studied. PMID:3528706

  5. Experimental infection of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris by Rickettsia rickettsii and evaluation of the transmission of the infection to ticks Amblyomma cajennense.


    Souza, Celso E; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Uchoa, Franscisco C; Horta, Mauricio C; Souza, Savina S L; Borba, Renata C M; Labruna, Marcelo B


    The present study evaluated the infection of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) by Rickettsia rickettsii and their role as amplifier hosts for horizontal transmission of R. rickettsii to Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Two groups of two capybaras each were evaluated: on day 0, group 1 (G1) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks, and group 2 (G2) was inoculated intraperitoneally with R. rickettsii. Two additional groups were control groups, not exposed to R. rickettsii, being CG1 group the control of G1, and CG2 group the control of G2. Capybara rectal temperature was measured daily. Blood samples were collected every 3 days during 30 days, and used to (i) inoculate guinea pigs intraperitoneally; (ii) DNA extraction followed by real-time PCR targeting the rickettsial gene gltA; (iii) hematology; (iv) detection of R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Blood was also collected from G1 capybaras every approximately 10-30 days till the 146th day, to be tested by serology. Capybaras were infested by uninfected A. cajennense nymphs from the 3rd to the 18th day. Engorged nymphs were collected, allowed to molt to adults in an incubator. Thereafter, the subsequent flat ticks were tested by PCR. All G1 and G2 capybaras became infected by R. rickettsii, as demonstrated by guinea pig inoculation and seroconversion, but they showed no fever. Rickettsemia was continually detected from the 6th (G2 capybaras) or 9th (G1 capybaras) to the 18th day post inoculation or infestation with R. rickettsii-infected ticks. A total of 20-25% and 30-35% of the flat ticks previously fed on G1 and G2 capybaras, respectively, became infected by R. rickettsii. The study demonstrated that R. rickettsii was capable to infect capybaras without causing clinical illness, inducing rickettsemia capable to cause infection in guinea pigs and ticks. Our results indicate that capybaras act as amplifier host of R. rickettsii for A. cajennense ticks in Brazil. PMID:19147293

  6. [Helminth parasites of capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) on sub-region of Nhecolândia, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul].


    Costa, C A; Catto, J B


    A sequence of 23 necropsies was carried out on capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the central area of Nhecolândia, Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from December 1984 to December 1986. The helminths identified and their respective prevalences and mean intensity were: Trichostrongylus axei--60.9 and 14, Viannella hydrochoeri--95.6 and 1031, Strongyloides chapini--47.8 and 1014, Yatesia hydrochoerus--44.4 and 6, Cruorifilaria tuberocauda--40.0 and 8, Capillaria hydrochoeri--86.9 and 156, Protozoophaga obesa--100.0 and 7212, Taxorchis schistocotyle--56.5 and 43, Hippocrepis hippocrepis--34.8 and 3832, Nudacotyle tertius--8.7 and 133, Monoecocestus hydrochoeri--54.5 and 62, and Monoecocestus hagmanni--80.0 and 75. Y. hydrochoerus was registered for the first time in Brazil. The helminths C. tuberocauda, V. hydrochoeri, S. chapini and H. hippocrepis has characteristics that induce clinical and subclinical parasitosis. Although multiple infections predominated, no interactions among the helminth parasites of the same organ were observed. The prevalences and abundances of S. chapini, Y. hydrochoerus and C. hydrochoeri were influenced by the age of the host. So, S. chapini presented higher values in young animals, while Y. hydrochoerus and C. hydrochoeri showed an opposite tendency. PMID:8209035

  7. Seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Paula, T A; Chiarini-Garcia, H; França, L R


    Although capybara is the largest rodent in the world and largely distributed in Central and South America, there is no report in the literature concerning the cycle of seminiferous epithelium in this species. In the present study, the length of spermatogenic cycle was estimated using intratesticular injections of tritiated thymidine. Animals were sacrificed at 1 h, 8 days, and 17 days after injections. The duration of one spermatogenic cycle in capybaras is 11.9 +/- 0.1 days (SEM). Spermatogenesis was estimated to last 53.6 days, when considering that the total duration of spermatogenesis takes about 4.5 cycles of seminiferous epithelium. The approximate life span of primary spermatocytes is 19.1 days, while spermiogenesis lasts 16.7 days. Staging in capybaras was based on the spermatid nuclei shape and location of spermatids, named tubular morphology method, which consists of 8 stages in all species. The relative stage frequencies in capybaras, based on the analysis of approximately 200 cross sections of seminiferous tubule for each of the ten animals were as follow: stage 1: 14.0 +/- 1.5%; stage 2: 15.1 +/- 1.0%; stage 3: 15.7 +/- 1.1%; stage 4: 14.6 +/- 1.1%; stage 5: 8.7 +/- 0.7%; stage 6: 7.0 +/- 0.7%; stage 7: 9.4 +/- 0.9%; stage 8: 15.5 +/- 1.0%. The pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic phases relative frequencies were 44.8%, 14.6% and 40.6%, respectively. Compared to most rodents investigated so far, the duration of spermatogenesis in capybaras is relatively long. PMID:10481304

  8. The intertubular compartment morphometry in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) testis.


    Costa, D S; Paula, T A R; Matta, S L P


    The aim of the present study was to characterize the intertubule element volume density, individual and total Leydig cells volume, Leydig cell number per testis and per gram of testis, and leydigosomatic index in adult capybaras. Eight capybaras from a commercial abattoir were utilized. The intertubular compartment volume density and the Leydig cells were 45.2 and 31.13%, respectively. The individual and total Leydig cell volumes were 8.51 and 2169.41 x 10(-12) mL, respectively. The Leydig cell number per testis was 3.8 billion and the Leydig cell number per gram of testis was 126 million. The leydigosomatic index was 0.037%. In conclusion, this study shows that capybaras have one of the greatest individual and total Leydig cell volume and Leydig cell volume density, and that the Leydig cell number per gram of testis is at least double the mean for mammals previously investigated in its order. PMID:16310104


    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...


    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of São...

  11. The effects of unrelated offspring whistle calls on capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Dos Santos, E; Tokumaru, R S; Nogueira-Filho, S L G; Nogueira, S S C


    Parent-offspring vocal communication, such as the isolation call, is one of the essential adaptations in mammals that adjust parental responsiveness. Thus, our aim was to test the hypothesis that the function of the capybara infants' whistle is to attract conspecifics. We designed a playback experiment to investigate the reaction of 20 adult capybaras (seven males and 13 females) to pups' whistle calls - recorded from unrelated offspring - or to bird song, as control. The adult capybaras promptly responded to playback of unrelated pup whistles, while ignoring the bird vocalisation. The adult capybaras took, on average, 2.6 ± 2.5 seconds (s) to show a response to the whistles, with no differences between males and females. However, females look longer (17.0 ± 12.9 s) than males (3.0 ± 7.2 s) toward the sound source when playing the pups' whistle playback. The females also tended to approach the playback source, while males showed just a momentary interruption of ongoing behaviour (feeding). Our results suggest that capybara pups' whistles function as the isolation call in this species, but gender influences the intensity of the response. PMID:25627382

  12. Histopathology of tick-bite lesions in naturally infested capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in Brazil.


    van der Heijden, Karin Marie; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Egami, Mizue Imoto; Pereira, Marcelo Campos; Matushima, Eliana Reiko


    In the present work features of tick-bite lesions were evaluated in capybaras naturally infested with Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks. Gross appearance of tick bite site was characterized by a mild swelling and erythema. Microscopic examination revealed the cement cone, a tube-like homogenous eosinophilic mass penetrating deep into the dermis. This structure was surrounded in the dermis by a cellular infiltrate and free eosinophilic granules and was associated to edema of variable intensity. Necrosis was a common feature deep in the dermis particularly at the far end of the eosinophilic tube. Hyperplasia, cellular edema and occasionally necrosis of keratinocytes could be seen at both sides of the ruptured epidermis. Cellular infiltrate was constituted overwhelmingly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes with eosinophilic granules. In capybaras cells with such features can be either eosinophils or heterophils (pseudoeosinophils), the latter being the equivalent of neutrophils of other mammals. Ultrastructural analysis of the cellular infiltrate revealed the predominance of heterophils over eosinophils. Mononuclear cells and mast cells and, in lesser numbers, basophils were also seen at skin attachment sites. The presence of heterophils in the reaction of capybaras against Amblyomma ticks is an outstanding feature but its role in the reaction to the tick is not known. It is however speculated that capybara heterophils might be associated with a more permissive environment for tick feeding and pathogen transmission as already shown for the equivalent cell type, the neutrophil, in the reaction of the dog against the Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. PMID:16323054

  13. Feeding behavior and crop damage caused by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in an agricultural landscape.


    Felix, G A; Almeida Paz, I C L; Piovezan, U; Garcia, R G; Lima, K A O; Nääs, I A; Salgado, D D; Pilecco, M; Belloni, M


    This study aimed to assess the yield loss caused by capybaras in rural areas of Dourados-MS, their feeding periods, crop preferences and the landscape characteristics of farms that may affect the occurrence of capybara's herds. Semi-structured interviews in 24 different farms were done during a period between April 2010 and August 2011. Field observations were held at different times of the day, and also during the night in order to record peaks of the feeding behavior in six farms. Direct counting of capybaras along with the group of animals reported as seen by the farmers during the interviews was used to estimate the size of herds. Data was analyzed using the Principal Components Analyses and the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The average number of capybaras found in a regular herd was 18.8 ± 7.90 animals. The average number of capybara herd by farms was of 1.38 ± 0.92 while the average number of capybaras by farms was 32.33 ± 27.87. Capybaras selected rice (Oryza sativa) when it was available (14.5% of devastation in 1.18% of total planted area); however, the most eaten crop was corn (Zea mays) with 38.55% of loss rate in 16.17% of the total planted area. Capybaras ate mostly in the evening and during the night. The availability of water resources in the rural area predisposed the occurrence of capybara's herds. PMID:25627586

  14. Presence of neutralizing antibodies to Orthopoxvirus in capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in Brazil.


    Barbosa, André Victor; Medaglia, Maria Luiza G; Soares, Herbert S; Quixabeira-Santos, Jociane C; Gennari, Solange M; Damaso, Clarissa R


    Cantagalo virus is a strain of vaccinia virus (genus Orthopoxvirus) and the etiological agent of an important vesicopustular disease that affects dairy cows and milkers in Brazil. The reservoirs involved in the maintenance of this virus in nature are unknown. In the present work, the detection of neutralizing antibodies to Orthopoxvirus in capybaras collected in São Paulo state is reported. Capybaras are the largest rodent species native to South America and have already been reported as putative reservoirs of other pathogenic microorganisms. Thirteen out of thirty-three serum samples were found positive in plaque-reduction neutralization tests, some of them showing high titers compared to positive controls. These results suggest that capybaras may play a role in the infection cycle of vaccinia virus in Brazil. PMID:25500667

  15. The muscular organization of the stomach of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris): an architectural view.


    Moraes, Priscilla Teixeira de Barros; de Souza, Wilson Machado; da Silva Neto, Paulo Bezerra; Barretto, Carla Siqueira de Figueiredo; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel


    Twenty-two stomachs from adult capybaras were used in this study, and an acid digestion mesoscopic technique was pursued using different concentrations of nitric acid to observe the muscular organization of the stomach. The capybara's stomach possessed a muscular coat composed of four layers or strata: external longitudinal, external oblique, circular and internal oblique. Also, the cardiac and pyloric sphincter muscles were comprised of three or two different layers, respectively. Furthermore, the internal oblique fibres were observed extending from the cardiac portion of the stomach to the smaller curvature, where they participated in the formation of the Ansa cardiaca together with the external longitudinal fibres. This muscular architectural arrangement was compared to that in small rodents (rat, hamster, guinea pig), as well as in rabbits and pigs. In conclusion, the stomach of the capybara has a very particular, complex and defined muscular organization that differs from that in other rodents, or domestic animals, in particular, pigs. PMID:15835400

  16. Mansonella (E.) rotundicapita sp.n. and Mansonella (E.) longicapita sp.n. (Filarioidea : Onchocercidae) from Venezuelan capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris.


    Eberhard, M L; Campo-Aasen, I; Orihel, T C


    Mansonella (E.) longicapita sp. n. and Mansonella (E.) rotundicapita sp. n., two filarial nematodes from the dermis of Venezuelan capybaras, are described. The two species can be distinguished on the size of the spicules (M. longicapita 327 and 139 micron, ratio of 2.3 : 1 ; M. rotundicapita 405 and 120 micron, ratio of 3.4 : 1), the degree of lateral elongation of the cephalic shield and in the size and configuration of the microfilaria. The microfilaria of M. rotundicapita is large (280 micron long), and in specimens fixed in 2% formalin, the posterior end of the body is bent in a shepherd's crook, while the microfilaria of M. longicapita is short (195 micron long) and when similarly fixed, assumes a gently curved attitude. Within the subgenus M. (Esslingeria), the species M. longicapita and M. rotundicapita are intermediate in size. Morphologically they resemble M. streptocerca and M. rodhaini most closely, but can be distinguished on size, spicule morphology, and microfilarial morphology. PMID:6508145

  17. Cecotrophy behavior and use of urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN) source for capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).


    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama; Mendes, Alcester; Tavares, Ellis Fernanda Kowalski; da Cunha Nogueira, Selene Siqueira


    Fifteen female adult capybaras, with initial average body weight (BW) of 32.7 (± 5.8) kg, were kept in individual pens to evaluate effect of supplementation of concentrate feed and its supply time on cecotrophy behavior frequency. The animals were allocated in a completely randomized design, with five animals per treatment, receiving three diets: grass only, grass and grain corn offered in a single meal, and grass and grain corn offered in two daily meals; all cecotrophy acts were recorded. Later, in a second experiment, five capybaras received five levels of urea in their diet: 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g urea/100 kg BW, replacing soybean meal as true protein source, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The animals were weighed and their blood was collected every 2 weeks. The frequency of cecotrophy (Ps < 0.05) was higher when the capybaras were fed grass only (0.5 ± 0.07 acts/h) than when they received grass and corn in a single meal (0.3 ± 0.05 acts/h) and grass and corn supplied in separate meals (0.1 ± 0.03 acts/h). With increased urea in their diet, the capybaras showed initial signs of chronic intoxication, together with increments in serum urea (r = 0.87, P < 0.05) and a decreasing trend in daily weight gain (r = -0.38, P = 0.06). Therefore, when including concentrate feeds in capybara diet, these must be mixed with roughage in a single meal to avoid high decrease in the frequency of cecotrophy behavior and increase in dry matter intake. The replacement of soybean meal with urea in capybara diet is not recommended. PMID:23666542

  18. Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris dabbenei) oil, horse oil, and sardine oil in cholesterol-fed rats.


    Fukushima, M; Takayama, Y; Habaguchi, T; Nakano, M


    The hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various polyunsaturated fatty acids was compared in rats given cholesterol-enriched diets. Capybara oil (CO, linoleic + alpha-linolenic acids), horse oil (HO, alpha-linolenic acid), and sardine oil (SO, eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids) were added to diets at 50 g/kg. The weight gain, food intake, and liver weight in the CO-fed group were significantly higher than those in other groups during the 6-wk experimental period. The serum total and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) + intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) + low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations of the CO-fed and SO-fed groups were significantly lower than in the HO-fed group after 6 wk. The serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in the SO-fed group was significantly higher than that in the CO-fed and HO-fed groups. The fecal neutral sterol concentration in the CO-fed group was reduced significantly compared with the other groups, and the fecal bile acid concentration in the HO-fed group was significantly higher than that in the SO-fed group. The results of this study demonstrate that CO lowers the serum total cholesterol and VLDL + IDL + LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet as well as SO. PMID:9113627

  19. Detailed morphological description of Habronema clarki Foster & Chitwood, 1937, a nematode parasite of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) in Brazil.


    Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Ferreira, Daniel Fontana


    The genus Habronema has four valid species, of which only two are properly known. The present study aimed to describe in detail the morphology of Habronema clarki through optical and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Our results showed that the labial morphology of this parasite is closer to H. muscae than to H. microstoma. Even so, the characteristic pseudolabia and the slightly convex border of the dorsal and ventral lips are sufficient to distinguish these nematodes. Additional morphological data are presented, thus contributing to the knowledge on this little known nematode. In addition, this study provides new locality records for this species. PMID:25054508

  20. The gallbladder of the Capivara Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (Mammalia: Rodentia).


    Lopes, R A; Dos Santos, H S; Petenusci, S O; Miglino, M A; de Souza, W M; Boccaletti, D


    The authors studied morphological and histochemically the mucopolysaccharides and proteins in the gallbladder tubular glands and epithelial cells of the capivara Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris. Based on the results the authors concluded: 1. the gallbladder single columnar epithelium consists of secretory, migrating, and goblet cells; 2. in the lamina propria are single coiled tubular glands; 3. goblet and tubular gland cells show neutral and sulphated mucopolysaccharides and sialic acid; 4. columnar cells show neutral mucopolysaccharides and protein radicals; 5. migrating cells show only protein radicals. PMID:6642189

  1. DNA extraction from skins of wild (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and Pecari tajacu) and domestic (Sus scrofa domestica) species using a novel protocol.


    Ojeda, G N; Amavet, P S; Rueda, E C; Siroski, P A


    Sometimes, commercial products obtained from wild animals are sold as if they were from domestic animals and vice versa. At this point of the productive chain, legal control of possible wildlife products is difficult. Common in the commerce of northern Argentina, skins of two wild species, the carpincho and the collared peccary, look very similar to each other and to those of the domestic pig; it is extremely difficult to differentiate them after they have been tanned. Because there was no an adequate methodology to discriminate between leather of these three species, we developed a new methodology of DNA extraction from skin and leather. This new method involves digesting a leather sample using proteinase K, followed by precipitation of proteins with 5 M NaCl, cleaning with absolute isopropanol and DNA precipitation with 70% ethanol. DNA is hydrated in Tris-EDTA buffer. This protocol provided good-quality DNA suitable for analysis with molecular markers. This new protocol has potential for use in identifying leather products of these species using molecular markers based on RAPDs. PMID:22535403

  2. Dipetalonema (Alafilaria) hydrochoerus subgen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Colombian capybaras.


    Yates, J A; Jorgenson, J P


    Dipetalonema (Alafilaria) hydrochoerus subgen. et sp. n. is described from specimens recovered from skeletal muscle fascia of the capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochacris, from several localities in Colombia, South America. The microfilaria, which is found in the skin of the host, is also described for the first time. The monotypic species of the subgenus Alafilaria can be distinguished from existing Dipetalonema subgenera and all filariae known to us, on the basis of numerous preanal caudal papillae in males, small size of petals on the caudal extremity of each sex, and low, bluntly-rounded lateral alae in the cuticle of adult worms of both sexes. Unusual and distinctive features of the microfilaria include conspicuous lateral cuticular alae and a caudal extremity devoid of nuclei. PMID:6685177

  3. Effects of food supplementation on litter size and oestradiol concentration during gestation and oestrous cycle of capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) in captivity.


    Becker, G K; Pederassi, G C; Santos, E A; Colares, E P


    The present study analysed the response of adult female capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) to different dietary supplementation in relation to litter size per parturition and oestradiol secretion profile during pregnancy and the oestrous cycle. All four experimental groups received 'camerum' grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and water ad libitum and three of the groups were also fed a protein, lipid or protein and lipid supplement. Litter size per parturition did not show any significant difference among treatment groups, but was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control group. There was no significant difference in oestradiol concentrations among treatments and the control group, during each phase of the oestrous cycle or during gestation. The average oestradiol concentrations in dioestrous, oestrous and metoestrous phases were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the average oestradiol concentration in the pro-oestrous phase. In addition, average oestradiol concentrations increased after the second gestation month, but were significantly higher (P < 0.05) only after the fourth gestation month, achieving maximum value by the end of gestation. Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on hormonal concentrations during the oestrous cycle and gestational period. However, an increase in litter size per parturition was observed among female capybaras that received dietary supplementation. PMID:12683928

  4. [Cruorifilaria tuberocauda (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Venezuelan capybaras].


    Campo-Aesen, I; Planas-Girón, G; Campo, I


    Four filariae are known to parasitize the capybara "Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris" namely the "Cruorifilaria tuberocauda", Eberhard, Morales & Orihel (1976). The "Dipetalonema (Alafilaria) hydrochoerus", Yates (1983), and two "mansonella" recently described by Eberhard, Campo-Aasen & Orihel (1983), "Mansonella longicapita" and "Mansonella rotundicapita". In this study we describe the adult parasites and the microfilaria of the "Cruorifilaria tuberocauda" (Nematoda, Filarioidea), Eberhard, Morales & Orihel (1976) obtained from the arteries of the kidney of two capybaras from Apure and Barinas states of Venezuela. The pathology produced by the presence of the filariae in kidney and lungs of the animals is described as well as the blood harboring microfilaria. PMID:3528705

  5. Bone morphology of the hind limbs in two caviomorph rodents.


    de Araújo, F A P; Sesoko, N F; Rahal, S C; Teixeira, C R; Müller, T R; Machado, M R F


    In order to evaluate the hind limbs of caviomorph rodents a descriptive analysis of the Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766) and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) was performed using anatomical specimens, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and full-coloured prototype models to generate bone anatomy data. The appendicular skeleton of the two largest rodents of Neotropical America was compared with the previously reported anatomical features of Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) and domestic Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758). The structures were analyzed macroscopically and particular findings of each species reported. Features including the presence of articular fibular projection and lunulae were observed in the stifle joint of all rodents. Imaging aided in anatomical description and, specifically in the identification of bone structures in Cuniculus paca and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The imaging findings were correlated with the anatomical structures observed. The data may be used in future studies comparing these animals to other rodents and mammalian species. PMID:22731111

  6. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.


    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C


    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana). PMID:22063568

  7. Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    Kanashiro, Claudia; Santos, Tatiana C; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Mess, Andrea M; Carter, Anthony M


    Background The guinea pig is an attractive model for human pregnancy and placentation, mainly because of its haemomonochorial placental type, but is rather small in size. Therefore, to better understand the impact of body mass, we studied placental development in the capybara which has a body mass around 50 kg and a gestation period of around 150 days. We paid attention to the development of the lobulated arrangement of the placenta, the growth of the labyrinth in the course of gestation, the differentiation of the subplacenta, and the pattern of invasion by extraplacental trophoblast. Methods Material was collected from six animals at pregnancy stages ranging from the late limb bud stage to mid gestation. Methods included latex casts, standard histology, immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen as well as transmission electron microscopy. Results At the limb bud stage, the placenta was a pad of trophoblast covered by a layer of mesoderm from which fetal vessels were beginning to penetrate at folds in the surface. By 70 days, the placenta comprised areas of labyrinth (lobes) separated by interlobular areas. Placental growth resulted predominantly from proliferation of cellular trophoblast situated in nests at the fetal side of the placenta and along internally directed projections on fetal mesenchyme. Additional proliferation was demonstrated for cellular trophoblast within the labyrinth. Already at the limb bud stage, there was a prominent subplacenta comprising cellular and syncytial trophoblast with mesenchyme and associated blood vessels. At 90 days, differentiation was complete and similar to that seen in other hystricognath rodents. Overlap of fetal vessels and maternal blood lacunae was confirmed by latex injection of the vessels. At all stages extraplacental trophoblast was associated with the maternal arterial supply and consisted of cellular trophoblast and syncytial streamers derived from the subplacenta. Conclusion All important characteristics of placental development and organization in the capybara resembled those found in smaller hystricognath rodents including the guinea pig. These features apparently do not dependent on body size. Clearly, placentation in hystricognaths adheres to an extraordinarily stable pattern suggesting they can be used interchangeably as models of human placenta. PMID:19493333

  8. Trypanosoma evansi in capybara from Venezuela.


    Arias, J F; García, F; Rivera, M; López, R


    During the slaughtering season of February and March 1991, 559 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) were tested for Trypanosoma evansi in two areas in Venezuela: El Frio Ranch and El Cedral Ranch. Blood and serum samples were evaluated for T. evansi. Forty-eight (9%) of 559 capybaras had T. evansi using the microcentrifugation technique. Further, 279 (50%) of the 559 capybaras had antibodies against T. evansi immunofluorescence test in both ranches. Thus, capybaras may be important in the epizootiology of T. evansi in this enzootic area. PMID:9131577

  9. Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).


    Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F


    During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

  10. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.


    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M


    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  11. First molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum and Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Uruguay.


    Lado, Paula; Castro, Oscar; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M


    Rickettsia parkei is the etiological agent of spotted fever in Uruguay, where is transmitted to humans by the tick Amblyomma triste. In the present study, ticks were collected from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and domestic dogs during 2011-2012 in different parts of Uruguay. Three out of 11 (27.3%) Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from capybaras, and 4 out of 6 (66.7%) Amblyomma tigrinum ticks collected from dogs were shown by molecular analyses to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri strain Maculatum 20. Until the present work, A. triste was the only tick species that was found infected by R. parkeri in Uruguay. This is the first report of R. parkeri infecting these two tick species in Uruguay, expanding the current distribution of this rickettsial pathogen in the country. PMID:25108780

  12. Assessment of historical fecal contamination in Curitiba, Brazil, in the last 400 years using fecal sterols.


    Machado, Karina S; Froehner, Sandro; Sánez, Juan; Figueira, Rubens C L; Ferreira, Paulo A L


    A 400-year sedimentary record of the Barigui River was investigated using fecal biomarkers and nutrient distribution. The temporal variability in cholesterol, cholestanol, coprostanol, epicoprostanol, stigmastanol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol, sitosterol, and campesterol between 1600 and 2011 was assessed. Anthropogenic influences, such as deforestation and fecal contamination from humans and livestock, were observed from 1840. The sterol ratios exhibit evidence of hens, horses, cows, and an unknown herbivore, which may be a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), from 1820 and has been observed more markedly from 1970 onward. Human fecal contamination was detected from 1840 and was observed more markedly from 1930 due to population growth. Thus, the sanitation conditions and demographic growth of Curitiba seemed to be the main factors of human sewage pollution, as the coprostanol concentration over time was strongly correlated with the population growth (r=0.71, p<0.001) although diagenetic processes have also been observed.(1.) PMID:25016471

  13. Establishment of Tunga trimamillata (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Brazil.


    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; De Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Filho, Elias Jorge Facury


    Tunga trimamillata is a species of sand flea occurring in Ecuador and Peru parasitizing cattle, goat, sheep, swine, and man. This is the first report of this species in Brazil, having been found on the hooves of cows in Barretos, São Paulo State, and Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, and previously misidentified as Tunga penetrans. A previous report concerning Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Rio Novo, Minas Gerais State, may also be attributed to that species of sand flea, a possible the primary host. Given the large geographical distribution of T. trimamillata, the vast cattle population in Brazil, and the high number of individuals subject to the risk of tungiasis, the number of cases attributed to this sand flea will most likely increase over time. PMID:23797275

  14. Origin of the duplicated ribonuclease gene in guinea-pig: comparison of the amino acid sequences with those of two close relatives: capybara and cuis ribonuclease.


    Beintema, J J; Neuteboom, B


    The amino acid sequences of the pancreatic ribonuclease from capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and cuis (Galea musteloides) were determined. Both species belong to the same superfamily of the hystricomorph rodents as the guinea-pig. In guinea-pig pancreas two ribonucleases are present as a result of a recent gene duplication, but in capybara and cuis pancreas only one single ribonuclease has been found. A most parsimonious tree of ribonucleases indicates that the gene duplication leading to both guinea-pig ribonucleases occurred before the divergence of guinea-pig from capybara and cuis. This would mean that changes in expression of the ribonuclease genes have occurred in these taxa. Cuis and capybara ribonuclease have no Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequences and are carbohydrate-free proteins. Capybara ribonuclease has leucine at position 114, a position occupied by proline in the cis-configuration in bovine pancreatic ribonuclease. PMID:6571219

  15. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.


    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio


    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion. PMID:26385561

  16. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon.


    Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri, Fábio Silva; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Brito, Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro, Francisco Dimas Sales


    In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs), and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae). The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species. PMID:20943027

  17. Capybaras in an anthropogenic habitat in Southeastern Brazil.


    Verdade, L M; Ferraz, K M P M B


    Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are widely distributed in the Neotropics, living in both natural and anthropogenic habitats. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuating capybara population at the Campus "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, in Piracicaba, Southeastern Brazil from 1998 to 2000. To assess population fluctuation and growth rates, we used an abundance index based on direct weekly daylight counts. Population monitoring was carried out in an anthropogenic wetland associated with an agroecosystem. The observers bias was established as directly related to their distance from the animals. The capybara population density and biomass in the anthropogenic wetland in question were found to be significantly higher than in pristine habitats. The species seems to present a seasonal pattern of fluctuation, with a peak in late spring (Oct to Dec). Unlike young capybaras, adults and juveniles present similar seasonal fluctuation patterns. In this anthropogenic wetland, the carrying capacity may be as high as 195 individuals/Km2. At a conservative exploitation rate (17%) in anthropogenic wetlands of Southeastern Brazil, capybara productivity may reach approximately 630 Kg/Km2/year. PMID:16710529

  18. Scurvy in capybaras bred in captivity in Argentine.


    Cueto, G R; Allekotte, R; Kravetz, F O


    In order to determine if the absence of vitamin C in the diet of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) causes scurvy, a group of seven young individuals were fed food pellets without ascorbic acid, while another group of eight individuals received the same food with 1 g of ascorbic acid per animal per day. Animals in the first group developed signs of scurvy-like gingivitis, breaking of the incisors and death of one animal. Clinical signs appeared between 25 and 104 days from the beginning of the trial in all individuals. Growth rates of individuals deprived of vitamin C was considerably less than those observed in the control group. Deficiency of ascorbic acid had a severe effect on reproduction of another population of captive capybaras. We found that the decrease in ascorbic acid content in the diet affected pregnancy, especially during the first stages. The results obtained suggest that it is necessary to supply a suitable quantity of vitamin C in the diet of this species in captivity. PMID:10682750

  19. Trypanosoma evansi kDNA minicircle found in the Venezuelan nectar-feeding bat Leptonycteris curasoae (Glossophaginae), supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of that parasite in South America.


    Silva-Iturriza, Adriana; Nassar, Jafet M; García-Rawlins, Ariany M; Rosales, Romel; Mijares, Alfredo


    Trypanosoma evansi is a mammal generalist protozoon which causes negative effects on health and productivity in bovine and equine herds in South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. By molecular methods, we screened the presence of that parasite together with other trypanosome species in 105 bats of 10 species collected in arid zones of northern Venezuela. The first molecular approach was fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB), which relies on amplification of relative small regions of rRNA genes (four loci) and fluorescence detection. By FFLB, 17 samples showed patterns of possible trypanosomatid infections. These samples were used to test presence of trypanosomes by PCR using the following DNA markers: V7-V8 SSU rRNA, gGAPDH and kDNA minicircle regions. Only in one individual of the nectar-feeding bat, Leptonycteris curasoae, we were able to amplify 1000bp of the trypanosome kDNA minicircle. That PCR product was sequenced and the parasite species was determined by NCBI-BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Both analyses showed that the minicircle sequence corresponds to Trypanosoma evansi. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequence obtained in this study clustered with a T. evansi sequence obtained in a Venezuelan capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, and distant of others two T. evansi sequences obtained in a Colombian capybara and horse. This result supports the hypothesis of multiple origins of T. evansi in South America. PMID:23111094

  20. Molecular detection of the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks from Argentina.


    Monje, Lucas D; Nava, Santiago; Eberhardt, Ayelen T; Correa, Ana I; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M


    To date, three tick-borne pathogenic Rickettsia species have been reported in different regions of Argentina, namely, R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, and R. massiliae. However, there are no reports available for the presence of tick-borne pathogens from the northeastern region of Argentina. This study evaluated the infection with Rickettsia species of Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected from vegetation and feeding from capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in northeastern Argentina. From a total of 374 A. dubitatum ticks collected and evaluated by PCR for the presence of rickettsial DNA, 19 were positive for the presence of Rickettsia bellii DNA, two were positive for Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI, and one was positive for the pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the presence of the human pathogen Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and Rickettsia sp. strain COOPERI in Argentina. Moreover, our findings posit A. dubitatum as a potential vector for this pathogenic strain of Rickettsia. PMID:25700048

  1. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    PubMed Central


    Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an investigative study of three cases of suspected wildlife poaching in which molecular biology techniques were employed to identify the hunted species from remains of meat. Findings By applying cytochrome b (cyt-b) and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) molecular markers, the suspected illegal poaching was confirmed by the identification of three wild species, capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) and Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). In Brazil, hunting is a criminal offense, and based on this evidence, the defendants were found guilty and punished with fines; they may still be sentenced to prison for a period of 6 to 12 months. Conclusions The genetic analysis used in this investigative study was suitable to diagnose the species killed and solve these criminal investigations. Molecular forensic techniques can therefore provide an important tool that enables local law enforcement agencies to apprehend illegal poachers. PMID:22863070

  2. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.


    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B


    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23975565

  3. A model to search for birth probabilities of mammal populations using fertility data.


    Moreira, J R; Eagle, M; Gillespie, O J; Davidson, A; Marriott, F H C; Macdonald, D W


    A model was constructed to predict monthly birth probabilities using mammalian fertility data. We used a sample of 147 female capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) hunted on a farm on Marajó Island, Brazil. In the model each month was treated as a multinomial with six cells representing the six possible reproductive states (five months gestation). A hypothesis test was carried out to see whether a cosine curve would fit the birth probabilities. The results offer no support for a seasonal component (F2,9 = 1.84, P = 0.21), whereas results from a direct census do (F3,23 = 87.29, P < 0.01). Some hunting techniques were biased towards killing pregnant females (chi(2)1= 7.2, P< 0.01), thereby spreading reproduction throughout the year (F2,9 = 1.84, P = 0.21). The model remained a powerful predictive tool to be used with mammalian fertility data as long as the data are not biased towards pregnant females. PMID:19967184

  4. Detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection in wild capybaras from Argentina using smear microscopy and real-time PCR assays.


    Eberhardt, A T; Monje, L D; Zurvera, D A; Beldomenico, P M


    Trypanosoma evansi is a flagellated protozoan that parasitizes a wide variety of mammals, occasionally including humans. In South America, it infects horses, cattle, buffaloes, dogs and wild mammals, causing a disease known as "Mal de Caderas", which results in important economic losses due to a wide range of pathological expressions. Argentina represents the southern limit of its distribution. The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a large rodent found in tropical to temperate freshwater wetlands of South America. As capybaras infected with T. evansi present no clinical signs of disease, withstanding high parasitaemia, this species was proposed as a reservoir host. In this study we investigated the prevalence and parasitaemic intensity of T. evansi in samples obtained from 60 free-ranging capybaras of Esteros del Iberá (Corrientes province, northeastern Argentina) using smear microscopy and real-time PCR assays. All the cases of capybaras infected with T. evansi were found during one of the years studied, with no evidence of seasonality. The overall infection prevalence was 10%, but between years it ranged from 0% to 17% (in 2011). This is the first confirmation of T. evansi infection in Argentina by molecular biology techniques. Our results showed no differences between the methods used to detect the presence of T. evansi in capybaras, which indicates that simple methods like microscopy can generate important data on the ecoepidemiology of this parasite. Both techniques used in this study represent a viable tool for ecoepidemiological studies, and can be used to produce good estimates of prevalence and parasitaemic level of the infection, which inform for the implementation of strategies for the control of the disease. PMID:24636712

  5. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.


    Baía Jr, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick


    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. PMID:20737856

  6. Intra-phylum and inter-phyla associations among gastrointestinal parasites in two wild mammal species.


    Moreno, P G; Eberhardt, M A T; Lamattina, D; Previtali, M A; Beldomenico, P M


    A growing body of literature reveals that the interactions among the parasite community may be strong and significant for parasite dynamics. There may be inter-specific antagonistic interactions as a result of competition and cross-effective immune response, or synergistic interactions where infection by one parasite is facilitated by another one, either by an impoverishment of the host's defenses, parasite-induced selective immunosuppression, or trade-offs within the immune system. The nature of these interactions may depend on how related are the parasite species involved. Here we explored the presence of associations among gastrointestinal parasites (coccidia and helminths) in natural populations of two wild mammal species, the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The associations explored were between the oocyst outputs of a selected Eimeria species and the other coccidia of that parasite community, and between Eimeria spp. and the predominant nematodes. The statistical analysis included adjustment for potential confounders or effect modifiers. In guanacos, the prevailing interactions were synergistic among the coccidia and between coccidia and nematodes (Nematodirus spp.). However, in capybaras, the interaction between nematodes (Viannaiidae) and Eimeria spp. depended on environmental and host factors. The relationship was positive in some circumstances (depending on season, year, sex, or animal size), but it appeared to become antagonistic under different scenarios. These antagonist interactions did not follow a particular seasonal pattern (they occurred in autumn, spring, and summer), but they were predominantly found in females (when they depended on sex) or in 2010 and 2011 (when they depended on the sampling year). These results suggest that the relationship between coccidia and nematodes in capybaras may be context dependent. We propose that the context-dependent immune investment documented in capybaras may be the cause of these varying interactions. PMID:23820605

  7. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil.


    Szabó, Matias P J; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B


    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city-forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  8. Seasonal dynamics and hosts of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) in Argentina.


    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Venzal, José M; Fracassi, Natalia; Guglielmone, Alberto A


    The seasonal dynamics and host usage of Amblyomma triste in Argentina were analyzed. Adults of A. triste were present from early winter to mid-summer, with the peak of abundance from late winter to mid-spring (August to October). Larvae and nymphs were found from December to June, with the peak of abundance in summer. There were no differences among the biological parameters (pre-moult period of larvae and nymphs, pre-oviposition period of females, and minimum incubation period of eggs) of engorged ticks exposed to different photoperiod regimens at the laboratory, but the periods for each biological parameter obtained from ticks exposed in the field were significantly longer than those from the laboratory. Field results fit better with the data of seasonal distribution of each stage. Morphogenetic diapause was not detected, but complementary studies should test the presence of behavioral diapause. Rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Akodon azarae, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus rufus and Scapteromys aquaticus) are the principal hosts for immature stages of A. triste, the caviid Cavia aperea could be another potential host for these stages, and birds are exceptional hosts for larvae and nymphs. Regarding hosts of adults in Argentina, domestic and wild large-sized mammals belonging to different orders (cattle, dog, horse, Blastocerus dichotomus and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) serve as hosts for adults of this tick species. In conclusion, A. triste has a life cycle of 1 year with adults feeding on large endemic and introduced mammals and immature stages using sigmodontine and caviid rodents as hosts. PMID:21536384

  9. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attracted to dung of the largest herbivorous rodent on earth: a comparison with human feces.


    Puker, Anderson; Correa, César M A; Korasaki, Vanesca; Ferreira, Kleyton R; Oliveira, Naiara G


    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.) (Rodentia: Caviidae), is the largest herbivorous rodent on Earth and abundant in the Neotropical region, which can provide a stable food source of dung for dung beetle communities (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). However, the use of capybara dung by dung beetles is poorly known. Here, we present data on the structure of the dung beetle community attracted to capybara dung and compare with the community attracted to human feces. Dung beetles were captured with pitfall traps baited with fresh capybara dung and human feces in pastures with exotic grass (Brachiaria spp.), patches of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), and points of degraded riparian vegetation along the Aquidauana river in Anastácio and Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In traps baited with human feces, 13,809 individuals of 31 species were captured, and in those baited with capybara dung 1,027 individuals belonging to 26 species were captured. The average number of individuals and species captured by the traps baited with human feces was greater than for capybara dung in all habitats studied. Composition of the communities attracted to human feces and capybara dung formed distinct groups in all habitats. Despite the smaller number of species and individuals captured in capybara dung when compared with human feces, capybara dung was attractive to dung beetles. In Brazil, the legalization of hunting these rodents has been debated, which would potentially affect the community and consequently the ecological functions performed by dung beetles that use the feces of these animals as a resource. In addition, the knowledge of the communities associated with capybaras may be important in predicting the consequences of future management of their populations. PMID:24468553

  10. Hosts, distribution and genetic divergence (16S rDNA) of Amblyomma dubitatum (Acari: Ixodidae).


    Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; González, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A


    We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level. PMID:20084537

  11. Rickettsial infection in ticks collected from road-killed wild animals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


    Spolidorio, Mariana G; Andreoli, Guilherme S; Martins, Thiago F; Brandão, Paulo E; Labruna, Marcelo B


    During 2008-2010, ticks were collected from road-killed wild animals within the Serra dos Orgãos National Park area in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In total, 193 tick specimens were collected, including Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann and Amblyomma cajennense (F.) from four Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (L.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann and A. cajennense from four Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) and A. cajennense from five Cerdocyon thous L., Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) from one Sphiggurus villosus (Cuvier), Amblyomma varium Koch from three Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and A. cajennense from one Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham). Molecular analyses based on polymerase chain reaction targeting two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA) on tick DNA extracts showed that 70.6% (12/17) of the A. dubitatum adult ticks, and all Amblyomma sp. nymphal pools collected from capybaras were shown to contain rickettsial DNA, which after DNA sequencing, revealed to be 100% identical to the recently identified Rickettsia sp. strain Pampulha from A. dubitatum ticks collected in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis with concatenated sequences (gltA-ompA) showed that our sequence from A. dubitatum ticks, referred to Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos, segregated under 99% bootstrap support in a same cluster with Old World rickettsiae, namely R. tamurae, R. monacensis, and Rickettsia sp. strain 774e. Because A. dubitatum is known to bite humans, the potential role of Rickettsia sp. strain Serra dos Orgãos as human pathogen must be taken into account, because both R. tamurae and R. monacencis have been reported infecting human beings. PMID:23270184

  12. Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi in ticks from Cordoba, Colombia.


    Miranda, Jorge; Mattar, Salim


    The purpose of this study was to provide molecular evidence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from 2 sites of Cordoba. From May to June 2009, 1069 Amblyomma cajennense ticks were removed from 40 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in a rural locality of Monteria. Furthermore, 458 Amblyomma sp. larvae and 20 Amblyomma sp. nymphs were collected in a rural locality of Los Cordobas (Cordoba) by drag sampling on vegetation (n=1547). Ticks were grouped into pools and tested for rickettsial infection by real-time PCR targeting the rickettsial gene gltA. Subsequently, PCR targeting for gltA, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were undertaken. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 10 (4.6%) out of 214 pools of ticks by RT-PCR. Five (33%) of free-living Amblyomma sp. larval pools were positive, as well as 5 (2.6%) pools from A. cajennense. Only the gltA gene was amplified from 5 pools of free-living larvae. The nucleotide sequences were 100% identical to R. bellii by BLAST. Only one pool from A. cajennense was positive for gltA, ompA, ompB, and 16S rRNA. The partial nucleotide sequences of these genes were 100% identical to nucleotide sequences of the same genes of a new proposed species Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. This is the first report of R. bellii in ticks in Colombia and the second report of detection of Candidatus Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. These Rickettsia species are still considered of unknown pathogenicity. Further studies are needed to characterize the ecological and potential pathogenic role of these 2 Rickettsia species found in Cordoba. PMID:24378078

  13. Ecology, biology and distribution of spotted-fever tick vectors in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Matias P. J.; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B.


    Spotted-fever-caused Rickettsia rickettsii infection is in Brazil the major tick-borne zoonotic disease. Recently, a second and milder human rickettsiosis caused by an agent genetically related to R. parkeri was discovered in the country (Atlantic rainforest strain). Both diseases clearly have an ecological background linked to a few tick species and their environment. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and Amblyomma cajennense ticks in urban and rural areas close to water sources are the main and long-known epidemiological feature behind R. rickettsii-caused spotted-fever. Unfortunately, this ecological background seems to be increasing in the country and disease spreading may be foreseen. Metropolitan area of São Paulo, the most populous of the country, is embedded in Atlantic rainforest that harbors another important R. rickettsii vector, the tick Amblyomma aureolatum. Thus, at the city–forest interface, dogs carry infected ticks to human dwellings and human infection occurs. A role for R. rickettsii vectoring to humans of a third tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Brazil, has not been proven; however, there is circumstantial evidence for that. A R. parkeri-like strain was found in A. ovale ticks from Atlantic rainforest and was shown to be responsible for a milder febrile human disease. Rickettsia-infected A. ovale ticks are known to be spread over large areas along the Atlantic coast of the country, and diagnosis of human infection is increasing with awareness and proper diagnostic tools. In this review, ecological features of the tick species mentioned, and that are important for Rickettsia transmission to humans, are updated and discussed. Specific knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of such diseases are highlighted to guide forthcoming research. PMID:23875178

  14. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal.


    Alho, C J R; Camargo, G; Fischer, E


    Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant--for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare--for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger. PMID:21537603

  15. Comparisons between brains of a large and a small hystricomorph rodent: capybara, Hydrochoerus and guinea pig, Cavia; neocortical projection regions and measurements of brain subdivisions.


    Campos, G B; Welker, W I


    Somatic sensory, auditory and visual areas of cerebral neocortex were mapped in anesthetized capybaras using surface macroelectrode-evoked potential recording methods. The cortical motor area was mapped using electrical stimulation methods. The results of these experiments in the largest living rodent were similar to those found for the cortical sensory and motor areas of guinea pigs, a small rodent in a closely related family. The representation of the perioral skin in SI cortex was relatively large in capybaras and guinea pigs. In capybara, several cortical sulci reliably demarcate different cortical projection areas from one another. Quantitive neuroanatomical comparisons of volumes and neuron numbers in several major prosencephalic nuclei revealed that all nuclear masses are larger in capybara than in guinea pig, but that different nuclei are enlarged to different degrees. Possible causes of larger brains in larger animals are discussed. PMID:990909

  16. Epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for Brazilian spotted fever

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Brasil, Jardel; Roncato Duarte, Keila Maria


    Aim: The vulnerability of tropical developing countries to the emerging disease constitutes a critical phenomenon in which the invasion of wild niches by human hosts, contributes to expansion of zoonotic diseases, such as the Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). This study performed a diagnosis of species occurrence of their hosts (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and vectors (Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma dubitatum) on the warning area for this reemerging disease in Brazil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a warning area for BSF in the city of Americana, São Paulo state. The occurrence of capybaras was registered by use of binoculars and GPS equipment and 24 acarological researches were performed through 180 CO2 traps. Samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction, and evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being tested by initial gltA-PCR, ompA-PCR, and Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR, with the positive samples subjected to sequencing. Results: Eleven clusters of capybaras (total of 71 individuals), were observed along the riparian of Ribeirão Quilombo and 7,114 specimens of A. sculptum and 7,198 specimens of A. dubitatum were collected in this same area. About 568 samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction and evaluation by gltA-PCR, with results of 1.94% (11/568) of positive samples. Results for the initial gltA-PCR indicated none positive sample to Rickettsia species into A. sculptum and 11 positive samples to A. dubitatum. These samples were negative to the ompA-PCR and positive to the Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR protocol and subjected to DNA sequencing, whose result indicated 100% similarity to Rickettsia bellii. The distribution of tick species A. sculptum and A. dubitatum was configured regarding to the biotic potential of the riparian areas, measuring the risks for BSF in peri-urban areas of Americana. Conclusion: These results confirmed a status of epidemiological warning with a strong association of the amplifiers hosts of Rickettsia and tick vectors for the transmission of BSF to humans in this region. PMID:27047211

  17. Sustainability of a constructed wetland faced with a depredation event.


    Maine, M A; Hadad, H R; Sánchez, G C; Mufarrege, M M; Di Luca, G A; Caffaratti, S E; Pedro, M C


    A free water surface constructed wetland (CW) designed for effluent treatment was dominated by the emergent macrophyte Typha domingensis reaching a cover of roughly 80% for 5 years. Highly efficient metal and nutrient removal was reported during this period. In June 2009, a population of approximately 30 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) caused the complete depredation of the aerial parts of macrophytes. However, plant roots and rhizomes were not damaged. After depredation stopped, T. domingensis showed a luxuriant growth, reaching a cover of 60% in 30 days. The objective of this work was to evaluate the sustainability of the CW subjected to an extreme event. Removal efficiency of the system was compared during normal operation, during the depredation event and over the subsequent recovery period. The CW efficiently retained contaminants during all the periods studied. However, the best efficiencies were registered during the normal operation period. There were no significant differences between the performances of the CW over the last two periods, except for BOD. The mean removal percentages during normal operation/depredation event/recovery period, were: 84.9/73.2/74.7% Cr; 66.7/48.0/51.2% Ni; 97.2/91.0/89.4% Fe; 50.0/46.8/49.5% Zn; 81.0/84.0/80.4% NO3(-); 98.4/93.4/84.1% NO2(-); 73.9/28.2/53.2% BOD and 75.4/40.9/44.6% COD. SRP and TP presented low removal efficiencies. Despite the anoxic conditions, contaminants were not released from sediment, accumulating in fractions that proved to be stable faced with changes in the operating conditions of the CW. T. domingensis showed an excellent growth response, consequently the period without aerial parts lasted a few months and the CW could recover its normal operation. Plants continued retaining contaminants in their roots and the sediment increased its retention capacity, balancing the operating capacity of the system. This was probably due to the fact that the CW had reached its maturity, with a complete root-rhizome development. These results demonstrated that faced with an incidental problem, this mature CW was capable of maintaining its efficiency and recovering its vegetation, demonstrating the robustness of these treatment systems. PMID:23694854



    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laecio; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro


    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis. PMID:26056885

  19. Ticks infesting wildlife species in northeastern Brazil with new host and locality records.


    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B


    From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080



    Juan-Sallés, Carles; Martínez, Liliana Sofía; Rosas-Rosas, Arely G; Parás, Alberto; Martínez, Osvaldo; Hernández, Alejandra; Garner, Michael M


    Subacute and chronic mountain sickness of humans and the related brisket disease of cattle are characterized by right-sided congestive heart failure in individuals living at high altitudes as a result of sustained hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Adaptations to high altitude and disease resistance vary among species, breeds, and individuals. The authors conducted a retrospective survey of right-sided cardiac hypertrophy associated with pulmonary arterial hypertrophy or arteriosclerosis in zoo mammals housed at Africam Safari (Puebla, México), which is located at 2,100 m above sea level. Seventeen animals with detailed pathology records matched the study criterion. Included were 10 maras (Dolichotis patagonum), 2 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), 2 capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), and 1 case each of Bennet's wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus), and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). All had right-sided cardiac hypertrophy and a variety of arterial lesions restricted to the pulmonary circulation and causing arterial thickening with narrowing of the arterial lumen. Arterial lesions most often consisted of medial hypertrophy or hyperplasia of small and medium-sized pulmonary arteries. All maras also had single or multiple elevated plaques in the pulmonary arterial trunk consisting of fibrosis, accompanied by chondroid metaplasia in some cases. Both antelopes were juvenile and died with right-sided congestive heart failure associated with severe pulmonary arterial lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of cardiac and pulmonary arterial disease in zoo mammals housed at high altitudes. PMID:26667539

  1. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mrio Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].


    Rocha, Ednaldo Cndido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastio Venncio; Barreto, Francisco Cndido Cardoso


    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mrio Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  2. Response of wild mammals to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal, Brazil.


    Mamede, S B; Alho, C J R


    The Pantanal is a large savanna wetland (138,183 km2 in Brazil), important for its wildlife, fed by tributaries of the upper Paraguay River, center of South America (Brazil, touching Bolivia and Paraguay). Uplands are plateaus (250-1,200 m high, 215,000 km2 in Brazil) and flatland is the Pantanal (80-150 m high, 147,574 km2 in Brazil). Rivers are slow moving when they meet the flatland (slope 0.3-0.5 m/km east-west; 0.03-0.15 m/km north-south), periodically overflowing their banks, creating a complex seasonal habitat range. Recurrent shallow flooding occupies 80% of the Pantanal; during the dry season flooded areas dry up. Fluctuating water levels, nutrients and wildlife form a dynamic ecosystem. A flooding regime forms distinct sub-regions within the Pantanal. A mammal survey was carried out in the sub-region of the Rio Negro from April, 2003 through March, 2004 to study the diversity and abundance of terrestrial mammals during the dry and flooding seasons. A total of 36 species were observed in the field. The capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris was the most frequent species, followed by the crab-eating-fox Cerdocyon thous and the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus. The highest abundance of species was observed during the dry season (August and September), when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Animal abundance (in terms of observed individual frequencies) varied during the dry and wet seasons and the seasonally flooded grassland was the most utilized habitat by mammals in the dry season. PMID:17299935

  3. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central


    Background Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. Results DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. Conclusions The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction. PMID:24963288

  4. [New data on the Dipetalonema lineage (Filarioidea, Nematoda)].


    Bain, O; Baker, M; Chabaud, A G


    The evolutionary line of Dipetalonema can apparently be divided into four groups: I: Australian species; II: paleoendemic South American species; III: the Tetrapetalonema group; IV: the Acanthocheilonema group. Loxodontofilaria at present insufficiently known to be classified and several species belonging to the Acanthocheilonema group are the object of the present study. Descriptions are given of Loxodontofilaria asiatica n. sp., parasite of Elephas indicus in Burma, Cercopithifilaria degraaffi n. sp., parasites of Papio ursinus in South Africa, C. cephalophi n. sp., parasite of Cephalophus dorsalis and C. gabonensis n. sp., parasite of Atherurus africanus in Gabon. Additional morphological data are given on Cercopithifilaria didelphis, C. rugosicauda, Acanthocheilonema pachycephalum, A. viteae, Molinema dessetae, Dipetalonema gracile, Orihelia sp., Skrjabinofilaria skrjabini, Breinlia (B.) spratti, Litomosa sp., Loxodontofilaria hippopotami. Yatesia n. gen. with type species Yatesia hydrochoerus (Yates, 1980), is proposed, distinguished by specialized characters of the posterior extremity. The genus Cercopithifilaria is used to accomodate species considered as specialized Acanthocheilonema. Chenofilaria is placed in synonymy with Acanthocheilonema. Loxodontofilaria includes the three filarid species from elephants, L. loxodontis, L. gossi, L. asiatica n. sp. and the species from the Hippopotamus, L. hippopotami; D. okapiae is considered a species inquirenda. The interpretation given for the neotropical fauna is the following: --Skrjabinofilaria, Orihelia, Dasypafilaria and Dipetalonema may be true paleoendemics in South America. --Molinema and Ackertia on the one hand and Yatesia on the other may be forms of African origin introduced at the end of the Eocene during the migration of African rodents into South America. The cpature in American reptiles (the genus Macdonaldius) could have occurred during this period. --Surprisingly, the two species of Dipetalonema in Didelphis may be late captures of neartic origin: A. pricei from Acanthocheilonema in carnivores and C. didelphis from a Cercopithifilaria in eutherian mammals. PMID:6891995

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease in the Americas: epidemiology and ecologic changes affecting distribution.


    Saraiva, Victor


    Foot-and-mouth disease(FMD) was first recorded in South America (SA) circa 1870, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in Uruguay, and in southern Brazil as a result of the introduction of cattle from Europe during the early days of colonization. Livestock production to trade with neighboring countries was established in the La Plata Region, and the trade of livestock and products with Chile, northeastern and central western states of Brazil, to Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay spread FMD, which reached Venezuela and Colombia in the 1950s and finally Ecuador in 1961. The traditional forms of livestock husbandry influence the diffusion and maintenance of the FMD virus (FMDV) in different areas. Cattle production in SA depends mainly on a strong relation between cattle-calf operations and fattening operations in a complementary cycle, revealing the vulnerability and susceptibility of these areas to FMDV. Understanding the relationship between time-space behavior of the disease and the forms of production defines the FMD ecosystems, a key concept to elaborating the control/eradication strategies of national FMD eradication programs, which must be modified when trade opportunities between zones of differing sanitary status change. The role of other susceptible species besides bovines, including wildlife, in maintaining and spreading FMDV has been the subject of several studies, but in SA, bovines are so far considered to determine disease presentation. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) have been implicated in the spread of the disease between farms in at least one case in Brazil. Sheep are almost on a par with bovine in terms of number, especially in the Southern Cone, but their role in the maintenance of infection is not considered important, possibly owing to rearing practices. Camelid populations in the Andean region do not play an important role in the maintenance of FMD, because of short persistence of infection and low population densities in these species. The importance of wildlife is not clear, but it is accepted that animals are mostly affected as a spinoff during outbreaks in domestic species. Experimentally infected capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris hydrochoeris) showed clinical signs and infected other susceptible species, but their role in the maintenance of infection in nature is so far not clear. PMID:15604472

  6. Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil.


    Fonseca, Raphael Alves; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito


    In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July) and two in the dry season (September and November) in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (X2=23.79, df=5, p<0.001). A total of 11 species of wild animals and 46 species of fish were consumed. The choice in the consumption of game meat consisted on Tayassu pecari, Hydrochoerus hidrochaeris and Cuniculus paca, while the preference for fish consumption included Plagioscion spp., Astronotus spp., Cichla spp. and Leporinus spp.. The Simpson index did not vary significantly between the rainy and dry season (N=6, t=1.25, p=0.267) or between communities (N=6, t=-5, p=0.42), although SLo Francisco das Chagas have significantly higher consumption of game meat (X2=370.41, df=25, p<0.001). Fishing is an activity of paramount importance to these communities, and factors that lead to decreased availability of fish may lead to subsequent increase in hunting pressure. For the conservation of preserve of both wildlife natural resources and practices of subsistence of riverine communities of the Tapajós National Forest, it is necessary to ensure the maintenance of fish stocks and the protection of the Tapajós River areas large enough to maintain viable populations of wild animals and more tolerant to hunting and habitat loss. PMID:23894979

  7. Diversification and biogeography of the Neotropical caviomorph lineage Octodontoidea (Rodentia: Hystricognathi).


    Upham, Nathan S; Patterson, Bruce D


    The rodent superfamily Octodontoidea comprises 6 families, 38 genera, and 193 living species of spiny rats, tuco-tucos, degus, hutias, and their relatives. All are endemic to the Neotropical Region where they represent roughly three-quarters of extant caviomorphs. Although caviomorph monophyly is well established and phylogenetic hypotheses exist for several families, understanding of octodontoid relationships is clouded by sparse taxon sampling and single-gene analyses. We examined sequence variation in one mitochondrial (12S rRNA) and three nuclear genes (vWF, GHR, and RAG1) across all caviomorph families (including 47 octodontoid species), all phiomorph families, and the sole remaining hystricognath family, using the gundi (Ctenodactylus) and springhaas (Pedetes) as outgroups. Our analyses support the monophyly of Phiomorpha, Caviomorpha, and the caviomorph superfamilies Cavioidea (Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae, and Caviidae, the latter including Hydrochoerus), Erethizontoidea, Chinchilloidea (including Dinomyidae), and Octodontoidea. Cavioids and erethizontoids are strongly supported as sisters, whereas chinchilloids appear to be sister to octodontoids. Among octodontoids, Abrocomidae is consistently recovered as the basal element, sister to a pair of strongly supported clades; one includes Octodontidae and Ctenomyidae as reciprocally monophyletic lineages, whereas the other includes taxa currently allocated to Echimyidae, Capromyidae and Myocastoridae. Capromys appears near the base of this clade, in keeping with current classification, but Myocastor is nested securely inside a clade of Echimyidae that also contains eumysopines, echimyines and dactylomyines. Another, more weakly supported clade of Echimyidae contains fossorial and scansorial taxa from the Chaco-Cerrado-Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest. Biogeographic analyses robustly recover the Patagonia-Southern Andes complex as ancestral for the Octodontoidea, with three component lineages emerging by the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (∼23Ma): (1) stem abrocomids in the Central and Southern Andes; (2) a lineage leading to octodontids plus ctenomyids in Patagonia, later dispersing into the Chaco-Cerrado-Caatinga; and (3) a lineage leading to echimyids, capromyids, and myocastorids that subsequently radiated in more mesic biomes, including Amazonia, Atlantic Forest, and the Antilles. This reconstruction refutes earlier ideas that the diverse, generalized, mainly lowland family Echimyidae, which appears early in the fossil record, gave rise to the Andean lineages of octodontoids-instead, the reverse derivation appears to be true. We recommend formal synonymy of Myocastoridae with Echimyidae but defer a similar treatment of Capromyidae until additional hutia taxa and sequences can be analyzed. PMID:22327013