Hydrodynamic Simulations of Shell Convection in Stellar Cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mocák, Miroslav; Müller, Ewald; Siess, Lionel
Shell convection driven by nuclear burning in a stellar core is a common hydrodynamic event in the evolution of many types of stars. We encounter and simulate this convection (1) in the helium core of a low-mass red giant during core helium flash leading to a dredge-down of protons across an entropy barrier, (2) in a carbon-oxygen core of an intermediate-mass star during core carbon flash, and (3) in the oxygen and carbon burning shell above the silicon-sulfur rich core of a massive star prior to supernova explosion. Our results, which were obtained with the hydrodynamics code HERAKLES, suggest that both entropy gradients and entropy barriers are less important for stellar structure than commonly assumed. Our simulations further reveal a new dynamic mixing process operating below the base of shell convection zones.
Hydrodynamic Simulations of H Entrainment at the Top of He-shell Flash Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodward, Paul R.; Herwig, Falk; Lin, Pei-Hung
2015-01-01
We present the first three-dimensional, fully compressible gas-dynamics simulations in 4π geometry of He-shell flash convection with proton-rich fuel entrainment at the upper boundary. This work is motivated by the insufficiently understood observed consequences of the H-ingestion flash in post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars (Sakurai's object) and metal-poor AGB stars. Our investigation is focused on the entrainment process at the top convection boundary and on the subsequent advection of H-rich material into deeper layers, and we therefore ignore the burning of the proton-rich fuel in this study. We find that for our deep convection zone, coherent convective motions of near global scale appear to dominate the flow. At the top boundary convective shear flows are stable against Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. However, such shear instabilities are induced by the boundary-layer separation in large-scale, opposing flows. This links the global nature of thick shell convection with the entrainment process. We establish the quantitative dependence of the entrainment rate on grid resolution. With our numerical technique, simulations with 10243 cells or more are required to reach a numerical fidelity appropriate for this problem. However, only the result from the 15363 simulation provides a clear indication that we approach convergence with regard to the entrainment rate. Our results demonstrate that our method, which is described in detail, can provide quantitative results related to entrainment and convective boundary mixing in deep stellar interior environments with very stiff convective boundaries. For the representative case we study in detail, we find an entrainment rate of 4.38 ± 1.48 × 10-13 M ⊙ s-1.
HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF H ENTRAINMENT AT THE TOP OF He-SHELL FLASH CONVECTION
Woodward, Paul R.; Lin, Pei-Hung; Herwig, Falk E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca
2015-01-01
We present the first three-dimensional, fully compressible gas-dynamics simulations in 4π geometry of He-shell flash convection with proton-rich fuel entrainment at the upper boundary. This work is motivated by the insufficiently understood observed consequences of the H-ingestion flash in post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars (Sakurai's object) and metal-poor AGB stars. Our investigation is focused on the entrainment process at the top convection boundary and on the subsequent advection of H-rich material into deeper layers, and we therefore ignore the burning of the proton-rich fuel in this study. We find that for our deep convection zone, coherent convective motions of near global scale appear to dominate the flow. At the top boundary convective shear flows are stable against Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. However, such shear instabilities are induced by the boundary-layer separation in large-scale, opposing flows. This links the global nature of thick shell convection with the entrainment process. We establish the quantitative dependence of the entrainment rate on grid resolution. With our numerical technique, simulations with 1024{sup 3} cells or more are required to reach a numerical fidelity appropriate for this problem. However, only the result from the 1536{sup 3} simulation provides a clear indication that we approach convergence with regard to the entrainment rate. Our results demonstrate that our method, which is described in detail, can provide quantitative results related to entrainment and convective boundary mixing in deep stellar interior environments with very stiff convective boundaries. For the representative case we study in detail, we find an entrainment rate of 4.38 ± 1.48 × 10{sup –13} M {sub ☉} s{sup –1}.
Solutocapillary convection in spherical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry
2005-01-01
A linear stability study of solutocapillary driven Marangoni instabilities in small spherical shells is presented. The shells contain a binary fluid with an evaporating solvent. The viscosity is a strong function of the solvent concentration, the inner surface of the shell is assumed impermeable and stress free, while nonlinear boundary conditions are modeled and prescribed at the receding outer boundary. A time-dependent diffusive state is possible and may lose stability through the Marangoni mechanism due to surface tension dependence on solvent concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this microscale problem). A frozen-time or quasisteady state linear stability analysis is performed to compute the critical Reynolds number and degree of surface harmonics, as well as the maximum growth rate of perturbations at specified parameters. The development of maximum growth rates in time was also computed by solving the initial value problem with random initial conditions. Results from both approaches are in good agreement except at short times where there is dependence on initial conditions. The physical problem models the manufacturing of spherical shells used as targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments where perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition. It is proposed that the Marangoni instability might be the source of observed surface roughness. Comparisons with the available experiments are made with reasonable qualitative and quantitative agreement.
Multidimensional hydrodynamic convection in full amplitude RR Lyrae models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deupree, R.; Geroux, C.
2016-05-01
Multidimensional (both 2D and 3D) hydrodynamic calculations have been performed to compute full amplitude RR Lyrae models. The multi- dimensional nature allows convection to be treated in a more realistic way than simple 1D formulations such as the local mixing length theory. We focus on some aspects of multidimensional calculations and on the model for treating convection.
Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan
2016-02-01
We outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces to that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.
Multistability in rotating spherical shell convection.
Feudel, F; Seehafer, N; Tuckerman, L S; Gellert, M
2013-02-01
The multiplicity of stable convection patterns in a rotating spherical fluid shell heated from the inner boundary and driven by a central gravity field is presented. These solution branches that arise as rotating waves (RWs) are traced for varying Rayleigh number while their symmetry, stability, and bifurcations are studied. At increased Rayleigh numbers all the RWs undergo transitions to modulated rotating waves (MRWs) which are classified by their spatiotemporal symmetry. The generation of a third frequency for some of the MRWs is accompanied by a further loss of symmetry. Eventually a variety of MRWs, three-frequency solutions, and chaotic saddles and attractors control the dynamics for higher Rayleigh numbers. PMID:23496624
Angular Momentum Fluctuations in the Convective Helium Shell of Massive Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilkis, Avishai; Soker, Noam
2016-08-01
We find significant fluctuations of angular momentum within the convective helium shell of a pre-collapse massive star—a core-collapse supernova progenitor—that may facilitate the formation of accretion disks and jets that can explode the star. The convective flow in our model of an evolved {M}{ZAMS}=15{M}ȯ star, computed using the subsonic hydrodynamic solver MAESTRO, contains entire shells with net angular momentum in different directions. This phenomenon may have important implications for the late evolutionary stages of massive stars and for the dynamics of core collapse.
Oxgen-burning hydrodynamics. 1: Steady shell burning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnett, David
1994-06-01
With new hydrodynamic techniques, the relatively fast evolutionary stages of a star prior to core collapse may be explicitly computed in two spatial dimensions, with a treatment of the microphysics (e.g., nuclear reactions, equation of state, neutrino cooling) which is comparable to typical one-dimensional simulations. The nature of shell oxygen burning in a massive star, prior to core collapse, is used as a first example; it is of particular interest because it is (1) the region in which Ni-56 will be produced by the supernova shock, (2) the region of the 'mass cut', which will separate the collapsed core from the ejected mantle, (3) the site of much of the explosive nucleosynthesis, and (4) a suggested source of symmetry breaking to drive mixing instabilities which were observed in SN 1987A. The nature of the shell burning affects the size of the core which will collapse. The method is illustrated on this test case, and the character of the convection is examined.
Turbulent Convection in Stellar Interiors. I. Hydrodynamic Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meakin, Casey A.; Arnett, David
2007-09-01
We describe the results of 3D numerical simulations of oxygen shell burning and hydrogen core burning in a 23 Msolar stellar model. A detailed comparison is made to stellar mixing-length theory (MLT) for the shell-burning model. Simulations in 2D are significantly different from 3D, in terms of both flow morphology and velocity amplitude. Convective mixing regions are better predicted using a dynamic boundary condition based on the bulk Richardson number than by purely local, static criteria like Schwarzschild or Ledoux. MLT gives a good description of the velocity scale and temperature gradient for shell convection; however, there are other important effects that it does not capture, mostly related to the dynamical motion of the boundaries between convective and nonconvective regions. There is asymmetry between upflows and downflows, so the net kinetic energy flux is not zero. The motion of convective boundaries is a source of gravity waves; this is a necessary consequence of the deceleration of convective plumes. Convective ``overshooting'' is best described as an elastic response by the convective boundary, rather than ballistic penetration of the stable layers by turbulent eddies. The convective boundaries are rife with internal and interfacial wave motions, and a variety of instabilities arise that induce mixing through a process best described as turbulent entrainment. We find that the rate at which material entrainment proceeds at the boundaries is consistent with analogous laboratory experiments and simulation and observation of terrestrial atmospheric mixing. In particular, the normalized entrainment rate E=uE/σH is well described by a power-law dependence on the bulk Richardson number RiB=ΔbL/σ2H for the conditions studied, 20<~RiB<~420. We find E=ARi-nB, with best-fit values logA=0.027+/-0.38 and n=1.05+/-0.21. We discuss the applicability of these results to stellar evolution calculations.
Critical stability of almost adiabatic convection in a rapidly rotating thick spherical shell
Starchenko, S. V.; Kotelnikova, M. S.
2013-02-15
In this work, the convection equations in the almost adiabatic approximation is studied for which the choice of physical parameters is primarily based on possible applications to the hydrodynamics of the deep interiors of the Earth and planets and moons of the terrestrial group. The initial system of partial differential equations (PDEs) was simplified to a single second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure or vertical velocity component to investigate the linear stability of convection. The critical frequencies, modified Rayleigh numbers, and distributions of convection are obtained at various possible Prandtl numbers and in different thick fluid shells. An analytical WKB-type solution was obtained for the case when the inner radius of the shell is much smaller than the outer radius and convective sources are concentrated along the inner boundary.
Spatial symmetry breaking in rapidly rotating convective spherical shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald
1995-01-01
Many problems in geophysical and astrophysical convection systems are characterized by fast rotation and spherical shell geometry. The combined effects of Coriolis forces and spherical shell geometry produce a unique spatial symmetry for the convection pattern in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. In this paper, we first discuss the general spatial symmetries for rotating spherical shell convection. A special model, a spherical shell heated from below, is then used to illustrate how and when the spatial symmetries are broken. Symmetry breaking occurs via a sequence of spatial transitions from the primary conducting state to the complex multiple-layered columnar structure. It is argued that, because of the dominant effects of rotation, the sequence of spatial transitions identified from this particular model is likely to be generally valid. Applications of the spatial symmetry breaking to planetary convection problems are also discussed.
Zingale, M.; Orvedahl, R. J.; Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.
2013-02-10
We assess the robustness of a low Mach number hydrodynamics algorithm for modeling helium shell convection on the surface of a white dwarf in the context of the sub-Chandrasekhar model for Type Ia supernovae. We use the low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, to perform three-dimensional, spatially adaptive simulations of convection leading up to the point of the ignition of a burning front. We show that the low Mach number hydrodynamics model provides a robust description of the system.
On Unsteady Natural Convection Between Spherical Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Yuri; Colonius, Tim
2011-11-01
Natural convection between two concentric spheres is investigated with three-dimensional numerical simulations. Buoyancy is achieved by preserving a temperature difference between the internal hotter and the external colder boundaries of the spherical shell. The numerical simulations were performed for the two basic configurations characterized by external to internal radius ratios of 1.2 and 1.5. Slightly supercritical laminar regimes characterized by the Rayleigh numbers of order Ra ~ O(104-105) were simulated by utilizing a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach while a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used for investigation of turbulent regimes for Ra ~ O (108-109) . We discuss the topological characteristics of the both laminar and turbulent flows. One of the possible scenarios of steady-unsteady transition is proposed as well. Implications of the results for the design of a double-walled Montgolfiere aerobot for the exploration of Titan's atmosphere are discussed. Research supported by Jet Propulsion Laboratory with Dr. Jeffrey Hall as monitor.
Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Crystal Growth: Is Hydrodynamic Convection Relevant?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, B.; Tharrington, A.; Wu, Xiao-Lun
1996-01-01
The effects of mechanical stirring on nucleation and chiral symmetry breaking have been investigated for a simple inorganic molecule, sodium chlorate (NaClO3). In contrast to earlier findings, our experiment suggests that the symmetry breaking may have little to do with hydrodynamic convection. Rather the effect can be reasonably accounted for by mechanical damage to incipient crystals. The catastrophic events, creating numerous small 'secondary' crystals, produce statistical domination of one chiral species over the other. Our conclusion is supported by a number of observations using different mixing mechanisms.
Thermo-Chemical Convection in Europa's Icy Shell with Salinity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, L.; Showman, A. P.
2005-01-01
Europa's icy surface displays numerous pits, uplifts, and chaos terrains that have been suggested to result from solid-state thermal convection in the ice shell, perhaps aided by partial melting. However, numerical simulations of thermal convection show that plumes have insufficient buoyancy to produce surface deformation. Here we present numerical simulations of thermochemical convection to test the hypothesis that convection with salinity can produce Europa's pits and domes. Our simulations show that domes (200-300 m) and pits (300-400 m) comparable to the observations can be produced in an ice shell of 15 km thick with 5-10% compositional density variation if the maximum viscosity is less than 10(exp 18) Pa sec. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.
Convection in Rotating Spherical Fluid Shells and its Dynamo Action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busse, Friedrich
2015-04-01
Convection in rotating spherical fluid shells is characterized by the relative orientation of gravity and rotation vector. Outside the virtual cylinder touching the inner boundary at its equator convection assumes the form of thermal Rossby waves which are particularly suitable for the generation of magnetic fields. Without magnetic field the shear generated by the thermal Rossby waves tends to destroy them. Only localized convection or intermittent convection may survive the shearing action. Dipolar, quadrupolar and hemispherical dynamos can be realized. Lorentz forces counteract the shearing action of the differential rotation and thus permit an efficient heat transport. Of particular interest are regimes of bistability where depending on initial conditions either dynamos with strong mean magnetic fields or dynamos with highly fluctuating magnetic fields are realized. In systems like the Earth's core aperiodic reversals of the poloidal field may occur in connection with periodic toroidal dynamo waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Junfeng; Liang, Chunlei; Miesch, Mark S.
2015-06-01
We present a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Unstructured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code for simulating thermal convection and related fluid dynamics in the interiors of stars and planets. The computational geometries are treated as rotating spherical shells filled with stratified gas. The hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM) on unstructured meshes. The computational stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS demonstrates excellent parallel performance for all test cases reported in this paper, scaling up to 12 000 cores on the Yellowstone High-Performance Computing cluster at NCAR. The code is verified by defining two benchmark cases for global convection in Jupiter and the Sun. CHORUS results are compared with results from the ASH code and good agreement is found. The CHORUS code creates new opportunities for simulating such varied phenomena as multi-scale solar convection, core convection, and convection in rapidly-rotating, oblate stars.
Helium Shells on Sub-Chandrasekhar White Dwarfs: Ignition and Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Adam M.; Zingale, Michael; Nonaka, Andrew; Almgren, Ann; Bell, John
2015-01-01
Sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs accreting an envelope of helium allow for a range of explosive phenomena that could yield a variety of observable transients. Helium novae, so-called "point" Ia supernovae (.Ia SNe), rapid decline type Ia, and normal type Ia supernovae are all potential outcomes of helium accretion onto sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. In this talk we outline why these systems have received a great deal of scrutiny recently and present our 3D models of convective nuclear burning in the helium envelope. We focus on thin, low-mass envelopes that are the best candidates for yielding normal type Ia supernovae. The envelope is modeled with the low-Mach hydrodynamics code Maestro. Maestro is optimized for modeling sub-sonic convective flow over long timescales while still being able to capture local compressibility effects due to nuclear burning as well as large-scale adjustments of stellar hydrostatic equilibrium. With it we model the convective burning in low-mass helium shells for carbon/oxygen white dwarf cores of 0.8, 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2 solar masses. For a suite of models we characterize the geometry, timing, and thermodynamics of ignition as well as the envelope's convective properties. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the viability of these systems as transient progenitors with a focus on normal type Ia supernovae.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britz, Dieter
Convection has long been coupled with electrochemistry, and the name hydrodynamic voltammetry has become standard. In electroanalytical chemistry we mainly seek reproducible conditions. These are almost always attained by systems in which a steady convective state is achieved, although not always. Thus, the once popular dropping mercury electrode (see texts such as [74, 257]) has convection around it, but is never in steady state; it might be called a reproducible periodic dynamic state.
On Laminar and Turbulent Free Convection in Thin Spherical Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Yuri; Colonius, Tim
2012-11-01
Laminar and turbulent free convection flow inside thin spherical shells with isothermal cold and hot boundaries and internal/external radius ratios in the range of 0.85 <=ri /ro <= 0.95 is numerically investigated. The accuracy of the results has been verified by grid independence analysis and DNS-LES comparisons of the flow characteristics for the typical cases. The functional Nu-Ra dependency is extensively investigated for the range of 103 <= Ra <= 1010 including laminar, transitional and fully turbulent flow regimes. For thin shells, we observe considerable deviations from the existing engineering correlations. The deviations tend to increase for transitional and fully turbulent flows. A new correlation for Nu-Ra dependency is proposed and favorably verified by independently obtained experimental end numerical results. The influence of non-uniform temperature distribution along the shell boundaries on the overall heat flux rate is also discussed. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, A. M.; Zingale, M.; Nonaka, A.; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.
2016-08-01
The dynamics of helium shell convection driven by nuclear burning establish the conditions for runaway in the sub-Chandrasekhar-mass, double-detonation model for SNe Ia, as well as for a variety of other explosive phenomena. We explore these convection dynamics for a range of white dwarf core and helium shell masses in three dimensions using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code MAESTRO. We present calculations of the bulk properties of this evolution, including time-series evolution of global diagnostics, lateral averages of the 3D state, and the global 3D state. We find a variety of outcomes, including quasi-equilibrium, localized runaway, and convective runaway. Our results suggest that the double-detonation progenitor model is promising and that 3D dynamic convection plays a key role.
Time-implicit hydrodynamical simulations of stellar interiors: Application to turbulent convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viallet, M.
2012-12-01
The talk described the first results on turbulent convection in the envelope of a red giant star obtained with the MUSIC code, a new multi-dimensional time-implicit code devoted to stellar interiors (Viallet, Baraffe & Walder, A&A, 2011). Currently, most of our physical understanding of stellar interiors and evolution largely relies on one-dimensional calculations. The description of complex physical processes like time-dependent turbulent convection, rotation or MHD processes mostly relies on simplified, phenomenological approaches, with a predictive power hampered by the use of several free parameters. These approaches have now reached their limits in the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. The development of multi-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations becomes crucial to progress in the field of stellar physics and to meet the enormous observational efforts aimed at producing data of unprecedented quality (COROT, Kepler GAIA). The MUSIC code solves the hydrodynamical equations in spherical geometry and is based on the finite volume method. The talk presented implicit large eddy simulations of the turbulent convection in a cold giant envelope both in 2D and 3D and covering 80% in radius of the stellar structure. The computational domain includes both the convective envelope and a significant fraction of the radiative zone, allowing for convective penetration. These simulations provide valuable insight to improve the description of turbulent convection in 1D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Y.; DiCarlo, D. A.; Hesse, M. A.
2015-12-01
Carbon capture and storage in deep geological formations has the potential to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions from industrial point sources. Dissolution of CO2 into the brine, resulting in stable stratification, has been identified as the key to long-term storage security. Here we present new analogue laboratory experiment method, advanced image processing method and optimized simulation method to characterize CO2 convective dissolution trapping process and gravitational finger behaviors, in order to study the effect of hydrodynamic dispersion on the CO2 convective dissolution process, as well as to study the effect of control physical parameters on the gravitational finger dynamics. Figure 1 shows the image processing method to analyze the finger dynamics. Understanding the effect of hydrodynamic dispersion and the finger dynamics are essential to evaluate whether convective dissolution occurs, as well as to predict how fast it occurs at the geological CO2 storage field scale. The effect of hydrodynamics dispersion and the finger dynamics can be applied to estimate the security of geological CO2 storage fields, in turn. Optimiezed simulation work is conducted to predict the CO2 dissolution rate at geological CO2 storage field. The large experimental assembly will allow us to quantify in detail for the first time the relationship between convective dissolution rate and the controlling factors of the system, including permeability and driven force, which could be essential to trapping process at Bravo Dome geological CO2 storage field. We complement the homogeneous experiments with a detailed study of the scaling law of the convective flux with dispersion effect. The advanced image processing method with Fourier's transform method allow us to understand the finger dynamics and corresponding control factors in porous media, for the first time. By applying the dispersion effect and finger dynamics we found from the experimental study, we optimize the simulation
A NEW STELLAR MIXING PROCESS OPERATING BELOW SHELL CONVECTION ZONES FOLLOWING OFF-CENTER IGNITION
Mocak, M.; Siess, L.; Meakin, Casey A.; Mueller, E.
2011-12-10
During most stages of stellar evolution the nuclear burning of lighter to heavier elements results in a radial composition profile which is stabilizing against buoyant acceleration, with light material residing above heavier material. However, under some circumstances, such as off-center ignition, the composition profile resulting from nuclear burning can be destabilizing and characterized by an outwardly increasing mean molecular weight. The potential for instabilities under these circumstances and the consequences that they may have on stellar structural evolution remain largely unexplored. In this paper we study the development and evolution of instabilities associated with unstable composition gradients in regions that are initially stable according to linear Schwarzschild and Ledoux criteria. In particular, we study the development of turbulent flow under a variety of stellar evolution conditions with multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation; the phases studied include the core helium flash in a 1.25 M{sub Sun} star, the core carbon flash in a 9.3 M{sub Sun} star, and oxygen shell burning in a 23 M{sub Sun} star. The results of our simulations reveal a mixing process associated with regions having outwardly increasing mean molecular weight that reside below convection zones. The mixing is not due to overshooting from the convection zone, nor is it due directly to thermohaline mixing which operates on a timescale several orders of magnitude larger than the simulated flows. Instead, the mixing appears to be due to the presence of a wave field induced in the stable layers residing beneath the convection zone which enhances the mixing rate by many orders of magnitude and allows a thermohaline type mixing process to operate on a dynamical, rather than thermal, timescale. The mixing manifests itself in the form of overdense and cold blob-like structures originating from density fluctuations at the lower boundary of convective shell and 'shooting' down into the core
AN AZIMUTHAL DYNAMO WAVE IN SPHERICAL SHELL CONVECTION
Cole, Elizabeth; Käpylä, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Brandenburg, Axel
2014-01-10
We report the discovery of an azimuthal dynamo wave of a low-order (m = 1) mode in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent convection in spherical shells. Such waves are predicted by mean-field dynamo theory and have been obtained previously in mean-field models. An azimuthal dynamo wave has been proposed as a possible explanation for the persistent drifts of spots observed on several rapidly rotating stars, as revealed through photometry and Doppler imaging. However, this has been judged unlikely because evidence for such waves from DNS has been lacking. Here we present DNS of large-scale magnetic fields showing a retrograde m = 1 mode. Its pattern speed is nearly independent of latitude and does not reflect the speed of the differential rotation at any depth. The extrema of magnetic m = 1 structures coincide reasonably well with the maxima of m = 2 structures of the temperature. These results provide direct support for the observed drifts being due to an azimuthal dynamo wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, R. K.; Gastine, T.; Christensen, U. R.; Duarte, L. D. V.; Reiners, A.
2016-02-01
We study rotating thermal convection in spherical shells as prototype for flow in the cores of terrestrial planets, gas planets or in stars. We base our analysis on a set of about 450 direct numerical simulations of the (magneto)hydrodynamic equations under the Boussinesq approximation. The Ekman number ranges from 10-3 to 10-5. The supercriticality of the convection reaches about 1000 in some models. Four sets of simulations are considered: non-magnetic simulations and dynamo simulations with either free-slip or no-slip flow boundary conditions. The non-magnetic setup with free-slip boundaries generates the strongest zonal flows. Both non-magnetic simulations with no-slip flow boundary conditions and self-consistent dynamos with free-slip boundaries have drastically reduced zonal-flows. Suppression of shear leads to a substantial gain in heat-transfer efficiency, increasing by a factor of 3 in some cases. Such efficiency enhancement occurs as long as the convection is significantly influenced by rotation. At higher convective driving the heat-transfer efficiency tends towards that of the classical non-rotating Rayleigh-Bénard system. Analysis of the latitudinal distribution of heat flow at the outer boundary reveals that the shear is most effective at suppressing heat-transfer in the equatorial regions. Simulations with convection zones of different thickness show that the zonal flows become less energetic in thicker shells, and, therefore, their effect on heat-transfer efficiency decreases. Furthermore, we explore the influence of the magnetic field on the non-zonal flow components of the convection. For this we compare the heat-transfer efficiency of no-slip non-magnetic cases with that of the no-slip dynamo simulations. We find that at E = 10-5 magnetic field significantly affects the convection and a maximum gain of about 30 per cent (as compared to the non-magnetic case) in heat-transfer efficiency is obtained for an Elsasser number of about 3. Our analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul Rehman, Nidhil Mohamed; Shukla, Ratnesh
2015-11-01
Introduction of a slip in the tangential surface velocity suppresses vorticity production in a typical bluff body flow while simultaneously enhancing vorticity convection downstream and into the wake region. As a result the flow characteristics are altered significantly and the hydrodynamic loads are reduced considerably. In this work we investigate the effect of the hydrodynamic slip on the convective heat transfer from the surface of a heated isothermal circular cylinder placed in the uniform cross flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through numerical simulations. We find that for fixed Reynolds and Prandtl numbers an increase in the Knudsen number or equivalently the hydrodynamic slip length results in a substantial augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient. We establish the dependence of the Nusselt number on the Knudsen, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers over a wide range of these parameters. We find that for given Reynolds and Prandtl numbers the Nusselt number undergoes a sharp transition between the low and high asymptotic limits that correspond to zero (no-slip) and infinite (shear-free perfect slip) Knudsen numbers. We establish that the high asymptotic limit corresponding to the shear-free perfect slip cylinder boundary scales as Nu ~ Re 0 . 5 Pr 0 . 5 .
Energy generation in convective shells of low mass, low metallicity stars
Bazan, G. . Dept. of Astronomy); Lattanzio, J.C. )
1989-11-10
We report on the non-negligible energy generation from the {sup 13}C neutron source and neutron capture reactions in low mass, low metallicity AGB stars. About 10{sup 4} L{sub {circle dot}} are generated within the thermal pulse convective shell by the combination of the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O rate and the sum of the Y(Z,A)(n,{gamma})Y(Z,A + 1) reactions and beta decays. The inclusion of this energy source in an AGB thermal pulse evolution is shown to alter the evolution of the convective shell boundaries, and, hence, how the {sup 13}C is ingested into the convective shell. Also, the duration of the pulse itself is reduced by the additional energy input. The nucleosynthetic consequences are discussed for these evolutionary changes. 17 refs., 5 figs.
Kinetic energy cascades in quasi-geostrophic convection in a spherical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reshetnyak, Maxim; Hejda, Pavel
2012-07-01
We consider triadic nonlinear interaction in the Navier-Stokes equation for quasi-geostrophic convection in a spherical shell. This approach helps us understand the origin of kinetic energy transport in the system and the particular scheme of mode interaction, as well as the locality of energy transfer. The peculiarity of convection in the sphere, concerned with the excitation of Rossby waves, is considered. The obtained results are compared with the results of our previous study on Cartesian geometry.
Soil moisture feedbacks on convection triggers: the role of soil-plant hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siqueira, M.; Katul, G.; Porporato, A.
2008-12-01
The linkages between soil moisture dynamics and convection triggers, defined here as the first crossing between the boundary layer height and lifting condensation level, are complicated by a large number of interacting processes occurring over a wide range of space and time scales. To progress on this problem, a soil-plant hydrodynamics model was coupled to a simplified ABL budget to explore the feedback of soil moisture on convection triggers. Using a simplified homogenization technique, the soil-plant hydraulics formulation solves the intrinsically 3-D soil water movement equations by two 1-D coupled Richards' equations. The model is able to account mechanistically for features such as root water uptake, root water redistribution, and mid-day stomatal closure, all known to affect diurnal cycles of surface fluxes and consequently ABL growth. The ABL model considered the convective boundary layer as a slab with a discontinuity at the inversion layer. The coupled model was parameterized using the wealth of data already collected for a maturing Loblolly pine plantation situated in the Southeastern United States. Previous studies, which made use of surface flux measurements to drive an ABL model, have postulate that a negative feedback was possible, which could award the ecosystem with some degree of self-regulation of its water status. According to model simulations, this negative feedback is unlikely. However, drastic changes in external water sources to the ABL are needed for triggering convection when soil moisture is depleted. The apparent negative feedback originated from a decoupling between the water vapor sources needed to produce convection triggers and surface water vapor fluxes.
Thermal convection in ice-I shells of Titan and Enceladus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitri, Giuseppe; Showman, Adam P.
2008-02-01
Cassini-Huygens observations have shown that Titan and Enceladus are geologically active icy satellites. Mitri and Showman [Mitri, G., Showman, A.P., 2005. Icarus 177, 447-460] and McKinnon [McKinnon, W.B., 2006. Icarus 183, 435-450] investigated the dynamics of an ice shell overlying a pure liquid-water ocean and showed that transitions from a conductive state to a convective state have major implications for the surface tectonics. We extend this analysis to the case of ice shells overlying ammonia-water oceans. We explore the thermal state of Titan and Enceladus ice-I shells, and also we investigate the consequences of the ice-I shell conductive-convective switch for the geology. We show that thermal convection can occur, under a range of conditions, in the ice-I shells of Titan and Enceladus. Because the Rayleigh number Ra scales with δ/η, where δ is the thickness of the ice shell and η is the viscosity at the base of the ice-I shell, and because ammonia in the liquid layer (if any) strongly depresses the melting temperature of the water ice, Ra equals its critical value for two ice-I shell thicknesses: for relatively thin ice shell with warm, low-viscosity base (Onset I) and for thick ice shell with cold, high-viscosity base (Onset II). At Onset I, for a range of heat fluxes, two equilibrium states—corresponding to a thin, conductive shell and a thick, convective shell—exist for a given heat flux. Switches between these states can cause large, rapid changes in the ice-shell thickness. For Enceladus, we demonstrate that an Onset I transition can produce tectonic stress of ˜500 bars and fractures of several tens of km depth. At Onset II, in contrast, we demonstrate that zero equilibrium states exist for a range of heat fluxes. For a mean heat flux within this range, the satellite experiences oscillations in surface heat flux and satellite volume with periods of ˜50-800 Myr even when the interior heat production is constant or monotonically declining in
Impact of tidal heating on the onset of convection in Enceladus' ice shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behounkova, Marie; Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gael; Cadek, Ondrej
2013-04-01
Observations of Enceladus by the Cassini spacecraft indicated that its south pole is very active, with jets of water vapor and ice emanating from warm tectonic ridges. Convective processes in the ice shell are commonly advocated to explain the enhanced activity at the south pole. The conditions under which convection may occur on Enceladus are, however, still puzzling. According to the estimation of Barr and McKinnon (2007) based on scaling laws, convection may initiate in Enceladus' ice shell only for grain size smaller than 0.3 mm, which is very small compared to the grain size observed on Earth in polar ice sheets for similar temperature and stress conditions (2-4mm). Moreover, Bahounková et al. (2012) showed that such enhanced activity periods associated with thermal convection and internal melting should be brief (~ 1 - 10Myrs) and should be followed by relatively long periods of inactivity (~ 100Myrs), with a probable cessation of thermal convection. In order to constrain the likelihood and periodicity of enhanced activity periods, the conditions under which thermal convection may restart are needed to be investigated. In particular, the goal is to understand how tidal heating, especially during periods of elevated eccentricity, may influence the onset of convection. To answer this question, 3D simulations of thermal convection including a self-consistent computation of tidal dissipation using the code Antigone (Bahounková et al., 2010, 2012) were performed, a composite non-Newtonian rheology (Goldsby and Kohlstedt, 2001) and Maxwell-like rheology mimicking Andrade model were considered. Our simulations show that the onset of convection may occur in Enceladus' ice shell only for ice grain size smaller or equal than 0.5 mm in absence of tidal heating. Tidal dissipation shifts the critical grain size for convection up to values of 1-1.5 mm. The convection is initiated in the polar region due to enhanced tidal dissipation in this area and remains in the
Natural Convection in a rotating multilayer spherical shell system with self gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lira Rangel, Francisco Javier; Avila Rodriguez, Ruben; Cabello Gonzalez, Ares
2015-11-01
The onset of thermal convection in rotating multilayer spherical shells is investigated. Similar to the the terrestrial planets structure (core-mantle-ocean/atmosphere), the system is composed of three concentric shells. The first spherical gap has an aspect ratio equal to 0.35, the middle gap has an aspect ratio of 0.44 and the third gap has an aspect ratio equal to 0.8.The inner and the outer spherical gaps confine Boussinesq fluids while the middle spherical gap is treated as a thermal conductor solid. The investigation shows the Taylor and Rayleigh numbers that allows the onset of thermal convection in the two fluid gaps. Additionally the convective patterns, the temperature fields and the heat fluxes are presented in the most inner and outer spherical gaps. Convection is driven by the temperature difference between the most inner and outer spheres and a gravitational field which varies like 1 / r and 1 /r3 . The fluid equations are solved by using the spectral element method (SEM) and the mesh is generated by using the cubed-sphere algorithm to avoid the singularity at the poles. To the knowledge of the authors the convection-conduction-convection problem presented in this paper has not been investigated previously. This project is sponsored by PAPIIT DGAPA UNAM.
2016-01-01
We present a new methodology for efficient and high-quality patterning of biological reagents for surface-based biological assays. The method relies on hydrodynamically confined nanoliter volumes of reagents to interact with the substrate at the micrometer-length scale. We study the interplay between diffusion, advection, and surface chemistry and present the design of a noncontact scanning microfluidic device to efficiently present reagents on surfaces. By leveraging convective flows, recirculation, and mixing of a processing liquid, this device overcomes limitations of existing biopatterning approaches, such as passive diffusion of analytes, uncontrolled wetting, and drying artifacts. We demonstrate the deposition of analytes, showing a 2- to 5-fold increase in deposition rate together with a 10-fold reduction in analyte consumption while ensuring less than 6% variation in pattern homogeneity on a standard biological substrate. In addition, we demonstrate the recirculation of a processing liquid using a microfluidic probe (MFP) in the context of a surface assay for (i) probing 12 independent areas with a single microliter of processing liquid and (ii) processing a 2 mm2 surface to create 170 antibody spots of 50 × 100 μm2 area using 1.6 μL of liquid. We observe high pattern quality, conservative usage of reagents, micrometer precision of localization and convection-enhanced fast deposition. Such a device and method may facilitate quantitative biological assays and spur the development of the next generation of protein microarrays. PMID:26837532
Autebert, Julien; Cors, Julien F; Taylor, David P; Kaigala, Govind V
2016-03-15
We present a new methodology for efficient and high-quality patterning of biological reagents for surface-based biological assays. The method relies on hydrodynamically confined nanoliter volumes of reagents to interact with the substrate at the micrometer-length scale. We study the interplay between diffusion, advection, and surface chemistry and present the design of a noncontact scanning microfluidic device to efficiently present reagents on surfaces. By leveraging convective flows, recirculation, and mixing of a processing liquid, this device overcomes limitations of existing biopatterning approaches, such as passive diffusion of analytes, uncontrolled wetting, and drying artifacts. We demonstrate the deposition of analytes, showing a 2- to 5-fold increase in deposition rate together with a 10-fold reduction in analyte consumption while ensuring less than 6% variation in pattern homogeneity on a standard biological substrate. In addition, we demonstrate the recirculation of a processing liquid using a microfluidic probe (MFP) in the context of a surface assay for (i) probing 12 independent areas with a single microliter of processing liquid and (ii) processing a 2 mm(2) surface to create 170 antibody spots of 50 × 100 μm(2) area using 1.6 μL of liquid. We observe high pattern quality, conservative usage of reagents, micrometer precision of localization and convection-enhanced fast deposition. Such a device and method may facilitate quantitative biological assays and spur the development of the next generation of protein microarrays. PMID:26837532
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R.
2001-12-01
Solid state convection within Europa's ice shell has important implications for astrobiology because it drives relatively swift, large scale vertical motion over geologically short time scales. On Europa, convection may occur within the lower portion of the floating ice shell. The strong dependence of the viscosity of ice on temperature leads to the formation of a stagnant lid at Europa's surface where convective motion ceases. Beneath the stagnant lid, convective motions facilitate cycling of nutrients through the ice shell. In upwelling areas, relatively nutrient-poor, but possibly microbe-containing and biochemically-modified ice is pushed toward the surface. Downwellings push near-surface ice modified by surface radiation down to the ocean. Dissipation of tidal heat within the ice shell is dependent on the viscosity of the ice: warm, low-viscosity ice will dissipate more energy than cold, brittle ice. This positive feedback between tidal heating and viscosity can result in isolated pockets of melting within Europa's ice shell [Wang & Stevenson, 2000]. These pockets of melt could potentially harbor isolated microbial communities for a finite amount of time. We are in the process of modifying a 3 dimensional finite-element code originally constructed to model Earth's mantle (Citcom) [Zhong, 1998] to apply to icy systems. This model will take into account tidal heating within the ice shell, and the presence of salts and partial melt within the ice. Results of our preliminary 2 dimensional modeling confirm that the convecting sub-layer of Europa's ice shell is recycled in 105 years, and confirm that isolated pockets of melt can be generated within Europa's ice shell by tidal heating. Our model can be used to calculate the mass of ice deposited beneath the stagnant lid as a function of position on Europa. These mass flux estimates coupled with models of the formation of surface features which involve breaching the stagnant lid will help identify the locations on
Inertial Effects on Thermochemically Driven Convection and Hydromagnetic Dynamos in Spherical Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simkanin, J.; Kyselica, J.; Guba, P.
2015-12-01
Mechanisms of rotating convection play a fundamental role in the generation of the Earth's magnetic field. In order to get a better understanding of these mechanisms, we investigate the isolated problems of rotating thermal,chemical and thermochemical convection, and then thermally, chemically and thermochemically driven hydromagnetic dynamos in spherical shells. The underlying model equations describe the evolution of the flow, thermal and compositional fields in the first case, and flow, thermal, compositional and magnetic fields in the second case within the Boussinesq approximation. A uniform distribution of heat sources within the shell are assumed. The effects of solidification at the inner core boundary are accounted for by prescribing the latent heat and solutal fluxes at the bottom of the shell. In the limit of small Ekman and Prandtl numbers, we provide asymptotic results for the onset of convection and dynamos, in which case the system can be approximated to leading order by an inertial-wave convection and dynamos. The full set of governing equations is then solved numerically.
Impact of tidal heating on the onset of convection in Enceladus’s ice shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Běhounková, Marie; Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gaël; Čadek, Ondřej
2013-09-01
By performing 3D simulations of thermal convection and tidal dissipation, we investigated the effect of tidal heating on the onset of convection in Enceladus’s ice shell. We considered a composite non-Newtonian rheology including diffusion, grain-size-sensitive and dislocation creeps, and we defined an effective tidal viscosity reproducing the dissipation function as predicted by the Andrade rheology. For simulations with no or moderate tidal heating, the onset of convection requires ice grain sizes smaller than or equal to 0.5-0.6 mm. For simulations including significant tidal heating (>10-6 W m-3), the critical grain size for the onset of convection is shifted up to values of 1-1.5 mm. Whatever the width of the internal ocean, convection is initiated in the polar region due to enhanced tidal dissipation at high latitudes. For a given eccentricity value, the onset of convection depends on the ocean width, as tidal flexing and hence tidal heat production is controlled by the ocean width. For heating rates larger than 5-9 × 10-7 W m-3, we systematically observe the occurrence of melting in our simulations, whatever the grain size and for both convecting and non-convecting cases. Grain sizes smaller than 1.5 mm, required to initiate convection, may be obtained either by the presence of a few percent of impurities limiting the grain growth by pinning effects or by the increase of stress and hence dynamic recrystallization associated with tidally-induced melting events.
Magneto-Hydrodynamic Damping of Convection During Vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger Growth of HgCdTe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watring, D. A.; Lehoczky, S. L.
1996-01-01
In order to quantify the effects of convection on segregation, Hg(0.8)Cd(0.2)Te crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger method in the presence of an applied axial magnetic field of 50 kG. The influence of convection, by magneto-hydrodynamic damping, on mass transfer in the melt and segregation at the solid-liquid interface was investigated by measuring the axial and radial compositional variations in the grown samples. The reduction of convective mixing in the melt through the application of the magnetic field is found to decrease radial segregation to the diffusion-limited regime. It was also found that the suppression of the convective cell near the solid-liquid interface results in an increase in the slope of the diffusion-controlled solute boundary layer, which can lead to constitutional supercooling.
Spacelab experiments on convection in a rotating spherical shell with radial gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toomre, J.; Hart, J. E.; Glatzmaier, G. A.
Experiments on thermal convection in a rotating, differentially-heated hemispherical shell of fluid with a radial gravity field were carried out in the microgravity environment of Spacelab 3 which was flown on the space shuttle Challenger in May 1985. Schlieren visualizations of these laboratory flows are compared briefly to three-dimensional nonlinear simulations that can be conducted at the more modest heating rates.
Multigrid-based simulation code for mantle convection in spherical shell using Yin Yang grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kameyama, Masanori; Kageyama, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya
2008-12-01
A new simulation code of mantle convection in a three-dimensional spherical shell is presented. Major innovation of the code comes from an combination of two numerical techniques, namely Yin-Yang grid and ACuTE algorithm, which we had developed for large-scale simulations of solid earth sciences. Benchmark comparisons for the steady convection for low Rayleigh numbers ( Ra) with previous calculations revealed that accurate results are successfully reproduced not only for isoviscous cases but also for the cases where the mild temperature-dependence of viscosity is included. We also demonstrated that our code can reproduce the change in convective flow patterns into the "sluggish-lid" regime with increasing the viscosity variation rη up to 104.
Hydrodynamic theory for nematic shells: The interplay among curvature, flow, and alignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi
2016-08-01
We derive the hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystals lying on curved substrates. We invoke the Lagrange-Rayleigh variational principle to adapt the Ericksen-Leslie theory to two-dimensional nematics in which a degenerate anchoring of the molecules on the substrate is enforced. The only constitutive assumptions in this scheme concern the free-energy density, given by the two-dimensional Frank potential, and the density of dissipation which is required to satisfy appropriate invariance requirements. The resulting equations of motion couple the velocity field, the director alignment, and the curvature of the shell. To illustrate our findings, we consider the effect of a simple shear flow on the alignment of a nematic lying on a cylindrical shell.
Hydrodynamic theory for nematic shells: The interplay among curvature, flow, and alignment.
Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi
2016-08-01
We derive the hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystals lying on curved substrates. We invoke the Lagrange-Rayleigh variational principle to adapt the Ericksen-Leslie theory to two-dimensional nematics in which a degenerate anchoring of the molecules on the substrate is enforced. The only constitutive assumptions in this scheme concern the free-energy density, given by the two-dimensional Frank potential, and the density of dissipation which is required to satisfy appropriate invariance requirements. The resulting equations of motion couple the velocity field, the director alignment, and the curvature of the shell. To illustrate our findings, we consider the effect of a simple shear flow on the alignment of a nematic lying on a cylindrical shell. PMID:27627231
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stemmer, K.; Harder, H.; Hansen, U.
2004-12-01
The style of convection in planetary mantles is presumably dominated by the strong dependence of the viscosity of the mantle material on temperature and pressure. While several efforts have been undertaken in cartesian geometry to investigate convection in media with strong temperature dependent viscosity, spherical models are still in their infancy and still limited to modest parameters. Spectral approaches are usually employed for spherical convection models which do not allow to take into account lateral variations, like temperature dependent viscosity. We have developed a scheme, based on a finite volume discretization, to treat convection in a spherical shell with strong temperature dependent viscosity. Our approach has been particularly tailored to run efficiently on parallel computers. The spherical shell is topologically divided into six cubes. The equations are formulated in primitive variables, and are treated in the cartesian cubes. In order to ensure mass conservation a SIMPLER pressure correction procedure is applied and to handle strong viscosity variations up to Δ η =106 and high Rayleigh-numbers up to Ra=108 the pressure correction algorithm is combined with a pressure weighted interpolation method to satisfy the incompressibility condition and to avoid oscillations. We study thermal convection in a basal and mixed-mode heated shell with stress free and isothermal boundary conditions, as a function of the Rayleigh-number and viscosity contrast. Besides the temperature dependence we have further explored the effects of pressure on the viscosity. As a general result we observe the existence of three regimes (mobile, sluggish and stagnant lid), characterized by the type of surface motion. Laterally averaged depth-profiles of velocity, temperature and viscosity exhibit significant deviations from the isoviscous case. As compared to cartesian geometries, convection in a spherical shell possesses strong memory for the initial state. At strong
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, John E.
1996-01-01
Experiments designed to study the fluid dynamics of buoyancy driven circulations in rotating spherical shells were conducted on the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 spacelab mission. These experiments address several aspects of prototypical global convection relevant to large scale motions on the Sun, Earth, and on the giant planets. The key feature is the consistent modeling of radially directed gravity in spherical geometry by using dielectric polarization forces. Imagery of the planforms of thermally driven flows for rapidly-rotating regimes shows an initial separation and eventual merger of equatorial and polar convection as the heating (i.e. the Rayleigh number) is increased. At low rotation rates, multiple-states of motion for the same external parameters were observed.
Onset of convection in a basally heated spherical shell application to planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behounkova, M.; Choblet, G.
2008-12-01
Convective instabilities related to the early dynamics of planetary mantles just after core formation play an important role in the subsequent evolution. Although these early stages of planetary dynamics are likely to imply more complex phenomena such as global melting and fractional solidification, little is known about the onset of solid-state convection in a fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity heated from below. Here, we investigate onset times of convection in a spherical shell in order to obtain scaling laws with Rayleigh number, viscosity parameter describing the dependency on the temperature and geometry of the shell. The influence of the mechanical boundary condition is also studied: free-slip is relevant for planetary mantles overlying a fluid core while no-slip may better approximate the boundary condition between two solid layers (e.g. between an icy layer and a silicate core in some of the icy satellites). We performed three dimensional numerical experiments in a spherical shell using the OEDIPUS program (Choblet, 2005; Choblet et al., 2007). The fluid is incompressible, its viscosity is temperature dependent and the Boussinesq approximation is used. We systematically investigate the onset time and wavelength of the first instabilities. Furthermore, in order to better understand the processes associated to the birth of convection, 3D results are compared to onset times obtained with two simple methods: the linear stability (LS) analysis and the growth of the Rayleigh- Taylor (R-T) instabilities. For the LS analysis, the values of the onset time are much smaller due to the "frozen time" approach. Moreover, the dependency of the onset time on the Rayleigh number is overestimated, especially for the free-slip conditions, where the effect of the frozen time is even more significant due to kinematic effects. For the R-T instability analysis, however, the onset times are also slightly underestimated, the agreement with 3D numerical simulations is good
Numerical study of the onset of thermosolutal convection in rotating spherical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Net, Marta; Garcia, Ferran; Sánchez, Juan
2012-06-01
The influence of an externally enforced compositional gradient on the onset of convection of a mixture of two components in a rotating fluid spherical shell is studied for Ekman numbers E = 10-3 and E = 10-6, Prandtl numbers σ = 0.1, 0.001, Lewis numbers τ = 0.01, 0.1, 0.8, and radius ratio η = 0.35. The Boussinesq approximation of the governing equations is derived by taking the denser component of the mixture for the equation of the concentration. Differential and internal heating, an external compositional gradient, and the Soret and Dufour effects are included in the model. By neglecting these two last effects, and by considering only differential heating, it is found that the critical thermal Rayleigh number Re^c depends strongly on the direction of the compositional gradient. The results are compared with those obtained previously for pure fluids of the same σ. The influence of the mixture becomes significant when the compositional Rayleigh number Rc is at least of the same order of magnitude as the known Re^c computed without mixture. For positive and sufficiently large compositional gradients, R_e^c decreases and changes sign, indicating that the compositional convection becomes the main source of instability. Then the critical wave number mc decreases, and the drifting waves slow down drastically giving rise to an almost stationary pattern of convection. Negative gradients delay the onset of convection and determine a substantial increase of mc and ωc for Rc sufficiently high. Potential laws are obtained numerically from the dependence of Re^c and of the critical frequency ωc on Rc, for the moderate and small Ekman numbers explored.
Onset of convection in a basally heated spherical shell, application to planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behounkova, Marie; Choblet, Gaël
2009-10-01
Convective instabilities related to the early dynamics of planetary mantles just after core formation play an important role in the subsequent evolution. Although these early stages of planetary dynamics are likely to imply more complex phenomena such as global melting and fractional solidification, and although density variations of compositional origin are likely to play an important role, little is known about the onset of solid-state convection in a fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity heated from below. Here, we investigate onset times of convection in order to obtain scaling relationships for the influences of Rayleigh number, viscosity parameter describing the dependency on the temperature and geometry of spherical shell (measured by f, ratio between the inner and outer radii). We performed three-dimensional numerical experiments and we concentrate on the dynamical regime described by global viscosity contrasts smaller than 104. Onset times and wavelengths of the first instabilities using both dynamical (free-slip) and kinematical (no-slip) boundary conditions are investigated. For both boundary conditions, the scaling may be written in the form t'∝(, where a is approximately -2/3 and Ra∗=Ra(μ(θ∗)) is a Rayleigh number specifically associated with a relevant temperature (viscosity) value ( θ∗≈0.25). In addition, the dimensionless onset times (using the shell thickness as a characteristic length scale) are almost independent on the geometry of the shell for large range of the geometrical factor ( f≥0.2). In order to better understand these processes, 3D results are compared with two simple methods: the linear stability (LS) analysis and the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities. The LS analysis values of the onset times are much smaller due to the "frozen time" approach (i.e. the conductive propagation of the hot front is not taken into account). The dependency of the onset time on the Rayleigh number is overestimated, especially
Continuation and stability of convective modulated rotating waves in spherical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, F.; Net, M.; Sánchez, J.
2016-01-01
Modulated rotating waves (MRW), bifurcated from the thermal-Rossby waves that arise at the onset of convection of a fluid contained in a rotating spherical shell, and their stability, are studied. For this purpose, Newton-Krylov continuation techniques are applied. Nonslip boundary conditions, an Ekman number E =10-4 , and a low Prandtl number fluid Pr=0.1 in a moderately thick shell of radius ratio η =0.35 , differentially heated, are considered. The MRW are obtained as periodic orbits by rewriting the equations of motion in the rotating frame of reference where the rotating waves become steady states. Newton-Krylov continuation allows us to obtain unstable MRW that cannot be found by using only time integrations, and identify regions of multistability. For instance, unstable MRW without any azimuthal symmetry have been computed. It is shown how they become stable in a small Rayleigh-number interval, in which two branches of traveling waves are also stable. The study of the stability of the MRW helps to locate and classify the large sequence of bifurcations, which takes place in the range analyzed. In particular, tertiary Hopf bifurcations giving rise to three-frequency stable solutions are accurately determined.
Continuation and stability of convective modulated rotating waves in spherical shells.
Garcia, F; Net, M; Sánchez, J
2016-01-01
Modulated rotating waves (MRW), bifurcated from the thermal-Rossby waves that arise at the onset of convection of a fluid contained in a rotating spherical shell, and their stability, are studied. For this purpose, Newton-Krylov continuation techniques are applied. Nonslip boundary conditions, an Ekman number E=10^{-4}, and a low Prandtl number fluid Pr=0.1 in a moderately thick shell of radius ratio η=0.35, differentially heated, are considered. The MRW are obtained as periodic orbits by rewriting the equations of motion in the rotating frame of reference where the rotating waves become steady states. Newton-Krylov continuation allows us to obtain unstable MRW that cannot be found by using only time integrations, and identify regions of multistability. For instance, unstable MRW without any azimuthal symmetry have been computed. It is shown how they become stable in a small Rayleigh-number interval, in which two branches of traveling waves are also stable. The study of the stability of the MRW helps to locate and classify the large sequence of bifurcations, which takes place in the range analyzed. In particular, tertiary Hopf bifurcations giving rise to three-frequency stable solutions are accurately determined. PMID:26871166
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunte, M. K.; McNamara, A. K.; Greeley, R.
2009-12-01
Models of solid-state convection typically employ a spatially-fixed lower boundary with a velocity boundary condition that impedes material flow across it. Oftentimes, such a boundary condition is justified due to the large density contrast that the boundary represents; for example, a fixed, no-flow lower boundary condition is an appropriate approximation for the Earth's core-mantle boundary due to the large density difference between silicate rock and iron. Less extreme density contrasts are not well approximated by a fixed lower boundary. For example, although the boundary between Earth's upper and lower mantles represents a sharp density contrast due to a phase change between ringwoodite and perovskite, it is not strong enough to restrict flow across it. It is unclear what type of lower boundary is most appropriate for modeling convection within an ice shell floating on a saline water ocean such as hypothesized for Europa. It is important to determine whether material is expected to advect across the ice-water boundary and to determine whether significant vertical topography exists along the boundary (i.e., variation in ice shell thickness) because both will affect the vigor and wavelength of convection and, more importantly, the ability of the convective ice shell to produce plumes. To investigate this, we perform two sets of numerical convection calculations, each identical except for the treatment of the lower boundary. The control set employs a fixed, no-flow lower boundary, and the test set utilizes thermochemical convection to allow for the self-consistent generation of a lower boundary. We examine various density contrasts between ice and water to reflect uncertainty in ocean salinity. We report how the treatment of the lower boundary influences mass flux, vigor and wavelength of convection, and the formation or inhibition of plumes.
On the scaling of heat transfer for mixed heating convection in a spherical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choblet, Gaël
2012-09-01
Planetary mantles and solid shells of icy satellites potentially undergoing natural convection are subjected to a mixed heating configuration including basal (from thermal exchanges with a subjacent, possibly liquid, layer) and internal (from radioactive decay or tidal dissipation) sources. In the quasi-static approximation, the average cooling/heating of the layer is also considered as an instantaneous internal heat source to model transient evolutions. In a previous study (Choblet and Parmentier, 2009), we have proposed simple scaling relationships to describe heat transfer for an isoviscous fluid in such a mixed heating configuration in the case of a Cartesian geometry. Here, we extend this analysis to the case of a spherical shell. A framework based on a temperature scale associated with the global surface heat flux is introduced. This enables a simple description of the cold boundary layer, independent of the heating configuration and of the relative radius of the inner boundary of the shell. When free-slip mechanical boundaries are prescribed, numerical experiments present a significant departure from the prediction (up to ≃30%). We show that this is caused by the impact of hot plumes on the cold boundary layer when a large amount of basal heating is prescribed. The results of no-slip calculations are well predicted by the scaling which thus could be applied to planetary mantles where convection occurs beneath a rigid lithosphere. The lower hot boundary layer is included in our analysis through the ratio of the temperature differences across both boundary layers: the simple scaling indicates that this ratio is independent of the Rayleigh number, and varies only with the amount of basal heating and with the curvature of the layer. This is shown to be valid in the no-slip case. In the free-slip case, a departure from this scaling is observed in the calculations but for the range of values corresponding to planetary bodies, the agreement is good. We conduct
Mantle convection and the distribution of geochemical reservoirs in the silicate shell of the Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walzer, Uwe; Hendel, Roland
2010-05-01
We present a dynamic 3-D spherical-shell model of mantle convection and the evolution of the chemical reservoirs of the Earth`s silicate shell. Chemical differentiation, convection, stirring and thermal evolution constitute an inseparable dynamic system. Our model is based on the solution of the balance equations of mass, momentum, energy, angular momentum, and four sums of the number of atoms of the pairs 238U-206Pb, 235U-207Pb, 232Th-208Pb, and 40K-40Ar. Similar to the present model, the continental crust of the real Earth was not produced entirely at the start of the evolution but developed episodically in batches [1-7]. The details of the continental distribution of the model are largely stochastic, but the spectral properties are quite similar to the present real Earth. The calculated Figures reveal that the modeled present-day mantle has no chemical stratification but we find a marble-cake structure. If we compare the observational results of the present-day proportion of depleted MORB mantle with the model then we find a similar order of magnitude. The MORB source dominates under the lithosphere. In our model, there are nowhere pure unblended reservoirs in the mantle. It is, however, remarkable that, in spite of 4500 Ma of solid-state mantle convection, certain strong concentrations of distributed chemical reservoirs continue to persist in certain volumes, although without sharp abundance boundaries. We deal with the question of predictable and stochastic portions of the phenomena. Although the convective flow patterns and the chemical differentiation of oceanic plateaus are coupled, the evolution of time-dependent Rayleigh number, Rat , is relatively well predictable and the stochastic parts of the Rat(t)-curves are small. Regarding the juvenile growth rates of the total mass of the continents, predictions are possible only in the first epoch of the evolution. Later on, the distribution of the continental-growth episodes is increasingly stochastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munshi, M. Jahirul Haque; Alim, M. A.; Bhuiyan, A. H.
2016-07-01
The problem of Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) field on buoyancy-driven free convection heat transfer in a square cavity with heated elliptic block at the centre has been investigated in this work. The governing differential equations are solved by using finite element method (Galerkin weighted residual method). The lower wall is adiabatic. The left wall is kept at heated Th. The right and upper wall is kept at cold Tc respectively. Also all the wall are assumed to be no-slip condition. The study is performed for different Rayleigh and Hartmann numbers. A heated elliptic block is located at the centre of the cavity. The object of this study is to describe the effects of MHD on the field of buoyancy-driven and flow in presence of such heated block by visualization of graph. The results are illustrated with the streamlines, isotherms, velocity and temperature fields as well as local Nusselt number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pollmann, Konrad W.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Luttges, Marvin W.
1994-01-01
Microgravity can provide a diffusion-dominated environment for double-diffusion and diffusion-reaction experiments otherwise disrupted by buoyant convection or sedimentation. In sliding solvent diffusion cells, a diffusion interface between two liquid columns is achieved by aligning two offset sliding wells. Fluid in contact with the sliding lid of the cavities is subjected to an applied shear stress. The momentum change by the start/stop action of the well creates an additional hydrodynamical force. In microgravity, these viscous and inertial forces are sufficiently large to deform the diffusion interface and induce hydrodynamic transfer between the wells. A series of KC-135 parabolic flight experiments were conducted to characterize these effects and establish baseline data for microgravity diffusion experiments. Flow visualizations show the diffusion interface to be deformed in a sinusoidal fashion following well alignment. After the wells were separated again in a second sliding movement, the total induced liquid transfer was determined and normalized by the well aspect ratio. The normalized transfer decreased linearly with Reynolds number from 3.3 to 4.0% (w/v) for Re = 0.4 (Stokes flow) to a minimum of 1.0% for Re = 23 to 30. Reynolds numbers that provide minimum induced transfers are characterized by an interface that is highly deformed and unsuitable for diffusion measurements. Flat diffusion interfaces acceptable for diffusion measurements are obtained with Reynolds numbers on the order of 7 to 10. Microgravity experiments aboard a sounding rocket flight verified counterdiffusion of different solutes to be diffusion dominated. Ground control experiments showed enhanced mixing by double-diffusive convection. Careful selection of experimental parameters improves initial conditions and minimizes induced transfer rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lira Rangel, Francisco Javier; Avila Rodriguez, Ruben; Cabello, Ares
2014-11-01
The onset of thermal convection in rotating multilayer spherical shells is investigated. The system consist of six concentric shells. The first spherical gap has an aspect ratio equal to 0.35, the following four spherical gaps have different aspect ratio and the sixth gap has an aspect ratio equal to 0.8. The inner and the outer spherical gaps confine Boussinesq fluids while the middle spherical gaps are treated as a thermal conductor solid. The investigation is performed for Taylor numbers between 7.E4 and 1.E6 and Rayleigh numbers between 3.E3 and 1.E6. The convective patterns and the temperature fields are presented in the most inner and outer spherical gaps. Convection is driven by the temperature difference between the inner and outer spheres and a gravitational field wich varies like r and 1 /r2 . The fluid equations are solved by using the spectral element method (SEM). The mesh is generated by using the cubed-sphere algorithm to avoid the singularity at the poles. To the knowledge of the autors the convection-conduction-convection problem presented in this paper has not been investigated previously. Acknowledgment: DGAPA-PAPIIT Project: IN117314-3.
Kimura, Keiji; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio
2014-08-15
We investigate properties of convective solutions of the Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell allowing the respective rotation of the inner and outer spheres due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres, the Prandtl number, and the Taylor number are fixed to 0.4, 1, and 500{sup 2}, respectively. The Rayleigh number is varied from 2.6 × 10{sup 4} to 3.4 × 10{sup 4}. In this parameter range, the behaviours of obtained asymptotic convective solutions are almost similar to those in the system whose inner and outer spheres are restricted to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, although the difference is found in the transition process to chaotic solutions. The convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one to an equatorially symmetric chaotic one, and further to an equatorially asymmetric chaotic one, as the Rayleigh number is increased. This is in contrast to the transition in the system whose inner and outer spheres are assumed to rotate with the same constant angular velocity, where the convective solution changes from an equatorially symmetric quasi-periodic one, to an equatorially asymmetric quasi-periodic one, and to equatorially asymmetric chaotic one. The inner sphere rotates in the retrograde direction on average in the parameter range; however, it sometimes undergoes the prograde rotation when the convective solution becomes chaotic.
Geological evidence for solid-state convection in Europa's ice shell
Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.J.; Pilcher, C.; Schubert, G.; Moore, W.B.; Carr, M.H.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Belton, M.J.S.; Goldsby, D.L.
1998-01-01
The ice-rich surface of the jovian satellite Europa is sparsely cratered, suggesting that this moon might be geologically active today. Moreover, models of the satellite's interior indicate that tidal interactions with Jupiter might produce enough heat to maintain a subsurface liquid water layer. But the mechanisms of interior heat loss and resurfacing are currently unclear, as is the question of whether Europa has (or had at one time) a liquid water ocean. Here we report on the morphology and geological interpretation of distinct surface features-pits, domes and spots-discovered in high-resolution images of Europa obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. The features are interpreted as the surface manifestation of diapirs, relatively warm localized ice masses that have risen buoyantly through the subsurface. We find that the formation of the features can be explained by thermally induced solid-state convection within an ice shell, possibly overlying a liquid water layer. Our results are consistent with the possibility that Europa has a liquid water ocean beneath a surface layer of ice, but further tests and observations are needed to demonstrate this conclusively.
Geological evidence for solid-state convection in Europa's ice shell.
Pappalardo, R T; Head, J W; Greeley, R; Sullivan, R J; Pilcher, C; Schubert, G; Moore, W B; Carr, M H; Moore, J M; Belton, M J; Goldsby, D L
1998-01-22
The ice-rich surface of the jovian satellite Europa is sparsely cratered, suggesting that this moon might be geologically active today. Moreover, models of the satellite's interior indicate that tidal interactions with Jupiter might produce enough heat to maintain a subsurface liquid water layer. But the mechanisms of interior heat loss and resurfacing are currently unclear, as is the question of whether Europa has (or had at one time) a liquid water ocean. Here we report on the morphology and geological interpretation of distinct surface features-pits, domes and spots-discovered in high-resolution images of Europa obtained by the Galileo spacecraft. The features are interpreted as the surface manifestation of diapirs, relatively warm localized ice masses that have risen buoyantly through the subsurface. We find that the formation of the features can be explained by thermally induced solid-state convection within an ice shell, possibly overlying a liquid water layer. Our results are consistent with the possibility that Europa has a liquid water ocean beneath a surface layer of ice, but further tests and observations are needed to demonstrate this conclusively. PMID:9450750
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fialko, O.; Kovalchuk, L.
2002-12-01
Ample field observations in areas of known oil and gas deposists reveal an existence of excess temperature anomalies associated with the hydrocarbon-bearing structures. These observations are explained in terms of upward migration of heated fluids. In this case there is a deviation from a linear temperature distribution with depth due to a convective component of the heat flux. We propose a new method based on in situ measurements of the thermal field that allows one to take into account both conductive and convective components of the heat flow. In addition to the usual measurements of temperature, we determine the the curvature of the geothermograms, which characterizes the degree of deviation of the heat transfer from a conductive regime. Correspondingly, in addition to the commonly used geothermal gradient, we introduce new parameters, such as the radius of curvature of the geotherms (R), the coefficient of curvature of the geotherms (K), the Knudsen criterion (Kn), and parameter F. We present analytic expressions for the determination of these parameters, and evaluate these parameters for several natural objects. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method for 1) forecasts of the presence of the deep-seated hydrocarbon deposits; 2) estimates of the abnornally elevated gas content in the deep-seated coal deposits, and determination of zones with high risk of methane bursts; 3) studies of the hydro-geothermal conditions of the geothermal areas; 4) determination and localization of leaks along the buried industrial pipelines. We present examples illustrating the application of our method for the abovementioned tasks.
Khan, Waqar A.; Uddin, Md Jashim; Ismail, A. I. Md.
2013-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions on the double-diffusive free convective flow of a nanofluid along a semi-infinite flat solid vertical plate are investigated numerically. It is assumed that free stream is moving. The governing boundary layer equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear, coupled similarity equations. The effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, solute and nanofluid concentration as well as on the reduced Nusselt number, reduced Sherwood number and the reduced nanoparticle Sherwood number are investigated and presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions have not been investigated yet. It is found that the reduced local Nusselt, local solute and the local nanofluid Sherwood numbers increase with hydrodynamic slip and decrease with thermal slip parameters. PMID:23533566
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimpel, Moritz; Aurnou, Jonathan
2007-04-01
The origin of zonal jets on the jovian planets has long been a topic of scientific debate. In this paper we show that deep convection in a spherical shell can generate zonal flow comparable to that observed on Jupiter and Saturn, including a broad prograde equatorial jet and multiple alternating jets at higher latitudes. We present fully turbulent, 3D spherical numerical simulations of rapidly rotating convection with different spherical shell geometries. The resulting global flow fields tend to be segregated into three regions (north, equatorial, and south), bounded by the tangent cylinder that circumscribes the inner boundary equator. In all of our simulations a strong prograde equatorial jet forms outside the tangent cylinder, whereas multiple jets form in the northern and southern hemispheres, inside the tangent cylinder. The jet scaling of our numerical models and of Jupiter and Saturn is consistent with the theory of geostrophic turbulence, which we extend to include the effect of spherical shell geometry. Zonal flow in a spherical shell is distinguished from that in a full sphere or a shallow layer by the effect of the tangent cylinder, which marks a reversal in the sign of the planetary β-parameter and a jump in the Rhines length. This jump is manifest in the numerical simulations as a sharp equatorward increase in jet widths—a transition that is also observed on Jupiter and Saturn. The location of this transition gives an estimate of the depth of zonal flow, which seems to be consistent with current models of the jovian and saturnian interiors.
Convection, nucleosynthesis, and core collapse
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bazan, Grant; Arnett, David
1994-01-01
We use a piecewise parabolic method hydrodynamics code (PROMETHEUS) to study convective burning in two dimensions in an oxygen shell prior to core collapse. Significant mixing beyond convective boundaries determined by mixing-length theory brings fuel (C-12) into the convective regon, causing hot spots of nuclear burning. Plumes dominate the velocity structure. Finite perturbations arise in a region in which O-16 will be explosively burned to Ni-56 when the star explodes; the resulting instabilities and mixing are likely to distribute Ni-56 throughout the supernova envelope. Inhomogeneities in Y(sub e) may be large enough to affect core collapse and will affect explosive nucleosynthesis. The nature of convective burning is dramatically different from that assumed in one-dimensional simulations; quantitative estimates of nucleosynthetic yields, core masses, and the approach to core collapse will be affected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppa, Stefania; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Magni, Paolo; Domenici, Paolo; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Cucco, Andrea
2013-02-01
Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic bivalve of the Mediterranean Sea, declared protected since 1992. Although hydrodynamic stress induced by waves is known to influence density, size and orientation of P. nobilis, the effect of other hydrological features is unknown. This paper considers a P. nobilis population living within a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy). We hypothesize that spatial differences in density and orientation of P. nobilis may be related to significant wave height (HS), wave direction (DW), bottom current direction (DBC) and bottom current speed (SBC). A population of P. nobilis was investigated at different sites and its distribution was correlated to hydrodynamics by means of a numerical modeling approach. The spatial distribution was patchy, with a density of 0.06-6.7 ind. 100 m- 2. A non-uniform distribution of shell orientations (OS) was demonstrated in 4 sites out of 6. DBC and SBC were the main factors affecting OS, while waves had little influence. A SBC of 0.07 m s- 1 appears to be the threshold for inducing specimen directionality with shells aligned to the current and the ventral side exposed to the flow. This suggests that feeding strategy is a key factor in determining OS, in addition to drag minimization. We also highlighted the role of adjacent lagoons in supporting high densities as a result of high food availability. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of modeling techniques in explaining the spatial distribution pattern of P. nobilis and in contributing to our knowledge of its ecological traits.
A hybrid radial basis function-pseudospectral method for thermal convection in a 3-D spherical shell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, G. B.; Flyer, N.; Yuen, D. A.
2010-07-01
A novel hybrid spectral method that combines radial basis function (RBF) and Chebyshev pseudospectral methods in a "2 + 1" approach is presented for numerically simulating thermal convection in a 3-D spherical shell. This is the first study to apply RBFs to a full 3-D physical model in spherical geometry. In addition to being spectrally accurate, RBFs are not defined in terms of any surface-based coordinate system such as spherical coordinates. As a result, when used in the lateral directions, as in this study, they completely circumvent the pole issue with the further advantage that nodes can be "scattered" over the surface of a sphere. In the radial direction, Chebyshev polynomials are used, which are also spectrally accurate and provide the necessary clustering near the boundaries to resolve boundary layers. Applications of this new hybrid methodology are given to the problem of convection in the Earth's mantle, which is modeled by a Boussinesq fluid at infinite Prandtl number. To see whether this numerical technique warrants further investigation, the study limits itself to an isoviscous mantle. Benchmark comparisons are presented with other currently used mantle convection codes for Rayleigh number (Ra) 7 × 103 and 105. Results from a Ra = 106 simulation are also given. The algorithmic simplicity of the code (mostly due to RBFs) allows it to be written in less than 400 lines of MATLAB and run on a single workstation. We find that our method is very competitive with those currently used in the literature.
Baumgaertel, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Tregillis, I. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S.; Johns, H.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.
2014-05-15
Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved x-ray image data from direct-drive implosions on OMEGA were interpreted with the aid of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Neither clean calculations nor those using a turbulent mix model can explain fully the observed migration of shell-dopant material (titanium) into the core. Shell-dopant migration was observed via time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, and spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray images of capsule implosions and resultant dopant emissions. The titanium emission was centrally peaked in narrowband x-ray images. In post-processed clean simulations, the peak titanium emission forms in a ring in self-emission images as the capsule implodes. Post-processed simulations with mix reproduce trends in time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, as well having centrally peaked Ti emission in synthetic multiple monochromatic imager. However, mix simulations still do not transport Ti to the core as is observed in the experiment. This suggests that phenomena in addition to the turbulent mix must be responsible for the transport of Ti. Simple diffusion estimates are unable to explain the early Ti mix into the core. Mechanisms suggested for further study are capsule surface roughness, illumination non-uniformity, and shock entrainment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Keiji; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Michio
2013-08-01
We investigate the stability and bifurcation of Boussinesq thermal convection in a moderately rotating spherical shell, with the inner sphere free to rotate as a solid body due to the viscous torque of the fluid. The ratio of the inner and outer radii of the spheres and the Prandtl number are fixed to 0.4 and 1, respectively. The Taylor number is varied from 522 to 5002 and the Rayleigh number from 1500 to 10 000. In this parameter range, the finite-amplitude traveling wave solutions, which have four-fold symmetry in the azimuthal direction, bifurcate supercritically at the critical points. The inner sphere rotates in the prograde direction due to the viscous torque of the fluid when the rotation rate is small while it rotates in the retrograde direction when the rotation rate is large. However, the stable region of these traveling wave solutions is quantitatively similar to that in the co-rotating system where the inner and outer spheres rotate with the same angular velocity. The structures of convective motions of these solutions such as the radial component of velocity are quantitatively similar to those in the co-rotating system, but the structure of mean zonal flows is effectively changed by the inner sphere rotation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahley, M. Sc. Norman; Futterer, Birgit; Smieszek, Marlene; Egbers, Christoph; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent
In micro pumps, dosing systems, heat exchanger and transfer devices the flow control is realized by means of external impressed force fields. Here we focus on the enhancement of heat transfer in an annular cavity, if an electrohydrodynamic force field is set up. This synthetic force field is established with a high voltage potential between differentially heated inner and outer cylinders, filled with a dielectric insulating fluid. It acts comparable to thermal buoyancy forces induced by gravity. Sitte et al. (2001) performed quantitative parabolic flight experiments without determining critical values and finally reported a broken azimuthally symmetry due to the instability in a recent parabolic flight experiment (Sitte et al., 2003). With the experiment accomplishment in the 14th parabolic flight, first scenarios are realized in order to weigh the different influences of natural buoyancy coming from g and electro-hydrodynamic buoyancy coming from synthetic force fields, which were studied with numerical simulations by Smieszek et al. (2008). Specific experiment objective was the convection in an annular cavity with differentially heated inner and outer cylinders under the influence of the both buoyancy driven forces. By scaling the annulus width to approximate 5mm the initial outer cell radius for a first parabolic flight campaign was set to 10mm. The inner cylinder is made of aluminum and is heated with heating cartridges. The outer cylinder is made of glass. The gap in between is the experimental volume, which is filled with silicone oil and particles. With this a Laser light sheet illumination was set up. The inner cylinder, made of aluminum, is connected to a high-tension up to 10kV. The glass cylinder is coated with Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) inside, to make the glass conductive and is connected to ground. The central force field is introduced by applying a high voltage difference between the two cylinders. Convection was observed during the whole parabolic
Neervannan, Seshadri; Southard, Marylee Z; Stella, Valentino J
2012-09-01
A steady-state mass transfer model that incorporates convection, diffusion, ionic migration, and ionization reaction processes was extended to describe the dissolution of weak acids under laminar flow and a rotating disk hydrodynamics. The model accurately predicted the experimental dissolution rates of benzoic acid, 2-naphthoic acid, and naproxen in unbuffered and monoprotic buffers within the physiological pH range for both hydrodynamic systems. Simulations at various flow rates indicated a cube root dependency of dissolution rate on the flow rate for a given bulk pH value for the laminar hydrodynamic system, as proposed earlier by Shah and Nelson (1975. J Pharm Sci 64(9):1518-1520) for neutral compounds. The model has limitations in its ability to accurately predict the dissolution of weak acids under certain conditions that imposed steep concentration gradients, such as high pH values, and for polyprotic buffer systems that caused the numerical solution to be unstable, suggesting that alternative numerical techniques may be required to obtain a stable numerical solution at all conditions. The model presents many advantages, most notably the ability to successfully predict the complex process under physiological conditions without simplifying assumptions, and therefore accurately representing the system in a comprehensive manner. PMID:22623113
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaussinger, F.; Plesa, A.; Egbers, C.; Breuer, D.
2012-04-01
Convection in not directly observable fluids or objects with a central symmetry buoyancy field in spherical shells plays an important role in geophysical and astrophysical research. The main focus of this study is to compare two different numerical approaches based on two Navier-Stokes solvers (RESPECT code and GAIA code) with the 'on orbit' experiments called GeoFlowI and GeoFlowII. The numerical simulation of flows in the spherical gap geometry is challenging and requests high accuracy to resolve all relevant scales. Beside isoviscous Rayleigh-B'enard convection the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on the temperature field is investigated. The Simulation of Geophysical Fluid Flow under Microgravity (Geoflow) is an ESA investigation running inside the Fluid Science Laboratory (FSL) on the International Space Station ISS and has the goal to better understand the interior dynamics of our planet [1]. The GeoFlowI mission focused on the simulation of iso-viscous flows, whereas in the GeoFlowII mission the effects of temperature-dependent viscosity are investigated - the latter is more relevant for mantle material. The GAIA software package, developed at DLR, solves the conservation equations of thermal convection for an incompressible Boussinesq fluid with infinite Prandtl number. The discretization of the governing equations is based on the finite-volume method with the advantage of using fully irregular grids [2, 3]. The code can handle viscosity variations of up to 8 orders of magnitude from cell-to-cell and up to 45 orders of magnitude system wide. We further use the pseudo spectral method based code RESPECT modified after [4] to be able to handle viscosity contrast up to 10. The main property of the underlying algorithm is the implicitly treatment of the linear parts and the pseudo spectral calculation of the non-linearities. While the spectral method based code is fast and accurate for small viscosity ratios, the GAIA suite provides stable
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, John E.; Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Toomre, Juri
1986-12-01
The flight of the Spacelab 3 microgravity laboratory onboard the Space Shuttle Challenger in May 1985 enabled electroconvection experiments to be conducted using the goephysical fluid flow cell instrument. Experimental results are presented which illustrate the variety of convection achieved by varying the imposed radial and latitudinal temperature gradients, rotation rates, and the strength of the electrostatic gravity. These results are compared with those obtained from nonlinear three-dimensional simulations and good agreement is found.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, John E.; Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Toomre, Juri
1986-01-01
The flight of the Spacelab 3 microgravity laboratory onboard the Space Shuttle Challenger in May 1985 enabled electroconvection experiments to be conducted using the goephysical fluid flow cell instrument. Experimental results are presented which illustrate the variety of convection achieved by varying the imposed radial and latitudinal temperature gradients, rotation rates, and the strength of the electrostatic gravity. These results are compared with those obtained from nonlinear three-dimensional simulations and good agreement is found.
Convective Properties of Rotating Two-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Progenitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatzopoulos, E.; Couch, Sean M.; Arnett, W. David; Timmes, F. X.
2016-05-01
We explore the effects of rotation on convective carbon, oxygen, and silicon shell burning during the late stages of evolution in a 20 M ⊙ star. Using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics we construct one-dimensional (1D) stellar models both with no rotation and with an initial rigid rotation of 50% of critical. At different points during the evolution, we map the 1D models into 2D and follow the multidimensional evolution using the FLASH compressible hydrodynamics code for many convective turnover times until a quasi-steady state is reached. We characterize the strength and scale of convective motions via decomposition of the momentum density into vector spherical harmonics. We find that rotation influences the total power in solenoidal modes, with a slightly larger impact for carbon and oxygen shell burning than for silicon shell burning. Including rotation in 1D stellar evolution models alters the structure of the star in a manner that has a significant impact on the character of multidimensional convection. Adding modest amounts of rotation to a stellar model that ignores rotation during the evolutionary stage, however, has little impact on the character of the resulting convection. Since the spatial scale and strength of convection present at the point of core collapse directly influence the supernova mechanism, our results suggest that rotation could play an important role in setting the stage for massive stellar explosions.
Jouve, Laurene; Brun, Allan Sacha E-mail: sacha.brun@cea.fr
2009-08-20
We present the first three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics study in spherical geometry of the nonlinear dynamical evolution of magnetic flux tubes in a turbulent rotating convection zone (CZ). These numerical simulations use the anelastic spherical harmonic code. We seek to understand the mechanism of emergence of strong toroidal fields through a turbulent layer from the base of the solar CZ to the surface as active regions. To do so, we study numerically the rise of magnetic toroidal flux ropes from the base of a modeled CZ up to the top of our computational domain where bipolar patches are formed. We compare the dynamical behavior of flux tubes in a fully convective shell possessing self-consistently generated mean flows such as meridional circulation (MC) and differential rotation, with reference calculations done in a quiet isentropic zone. We find that two parameters influence the tubes during their rise through the CZ: the initial field strength and amount of twist, thus confirming previous findings in Cartesian geometry. Further, when the tube is sufficiently strong with respect to the equipartition field, it rises almost radially independently of the initial latitude (either low or high). By contrast, weaker field cases indicate that downflows and upflows control the rising velocity of particular regions of the rope and could in principle favor the emergence of flux through {omega}-loop structures. For these latter cases, we focus on the orientation of bipolar patches and find that sufficiently arched structures are able to create bipolar regions with a predominantly east-west orientation. Meridional flow seems to determine the trajectory of the magnetic rope when the field strength has been significantly reduced near the top of the domain. Appearance of local magnetic field also feeds back on the horizontal flows thus perturbing the MC via Maxwell stresses. Finally differential rotation makes it more difficult for tubes introduced at low latitudes to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tackley, Paul J.
2008-12-01
Here it is documented how an existing code for modelling mantle convection in a cartesian domain, Stag3D, has been converted to model a 3D spherical shell by using the recently introduced yin-yang grid. StagYY is thus the latest evolution of a code that has been in continuous use and development for about 15 years so incorporates much physics and several features including compressibility, phase transitions, compositional variations, non-linear rheology, parallelisation, tracers to track composition, partial melting and melt migration, and the ability to also model spherical patches, cartesian boxes, and various 2D geometries by changing one input switch. StagYY uses a multigrid solver to obtain a velocity-pressure solution at each timestep on a staggered grid, a finite-volume scheme for advection of temperature and tracers to track composition. Convergence of multigrid solvers in the presence of realistically large viscosity variations has always been a problem; here a new pressure interpolation scheme is presented that can dramatically improve the robustness of the iterations to large viscosity variations, with up to 19 orders of magnitude variation in presented tests. Benchmark tests show that StagYY produces results that are consistent with those produced by other codes. Performance tests show reasonable scaling on a parallel Beowulf cluster up to 64 CPUs, with up to 1.2 billion unknowns solved for in a few minutes. StagYY is designed to be a stand-alone application with no libraries required and if MPI is installed it can be run in parallel. Technical issues and goals for the future are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, D. T.; Davis, A. K.; Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Froula, D. H.
2014-10-01
Time-resolved imaging of the soft x rays emitted by the coronal plasma of a directly driven imploding cryogenic target on the OMEGA Laser System is used to measure the shell trajectory and the time to ablate the outer CD layer. These simultaneous measurements constrain both the shell velocity and the mass ablation rate. Two simulations have been performed and compared to the measurements: (1) including cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) and nonlocal thermal transport models and (2) using a flux limiter adapted to match the measured shell trajectory. Good agreement with both the trajectory and mass ablation rate is found with CBET and nonlocal models. While the modified flux limiter matches the trajectory (by construction), the CD burnthrough occurs ~ 200 ps later than in experiments. This demonstrates that by adapting a flux limiter, both the shell velocity and the mass ablation rate cannot be reproduced simultaneously. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Linking 1D evolutionary to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of massive stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristini, A.; Meakin, C.; Hirschi, R.; Arnett, D.; Georgy, C.; Viallet, M.
2016-03-01
Stellar evolution models of massive stars are important for many areas of astrophysics, for example nucleosynthesis yields, supernova progenitor models and understanding physics under extreme conditions. Turbulence occurs in stars primarily due to nuclear burning at different mass coordinates within the star. The understanding and correct treatment of turbulence and turbulent mixing at convective boundaries in stellar models has been studied for decades but still lacks a definitive solution. This paper presents initial results of a study on convective boundary mixing (CBM) in massive stars. The ‘stiffness’ of a convective boundary can be quantified using the bulk Richardson number ({{Ri}}{{B}}), the ratio of the potential energy for restoration of the boundary to the kinetic energy of turbulent eddies. A ‘stiff’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ {10}4) will suppress CBM, whereas in the opposite case a ‘soft’ boundary ({{Ri}}{{B}}˜ 10) will be more susceptible to CBM. One of the key results obtained so far is that lower convective boundaries (closer to the centre) of nuclear burning shells are ‘stiffer’ than the corresponding upper boundaries, implying limited CBM at lower shell boundaries. This is in agreement with 3D hydrodynamic simulations carried out by Meakin and Arnett (2007 Astrophys. J. 667 448-75). This result also has implications for new CBM prescriptions in massive stars as well as for nuclear burning flame front propagation in super-asymptotic giant branch stars and also the onset of novae.
Geroux, Chris M.; Deupree, Robert G.
2013-07-10
We have developed a three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the interaction of convection and radial pulsation in classical variable stars. One key goal is the ability to carry these simulations to full amplitude in order to compare them with observed light curves. Previous multi-dimensional calculations were prevented from reaching full amplitude because of drift in the radial coordinate system, due to the algorithm defining radial movement of the coordinate system during the pulsation cycle. We have removed this difficulty by defining our radial coordinate flow algorithm to require that the mass in a spherical shell remain constant for every time step throughout the pulsation cycle. We have used our new code to perform two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the interaction of radial pulsation and convection. We have made comparisons between light curves from our 2D convective simulations with observed light curves and find that our 2D simulated light curves are better able to match the observed light curve shape near the red edge of the RR Lyrae instability strip than light curves from previous one-dimensional time-dependent convective models.
The shadowgraph method in convection experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasenat, S.; Hartung, G.; Winkler, B. L.; Rehberg, I.
1989-06-01
The shadowgraph method is applied to thermal convection experiments and electro-hydrodynamic convection (EHC) in nematic liquid crystals. In both cases convection leads to a spatially periodic field of the refractive index causing a spatially periodic intensity modulation of parallel light passing the cell. Close to the onset of convection the temperature or director field is given by linear stability analysis. Knowing these functions the determination of their amplitudes becomes possible by means of the shadowgraph method. The method is demostrated using various examples of thermal and EHC convection experiments.
Dust devil vortex generation from convective cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onishchenko, O.; Pokhotelov, O.; Horton, W.; Fedun, V.
2015-11-01
We have developed a hydrodynamic theory of the nonlinear stage of dust devil generation in a convectively unstable atmosphere with large-scale seed vertical vorticity. It is shown that convective motion in such an atmosphere transforms into dust devils extremely fast. The strong vortical structure of the dust devils can be formed in a few minutes or even in a fraction of a minute. The formation process strongly depends on the convective instability growth rate and horizontal vorticity.
Turbulent Convection in Young Solar-like Stars: Influence of rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballot, J.; Brun, A. S.; Turck-Chièze, S.
2004-12-01
The study of the relationship between X-ray emission and rotation in young stars (Feigelson et al. 2003) and observations of magnetic-field topology of such stars with Zeeman-Doppler Imaging (Donati et al. 2003) indicate that the dynamo processes differ from those operating in main sequence stars. In this context, 3-D numerical simulations have been started. The first step is to study the purely hydrodynamic case. We have simulated the convective shell of a young sun (10 Myr) with the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code. We have studied the angular momentum transfer, the meridional circulation and the differential rotation in this shell. We have also studied the effects of different rotation rates (1, 2 and 5 solar rate).
Chemo-hydrodynamic patterns in porous media.
De Wit, A
2016-10-13
Chemical reactions can interplay with hydrodynamic flows to generate chemo-hydrodynamic instabilities affecting the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration of the chemicals. We review here such instabilities for porous media flows. We describe the influence of chemical reactions on viscous fingering, buoyancy-driven fingering in miscible systems, convective dissolution as well as precipitation patterns. Implications for environmental systems are discussed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597788
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
A Study of Detrainment from Deep Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glenn, I. B.; Krueger, S. K.
2014-12-01
Uncertainty in the results of Global Climate Model simulations has been attributed to errors and simplifications in how parameterizations of convection coarsely represent the processes of entrainment, detrainment, and mixing between convective clouds and their environment. Using simulations of convection we studied these processes at a resolution high enough to explicitly resolve them. Two of several recently developed analysis techniques that allow insight into these processes at their appropriate scale are an Eulerian method of directly measuring entrainment and detrainment, and a Lagrangian method that uses particle trajectories to map convective mass flux over height and a cloud variable of interest. The authors of the Eulerian technique used it to show that the dynamics of shells of cold, humid air that surround shallow convective updrafts have important effects on the properties of air entrained and detrained from the updrafts. There is some evidence for the existence of such shells around deep convective updrafts as well, and that detrainment is more important than entrainment in determining the ultimate effect of the deep convection on the large scale environment. We present results from analyzing a simulation of deep convection through the Eulerian method as well as using Lagrangian particle trajectories to illustrate the role of the shell in the process of detrainment and mixing between deep convection and its environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihalas, Dimitri
Basic Radiation Theory Specific Intensity Photon Number Density Photon Distribution Function Mean Intensity Radiation Energy Density Radiation Energy Flux Radiation Momentum Density Radiation Stress Tensor (Radiation Pressure Tensor) Thermal Radiation Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation and a Perfect Gas The Transfer Equation Absorption, Emission, and Scattering The Equation of Transfer Moments of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Photon 4-Momentum Lorentz Transformation of the Specific Intensity, Opacity, and - Emissivity Lorentz Transformation of the Radiation Stress Energy Tensor The Radiation 4-Force Density Vector Covariant Form of the Transfer Equation Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Inertial-Frame Radiation Equations Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Comoving-Frame Equation of Transfer Special Relativistic Derivation (D. Mihalas) Consistency Between Comoving-Frame and Inertial-Frame Equations Noninertial Frame Derivation (J. I. Castor) Analysis of O (v/c) Terms Lagrangian Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Momentum Equation Gas Energy Equation First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiation Field First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiating Fluid Mechanical Energy Equation Total Energy Equation Consistency of Different Forms of the Radiating-Fluid Energy - and Momentum Equations Consistency of Inertial-Frame and Comoving-Frame Radiation Energy - and Momentum Equations Radiation Diffusion Radiation Diffusion Nonequilibrium Diffusion The Problem of Flux Limiting Shock Propagation: Numerical Methods Acoustic Waves Numerical Stability Systems of Equations Implications of Shock Development Implications of Diffusive Energy Transport Illustrative Example Numerical Radiation Hydrodynamics Radiating Fluid Energy and Momentum Equations Computational Strategy Energy Conservation Formal Solution Multigroup Equations An Astrophysical Example Adaptive-Grid Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geenen, T.; Heister, T.; Van Den Berg, A. P.; Jacobs, M.; Bangerth, W.
2011-12-01
We present high resolution 3D results of the complex mineral phase distribution in the transition zone obtained by numerical modelling of mantle convection. We extend the work by [Jacobs and van den Berg, 2011] to 3D and illustrate the efficiency of adaptive mesh refinement for capturing the complex spatial distribution and sharp phase transitions as predicted by their model. The underlying thermodynamical model is based on lattice dynamics which allows to predict thermophysical properties and seismic wave speeds for the applied magnesium-endmember olivine-pyroxene mineralogical model. The use of 3D geometry allows more realistic prediction of phase distribution and seismic wave speeds resulting from 3D flow processes involving the Earth's transition zone and more significant comparisons with interpretations from seismic tomography and seismic reflectivity studies aimed at the transition zone. Model results are generated with a recently developed geodynamics modeling application based on dealII (www.dealii.org). We extended this model to incorporate both a general thermodynamic model, represented by P,T space tabulated thermophysical properties, and a solution strategy that allows for compressible flow. When modeling compressible flow in the so called truncated anelastic approximation framework we have to adapt the solver strategy that has been proven by several authors to be highly efficient for incompressible flow to incorporate an extra term in the continuity equation. We present several possible solution strategies and discuss their implication in terms of robustness and computational efficiency.
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauga, Eric
2016-01-01
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
Convection in Type 2 supernovae
Miller, D.S.
1993-10-15
Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of {approximately} 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for {gamma}-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of {approximately} 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches {approximately} 60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.
Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Baker, K. B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.
1989-01-01
Several methods developed for mapping high-latitude plasma convection with a high-latitude HF radar are described, which utilize coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F-region altitudes to observe convective plasma motion. Several examples of two-dimensional convection-velocity maps are presented, showing instances of L-shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft.
Pattern Formation in Convective Instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, R.; Bestehorn, M.; Haken, H.
The present article reviews recent progress in the study of pattern formation in convective instabilities. After a brief discussion of the relevant basic hydrodynamic equations as well as a short outline of the mathematical treatment of pattern formation in complex systems the self-organization of spatial and spatio-temporal structures due to convective instabilities is considered. The formation of various forms of convective patterns arising in the Bénard experiment, i.e. in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below, is discussed. Then the review considers pattern formation in the Bénard instability in spherical geometries. In that case it can be demonstrated how the interaction among several convective cells may lead to time dependent as well as chaotic evolution of the spatial structures. Finally, the convective instability in a binary fluid mixture is discussed. In contrast to the instability in a single component fluid the instability may be oscillatory. In that case convection sets in in the form of travelling wave patterns which in addition to a complicated and chaotic temporal behaviour exhibit more or less spatial irregularity already close to threshold.
Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N
2013-08-01
We report the experimental observation of multi-bound-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) in the context of hydrodynamic surface gravity waves. Higher-order N-soliton solutions with N=2, 3 are studied in detail and shown to be associated with self-focusing in the wave group dynamics and the generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. We also show that for larger input soliton numbers, the wave group experiences irreversible spectral broadening, which we refer to as a hydrodynamic supercontinuum by analogy with optics. This process is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multisoliton into individual fundamental solitons due to higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS. Numerical simulations using an extended NLS model described by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation, show excellent agreement with experiment and highlight the universal role that higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS play in supercontinuum generation. PMID:23952405
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udayashankar, Paniveni
2015-12-01
Observation of the Solar photosphere through high resolution instruments have long indicated that the surface of the Sun is not a tranquil, featureless surface but is beset with a granular appearance. These cellular velocity patterns are a visible manifestation of sub- photospheric convection currents which contribute substantially to the outward transport of energy from the deeper layers, thus maintaining the energy balance of the Sun as a whole.Convection is the chief mode of transport in the outer layers of all cool stars such as the Sun (Noyes,1982). Convection zone of thickness 30% of the Solar radius lies in the sub-photospheric layers of the Sun. Here the opacity is so large that heat flux transport is mainly by convection rather than by photon diffusion. Convection is revealed on four scales. On the scale of 1000 km, it is granulation and on the scale of 8-10 arcsec, it is Mesogranulation. The next hierarchial scale of convection , Supergranules are in the range of 30-40 arcsec. The largest reported manifestation of convection in the Sun are ‘Giant Cells’or ‘Giant Granules’, on a typical length scale of about 108 m.'Supergranules' is caused by the turbulence that extends deep into the convection zone. They have a typical lifetime of about 20hr with spicules marking their boundaries. Gas rises in the centre of the supergranules and then spreads out towards the boundary and descends.Broadly speaking supergranules are characterized by the three parameters namely the length L, the lifetime T and the horizontal flow velocity vh . The interrelationships amongst these parameters can shed light on the underlying convective processes and are in agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence as applied to large scale solar convection (Krishan et al .2002 ; Paniveni et. al. 2004, 2005, 2010).References:1) Noyes, R.W., The Sun, Our Star (Harvard University Press, 1982)2) Krishan, V., Paniveni U., Singh , J., Srikanth R., 2002, MNRAS, 334/1,2303) Paniveni
Pomraning, G.C.
1982-12-31
This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.
Computer simulation of the fire-tube boiler hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaustov, Sergei A.; Zavorin, Alexander S.; Buvakov, Konstantin V.; Sheikin, Vyacheslav A.
2015-01-01
Finite element method was used for simulating the hydrodynamics of fire-tube boiler with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Hydrodynamic structure and volumetric temperature distribution were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. Complete geometric model of the fire-tube boiler based on boiler drawings was considered. Obtained results are suitable for qualitative analysis of hydrodynamics and singularities identification in fire-tube boiler water shell.
The fragmentation of expanding shells - I. Limitations of the thin-shell approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, James E.; Wünsch, Richard; Whitworth, Anthony; Palouš, Jan
2009-09-01
We investigate the gravitational fragmentation of expanding shells in the context of the linear thin-shell analysis. We make use of two very different numerical schemes; the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code and a version of the Benz smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the agreement between the two codes is excellent. We use our numerical results to test the thin-shell approximation and we find that the external pressure applied to the shell has a strong effect on the fragmentation process. In cases where shells are not pressure-confined, the shells thicken as they expand and hydrodynamic flows perpendicular to the plane of the shell suppress fragmentation at short wavelengths. If the shells are pressure-confined internally and externally, so that their thickness remains approximately constant during their expansion, the agreement with the analytical solution is better.
Convection, helioseismology and solar energy: personal reminiscence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unno, Wasaburo
2014-08-01
This article is a brief history of my life from childhood and describes how I became interested in astronomy. Starting from researches using radiative transfer as a main tool, I gradually expanded my research field to hydrodynamics (particularly convection, turbulence, pulsation, waves and helioseismology), magnetohydrodynamics and chaotic systems. My recent interest is to develop a sustainable society using solar energy.
Mantle convection, topography and geoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golle, Olivia; Dumoulin, Caroline; Choblet, Gaël.; Cadek, Ondrej
2010-05-01
The internal evolution of planetary bodies often include solid-state convection. This phenomenon may have a large impact on the various interfaces of these bodies (dynamic topography occurs). It also affects their gravity field (and the geoid). Since both geoid and topography can be measured by a spacecraft, and are therefore available for several planetary bodies (while seismological measurements are still lacking for all of them but the Moon and the Earth), these are of the first interest for the study of internal structures and processes. While a classical approach now is to combine gravity and altimetry measurements to infer the internal structure of a planet [1], we propose to complement it by the reverse problem, i.e., producing synthetic geoid and dynamic topography from numerical models of convection as proposed by recent studies (e.g. for the CMB topography of the Earth,[2]). This procedure first include a simple evaluation of the surface topography and geoid from the viscous flow obtained by the 3D numerical tool OEDIPUS [3] modeling convection in a spherical shell. An elastic layer will then be considered and coupled to the viscous model - one question being whether the elastic shell shall be included 'on top' of the convective domain or within it, in the cold 'lithospheric' outer region. What we will present here corresponds to the first steps of this work: the comparison between the response functions of the topography and the geoid obtained from the 3D convection program to the results evaluated by a spectral method handling radial variations of viscosity [4]. We consider the effect of the elastic layer whether included in the convective domain or not. The scale setting in the context of a full thermal convection model overlaid by an elastic shell will be discussed (thickness of the shell, temperature at its base...). References [1] A.M. Wieczorek, (2007), The gravity and topography of the terrestrial planets, Treatise on Geophysics, 10, 165-206. [2
Prueitt, Melvin L.
1994-01-01
Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.
Prueitt, Melvin L.
1996-01-01
Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.
Prueitt, Melvin L.
1995-01-01
Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.
Prueitt, M.L.
1996-01-16
Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebert, James R.; Elliott, Nancy A.; Hurteau, Laura; Schulz, Amanda
2004-01-01
Students must understand the fundamental process of convection before they can grasp a wide variety of Earth processes, many of which may seem abstract because of the scales on which they operate. Presentation of a very visual, concrete model prior to instruction on these topics may facilitate students' understanding of processes that are largely…
Geroux, Chris M.; Deupree, Robert G.
2011-04-10
We are developing a three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the interaction of convection and pulsation in classical variable stars. One key goal is the ability to carry these simulations to full amplitude in order to compare them with observed light and velocity curves. Previous two-dimensional calculations were prevented from doing this because of drift in the radial coordinate system, due to the algorithm defining radial movement of the coordinate system during the pulsation cycle. We remove this difficulty by defining our coordinate system flow algorithm to require that the mass in a spherical shell remains constant throughout the pulsation cycle. We perform adiabatic test calculations to show that large amplitude solutions repeat over more than 150 pulsation periods. We also verify that the computational method conserves the peak kinetic energy per period, as must be true for adiabatic pulsation models.
Denissenkov, P. A.; Herwig, F.; Truran, J. W.; Paxton, B. E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca
2013-07-20
After off-center C ignition in the cores of super asymptotic giant branch (SAGB) stars, the C flame propagates all the way down to the center, trailing behind it the C-shell convective zone, and thus building a degenerate ONe core. This standard picture is obtained in stellar evolution simulations if the bottom C-shell convection boundary is assumed to be a discontinuity associated with a strict interpretation of the Schwarzschild condition for convective instability. However, this boundary is prone to additional mixing processes, such as thermohaline convection and convective boundary mixing. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we show that contrary to previous results, thermohaline mixing is too inefficient to interfere with the C-flame propagation. However, even a small amount of convective boundary mixing removes the physical conditions required for the C-flame propagation all the way to the center. This result holds even if we allow for some turbulent heat transport in the CBM region. As a result, SAGB stars build in their interiors hybrid C-O-Ne degenerate cores composed of a relatively large CO core (M{sub CO} Almost-Equal-To 0.2 M{sub Sun }) surrounded by a thick ONe zone ({Delta}M{sub ONe} {approx}> 0.85 M{sub Sun }) with another thin CO layer above. If exposed by mass loss, these cores will become hybrid C-O-Ne white dwarfs. Otherwise, the ignition of C-rich material in the central core, surrounded by the thick ONe zone, may trigger a thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosion. The quenching of the C-flame may have implications for the ignition mechanism of SN Ia in the double-degenerate merger scenario.
Prueitt, M.L.
1994-02-08
Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.
Global hydrodynamics of the sun
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monin, A. S.
1980-09-01
A review of studies (1960's-1970's) on solar global hydrodynamics is presented, the main areas discussed being differential rotation and generation of the 11-year solar cycle, which seem to be related. A summary of current knowledge about the sun is given, including dimensions, rotation, radiation, solar atmosphere, and solar interior (neutrinos, convection zone). Solar atmospheric inhomogeneities with relatively short lifetimes are discussed, the most important perturbations being spots, faculae, chromospheric flares, prominences, and coronal streamers and holes. Data on solar rotation are reviewed: Solar differential rotation is accompanied by the expenditure of energy to overcome the viscous forces, and without some mechanism which would replenish this energy, the angular rotation velocities, at various heliographic latitudes, would become equal after a few solar rotations. It is thought that the replenishment mechanism is the meridional and radial transport of angular momentum in the convection zone by giant convection cells and of the parameterized turbulent viscosity. Familiar and undisputed effects of the 11-yr solar cycle include auroras, and magnetic storms. Less familiar effects include variations in the level of atmospheric radioactive carbon, and correlations between solar activity and earth climatic variations.
Droplet hydrodynamics during lysozyme protein crystallization.
Pradhan, T; Asfer, M; Panigrahi, P K
2012-11-01
Various experimental studies in zero gravity have been reported in the literature for generation of superior quality crystals due to the importance of convective transport on protein crystal quality. However, limited experimental and numerical studies are available in the literature for a complete characterization of transport phenomena during the protein crystal growth process. The present investigation reports experimental results on convective motion inside the droplet during protein crystallization by the vapor diffusion method. Lysozyme crystals are grown using a sitting drop method and micro-particle image velocimetry is used for investigating the detailed hydrodynamics inside the droplet. Dynamic evolution of the flow field for the complete crystal growth process, i.e., during the prenucleation, nucleation, and postnucleation stage, is reported. Various flow transitions are observed during the complete cycle of the protein crystal growth process. Significant Marangoni convection is observed during the prenucleation period followed by buoyancy-driven convection during the postnucleation period. The Marangoni convection flow patterns observed during the prenucleation stage match those of evaporating droplets. The postnucleation convection patterns are similar to those of ethanol-water mixture evaporation with high ethanol concentration. PMID:23214788
Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.
1960-03-22
An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Futterer, Birgit; Egbers, Christoph; Chossat, Pascal; Hollerbach, Rainer; Breuer, Doris; Feudel, Fred; Mutabazi, Innocent; Tuckerman, Laurette
Overall driving mechanism of flow in inner Earth is convection in its gravitational buoyancy field. A lot of effort has been involved in theoretical prediction and numerical simulation of both the geodynamo, which is maintained by convection, and mantle convection, which is the main cause for plate tectonics. Especially resolution of convective patterns and heat transfer mechanisms has been in focus to reach the real, highly turbulent conditions inside Earth. To study specific phenomena experimentally different approaches has been observed, against the background of magneto-hydrodynamic but also on the pure hydrodynamic physics of fluids. With the experiment `GeoFlow' (Geophysical Flow Simulation) instability and transition of convection in spherical shells under the influence of central-symmetry buoyancy force field are traced for a wide range of rotation regimes within the limits between non-rotating and rapid rotating spheres. The special set-up of high voltage potential between inner and outer sphere and use of a dielectric fluid as working fluid induce an electro-hydrodynamic force, which is comparable to gravitational buoyancy force inside Earth. To reduce overall gravity in a laboratory this technique requires microgravity conditions. The `GeoFlow I' experiment was accomplished on International Space Station's module COLUM-BUS inside Fluid Science Laboratory FSL und supported by EADS Astrium, Friedrichshafen, User Support und Operations Centre E-USOC in Madrid, Microgravity Advanced Research and Support Centre MARS in Naples, as well as COLUMBUS Control Center COL-CC Munich. Running from August 2008 until January 2009 it delivered 100.000 images from FSL's optical diagnostics module; here more precisely the Wollaston shearing interferometry was used. Here we present the experimental alignment with numerical prediction for the non-rotating and rapid rotation case. The non-rotating case is characterized by a co-existence of several stationary supercritical
Nucleation and chiral symmetry breaking under controlled hydrodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Xiao-Lun; Martin, Brian; Tharrington, Arnold
1994-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic convection on nucleation and broken chiral symmetry have been investigated for a simple inorganic molecule, sodium chlorate (NaClO3). Our experiment suggests that the symmetry breaking is a result of hydrodynamic amplification of rare nucleation events. The effect is more pronounced when the primary nucleation occurs on the solute-vapor interface, where mixing in the surface sublayer becomes important. The transition from the achiral to the chiral states appears to be smooth as the hydrodynamic parameters, such as flow rate, are varied.
Thorogood, R.M.
1983-12-27
A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.
Thorogood, Robert M.
1986-01-01
A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.
Thorogood, Robert M.
1983-01-01
A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.
A Simple Demonstration of Convective Effects on Reaction-Diffusion Systems: A Burning Cigarette.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pojman, John A.
1990-01-01
Described is a demonstration that provides an introduction to nonequilibrium reaction-diffusion systems and the coupling of hydrodynamics to chemical reactions. Experiments that demonstrate autocatalytic behavior that are effected by gravity and convection are included. (KR)
Convection in Icy Satellites: Implications for Habitability and Planetary Protection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2004-01-01
Solid-state convection and endogenic resurfacing in the outer ice shells of the icy Galilean satellites (especially Europa) may contribute to the habitability of their internal oceans and to the detectability of any biospheres by spacecraft. If convection occurs in an ice I layer, fluid motions are confined beneath a thick stagnant lid of cold, immobile ice that is too stiff to participate in convection. The thickness of the stagnant lid varies from 30 to 50% of the total thickness of the ice shell, depending on the grain size of ice. Upward convective motions deliver approximately 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 13) kg yr(sup -1) of ice to the base of the stagnant lid, where resurfacing events driven by compositional or tidal effects (such as the formation of domes or ridges on Europa, or formation of grooved terrain on Ganymede) may deliver materials from the stagnant lid onto the surface. Conversely, downward convective motions deliver the same mass of ice from the base of the stagnant lid to the bottom of the satellites ice shells. Materials from the satellites surfaces may be delivered to their oceans by downward convective motions if material from the surface can reach the base of the stagnant lid during resurfacing events. Triggering convection from an initially conductive ice shell requires modest amplitude (a few to tens of kelvins) temperature anomalies to soften the ice to permit convection, which may require tidal heating. Therefore, tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection in combination may be required to permit mass transport between the surfaces and oceans of icy satellites. Callisto and probably Ganymede have thick stagnant lids with geologically inactive surfaces today, so forward contamination of their surfaces is not a significant issue. Active convection and breaching of the stagnant lid is a possibility on Europa today, so is of relevance to planetary protection policy.
Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid
2014-01-01
In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahley, N.; Futterer, B.; Egbers, C.; Crumeyrolle, O.; Mutabazi, I.
2011-12-01
Within the project "Convection in a Cylinder" (CiC) heat transfer enhancement is studied for the case of two concentric, vertically aligned cylinders. The cylindrical gap is filled with a dielectric liquid, which viscosity is just few times higher than that of water. The inner cylinder is heated and the outer one is cooled. This setup in a gravitational buoyancy field leads to a fluid movement in a single convective cell with hot fluid rising at the inner boundary and cold fluid sinking at the outer boundary. The top and bottom part of the system shows horizontal movement, again in boundary layers. The strengthening of temperature gradient induces instabilities of that convective motion. If we vary the buoyancy force by means of electro-hydrodynamic effects, the patterns of convection differ from those instabilities rising only from variation of the temperature gradient.
Theory and simulations of rotating convection
Barker, Adrian J.; Dempsey, Adam M.; Lithwick, Yoram
2014-08-10
We study thermal convection in a rotating fluid in order to better understand the properties of convection zones in rotating stars and planets. We first derive a mixing-length theory for rapidly rotating convection, arriving at the results of Stevenson via simple physical arguments. The theory predicts the properties of convection as a function of the imposed heat flux and rotation rate, independent of microscopic diffusivities. In particular, it predicts the mean temperature gradient, the rms velocity and temperature fluctuations, and the size of the eddies that dominate heat transport. We test all of these predictions with high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of Boussinesq convection in a Cartesian box. The results agree remarkably well with the theory across more than two orders of magnitude in rotation rate. For example, the temperature gradient is predicted to scale as the rotation rate to the four-fifths power at fixed flux, and the simulations yield 0.75 ± 0.06. We conclude that the mixing-length theory is a solid foundation for understanding the properties of convection zones in rotating stars and planets.
Theory and Simulations of Rotating Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Adrian J.; Dempsey, Adam M.; Lithwick, Yoram
2014-08-01
We study thermal convection in a rotating fluid in order to better understand the properties of convection zones in rotating stars and planets. We first derive a mixing-length theory for rapidly rotating convection, arriving at the results of Stevenson via simple physical arguments. The theory predicts the properties of convection as a function of the imposed heat flux and rotation rate, independent of microscopic diffusivities. In particular, it predicts the mean temperature gradient, the rms velocity and temperature fluctuations, and the size of the eddies that dominate heat transport. We test all of these predictions with high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of Boussinesq convection in a Cartesian box. The results agree remarkably well with the theory across more than two orders of magnitude in rotation rate. For example, the temperature gradient is predicted to scale as the rotation rate to the four-fifths power at fixed flux, and the simulations yield 0.75 ± 0.06. We conclude that the mixing-length theory is a solid foundation for understanding the properties of convection zones in rotating stars and planets.
Herwig, Falk; Pignatari, Marco; Woodward, Paul R.; Porter, David H.; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Fryer, Chris L.; Bennett, Michael; Hirschi, Raphael
2011-02-01
Depending on mass and metallicity as well as evolutionary phase, stars occasionally experience convective-reactive nucleosynthesis episodes. We specifically investigate the situation when nucleosynthetically unprocessed, H-rich material is convectively mixed with an He-burning zone, for example in a convectively unstable shell on top of electron-degenerate cores in asymptotic giant branch stars, young white dwarfs, or X-ray bursting neutron stars. Such episodes are frequently encountered in stellar evolution models of stars of extremely low or zero metal content, such as the first stars. We have carried out detailed nucleosynthesis simulations based on stellar evolution models and informed by hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on the convective-reactive episode in the very late thermal pulse star Sakurai's object (V4334 Sagittarii). Asplund et al. determined the abundances of 28 elements, many of which are highly non-solar, ranging from H, He, and Li all the way to Ba and La, plus the C isotopic ratio. Our simulations show that the mixing evolution according to standard, one-dimensional stellar evolution models implies neutron densities in the He intershell ({approx}< few 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) that are too low to obtain a significant neutron capture nucleosynthesis on the heavy elements. We have carried out three-dimensional hydrodynamic He-shell flash convection simulations in 4{pi} geometry to study the entrainment of H-rich material. Guided by these simulations we assume that the ingestion process of H into the He-shell convection zone leads only after some delay time to a sufficient entropy barrier that splits the convection zone into the original one driven by He burning and a new one driven by the rapid burning of ingested H. By making such mixing assumptions that are motivated by our hydrodynamic simulations we obtain significantly higher neutron densities ({approx} few 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) and reproduce the key observed abundance trends found in Sakurai
Entropy in Adiabatic Regions of Convection Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre
2016-05-01
One of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models is caused by the treatment of convection in stellar envelopes. One-dimensional stellar models often make use of the mixing length or equivalent approximations to describe convection, all of which depend on various free parameters. There have been attempts to rectify this by using 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulations of stellar convection, and in trying to extract an equivalent mixing length from the simulations. In this Letter, we show that the entropy of the deeper, adiabatic layers in these simulations can be expressed as a simple function of {log}g and {log}{T}{{eff}}, which holds potential for calibrating stellar models in a simple and more general manner.
Shell model for buoyancy-driven turbulence.
Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K
2015-04-01
In this paper we present a unified shell model for stably stratified and convective turbulence. Numerical simulation of this model for stably stratified flow shows Bolgiano-Obukhbov scaling in which the kinetic energy spectrum varies as k(-11/5). The shell model of convective turbulence yields Kolmogorov's spectrum. These results are consistent with the energy flux and energy feed due to buoyancy, and are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations of Kumar et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 023016 (2014)]. PMID:25974587
Simulating Convection in Stellar Envelopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanner, Joel
Understanding convection in stellar envelopes, and providing a mathematical description of it, would represent a substantial advance in stellar astrophysics. As one of the largest sources of uncertainty in stellar models, existing treatments of convection fail to account for many of the dynamical effects of convection, such as turbulent pressure and asymmetry in the velocity field. To better understand stellar convection, we must be able to study and examine it in detail, and one of the best tools for doing so is numerical simulation. Near the stellar surface, both convective and radiative process play a critical role in determining the structure and gas dynamics. By following these processes from first principles, convection can be simulated self-consistently and accurately, even in regions of inefficient energy transport where existing descriptions of convection fail. Our simulation code includes two radiative transfer solvers that are based on different assumptions and approximations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Using the code to construct a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the link between convection and various chemical compositions. The stellar parameters correspond to main-sequence stars at several surface gravities, and span a range in effective temperatures (4500 < Teff < 6400). Different chemical compositions include four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), three helium abundances (Y = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and several levels of alpha-element enhancement. Our grid of simulations shows that various convective properties, such as velocity and the degree of superadiabaticity, are
The core helium flash revisited. II. Two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mocák, M.; Müller, E.; Weiss, A.; Kifonidis, K.
2009-07-01
Context: We study turbulent convection during the core helium flash close to its peak by comparing the results of two and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Aims: In a previous study we found that the temporal evolution and the properties of the convection inferred from two-dimensional hydrodynamic studies are similar to those predicted by quasi-hydrostatic stellar evolutionary calculations. However, as vorticity is conserved in axisymmetric flows, two-dimensional simulations of convection are characterized by incorrect dominant spatial scales and exaggerated velocities. Here, we present three-dimensional simulations that eliminate the restrictions and flaws of two-dimensional models and that provide a geometrically unbiased insight into the hydrodynamics of the core helium flash. In particular, we study whether the assumptions and predictions of stellar evolutionary calculations based on the mixing-length theory can be confirmed by hydrodynamic simulations. Methods: We used a multidimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code based on state-of-the-art numerical techniques to simulate the evolution of the helium core of a 1.25 M⊙ Pop I star. Results: Our three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of a star during the peak of the core helium flash do not show any explosive behavior. The convective flow patterns developing in the three-dimensional models are structurally different from those of the corresponding two-dimensional models, and the typical convective velocities are lower than those found in their two-dimensional counterparts. Three-dimensional models also tend to agree more closely with the predictions of mixing length theory. Our hydrodynamic simulations show the turbulent entrainment that leads to a growth of the convection zone on a dynamic time scale. In contrast to mixing length theory, the outer part of the convection zone is characterized by a subadiabatic temperature gradient.
Radiation hydrodynamics integrated in the PLUTO code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolb, Stefan M.; Stute, Matthias; Kley, Wilhelm; Mignone, Andrea
2013-11-01
Aims: The transport of energy through radiation is very important in many astrophysical phenomena. In dynamical problems the time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics have to be solved. We present a newly developed radiation-hydrodynamics module specifically designed for the versatile magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PLUTO. Methods: The solver is based on the flux-limited diffusion approximation in the two-temperature approach. All equations are solved in the co-moving frame in the frequency-independent (gray) approximation. The hydrodynamics is solved by the different Godunov schemes implemented in PLUTO, and for the radiation transport we use a fully implicit scheme. The resulting system of linear equations is solved either using the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method (for testing purposes) or using matrix solvers that are available in the PETSc library. We state in detail the methodology and describe several test cases to verify the correctness of our implementation. The solver works in standard coordinate systems, such as Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical, and also for non-equidistant grids. Results: We present a new radiation-hydrodynamics solver coupled to the MHD-code PLUTO that is a modern, versatile, and efficient new module for treating complex radiation hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics. As test cases, either purely radiative situations, or full radiation-hydrodynamical setups (including radiative shocks and convection in accretion disks) were successfully studied. The new module scales very well on parallel computers using MPI. For problems in star or planet formation, we added the possibility of irradiation by a central source.
Hydrodynamically Driven Colloidal Assembly in Dip Coating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colosqui, Carlos E.; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Stone, Howard A.
2013-05-01
We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca2/3/Bo<0.7, where Ca and Bo are the capillary and Bond numbers, respectively. An analytical model and numerical simulations are presented for the case of two-dimensional flow with circular particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.
Three-dimensional spherical models of layered and whole mantle convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Schubert, Gerald
1993-01-01
We present numerical calculations of three-dimensional spherical shell thermal convection for constant viscosity and stratified viscosity models of whole-layer and two-layer mantle convection. These four examples are intended to provide theoretical guidance for determining the style of convection that is occurring in Earth's mantle. An impermeable interface between the upper and lower convecting shells in the two-layer solutions is placed at a depth of 670 km to coincide with the mantle seismic discontinuity that divides the upper and lower mantle. The interface results in an internal thermal boundary layer that raises the mean temperature in the lower shell by about 1400 K compared to the whole-layer solutions. The patterns of convection in the upper part of the whole-layer solutions are dominated by narrow arcuate sheetlike downflows in a background of weak upflow. In contrast, the upper shells of the two-layer solutions have complicated networks of convective rolls with the upflows and downflows having very similar structure. The structure of convection in the lower shells is similar to that in the lower part of the whole-layer solutions. Based on the horizontal structure of subduction zones on Earth's surface and on tomographic images of temperature variations in Earth's mantle, we conclude that the style of convection in Earth's mantle is more like that of the whole-mantle models.
Convection in Oblate Late-Type Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Junfeng
2015-08-01
In this talk, we present recent investigations of the convection, oblateness and differential rota-tion in rapidly rotating late-type stars with a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Un-structured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code (J. Comput. Physics Vol. 290, 190-211, 2015). Recent observations have revealed the drastic effects of rapid rotation on stellar structure, including centrifugal deformation and gravity darkening. The centrifugal force counteracts gravity, causing the equatorial region to expand. Consequently, rapidly rotating stars are oblate and cannot be described by an one-dimensional spherically symmetric model. If convection establishes a substantial differential rotation, as in the envelopes of late-type stars, this can considerably increase the oblateness. We have successfully extended the CHORUS code to model rapidly rotating stars on fixed unstructured grids. In the CHORUS code, the hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM). The discretization stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS has been verified by comparing to spherical anelastic convection simulations on benchmark problems. This talk will be centred on the first global simulations by CHORUS for convection in oblate stars with different rotating rates. We quantify the influence of the oblateness on the mean flows and the thermal structure of the convection zone through these new simulations and implications of these results for stellar observations will be discussed.
Hydrodynamic Mass of Bluff Bodies with a Cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elgabaili, Mohamed; Desabrais, Kenneth; Johari, Hamid
2012-11-01
Hydrodynamic mass of an object may be used to compute the contribution of unsteady drag resulting from potential flow. Even though the hydrodynamic mass of certain bluff bodies such as cylinder and sphere have been available from analytical considerations for a long time, there are no analytical solutions for a general bluff body with a cavity such as a cup facing the flow or a round parachute canopy. There is, however, an analytical solution for spherical shells of various concavities. The translational hydrodynamic mass of cups having various depth and thickness as well as round parachute canopies during inflation was computed using a finite element solver. The kinetic energy of the potential flow around the body was used to extract the hydrodynamic mass. Results indicate that the hydrodynamic mass of a cup can be decomposed into two components, the hydrodynamic mass of a cylinder whose axis is aligned with the flow and the mass of fluid within the cup cavity. Similarly, the hydrodynamic mass of a parachute canopy during various stages of inflation may be written as the hydrodynamic mass of a disk having the same area as the projected area of the canopy plus the mass of fluid enclosed by the canopy. Sponsored by the US Army Natick RDEC.
Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
José, Jordi
2015-12-01
Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.
CONVECTION THEORY AND SUB-PHOTOSPHERIC STRATIFICATION
Arnett, David; Meakin, Casey; Young, Patrick A. E-mail: casey.meakin@gmail.co
2010-02-20
As a preliminary step toward a complete theoretical integration of three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamic simulations into stellar evolution, convection at the surface and sub-surface layers of the Sun is re-examined, from a restricted point of view, in the language of mixing-length theory (MLT). Requiring that MLT use a hydrodynamically realistic dissipation length gives a new constraint on solar models. While the stellar structure which results is similar to that obtained by Yale Rotational Evolution Code (Guenther et al.; Bahcall and Pinsonneault) and Garching models (Schlattl et al.), the theoretical picture differs. A new quantitative connection is made between macro-turbulence, micro-turbulence, and the convective velocity scale at the photosphere, which has finite values. The 'geometric parameter' in MLT is found to correspond more reasonably with the thickness of the superadiabatic region (SAR), as it must for consistency in MLT, and its integrated effect may correspond to that of the strong downward plumes which drive convection (Stein and Nordlund), and thus has a physical interpretation even in MLT. If we crudely require the thickness of the SAR to be consistent with the 'geometric factor' used in MLT, there is no longer a free parameter, at least in principle. Use of three-dimensional simulations of both adiabatic convection and stellar atmospheres will allow the determination of the dissipation length and the geometric parameter (i.e., the entropy jump) more realistically, and with no astronomical calibration. A physically realistic treatment of convection in stellar evolution will require substantial additional modifications beyond MLT, including nonlocal effects of kinetic energy flux, entrainment (the most dramatic difference from MLT found by Meakin and Arnett), rotation, and magnetic fields.
Benz, Zachary; McCain, Jonathan; Bauer, Travis
2008-06-03
Provides the shell of a plugin based application environment that builds on MVC Framework to allow one to rapidly construct an application by using a collection of plugins. The MVC Shell is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 application that can then be used as a shell for building a plugin based application. The infrastructure allows for dynamically processing a specified collection of plugins in order to determine the functionality of the application, where all plugins operate within the context of the underlying MVC Framework environment.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2008-06-03
Provides the shell of a plugin based application environment that builds on MVC Framework to allow one to rapidly construct an application by using a collection of plugins. The MVC Shell is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 application that can then be used as a shell for building a plugin based application. The infrastructure allows for dynamically processing a specified collection of plugins in order to determine the functionality of the application, wheremore » all plugins operate within the context of the underlying MVC Framework environment.« less
Hydrodynamic growth and mix experiments at National Ignition Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smalyuk, V. A.; Caggiano, J.; Casey, D.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Edwards, J.; Grim, G.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A.; Hsing, W.; Hurricane, O.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Landen, O.; McNaney, J.; Mintz, M.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Pino, J.; Raman, K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rowley, D.; Tipton, R.; Weber, S.; Yeamans, C.
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic growth and its effects on implosion performance and mix were studied at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Spherical shells with pre-imposed 2D modulations were used to measure Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth in the acceleration phase of implosions using in-flight x-ray radiography. In addition, implosion performance and mix have been studied at peak compression using plastic shells filled with tritium gas and imbedding localized CD diagnostic layer in various locations in the ablator. Neutron yield and ion temperature of the DT fusion reactions were used as a measure of shell-gas mix, while neutron yield of the TT fusion reaction was used as a measure of implosion performance. The results have indicated that the low-mode hydrodynamic instabilities due to surface roughness were the primary culprits to yield degradation, with atomic ablator-gas mix playing a secondary role.
Hydrodynamic effects in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek
2011-01-01
Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.
Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.
Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek
2011-01-26
Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. PMID:21406855
Magnetophoresis of superparamagnetic nanoparticles at low field gradient: hydrodynamic effect.
Leong, Sim Siong; Ahmad, Zainal; Lim, JitKang
2015-09-21
Convective current driven by momentum transfer between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their surrounding fluid during magnetophoresis process under a low gradient magnetic field (<100 T m(-1)) is presented. This magnetophoresis induced convective flow, which imposed direct hydrodynamic effects onto the separation kinetics of the MNPs under low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS), is analogous to the natural convection found in heat transportation. Herein, we show the significance of the induced convection in controlling the transport behavior of MNPs, even at a very low particle concentration of 5 mg L(-1), and this feature can be characterized by the newly defined magnetic Grashof number. By incorporating fluid flow equations into the existing magnetophoresis model, we reveal two unique features of this convective flow associated with low gradient magnetophoresis, namely, (1) the continuous homogenization of the MNPs solution and (2) accompanying sweeping flow that accelerates the collection of MNPs. According to both simulation and experimental data, the induced convection boosts the magnetophoretic capture of MNPs by approximately 30 times compared to the situation with no convection. PMID:26234726
Mikkelsen, Paula M
2002-01-01
In his contributions to the monographic series "Manual of Conchology", Henry Pilsbry reviewed the subgroup Tectibranchiata, comprising those opisthobranch snails that (at least primitively) still possess a shell (Pilsbry, 1894-1896). Exemplified by the Cephalaspidea (bubble shells), others included in this group at Pilsbry's time and since were Anaspidea (sea hares) and the shelled members of Notaspidea (side-gilled slugs) and Sacoglossa (leaf slugs). Pilsbry (and others since his time) considered tectibranchs to be the "root stock" from which more advanced gastropods such as Nudibranchia and Pulmonata were derived. Tectibranch systematics is firmly based on conchology and most species were originally described from empty shells. However, soft-anatomical characters were acknowledged quite early on as equally important in tectibranchs, due to the reduction of their shells and their evolutionary proximity to unshelled gastropods. Today, Tectibranchiata is not recognized as a natural taxon although the word "tectibranch" (like "prosobranch" and "mesogastropod") continues in vernacular use. Shelled opisthobranchs have been redistributed among various taxa, including several new ones--the unresolved basal opisthobranchs (Architectibranchia) and the "lower Heterobranchia", an enigmatic and currently much-studied group of families considered basal to all of Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia and landsnails (Pulmonata)). Despite their polyphyletic status, shelled opisthobranchs remain important subjects in evolutionary studies of gastropods--as the most basal members of nearly every opisthobranch clade and as organisms with mosaic combinations of primitive and derived features within evolutionary "trends" (e.g., loss of the shell, detorsion, concentration of the nervous system, ecological specialization, etc.). Although they play a pivotal role, the shelled opisthobranchs have received minimal attention in more comprehensive gastropod studies, often relegated to token
Mobile Lid Convection Beneath Enceladus' South Polar Terrain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, Amy C.
2008-01-01
Enceladus' south polar region has a large heat flux, 55-110 milliwatts per square meter (or higher), that is spatially associated with cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Tidal dissipation and vigorous convection in the underlying ice shell are possible sources of heat; however, prior predictions of the heat flux carried by stagnant lid convection range from F(sub conv) 15 to 30 milliwatts per square meter, too low to explain the observed heat flux. The high heat flux and increased cryovolcanic and tectonic activity suggest that near-surface ice in the region has become rheologically and mechanically weakened enough to permit convective plumes to reach close to the surface. If the yield strength of Enceladus' lithosphere is less than 1-10 kPa, convection may instead occur in the mobile lid" regime, which is characterized by large heat fluxes and large horizontal velocities in the near-surface ice. I show that model ice shells with effective surface viscosities between 10(exp 16) and 10(exp 17) Pa s and basal viscosities between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 15) Pa s have convective heat fluxes comparable to that observed by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer. If this style of convection is occurring, the south polar terrain should be spreading horizontally with v1-10 millimeter per year and should be resurfaced in 0.1-10 Ma. On the basis of Cassini imaging data, the south polar terrain is 0.5 Ma old, consistent with the mobile lid hypothesis. Maxwell viscoelastic tidal dissipation in such ice shells is not capable of generating enough heat to balance convective heat transport. However, tidal heat may also be generated in the near-surface along faults as suggested by Nimmo et al. and/or viscous dissipation within the ice shell may occur by other processes not accounted for by the canonical Maxwell dissipation model.
Scaling supernova hydrodynamics to the laboratory
Kane, J.O.
1999-06-01
Supernova (SN) 1987A focused attention on the critical role of hydrodynamic instabilities in the evolution of supernovae. To test the modeling of these instabilities, we are developing laboratory experiments of hydrodynamic mixing under conditions relevant to supernovae. Initial results were reported in J. Kane et al., Astrophys. J.478, L75 (1997) The Nova laser is used to shock two-layer targets, producing Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at the interfaces between the layers, analogous to instabilities seen at the interfaces of SN 1987A. Because the hydrodynamics in the laser experiments at intermediate times (3-40 ns) and in SN 1987A at intermediate times (5 s-10{sup 4} s) are well described by the Euler equations, the hydrodynamics scale between the two regimes. The experiments are modeled using the hydrodynamics codes HYADES and CALE, and the supernova code PROMETHEUS, thus serving as a benchmark for PROMETHEUS. Results of the experiments and simulations are presented. Analysis of the spike and bubble velocities in the experiment using potential flow theory and a modified Ott thin shell theory is presented. A numerical study of 2D vs. 3D differences in instability growth at the O-He and He-H interface of SN 1987A, and the design for analogous laser experiments are presented. We discuss further work to incorporate more features of the SN in the experiments, including spherical geometry, multiple layers and density gradients. Past and ongoing work in laboratory and laser astrophysics is reviewed, including experimental work on supernova remnants (SNRs). A numerical study of RM instability in SNRs is presented.
Leo Kadanoff's legacy for turbulent thermal convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohse, Detlef
Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection -- the buoyancy-driven flow of a fluid heated from below and cooled from above -- is a classical problem in fluid dynamics. It played a crucial role in the development of stability theory in hydrodynamics (Rayleigh, Chandrasekhar) and had been paradigmatic in pattern formation and in the study of spatial-temporal chaos (Ahlers, Libchaber, and many other). It was Leo Kadanoff and his associates in Chicago who, in the 1980s and 1990s, propagated the RB system as paradigmatic for the physics of fully developed turbulence and contributed tremendously to today's understanding of thermally driven turbulence. He and his experimental coworkers (Libchaber et al.) revealed the importance of the thermal plumes and the large-scale wind, and elucidated the interplay between thermal boundary layers and bulk. His scaling analysis laid the basis for our present understanding of turbulent convection, which I will review in this talk, highlighting Leo's trailblazing contributions. Kadanoff session.
VARIATION OF STELLAR ENVELOPE CONVECTION AND OVERSHOOT WITH METALLICITY
Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre
2013-04-10
We examine how metallicity affects convection and overshoot in the superadiabatic layer of main sequence stars. We present results from a grid of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations with four metallicities (Z = 0.040, 0.020, 0.010, 0.001), and spanning a range in effective temperature (4950 < T{sub eff} < 6230). We show that changing the metallicity alters properties of the convective gas dynamics, and the structure of the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere. Our grid of simulations shows that the amount of superadiabaticity, which tracks the transition from efficient to inefficient convection, is sensitive to changes in metallicity. We find that increasing the metallicity forces the location of the transition region to lower densities and pressures, and results in larger mean and turbulent velocities throughout the superadiabatic region. We also quantify the degree of convective overshoot in the atmosphere, and show that it increases with metallicity as well.
Driving factors of electro-convective instability in concentration polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu-Rjal, Ramadan; Rubinstein, Isaak; Zaltzman, Boris
2016-06-01
Until recently, based on the analysis pertaining to a perfectly charge selective interface, electro-convective instability in concentration polarization was attributed to the nonequilibrium mechanism related to the extended space charge which forms next to that of the electric double layer near the limiting current. More recently it was shown that imperfect charge selectivity of the interface makes equilibrium instability possible, driven by either equilibrium electro-osmosis or bulk electro-convection, or both. In this paper we identify and analyze the major surface and bulk factors affecting the electro-convective instability. These factors, some known previously under the names of diffusio-osmosis, electro-osmosis, or bulk electro-convection, and some newly identified in this paper are manifestations of the electric force and pressure gradient, balanced by the viscous force acting in various locations in solution. The contribution of these factors to hydrodynamic stability in concentration polarization is analyzed for a varying charge selectivity of the interface.
White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.
2010-01-01
In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.
Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał
2016-04-01
It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.
Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger
2013-12-01
An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atkinson, Bill
1982-01-01
The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)
Stochastic Convection Parameterizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios
2012-01-01
computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts
Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal
Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.
2001-01-01
A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.
Glass shell manufacturing in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nolen, R. L.; Downs, R. L.; Ebner, M. A.
1982-01-01
Highly-uniform, hollow glass spheres, which are used for inertial-confinement fusion targets, are formed from metal-organic gel powder feedstock in a drop-tower furnace. The modelling of this gel-to-sphere transformation has consisted of three phases: gel thermochemistry, furnance-to-gel heat transfer, and gravity-driven degradation of the concentricity of the molten shell. The heat transfer from the furnace to the free-falling gel particle was modelled with forced convection. The gel mass, dimensions, and specific heat as well as furnace temperature profile and furnace gas conductivity, were controlled variables. This model has been experimentally verified. In the third phase, a mathematical model was developed to describe the gravity-driven degradation of concentricity in molten glass shells.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leissa, A. W.
1973-01-01
The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.
Building Atoms Shell by Shell.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sussman, Beverly
1993-01-01
Describes an atom-building activity where students construct three-dimensional models of atoms using a styrofoam ball as the nucleus and pom-poms, gum drops, minimarshmallows, or other small items of two different colors to represent protons and neutrons attached. Rings of various sizes with pom-poms attached represent electron shells and…
Examining the Impact of Prandtl Number and Surface Convection Models on Deep Solar Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Mara, B. D.; Augustson, K.; Featherstone, N. A.; Miesch, M. S.
2015-12-01
Turbulent motions within the solar convection zone play a central role in the generation and maintenance of the Sun's magnetic field. This magnetic field reverses its polarity every 11 years and serves as the source of powerful space weather events, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which can affect artificial satellites and power grids. The structure and inductive properties are linked to the amplitude (i.e. speed) of convective motion. Using the NASA Pleiades supercomputer, a 3D fluids code simulates these processes by evolving the Navier-Stokes equations in time and under an anelastic constraint. This code simulates the fluxes describing heat transport in the sun in a global spherical-shell geometry. Such global models can explicitly capture the large-scale motions in the deep convection zone but heat transport from unresolved small-scale convection in the surface layers must be parameterized. Here we consider two models for heat transport by surface convection, including a conventional turbulent thermal diffusion as well as an imposed flux that carries heat through the surface in a manner that is independent of the deep convection and the entropy stratification it establishes. For both models, we investigate the scaling of convective amplitude with decreasing diffusion (increasing Rayleigh number). If the Prandtl number is fixed, we find that the amplitude of convective motions increases with decreasing diffusion, possibly reaching an asymptotic value in the low diffusion limit. However, if only the thermal diffusion is decreased (keeping the viscosity fixed), we find that the amplitude of convection decreases with decreasing diffusion. Such a high-Prandtl-number, high-Peclet-number limit may be relevant for the Sun if magnetic fields mix momentum, effectively acting as an enhanced viscosity. In this case, our results suggest that the amplitude of large-scale convection in the Sun may be substantially less than in current models that employ an
Global tectonics from mantle convection models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coltice, N.
2015-12-01
The motions of the surface of the Earth are described using the theory of Plate Tectonics. Despite the fact that this theory has shaped modern geosciences it has some limitations, and among them the impossibility to evaluate the forces at the origin of the surface displacements and deformations. Hence important questions remain difficult to solve like the origin of the sizes of plates, forces driving mountain building or supercontinent dispersal... Tremendous progresses have been made in the past 15 years in mantle convection modelling. Especially, modern convection codes can solve for motion equations with complex material properties. Since the early 2000's, the development of pseudo-plastic rheologies contributed to produce convection models with plate-like behaviour: plates naturally emerge and interact with the flow in a self-organized manner. Using such models in 3D spherical geometry (computed with StagYY - Tackley, 2008), I will show that important questions on the global tectonics of the planet can be addressed now: the distribution of seafloor ages, the distribution of plate area, the lifetime of small and large plates or modes of plate reorganizations. Tackley, P.J., Modellng compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter, 171, 7-18 (2008).
Self-Organized Traveling Chemo-Hydrodynamic Fingers Triggered by a Chemical Oscillator.
Escala, D M; Budroni, M A; Carballido-Landeira, J; De Wit, A; Muñuzuri, A P
2014-02-01
Pulsatile chemo-hydrodynamic patterns due to a coupling between an oscillating chemical reaction and buoyancy-driven hydrodynamic flows can develop when two solutions of separate reactants of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction are put in contact in the gravity field and conditions for chemical oscillations are met in the contact zone. In regular oscillatory conditions, localized periodic changes in the concentration of intermediate species induce pulsatile density gradients, which, in turn, generate traveling convective fingers breaking the transverse symmetry. These patterns are the self-organized result of a genuine coupling between chemical and hydrodynamic modes. PMID:26276584
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.
2013-02-01
The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications
Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.
2014-07-01
An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2004-01-01
Ice I exhibits a complex rheology at temperature and pressure conditions appropriate for the interiors of the ice I shells of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. We use numerical methods and existing parameterizations of the critical Rayleigh number to determine the conditions required to trigger convection in an ice I shell with the stress-, temperature- and grain size- dependent rheology measured in laboratory experiments by Goldsby and Kohlstedt [2001]. The critical Rayleigh number depends on the ice grain size and the amplitude and wavelength of temperature perturbation issued to an initially conductive ice I shell. If the shells have an assumed uniform grain size less than 0.4 mm, deformation during initial plume growth is accommodated by Newtonian volume diffusion. If the ice grain size is between 0.4 mm and 3 cm, deformation during plume growth is accommodated by weakly non-Newtonian grain boundary sliding, where the critical ice shell thickness for convection depends on the amplitude of temperature perturbation to the _0.5 power. If the ice grain size exceeds 2 cm, convection can not occur in the ice I shells of the Galilean satellites regardless of the amplitude or wavelength of temperature perturbation. If the grain size in a convecting ice I shell evolves to effective values greater than 2 cm, convection will cease. If the ice shell has a grain size large enough to permit flow by dislocation creep, the ice is too stiff to permit convection, even in the thickest possible ice I shell. Consideration of the composite rheology implies that estimates of the grain size in the satellites and knowledge of their initial thermal states are required when judging the convective instability of their ice I shells.
Stein, Robert F
2012-07-13
Convection is the transport of energy by bulk mass motions. Magnetic fields alter convection via the Lorentz force, while convection moves the fields via the curl(v×B) term in the induction equation. Recent ground-based and satellite telescopes have increased our knowledge of the solar magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Magneto-convection modelling has also greatly improved recently as computers become more powerful. Three-dimensional simulations with radiative transfer and non-ideal equations of state are being performed. Flux emergence from the convection zone through the visible surface (and into the chromosphere and corona) has been modelled. Local, convectively driven dynamo action has been studied. The alteration in the appearance of granules and the formation of pores and sunspots has been investigated. Magneto-convection calculations have improved our ability to interpret solar observations, especially the inversion of Stokes spectra to obtain the magnetic field and the use of helioseismology to determine the subsurface structure of the Sun. PMID:22665893
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2015-12-01
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina
2015-12-18
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. PMID:26722945
Fluctuations in relativistic causal hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Ananta P.
2014-05-01
Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of Müller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation functions remain the same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and do not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation functions remains the same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.
Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric
2010-11-01
Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-01-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-08-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
On the convective overstability in protoplanetary discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latter, Henrik N.
2016-01-01
This paper explores the driving of low-level hydrodynamical activity in protoplanetary-disc dead zones. A small adverse radial entropy gradient, ordinarily stabilized by rotation, excites oscillatory convection (`convective overstability') when thermal diffusion, or cooling, is neither too strong nor too weak. I revisit the linear theory of the instability, discuss its prevalence in protoplanetary discs, and show that unstable modes are exact non-linear solutions in the local Boussinesq limit. Overstable modes cannot grow indefinitely, however, as they are subject to a secondary parametric instability that limits their amplitudes to relatively low levels. If parasites set the saturation level of the ensuing turbulence then the convective overstability is probably too weak to drive significant angular momentum transport or to generate vortices. But I also discuss an alternative, and far more vigorous, saturation route that generates radial `layers' or `zonal flows' (witnessed in semiconvection). Numerical simulations are required to determine which outcome is favoured in realistic discs, and consequently how important the instability is for disc dynamics.
Convective dynamics - Panel report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carbone, Richard; Foote, G. Brant; Moncrieff, Mitch; Gal-Chen, Tzvi; Cotton, William; Heymsfield, Gerald
1990-01-01
Aspects of highly organized forms of deep convection at midlatitudes are reviewed. Past emphasis in field work and cloud modeling has been directed toward severe weather as evidenced by research on tornadoes, hail, and strong surface winds. A number of specific issues concerning future thrusts, tactics, and techniques in convective dynamics are presented. These subjects include; convective modes and parameterization, global structure and scale interaction, convective energetics, transport studies, anvils and scale interaction, and scale selection. Also discussed are analysis workshops, four-dimensional data assimilation, matching models with observations, network Doppler analyses, mesoscale variability, and high-resolution/high-performance Doppler. It is also noted, that, classical surface measurements and soundings, flight-level research aircraft data, passive satellite data, and traditional photogrammetric studies are examples of datasets that require assimilation and integration.
Gas distribution and starbursts in shell galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weil, Melinda L.; Hernquist, Lars
1993-01-01
Detailed maps of most elliptical galaxies reveal that, whereas the greatest part of their luminous mass originates from a smooth distribution with a surface brightness approximated by a de Vaucouleurs law, a small percentage of their light is contributed by low surface brightness distortions termed 'fine structures'. The sharp-edged features called 'shells' are successfully reproduced by merger and infall models involving accretion from less massive companions. In this context, dwarf spheroidal and compact disk galaxies are likely progenitors of these stellar phenomena. However, it is probable that the sources of shell-forming material also contain significant amounts of gas. This component may play an important role in constraining the formation and evolution of shell galaxies. To investigate the effects of the gaseous component, numerical simulations were performed to study the tidal disruption of dwarf galaxies containing both gas and stars by more massive primaries, and the evolution of the ensuing debris. The calculations were performed with a hybrid N-body/hydrodynamics code. Collisionless matter is evolved using a conventional N-body technique and gas is treated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics in which self-gravitating fluid elements are represented as particles evolving according to Lagrangian hydrodynamic equations. An isothermal equation of state is employed so the gas remains at a temperature 104 K. Owing to the large mass ratio between the primary and companion, the primary is modeled as a rigid potential and the self-gravity of both galaxies is neglected.
Deep convection in mesoscale convective systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodman, S. J.
1985-01-01
A study was undertaken to examine the evolution of radar echoes and lightning attending the convective storms in mesoscale convective systems (MCS) and the relationships between the spatial and temporal evolution of deep convection and the storm environment, precipitation, severe weather, and lightning. The total number of ground discharges ranges from 10,000 to 30,000 over the life cycle of the MCS with peak sustained rates (for up to 10 consecutive hours) in excess of 2000 per hour. The peak lightning activity occurs from 5 to 20 hours after the first storms and anywhere from 7 hours prior to 7 hours after the time of the maximum areal extent of the MCS for very similar synoptic environments. Thus, it appears that mesoscale and sub-synoptic scale mechanisms are responsible for these large temporal variation in lightning activity. In addition, we have found that the lightning rates in MCS's are not related to either the size or the duration of the MCS. Preliminary results suggest that the MCA's with embedded squall lines produce the greatest flash rates.
Fossil dust shells around luminous supergiants
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, R.
1975-01-01
The observed frequency with which infrared excesses appear in F, G, and K supergiants of luminosity class Ia supports the idea that these excesses arise in a 'fossil' circumstellar dust shell that was formed during a prior M-super-giant phase of evolution. The required leftward evolution of the star on the H-R diagram would then imply that the Ledoux, rather than the Schwarzschild, criterion for convective mixing is the correct criterion to use in stellar evolution calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stökl, A.
2008-11-01
Context: In spite of all the advances in multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, investigations of stellar evolution and stellar pulsations still depend on one-dimensional computations. This paper devises an alternative to the mixing-length theory or turbulence models usually adopted in modelling convective transport in such studies. Aims: The present work attempts to develop a time-dependent description of convection, which reflects the essential physics of convection and that is only moderately dependent on numerical parameters and far less time consuming than existing multi-dimensional hydrodynamics computations. Methods: Assuming that the most extensive convective patterns generate the majority of convective transport, the convective velocity field is described using two parallel, radial columns to represent up- and downstream flows. Horizontal exchange, in the form of fluid flow and radiation, over their connecting interface couples the two columns and allows a simple circulating motion. The main parameters of this convective description have straightforward geometrical meanings, namely the diameter of the columns (corresponding to the size of the convective cells) and the ratio of the cross-section between up- and downdrafts. For this geometrical setup, the time-dependent solution of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics is computed from an implicit scheme that has the advantage of being unaffected by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time-step limit. This implementation is part of the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code). Results: To demonstrate the approach, results for convection zones in Cepheids are presented. The convective energy transport and convective velocities agree with expectations for Cepheids and the scheme reproduces both the kinetic energy flux and convective overshoot. A study of the parameter influence shows that the type of solution derived for these stars is in fact fairly robust with respect to the constitutive numerical
Convective Instability in Ice I: Application to Callisto and Ganymede
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2004-01-01
Laboratory experiments measuring ice rheology suggest that it deforms under the influence of several nonNewtonian creep mechanisms, where the viscosity depends on both strain rate and temperature [Goldsby & Kohlstedt, 2001]. Whether or not a fluid with a purely temperature-dependent viscosity convects can be determined by comparing the Rayleigh number of the system to the critical Rayleigh number (Racr), which depends on rheological, thermal, and physical parameters of the fluid layer. However, in a nonNewtonian fluid where viscosity depends on the strain rate (i.e. velocity), convection can only occur if a temperature or velocity perturbation is issued to the system to lower the viscosity and permit fluid motions. Therefore, whether convection occurs in an ice I layer depends on initial conditions, in addition to rheological, thermal, and physical properties of the layer. We show new results for a scaling between the critical Rayleigh number and perturbation amplitude for grain boundary sliding rheology. This scaling can be used to determine the conditions required to initiate convection in the ice I shell of a generic icy satellite. We use this scaling to judge the convective instability of Ganymede and Callisto's ice shells in the absence of tidal dissipation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barr, Amy C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.
2005-01-01
Ice I exhibits a complex rheology at temperature and pressure conditions appropriate for the interiors of the outer ice I shells of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. We use numerical methods to determine the conditions required to trigger convection in an ice I shell with a stress-, temperature-, and grain-size-dependent rheology measured in laboratory experiments by Goldsby and Kohlstedt [2001] (henceforth GK2001). Triggering convection from an initially conductive ice shell with a non-Newtonian rheology for ice I requires that a finite-amplitude temperature perturbation be issued to the ice shell [2]. Here, we characterize the amplitude and wavelength of temperature perturbation required to initiate convection in the outer ice I shells of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto using the GK2001 rheology for a range of ice grain sizes.
Spreading of ultrarelativistically expanding shell: An application to GRBs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruffini, R.; Siutsou, I. A.; Vereshchagin, G. V.
2014-02-01
Optically thick energy dominated plasma created in the source of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) expands radially with acceleration and forms a shell with constant width measured in the laboratory frame. When strong Lorentz factor gradients are present within the shell it is supposed to spread at sufficiently large radii. There are two possible mechanisms of spreading: hydrodynamical and thermal ones. We consider both mechanisms evaluating the amount of spreading that occurs during expansion up to the moment when the expanding shell becomes transparent for photons. We compute the hydrodynamical spreading of an ultrarelativistically expanding shell. In the case of thermal spreading we compute the velocity spread as a function of two parameters: comoving temperature and bulk Lorentz factor of relativistic Maxwellian distribution. Based on this result we determine the value of thermal spreading of relativistically expanding shell. We found that thermal spreading is negligible for typical GRB parameters. Instead hydrodynamical spreading appears to be significant, with the shell width reaching ˜1010 cm for total energy E=1054 erg and baryonic loading B=10-2. Within the fireshell model such spreading will result in the duration of Proper Gamma-Ray Bursts up to several seconds.
The effects of convective overshooting on naked helium stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Jing-Zhi; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Lü, Guo-Liang
2016-09-01
Using stellar evolutionary models, we investigate the effects of convective overshooting on naked helium stars. We find that a larger value of overshooting parameter δov results in a larger convective core, which prolongs the lifetimes of naked helium stars on the helium main sequence and leads to higher effective temperatures and luminosities. For naked helium stars with masses lower than about 0.8 M⊙, they hardly become giant stars as a result of a weak burning shell. However, naked helium stars with masses between about 0.8 M⊙ and 1.1 M⊙ can evolve into giant branch phases, and finally become carbon oxygen white dwarfs.
Nonlinear Convective Models of RR Lyrae Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feuchtinger, M.; Dorfi, E. A.
The nonlinear behavior of RR Lyrae pulsations is investigated using a state-of-the-art numerical technique solving the full time-dependent system of radiation hydrodynamics. Grey radiative transfer is included by a variable Eddington-factor method and we use the time-dependent turbulent convection model according to Kuhfuss (1986, A&A 160, 116) in the version of Wuchterl (1995, Comp. Phys. Comm. 89, 19). OPAL opacities extended by the Alexander molecule opacities at temperatures below 6000 K and an equation of state according to Wuchterl (1990, A&A 238, 83) close the system. The resulting nonlinear system is discretized on an adaptive mesh developed by Dorfi & Drury (1987, J. Comp. Phys. 69, 175), which is important to provide the necessary spatial resolution in critical regions like ionization zones and shock waves. Additionally, we employ a second order advection scheme, a time centered temporal discretizaton and an artificial tensor viscosity in order to treat discontinuities. We compute fundamental as well first overtone models of RR Lyrae stars for a grid of stellar parameters both with and without convective energy transport in order to give a detailed picture of the pulsation-convection interaction. In order to investigate the influence of the different features of the convection model calculations with and without overshooting, turbulent pressure and turbulent viscosity are performed and compared with each other. A standard Fourier decomposition is used to confront the resulting light and radial velocity variations with recent observations and we show that the well known RR Lyrae phase discrepancy problem (Simon 1985, ApJ 299, 723) can be resolved with these stellar pulsation computations.
Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Fireballs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piran, Tsvi; Shemi, Amotz; Narayan, Ramesh
1993-01-01
Many models of gamma-ray bursts involve a fireball, which is an optically thick concentration of radiation energy with a high ratio of energy density to rest mass. We examine analytically and numerically the evolution of a relativistic fireball. We show that, after an early rearrangement phase, most of the matter and energy in the fireball is concentrated within a narrow shell. The shell propagates at nearly the speed of light, with a frozen radial profile, and according to a simple set of scaling laws. The spectrum of the escaping radiation is harder at early times and softer later on. Depending on the initial energy-to-mass ratio, the final outcome of a fireball is either photons with roughly the initial temperature or ultrarelativistic baryons. In the latter case, the energy could be converted back to gamma-rays via interaction with surrounding material.
TURBULENT CONVECTION IN STELLAR INTERIORS. III. MEAN-FIELD ANALYSIS AND STRATIFICATION EFFECTS
Viallet, Maxime; Meakin, Casey; Mocak, Miroslav; Arnett, David
2013-05-20
We present three-dimensional implicit large eddy simulations of the turbulent convection in the envelope of a 5 M{sub Sun} red giant star and in the oxygen-burning shell of a 23 M{sub Sun} supernova progenitor. The numerical models are analyzed in the framework of one-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of pressure fluctuations are more important in the red giant model, owing to larger stratification of the convective zone. We show how this impacts different terms in the mean-field equations. We clarify the driving sources of kinetic energy, and show that the rate of turbulent dissipation is comparable to the convective luminosity. Although our flows have low Mach numbers and are nearly adiabatic, our analysis is general and can be applied to photospheric convection as well. The robustness of our analysis of turbulent convection is supported by the insensitivity of the mean-field balances to linear mesh resolution. We find robust results for the turbulent convection zone and the stable layers in the oxygen-burning shell model, and robust results everywhere in the red giant model, but the mean fields are not well converged in the narrow boundary regions (which contain steep gradients) in the oxygen-burning shell model. This last result illustrates the importance of unresolved physics at the convective boundary, which governs the mixing there.
The Combined Effect of Precession and Convection on the Dynamo Action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xing
2016-08-01
To understand the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field and those of other planets, we numerically investigate the combined effect of precession and convection on dynamo action in a spherical shell. Convection alone, precession alone, and the combined effect of convection and precession are studied at the low Ekman number at which the precessing flow is already unstable. The key result is that although precession or convection alone are not strong enough to support the dynamo action, the combined effect of precession and convection can support the dynamo action because of the resonance of precessional and convective instabilities. This result may explain why the geodynamo has been maintained for such a long time compared to the Martian dynamo.
Supergranulation, a convective phenomenon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udayashankar, Paniveni
2015-08-01
Observation of the Solar photosphere through high resolution instruments have long indicated that the surface of the Sun is not a tranquil, featureless surface but is beset with a granular appearance. These cellular velocity patterns are a visible manifestation of sub- photospheric convection currents which contribute substantially to the outward transport of energy from the deeper layers, thus maintaining the energy balance of the Sun as a whole.Convection is the chief mode of transport in the outer layers of all cool stars such as the Sun (Noyes,1982). Convection zone of thickness 30% of the Solar radius lies in the sub-photospheric layers of the Sun. Convection is revealed on four scales. On the scale of 1000 km, it is granulation and on the scale of 8-10 arcsec, it is Mesogranulation. The next hierarchial scale of convection ,Supergranules are in the range of 30-40 arcsec. The largest reported manifestation of convection in the Sun are ‘Giant Cells’or ‘Giant Granules’, on a typical length scale of about 108 m.'Supergranules' is caused by the turbulence that extends deep into the convection zone. They have a typical lifetime of about 20hr with spicules marking their boundaries. Gas rises in the centre of the supergranules and then spreads out towards the boundary and descends.Broadly speaking supergranules are characterized by the three parameters namely the length L, the lifetime T and the horizontal flow velocity vh . The interrelationships amongst these parameters can shed light on the underlying convective processes and are in agreement with the Kolmogorov theory of turbulence as applied to large scale solar convection (Krishan et al .2002 ; Paniveni et. al. 2004, 2005, 2010).References:1) Noyes, R.W., The Sun, Our Star (Harvard University Press, 1982)2) Krishan, V., Paniveni U., Singh , J., Srikanth R., 2002, MNRAS, 334/1,2303) Paniveni , U., Krishan, V., Singh, J., Srikanth, R., 2004, MNRAS, 347, 1279-12814) Paniveni , U., Krishan, V., Singh, J
Hydrodynamic modes for granular gases.
Dufty, James W; Brey, J Javier
2003-09-01
The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linearized Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard spheres (d=3) or disks (d=2) corresponding to d+2 hydrodynamic modes are calculated in the long wavelength limit for a granular gas. The transport coefficients are identified and found to agree with those from the Chapman-Enskog solution. The dominance of hydrodynamic modes at long times and long wavelengths is studied via an exactly solvable kinetic model. A collisional continuum is bounded away from the hydrodynamic spectrum, assuring a hydrodynamic description at long times. The bound is closely related to the power law decay of the velocity distribution in the reference homogeneous cooling state. PMID:14524742
Molecular Hydrodynamics from Memory Kernels.
Lesnicki, Dominika; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2016-04-01
The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as t^{-3/2}. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, which is at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. Lastly, we discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales, and the crossover between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius. PMID:27104730
Anomalously Weak Solar Convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.
2012-01-01
Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical- harmonic degree l..Within the wavenumber band l < 60, convective velocities are 20-100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers l < 60, with Rossby numbers smaller than approximately 10(exp -2) at r/R-solar = 0.96, suggesting that the Sun may be a much faster rotator than previously thought, and that large-scale convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient.
Thermodynamics of convective circulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, D. K.; Renno, N. O.
2003-04-01
The heat engine framework has proven successful for studies of atmospheric phenomena ranging from small to large scales. At large scales, the heat engine framework provides estimates of convective available potential energy, convective velocities, and fractional area covered by convection. At the smaller end of the spectrum, the framework provides estimates of the intensity of convective vortices such as dust devils and waterspouts. The heat engine framework sheds light on the basic physics of planetary atmospheres. In particular, it allows the calculation of their thermodynamic efficiency. Indeed, this is a fundamental number for atmospheric circulations because it quantifies the amount of heat that is converted into kinetic energy. As such, it is a valuable number not only for comparison of models with nature, but also for the intercomparison of models. In the present study, we generalize the heat engine framework to large-scale circulations, both open (e.g., the Hadley circulation) and closed (e.g., the general circulation) and apply it to an idealized global climate model to ascertain the thermodynamic efficiency of model circulations, both global and regional. Our results show that the thermodynamic efficiency is sensitive to model resolution and provides a baseline for minimum model resolution in climate studies. The value of the thermodynamic efficiency of convective circulations in nature is controversial. It has been suggested that both nature and numerical models are extremely irreversible. We show that both the global and the Hadley circulation of the idealized model are, to a first approximation, reversible.
Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing
Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.
2002-01-01
A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.
Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael
2014-11-01
Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenegger, C.; Bretherton, C. S.
2011-03-01
Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES) as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-Column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM). Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle. Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenegger, C.; Bretherton, C. S.
2011-10-01
Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES) as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM). Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle. Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
Dynamics of Turbulent Convection and Convective Overshoot in a Moderate-mass Star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A.
2016-04-01
We present results of realistic three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamic simulations of the outer layers of a moderate-mass star (1.47 M ⊙), including the full convection zone, the overshoot region, and the top layers of the radiative zone. The simulation results show that the surface granulation has a broad range of scales, from 2 to 12 Mm, and that large granules are organized in well-defined clusters, consisting of several granules. Comparison of the mean structure profiles from 3D simulations with the corresponding one-dimensional (1D) standard stellar model shows an increase of the stellar radius by ∼800 km, as well as significant changes in the thermodynamic structure and turbulent properties of the ionization zones. Convective downdrafts in the intergranular lanes between granulation clusters reach speeds of more than 20 km s‑1, penetrate through the whole convection zone, hit the radiative zone, and form an 8 Mm thick overshoot layer. Contrary to semi-empirical overshooting models, our results show that the 3D dynamic overshoot region consists of two layers: a nearly adiabatic extension of the convection zone and a deeper layer of enhanced subadiabatic stratification. This layer is formed because of heating caused by the braking of the overshooting convective plumes. This effect has to be taken into account in stellar modeling and the interpretation of asteroseismology data. In particular, we demonstrate that the deviations of the mean structure of the 3D model from the 1D standard model of the same mass and composition are qualitatively similar to the deviations for the Sun found by helioseismology.
Convective Dynamo Simulation with a Grand Minimum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Augustson, Kyle C.; Brun, A. S.; Miesch, Mark; Toomre, Juri
2015-01-01
The global-scale dynamo action achieved in a simulation of a Sun-like star rotating at thrice the solar rate is assessed. The 3-D MHD Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code, augmented with a viscosity minimization scheme, is employed to capture convection and dynamo processes in this G-type star. The simulation is carried out in a spherical shell that encompasses 3.8 density scale heights of the solar convection zone. It is found that dynamo action with a high degree of time variation occurs, with many periodic polarity reversals occurring roughly every 6.2 years. The magnetic energy also rises and falls with a regular period. The magnetic energy cycles arise from a Lorentz-force feedback on the differential rotation, whereas the processes leading to polarity reversals are more complex, appearing to arise from the interaction of convection with the mean toroidal fields. Moreover, an equatorial migration of toroidal field is found, which is linked to the changing differential rotation, and potentially to a nonlinear dynamo wave. This simulation also enters a grand minimum lasting roughly 20 years, after which the dynamo recovers its regular polarity cycles.
Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Amendt, P.; Delettrez, J.; Bellei, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al
2014-04-01
A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with 3He gas. These implosions were found to produce D3He-proton shock yields comparable to implosions of identical shells filled with a hydroequivalent 50:50 D3He gas mixture. Standard hydrodynamic mixing cannot explain this observation, as hydrodynamic modeling including mix predicts a yield an order of magnitude lower than was observed. Instead, these results can be attributed to ion diffusive mix at the fuel-shell interface.
Rinderknecht, H G; Sio, H; Li, C K; Zylstra, A B; Rosenberg, M J; Amendt, P; Delettrez, J; Bellei, C; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Betti, R; Glebov, V Yu; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C; Landen, O; Smalyuk, V A; Wilks, S; Greenwood, A; Nikroo, A
2014-04-01
A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with 3He gas. These implosions were found to produce D3He-proton shock yields comparable to implosions of identical shells filled with a hydroequivalent 50∶50 D3He gas mixture. Standard hydrodynamic mixing cannot explain this observation, as hydrodynamic modeling including mix predicts a yield an order of magnitude lower than was observed. Instead, these results can be attributed to ion diffusive mix at the fuel-shell interface. PMID:24745431
Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Amendt, P.; Delettrez, J.; Bellei, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Betti, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Landen, O.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Wilks, S.; Greenwood, A.; Nikroo, A.
2014-04-01
A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with ^{3}He gas. These implosions were found to produce D^{3}He-proton shock yields comparable to implosions of identical shells filled with a hydroequivalent 50:50 D^{3}He gas mixture. Standard hydrodynamic mixing cannot explain this observation, as hydrodynamic modeling including mix predicts a yield an order of magnitude lower than was observed. Instead, these results can be attributed to ion diffusive mix at the fuel-shell interface.
Gravity wave initiated convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.
1990-01-01
The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.
Bau, H.H.
1995-12-31
Using stability theory, numerical simulations, and in some instances experiments, it is demonstrated that the critical Rayleigh number for the bifurcation (1) from the no-motion (conduction) state to the motion state and (2) from time-independent convection to time-dependent, oscillatory convection in the thermal convection loop and Rayleigh-Benard problems can be significantly increased or decreased. This is accomplished through the use of a feedback controller effectuating small perturbations in the boundary data. The controller consists of sensors which detect deviations in the fluid`s temperature from the motionless, conductive values and then direct actuators to respond to these deviations in such a way as to suppress the naturally occurring flow instabilities. Actuators which modify the boundary`s temperature/heat flux are considered. The feedback controller can also be used to control flow patterns and generate complex dynamic behavior at relatively low Rayleigh numbers.
Salm, M; Lücke, M
2012-10-01
The structure formation of convection rolls in Maxwellian fluids that are heated from below in a Rayleigh-Bénard setup is investigated close to onset with a simple few-modes ansatz and by solving the hydrodynamic field equations with a finite-difference method. Depending on the magnitude of the viscoelastic relaxation time one can have besides stationary convection also oscillatory patterns in the form of standing or traveling waves. The existence and stability regions of these convection structures are determined. The convection behavior of the model is compared with the results of full numerical simulations. Furthermore, the effect of modulating the heating periodically in time on the stability of the quiescent conductive state of the fluid and on its convection behavior is investigated as a function of the fluid's viscoelasticity. PMID:23214682
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnett, W. David
2009-05-01
We review recent progress using numerical simulations as a testbed for development of a theory of stellar convection, much as envisaged by John von Newmann. Necessary features of the theory, non-locality and fluctuations, are illustrated by computer movies. It is found that the common approximation of convection as a diffusive process presents the wrong physical picture, and improvements are suggested. New observational results discussed at the conference are gratifying in their validation of some of our theoretical ideas, especially the idea that SNIb and SNIc events are related to the explosion of massive star cores which have been stripped by mass loss and binary interactions [1
Neutrino signature of supernova hydrodynamical instabilities in three dimensions.
Tamborra, Irene; Hanke, Florian; Müller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Raffelt, Georg
2013-09-20
The first full-scale three-dimensional core-collapse supernova (SN) simulations with sophisticated neutrino transport show pronounced effects of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) for two high-mass progenitors (20 and 27 M([Symbol: see text])). In a low-mass progenitor (11.2 M([Symbol: see text])), large-scale convection is the dominant nonradial hydrodynamic instability in the postshock accretion layer. The SASI-associated modulation of the neutrino signal (80 Hz in our two examples) will be clearly detectable in IceCube or the future Hyper-Kamiokande detector, depending on progenitor properties, distance, and observer location relative to the main SASI sloshing direction. The neutrino signal from the next galactic SN can, therefore, diagnose the nature of the hydrodynamic instability. PMID:24093243
Convection-driven compaction as a possible origin of Enceladus's long wavelength topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besserer, J.; Nimmo, F.; Roberts, J. H.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2013-05-01
The long wavelength surface topography of Enceladus shows depressions about 1 km in depth and ˜102 km wide. One possible cause of this topography is spatially variable amounts of compaction of an initially porous ice shell, driven by spatial variations in heat flux. Here, we show that the heat flux variations associated with convection in the shell can quantitatively match the observed features. We develop a simple model of viscous compaction that includes the effect of porosity on thermal conductivity, and find that an initial shell porosity of at least 20-25% is required to develop the observed topography over ˜1 Ga. This mechanism produces topographic depressions, not rises, above convective upwellings, and does not generate detectable gravity anomalies. Unlike transient dynamic topography, it can potentially leave a permanent record of ancient convective processes in the shallow lithospheres of icy satellites.
Convection, stability, and low dimensional dynamics
Doering, C.R.
1997-05-01
Recent developments concerning the connection between notions of hydrodynamic stability{emdash}usually associated with stationary laminar flows{emdash}and dynamics, most notably turbulent fluid flows, are reviewed. Based on a technical device originally introduced by Hopf in 1941, a rigorous mathematical relationship between criteria for nonlinear energy stability and bounds on global transport by steady, unsteady, or even turbulent flows, has been established. The optimal {open_quotes}marginal stability{close_quotes} criteria for the best bound leads to a novel variational problem, and the differential operator associated with the stability condition generates an adapted basis in which turbulent flow fields may naturally be decomposed. The application and implications of Galerkin truncations in these bases to produce low dimensional dynamical systems models is discussed in the context of thermal convection in a saturated porous layer. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth
2008-03-01
Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.
Hydrodynamics, resurgence, and transasymptotics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Başar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.
2015-12-01
The second order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost-invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the nonhydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasinormal modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semiclassical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these nonhydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with initial conditions.
Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.
Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.
2006-10-01
The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.
Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas
2014-11-01
A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2015-03-01
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish
2016-07-01
A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.
An improved calibration of the mixing-length based on simulations of solar-type convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Steffen, M.
Based on detailed 2D numerical radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations of time-dependent compressible convection, we have studied the dynamics and thermal structure of the convective surface layers of stars in the range of effective temperatures and gravities between 4500 pun{K} <= Teff <= 7100 pun{K} and 2.54 <= logg <= 4.74. Although our hydrodynamical models describe only the shallow, strongly superadiabatic layers at the top of the convective stellar envelope, we demonstrate that they provide information about the value of the entropy of the deeper, adiabatically stratified regions. This quantity can be translated into an effective mixing-length parameter suitable for constructing standard stellar structure models. We show that a hydrodynamically calibrated envelope model for the Sun closely matches the known adiabat and corresponding depth of the solar convection zone. We determined the dependence of the mixing-length parameter on Teff, log g, and chemical composition obtaining a moderate variation over the range studied. We note that the recent description of convection by Canuto & Mazzitelli extended by including a variable amount of overshoot does not lead to a smaller variation of the controlling parameter. We discuss the consistency of our results with findings derived in the context of the tentative detection of solar-like oscillations in eta Bootis.
Global radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of red supergiant stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freytag, B.; Chiavassa, A.
2013-05-01
The small-scale surface granulation on cool main-sequence stars and white dwarfs influences the overall appearance of these objects only weakly. And it is only indirectly observable by analyzing e.g. line-shapes or temporal fluctuations - except for the Sun. The large-scale and high-contrast convective surface cells and accompanying sound waves on supergiants and low-gravity AGB stars on the other hand have a strong impact on the outer atmospheric layers and are directly detectable by interferometric observations. Necessary to interpret modern observations with their high resolution in frequency, time, and/or space are detailed numerical multi-dimensional time-dependent radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. Local simulations of small patches of convective surface layers and the atmosphere of main-sequence stars have matured over three decades and have reached an impressive level of agreement with observations and also between different computational codes. However, global simulations of the entire convective surface and atmosphere of a red supergiants are considerably more demanding - and limited - and have become available only for about one decade. Still, they show how the surface is shaped by the interaction of small surface granules, that sit on top of large envelope convection cells, and waves, that can travel as shocks into the outer atmosphere. The route to more complete future models will be discussed, that comprise the outer atmosphere of the stars and that could explain some of the little-understood phenomena like chromosphere, molsphere, or wind-formation.
Convection Compensated Electrophoretic NMR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Qiuhong; Wei, Zhaohui
2001-06-01
A novel method of convection compensated ENMR (CC-ENMR) has been developed to detect electrophoretic motion of ionic species in the presence of bulk solution convection. This was accomplished using a gradient moment nulling technique to remove spectral artifacts from heat-induced convection and using the polarity switch of the applied electric field to retain spin phase modulations due to electrophoretic flow. Experiments were carried out with a mixture of 100 mM L-aspartic acid and 100 mM 4,9-dioxa-1,12-dodecanediamine to demonstrate this new method of ENMR. CC-ENMR enhances our previously developed capillary array ENMR (CA-ENMR) in solving the convection problem. The combined CA- and CC-ENMR approach strengthens the potential of multidimensional ENMR in simultaneous structural determination of coexisting proteins and protein conformations in biological buffer solutions of high ionic strength. Structural mapping of interacting proteins during biochemical reactions becomes possible in the future using ENMR techniques, which may have a profound impact on the understanding of biological events, including protein folding, genetic control, and signal transduction in general.
Combined buoyancy-thermocapillary convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Homsy, G. M.
1990-01-01
Combined buoyancy-thermocapillary convection was studied in 2D and 3D. Fluid motion caused by thermally induced tension gradients on the free surface of a fluid is termed thermocapillary convection. It is well-known that in containerless processing of materials in space, thermocapillary convection is a dominant mechanism of fluid flow. Welding and crystal growth processes are terrestrial applications where thermocapillary convection has direct relevance.
Natural convection in porous media
Prasad, V.; Hussain, N.A.
1986-01-01
This book presents the papers given at a conference on free convection in porous materials. Topics considered at the conference included heat transfer, nonlinear temperature profiles and magnetic fields, boundary conditions, concentrated heat sources in stratified porous media, free convective flow in a cavity, heat flux, laminar mixed convection flow, and the onset of convection in a porous medium with internal heat generation and downward flow.
Enceladus's south polar thermal anomaly in light of weak thermal convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besserer, Jonathan; Golabek, Gregor J.; Rozel, Antoine; Tackley, Paul J.
2014-05-01
The south polar thermal anomaly of Enceladus, contrasting with older and colder northern regions, suggests an asymmetrical heat transfer in the satellite's ice shell. Most of the current models that explain such a distribution prescribe an a priori asymmetry by mean of a mechanical or topographical anomaly in or below the south polar ice shell. We present here a series of simulations with a 2D-spherical convection model to investigate the possibility of self-consistently generating a localized mechanical anomaly in the ice shell. We focus on the non-Newtonian character of ice rheology, and on the stability of a single-plume (i.e. localized convection) and low-degree convection regimes. We show that the non-Newtonian rheology favors a localized (tidally heated) convection surrounded by a conductive ice mantle, even with a global, liquid water ocean at the base of the ice shell. We find that the single-plume state is very unlikely to remain stable if the rheology is Newtonian. The proposed thermal regime for Enceladus's ice shell is therefore weak, single-plume thermal convection focused at the south pole (e.g., remnant of a formerly more vigorous convection). Such weak-to-sub-critical regimes may be important for icy satellites, as recently pointed out by Solomatov (2012, PEPI). We will discuss the effects of ice plasticity on heat focusing in Enceladus's South Polar Terrain, together with the possibility of an ice shell a factor ~2 thinner than previously thought (Hemingway et al., AGU 2013; Stevenson et al., AGU 2013).
Laboratory experiments on planetary and stellar convection performed on spacelab 3.
Hart, J E; Toomre, J; Deane, A E; Hurlburt, N E; Glatzmaier, G A; Fichtl, G H; Leslie, F; Fowlis, W W; Gilman, P A
1986-10-01
Experiments on thermal convection in a rotating, differentially heated hemispherical shell with a radial buoyancy force were conducted in an orbiting microgravity laboratory. A variety of convective structures, or planforms, were observed, depending on the magnitude of the rotation and the nature of the imposed heating distribution. The results are compared with numerical simulations that can be conducted at the more modest heating rates, and suggest possible regimes of motion in rotating planets and stars. PMID:17742634
Limit of Predictability in Mantle Convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bello, L.; Coltice, N.; Rolf, T.; Tackley, P. J.
2013-12-01
. Lorenz, B. E. N., Norake, D. & Meteorologiake, I. A study of the predictability of a 28-variable atmospheric model. Tellus XXVII, 322-333 (1965). 2. Tackley, P. J. Modelling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 171, 7-18 (2008).
Anomalously weak solar convection
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.
2012-01-01
Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical-harmonic degree ℓ. Within the wavenumber band ℓ < 60, convective velocities are 20–100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers ℓ < 60, with Rossby numbers smaller than approximately 10-2 at r/R⊙ = 0.96, suggesting that the Sun may be a much faster rotator than previously thought, and that large-scale convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient. PMID:22665774
Global Deep Convection Models of Saturn's Atmospheric Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimpel, Moritz; Cuff, Keith; Gastine, Thomas; Wicht, Johannes
2016-04-01
The Cassini mission, along with previous missions and ground-based observations, has revealed a rich variety of atmospheric phenomena and time variability on Saturn. Some examples of dynamical features are: zonal flows with multiple jet streams, turbulent tilted shear flows that seem to power the jets, the north polar hexagon, the south polar cyclone, large anticyclones in "storm alley", numerous convective storms (white spots) of various sizes, and the 2010/2011 great storm, which destroyed an array of vortices dubbed the "string of pearls". Here we use the anelastic dynamo code MagIC, in non-magnetic mode, to study rotating convection in a spherical shell. The thickness of the shell is set to approximate the depth of the low electrical conductivity deep atmosphere of Saturn, and the convective forcing is set to yield zonal flows of similar velocity (Rossby number) to those of Saturn. Internal heating and the outer entropy boundary conditions allow simple modelling of atmospheric layers with neutral stability or stable stratification. In these simulations we can identify several saturnian and jovian atmospheric features, with some variations. We find that large anticyclonic vortices tend to form in the first anticyclonic shear zones away from the equatorial jet. Cyclones form at the poles, and polar polygonal jet streams, comparable to Saturn's hexagon, may or may not form, depending on the model conditions. Strings of small scale vortical structures arise as convective plumes near boundaries of shear zones. They typically precede larger scale convective storms that spawn propagating shear flow disturbances and anticyclonic vortices, which tend to drift across anticyclonic shear zones, toward the equator (opposite the drift direction of Saturn's 2010/2011 storm). Our model results indicate that many identifiable dynamical atmospheric features seen on Jupiter and Saturn arise from deep convection, shaped by planetary rotation, underlying and interacting with stably
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaussinger, F.; Futterer, B.; Egbers, C.
2012-12-01
Thermal convection is one important driving mechanism of flow in the earth mantle. Setting up a self-gravitating buoyancy in a spherical shell geometry is the limiting factor for laboratory experiments to analyze velocity flow structures and heat transport. The geophysical flow model 'GeoFlow II', which is located at the Columbus module on the ISS, realizes such a central gravity. Under microgravity conditions a central dielectrophoretic force field is applied to a fluid filled spherical annulus. In contrast to the first mission 'GeoFlow I' the electro-hydrodynamical volume expansion coefficient of the working fluid has a strong dependence on the temperature and leads to pattern, which are related to a strong temperature dependent viscosity of the fluid. Even though the oil's viscosity itself is temperature-dependent, too, the maximum of viscosity contrast is only up to 1.5. The optical measurement of the fluid flow is based on the Wollaston shearing interferometry, since the on orbit setup avoids the use of measurement particles. This technique leads to fringe patterns. Simulations with RESPECT and GAIAA tend to verify the experimentally observed patterns by different numerical models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battino, U.; Pignatari, M.; Ritter, C.; Herwig, F.; Denisenkov, P.; Den Hartogh, J. W.; Trappitsch, R.; Hirschi, R.; Freytag, B.; Thielemann, F.; Paxton, B.
2016-08-01
The s-process nucleosynthesis in Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars depends on the modeling of convective boundaries. We present models and s-process simulations that adopt a treatment of convective boundaries based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations and on the theory of mixing due to gravity waves in the vicinity of convective boundaries. Hydrodynamics simulations suggest the presence of convective boundary mixing (CBM) at the bottom of the thermal pulse-driven convective zone. Similarly, convection-induced mixing processes are proposed for the mixing below the convective envelope during third dredge-up (TDU), where the {}13{{C}} pocket for the s process in AGB stars forms. In this work, we apply a CBM model motivated by simulations and theory to models with initial mass M = 2 and M=3 {M}ȯ , and with initial metal content Z = 0.01 and Z = 0.02. As reported previously, the He-intershell abundances of {}12{{C}} and {}16{{O}} are increased by CBM at the bottom of the pulse-driven convection zone. This mixing is affecting the {}22{Ne}(α, n){}25{Mg} activation and the s-process efficiency in the {}13{{C}}-pocket. In our model, CBM at the bottom of the convective envelope during the TDU represents gravity wave mixing. Furthermore, we take into account the fact that hydrodynamic simulations indicate a declining mixing efficiency that is already about a pressure scale height from the convective boundaries, compared to mixing-length theory. We obtain the formation of the {}13{{C}}-pocket with a mass of ≈ {10}-4 {M}ȯ . The final s-process abundances are characterized by 0.36\\lt [{{s}}/{Fe}]\\lt 0.78 and the heavy-to-light s-process ratio is -0.23\\lt [{hs}/{ls}]\\lt 0.45. Finally, we compare our results with stellar observations, presolar grain measurements and previous work.
Convection and observable properties of late-type giants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kucinskas, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Hauschildt, P. H.
We show that contrary to what is expected from 1D stationary model atmospheres, 3D hydrodynamical modeling predicts a considerable influence of convection on the spectral properties of late-type giants. This is due to the fact that convection overshoots into the formally stable outer atmospheric layers producing a notable granulation pattern in the 3D hydrodynamical models, which has a direct influence on the observable spectra and colors. Within the framework of standard 1D model atmospheres the average thermal stratification of the 3D hydro model can not be reproduced with any reasonable choice of the mixing length parameter and formulation of the turbulent pressure. The differences in individual photometric colors - in terms of 3D versus 1D - reach up to ˜0.2 mag, or Δ T_{eff}˜70 K. We discuss the impact of full 3D hydrodynamical models on the interpretation of observable properties of late-type giants, briefly mentioning problems and challenges which need to be solved for bringing these models to a routine use within the astronomical community in 5-10 years from now.
Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirano, Tetsufumi
2014-09-01
In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions
Interaction Between Convection and Pulsation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houdek, Günter; Dupret, Marc-Antoine
2015-12-01
This article reviews our current understanding of modelling convection dynamics in stars. Several semi-analytical time-dependent convection models have been proposed for pulsating one-dimensional stellar structures with different formulations for how the convective turbulent velocity field couples with the global stellar oscillations. In this review we put emphasis on two, widely used, time-dependent convection formulations for estimating pulsation properties in one-dimensional stellar models. Applications to pulsating stars are presented with results for oscillation properties, such as the effects of convection dynamics on the oscillation frequencies, or the stability of pulsation modes, in classical pulsators and in stars supporting solar-type oscillations.
Thermocapillary Convection in Liquid Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
The purpose of this video is to understand the effects of surface tension on fluid convection. The fluid system chosen is the liquid sessile droplet to show the importance in single crystal growth, the spray drying and cooling of metal, and the advance droplet radiators of the space stations radiators. A cross sectional representation of a hemispherical liquid droplet under ideal conditions is used to show internal fluid motion. A direct simulation of buoyancy-dominant convection and surface tension-dominant convection is graphically displayed. The clear differences between two mechanisms of fluid transport, thermocapillary convection, and bouncy dominant convection is illustrated.
Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution
Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael
2009-04-15
We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.
Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.
Drury, J L; Dembo, M
1999-01-01
The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.
2016-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.
Demonstrating Ignition Hydrodynamic Equivalence in Cryogenic DT Implosions on OMEGA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goncharov, V. N.
2013-10-01
Demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence is one of the primary goals of direct-drive cryogenic implosions on OMEGA. It requires the shell reaching implosion velocities > 3.5 × 107 cm/s while maintaining the fuel adiabat below 3 and keeping the shell from breaking up as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The cryogenic targets used for implosions on OMEGA are 860- μm-outer-diam CD shells filled with DT fuel. The shell thickness varies between 5 and 12 μm, and DT ice thickness between 40 and 65 μm. Experimental results demonstrate, however, that neutron-averaged areal density in excess of 80% and yields above 25% of 1-D predicted values are obtained if the fuel adiabat > 3.5 and shell in-flight aspect ratio (IFAR) is below 22. As the IFAR exceeds this value, the shell breaks up and the areal density and yield are reduced. Identifying the main source of shell nonuniformities that lead to performance degradation in low-adiabat designs is one of the main efforts of OMEGA cryogenic campaign. This talk will summarize progress in cryogenic target implosions over the last year and review the effect of target debris, early-time laser shinethrough, and fuel-pusher roughness on target performance. In addition, the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (a major source of hydroefficiency degradation in a direct-drive implosions) and its mitigation strategies (including high- Z ablator layers, beam zooming, and laser wavelength shifts) will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Imaging of Compressed Pure-CH Shells and CH Shells with Titanium-Doped Layers on OMEGA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smalyuk, V. A.; Yaakobi, B.; Goncharov, V. N.; Delettrez, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.
1999-11-01
The compressed shell integrity of spherical targets has been studied using the 60-beam, 30-kJ UV, OMEGA laser system. The emission from the hot core has been imaged through the cold shell at two narrow, x-ray energy bands, absorbing and nonabsorbing by the shell, allowing nonuniformities in the core emission and the cold shell areal density to be measured. Images of the target have been obtained using a pinhole-array with K-edge filters. The x-ray energies used are around 2.8 and 4.5 keV for pure-CH shells, and around 4.5 and 6 keV for titanium-doped layers. Additional images of the shell are obtained with a framed monochromatic x-ray microscope and a time-integrated crystal-spectrometer/pinhole-array combination. We will present measurements of the compressed shell integrity at the stagnation stage of spherical implosions by varying the position of the titanium-doped layer within the shell, by varying the thickness of the CH shell, and by using two different laser pulse shapes. The experimental results will be compared with 2-D (ORCHID) hydrodynamic simulations. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.
Oxygen abundance and convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.
The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.
Granular convection in microgravity.
Murdoch, N; Rozitis, B; Nordstrom, K; Green, S F; Michel, P; de Lophem, T-L; Losert, W
2013-01-01
We investigate the role of gravity on convection in a dense granular shear flow. Using a microgravity-modified Taylor-Couette shear cell under the conditions of parabolic flight microgravity, we demonstrate experimentally that secondary, convective-like flows in a sheared granular material are close to zero in microgravity and enhanced under high-gravity conditions, though the primary flow fields are unaffected by gravity. We suggest that gravity tunes the frictional particle-particle and particle-wall interactions, which have been proposed to drive the secondary flow. In addition, the degree of plastic deformation increases with increasing gravitational forces, supporting the notion that friction is the ultimate cause. PMID:23383851
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Xiang-Jun; Li, Yan
2011-11-01
Based on the turbulent convection model (TCM), we investigate chemical mixing in the bottom overshooting region of the convective envelope of intermediate-mass stars, focusing on its influence on the formation and extension of blue loops in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. A diffusive mixing model is adopted during the Red Giant Branch (RGB) phase. The properties of the blue loop are changed by modification of the element profiles above the H-burning shell, which results from the incomplete mixing in the bottom overshooting region when the stellar model evolves up along the RGB. Such modification of the element profiles will lead to an increase of opacity in the region just above the H-burning shell and a decrease of opacity in the outer homogeneous convection zone, which will result in a quick decrease of the H-shell nuclear luminosity LH when the stellar model evolves from the RGB tip to its bottom and, finally, a much weaker and smaller convection zone will be obtained in the stellar envelope. This helps to form a longer blue loop. The extension of the blue loop is very sensitive to the parameters (CX and αTCM) of the diffusive mixing model and of the TCM. The results mainly show that: 1) comparing the results of the classical model with the mixing-length theory, the lengths of the obtained blue loops with different combinations of the values of CX and αTCM are all increased and the length of the blue loop increases with the values of parameters CX and αTCM 2) the diffusive mixing model can significantly extend the time of stellar models lingering on the blue side of the HR diagram, even though the length of the blue loop for the 7Modot star has a less prominent difference between the classical and diffusive mixing model; 3) both the observations referring to the location of the Cepheid instability strip and the number ratio NB/NR of blue to red evolved stars in the Galactic open clusters can confine the two parameters in a range of 0.5 <= αTCM <= 0
Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphic cards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhard, Jochen; Lindenstruth, Volker; Bleicher, Marcus
2013-02-01
We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.
Reciprocal relations in dissipationless hydrodynamics
Melnikovsky, L. A.
2014-12-15
Hidden symmetry in dissipationless terms of arbitrary hydrodynamics equations is recognized. We demonstrate that all fluxes are generated by a single function and derive conventional Euler equations using the proposed formalism.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bachmann, Kurt T.
2000-01-01
I helped to complete a research project with NASA scientists Dr. David Hathaway (my mentor), Rick Bogart, and John Beck from the SOHO/SOI collaboration. Our published paper in 'Solar Physics' was titled 'The Solar Convection Spectrum' (April 2000). Two of my undergraduate students were named on the paper--Gavrav Khutri and Josh Petitto. Gavrav also wrote a short paper for the National Conference of Undergraduate Research Proceedings in 1998 using a preliminary result. Our main result was that we show no evidence of a scale of convection named 'mesogranulation'. Instead, we see only direct evidence for the well-known scales of convection known as graduation and supergranulation. We are also completing work on vertical versus horizontal flow fluxes at the solar surface. I continue to work on phase relationships of solar activity indicators, but I have not yet written a paper with my students on this topic. Along with my research results, I have developed and augmented undergraduate courses at Birmingham-Southern College by myself and with other faculty. We have included new labs and observations, speakers from NASA and elsewhere, new subject material related to NASA and space science. I have done a great deal of work in outreach, mostly as President and other offices in the Birmingham Astronomical Society. My work includes speaking, attracting speakers, giving workshops, and governing.
Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations.
Colangeli, Matteo; Kröger, Martin; Ottinger, Hans Christian
2009-11-01
We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics. PMID:20364972
Eightfold Classification of Hydrodynamic Dissipation.
Haehl, Felix M; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund
2015-05-22
We provide a complete characterization of hydrodynamic transport consistent with the second law of thermodynamics at arbitrary orders in the gradient expansion. A key ingredient in facilitating this analysis is the notion of adiabatic hydrodynamics, which enables isolation of the genuinely dissipative parts of transport. We demonstrate that most transport is adiabatic. Furthermore, in the dissipative part, only terms at the leading order in gradient expansion are constrained to be sign definite by the second law (as has been derived before). PMID:26047219
Hemodynamics of a hydrodynamic injection
Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Yokoo, Takeshi; Suda, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Kenya; Liu, Dexi
2014-01-01
The hemodynamics during a hydrodynamic injection were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fluoroscopic imaging. The impacts of hydrodynamic (5 seconds) and slow (60 seconds) injections into the tail veins of mice were compared using 9% body weight of a phase-contrast medium. Hydrodynamically injected solution traveled to the heart and drew back to the hepatic veins (HV), which led to liver expansion and a trace amount of spillover into the portal vein (PV). The liver volumes peaked at 165.6 ± 13.3% and 165.5 ± 11.9% of the original liver volumes in the hydrodynamic and slow injections, respectively. Judging by the intensity of the CBCT images at the PV, HV, right atrium, liver parenchyma (LP), and the inferior vena cava (IVC) distal to the HV conjunction, the slow injection resulted in the higher intensity at PV than at LP. In contrast, a significantly higher intensity was observed in LP after hydrodynamic injection in comparison with that of PV, suggesting that the liver took up the iodine from the blood flow. These results suggest that the enlargement speed of the liver, rather than the expanded volume, primarily determines the efficiency of hydrodynamic delivery to the liver. PMID:26015971
Design and synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with gold shells for single particle optical tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Jitkang
The design, synthesis, and characterization of iron oxide core, gold shell nanoparticles are studied in this thesis. Firstly, nanoparticles with 18 +/- 1.7 nm diameter iron oxide cores with ˜5 nm thick gold shells were synthesized via a new seed-mediated electroless deposition method. The nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and could be reversibly collected by a permanent magnet. These nanoparticles displayed a sharp localized surface plasmon resonance peak at 605 nm, as predicted by scattering theory, and their large scattering cross-section allowed them to be individually resolved in darkfield optical microscopy while undergoing Brownian motion in aqueous suspension. Later, commercially available 38 +/- 3.8 nm diameter spherical iron oxide nanoparticles (from Ocean Nanotech, Inc) were employed to make core-shell particles. These particles were decorated with cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) which further promotes the attachment of small gold clusters. After gold seeding, the average hydrodynamic diameter of the core-shell particles is 172 +/- 65.9 nm. The magnetophoretic motion of these particles was guided by a piece of magnetized mu-metal. Individual particle trajectories were observed by darkfield optical microscopy. The typical magnetophoretic velocity achieved was within the range of 1--10 mum/sec. Random walk analysis performed on these particles while undergoing Brownian motion confirmed that individual particles were indeed being imaged. The particle size variation within the observed sample obtained through random walk analysis was within the size distribution obtained by dynamic light scattering. When the current to the solenoid used to magnetize the mu-metal was turned off, all the collected core-shell particles were readily redispersed by diffusion back into the surrounding environment. A Peclet number analysis was performed to probe the convective motion of nanospheres and nanorods under the influence of
Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rados, Novica
Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids
A convective forecast experiment of global tectonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coltice, Nicolas; Giering, Ralf
2016-04-01
Modeling jointly the deep convective motions in the mantle and the deformation of the lithosphere in a self-consistent way is a long-standing quest, for which significant advances have been made in the late 1990's. The complexities used in lithospheric models are making their way into the models of mantle convection (density variations, pseudo-plasticity, elasticity, free surface), hence global models of mantle motions can now display tectonics at their surface, evolving self-consistantly and showing some of the most important properties of plate tectonics on Earth (boundaries, types of boundaries, plate sizes, seafloor spreading properties, continental drift). The goal of this work is to experiment the forecasting power of such convection models with plate-like behavior, being here StagYY (Tackley, 2008). We generate initial conditions for a 3D spherical model in the past (50Ma and younger), using models with imposed plate velocities from 200Ma. By doing this, we introduce errors in the initial conditions that propagate afterwards. From these initial conditions, we run the convection models free, without imposing any sort of motion, letting the self-organization take place. We compare the forecast to the present-day plate velocities and plate boundaries. To investigate the optimal parameterization, and also have a flavor of the sensitivity of the results to rheological parameters, we compute the derivatives of the misfit of the surface velocities relative to the yield stress, the magnitude of the viscosity jump at 660km and the properties of a weak crust. These derivates are computed thanks to the tangent linear model of StagYY, that is built through the automatic differentiation software TAF (Giering and Kaminski, 2003). References Tackley, P. J., Modeling compressible mantle convection with large viscosity contrasts in a three-dimensional spherical shell using the yin-yang grid, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 171, 7-18 (2008). Giering, R., Kaminski, T., Applying TAF
Convective heat transfer with film cooling around a rotor blade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arts, T.
This paper deals with an experimental convective heat transfer investigation around a high pressure gas turbine film cooled rotor blade. The measurements were performed in the von Karman Institute short duration isentropic light piston compression tube facility allowing a correct simulation of Mach and Reynolds number as well as free stream to wall and free stream to coolant temperature ratios. The airfoil was mounted in a linear stationary cascade environment and heat transfer measurements were obtained by using platinum thin film gages painted on a blade made of machinable glass ceramic. The coolant flow was ejected simultaneously through the leading edge (3 rows of holes), the suction side (2 rows of holes), and the pressure side (1 row of holes). The coolant hydrodynamic behavior is described and the effects of overall coolant to free stream mass weight ratio, coolant to free stream temperature ratio, and free stream turbulence intensity on the convective heat transfer distribution are successively described.
Convective heat transfer for fluids passing through aluminum foams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyga, Roman; Troniewski, Leon
2015-03-01
This paper analyses the experimental findings within heat transfer when heating up air, water and oil streams which are passed through a duct with internal structural packing elements in the form of metal foams. Three types of aluminum foams with different cell sizes, porosity specifications and thermal conductivities were used in the study. The test data were collected and they made it possible to establish the effect of the foam geometry, properties of fluids and flow hydrodynamic conditions on the convective heat transfer process from the heating surface to the fluid flowing by (wetting) that surface. The foam was found to be involved in heat transfer to a limited extent only. Heat is predominantly transferred directly from the duct wall to a fluid, and intensity of convective heat transfer is controlled by the wall effects. The influence of foam structural parameters, like cell size and/or porosity, becomes more clearly apparent under laminar flow conditions.
The convective stability of fully stratified baroclinic discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volponi, Francesco
2016-04-01
We examine the convective stability of hydrodynamic discs with full stratification in the local approximation and in the presence of thermal diffusion (or relaxation). Various branches of the relevant axisymmetric dispersion relation derived by Urpin (2003) are discussed. We find that when the vertical Richardson number is larger than or equal to the radial one (i.e. |Riz| ≥ |Rix|) and wavenumbers are comparable (i.e. |kx| ˜ |kz|) the disc becomes unstable, even in the presence of radial and vertical stratifications with Rix > 0 and Riz > 0. The origin of this resides in an hybrid radial-vertical Richardson number. We propose an equilibrium profile with temperature depending on the radial and vertical coordinates and with Riz > 0 for which this destabilization mechanism occurs. We notice as well that the dispersion relation of the "convective overstability" is the branch of the one here discussed in the limit |kz| ≫ |kx| (i. e. two-dimensional disc).
The convective stability of fully stratified baroclinic discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volponi, Francesco
2016-07-01
We examine the convective stability of hydrodynamic discs with full stratification in the local approximation and in the presence of thermal diffusion (or relaxation). Various branches of the relevant axisymmetric dispersion relation derived by Urpin are discussed. We find that when the vertical Richardson number is larger than or equal to the radial one (i.e. |Riz| ≥ |Rix|) and wavenumbers are comparable (i.e. |kx| ˜ |kz|) the disc becomes unstable, even in the presence of radial and vertical stratifications with Rix > 0 and Riz > 0. The origin of this resides in a hybrid radial-vertical Richardson number. We propose an equilibrium profile with temperature depending on the radial and vertical coordinates and with Riz > 0 for which this destabilization mechanism occurs. We notice as well that the dispersion relation of the `convective overstability' is the branch of the one here discussed in the limit |kz| ≫ |kx| (i.e. two-dimensional disc).
Hydrodynamic Simulations of Jet- and Wind-driven Protostellar Outflows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chin-Fei; Stone, James M.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Mundy, Lee G.
2001-08-01
We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of both jet- and wind-driven models for protostellar outflows in order to make detailed comparisons to the kinematics of observed molecular outflows. The simulations are performed with the ZEUS-2D hydrodynamic code using a simplified equation of state, simplified cooling and no external heating, and no self-gravity. In simulations of steady jets, swept-up ambient gas forms a thin shell that can be identified as a molecular outflow. We find a simple ballistic bow shock model is able to reproduce the structure and transverse velocity of the shell. Position-velocity (PV) diagrams for the shell cut along the outflow axis show a convex spur structure with the highest velocity at the bow tip and low-velocity red and blue components at any viewing angle. The power-law index of the mass-velocity (MV) relationship ranges from 1.5 to 3.5, depending strongly on the inclination. If the jet is time-variable, the PV diagrams show multiple convex spur structures, and the power-law index becomes smaller than the steady jet simulation. In simulations of isothermal steady wide-angle winds, swept-up ambient gas forms a thin shell that at early stages has a similar shape to the shell in the jet-driven model; it becomes broader at later times. We find the structure and kinematics of the shell is well described by a momentum-conserving model similar to that of Shu et al. (1991). In contrast to the results from jet simulations, the PV diagrams for the shell cut along the outflow axis show a lobe structure tilted with source inclination, with components that are primarily either red or blue unless the inclination is nearly in the plane of sky. The power-law index of the MV relationship ranges from 1.3 to 1.8. If the wind is time-variable, the PV diagrams also show multiple structures, and the power-law index becomes smaller than the steady wind simulation. Comparing the different simulations with observations, we find that some outflows
Modeling of Magma Dynamics Based on Two-Fluid Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K.
2012-12-01
Multi-velocity multi-porous models are often used as a hydrodynamic basis to describe dynamics of fluid-magma systems. These models cover such problems as fast acoustic processes or large-scaled dynamics of magma systems having non-compressible magma. Nonlinear dynamics of magma as multiphase compressible medium has not been studied sufficiently. In this work we study nonlinear thermodynamically consistent two-liquid model of magma system dynamics, based on conservation law method. The model is restricted by short times of local heat balance between phases. Pressure balance between phases is absent. Two-fluid magma model have various rheological properties of the composing phases: viscous liquid and viscoelastic Maxwell medium. The dynamics of magna flows have been studied for two types of magma systems: magma channels and intraplate intermediate magma chambers. Numerical problem of the dynamics for such media is solved using the control volume method ensuring physical correctness of the solution. The solutions are successfully verified for benchmark one-velocity models. In this work we give the results of numerical modeling using CVM for a number of non-stationary problems of nonlinear liquid filtering through granulated medium in magma channels and problems two-liquid system convection in intraplate magma chambers for various parameters. In the last case the convection regimes vary depending on non-dimensional Rayleigh and Darcy numbers and the parameter field, where compressibility effects appear, is located. The given model can be used as a hydrodynamic basis to model the evolution of magma, fluid-magma systems to study thermo-acoustic influence on hydrodynamic flows in such systems. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Grant #12-05-00625.
Parametric analysis of cryogenic carbon dioxide cooling of shell eggs.
Sabliov, C M; Farkas, B E; Keener, K M; Curtis, P A
2002-11-01
Parametric analysis of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs was performed using finite element analysis. Two cooling temperatures (-50 and -70 C), three cooling convective heat transfer coefficients (20, 50, and 100 W/ m2K), two equilibration temperatures (7 and 25 C), and two equilibration heat transfer coefficients (0 and 20 W/ m2K) were considered in the analysis. Lower temperatures and higher cooling convective heat transfer coefficients resulted in higher cooling rates and lower final egg temperatures. A chart and equation were developed to identify combinations of processing parameters to yield the desired egg temperature (7 C) at the end of adiabatic equilibration. Results show that a cooling time of 8.2 min was required to reach a final egg temperature of 7 C for a cooling temperature of -50 C and a convective heat transfer coefficient of 20 W/m2K. The cooling time decreased to 2 min when the convective heat transfer coefficient increased to 100 W/m2K, at a cooling temperature of -50 C. Processing at -70 C and 20 W/m2K, required 5.3 min to reach a final temperature of 7 C. At a higher convective heat transfer coefficient (100 W/m2K) and -70 C, a processing time of 1.3 min was sufficient to reach the target temperature of 7 C. The results may be used as a reference in process or equipment design for shell egg cooling in cryogenic CO2. PMID:12455606
Albarède, Francis; Van Der Hilst, Rob D
2002-11-15
We review the present state of our understanding of mantle convection with respect to geochemical and geophysical evidence and we suggest a model for mantle convection and its evolution over the Earth's history that can reconcile this evidence. Whole-mantle convection, even with material segregated within the D" region just above the core-mantle boundary, is incompatible with the budget of argon and helium and with the inventory of heat sources required by the thermal evolution of the Earth. We show that the deep-mantle composition in lithophilic incompatible elements is inconsistent with the storage of old plates of ordinary oceanic lithosphere, i.e. with the concept of a plate graveyard. Isotopic inventories indicate that the deep-mantle composition is not correctly accounted for by continental debris, primitive material or subducted slabs containing normal oceanic crust. Seismological observations have begun to hint at compositional heterogeneity in the bottom 1000 km or so of the mantle, but there is no compelling evidence in support of an interface between deep and shallow mantle at mid-depth. We suggest that in a system of thermochemical convection, lithospheric plates subduct to a depth that depends - in a complicated fashion - on their composition and thermal structure. The thermal structure of the sinking plates is primarily determined by the direction and rate of convergence, the age of the lithosphere at the trench, the sinking rate and the variation of these parameters over time (i.e. plate-tectonic history) and is not the same for all subduction systems. The sinking rate in the mantle is determined by a combination of thermal (negative) and compositional buoyancy and as regards the latter we consider in particular the effect of the loading of plates with basaltic plateaux produced by plume heads. Barren oceanic plates are relatively buoyant and may be recycled preferentially in the shallow mantle. Oceanic plateau-laden plates have a more pronounced
An introduction to thermal convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rieutord, M.
In this lecture I propose a little tour of thermal convection and its applications in astrophysics. The first part of the lecture is devoted to a qualitative introduction to the convective instability using the Schwarzschild criterion; then, concentrating on the equations governing the fluid motions, I introduce the Boussinesq and anelastic approximations which are so often used in these problems. The following part focuses on the Rayleigh-Bénard model which is worked out in detail up to the Landau equation and the Lorenz strange attractor. Finally, I briefly sketch out some results on turbulent convection and end the lecture with the case of stellar convection.