Science.gov

Sample records for hydrogen infrastructure networks

  1. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  2. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand & Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.

    2006-05-18

    Presentation given at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006, discusses potential future hydrogen demand and the infrastructure needed to support hydrogen vehicles.

  3. Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

    The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

  4. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challenges to delivering hydrogen for use as a widespread energy carrier, and the research goals for hydrogen delivery.

  5. CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Leitner; David Bodde; Dennis Wiese; John Skardon; Bethany Carter

    2011-09-28

    The goal of this project was to establish an innovation center to accelerate the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' an infrastructure of vehicles, fuel resources, and maintenance capabilities based on hydrogen as the primary energy carrier. The specific objectives of the proposed project were to: (a) define the essential attributes of the innovation center; (b) validate the concept with potential partners; (c) create an implementation plan; and (d) establish a pilot center and demonstrate its benefits via a series of small scale projects.

  6. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  7. Network Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yujin; Park, Jaesung; Ahn, Sanghyun

    Controlled charging of electric vehicles can take care of fluctuating electricity supply. In this paper, we design network infrastructure to collect and deliver data of charging data of electric vehicles to remote monitoring center. In our network infrastructure, we analyze and compare the existing routing mechanisms for multi-hop wireless networks from aspect of the control overhead for the path establishment.

  8. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  10. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  11. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  12. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  13. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  14. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  15. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  16. Reliable Communication Models in Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure networks are becoming increasingly interdependent where the failures in one network may cascade to other dependent networks, causing severe widespread national-scale failures. A number of previous efforts have been made to analyze the resiliency and robustness of interdependent networks based on different models. However, communication network, which plays an important role in today's infrastructures to detect and handle failures, has attracted little attention in the interdependency studies, and no previous models have captured enough practical features in the critical infrastructure networks. In this paper, we study the interdependencies between communication network and other kinds of critical infrastructure networks with an aim to identify vulnerable components and design resilient communication networks. We propose several interdependency models that systematically capture various features and dynamics of failures spreading in critical infrastructure networks. We also discuss several research challenges in building reliable communication solutions to handle failures in these models.

  17. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  18. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  19. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  20. An infrastructure for passive network monitoring of application data streams

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deb; Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-03-01

    When diagnosing network problems, it is often desirable to have a view of traffic inside the network. In this paper we describe an infrastructure for passive monitoring that can be used to determine which segments of the network are the source of problems for an application data stream. The monitoring hosts are relatively low-cost, off-the-shelf PCs. A unique feature of the infrastructure is secure activation of monitoring hosts in the core of the network without direct network administrator intervention.

  1. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY INFRASTRUCTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, George S

    2010-06-29

    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not

  2. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  3. Appendix G - GPRA06 hydrogen, fuel cells, and infrastructure technologies (HFCIT) program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target markets for the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program include transportation (cars and light trucks) and stationary (particularly residential and commercial) applications.

  4. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  5. Inherent costs and interdependent impacts of infrastructure network resilience.

    PubMed

    Baroud, Hiba; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E; Rocco, Claudio M

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies in system resilience have proposed metrics to understand the ability of systems to recover from a disruptive event, often offering a qualitative treatment of resilience. This work provides a quantitative treatment of resilience and focuses specifically on measuring resilience in infrastructure networks. Inherent cost metrics are introduced: loss of service cost and total network restoration cost. Further, "costs" of network resilience are often shared across multiple infrastructures and industries that rely upon those networks, particularly when such networks become inoperable in the face of disruptive events. As such, this work integrates the quantitative resilience approach with a model describing the regional, multi-industry impacts of a disruptive event to measure the interdependent impacts of network resilience. The approaches discussed in this article are deployed in a case study of an inland waterway transportation network, the Mississippi River Navigation System. PMID:24924523

  6. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies. PMID:15199684

  7. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  8. Robustness and Recovery of Lifeline Infrastructure and Ecosystem Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Disruptive events, both natural and man-made, can have widespread impacts on both natural systems and lifeline infrastructure networks leading to the loss of biodiversity and essential functionality, respectively. Projected sea-level rise and climate change can further increase the frequency and severity of large-scale floods on urban-coastal megacities. Nevertheless, Failure in infrastructure systems can trigger cascading impacts on dependent ecosystems, and vice-versa. An important consideration in the behavior of the isolated networks and inter-connected networks following disruptive events is their resilience, or the ability of the network to "bounce back" to a pre-disaster state. Conventional risk analysis and subsequent risk management frameworks have focused on identifying the components' vulnerability and strengthening of the isolated components to withstand these disruptions. But high interconnectedness of these systems, and evolving nature of hazards, particularly in the context of climate extremes, make the component level analysis unrealistic. In this study, we discuss the complex network-based resilience framework to understand fragility and recovery strategies for infrastructure systems impacted by climate-related hazards. We extend the proposed framework to assess the response of ecological networks to multiple species loss and design the restoration management framework to identify the most efficient restoration sequence of species, which can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity.

  9. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  10. Network management convergence of multiple subnetworks in GSM infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Baiqing; Su, Jiang; Zhong, Tao; Dong, Hui; Zhong, Shuangli; Zhou, Weiming; Chen, Wansheng

    2001-10-01

    Network convergence, including service, timing and management convergence, is a trend of future telecommunication networks. Because network convergence can provide carriers with cost reduction, highly integrated applications as well as greater flexibility and functionality, new technologies and standards have driven this convergence tide. However, network management convergence, managing disparate networks with a unified platform, has been a challenging task in sophisticated telecommunication network environments. Administrators are faced with the task of managing various devices with several different applications, without an effective tool set to provide visibility across the network. In general, multiple transmission networks such as SDH, PON, HDSL and digital microwave are adopted in GSM infrastructure to transport mobile traffic between BTS and BSC. Traditional method of managing these devices is that GSM network (MSC, BSC and BTS), SDH, PON, HDSL and digital microwave are managed independently. In this paper, a converged network management platform, named OMConvergence, is proposed and demonstrated. The platform aims at managing the whole GSM network covering SDH, PON, HDSL or digital microwave sub-networks within it. The OMConvergence comprises of remote access methods of OAM message, as well as processing of multiple network management protocol such as ECC (Embedded Control Channel), Q3 and simple network management protocol (SNMP). The management and maintenance message of various devices physically converges to E1 timeslots at the sides of BTS, and then convert to unified IP packages before it is terminated at the side of BSC or network administration center. In addition, extended applications of OMConvergence in image monitoring of BTS surroundings are also demonstrated.

  11. Interoperability and security in wireless body area network infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Warren, Steve; Lebak, Jeffrey; Yao, Jianchu; Creekmore, Jonathan; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their supporting information infrastructures offer unprecedented opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile point-of-care systems are now realizable due to the convergence of technologies such as low-power wireless communication standards, plug-and-play device buses, off-the-shelf development kits for low-power microcontrollers, handheld computers, electronic medical records, and the Internet. To increase acceptance of personal monitoring technology while lowering equipment cost, advances must be made in interoperability (at both the system and device levels) and security. This paper presents an overview of WBAN infrastructure work in these areas currently underway in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University (KSU) and at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). KSU efforts include the development of wearable health status monitoring systems that utilize ISO/IEEE 11073, Bluetooth, Health Level 7, and OpenEMed. WBAN efforts at UAH include the development of wearable activity and health monitors that incorporate ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor platforms with hardware-level encryption and the TinyOS development environment. WBAN infrastructures are complex, requiring many functional support elements. To realize these infrastructures through collaborative efforts, organizations such as KSU and UAH must define and utilize standard interfaces, nomenclature, and security approaches. PMID:17281067

  12. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems : applications, properties, and gap analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  13. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  14. Networking of Icelandic Earth Infrastructures - Natural laboratories and Volcano Supersites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, K. S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hjaltadóttir, S.; Björnsson, H.; Arason, Ø.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Kjartansson, E.; Sigbjörnsson, R.; Halldórsson, B.; Valsson, G.

    2012-04-01

    The back-bone of Icelandic geoscientific research infrastructure is the country's permanent monitoring networks, which have been built up to monitor seismic and volcanic hazard and deformation of the Earth's surface. The networks are mainly focussed around the plate boundary in Iceland, particularly the two seismic zones, where earthquakes of up to M7.3 have occurred in centuries past, and the rift zones with over 30 active volcanic systems where a large number of powerful eruptions have occurred, including highly explosive ones. The main observational systems are seismic, strong motion, GPS and bore-hole strain networks, with the addition of more recent systems like hydrological stations, permanent and portable radars, ash-particle counters and gas monitoring systems. Most of the networks are owned by a handful of Icelandic institutions, but some are operated in collaboration with international institutions and universities. The networks have been in operation for years to decades and have recorded large volumes of research quality data. The main Icelandic infrastructures will be networked in the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). The plate boundary in the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ) with its book-shelf tectonics and repeating major earthquakes sequences of up to M7 events, has the potential to be defined a natural laboratory within EPOS. Work towards integrating multidisciplinary data and technologies from the monitoring infrastructures in the SISZ with other fault regions has started in the FP7 project NERA, under the heading of Networking of Near-Fault Observatories. The purpose is to make research-quality data from near-fault observatories available to the research community, as well as to promote transfer of knowledge and techical know-how between the different observatories of Europe, in order to create a network of fault-monitoring networks. The seismic and strong-motion systems in the SISZ are also, to some degree, being networked nationally to

  15. Architecture, Infrastructure, and Broadband Civic Network Design: An Institutional View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Murali; Chango, Mawaki

    Cultural values frame architectures, and architectures motivate infrastructures — by which we mean the foundational telecommunications and Internet access services that software applications depend on. Design is the social process that realizes architectural elements in an infrastructure. This process is often a conflicted one where transformative visions confront the realities of entrenched power, where innovation confronts pressure from institutionalized interests and practices working to resist change and reproduce the status quo in the design outcome. We use this viewpoint to discuss design aspects of the Urban-net, a broadband civic networking case. Civic networks are embodiments of distinctive technological configurations and forms of social order. In choosing some technological configurations over others, designers are favoring some social structural configurations over alternatives. To the extent that a civic network sets out to reconfigure the prevailing social order (as was the case in the Urban-net project considered here), the design process becomes the arena where challengers of the prevailing order encounter its defenders. In this case, the defenders prevailed and the design that emerged was conservative and reproduced the status quo. What steps can stakeholders take so that the project’s future development is in line with the original aim of structural change? We outline two strategies. We argue the importance of articulating cultural desiderata in an architecture that stakeholders can use to open up the infrastructure to new constituents and incremental change. Next, we argue the importance of designing the conditions of design. The climate in which social interactions occur can powerfully shape design outcomes, but this does not usually figure in stakeholders’ design concerns.

  16. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  17. Tera-node Network Technology (TASK 4) Network Infrastructure Activities (NIA) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, John; Bannister, Joe

    2000-03-15

    The TNT project developed software technologies in scalable personal telecommunications (SPT), Reservation Protocol 2 (RSVP2), Scalable Computing Infrastructure (SCOPE), and Network Infrastructure Activities (NIA). SPT = developed many innovative protocols to support the use of videoconferencing applications on the Internet. RSVP2 = developed a new reference model and further standardization of RSVP. SCOPE = developed dynamic resource discovery techniques and distributed directory services in support of resource allocation for large distributed systems and computations. NIA = provided policy, operational, and support to the transitioning Internet.

  18. Mapping Buried Hydrogen-Bonding Networks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John C; Goronzy, Dominic P; Dragomiretskiy, Konstantin; Zosso, Dominique; Gilles, Jérôme; Osher, Stanley J; Bertozzi, Andrea L; Weiss, Paul S

    2016-05-24

    We map buried hydrogen-bonding networks within self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercapto-N-nonylpropionamide on Au{111}. The contributing interactions include the buried S-Au bonds at the substrate surface and the buried plane of linear networks of hydrogen bonds. Both are simultaneously mapped with submolecular resolution, in addition to the exposed interface, to determine the orientations of molecular segments and directional bonding. Two-dimensional mode-decomposition techniques are used to elucidate the directionality of these networks. We find that amide-based hydrogen bonds cross molecular domain boundaries and areas of local disorder. PMID:27096290

  19. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  20. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providing services to multinational. Servicing of multinational trials started during the preparatory phase, and ECRIN has applied for ERIC status in 2011. In parallel, ECRIN has also proposed an FP7 integrating activity project to further develop, upgrade and expand the ECRIN infrastructure built up during the past FP6 and FP7 projects, facilitating an efficient organization of clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services for multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks that will in turn act as ECRIN users. This organization will improve Europe's attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens. The three medical areas supported in this project (rare diseases, medical devices, and nutrition) will serve as pilots for other biomedical research fields. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this structure will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of research and educational capacities, tackling the major societal challenges (starting with healthy aging), and removing barriers to bringing ideas to the market. PMID:22043593

  1. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    atmospheric phenomena using current and future planned frequencies of cellular network infrastructure will be introduced.

  2. United States National Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Infrastructure Learning Demonstration - Status and Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke,K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Garbak, J.

    2009-03-06

    This presentation provides status and results for the United States National Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration, including project objectives, partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in the project and methodology, how to access complete results, and results of vehicle and infrastructure analysis.

  3. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    currently partnering with the San Diego Super Computer Center to build the data management infrastructure. Data collected from the three core protocols as well as others are currently made available through the TEAM Network portal, which provides the content management framework, the data scheduling and management framework, an administrative framework to implement and manage TEAM sites, collaborative tools and a number of tools and applications utilizing Google Map and Google Earth products. A critical element of the TEAM Network data management infrastructure is to make the data publicly available in as close to real-time as possible (the TEAM Network Data Use Policy: http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/data/policy). This requires two essential tasks to be accomplished, 1) A data collection schedule has to be planned, proposed and approved for a given TEAM site. This is a challenging process since TEAM sites are geographically distributed across the tropics and hence have different seasons where they schedule field sampling for the different TEAM protocols. Capturing this information and ensuring that TEAM sites follow the outlined legal contract is key to the data collection process and 2) A stream-lined and efficient information management system to ensure data collected from the field meet the minimum data standards (i.e. are of the highest scientific quality) and are securely transferred, archived, processed and be rapidly made publicaly available, as a finished consumable product via the TEAM Network portal. The TEAM Network is achieving these goals by implementing an end-to-end framework consisting of the Sampling Scheduler application and the Data Management Framework. Sampling Scheduler The Sampling Scheduler is a project management, calendar based portal application that will allow scientists at a TEAM site to schedule field sampling for each of the TEAM protocols implemented at that site. The sampling scheduler addresses the specific requirements established in the

  4. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Adrian R.; Martin, Mitchell Tyler; Hamlet, Jason; Stout, William M.S.; Lee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  5. Co-location and Self-Similar Topologies of Urban Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, Christopher; Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish; Elisabeth, Krueger; Paik, Kyungrock; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    The co-location of urban infrastructure is too obvious to be easily ignored. For reasons of practicality, reliability, and eminent domain, the spatial locations of many urban infrastructure networks, including drainage, sanitary sewers, and road networks, are well correlated. However, important questions dealing with correlations in the network topologies of differing infrastructure types remain unanswered. Here, we have extracted randomly distributed, nested subnets from the urban drainage, sanitary sewer, and road networks in two distinctly different cities: Amman, Jordan; and Indianapolis, USA. Network analyses were performed for each randomly chosen subnet (location and size), using a dual-mapping approach (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation). Topological metrics for each infrastructure type were calculated and compared for all subnets in a given city. Despite large differences in the climate, governance, and populace of the two cities, and functional properties of the different infrastructure types, these infrastructure networks are shown to be highly spatially homogenous. Furthermore, strong correlations are found between topological metrics of differing types of surface and subsurface infrastructure networks. Also, the network topologies of each infrastructure type for both cities are shown to exhibit self-similar characteristics (i.e., power law node-degree distributions, [p(k) = ak-γ]. These findings can be used to assist city planners and engineers either expanding or retrofitting existing infrastructure, or in the case of developing countries, building new cities from the ground up. In addition, the self-similar nature of these infrastructure networks holds significant implications for the vulnerability of these critical infrastructure networks to external hazards and ways in which network resilience can be improved.

  6. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario

  7. Charge-Assisted Hydrogen-Bonded Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Michael D.

    The importance of hydrogen bonds is widely recognized because of their role in defining the structure and properties of many compounds, including water, proteins, DNA, and polymers. Hydrogen bonding also has emerged as a critical tool in solid-state chemistry, in which the versatility of organic synthesis has been combined with the structure-directing properties of hydrogen-bond donor-acceptor pairs to steer molecular assembly into networks that reflect the symmetries of their molecular constituents. Although these efforts have been largely empirical, the dominance of hydrogen bonding among the multitude of intermolecular forces often leads to predictable control of crystal structure. Although charge-assisted hydrogen bonds (donors and acceptors with ionic character that reinforce the electrostatic character of the hydrogen bond) have been recognized for decades, their use in network design, particularly for “crystal engineering,” has grown substantially in the past decade. The evidence suggests that charge-assisted hydrogen bonds introduce extraordinary robustness to molecular networks that reflects a combination of strong intermolecular forces and structural compliance, thus facilitating design of organic solid-state materials.

  8. A toolkit for integrated deterministic and probabilistic assessment for hydrogen infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, Katrina M.; Tchouvelev, Andrei V.

    2014-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in using Quantitative Risk Assessment [QRA] to help improve the safety of hydrogen infrastructure and applications. Hydrogen infrastructure for transportation (e.g. fueling fuel cell vehicles) or stationary (e.g. back-up power) applications is a relatively new area for application of QRA vs. traditional industrial production and use, and as a result there are few tools designed to enable QRA for this emerging sector. There are few existing QRA tools containing models that have been developed and validated for use in small-scale hydrogen applications. However, in the past several years, there has been significant progress in developing and validating deterministic physical and engineering models for hydrogen dispersion, ignition, and flame behavior. In parallel, there has been progress in developing defensible probabilistic models for the occurrence of events such as hydrogen release and ignition. While models and data are available, using this information is difficult due to a lack of readily available tools for integrating deterministic and probabilistic components into a single analysis framework. This paper discusses the first steps in building an integrated toolkit for performing QRA on hydrogen transportation technologies and suggests directions for extending the toolkit.

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  10. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  11. Sensor network infrastructure for a home care monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus. PMID:24573309

  12. Sensor Network Infrastructure for a Home Care Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Štimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus. PMID:24573309

  13. Making Infrastructure Visible: A Case Study of Home Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetty, Marshini

    2011-01-01

    Technological infrastructure is often taken for granted in our day to day lives until it breaks down, usually because it invisibly supports tasks otherwise. Previous work in HCI has focused on how people react and deal with breaks in infrastructure as well as how to help people to fix or exploit these breaks. However, few have sought to understand…

  14. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnasch, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  15. Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet) Technology Infrastructure for a Distributed Data Network

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Lisa M.; Kwan, Bethany M.; Drolshagen, Charles T.; Hosokawa, Patrick W.; Brandt, Elias; Pace, Wilson D.; Uhrich, Christopher; Kamerick, Michael; Bunting, Aidan; Payne, Philip R.O.; Stephens, William E.; George, Joseph M.; Vance, Mark; Giacomini, Kelli; Braddy, Jason; Green, Mika K.; Kahn, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Distributed Data Networks (DDNs) offer infrastructure solutions for sharing electronic health data from across disparate data sources to support comparative effectiveness research. Data sharing mechanisms must address technical and governance concerns stemming from network security and data disclosure laws and best practices, such as HIPAA. Methods: The Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet) deploys TRIAD grid technology, a common data model, detailed technical documentation, and custom software for data harmonization to facilitate data sharing in collaboration with stakeholders in the care of safety net populations. Data sharing partners host TRIAD grid nodes containing harmonized clinical data within their internal or hosted network environments. Authorized users can use a central web-based query system to request analytic data sets. Discussion: SAFTINet DDN infrastructure achieved a number of data sharing objectives, including scalable and sustainable systems for ensuring harmonized data structures and terminologies and secure distributed queries. Initial implementation challenges were resolved through iterative discussions, development and implementation of technical documentation, governance, and technology solutions. PMID:25848567

  16. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    SciTech Connect

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark

    2011-06-30

    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production technologies. The

  17. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  18. Toward Information Infrastructure Studies: Ways of Knowing in a Networked Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Baker, Karen; Millerand, Florence; Ribes, David

    This article presents Information Infrastructure Studies, a research area that takes up some core issues in digital information and organization research. Infrastructure Studies simultaneously addresses the technical, social, and organizational aspects of the development, usage, and maintenance of infrastructures in local communities as well as global arenas. While infrastructure is understood as a broad category referring to a variety of pervasive, enabling network resources such as railroad lines, plumbing and pipes, electrical power plants and wires, this article focuses on information infrastructure, such as computational services and help desks, or federating activities such as scientific data repositories and archives spanning the multiple disciplines needed to address such issues as climate warming and the biodiversity crisis. These are elements associated with the internet and, frequently today, associated with cyberinfrastructure or e-science endeavors. We argue that a theoretical understanding of infrastructure provides the context for needed dialogue between design, use, and sustainability of internet-based infrastructure services. This article outlines a research area and outlines overarching themes of Infrastructure Studies. Part one of the paper presents definitions for infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure, reviewing salient previous work. Part two portrays key ideas from infrastructure studies (knowledge work, social and political values, new forms of sociality, etc.). In closing, the character of the field today is considered.

  19. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  20. Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

  1. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  2. Protecting infrastructure networks from cost-based attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingang; Guan, Shuguang; Heng Lai, Choy

    2009-03-01

    It is well known that heterogeneous networks are vulnerable to the intentional removal of a small fraction of highly connected or loaded nodes, implying that to protect the network effectively, the important nodes should be allocated more defense resource than the others. However, if too much resource is allocated to the few important nodes, the numerous less-important nodes will be less protected, which if attacked together can still lead to devastating damage. A natural question is therefore how to efficiently distribute the limited defense resource among the network nodes such that the network damage is minimized against any attack strategy. In this paper, taking into account the factor of attack cost, the problem of network security is reconsidered in terms of efficient network defense against cost-based attacks. The results show that, for a general complex network, there exists an optimal distribution of the defense resource with which the network is best protected from cost-based attacks. Furthermore, it is found that the configuration of the optimal defense is dependent on the network parameters. Specifically, networks of larger size, sparser connection and more heterogeneous structure will more likely benefit from the defense optimization.

  3. Network information attacks on the control systems of power facilities belonging to the critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, E. L.; Raikov, A. N.

    2015-04-01

    The most large-scale accidents occurred as a consequence of network information attacks on the control systems of power facilities belonging to the United States' critical infrastructure are analyzed in the context of possibilities available in modern decision support systems. Trends in the development of technologies for inflicting damage to smart grids are formulated. A volume matrix of parameters characterizing attacks on facilities is constructed. A model describing the performance of a critical infrastructure's control system after an attack is developed. The recently adopted measures and legislation acts aimed at achieving more efficient protection of critical infrastructure are considered. Approaches to cognitive modeling and networked expertise of intricate situations for supporting the decision-making process, and to setting up a system of indicators for anticipatory monitoring of critical infrastructure are proposed.

  4. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking. PMID:23826703

  5. Libraries in the Global, National, and Local Networked Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    This paper explores the challenges and opportunities facing libraries as they evolve into the electronic networked environment, and looks at options for libraries in the year 2000 and beyond. The internationally networked environment has fundamentally changed the way in which people acquire and use information resources and services. The paper…

  6. A centralized informatics infrastructure for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jeng-Jong; Nahm, Meredith; Wakim, Paul; Cushing, Carol; Poole, Lori; Tai, Betty; Pieper, Carl F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinical trial networks were created to provide a sustaining infrastructure for the conduct of multisite clinical trials. As such, they must withstand changes in membership. Centralization of infrastructure including knowledge management, portfolio management, information management, process automation, work policies, and procedures in clinical research networks facilitates consistency and ultimately research. Purpose In 2005, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) transitioned from a distributed data management model to a centralized informatics infrastructure to support the network’s trial activities and administration. We describe the centralized informatics infrastructure and discuss our challenges to inform others considering such an endeavor. Methods During the migration of a clinical trial network from a decentralized to a centralized data center model, descriptive data were captured and are presented here to assess the impact of centralization. Results We present the framework for the informatics infrastructure and evaluative metrics. The network has decreased the time from last patient-last visit to database lock from an average of 7.6 months to 2.8 months. The average database error rate decreased from 0.8% to 0.2%, with a corresponding decrease in the interquartile range from 0.04%–1.0% before centralization to 0.01%–0.27% after centralization. Centralization has provided the CTN with integrated trial status reporting and the first standards-based public data share. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis showed a 50% reduction in data management cost per study participant over the life of a trial. Limitations A single clinical trial network comprising addiction researchers and community treatment programs was assessed. The findings may not be applicable to other research settings. Conclusions The identified informatics components provide the information and infrastructure needed for our clinical trial

  7. Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kiyoshi; Shrestha, Aadit; Witayangkurn, Apichon; Chinnachodteeranun, Rassarin; Shimamura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The fieldserver is an Internet based observation robot that can provide an outdoor solution for monitoring environmental parameters in real-time. The data from its sensors can be collected to a central server infrastructure and published on the Internet. The information from the sensor network will contribute to monitoring and modeling on various environmental issues in Asia, including agriculture, food, pollution, disaster, climate change etc. An initiative called Sensor Asia is developing an infrastructure called Sensor Service Grid (SSG), which integrates fieldservers and Web GIS to realize easy and low cost installation and operation of ubiquitous field sensor networks. PMID:22574018

  8. The Evolving Internet: Applications and Network Service Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the current state of the Internet as a data transport system and some of its emerging problems. Discusses two major research initiatives--Internet 2 and Next Generation Internet (NGI)--and network-level services that may see deployment in these new research testbeds. Concludes with speculations about future changes to the Internet as a…

  9. Transparent optical network design for standard single-mode infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Dirk; Hanik, Norbert

    2001-10-01

    Design, control and management of all-optical transparent islands based on fibers, optical amplifiers and transparent Optical Cross Connects (OXC) have to deal with a vast number of issues such as network topology, routing, protection, and restoration schemes. However, since in such a transparent network light-paths generally have to transit through several fiber sections, amplifiers, and OXCs, all of which add noise and degrade the signal performance, optical layer network protocols have to be aware of the end-to-end signal quality for each specific light-path. This information should be obtained without burdening these protocols with details of the physical layer. In this paper we propose a simplified network design approach based on normalized optical transmission sections where the physical links are built from a cascade of identical basic blocks. For an upper layer protocol only the number of traversed blocks has to be monitored for estimating signal quality. Using numerical simulations the maximum number of cascaded building blocks for 10 Gbit/s RZ modulation format for different basic building block-configurations is investigated and compared with the performance of NRZ based systems under similar conditions. It is shown that robust transparent islands of about 1600 km maximum link length without 3R regeneration are feasible for both modulation formats using the concept of normalized sections.

  10. Network Computing Infrastructure to Share Tools and Data in Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Guehee; Suzuki, Yoshio; Teshima, Naoya

    CCSE/JAEA (Center for Computational Science and e-Systems/Japan Atomic Energy Agency) integrated a prototype system of a network computing infrastructure for sharing tools and data to support the U.S. and Japan collaboration in GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership). We focused on three technical issues to apply our information process infrastructure, which are accessibility, security, and usability. In designing the prototype system, we integrated and improved both network and Web technologies. For the accessibility issue, we adopted SSL-VPN (Security Socket Layer-Virtual Private Network) technology for the access beyond firewalls. For the security issue, we developed an authentication gateway based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authentication mechanism to strengthen the security. Also, we set fine access control policy to shared tools and data and used shared key based encryption method to protect tools and data against leakage to third parties. For the usability issue, we chose Web browsers as user interface and developed Web application to provide functions to support sharing tools and data. By using WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) function, users can manipulate shared tools and data through the Windows-like folder environment. We implemented the prototype system in Grid infrastructure for atomic energy research: AEGIS (Atomic Energy Grid Infrastructure) developed by CCSE/JAEA. The prototype system was applied for the trial use in the first period of GNEP.

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  13. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  14. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Kurtz, Nolan Scot

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  15. Body area network--a key infrastructure element for patient-centered telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Norgall, Thomas; Schmidt, Robert; von der Grün, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Body Area Network (BAN) extends the range of existing wireless network technologies by an ultra-low range, ultra-low power network solution optimised for long-term or continuous healthcare applications. It enables wireless radio communication between several miniaturised, intelligent Body Sensor (or actor) Units (BSU) and a single Body Central Unit (BCU) worn at the human body. A separate wireless transmission link from the BCU to a network access point--using different technology--provides for online access to BAN components via usual network infrastructure. The BAN network protocol maintains dynamic ad-hoc network configuration scenarios and co-existence of multiple networks.BAN is expected to become a basic infrastructure element for electronic health services: By integrating patient-attached sensors and mobile actor units, distributed information and data processing systems, the range of medical workflow can be extended to include applications like wireless multi-parameter patient monitoring and therapy support. Beyond clinical use and professional disease management environments, private personal health assistance scenarios (without financial reimbursement by health agencies / insurance companies) enable a wide range of applications and services in future pervasive computing and networking environments. PMID:15718640

  16. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  17. Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report

    PubMed Central

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and “matchmaking” between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

  18. JERICO: a Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Sparnocchia, S.; Bozzano, R.; Coppola, L.; Petihakis, G.; Ntoumas, M.; Lefevre, D.; Caballero, A.; Beguery, L.; Testor, P.

    2013-12-01

    Existing coastal observatories in European waters are composed of platforms such as moored buoys, piles, profiling systems, gliders, ';ferryboxes' and automated systems on board of ships of opportunity. JERICO project strives to integrate existing infrastructures and provides a platform for the identification and dissemination of best practices for the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of observing systems and the dissemination of data. In order to reach these objectives several kinds of actions are undertaken, amongst which the offer of Trans-National Access (TNA) to a number of coastal observatories and calibration facilities for international research and technology development. This presentation will give a short overview of the selected TNA proposals and a focus will be drawn on some of the TNA results. Calibrating sensors regularly is the prime requirement for getting reliable data from coastal observatories and ensuring their long-term relevance as viable providers of information on the marine environment. The calibration facilities at the HCMR complex in Crete hosted users for calibration experiments. The first one was accessed by a HCMR team to improve their experience in calibrating high-quality oceanographic temperature sensors using primary ITS-90 reference standards. The experiment involved full calibrations of two SBE 35 thermometers from Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. owned by the HCMR that will be used as reference sensors for temperature measurements in their calibration laboratory in Crete. Gliders make oceanographic measurements traditionally collected by research vessels or moored instruments, but at a fraction of the costs. The GESEBB glider Mission started in July 2013, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. The objective of the mission is sampling the characteristics of a mesoscale eddy that appears in the southeastern Bay of Biscay, during spring and summer. The origin of this structure is associated with the strength and extension

  19. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks.

    PubMed

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3-22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically exceed

  20. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks

    PubMed Central

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3–22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically

  1. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  2. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Shawn; Lake, Andrew; Laurens, Philippe; Severini, Horst; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wolff, Stephen; Zurawski, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multi-domain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. The US ATLAS collaboration has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  3. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Nageswara S.; Carter, Steven M.; Wu, Qishi; Wing, William R.; Zhu, Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  4. Network Corrected Real-Time Kinematic - Infrastructure Partnering betwen Industry and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrock, Gavin

    2010-05-01

    The rapid deployment of GNSS sensors in the form of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) both as stand-alone CORS and as networks of CORS grouped by function or administration provides a tremendous opportunity for partnering and development of joint resources for science and industry. The drivers for development of early GNSS networks and the funding thereof typically came from specific user segments like surveying, mapping, construction, public safety, structural integrity monitoring, precision agriculture, science and academia, often developed and operated centrally via a single entity. Such an approach would often result in duplicity of effort and limited utility for expanded or enhanced uses. The more recent trend is towards serving multiple user segments both in design and administration as cooperative networks. Implementation and utilization of GNSS networks has a longer history in geophysical sciences of academia and federal geodetic services than in the surveying, construction and mapping sectors, and only of late in more commercial and consumer level ventures. Such legacy infrastructure is more typically utilized in a post-processed mode. The more recent boom in the development of CORS has been in support of real-time kinematics uses like surveying, mapping, and construction. Network corrected real-time infrastructure, more commonly referred to as RTN (real-time networks) applies multiple scientific approaches in providing sub-centimetre 3D positions for mobile users (rovers) and even tighter results for server-side motion-engine processing.

  5. Authorisation Infrastructure for On-Demand Grid and Network Resource Provisioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, Yuri; Cristea, Mihai; de Laat, Cees; Haleplidis, Evangelos

    The paper presents the Authorisation (AuthZ) infrastructure for combined multidomain on-demand Grid and network resource provisioning which we refer to as the Complex Resource Provisioning (CRP). The proposed CRP model provides a common abstraction of the resource provisioning process and is used as a basis for defining the major AuthZ mechanisms and components that extend the generic AAA AuthZ framework to support CRP (GAAA-CRP), in particular using XML-based AuthZ tickets and tokens to support access control and signalling during different CRP stages. The proposed GAAA-CRP framework is implemented as the GAAA Toolkit pluggable library and allows integration with the Grid and network service and control plane middleware. The proposed authorisation infrastructure allows using in-band binary tokens to extend network access control granularity to data plane and support binding applications to dataflows. The paper discusses the use of the ForCES network management model to achieve interoperability with the network control plane and define the GAAA-NRP interfaces to network control plane. This research was conducted as a part of the EU Phosphorus project.

  6. The DARHTAcquisition, Archival, Analysis, And Instrument Control System (DAAAC), And Network Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, Rita Denise; Sanchez, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility (DARHT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the world's most advanced weapons test facility. DARHT contains two linear accelerators for producing flash radiographs of hydrodynamic experiments. High-speed electronics and optical instrumentation are used for triggering the accelerators and collecting accelerator data. Efficient and effective diagnostics provide basic information needed to routinely tune the accelerators for peak radiographic performance, and to successfully monitor the accelerators performance. DARHT's server and network infrastructure is a key element in providing shot related data storage and retrieval for successfully executing radiographic experiments. This paper will outline the elaborate Data Acquisition, Archival, Analysis, and Instrument Control System (DAAAC), as well as the server and network infrastructure for both accelerators.

  7. Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop, October 18-19, 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL : Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R. comp.; Ahmed, S. comp.

    2012-02-21

    The overall objective of the Workshop was to identify opportunities for accelerating the use of both natural gas (NG) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as motor fuels and in stationary power applications. Specific objectives of the Workshop were to: (1) Convene industry and other stakeholders to share current status/state-of-the-art of NG and H{sub 2} infrastructure; (2) Identify key challenges (including non-technical challenges, such as permitting, installation, codes, and standards) preventing or delaying the widespread deployment of NG and H{sub 2} infrastructure. Identify synergies between NG and H{sub 2} fuels; and (3) Identify and prioritize opportunities for addressing the challenges identified above, and determine roles and opportunities for both the government and industry stakeholders. Plenary speakers and panel discussions summarized the current status of the NG and H{sub 2} infrastructure, technology for their use in transportation and stationary applications, and some of the major challenges and opportunities to more widespread use of these fuels. Two break-out sessions of three groups each addressed focus questions on: (1) infrastructure development needs; (2) deployment synergies; (3) natural gas and fuel cell vehicles (NGVs, FCVs), specialty vehicles, and heavy-duty trucks; (4) CHP (combined heat and power), CHHP (combined hydrogen, heat, and power), and synergistic approaches; and (5) alternative uses of natural gas.

  8. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  9. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described. PMID:25254229

  10. Scalable Tool Infrastructure for the Cray XT Using Tree-Based Overlay Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Philip C; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    Performance, debugging, and administration tools are critical for the effective use of parallel computing platforms, but traditional tools have failed to overcome several problems that limit their scalability, such as communication between a large number of tool processes and the management and processing of the volume of data generated on a large number of compute nodes. A tree-based overlay network has proven effective for overcoming these challenges. In this paper, we present our experiences in bringing our MRNet tree-based overlay network infrastructure to the Cray XT platform, including a description of proof-of-concept tools that use MRNet on the Cray XT.

  11. The framework for simulation of bioinspired security mechanisms against network infrastructure attacks.

    PubMed

    Shorov, Andrey; Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named "network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed procedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine necessary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described. PMID:25254229

  12. A random growth model for power grids and other spatially embedded infrastructure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    We propose a model to create synthetic networks that may also serve as a narrative of a certain kind of infrastructure network evolution. It consists of an initialization phase with the network extending tree-like for minimum cost and a growth phase with an attachment rule giving a trade-off between cost-optimization and redundancy. Furthermore, we implement the feature of some lines being split during the grid's evolution. We show that the resulting degree distribution has an exponential tail and may show a maximum at degree two, suitable to observations of real-world power grid networks. In particular, the mean degree and the slope of the exponential decay can be controlled in partial independence. To verify to which extent the degree distribution is described by our analytic form, we conduct statistical tests, showing that the hypothesis of an exponential tail is well-accepted for our model data.

  13. A random growth model for power grids and other spatially embedded infrastructure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    We propose a model to create synthetic networks that may also serve as a narrative of a certain kind of infrastructure network evolution. It consists of an initialization phase with the network extending tree-like for minimum cost and a growth phase with an attachment rule giving a trade-off between cost-optimization and redundancy. Furthermore, we implement the feature of some lines being split during the grid's evolution. We show that the resulting degree distribution has an exponential tail and may show a maximum at degree two, suitable to observations of real-world power grid networks. In particular, the mean degree and the slope of the exponential decay can be controlled in partial independence. To verify to which extent the degree distribution is described by our analytic form, we conduct statistical tests, showing that the hypothesis of an exponential tail is well-accepted for our model data.

  14. The spatial data infrastructure for the European Seas Observatory Network (ESONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert; Diepenbroek, Michael

    2010-05-01

    ESONET is a Multidisciplinary European Network of Excellence (NoE) in which scientists and engineers from 50 partners and 14 countries cooperate in building the infrastructure for a lasting integration of research and development in deep sea observatories in Europe. This NoE aims to develop strong links between regional nodes of a European network of sub sea observatories and to promote multidiciplinarity and transnationality within each node. Essential for these goals is the provision of an effective data and knowledge infrastructure for both, management and archiving of observatory data as well as knowledge and data sharing among network participants. The ESONET data infrastructure roughly consists of four major components: data policies a common agreement on the data management procedures and prerequisites, data acquisition technologies serve to collect data directly from ESONET observatories, data archives care for long term data management of collected ESONET data and data integration and portal tools which ensure harmonisation of collected data and allow access to the data in a common way. Most critical for ESONET was the development of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) by using standardised protocols to directly access observatory data in its spatial and temporal context. The ESONET SDI provides means to either access data in quasi real time or harvest locally stored data in order to transfer it to a long term data archive. ESONET SDI largely builds upon the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards. Among those, the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), the Observations & Measurements (O&M), Sensor Markup Language (SensorML) are especially important for the integration of observatory data as well as for the contribution of ESONET data to GEOSS.

  15. Hydrogen Bond Nanoscale Networks Showing Switchable Transport Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yong; Hui, Jun-Feng; Wang, Peng-Peng; Xiang, Guo-Lei; Xu, Biao; Hu, Shi; Zhu, Wan-Cheng; Lü, Xing-Qiang; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen bond is a typical noncovalent bond with its strength only one-tenth of a general covalent bond. Because of its easiness to fracture and re-formation, materials based on hydrogen bonds can enable a reversible behavior in their assembly and other properties, which supplies advantages in fabrication and recyclability. In this paper, hydrogen bond nanoscale networks have been utilized to separate water and oil in macroscale. This is realized upon using nanowire macro-membranes with pore sizes ~tens of nanometers, which can form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules on the surfaces. It is also found that the gradual replacement of the water by ethanol molecules can endow this film tunable transport properties. It is proposed that a hydrogen bond network in the membrane is responsible for this switching effect. Significant application potential is demonstrated by the successful separation of oil and water, especially in the emulsion forms.

  16. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  17. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN): infrastructure development and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mark; Silva, Susan G; Compton, Scott; Chrisman, Allan; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Kondo, Douglas; Kirchner, Jerry; March, John S

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical research into

  18. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  19. Core network infrastructure supporting the VLT at ESO Paranal in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reay, Harold

    2000-06-01

    In October 1997 a number of projects were started at ESO's Paranal Observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile to upgrade the communications infrastructure in place at the time. The planned upgrades were to internal systems such as computer data networks and telephone installations and also data links connecting Paranal to other ESO sites. This paper details the installation work carried out on the Paranal Core Network (PCN) during the period of October 1997 to December 1999. These installations were to provide both short term solutions to the requirement for reliable high bandwidth network connectivity between Paranal and ESO HQ in Garching, Germany in time for UTI (Antu) first light and perhaps more importantly, to provide the core systems necessary for a site moving towards operational status. This paper explains the reasons for using particular cable types, network topology, and fiber backbone design and implementation. We explain why it was decided to install the PCN in two distinct stages and how equipment used in temporary installations was re-used in the Very Large Telescope networks. Finally we describe the tools used to monitor network and satellite link performance and will discuss whether network backbone bandwidth meets the expected utilization and how this bandwidth can easily be increased in the future should there be a requirement.

  20. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients’ and clinicians’ needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  1. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients' and clinicians' needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  2. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnash, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-14

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.

  3. Equipment Management for Sensor Networks: Linking Physical Infrastructure and Actions to Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Matos, M.; Caraballo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Networks conducting long term monitoring using in situ sensors need the functionality to track physical equipment as well as deployments, calibrations, and other actions related to site and equipment maintenance. The observational data being generated by sensors are enhanced if direct linkages to equipment details and actions can be made. This type of information is typically recorded in field notebooks or in static files, which are rarely linked to observations in a way that could be used to interpret results. However, the record of field activities is often relevant to analysis or post-processing of the observational data. We have developed an underlying database schema and deployed a web interface for recording and retrieving information on physical infrastructure and related actions for observational networks. The database schema for equipment was designed as an extension to the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2), a community-developed information model for spatially discrete, feature based earth observations. The core entities of ODM2 describe location, observed variable, and timing of observations, and the equipment extension contains entities to provide additional metadata specific to the inventory of physical infrastructure and associated actions. The schema is implemented in a relational database system for storage and management with an associated web interface. We designed the web-based tools for technicians to enter and query information on the physical equipment and actions such as site visits, equipment deployments, maintenance, and calibrations. These tools were implemented for the iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydrosustainability) ecohydrologic observatory, and we anticipate that they will be useful for similar large-scale monitoring networks desiring to link observing infrastructure to observational data to increase the quality of sensor-based data products.

  4. Slow poisoning and destruction of networks: Edge proximity and its implications for biological and infrastructure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Sinha, Saptarshi; Roy, Soumen

    2015-02-01

    We propose a network metric, edge proximity, Pe, which demonstrates the importance of specific edges in a network, hitherto not captured by existing network metrics. The effects of removing edges with high Pe might initially seem inconspicuous but are eventually shown to be very harmful for networks. Compared to existing strategies, the removal of edges by Pe leads to a remarkable increase in the diameter and average shortest path length in undirected real and random networks till the first disconnection and well beyond. Pe can be consistently used to rupture the network into two nearly equal parts, thus presenting a very potent strategy to greatly harm a network. Targeting by Pe causes notable efficiency loss in U.S. and European power grid networks. Pe identifies proteins with essential cellular functions in protein-protein interaction networks. It pinpoints regulatory neural connections and important portions of the neural and brain networks, respectively. Energy flow interactions identified by Pe form the backbone of long food web chains. Finally, we scrutinize the potential of Pe in edge controllability dynamics of directed networks.

  5. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Duleep, Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  6. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  7. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  8. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  9. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  10. Metadata and network API aspects of a framework for storing and retrieving civil infrastructure monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, John-Michael; Stojadinovic, Bozidar

    2005-05-01

    A framework has been defined for storing and retrieving civil infrastructure monitoring data over a network. The framework consists of two primary components: metadata and network communications. The metadata component provides the descriptions and data definitions necessary for cataloging and searching monitoring data. The communications component provides Java classes for remotely accessing the data. Packages of Enterprise JavaBeans and data handling utility classes are written to use the underlying metadata information to build real-time monitoring applications. The utility of the framework was evaluated using wireless accelerometers on a shaking table earthquake simulation test of a reinforced concrete bridge column. The NEESgrid data and metadata repository services were used as a backend storage implementation. A web interface was created to demonstrate the utility of the data model and provides an example health monitoring application.

  11. Developing a data infrastructure for a learning health system: the PORTAL network

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Lieu, Tracy A; Durham, Mary L; Bauck, Alan; Laws, Reesa; Go, Alan S; Chen, Jersey; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Corley, Douglas A; Young, Deborah Rohm; Nelson, Andrew F; Davidson, Arthur J; Morales, Leo S; Kahn, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente & Strategic Partners Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) network engages four healthcare delivery systems (Kaiser Permanente, Group Health Cooperative, HealthPartners, and Denver Health) and their affiliated research centers to create a new national network infrastructure that builds on existing relationships among these institutions. PORTAL is enhancing its current capabilities by expanding the scope of the common data model, paying particular attention to incorporating patient-reported data more systematically, implementing new multi-site data governance procedures, and integrating the PCORnet PopMedNet platform across our research centers. PORTAL is partnering with clinical research and patient experts to create cohorts of patients with a common diagnosis (colorectal cancer), a rare diagnosis (adolescents and adults with severe congenital heart disease), and adults who are overweight or obese, including those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to conduct large-scale observational comparative effectiveness research and pragmatic clinical trials across diverse clinical care settings. PMID:24821738

  12. Developing a data infrastructure for a learning health system: the PORTAL network.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Lieu, Tracy A; Durham, Mary L; Bauck, Alan; Laws, Reesa; Go, Alan S; Chen, Jersey; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Corley, Douglas A; Young, Deborah Rohm; Nelson, Andrew F; Davidson, Arthur J; Morales, Leo S; Kahn, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The Kaiser Permanente & Strategic Partners Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) network engages four healthcare delivery systems (Kaiser Permanente, Group Health Cooperative, HealthPartners, and Denver Health) and their affiliated research centers to create a new national network infrastructure that builds on existing relationships among these institutions. PORTAL is enhancing its current capabilities by expanding the scope of the common data model, paying particular attention to incorporating patient-reported data more systematically, implementing new multi-site data governance procedures, and integrating the PCORnet PopMedNet platform across our research centers. PORTAL is partnering with clinical research and patient experts to create cohorts of patients with a common diagnosis (colorectal cancer), a rare diagnosis (adolescents and adults with severe congenital heart disease), and adults who are overweight or obese, including those with pre-diabetes or diabetes, to conduct large-scale observational comparative effectiveness research and pragmatic clinical trials across diverse clinical care settings. PMID:24821738

  13. Interactions among human behavior, social networks, and societal infrastructures: A Case Study in Computational Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Bisset, Keith; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Eubank, Stephen; Lewis, Bryan; Kumar, V. S. Anil; Marathe, Madhav V.; Mortveit, Henning S.

    Human behavior, social networks, and the civil infrastructures are closely intertwined. Understanding their co-evolution is critical for designing public policies and decision support for disaster planning. For example, human behaviors and day to day activities of individuals create dense social interactions that are characteristic of modern urban societies. These dense social networks provide a perfect fabric for fast, uncontrolled disease propagation. Conversely, people’s behavior in response to public policies and their perception of how the crisis is unfolding as a result of disease outbreak can dramatically alter the normally stable social interactions. Effective planning and response strategies must take these complicated interactions into account. In this chapter, we describe a computer simulation based approach to study these issues using public health and computational epidemiology as an illustrative example. We also formulate game-theoretic and stochastic optimization problems that capture many of the problems that we study empirically.

  14. Developing Electronic Data Methods Infrastructure to Participate in Collaborative Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Elisa L.; Klekar, Christopher; Cantu, Gabriela; Berryman, Candice; Garinger, Gina; Hall, Lauren; Kouznetsova, Maria; Kudyakov, Rustam; Masica, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Context: Collaborative networks support the goals of a learning health system by sharing, aggregating, and analyzing data to facilitate identification of best practices care across delivery organizations. This case study describes the infrastructure and process developed by an integrated health delivery system to successfully prepare and submit a complex data set to a large national collaborative network. Case Description: We submitted four years of data for a diverse population of patients in specific clinical areas: diabetes, chronic heart failure, sepsis, and hip, knee, and spine. The most recent submission included 19 tables, more than 376,000 unique patients, and almost 5 million patient encounters. Data was extracted from multiple clinical and administrative systems. Lessons Learned: We found that a structured process with documentation was key to maintaining communication, timelines, and quality in a large-scale data submission to a national collaborative network. The three key components of this process were the experienced project team, documentation, and communication. We used a formal QA and feedback process to track and review data. Overall, the data submission was resource intensive and required an incremental approach to data quality. Conclusion: Participation in collaborative networks can be time and resource intense, however it can serve as a catalyst to increase the technical data available to the learning health system. PMID:25848600

  15. HyPro: A Financial Tool for Simulating Hydrogen Infrastructure Development, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D. James, Peter O. Schmidt, Julie Perez

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI) project to study the build-out of hydrogen production facilities during the transition from gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The primary objectives of the project are to develop an enhanced understanding of hydrogen production issues during the transition period (out to 2050) and to develop recommendations for the DOE on areas of further study. These objectives are achieved by conducting economic and scenario analysis to predict how industry would provide the hydrogen production, delivery and dispensing capabilities necessary to satisfy increased hydrogen demand. The primary tool used for the analysis is a custom created MatLab simulation tool entitled HyPro (short for Hydrogen Production). This report describes the calculation methodology used in HyPro, the baseline assumptions, the results of the baseline analysis and several corollary studies. The appendices of this report included a complete listing of model assumptions (capital costs, efficiencies, feedstock prices, delivery distances, etc.) and a step-by-step manual on the specific operation of the HyPro program. This study was made possible with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  16. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; Cottrell, R.Les; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2007-10-30

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  17. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  18. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency. PMID:26131668

  19. IT Infrastructure for Merging Data from Different Clinical Trials and Across Independent Research Networks.

    PubMed

    Hayn, Dieter; Falgenhauer, Markus; Kropf, Martin; Nitzlnader, Michael; Welte, Stefan; Ebner, Hubert; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Hero, Barbara; Schreier, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome (OMS) is a rare disease in children which is often associated with neuroblastoma and, therefore, requires treatment by pediatric neurologists and oncologists. The ongoing OMS trial investigates questions related to OMS and potentially underlying neuroblastomas. To support this trial with an adequate IT infrastructure, linkage of neuroblastoma research databases with the OMS electronic data capture (EDC) system was required. Therefore, an EDC system for the OMS trial was developed and integrated into the research infrastructure of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project. Application of ENNCA's pseudonymization concept enabled linkage of the OMS trial with neuroblastoma trials from two different scientific societies, while being compliant with current data protection regulations. Linkage of the neurological and the oncological domain could successfully be demonstrated and a promising concept for secondary use of the data of both domains has been developed, proofing the broad potential of the concepts for cross-domain research as promoted in the ENCCA project. PMID:27577389

  20. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency. PMID:26131668

  1. Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures: Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic in Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-08-01

    Resiliency and cyber security of modern critical infrastructures is becoming increasingly important with the growing number of threats in the cyber-environment. This paper proposes an extension to a previously developed fuzzy logic based anomaly detection network security cyber sensor via incorporating Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (T2 FL). In general, fuzzy logic provides a framework for system modeling in linguistic form capable of coping with imprecise and vague meanings of words. T2 FL is an extension of Type-1 FL which proved to be successful in modeling and minimizing the effects of various kinds of dynamic uncertainties. In this paper, T2 FL provides a basis for robust anomaly detection and cyber security state awareness. In addition, the proposed algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental cyber-security test-bed.

  2. The Navajo Learning Network and the NASA Life Sciences/AFOSR Infrastructure Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The NSF-funded Navajo Learning Network project, with help from NASA Life Sciences and AFOSR, enabled Dine College to take a giant leap forward technologically - in a way that could never had been possible had these projects been managed separately. The combination of these and other efforts created a network of over 500 computers located at ten sites across the Navajo reservation. Additionally, the college was able to install a modern telephone system which shares network data, and purchase a new higher education management system. The NASA Life Sciences funds further allowed the college library system to go online and become available to the entire campus community. NSF, NASA and AFOSR are committed to improving minority access to higher education opportunities and promoting faculty development and undergraduate research through infrastructure support and development. This project has begun to address critical inequalities in access to science, mathematics, engineering and technology for Navajo students and educators. As a result, Navajo K-12 education has been bolstered and Dine College will therefore better prepare students to transfer successfully to four-year institutions. Due to the integration of the NSF and NASA/AFOSR components of the project, a unified project report is appropriate.

  3. Information Technology Infrastructure for the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Solutions Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; Shaw, D. R.; O'Hara, C. G.; Frisbie, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program uses the term Solutions Network in the context of its Enterprise Architecture to describe the ability of different components of the enterprise to generate ideas for new ways to use NASA missions, research, and/or models in conjunction with operational decision-making processes (or decision support systems) to achieve a particular benefit to society. In this paper, we describe the development of an information technology infrastructure that will facilitate that ability. The two main components of this infrastructure are: the Research Projects Knowledge Base (RPKB); and the Partner Network Knowledge Base (PNKB). The RPKB aims to index all relevant NASA research result publications in a database that will be interoperable with the evolving NASA enterprise architecture system and will share relevant table space with it. In particular, fields from this system identifying relevant NASA missions, models, and data products will be used to cross-index the data collected on published results of research projects. Fields characterizing the research results based on the seven Earth-Sun system science focus areas and the twelve applications of national priority are included. In the course of developing the RPKB, novel uses of existing online databases and search tools have been developed. In addition, data mining tools are being developed for facilitating the location of candidate results and the indexing of relevant matches. The PNKB database will characterize the current network of NASA Earth-Sun system partners. This includes information on organizations and agencies funded by or partnered with NASA to conduct Earth-Sun system scientific research, technology, and applications projects. The relationships between NASA programs and project sponsors are also captured in this database. Both the PNKB and the RPKB will be integrated with an existing, evolving model of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise using an enterprise architecture modeling and

  4. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    SciTech Connect

    Akai, Makoto

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  5. Liquid state of hydrogen bond network in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkin, M. I.; Klyuev, A. V.; Sinitsyn, V. V.; Ryzhkin, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Here we theoretically show that the Coulomb interaction between violations of the Bernal-Fowler rules leads to a temperature induced step-wise increase in their concentration by 6-7 orders of magnitude. This first-order phase transition is accompanied by commensurable decrease in the relaxation time and can be interpreted as melting of the hydrogen bond network. The new phase with the melted hydrogen lattice and survived oxygen one is unstable in the bulk of ice, and further drastic increase in the concentrations of oxygen interstitials and vacancies accomplishes the ice melting. The fraction of broken hydrogen bonds immediately after the melting is about 0.07 of their total number that implies an essential conservation of oxygen lattice in water.

  6. Nano-scale hydrogen-bond network improves the durability of greener cements

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Johan; Rodrigues, Michelle Santos; Telling, Mark T. F.; Beraldo, Antonio Ludovico; Santos, Sérgio Francisco; Aldridge, Laurence P.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2013-01-01

    More than ever before, the world's increasing need for new infrastructure demands the construction of efficient, sustainable and durable buildings, requiring minimal climate-changing gas-generation in their production. Maintenance-free “greener” building materials made from blended cements have advantages over ordinary Portland cements, as they are cheaper, generate less carbon dioxide and are more durable. The key for the improved performance of blends (which substitute fine amorphous silicates for cement) is related to their resistance to water penetration. The mechanism of this water resistance is of great environmental and economical impact but is not yet understood due to the complexity of the cement's hydration reactions. Using neutron spectroscopy, we studied a blend where cement was replaced by ash from sugar cane residuals originating from agricultural waste. Our findings demonstrate that the development of a distinctive hydrogen bond network at the nano-scale is the key to the performance of these greener materials. PMID:24036676

  7. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  8. The New Hampshire public health network: creating local public health infrastructure through community-driven partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kassler, William J; Goldsberry, Yvonne P

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, under the auspices of the Turning Point program, New Hampshire's public health stakeholders convened a strategic planning process to transform the state public health system. What emerged was a fundamental vision that the public health system could only be improved by strengthening the capacity of local communities to address local health issues. A plan was developed to create regional public health structures, in areas with no local health departments, to deliver essential public health services at the local level. Seven years later, that plan has become the New Hampshire Public Health Network. The network now covers 67% of the New Hampshire population and includes 113 (48%) cities and towns. Pre- and postevaluations to assess local public health infrastructure at the inception of the program and following 2 years of funding and technical assistance showed significant improvement in local public health capacity and performance. This article describes the development of local public health structures in New Hampshire where none had previously existed. PMID:15711445

  9. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carols H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    Eaton, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a project that applies a combination of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology, anticipatory theory, and a near-term value proposition based on diagnostics and process uptime to ensure the security and reliability of critical electrical power infrastructure. Representatives of several Eaton business units have been engaged to ensure a viable commercialization plan. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), American Electric Power (AEP), PEPCO, and Commonwealth Edison were recruited as partners to confirm and refine the requirements definition from the perspective of the utilities that actually operate the facilities to be protected. Those utilities have cooperated with on-site field tests as the project proceeds. Accomplishments of this project included: (1) the design, modeling, and simulation of the anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) that will be used to gather field information for the anticipatory application, (2) the design and implementation of hardware and software prototypes for laboratory and field experimentation, (3) stack and application integration, (4) develop installation and test plan, and (5) refinement of the commercialization plan.

  10. Virtualization in network and servers infrastructure to support dynamic system reconfiguration in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Ovando, Nicolás.; Bartsch, Marcelo; Simmond, Max; Vélez, Gastón; Robles, Manuel; Soto, Rubén.; Ibsen, Jorge; Saldias, Christian

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is the first astronomical project being constructed and operated under industrial approach due to the huge amount of elements involved. In order to achieve the maximum through put during the engineering and scientific commissioning phase, several production lines have been established to work in parallel. This decision required modification in the original system architecture in which all the elements are controlled and operated within a unique Standard Test Environment (STE). The advance in the network industry and together with the maturity of virtualization paradigm allows us to provide a solution which can replicate the STE infrastructure without changing their network address definition. This is only possible with Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) and Virtual LAN (VLAN) concepts. The solution allows dynamic reconfiguration of antennas and other hardware across the production lines with minimum time and zero human intervention in the cabling. We also push the virtualization even further, classical rack mount servers are being replaced and consolidated by blade servers. On top of them virtualized server are centrally administrated with VMWare ESX. Hardware costs and system administration effort will be reduced considerably. This mechanism has been established and operated successfully during the last two years. This experience gave us confident to propose a solution to divide the main operation array into subarrays using the same concept which will introduce huge flexibility and efficiency for ALMA operation and eventually may simplify the complexity of ALMA core observing software since there will be no need to deal with subarrays complexity at software level.

  11. The potential of cellular network infrastructures for sudden rainfall monitoring in dry climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring of precipitation and in particular sudden rain, in rural dry climate regions, is a subject of great significance in several weather related processes such as soil erosion, flash flooding, triggering epidemics and more. The rainfall monitoring facilities in these regions and as a result precipitation data are, however, commonly, severely lacking. As was recently shown, cellular networks infrastructures supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in dry areas, covering large parts of these climatic zones. The potential found in these systems to provide early monitoring and essential precipitation information, directly from arid regions, based on standard measurements of commercial microwave links, is exemplified here over the Negev and the Southern Judean desert, South Israel. We present the results of two different rainfall events occurred in these regions. It is shown that the microwave system measured precipitation between at least 50 min (in case 1) and at least 1 h and 40 min (in case 2) before each of the sparse rain gauges. During each case, the radar system, located relatively far from the arid sites, provided measurements from heights of at least 1500 m and 2000 m above surface, respectively. A third case study demonstrates a relative advantage of microwave links to measure precipitation intensity with respect to the radar system, over an area of complex topography located in northeastern Israel, which is relatively far (~ 150 km) from the radar.

  12. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-11-15

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  13. A statistical model of hydrogen bond networks in liquid alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillrén, Per; Bielecki, Johan; Mattsson, Johan; Börjesson, Lars; Matic, Aleksandar

    2012-03-01

    We here present a statistical model of hydrogen bond induced network structures in liquid alcohols. The model generalises the Andersson-Schulz-Flory chain model to allow also for branched structures. Two bonding probabilities are assigned to each hydroxyl group oxygen, where the first is the probability of a lone pair accepting an H-bond and the second is the probability that given this bond also the second lone pair is bonded. The average hydroxyl group cluster size, cluster size distribution, and the number of branches and leaves in the tree-like network clusters are directly determined from these probabilities. The applicability of the model is tested by comparison to cluster size distributions and bonding probabilities obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the monoalcohols methanol, propanol, butanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether, the di-alcohol propylene glycol, and the tri-alcohol glycerol. We find that the tree model can reproduce the cluster size distributions and the bonding probabilities for both mono- and poly-alcohols, showing the branched nature of the OH-clusters in these liquids. Thus, this statistical model is a useful tool to better understand the structure of network forming hydrogen bonded liquids. The model can be applied to experimental data, allowing the topology of the clusters to be determined from such studies.

  14. A statistical model of hydrogen bond networks in liquid alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sillrén, Per; Bielecki, Johan; Mattsson, Johan; Börjesson, Lars; Matic, Aleksandar

    2012-03-01

    We here present a statistical model of hydrogen bond induced network structures in liquid alcohols. The model generalises the Andersson-Schulz-Flory chain model to allow also for branched structures. Two bonding probabilities are assigned to each hydroxyl group oxygen, where the first is the probability of a lone pair accepting an H-bond and the second is the probability that given this bond also the second lone pair is bonded. The average hydroxyl group cluster size, cluster size distribution, and the number of branches and leaves in the tree-like network clusters are directly determined from these probabilities. The applicability of the model is tested by comparison to cluster size distributions and bonding probabilities obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the monoalcohols methanol, propanol, butanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether, the di-alcohol propylene glycol, and the tri-alcohol glycerol. We find that the tree model can reproduce the cluster size distributions and the bonding probabilities for both mono- and poly-alcohols, showing the branched nature of the OH-clusters in these liquids. Thus, this statistical model is a useful tool to better understand the structure of network forming hydrogen bonded liquids. The model can be applied to experimental data, allowing the topology of the clusters to be determined from such studies. PMID:22401459

  15. Hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bonded network in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Je-Luen; Wingreen, Ned; Tang, Chao; Car, Roberto

    2004-03-01

    Hydrophobicity is the main driving force behind numerous important biological processes at molecular level, including protein folding and the formation of biological membranes. Yet few experimental probes can measure the local water structure around a hydrophobic solute, and our understanding of the detailed structure of hydrophobic hydration has to rely on molecular dynamics simulation. As a model system, several groups studied two methane molecules in liquid water and obtained the potential of mean force using Lennard-Jones potential and various water models. However, hydrophobic effect critically depends on the description of hydrogen-bonded network, and classical simulations may not be sufficient to descirbe the forming and breaking of hydrogen bonds. In this work, we apply ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study this model system. Besides the potential of mean force between 2 methanes in water, the role of the local water structure will be highlighted.

  16. An open, component-based information infrastructure for integrated health information networks.

    PubMed

    Tsiknakis, Manolis; Katehakis, Dimitrios G; Orphanoudakis, Stelios C

    2002-12-18

    A fundamental requirement for achieving continuity of care is the seamless sharing of multimedia clinical information. Different technological approaches can be adopted for enabling the communication and sharing of health record segments. In the context of the emerging global information society, the creation of and access to the integrated electronic health record (I-EHR) of a citizen has been assigned high priority in many countries. This requirement is complementary to an overall requirement for the creation of a health information infrastructure (HII) to support the provision of a variety of health telematics and e-health services. In developing a regional or national HII, the components or building blocks that make up the overall information system ought to be defined and an appropriate component architecture specified. This paper discusses current international priorities and trends in developing the HII. It presents technological challenges and alternative approaches towards the creation of an I-EHR, being the aggregation of health data created during all interactions of an individual with the healthcare system. It also presents results from an ongoing Research and Development (R&D) effort towards the implementation of the HII in HYGEIAnet, the regional health information network of Crete, Greece, using a component-based software engineering approach. Critical design decisions and related trade-offs, involved in the process of component specification and development, are also discussed and the current state of development of an I-EHR service is presented. Finally, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and security issues, which are important for the deployment and use of any I-EHR service, are considered. PMID:12467787

  17. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model.

    PubMed

    Pinthong, Watthanai; Muangruen, Panya; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Mairiang, Dumrong

    2016-01-01

    Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC) is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software. PMID:27547555

  18. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model

    PubMed Central

    Pinthong, Watthanai; Muangruen, Panya

    2016-01-01

    Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC) is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software. PMID:27547555

  19. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  20. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. PMID:27146689

  1. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  2. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    GIS-based system can be for effective and efficient disaster response management. In the coming years our GIS application will be a data base containing all information needed for the evaluation of risk sites along the Gotthard line. Our GIS application can help the technical management to decide about protection measures because of, in addition to the visualisation, tools for spatial data analysis will be available. REFERENCES Bründl M. (Ed.) 2009 : Risikokonzept für Naturgefahren - Leitfaden. Nationale Plattform für Naturgefahren PLANAT, Bern. 416 S. BUWAL 1999: Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode, Fallbeispiele und Daten (Risk analyses for gravitational natural hazards). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL). Umwelt-Materialen Nr. 107, 1-244. Loat, R. & Zimmermann, M. 2004: La gestion des risques en Suisse (Risk Management in Switzerland). In: Veyret, Y., Garry, G., Meschinet de Richemont, N. & Armand Colin (eds) 2002: Colloque Arche de la Défense 22-24 octobre 2002, dans Risques naturels et aménagement en Europe, 108-120. Maggi R. et al, 2009: Evaluation of the optimal resilience for vulnerable infrastructure networks. An interdisciplinary pilot study on the transalpine transportation corridors, NRP 54 "Sustainable Development of the Built Environment", Projekt Nr. 405 440, Final Scientific Report, Lugano

  3. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption with 3D silicon nanotube-network and film-network structures: Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Kang, Zhan; Huang, Xiaobo

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen is clean, sustainable, and renewable, thus is viewed as promising energy carrier. However, its industrial utilization is greatly hampered by the lack of effective hydrogen storage and release method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were viewed as one of the potential hydrogen containers, but it has been proved that pure CNTs cannot attain the desired target capacity of hydrogen storage. In this paper, we present a numerical study on the material-driven and structure-driven hydrogen adsorption of 3D silicon networks and propose a deformation-driven hydrogen desorption approach based on molecular simulations. Two types of 3D nanostructures, silicon nanotube-network (Si-NN) and silicon film-network (Si-FN), are first investigated in terms of hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. It is revealed that the hydrogen storage capacity is determined by the lithium doping ratio and geometrical parameters, and the maximum hydrogen uptake can be achieved by a 3D nanostructure with optimal configuration and doping ratio obtained through design optimization technique. For hydrogen desorption, a mechanical-deformation-driven-hydrogen-release approach is proposed. Compared with temperature/pressure change-induced hydrogen desorption method, the proposed approach is so effective that nearly complete hydrogen desorption can be achieved by Si-FN nanostructures under sufficient compression but without structural failure observed. The approach is also reversible since the mechanical deformation in Si-FN nanostructures can be elastically recovered, which suggests a good reusability. This study may shed light on the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption and desorption and thus provide useful guidance toward engineering design of microstructural hydrogen (or other gas) adsorption materials.

  4. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption with 3D silicon nanotube-network and film-network structures: Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Huang, Xiaobo; Kang, Zhan

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen is clean, sustainable, and renewable, thus is viewed as promising energy carrier. However, its industrial utilization is greatly hampered by the lack of effective hydrogen storage and release method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were viewed as one of the potential hydrogen containers, but it has been proved that pure CNTs cannot attain the desired target capacity of hydrogen storage. In this paper, we present a numerical study on the material-driven and structure-driven hydrogen adsorption of 3D silicon networks and propose a deformation-driven hydrogen desorption approach based on molecular simulations. Two types of 3D nanostructures, silicon nanotube-network (Si-NN) and silicon film-network (Si-FN), are first investigated in terms of hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. It is revealed that the hydrogen storage capacity is determined by the lithium doping ratio and geometrical parameters, and the maximum hydrogen uptake can be achieved by a 3D nanostructure with optimal configuration and doping ratio obtained through design optimization technique. For hydrogen desorption, a mechanical-deformation-driven-hydrogen-release approach is proposed. Compared with temperature/pressure change-induced hydrogen desorption method, the proposed approach is so effective that nearly complete hydrogen desorption can be achieved by Si-FN nanostructures under sufficient compression but without structural failure observed. The approach is also reversible since the mechanical deformation in Si-FN nanostructures can be elastically recovered, which suggests a good reusability. This study may shed light on the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption and desorption and thus provide useful guidance toward engineering design of microstructural hydrogen (or other gas) adsorption materials.

  5. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  6. Networks for People: TIIAP at Work. The Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Christopher

    The Department of Commerce's Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program (TIIAP) is designed to address technology needs in the public and nonprofit sectors of the United States. This report is one of many ways that TIIAP is sharing the stories and the lessons that are being learned by recipients of TIIAP awards. The case…

  7. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network: a national infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Califf, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The current clinical research system does not produce high-quality evidence quickly enough to support health care decision making. The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (PCORnet) embodies a novel strategy for creating a national "network of networks" that is capable of significantly accelerating evidence generation to support a learning health system. PMID:24830497

  8. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes" are…

  9. Challenges in network science: Applications to infrastructures, climate, social systems and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Bunde, A.; Cohen, R.; Hermann, H.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Kertész, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Kurths, J.; Portugali, J.; Solomon, S.

    2012-11-01

    Network theory has become one of the most visible theoretical frameworks that can be applied to the description, analysis, understanding, design and repair of multi-level complex systems. Complex networks occur everywhere, in man-made and human social systems, in organic and inorganic matter, from nano to macro scales, and in natural and anthropogenic structures. New applications are developed at an ever-increasing rate and the promise for future growth is high, since increasingly we interact with one another within these vital and complex environments. Despite all the great successes of this field, crucial aspects of multi-level complex systems have been largely ignored. Important challenges of network science are to take into account many of these missing realistic features such as strong coupling between networks (networks are not isolated), the dynamics of networks (networks are not static), interrelationships between structure, dynamics and function of networks, interdependencies in given networks (and other classes of links, including different signs of interactions), and spatial properties (including geographical aspects) of networks. This aim of this paper is to introduce and discuss the challenges that future network science needs to address, and how different disciplines will be accordingly affected.

  10. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  11. A network of field test sites as a platform for research on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Frangopol, Dan M.; Ghasemi, Hamid; Shenton, Harry W.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Madanat, Samar

    2004-07-01

    An effort is currently underway to create an Engineering Research Consortium Initiative (ERCI) focused on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure. The goal of the ERCI will be to provide administrative and logistical support for a coordinated, problem-focused research program on the highway transportation infrastructure system. The cornerstone of the initiative will be field test-sites. Example sites might include major long span bridges, sample populations of operating bridges, decommissioned bridges, a regional network of highways and bridges, various types of pavement and geotechnical structures, or a major transportation hub serving a metropolitan area. Sites would be instrumented to collect a broad range of engineering (structural, geotechnical, hydraulic), human (traffic) and natural (climatological, seismological) response data. The field sites would be networked to provide real-time access to test facilities across the country; a secure central repository would be established for collecting data from the sites. The data and information gathered from these sites would be used by engineers and scientists to study the complex interactions and cause-and-effect relations of the various engineered, human and natural components of the highway hyper-system. A major research thrust of the ERCI will be security of the highway infrastructure system, with particular emphasis on bridges. The National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration are expected to provide funding for the program through a joint agency initiative. Two workshops were recently held with experts from around the world to discuss the plans for the ERCI. The paper provides more details on the ERCI and the status of the effort to date.

  12. Rotational Spectra of Hydrogen Bonded Networks of Amino Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectra of several different amino alcohols including D/L-allo-threoninol, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol and 1,3-diamino-2-propanol over the 6.5-18.5 GHz range have been investigated under jet-cooled conditions using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Despite the small size of these molecules, a great variety of conformations have been observed in the molecular expansion. While the NH2 group is typically thought of as a H-bond acceptor, it often acts both as acceptor and donor in forming H-bonded networks. With three adjacent H-bonding substituents (a combination of OH and NH2 groups), many different hydrogen bonding patterns are possible, including H-bonded chains and H-bonded cycles. Since many of these structures differ primarily by the relative orientation of the H-atoms, the analysis of these rotational spectra are challenging. Only through an exhaustive conformational search and the comparison with the experimental rotational constants, nuclear quadrupolar splittings, and line strengths are we able to understand the complex nature of these interactions. The ways in which the presence and number of NH2 groups affects the relative energies, and distorts the structures will be explored.

  13. Test Plan of the Anticipatory Wirelss Sensor Network for the Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Rentel

    2006-09-01

    The test plan for the performance of the Anticipatory Wireless Sensor Network (A-WSN) is presented. The results of the test campaigns will be obtained after actual measurements are taken in the field with the Wireless Sensor Network developed by The Innovation Center-Eaton Corp., and the Anticipatory algorithms developed by ORNL.

  14. Boosting Bandwidth: Colleges Are Upgrading Their Network Infrastructure to Support Next-Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, nearly half of U.S. community colleges--46.2 percent-- said upgrading their campus networks is a "very important priority" within the next three years, according to The Campus Computing Project, a survey of 94 community colleges. More robust networks are needed to support a host of new wireless access points and the…

  15. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  16. Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

    2009-05-01

    Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

  17. Web-Based Community Networks: Emerging Information Infrastructures for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    1999-01-01

    Considers recent developments in Web-based community networks. Examines fundamental attributes and describes various types of paradigms. Presents considerations for the planning process, which address implementation, technical, budgetary, design, operational, and functional issues and concerns. (Author/AEF)

  18. Bandwidth provisioning in infrastructure-based wireless networks employing directional antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Hasiviswanthan, Shiva; Zhao, Bo; Vasudevan, Sudarshan; Yrgaonkar, Bhuvan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread proliferation of wireless networks employing directional antennas, we study the problem of provisioning bandwidth in such networks. Given a set of subscribers and one or more access points possessing directional antennas, we formalize the problem of orienting these antennas in two fundamental settings: (1) subscriber-centric, where the objective is to fairly allocate bandwidth among the subscribers and (2) provider-centric, where the objective is to maximize the revenue generated by satisfying the bandwidth requirements of subscribers. For both the problems, we first design algorithms for a network with only one access point working under the assumption that the number of antennas does not exceed the number of noninterfering channels. Using the well-regarded lexicographic max-min fair allocation as the objective for a subscriber-centric network, we present an optimum dynamic programming algorithm. For a provider-centric network, the allocation problem turns out to be NP-hard. We present a greedy heuristic based algorithm that guarantees almost half of the optimum revenue. We later enhance both these algorithms to operate in more general networks with multiple access points and no restrictions on the relative numbers of antennas and channels. A simulation-based evaluation using OPNET demonstrates the efficacy of our approaches and provides us further in insights into these problems.

  19. IAS telecommunication infrastructure and value added network services provided by IASNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Oleg L.; Marchenko, Sergei

    The topology of a packet switching network for the Soviet National Centre for Automated Data Exchange with Foreign Computer Networks and Databanks (NCADE) based on a design by the Institute for Automated Systems (IAS) is discussed. NCADE has partners all over the world: it is linked to East European countries via telephone lines while satellites are used for communication with remote partners, such as Cuba, Mongolia, and Vietnam. Moreover, there is a connection to the Austrian, British, Canadian, Finnish, French, U.S. and other western networks through which users can have access to databases on each network. At the same time, NCADE provides western customers with access to more than 70 Soviet databases. Software and hardware of IASNET use data exchange recommendations agreed with the International Standard Organization (ISO) and International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT). Technical parameters of IASNET are compatible with the majority of foreign networks such as DATAPAK, TRANSPAC, TELENET, and others. By means of IASNET, the NCADE provides connection of Soviet and foreign users to information and computer centers around the world on the basis of the CCITT X.25 and X.75 recommendations. Any information resources of IASNET and value added network services, such as computer teleconferences, E-mail, information retrieval system, intelligent support of access to databanks and databases, and others are discussed. The topology of the ACADEMNET connected to IASNET over an X.25 gateway is also discussed.

  20. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Development: Applications, Infrastructure, and Middleware/Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-06-30

    The status of and future plans for the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) hinge on software that PCMDI is either currently distributing or plans to distribute to the climate community in the near future. These software products include standard conventions, national and international federated infrastructures, and community analysis and visualization tools. This report also mentions other secondary software not necessarily led by or developed at PCMDI to provide a complete picture of the overarching applications, infrastructures, and middleware/networks. Much of the software described anticipates the use of future technologies envisioned over the span of next year to 10 years. These technologies, together with the software, will be the catalyst required to address extreme-scale data warehousing, scalability issues, and service-level requirements for a diverse set of well-known projects essential for predicting climate change. These tools, unlike the previous static analysis tools of the past, will support the co-existence of many users in a productive, shared virtual environment. This advanced technological world driven by extreme-scale computing and the data it generates will increase scientists’ productivity, exploit national and international relationships, and push research to new levels of understanding.

  1. Expanding the Usefulness of Existing Data-Collection Infrastructure with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, considerable effort has been expended to construct data collection networks with real-time data collection. The U.S. Geological Survey’s streamflow-gaging stations compose one such network, with over 7,000 stations providing hourly data nationwide primarily via GOES satellite telemetry. Real-time telemetry is a critical component of a robust data collection protocol, allowing problems to be identified as they occur. These existing data collection networks offer a significant opportunity for expansion with wireless sensor networks. Common to nearly every USGS gaging station, and many other real-time networks, is a data logger with an SDI-12 interface for connecting sensors. SDI-12 is an ASCII text-based serial protocol that provides a standardized method for data loggers to communicate with sensors (www.sdi-12.org). A hardware/firmware module recently developed at USGS bridges this SDI-12 interface on data loggers with commercially available wireless sensor network hardware, such as Crossbow MICA2 motes or ZigBee mesh radios. The module appears as a single SDI-12 sensor to the data logger. With each measurement command from the data logger to the module, a request for data is sent out to each node in the wireless sensor network. These data are then formatted into the appropriate SDI-12 response from the module to the data logger, with tags identifying the measurement node. The combined data from all sensors is then transmitted by the data logger to the USGS National Water Information System database, where it is parsed and stored under the appropriate sensor location. The main advantages of bridging the SDI-12 interface with wireless sensor networks are (1) sensors can be deployed in the general vicinity of gaging stations or other platforms, to take advantage of existing real-time telemetry, without being constrained by physical cabling, (2) the wireless sensor network is seen as a single SDI-12 sensor at the data logger, with consequent

  2. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, Tom; Ghani, Nasir; Boyd, Eric

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  3. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  4. The RITMARE coastal radar network and applications to monitor marine transport infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Paola; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Cosoli, Simone; Griffa, Annalisa; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Mantovani, Carlo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Pepe, Monica; Raffa, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Uttieri, Marco; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Coastal radars provide information on the environmental state of oceans, namely maps of surface currents at time intervals of the order of one hour with spatial coverage of the order of several km, depending on the transmission frequency. The observations are of crucial importance for monitoring ports and ship tracks close to the coast, providing support for safe navigation in densely operated areas and fast response in case of accidents at sea, such as oil spill or search and rescue. Besides these applications, coastal radar observations provide fundamental support in MPAs surveillance, connectivity and marine population circulation. In the framework of the Italian RITMARE flagship project coordinated by CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche), a coastal radar network has been designed and implemented with a number of innovative characteristics. The network includes both HF and X-band radars, allowing coverage of wide areas with different spatial and temporal resolutions. HF radars cover up to 80 km with a spatial resolution ranging between 1 and 5 km, while X-band radars provide 5 km coverage with a spatial resolution of 10 m. Joining these two capabilities, the RITMARE coastal radar network enables both a highly effective coverage of wide coastal areas and integrated monitoring of different phenomena, thus allowing the collection of current and wave parameters and detection of bathymetries of both open sea and coastal areas. A dedicated action to foster interoperability among data providers has been undertaken within RITMARE; an IT framework is under development to provide software tools for data collection and data sharing. It suggests standard, data format definitions, Quality Control strategies, data management and dissemination policies. In particular, the implementation of tools exploits both standards of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and web services offered to manage, access and deliver geospatial data. Radar data produced in RITMARE by the coastal

  5. Cooperating Mobile GIS and Wireless Sensor Networks for Managing Transportation Infrastructures in Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shad, R.; Abazari, N.; Alizadeh, A.; Choghooni, M.

    2013-10-01

    Time management is a major subject which, in order to optimize trip conditions, emphasizes on interpreting processes and classifying individual's information. In this paper, with the aim of providing an optimal system for urban commuting in proper time in Mashhad, each user using SMS and introducing some of his/her mental priorities to the system, will be able to select the best option depending on the timing of movement of the available public transport system. The present study adopts a newly developed method of time management which is evaluated for urban transportation considering dynamic conditions of a spatial database. For this purpose, regarding time management, processed data such as bus lines, taxi networks, and the subway system are combined in a spatial framework of a designed Mobile GIS based on a wireless network. So, multiple potential paths which end to a desirable destination.

  6. Development of Real-Time Soil Carbon Ecoinformatics Infrastructure Using Observational Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    To understand and model the temporal variability of soil respiration, we need high frequency, long-term data sets for model development and validation. Three observational stations equipped with Continuous Timeseries-Forced Diffusion (CTFD) probes were deployed in the summer of 2010 across a 1000 km transect in Atlantic Canada. At half hourly resolution, each observational station records soil CO2 efflux from two (2) probes and from a suite of meteorological sensors and peripherals. Each station is equipped with telemetry and data is continuously downloaded, quality controlled, processed, and made available for online display via several CGI, Java, and Perl scripts (http://fluxlab.stfx.ca/fieldsites/). This small network is intended to be the beginning developments of a larger Ecoinformatics Network. This presentation will display early data from this network and summarize real-time modeling efforts. The high-frequency observations show extremely dynamic systems which demonstrate CO2 efflux dependency to temperature and other important environmental drivers; pronounced increases in CO2 efflux after rain; differences across spatial scales; and short-term lags in data owing to gas or thermal transport. Other measurement methods (i.e. chambers) may miss many of these short-term flux variations in the absence of continuous data collection. Intra-site temporal observations (at sub-meter scale) show that spatially variable fluxes have similar scales of amplitude variation. All sites seem to show similar scales of temporal variability but CO2 fluxes can lag between probes across various time scales. These results suggest that site variably may be captured by measurements at only a few representative locations with high temporal frequency. Observation efforts will continue to monitor over winter and will provide unique data measuring fluxes under the snow pack at the soil interface. A key goal of this Ecoinformatics Network system is to develop improved soil models

  7. Towards a unified description of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water: A dynamics based approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah Zhou, Tiecheng; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-07

    The definition of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) is intimately related to the topological and dynamic properties of the hydrogen bond network within liquid water. The development of a universal H-bond definition for water is an active area of research as it would remove many ambiguities in the network properties that derive from the fixed definition employed to assign whether a water dimer is hydrogen bonded. This work investigates the impact that an electronic-structure based definition, an energetic, and a geometric definition of the H-bond has upon both topological and dynamic network behavior of simulated water. In each definition, the use of a cutoff (either geometric or energetic) to assign the presence of a H-bond leads to the formation of transiently bonded or broken dimers, which have been quantified within the simulation data. The relative concentration of transient species, and their duration, results in two of the three definitions sharing similarities in either topological or dynamic features (H-bond distribution, H-bond lifetime, etc.), however no two definitions exhibit similar behavior for both classes of network properties. In fact, two networks with similar local network topology (as indicated by similar average H-bonds) can have dramatically different global network topology (as indicated by the defect state distributions) and altered H-bond lifetimes. A dynamics based correction scheme is then used to remove artificially transient H-bonds and to repair artificially broken bonds within the network such that the corrected network exhibits the same structural and dynamic properties for two H-bond definitions (the properties of the third definition being significantly improved). The algorithm described represents a significant step forward in the development of a unified hydrogen bond network whose properties are independent of the original hydrogen bond definition that is employed.

  8. Usage of Wireless Sensor Networks in a service based spatial data infrastructure for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Walter, K.; Kallash, A.; Niemeyer, F.; Azzam, R.; Bill, R.

    2007-12-01

    The joint project Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System (SLEWS) aims at a systematic development of a prototyping alarm- and early warning system for the detection of mass movements by application of an ad hoc wireless sensor network (WSN). Next to the development of suitable sensor setups, sensor fusion and network fusion are applied to enhance data quality and reduce false alarm rates. Of special interest is the data retrieval, processing and visualization in GI-Systems. Therefore a suitable serviced based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) will be developed with respect to existing and upcoming Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards.The application of WSN provides a cheap and easy to set up solution for special monitoring and data gathering in large areas. Measurement data from different low-cost transducers for deformation observation (acceleration, displacement, tilting) is collected by distributed sensor nodes (motes), which interact separately and connect each other in a self-organizing manner. Data are collected and aggregated at the beacon (transmission station) and further operations like data pre-processing and compression can be performed. The WSN concept provides next to energy efficiency, miniaturization, real-time monitoring and remote operation, but also new monitoring strategies like sensor and network fusion. Since not only single sensors can be integrated at single motes either cross-validation or redundant sensor setups are possible to enhance data quality. The planned monitoring and information system will include a mobile infrastructure (information technologies and communication components) as well as methods and models to estimate surface deformation parameters (positioning systems). The measurements result in heterogeneous observation sets that have to be integrated in a common adjustment and filtering approach. Reliable real-time information will be obtained using a range of sensor input and algorithms, from which early warnings

  9. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    Due to the topographical conditions in Switzerland, the highways and the railway lines are frequently exposed to natural hazards as rockfalls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and others. With the rising incidence of those natural hazards, protection measures become an important political issue. However, they are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. Furthermore risks are distributed in space and time. Consequently, important decision problems to the public sector decision makers are derived. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Efficient protection alternatives can be obtained consequently considering the concept of integral risk management. Risk analysis, as the central part of risk management, has become gradually a generally accepted approach for the assessment of current and future scenarios (Loat & Zimmermann 2004). The procedure aims at risk reduction which can be reached by conventional mitigation on one hand and the implementation of land-use planning on the other hand: a combination of active and passive mitigation measures is applied to prevent damage to buildings, people and infrastructures. With a Geographical Information System adapted to run with a tool developed to manage Risk analysis it is possible to survey the data in time and space, obtaining an important system for managing natural risks. As a framework, we adopt the Swiss system for risk analysis of gravitational natural hazards (BUWAL 1999). It offers a complete framework for the analysis and assessment of risks due to natural hazards, ranging from hazard assessment for gravitational natural hazards, such as landslides, collapses, rockfalls, floodings, debris flows and avalanches, to vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, and the integration into land use planning at the cantonal and municipality level. The scheme is limited to the direct consequences of natural hazards. Thus, we develop a

  10. Virtual machine-based simulation platform for mobile ad-hoc network-based cyber infrastructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yoginath, Srikanth B.; Perumalla, Kayla S.; Henz, Brian J.

    2015-09-29

    In modeling and simulating complex systems such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) in de-fense communications, it is a major challenge to reconcile multiple important considerations: the rapidity of unavoidable changes to the software (network layers and applications), the difficulty of modeling the critical, implementation-dependent behavioral effects, the need to sustain larger scale scenarios, and the desire for faster simulations. Here we present our approach in success-fully reconciling them using a virtual time-synchronized virtual machine(VM)-based parallel ex-ecution framework that accurately lifts both the devices as well as the network communications to a virtual time plane while retaining full fidelity. At themore » core of our framework is a scheduling engine that operates at the level of a hypervisor scheduler, offering a unique ability to execute multi-core guest nodes over multi-core host nodes in an accurate, virtual time-synchronized manner. In contrast to other related approaches that suffer from either speed or accuracy issues, our framework provides MANET node-wise scalability, high fidelity of software behaviors, and time-ordering accuracy. The design and development of this framework is presented, and an ac-tual implementation based on the widely used Xen hypervisor system is described. Benchmarks with synthetic and actual applications are used to identify the benefits of our approach. The time inaccuracy of traditional emulation methods is demonstrated, in comparison with the accurate execution of our framework verified by theoretically correct results expected from analytical models of the same scenarios. In the largest high fidelity tests, we are able to perform virtual time-synchronized simulation of 64-node VM-based full-stack, actual software behaviors of MANETs containing a mix of static and mobile (unmanned airborne vehicle) nodes, hosted on a 32-core host, with full fidelity of unmodified ad-hoc routing protocols, unmodified

  11. Virtual machine-based simulation platform for mobile ad-hoc network-based cyber infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B.; Perumalla, Kayla S.; Henz, Brian J.

    2015-09-29

    In modeling and simulating complex systems such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) in de-fense communications, it is a major challenge to reconcile multiple important considerations: the rapidity of unavoidable changes to the software (network layers and applications), the difficulty of modeling the critical, implementation-dependent behavioral effects, the need to sustain larger scale scenarios, and the desire for faster simulations. Here we present our approach in success-fully reconciling them using a virtual time-synchronized virtual machine(VM)-based parallel ex-ecution framework that accurately lifts both the devices as well as the network communications to a virtual time plane while retaining full fidelity. At the core of our framework is a scheduling engine that operates at the level of a hypervisor scheduler, offering a unique ability to execute multi-core guest nodes over multi-core host nodes in an accurate, virtual time-synchronized manner. In contrast to other related approaches that suffer from either speed or accuracy issues, our framework provides MANET node-wise scalability, high fidelity of software behaviors, and time-ordering accuracy. The design and development of this framework is presented, and an ac-tual implementation based on the widely used Xen hypervisor system is described. Benchmarks with synthetic and actual applications are used to identify the benefits of our approach. The time inaccuracy of traditional emulation methods is demonstrated, in comparison with the accurate execution of our framework verified by theoretically correct results expected from analytical models of the same scenarios. In the largest high fidelity tests, we are able to perform virtual time-synchronized simulation of 64-node VM-based full-stack, actual software behaviors of MANETs containing a mix of static and mobile (unmanned airborne vehicle) nodes, hosted on a 32-core host, with full fidelity of unmodified ad-hoc routing protocols, unmodified application

  12. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  13. Quantum delocalization of protons in the hydrogen-bond network of an enzyme active site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Fried, Stephen D.; Boxer, Steven G.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes use protein architectures to create highly specialized structural motifs that can greatly enhance the rates of complex chemical transformations. Here, we use experiments, combined with ab initio simulations that exactly include nuclear quantum effects, to show that a triad of strongly hydrogen-bonded tyrosine residues within the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) facilitates quantum proton delocalization. This delocalization dramatically stabilizes the deprotonation of an active-site tyrosine residue, resulting in a very large isotope effect on its acidity. When an intermediate analog is docked, it is incorporated into the hydrogen-bond network, giving rise to extended quantum proton delocalization in the active site. These results shed light on the role of nuclear quantum effects in the hydrogen-bond network that stabilizes the reactive intermediate of KSI, and the behavior of protons in biological systems containing strong hydrogen bonds. PMID:25503367

  14. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  15. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN): Infrastructure upgrade to support Earthquake Early Warning (EEW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, R. J.; Hauksson, E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, aftershock probabilities and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalOES, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and implementation of the demonstration EEW system called CISN ShakeAlert. Initially, the ShakeAlert project was funded through the US Geological Survey (USGS) and in early 2012, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation provided three years of new funding for EEW research and development for the US west coast. Recently, we have also received some Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI) funding to enhance the EEW capabilities for the local UASI region by making our system overall faster, more reliable and redundant than the existing system. The additional and upgraded stations will be capable of decreasing latency and ensuring data delivery by using more reliable and redundant telemetry pathways. Overall, this will enhance the reliability of the earthquake early warnings by providing denser station coverage and more resilient data centers than before. * Seismic Datalogger upgrade: replaces existing dataloggers with modern equipment capable of sending one-second uncompressed packets and utilizing redundant Ethernet telemetry. * GPS upgrade: replaces the existing GPS receivers and antennas, especially at "zipper array" sites near the major faults, with receivers that perform on-board precise point positioning to calculate position and velocity in real time and stream continuous data for use in EEW calculations. * New co-located seismic/GPS stations: increases station density and reduces early warning delays that are incurred by travel

  16. A Preorganized Hydrogen Bond Network and Its Effect on Anion Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, Masoud; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2014-08-07

    Rigid tricyclic locked in all axial 1,3,5-cyclohexanetriol derivatives with 0–3 trifluoromethyl groups were synthesized and photoelectron spectra of their conjugate bases and chloride anion clusters are reported along with density functional computations. The resulting vertical and adiabatic detachment energies provide measures of the anion stabilization due to the hydrogen bond network and inductive effects. The latter mechanism is found to be transmitted through space via hydrogen bonds

  17. Alignment of paired molecules of C60 within a hexagonal platform networked through hydrogen-bonds.

    PubMed

    Hisaki, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Shoichi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Tohnai, Norimitsu

    2016-07-28

    We demonstrate, for the first time, that a hydrogen-bonded low-density organic framework can be applied as a platform to achieve periodic alignment of paired molecules of C60, which is the smallest example of a finite-numbered cluster of C60. The framework is a layered assembly of a hydrogen-bonded 2D hexagonal network (LA-H-HexNet) composed of dodecadehydrotribenzo[18]annulene derivatives. PMID:27417325

  18. Probing Defects and Correlations in the Hydrogen-Bond Network of ab Initio Water.

    PubMed

    Gasparotto, Piero; Hassanali, Ali A; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-04-12

    The hydrogen-bond network of water is characterized by the presence of coordination defects relative to the ideal tetrahedral network of ice, whose fluctuations determine the static and time-dependent properties of the liquid. Because of topological constraints, such defects do not come alone but are highly correlated coming in a plethora of different pairs. Here we discuss in detail such correlations in the case of ab initio water models and show that they have interesting similarities to regular and defective solid phases of water. Although defect correlations involve deviations from idealized tetrahedrality, they can still be regarded as weaker hydrogen bonds that retain a high degree of directionality. We also investigate how the structure and population of coordination defects is affected by approximations to the interatomic potential, finding that, in most cases, the qualitative features of the hydrogen-bond network are remarkably robust. PMID:26881726

  19. Two-dimensional interlocked pentagonal bilayer ice: how do water molecules form a hydrogen bonding network?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiduo; Zhao, Wen-Hui; Wang, Lu; Yin, Di; Jia, Min; Yang, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Yuan, Lan-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The plethora of ice structures observed both in bulk and under nanoscale confinement reflects the extraordinary ability of water molecules to form diverse forms of hydrogen bonding networks. An ideal hydrogen bonding network of water should satisfy three requirements: (1) four hydrogen bonds connected with every water molecule, (2) nearly linear hydrogen bonds, and (3) tetrahedral configuration for the four hydrogen bonds around an O atom. However, under nanoscale confinement, some of the three requirements have to be unmet, and the selection of the specific requirement(s) leads to different types of hydrogen bonding structures. According to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for water confined between two smooth hydrophobic walls, we obtain a phase diagram of three two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structures and a bilayer liquid. A new 2D bilayer ice is found and named the interlocked pentagonal bilayer ice (IPBI), because its side view comprises interlocked pentagonal channels. The basic motif in the top view of IPBI is a large hexagon composed of four small pentagons, resembling the top view of a previously reported "coffin" bilayer ice [Johnston, et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2010, 133, 154516]. First-principles optimizations suggest that both bilayer ices are stable. However, there are fundamental differences between the two bilayer structures due to the difference in the selection among the three requirements. The IPBI sacrifices the linearity of hydrogen bonds to retain locally tetrahedral configurations of the hydrogen bonds, whereas the coffin structure does the opposite. The tradeoff between the conditions of an ideal hydrogen bonding network can serve as a generic guidance to understand the rich phase behaviors of nanoconfined water. PMID:27063210

  20. Networks of ultrasmall Pd/Cr bilayer nanowires as high performance hydrogen sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X.-Q.; Wang, Y.-L.; Deng, H.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z.-L.; Pearson, J.; Xu, T.; Wang, H.-H.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed hydrogen sensor, based on a network of ultrasmall pure palladium nanowires sputter-deposited on a filtration membrane, takes advantage of single palladium nanowires' characteristics of high speed and sensitivity while eliminating their nanofabrication obstacles. However, this new type of sensor, like the single palladium nanowires, cannot distinguish hydrogen concentrations above 3%, thus limiting the potential applications of the sensor. This study reports hydrogen sensors based on a network of ultrasmall Cr-buffered Pd (Pd/Cr) nanowires on a filtration membrane. These sensors not only are able to outperform their pure Pd counterparts in speed and durability but also allow hydrogen detection at concentrations up to 100%. The new networks consist of a thin layer of palladium deposited on top of a Cr adhesion layer 1-3 nm thick. Although the Cr layer is insensitive to hydrogen, it enables the formation of a network of continuous Pd/Cr nanowires with thicknesses of the Pd layer as thin as 2 nm. The improved performance of the Pd/Cr sensors can be attributed to the increased surface area to volume ratio and to the confinement-induced suppression of the phase transition from Pd/H solid solution ({alpha}-phase) to Pd hydride ({beta}-phase).

  1. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Compassionate use' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of 'compassionate use' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726/2004/EC is clear on the intentions of 'compassionate use' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that 'compassionate use' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for 'compassionate use' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions 'Compassionate use' is a misleading term and should be replaced with 'expanded access'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes. PMID:21073691

  2. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  3. The Seamount Catalog: Creating a Data Infrastructure for the Seamount Biogeoscience Network (SBN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A. A.; Minett, R.; Staudigel, D.; Konter, J.; Martin, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Seamount Biogeoscience Network (SBN), an international and interdisciplinary association of seamount scientists, argues that seamount research can fundamentally benefit from promoting collaboration and improved data sharing between seamount science disciplines. Seamount scientists cover a wide range of biological sciences, geochemistry, geophysics, geology and physical oceanography. An effective SBN data resource has to be capable of helping access a wide range of disciplinary data relevant to all these fields, but the need for bathymetry data is common to all disciplines. The SBN has used the Seamount Catalog (SC) as its main data portal with a capability of carrying any data, but focusing on bathymetry. Recent SC developments aimed atfacilitating interoperability with other data bases, expanding its contents, and creating an interface that is easy to use on almost any expert level, similarly useful for specialists and interdisciplinary scientists, as well as educational users. Key to interoperability is our choice of giving each seamount an identifier that is made up by an alphanumeric combination of the latitude and longitude values (of the midpoint of the seamount). This identifier serves as a unique name, but it may also be parsed into its geospatial information. Data contents of the SC have now grown to more than 2,500 seamounts worldwide, with a cumulative data inventory of 800 Gb. A variety of search methods are offered by name or location, whereby the latter includes a recent application of "Google Maps" as a particularly promising method of visualizing available information in the user's browser. On the Seamount Catalog website seamounts can be compared or quickly identified through thumbnails and an "index card" with a tabulated description of its size and some vital statistics (size, volume, shape) and a listing of files that can be viewed and/or downloaded from the SC. These files may include any type of data, but the SC focus currently is on

  4. Integration in primary community care networks (PCCNs): examination of governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information infrastructures in a national demonstration project in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Background Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN) demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals) within individual PCCNs. Methods The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures – governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003–2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Results Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. Conclusion There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at the early stage of network

  5. Hydrogen-Bond Networks: Strengths of Different Types of Hydrogen Bonds and An Alternative to the Low Barrier Hydrogen-Bond Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2013-11-27

    We report quantifying the strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds in hydrogen bond networks (HBNs) via measurement of the adiabatic electron detachment energy of the conjugate base of a small covalent polyol model compound (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) in the gas phase and the pKa of the corresponding acid in DMSO. The latter result reveals that the hydrogen bonds to the charged center and those that are one solvation shell further away (i.e., primary and secondary) provide 5.3 and 2.5 pKa units of stabilization per hydrogen bond in DMSO. Computations indicate that these energies increase to 8.4 and 3.9 pKa units in benzene and that the total stabilizations are 16 (DMSO) and 25 (benzene) pKa units. Calculations on a larger linear heptaol (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) reveal that the terminal hydroxyl groups each contribute 0.6 pKa units of stabilization in DMSO and 1.1 pKa units in benzene. All of these results taken together indicate that the presence of a charged center can provide a powerful energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN.

  6. Calcium-decorated carbyne networks as hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Pavel B; Lee, Hoonkyung; Antipina, Lyubov Yu; Singh, Abhishek K; Yakobson, Boris I

    2011-07-13

    Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H(2) molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H(2) molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function. PMID:21648444

  7. Plasticity of hydrogen bond networks regulates mechanochemistry of cell adhesion complexes.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D

    2014-06-24

    Mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion receptor proteins regulate a range of cellular functions by formation and rupture of noncovalent interactions with ligands. Typically, force decreases the lifetimes of intact complexes ("slip bonds"), making the discovery that these lifetimes can also be prolonged ("catch bonds") a surprise. We created a microscopic analytic theory by incorporating the structures of selectin and integrin receptors into a conceptual framework based on the theory of stochastic equations, which quantitatively explains a wide range of experimental data (including catch bonds at low forces and slip bonds at high forces). Catch bonds arise due to force-induced remodeling of hydrogen bond networks, a finding that also accounts for unbinding in structurally unrelated integrin-fibronectin and actomyosin complexes. For the selectin family, remodeling of hydrogen bond networks drives an allosteric transition resulting in the formation of the maximum number of hydrogen bonds determined only by the structure of the receptor and independent of the ligand. A similar transition allows us to predict the increase in the number of hydrogen bonds in a particular allosteric state of α5β1 integrin-fibronectin complex, a conformation which is yet to be crystallized. We also make a testable prediction that a single point mutation (Tyr51Phe) in the ligand associated with selectin should dramatically alter the nature of the catch bond compared with the wild type. Our work suggests that nature uses a ductile network of hydrogen bonds to engineer function over a broad range of forces. PMID:24927549

  8. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Andreas Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S.; Guthrie, Malcolm

    2015-12-28

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH){sub 4} units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure.

  9. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Guthrie, Malcolm; Nelmes, Richard J; Loveday, John S

    2015-12-28

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH)4 units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure. PMID:26723701

  10. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Guthrie, Malcolm; Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S.

    2015-12-01

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH)4 units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure.

  11. Hydrogen-Bond Network Breakage as a First Step to Isopropanol Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, A.; Jiménez-Ruiz, M.; Nogales, A.; Martín Y Marero, D.; Ezquerra, T. A.

    2004-07-01

    Here we present an experimental study of isopropanol crystallization in real time by means of a novel setup combining simultaneously structural measurements with dynamical techniques. By coupling time resolved neutron diffraction and dielectric spectroscopy experiments we demonstrate that a breakage of the hydrogen-bond network is a precursor step for the crystallization of isopropanol.

  12. Ultrafast memory loss and energy redistribution in the hydrogen bond network of liquid H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, M. L.; Bruner, B. D.; Huse, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Chugh, B.; Nibbering, E. T. J.; Elsaesser, T.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2005-03-01

    Many of the unusual properties of liquid water are attributed to its unique structure, comprised of a random and fluctuating three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds that link the highly polar water molecules. One of the most direct probes of the dynamics of this network is the infrared spectrum of the OH stretching vibration, which reflects the distribution of hydrogen-bonded structures and the intermolecular forces controlling the structural dynamics of the liquid. Indeed, water dynamics has been studied in detail, most recently using multi-dimensional nonlinear infrared spectroscopy for acquiring structural and dynamical information on femtosecond timescales. But owing to technical difficulties, only OH stretching vibrations in D2O or OD vibrations in H2O could be monitored. Here we show that using a specially designed, ultrathin sample cell allows us to observe OH stretching vibrations in H2O. Under these fully resonant conditions, we observe hydrogen bond network dynamics more than one order of magnitude faster than seen in earlier studies that include an extremely fast sweep in the OH frequencies on a 50-fs timescale and an equally fast disappearance of the initial inhomogeneous distribution of sites. Our results highlight the efficiency of energy redistribution within the hydrogen-bonded network, and that liquid water essentially loses the memory of persistent correlations in its structure within 50fs.

  13. Hydrogen gas sensing with networks of ultra-small palladium nanowires formed on filtration membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X. Q.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Panuganti, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Xu, T.

    2010-11-29

    Hydrogen sensors based on single Pd nanowires show promising results in speed, sensitivity, and ultralow power consumption. The utilization of single Pd nanowires, however, face challenges in nanofabrication, manipulation, and achieving ultrasmall transverse dimensions. We report on hydrogen sensors that take advantage of single palladium nanowires in high speed and sensitivity and that can be fabricated conveniently. The sensors are based on networks of ultrasmall (<10 nm) palladium nanowires deposited onto commercially available filtration membranes. We investigated the sensitivities and response times of these sensors as a function of the thickness of the nanowires and also compared them with a continuous reference film. The superior performance of the ultrasmall Pd nanowire network based sensors demonstrates the novelty of our fabrication approach, which can be directly applied to palladium alloy and other hydrogen sensing materials.

  14. HBNG: Graph theory based visualization of hydrogen bond networks in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Abhishek; Tiwari, Vivek

    2007-01-01

    HBNG is a graph theory based tool for visualization of hydrogen bond network in 2D. Digraphs generated by HBNG facilitate visualization of cooperativity and anticooperativity chains and rings in protein structures. HBNG takes hydrogen bonds list files (output from HBAT, HBEXPLORE, HBPLUS and STRIDE) as input and generates a DOT language script and constructs digraphs using freeware AT and T Graphviz tool. HBNG is useful in the enumeration of favorable topologies of hydrogen bond networks in protein structures and determining the effect of cooperativity and anticooperativity on protein stability and folding. HBNG can be applied to protein structure comparison and in the identification of secondary structural regions in protein structures. Availability Program is available from the authors for non-commercial purposes. PMID:18084648

  15. Community-Based Soil Quality Assessment As a Tool for Designing an Urban Green Infrastructure Network to Manage Runoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, C.; Montgomery, J.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) may be the most practical approach for reducing contaminated runoff, providing ecosystem services, mitigating food deserts and creating community open spaces in urban areas. This project was funded by the USEPA's People-Prosperity-Planet (P3) program and was a partnership between a team of DePaul University undergraduates (the P3 team) and high school interns (Green Teens) and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center (GCYC). GCYC is located in a low-income African-American community on Chicago's south side characterized by high crime, abandoned buildings, lack of green space and a food desert. The overaching project goal was to develop a network of Green Teens qualified to conduct soil quality assessment using USDA-NRCS protocols in order to let them develop GI plans to minimize storm water runoff and contaminant loadings, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Working with a USDA-ARS soil scientist from Washington State University, the P3 team conducted soil quality assessment on 116 soil samples collected among four abandoned residential lots owned by GCYC. Analytes included infiltration, bulk density, texture, pH, conductivity, aggregate stability, available nutrients, and total and bioavailable (PBET) lead. Soil pH on all lots is greater than 8.0, are low in organic matter, have little microbial respiration activity, are enriched in available phosphorus, and have average total lead values ranging from 24-2,700 mg/kg. PBET lead was less than 40% on most lots. Regardless, these soils will need to be remediated by adding carbon-rich materials such as biosolids prior to GI installation. Students enrolled in a landscape design course at DePaul developed 3-D models representing potential GI designs for one of the vacant lots that include strategies for immobilizing heavy metals, reducing runoff, and which are tied into an educational module for neighborhood school children.

  16. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners. PMID:27256149

  17. Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Tabita, F. Robert

    2013-07-30

    In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

  18. Large research infrastructure for Earth-Ocean Science: Challenges of multidisciplinary integration across hardware, software, and people networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Barnes, C. R.; Johnson, F.; Pautet, L.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2010-12-01

    nutrient and cross-shelf sediment transport around the shelf/slope break and through the canyon to the deep sea. There and north along the mid-continental slope, instruments on exposed and shallowly buried gas hydrates allow monitoring of changes in their distribution, structure, and venting, particularly related to earthquakes, slope failures and regional plate motions. Circulation obviation retrofit kits (CORKs) at mid-plate ODP 1026-7 monitor real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly as they relate to events such as earthquakes, hydrothermal convection or regional plate strain. At Endeavour Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are quantified at the western edge of the Juan de Fuca plate. Across the network, high resolution seismic information elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami system allows determination of open ocean tsunami amplitude, propagation direction, and speed. The infrastructure has further capacity for experiments to expand from this initial suite. Further information and opportunities can be found at http://www.neptunecanada.ca

  19. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; Lopez-Garriga, Juan

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus

  20. Dissecting Proton Delocalization in an Enzyme's Hydrogen Bond Network with Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yufan; Fried, Stephen D; Boxer, Steven G

    2015-12-01

    Extended hydrogen bond networks are a common structural motif of enzymes. A recent analysis proposed quantum delocalization of protons as a feature present in the hydrogen bond network spanning a triad of tyrosines (Y(16), Y(32), and Y(57)) in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), contributing to its unusual acidity and large isotope shift. In this study, we utilized amber suppression to substitute each tyrosine residue with 3-chlorotyrosine to test the delocalization model and the proton affinity balance in the triad. X-ray crystal structures of each variant demonstrated that the structure, notably the O-O distances within the triad, was unaffected by 3-chlorotyrosine substitutions. The changes in the cluster's acidity and the acidity's isotope dependence in these variants were assessed via UV-vis spectroscopy and the proton sharing pattern among individual residues with (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. Our data show pKa detuning at each triad residue alters the proton delocalization behavior in the H-bond network. The extra stabilization energy necessary for the unusual acidity mainly comes from the strong interactions between Y(57) and Y(16). This is further enabled by Y(32), which maintains the right geometry and matched proton affinity in the triad. This study provides a rich picture of the energetics of the hydrogen bond network in enzymes for further model refinement. PMID:26571340

  1. Plasticity of hydrogen bond networks regulates mechanochemistry of cell adhesion complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion receptor proteins regulate a range of cellular functions by formation and rupture of noncovalent interactions with ligands. Typically, force decreases the lifetimes of intact complexes (“slip bonds”), making the discovery that these lifetimes can also be prolonged (“catch bonds”) a surprise. We created a microscopic analytic theory by incorporating the structures of selectin and integrin receptors into a conceptual framework based on the theory of stochastic equations, which quantitatively explains a wide range of experimental data (including catch bonds at low forces and slip bonds at high forces). Catch bonds arise due to force-induced remodeling of hydrogen bond networks, a finding that also accounts for unbinding in structurally unrelated integrin–fibronectin and actomyosin complexes. For the selectin family, remodeling of hydrogen bond networks drives an allosteric transition resulting in the formation of the maximum number of hydrogen bonds determined only by the structure of the receptor and independent of the ligand. A similar transition allows us to predict the increase in the number of hydrogen bonds in a particular allosteric state of α5β1 integrin–fibronectin complex, a conformation which is yet to be crystallized. We also make a testable prediction that a single point mutation (Tyr51Phe) in the ligand associated with selectin should dramatically alter the nature of the catch bond compared with the wild type. Our work suggests that nature uses a ductile network of hydrogen bonds to engineer function over a broad range of forces. PMID:24927549

  2. Hydrogen-bonded network in the salt 4-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xue-gang; Su, Ping; Xu, Xing-man

    2016-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, C4H7N2 +·C6H2N3O7 −, the phenolic proton of the starting picric acid has been transferred to the imidazole N atom. The nitro groups are twisted away from the benzene ring plane, making dihedral angles of 12.8 (2), 9.2 (4) and 29.3 (2)°. In the crystal, the component ions are linked into chains along [010] via N—H⋯O and bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds. These chains are further linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The complex three-dimensional network can be topologically simplified into a 4-connected uninodal net with the point symbol {4.85}. PMID:27308039

  3. N-doped carbon networks: alternative materials tracing new routes for activating molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Remedios; Ferrante, Francesco; Roggan, Stefan; Duca, Dario

    2015-02-23

    The fragmentation of molecular hydrogen on N-doped carbon networks was investigated by using molecular (polyaromatic macrocycles) as well as truncated and periodic (carbon nanotubes) models. The computational study was focused on the ergonicity analysis of the reaction and on the properties of the transition states involved when constellations of three or four pyridinic nitrogen atom defects are present in the carbon network. Calculations show that whenever N-defects are embedded in species characterized by large conjugated π-systems, either in polyaromatic macrocycles or carbon nanotubes, the corresponding H2 bond cleavage is largely exergonic. The fragmentation Gibbs free energy is affected by the final arrangement of the hydrogen atoms on the defect and by the extension of the π-electron cloud, but it is not influenced by the curvature of the system. PMID:25614208

  4. A hydrogen bonded molecular capsule versus a 3D network of tripodal organopolysilanols.

    PubMed

    Fukawa, Marina; Sato, Takayuki; Kabe, Yoshio

    2015-10-11

    1,3,5-Triethylbenzene based tripodal trisilanols were synthesized. The X-ray crystal structures of trisilanols showed capsule formation as well as non-capsular network formation using silanol hydrogen bonds. The (1)H NMR and ESI-mass spectroscopy experiments for solution state binding supported encapsulation of the halide ions in the cavity of the molecular capsule with a C3 symmetry. PMID:26295069

  5. Structure and energetics of hydrogen-bonded networks of methanol on close packed transition metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colin J.; Carrasco, Javier; Lawton, Timothy J.; Liriano, Melissa L.; Baber, Ashleigh E.; Lewis, Emily A.; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-07-01

    Methanol is a versatile chemical feedstock, fuel source, and energy storage material. Many reactions involving methanol are catalyzed by transition metal surfaces, on which hydrogen-bonded methanol overlayers form. As with water, the structure of these overlayers is expected to depend on a delicate balance of hydrogen bonding and adsorbate-substrate bonding. In contrast to water, however, relatively little is known about the structures methanol overlayers form and how these vary from one substrate to another. To address this issue, herein we analyze the hydrogen bonded networks that methanol forms as a function of coverage on three catalytically important surfaces, Au(111), Cu(111), and Pt(111), using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory. We investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions, surface coverage, and adsorption energies on molecular assembly and compare the results to more widely studied water networks on the same surfaces. Two main factors are shown to direct the structure of methanol on the surfaces studied: the surface coverage and the competition between the methanol-methanol and methanol-surface interactions. Additionally, we report a new chiral form of buckled hexamer formed by surface bound methanol that maximizes the interactions between methanol monomers by sacrificing interactions with the surface. These results serve as a direct comparison of interaction strength, assembly, and chirality of methanol networks on Au(111), Cu(111), and Pt(111) which are catalytically relevant for methanol oxidation, steam reforming, and direct methanol fuel cells.

  6. Hydrogen-bond network and pH sensitivity in human transthyretin

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Nabeshima, Yuko; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Yamada, Taro; Hosoya, Takaaki; Ohhara, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein. TTR misfolding and aggregation are associated with human amyloid diseases. Dissociation of the TTR tetramer is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the amyloid fibril formation cascade. Low pH is known to promote dissociation into monomer and the formation of amyloid fibrils. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying pH sensitivity and structural stabilities of TTR, neutron diffraction studies were conducted using the IBARAKI Biological Crystal Diffractometer with the time-of-flight method. Crystals for the neutron diffraction experiments were grown up to 2.5 mm3 for four months. The neutron crystal structure solved at 2.0 Å revealed the protonation states of His88 and the detailed hydrogen-bond network depending on the protonation states of His88. This hydrogen-bond network is involved in monomer–monomer and dimer–dimer interactions, suggesting that the double protonation of His88 by acidification breaks the hydrogen-bond network and causes the destabilization of the TTR tetramer. Structural comparison with the X-ray crystal structure at acidic pH identified the three amino acid residues responsible for the pH sensitivity of TTR. Our neutron model provides insights into the molecular stability related to amyloidosis. PMID:24121323

  7. Structural and atoms-in-molecules analysis of hydrogen-bond network around nitroxides in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Houriez, Céline; Masella, Michel; Ferré, Nicolas

    2010-09-28

    In this study, we investigated the hydrogen-bond network patterns involving the NO moieties of five small nitroxides in liquid water by analyzing nanosecond scale molecular dynamics trajectories. To this end, we implemented two types of hydrogen-bond definitions, based on electronic structure, using Bader's atoms-in-molecules analysis and based on geometric criteria. In each definition framework, the nitroxide/water hydrogen-bond networks appear very variable from a nitroxide to another. Moreover, each definition clearly leads to a different picture of nitroxide hydration. For instance, the electronic structure-based definition predicts a number of hydrogen bonds around the nitroxide NO moiety usually larger than geometric structure-based ones. One particularly interesting result is that the strength of a nitroxide/water hydrogen bond does not depend on its linearity, leading us to question the relevance of geometric definition based on angular cutoffs to study this type of hydrogen bond. Moreover, none of the hydrogen-bond definitions we consider in the present study is able to quantitatively correlate the strength of nitroxide/water hydrogen-bond networks with the aqueous nitroxide spin properties. This clearly exhibits that the hydrogen-bonding concept is not reliable enough to draw quantitative conclusions concerning such properties. PMID:20886951

  8. Structural and atoms-in-molecules analysis of hydrogen-bond network around nitroxides in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houriez, Céline; Masella, Michel; Ferré, Nicolas

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the hydrogen-bond network patterns involving the NO moieties of five small nitroxides in liquid water by analyzing nanosecond scale molecular dynamics trajectories. To this end, we implemented two types of hydrogen-bond definitions, based on electronic structure, using Bader's atoms-in-molecules analysis and based on geometric criteria. In each definition framework, the nitroxide/water hydrogen-bond networks appear very variable from a nitroxide to another. Moreover, each definition clearly leads to a different picture of nitroxide hydration. For instance, the electronic structure-based definition predicts a number of hydrogen bonds around the nitroxide NO moiety usually larger than geometric structure-based ones. One particularly interesting result is that the strength of a nitroxide/water hydrogen bond does not depend on its linearity, leading us to question the relevance of geometric definition based on angular cutoffs to study this type of hydrogen bond. Moreover, none of the hydrogen-bond definitions we consider in the present study is able to quantitatively correlate the strength of nitroxide/water hydrogen-bond networks with the aqueous nitroxide spin properties. This clearly exhibits that the hydrogen-bonding concept is not reliable enough to draw quantitative conclusions concerning such properties.

  9. Quantitative Tools for Dissection of Hydrogen-Producing Metabolic Networks-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Dismukes, G.Charles.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2012-10-19

    During this project we have pioneered the development of integrated experimental-computational technologies for the quantitative dissection of metabolism in hydrogen and biofuel producing microorganisms (i.e. C. acetobutylicum and various cyanobacteria species). The application of these new methodologies resulted in many significant advances in the understanding of the metabolic networks and metabolism of these organisms, and has provided new strategies to enhance their hydrogen or biofuel producing capabilities. As an example, using mass spectrometry, isotope tracers, and quantitative flux-modeling we mapped the metabolic network structure in C. acetobutylicum. This resulted in a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of central carbon metabolism that could not have been obtained using genomic data alone. We discovered that biofuel production in this bacterium, which only occurs during stationary phase, requires a global remodeling of central metabolism (involving large changes in metabolite concentrations and fluxes) that has the effect of redirecting resources (carbon and reducing power) from biomass production into solvent production. This new holistic, quantitative understanding of metabolism is now being used as the basis for metabolic engineering strategies to improve solvent production in this bacterium. In another example, making use of newly developed technologies for monitoring hydrogen and NAD(P)H levels in vivo, we dissected the metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. This investigation led to the identification of multiple targets for improving hydrogen production. Importantly, the quantitative tools and approaches that we have developed are broadly applicable and we are now using them to investigate other important biofuel producers, such as cellulolytic bacteria.

  10. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  11. Zooming in: Structural Investigations of Rheologically Characterized Hydrogen-Bonded Low-Methoxyl Pectin Networks.

    PubMed

    Mansel, Bradley W; Chu, Che-Yi; Leis, Andrew; Hemar, Yacine; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Lundin, Leif; Williams, Martin A K

    2015-10-12

    Self-assembled hydrogen-bonded networks of the polysaccharide pectin, a mechanically functional component of plant cell walls, have been of recent interest as biomimetic exemplars of physical gels, and the microrheological and strain-stiffening behaviors have been previously investigated. Despite this detailed rheological characterization of preformed gels, little is known about the fundamental arrangement of the polymers into cross-linking junction zones, the size of these bonded regions, and the resultant network architecture in these hydrogen-bonded materials, especially in contrast to the plethora of such information available for their well-known calcium-assembled counterparts. In this work, in concert with pertinent rheological measurements, an in-depth structural study of the hydrogen-bond-mediated gelation of pectins is provided. Gels were realized by using glucona-delta-lactone to decrease the pH of solutions of pectic polymers that had a (blockwise) low degree of methylesterification. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to access structural information on length scales on the order of nanometers to hundreds of nanometers, while complementary mechanical properties were measured predominantly using small amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. PMID:26291120

  12. Layered vanadyl (IV) nitroprusside: Magnetic interaction through a network of hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, D. M.; Osiry, H.; Pomiro, F.; Varetti, E. L.; Carbonio, R. E.; Alejandro, R. R.; Ben Altabef, A.; Reguera, E.

    2016-07-01

    The hydrogen bond and π-π stacking are two non-covalent interactions able to support cooperative magnetic ordering between paramagnetic centers. This contribution reports the crystal structure and related magnetic properties for VO[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O, which has a layered structure. This solid crystallizes with an orthorhombic unit cell, in the Pna21 space group, with cell parameters a=14.1804(2), b=10.4935(1), c=7.1722(8) Å and four molecules per unit cell (Z=4). Its crystal structure was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Neighboring layers remain linked through a network of hydrogen bonds involving a water molecule coordinated to the axial position for the V atom and the unbridged axial NO and CN ligands. An uncoordinated water molecule is found forming a triple bridge between these last two ligands and the coordinated water molecule. The magnetic measurements, recorded down to 2 K, shows a ferromagnetic interaction between V atoms located at neighboring layers, with a Curie-Weiss constant of 3.14 K. Such ferromagnetic behavior was interpreted as resulting from a superexchange interaction through the network of strong OH····OH2O, OH····NCN, and OH····ONO hydrogen bonds that connects neighboring layers. The interaction within the layer must be of antiferromagnetic nature and it was detected close to 2 K.

  13. Nature, Strength, and Cooperativity of the Hydrogen-Bonding Network in α-Chitin.

    PubMed

    Deringer, Volker L; Englert, Ulli; Dronskowski, Richard

    2016-03-14

    Chitin is an abundant biopolymer that stabilizes the exoskeleton of insects and gives structure to plants. Its macroscopic properties go back to an intricate network of hydrogen bonds that connect the polymer strands, and these intermolecular links have been under ongoing study. Here, we use atomistic simulations to explore hydrogen bonding in the most abundant form, α-chitin. The crystal structure exhibits disorder, and so discrete models are systematically derived as suitable approximants to the macroscopic material. These models then allow us to perform dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (DFT-D) simulations on the three-dimensional crystal network and on lower-dimensional fragments. Thereby, we rationalize the nature of hydrogen bonding and the role of crystallographic disorder for the stability of α-chitin, and complement previous, larger-scale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations as well as recent fiber-diffraction experiments. Our results provide new, atomic-level insight into one of Nature's most abundant building materials, and the techniques and concepts are likely transferable to other biopolymers. PMID:26828306

  14. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  15. Leaf water and plant wax hydrogen isotopes in a European sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of plant waxes in sediments is now routinely used as a hydroclimate proxy. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. But at smaller spatial scales and for individual locations it is increasingly recognized that factors that modify apparent fractionation between source water and leaf lipid hydrogen isotope values must also be considered. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Recent advances in theory have permitted mechanistic models to be developed that can be used to predict the mean leaf water hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments. This will provide

  16. Final Project Report: DOE Award FG02-04ER25606 Overlay Transit Networking for Scalable, High Performance Data Communication across Heterogeneous Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Micah; Moore, Terry

    2007-08-31

    As the flood of data associated with leading edge computational science continues to escalate, the challenge of supporting the distributed collaborations that are now characteristic of it becomes increasingly daunting. The chief obstacles to progress on this front lie less in the synchronous elements of collaboration, which have been reasonably well addressed by new global high performance networks, than in the asynchronous elements, where appropriate shared storage infrastructure seems to be lacking. The recent report from the Department of Energy on the emerging 'data management challenge' captures the multidimensional nature of this problem succinctly: Data inevitably needs to be buffered, for periods ranging from seconds to weeks, in order to be controlled as it moves through the distributed and collaborative research process. To meet the diverse and changing set of application needs that different research communities have, large amounts of non-archival storage are required for transitory buffering, and it needs to be widely dispersed, easily available, and configured to maximize flexibility of use. In today's grid fabric, however, massive storage is mostly concentrated in data centers, available only to those with user accounts and membership in the appropriate virtual organizations, allocated as if its usage were non-transitory, and encapsulated behind legacy interfaces that inhibit the flexibility of use and scheduling. This situation severely restricts the ability of application communities to access and schedule usable storage where and when they need to in order to make their workflow more productive. (p.69f) One possible strategy to deal with this problem lies in creating a storage infrastructure that can be universally shared because it provides only the most generic of asynchronous services. Different user communities then define higher level services as necessary to meet their needs. One model of such a service is a Storage Network, analogous to

  17. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, S.; Naseem, S.; Ishaq, A.; Maaza, M.; Bhatti, M. T.; Wan, D.

    2016-04-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H+ ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H+ ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H+ ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H+ ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H+ ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H+ ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. Project supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the French Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, iThemba-LABS, the UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), the Abdus Salam ICTP via the Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

  18. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  19. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments

  20. Mutations in Antibody Fragments Modulate Allosteric Response Via Hydrogen-Bond Network Fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amit; Tracka, Malgorzata B; Uddin, Shahid; Casas-Finet, Jose; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2016-05-10

    A mechanical perturbation method that locally restricts conformational entropy along the protein backbone is used to identify putative allosteric sites in a series of antibody fragments. The method is based on a distance constraint model that integrates mechanical and thermodynamic viewpoints of protein structure wherein mechanical clamps that mimic substrate or cosolute binding are introduced. Across a set of six single chain-Fv fragments of the anti-lymphotoxin-β receptor antibody, statistically significant responses are obtained by averaging over 10 representative structures sampled from a molecular dynamics simulation. As expected, the introduced clamps locally rigidify the protein, but long-ranged increases in both rigidity and flexibility are also frequently observed. Expanding our analysis to every molecular dynamics frame demonstrates that the allosteric responses are modulated by fluctuations within the hydrogen-bond network where the native ensemble is comprised of conformations that both are, and are not, affected by the perturbation in question. Population shifts induced by the mutations alter the allosteric response by adjusting which hydrogen-bond networks are the most probable. These effects are compared using response maps that track changes across each single chain-Fv fragment, thus providing valuable insight into how sensitive allosteric mechanisms are to mutations. PMID:27166802

  1. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel. PMID:24512107

  2. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  3. The thermodynamic properties of 2-aminobiphenyl (an intermediate in the carbazole/hydrogen reaction network)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.

    1990-12-01

    Catalytic hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) is a key step in upgrading processes for conversion of heavy petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and the products of the liquefaction of coal to economically viable products. This research program provides accurate experimental thermochemical and thermophysical properties for key organic nitrogen-containing compounds present in the range of alternative feedstocks, and applies the experimental information to thermodynamic analyses of key HDN reaction networks. This report is the first in a series that will lead to an analysis of a three-ring HDN system; the carbazole/hydrogen reaction network. 2-Aminobiphenyl is the initial intermediate in the HDN pathway for carbazole, which consumes the least hydrogen possible. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2-aminobiphenyl are reported. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c). Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and 820 K. The critical temperature and critical density were determined for 2-aminobiphenyl with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. The Gibbs energies of formation are used in thermodynamic calculations to compare the feasibility of the initial hydrogenolysis step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} network with that of its hydrocarbon and oxygen-containing analogous; i.e., fluorene/H{sub 2} and dibenzofuran/H{sub 2}. Results of the thermodynamic calculations are compared with those of batch-reaction studies reported in the literature. 57 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Using Enhanced and Integrated Services to Improve Response to Standard Methadone Treatment: Changing the Clinical Infrastructure of Treatment Networks

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Karin; Kidorf, Michael; King, Van; Stoller, Ken; Clark, Michael; Peirce, Jessica; Brooner, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    Outcomes are presented from opioid-dependent outpatients (N = 81) participating in a new community-based initiative designed to improve access to enhanced substance abuse and psychiatric services in the publicly-supported methadone maintenance treatment network in Baltimore, Maryland. The initiative, entitled Community Access to Specialized Treatment (CAST), is located at the Addiction Treatment Services (ATS), a program within this network. Network programs referred patients engaged in unremitting drug use and at risk for discharge to CAST, where they received methadone substitution, individual and group counseling within an adaptive platform, behavioral contingencies to reinforce adherence, and on-site psychiatric evaluation and care. Patients returned to their referring program after producing at least two consecutive weeks of drug-negative urine samples and full counseling adherence. CAST was well-utilized by the community. Patients had high rates of adherence to scheduled individual and group counseling services (93% and 73%, respectively); 43% of referrals successfully completed the program in an average of 101 days. This community-wide service delivery approach is a novel alternative to integrating intensive substance abuse and psychiatric care at each program within a treatment network. PMID:19717272

  5. Making the pieces fit. After assembling their care networks, systems' next big challenge is to build a unifying information infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J

    1998-05-11

    Five years into a manic pace of consolidation, hospital-based health delivery systems across the country are feeling the pressure to establish computer networks to unite all sites and services. In the campaign to lift healthcare out of an era of paper and pencil, organizations have spent freely on healthcare software applications. But computer pros say that's not enough. PMID:10180465

  6. From hydrogen bonding to metal coordination and back: Porphyrin-based networks on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Studener, F. Müller, K.; Stöhr, M.; Marets, N.; Bulach, V. Hosseini, M. W.

    2015-03-14

    The self-assembly of a metal-free porphyrin bearing two pyridyl coordinating sites and two pentyl chains at trans meso positions was investigated under ultrahigh vacuum on a Ag(111) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The STM measurements revealed a well-ordered close-packed structure with a rhombic unit cell for coverages ≤1 monolayer with their molecular plane parallel to the surface. The growth direction of the molecular islands is aligned along the step edges, which are restructured due to molecule-substrate interactions. The shorter unit cell vector of the molecular superstructure follows the 〈1-10〉 direction of the Ag(111) substrate. Hydrogen bonds between pyridyl and pyrrole groups of neighboring molecules as well as weak van der Waals forces between the pentyl chains stabilize the superstructure. Deposition of cobalt atoms onto the close-packed structure at room temperature leads to the formation of a hexagonal porous network stabilized by metal-ligand bonding between the pyridyl ligands and the cobalt atoms. Thermal annealing of the Co-coordination network at temperatures >450 K results in the transformation of the hexagonal network into a second close-packed structure. Changes in the molecule-substrate interactions due to metalation of the porphyrin core with Co as well as intermolecular interactions can explain the observed structural transformations.

  7. From hydrogen bonding to metal coordination and back: Porphyrin-based networks on Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Studener, F; Müller, K; Marets, N; Bulach, V; Hosseini, M W; Stöhr, M

    2015-03-14

    The self-assembly of a metal-free porphyrin bearing two pyridyl coordinating sites and two pentyl chains at trans meso positions was investigated under ultrahigh vacuum on a Ag(111) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The STM measurements revealed a well-ordered close-packed structure with a rhombic unit cell for coverages ≤1 monolayer with their molecular plane parallel to the surface. The growth direction of the molecular islands is aligned along the step edges, which are restructured due to molecule-substrate interactions. The shorter unit cell vector of the molecular superstructure follows the〈1-10〉direction of the Ag(111) substrate. Hydrogen bonds between pyridyl and pyrrole groups of neighboring molecules as well as weak van der Waals forces between the pentyl chains stabilize the superstructure. Deposition of cobalt atoms onto the close-packed structure at room temperature leads to the formation of a hexagonal porous network stabilized by metal-ligand bonding between the pyridyl ligands and the cobalt atoms. Thermal annealing of the Co-coordination network at temperatures >450 K results in the transformation of the hexagonal network into a second close-packed structure. Changes in the molecule-substrate interactions due to metalation of the porphyrin core with Co as well as intermolecular interactions can explain the observed structural transformations. PMID:25770515

  8. Prediction on the seasonal behavior of hydrogen sulfide using a neural network model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungwhan; Lee, Joogong; Jang, Jungyoung; Han, Dongil; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Models to predict seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations were constructed using neural networks. To this end, two types of generalized regression neural networks and radial basis function networks are considered and optimized. The input data for H2S were collected from August 2005 to Fall 2006 from a huge industrial complex located in Ansan City, Korea. Three types of seasonal groupings were prepared and one optimized model is built for each dataset. These optimized models were then used for the analysis of the sensitivity and main effect of the parameters. H2S was noted to be very sensitive to rainfall during the spring and summer. In the autumn, its sensitivity showed a strong dependency on wind speed and pressure. Pressure was identified as the most influential parameter during the spring and summer. In the autumn, relative humidity overwhelmingly affected H2S. It was noted that H2S maintained an inverse relationship with a number of parameters (e.g., radiation, wind speed, or dew-point temperature). In contrast, it exhibited a declining trend with a decrease in pressure. An increase in radiation was likely to decrease during spring and summer, but the opposite trend was predicted for the autumn. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the behavior of H2S can be accounted for by a diverse combination of meteorological parameters across seasons. PMID:21552763

  9. Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liao

    2012-05-22

    This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB

  10. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes.

    PubMed

    Elton, Daniel C; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-01

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal-transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole-dipole interactions, as in ice. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. PMID:26725363

  11. Conformational changes in the archaerhodopsin-3 proton pump: detection of conserved strongly hydrogen bonded water networks.

    PubMed

    Clair, Erica C Saint; Ogren, John I; Mamaev, Sergey; Kralj, Joel M; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Archaerhodopsin-3 (AR3) is a light-driven proton pump from Halorubrum sodomense, but little is known about its photocycle. Recent interest has focused on AR3 because of its ability to serve both as a high-performance, genetically-targetable optical silencer of neuronal activity and as a membrane voltage sensor. We examined light-activated structural changes of the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules during the photocycle of AR3. Low-temperature and rapid-scan time-resolved FTIR-difference spectroscopy revealed that conformational changes during formation of the K, M, and N photocycle intermediates are similar, although not identical, to bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Positive/negative bands in the region above 3,600 cm( - 1), which have previously been assigned to structural changes of weakly hydrogen bonded internal water molecules, were substantially different between AR3 and BR. This included the absence of positive bands recently associated with a chain of proton transporting water molecules in the cytoplasmic channel and a weakly hydrogen bonded water (W401), which is part of a hydrogen-bonded pentagonal cluster located near the retinal Schiff base. However, many of the broad IR continuum absorption changes below 3,000 cm( - 1) assigned to networks of water molecules involved in proton transport through cytoplasmic and extracellular portions in BR were very similar in AR3. This work and subsequent studies comparing BR and AR3 structural changes will help identify conserved elements in BR-like proton pumps as well as bioengineer AR3 to optimize neural silencing and voltage sensing. PMID:23277676

  12. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding network in 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpétuo, Genivaldo J.; Gonçalves, Rafael S.; Janczak, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The single crystals of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate were grown using a solution growth technique. The compound crystallises in the centrosymmetric P21/c space group of the monoclinic system. The conformation of the 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium cation is not strictly planar, but twisted. Both arms of the cation are oppositely rotated by 8.5(1)° around the Csbnd N bonds involving the central N atom. The arrangement of oppositely charged components, i.e. 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium cations and 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate anions in the crystal is mainly determined by ionic and hydrogen-bonding interactions forming supramolecular network. The possible hydrogen-bonding interactions between cation and anion units were analysed on the basis of molecular orbital calculations. The obtained deuterated analogue crystallises similar as H-compound in the monoclinic system (P21/c) with quite similar lattice parameters. The compound was also characterised by the FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. The characteristic bands of the functional and skeletal groups of the protiated and deuterated analogue of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate are discussed.

  13. De novo design of protein homo-oligomers with modular hydrogen-bond network-mediated specificity.

    PubMed

    Boyken, Scott E; Chen, Zibo; Groves, Benjamin; Langan, Robert A; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Ford, Alex; Gilmore, Jason M; Xu, Chunfu; DiMaio, Frank; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Sankaran, Banumathi; Seelig, Georg; Zwart, Peter H; Baker, David

    2016-05-01

    In nature, structural specificity in DNA and proteins is encoded differently: In DNA, specificity arises from modular hydrogen bonds in the core of the double helix, whereas in proteins, specificity arises largely from buried hydrophobic packing complemented by irregular peripheral polar interactions. Here, we describe a general approach for designing a wide range of protein homo-oligomers with specificity determined by modular arrays of central hydrogen-bond networks. We use the approach to design dimers, trimers, and tetramers consisting of two concentric rings of helices, including previously not seen triangular, square, and supercoiled topologies. X-ray crystallography confirms that the structures overall, and the hydrogen-bond networks in particular, are nearly identical to the design models, and the networks confer interaction specificity in vivo. The ability to design extensive hydrogen-bond networks with atomic accuracy enables the programming of protein interaction specificity for a broad range of synthetic biology applications; more generally, our results demonstrate that, even with the tremendous diversity observed in nature, there are fundamentally new modes of interaction to be discovered in proteins. PMID:27151862

  14. The dispersion correction and weak-hydrogen-bond network in low-frequency vibration of solid-state salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2012-04-01

    We perform the dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations of vibrational absorption and the far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at different temperature to examine the effect of weak-hydrogen-bond network on the low-frequency vibrations of solid-state salicylic acid. By dispersion correction, calculated frequencies improve especially in the intermonomer torsion and interdimer translational modes which are closely related to the weak hydrogen bonds. The calculated frequencies and their relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum in the accuracy of 10 cm-1 or less. Weak-hydrogen-bond network causes a large frequency shift of out-of-plane intermonomer modes and enhances interdimer translational modes accompanied by the O⋯H stretching vibrations.

  15. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) - Web Portal Developments for Interactive Access to Earthquake Data on a European Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Rives, S.; Thomy, P.; Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Saul, J.; Heinloo, A.; Bossu, R.; van Eck, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) is European Commission (EC) project whose focus is networking together seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated European infrastructure that provides access to data and data products for research. Seismological institutes and organizations in European and Mediterranean countries maintain large, geographically distributed data archives, therefore this scenario suggested a design approach based on the concept of an internet service oriented architecture (SOA) to establish a cyberinfrastructure for distributed and heterogeneous data streams and services. Moreover, one of the goals of NERIES is to design and develop a Web portal that acts as the uppermost layer of the infrastructure and provides rendering capabilities for the underlying sets of data The Web services that are currently being designed and implemented will deliver data that has been adopted to appropriate formats. The parametric information about a seismic event is delivered using a seismology- specific Extensible mark-up Language(XML) format called QuakeML (https://quake.ethz.ch/quakeml), which has been formalized and implemented in coordination with global earthquake-information agencies. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to assign identifiers to (1) seismic-event parameters described by QuakeML, and (2) generic resources, for example, authorities, locations providers, location methods, software adopted, and so on, described by use of a data model constructed with the resource description framework (RDF) and accessible as a service. The European-Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC) has implemented a unique event identifier (UNID) that will create the seismic event URI used by the QuakeML data model. Access to data such as broadband waveform, accelerometric data and stations inventories will be also provided through a set of Web services that will wrap the middleware used by the

  16. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)-Web Portal Developments for Interactive Access to Earthquake Data on a European Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Rives, S.; Thomy, P.; Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Saul, J.; Heinloo, A.; Bossu, R.; van Eck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) is European Commission (EC) project whose focus is networking together seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated European infrastructure that provides access to data and data products for research. Seismological institutes and organizations in European and Mediterranean countries maintain large, geographically distributed data archives, therefore this scenario suggested a design approach based on the concept of an internet service oriented architecture (SOA) to establish a cyberinfrastructure for distributed and heterogeneous data streams and services. Moreover, one of the goals of NERIES is to design and develop a Web portal that acts as the uppermost layer of the infrastructure and provides rendering capabilities for the underlying sets of data The Web services that are currently being designed and implemented will deliver data that has been adopted to appropriate formats. The parametric information about a seismic event is delivered using a seismology-specific Extensible mark-up Language(XML) format called QuakeML (https://quake.ethz.ch/quakeml), which has been formalized and implemented in coordination with global earthquake-information agencies. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to assign identifiers to (1) seismic-event parameters described by QuakeML, and (2) generic resources, for example, authorities, locations providers, location methods, software adopted, and so on, described by use of a data model constructed with the resource description framework (RDF) and accessible as a service. The European-Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC) has implemented a unique event identifier (UNID) that will create the seismic event URI used by the QuakeML data model. Access to data such as broadband waveform, accelerometric data and stations inventories will be also provided through a set of Web services that will wrap the middleware used by the

  17. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  18. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  19. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  20. Real-Time Earthquake Risk Mitigation Of Infrastructures Using Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali; Tunc, Suleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The Istanbul EEW network consisting of 10 inland and 5 OBS strong motion stations located close to the Main Marmara Fault zone is operated by KOERI. Data transmission between the remote stations and the base station at KOERI is provided both with satellite and fiber optic cable systems. The continuous on-line data from these stations is used to provide real time warning for emerging potentially disastrous earthquakes. The data transmission time from the remote stations to the KOERI data center is a few milliseconds through fiber optic lines and less than a second via satellites. The early warning signal (consisting three alarm levels) is communicated to the appropriate servo shut-down systems of the receipent facilities, that automatically decide proper action based on the alarm level. Istanbul Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the EEW signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867 km of gas lines with 550 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. State of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the pipelines are detected. Since 2005, buildings in Istanbul using natural gas are required to install seismometers that automatically cut natural gas flow when certain thresholds are exceeded. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 581 district regulator sites. The SCADA system of IGDAŞ receives the EEW signal from KOERI and decide the proper actions according to the previously specified ground acceleration levels. Presently, KOERI sends EEW signal to the SCADA system of IGDAS Natural Gas Network of Istanbul. The EEW signal

  1. Overview of NASA communications infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.; Fuechsel, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The infrastructure of NASA communications systems for effecting coordination across NASA offices and with the national and international research and technological communities is discussed. The offices and networks of the communication system include the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), which manages all NASA missions, and the Office of Space Operations, which furnishes communication support through the NASCOM, the mission critical communications support network, and the Program Support Communications network. The NASA Science Internet was established by OSSA to centrally manage, develop, and operate an integrated computer network service dedicated to NASA's space science and application research. Planned for the future is the National Research and Education Network, which will provide communications infrastructure to enhance science resources at a national level.

  2. Development of a Network-Based Information Infrastructure for Fisheries and Hydropower Information in the Columbia River Basin : Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program.

  3. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  4. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-14

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  5. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-01

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  6. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-04

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less

  7. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    PubMed Central

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-01

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. PMID:26725363

  8. Hydrogen Bond Network Isomers of the Water Nonamer and Decamer Observed by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Cristobal; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.

    2013-06-01

    After our previous study of the rotational spectrum of water clusters in the 6-18 GHz region, in order to study clusters of larger size (>8 water molecules), a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the 2-8 GHz frequency range has been used to obtain the broadband rotational spectra of five water nonamer isomers and four water decamer isomers in a pulsed molecular beam. The oxygen atom framework geometries for three nonamers and two decamers have also been unambiguously identified from isotopic labeling measurements using an H_{2}^{18}O enriched sample. Three of the four observed water decamer show tunneling effect associated with the internal dynamics of hydrogen-bond network in a similar fashion as the prism water hexamer. These tunneling paths are quenched upon a single incorporation of a H_{2}^{18}O molecule in the cluster. Due the large amount of closely-spaced rotational transitions in the H_{2}^{18}O spectrum, automated fitting tools were employed to extract the corresponding rotational spectra, which will be also briefly described. C. Perez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, and B. H. Pate, Science 336, 897 (2012).

  9. Reorganization of hydrogen bond network makes strong polyelectrolyte brushes pH-responsive

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Jun; Hua, Zan; Tian, Kangzhen; Kou, Ran; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Shuji; Luo, Yi; Craig, Vincent S. J.; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Weak polyelectrolytes have found extensive practical applications owing to their rich pH-responsive properties. In contrast, strong polyelectrolytes have long been regarded as pH-insensitive based on the well-established fact that the average degree of charging of strong polyelectrolyte chains is independent of pH. The possible applications of strong polyelectrolytes in smart materials have, thus, been severely limited. However, we demonstrate that almost all important properties of strong polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs), such as chain conformation, hydration, stiffness, surface wettability, lubricity, adhesion, and protein adsorption are sensitive to pH. The pH response originates from the reorganization of the interchain hydrogen bond network between the grafted chains, triggered by the pH-mediated adsorption-desorption equilibrium of hydronium or hydroxide with the brushes. The reorganization process is firmly identified by advanced sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Our findings not only provide a new understanding of the fundamental properties of SPBs but also uncover an extensive family of building blocks for constructing pH-responsive materials. PMID:27532049

  10. The hydrogen bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, Daniel; Fernadez-Serra, Marivi

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Previously, the librational Raman peaks of water were assigned to the librational motions of single molecules. By comparing experimental Raman and IR spectra we show these assignments are problematic. Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the k-dependent dielectric susceptibility of water. We find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in water's librational and OH stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen bond network over distances of up to two nanometers. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal-transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long range dipole-dipole interactions. Studying how LO-TO splitting evolves with temperature may yield insight into how local structure changes. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. Reference: arXiv:1507.06363 This work was partially supported by DOE Award No. DE-FG02-09ER16052 (D.C.E.) and by DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871 (M.V.F.S.).

  11. Reorganization of hydrogen bond network makes strong polyelectrolyte brushes pH-responsive.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Jun; Hua, Zan; Tian, Kangzhen; Kou, Ran; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Shuji; Luo, Yi; Craig, Vincent S J; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Weak polyelectrolytes have found extensive practical applications owing to their rich pH-responsive properties. In contrast, strong polyelectrolytes have long been regarded as pH-insensitive based on the well-established fact that the average degree of charging of strong polyelectrolyte chains is independent of pH. The possible applications of strong polyelectrolytes in smart materials have, thus, been severely limited. However, we demonstrate that almost all important properties of strong polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs), such as chain conformation, hydration, stiffness, surface wettability, lubricity, adhesion, and protein adsorption are sensitive to pH. The pH response originates from the reorganization of the interchain hydrogen bond network between the grafted chains, triggered by the pH-mediated adsorption-desorption equilibrium of hydronium or hydroxide with the brushes. The reorganization process is firmly identified by advanced sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Our findings not only provide a new understanding of the fundamental properties of SPBs but also uncover an extensive family of building blocks for constructing pH-responsive materials. PMID:27532049

  12. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  13. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  14. Modifications on the hydrogen bond network by mutations of Escherichia coli copper efflux oxidase affect the process of proton transfer to dioxygen leading to alterations of enzymatic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Takao; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton transfer pathway to dioxygen in CueO was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glu506 is the key amino acid to transport proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala mutation at Glu506 formed a compensatory proton transfer pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ile mutation at Glu506 shut down the hydrogen bond network. -- Abstract: CueO has a branched hydrogen bond network leading from the exterior of the protein molecule to the trinuclear copper center. This network transports protons in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. We replaced the acidic Glu506 and Asp507 residues with the charged and uncharged amino acid residues. Peculiar changes in the enzyme activity of the mutants relative to the native enzyme indicate that an acidic amino acid residue at position 506 is essential for effective proton transport. The Ala mutation resulted in the formation of a compensatory hydrogen bond network with one or two extra water molecules. On the other hand, the Ile mutation resulted in the complete shutdown of the hydrogen bond network leading to loss of enzymatic activities of CueO. In contrast, the hydrogen bond network without the proton transport function was constructed by the Gln mutation. These results exerted on the hydrogen bond network in CueO are discussed in comparison with proton transfers in cytochrome oxidase.

  15. Mapping the Hydrogen Bond Networks in the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Kinase A Using H/D Fractionation Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Geoffrey C; Srivastava, Atul K; Kim, Jonggul; Taylor, Susan S; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinase A is a prototypical phosphoryl transferase, sharing its catalytic core (PKA-C) with the entire kinase family. PKA-C substrate recognition, active site organization, and product release depend on the enzyme's conformational transitions from the open to the closed state, which regulate its allosteric cooperativity. Here, we used equilibrium nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) fractionation factors (φ) to probe the changes in the strength of hydrogen bonds within the kinase upon binding the nucleotide and a pseudosubstrate peptide (PKI5-24). We found that the φ values decrease upon binding both ligands, suggesting that the overall hydrogen bond networks in both the small and large lobes of PKA-C become stronger. However, we observed several important exceptions, with residues displaying higher φ values upon ligand binding. Notably, the changes in φ values are not localized near the ligand binding pockets; rather, they are radiated throughout the entire enzyme. We conclude that, upon ligand and pseudosubstrate binding, the hydrogen bond networks undergo extensive reorganization, revealing that the open-to-closed transitions require global rearrangements of the internal forces that stabilize the enzyme's fold. PMID:26030372

  16. Strongly Coupled Nafion Molecules and Ordered Porous CdS Networks for Enhanced Visible-Light Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Li; Song, Ji-Peng; Ling, Tao; Hu, Zhen Peng; Yin, Peng-Fei; Davey, Kenneth; Du, Xi-Wen; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Strongly coupled Nafion molecules and ordered porous CdS networks are fabricated for visible-light photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution. The Nafion layer coating shifts the band position of CdS upward and accelerates charge transfer in the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface. It is highly expected that the strong coupling effect between organic and inorganic materials will provide new routes to advance PEC water splitting. PMID:27038367

  17. Observing the water molecule in macromolecules using infrared spectrometry: structure of the hydrogen bond network and hydration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, Y.

    2004-08-01

    The power and precision of IR spectrometry, or IR quantitative spectroscopy, to observe water molecules embedded in macromolecules, is illustrated, taking as examples the determination of the structures of the hydrogen-bond network of a dried polysaccharide, hyaluronan, of a dried protein, bovine serum albumine, and of a dried polymer, a sulfonated polyimide. We also indicate how IR spectrometry conveys original and precise information from which their hydration mechanisms can be precisely determined in terms of chemical reactions.

  18. Hydrogen-Bonding Network Promoted [3+2] Cycloaddition: Asymmetric Catalytic Construction of Spiro-pseudoindoxyl Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Jie; Wang, Yao; Hu, Xiu-Qin; Xu, Peng-Fei

    2016-03-18

    The enantioselective construction of a spirocyclic quaternary stereogenic carbon center at the C2 position of indole has long been an elusive problem in organic synthesis. Herein, by employing a rationally designed hydrogen-bonding network activation strategy, for the first time, 2,2'-pyrrolidinyl-spirooxindole, which is a valuable and prevalent indole alkaloid scaffold, was directly obtained through a catalytic asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition reaction with high yields and excellent stereoselectivities. PMID:26812234

  19. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  20. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  1. Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Sarti, S; Truzzolillo, D; Bordi, F

    2012-07-18

    Dielectric spectroscopy data over the range 100 MHz–40 GHz allow for a reliable analysis of two of the major relaxation phenomena for polyelectrolytes (PE) in water. Within this range, the dielectric relaxation of pure water is dominated by a near-Debye process at ν = 18.5 GHz corresponding to a relaxation time of τ = 8.4 ps at 25 °C. This mode is commonly attributed to the cooperative relaxation specific to liquids forming a hydrogen bond network (HBN) and arising from long range H-bond-mediated dipole–dipole interactions. The presence of charged polymers in water partially modifies the dielectric characteristics of the orientational water molecule relaxation due to a change of the dielectric constant of water surrounding the charges on the polyion chain. We report experimental results on the effect of the presence of a standard flexible polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate) on the HBN relaxation in water for different temperatures, showing that the HBN relaxation time does not change by increasing the polyelectrolyte density in water, even if relatively high concentrations are reached (0.02 monomol l(−1) ≤ C ≤ 0.4 monomol l(−1)). We also find that the effect of PE addition on the HBN relaxation is not even a broadening of its distribution, rather a decrease of the spectral weight that goes beyond the pure volume fraction effect. This extra decrease is larger at low T and less evident at high T, supporting the idea that the correlation length of the water is less affected by the presence of charged flexible chains at high temperatures. PMID:22740600

  2. Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, S.; Truzzolillo, D.; Bordi, F.

    2012-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy data over the range 100 MHz-40 GHz allow for a reliable analysis of two of the major relaxation phenomena for polyelectrolytes (PE) in water. Within this range, the dielectric relaxation of pure water is dominated by a near-Debye process at ν = 18.5 GHz corresponding to a relaxation time of τ = 8.4 ps at 25 °C. This mode is commonly attributed to the cooperative relaxation specific to liquids forming a hydrogen bond network (HBN) and arising from long range H-bond-mediated dipole-dipole interactions. The presence of charged polymers in water partially modifies the dielectric characteristics of the orientational water molecule relaxation due to a change of the dielectric constant of water surrounding the charges on the polyion chain. We report experimental results on the effect of the presence of a standard flexible polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate) on the HBN relaxation in water for different temperatures, showing that the HBN relaxation time does not change by increasing the polyelectrolyte density in water, even if relatively high concentrations are reached (0.02 monomol l-1 ≤ C ≤ 0.4 monomol l-1). We also find that the effect of PE addition on the HBN relaxation is not even a broadening of its distribution, rather a decrease of the spectral weight that goes beyond the pure volume fraction effect. This extra decrease is larger at low T and less evident at high T, supporting the idea that the correlation length of the water is less affected by the presence of charged flexible chains at high temperatures.

  3. Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

  4. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-28

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K(+) and SCN(-) ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions. PMID:27250298

  5. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  6. Exploring Electrostatic Effects on the Hydrogen Bond Network of Liquid Water through Many-Body Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Straight, Shelby C; Paesani, Francesco

    2016-08-25

    To probe the dynamic nature of the hydrogen bond network in water, linear and nonlinear infrared spectra of dilute HOD in H2O are computed from many-body molecular dynamics simulations with the MB-pol potential, which have been shown to accurately predict the properties of water from the gas to the condensed phase. The effects of various approximations to the many-body expansion of the dipole moment surface on the OD-stretch absorption line shapes are analyzed at different levels of theory. The interplay between effects associated with the variation of the HOD dipole moment and instantaneous nuclear configurations causes qualitative differences in the absorption profiles, which are traced back to how induction contributions are treated within the many-body formalism. Further analysis of the multidimensional infrared spectra demonstrates that the spectral diffusion of the OD stretching frequencies depends explicitly on the level of truncation in the many-body expansion of the dipole moment in the short-time regime that is associated with intact hydrogen-bond dynamics. In contrast, the long-time evolution of spectral diffusion, describing collective rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network, is effectively independent of the details with which many-body contributions to the dipole moment are represented. PMID:27109247

  7. Room temperature hydrogen sensing properties of multiple-networked Nb2O5-nanorod sensors decorated with Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangbo; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Soohyun; Hyun, Soong Keun; Lee, Chongmu

    2014-11-01

    Nb2O5 nanosensors showing good sensing performances toward hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures have been reported several times, but high-performance room-temperature Nb2O5 gas sensors have not been reported to date. Pd-Nb2O5 nanorods were synthesized by using thermal oxidation of a Nb foil, followed by wet chemical coating of Pd under UV illumination. The responses of multiple-networked Pd-Nb2O5 nanorod sensors to 10,000 ppm of hydrogen at room temperature were ˜218% and ˜496%, respectively. Responses obtained in this study were far higher than that to 2,000 ppm of H2 obtained previously at the same temperature by using Pt/Nb2O5 Schottky-diode sensors. These results suggest that multiple-networked 1D nanostructure sensors, which can be fabricated more easily, are superior in H2-gas-sensing properties to Schottky-diode-type nanostructure sensors, which require precise techniques to connect the nanostructures. The origin of the enhanced sensing properties of the Pd-decorated Nb2O5 nanorods toward hydrogen is also discussed.

  8. Water templated hydrogen-bonded network of pyridine amide appended carbamate in solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Kumaresh; Adhikari, Suman; Fröhlich, Roland

    2006-03-01

    The pyridine amide appended carbamates 1 and 2 have been synthesized and their hydrogen-bonded self-assemblies in solid state have been described. The self-association pattern is dependent on the nature the anchored group of the carbamate moiety and influenced by water inclusion. Inclusion of water molecule gives a ladder type hydrogen bonded assemblies with cavities.

  9. Role of the Distal Hydrogen-Bonding Network in Regulating Oxygen Affinity in the Truncated Hemoglobin III from Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Mañez, Pau Arroyo; Lu, Changyuan; Boechi, Leonardo; Martí, Marcelo A.; Shepherd, Mark; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K.; Luque, F. Javier; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Estrin, Darío A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen affinity in heme-containing proteins is determined by a number of factors, such as the nature and conformation of the distal residues that stabilize the heme bound-oxygen via hydrogen-bonding interactions. The truncated hemoglobin III from Campylobacter jejuni (Ctb) contains three potential hydrogen-bond donors in the distal site: TyrB10, TrpG8, and HisE7. Previous studies suggested that Ctb exhibits an extremely slow oxygen dissociation rate due to an interlaced hydrogen-bonding network involving the three distal residues. Here we have studied the structural and kinetic properties of the G8WF mutant of Ctb and employed state-of-the-art computer simulation methods to investigate the properties of the O2 adduct of the G8WF mutant, with respect to those of the wild-type protein and the previously studied E7HL and/or B10YF mutants. Our data indicate that the unique oxygen binding properties of Ctb are determined by the interplay of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the heme-bound ligand and the surrounding TyrB10, TrpG8, and HisE7 residues. PMID:21476539

  10. Global information infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, D A

    1994-01-01

    The High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC) is a multiagency federal initiative under the leadership of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, established by the High Performance Computing Act of 1991. It has been assigned a critical role in supporting the international collaboration essential to science and to health care. Goals of the HPCC are to extend USA leadership in high performance computing and networking technologies; to improve technology transfer for economic competitiveness, education, and national security; and to provide a key part of the foundation for the National Information Infrastructure. The first component of the National Institutes of Health to participate in the HPCC, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), recently issued a solicitation for proposals to address a range of issues, from privacy to 'testbed' networks, 'virtual reality,' and more. These efforts will build upon the NLM's extensive outreach program and other initiatives, including the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), MEDLARS, and Grateful Med. New Internet search tools are emerging, such as Gopher and 'Knowbots'. Medicine will succeed in developing future intelligent agents to assist in utilizing computer networks. Our ability to serve patients is so often restricted by lack of information and knowledge at the time and place of medical decision-making. The new technologies, properly employed, will also greatly enhance our ability to serve the patient. PMID:8125625

  11. N,P-Codoped Carbon Networks as Efficient Metal-free Bifunctional Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Qu, Liangti; Shi, Gaoquan; Liu, Jiangyong; Chen, Jianfeng; Dai, Liming

    2016-02-01

    The high cost and scarcity of noble metal catalysts, such as Pt, have hindered the hydrogen production from electrochemical water splitting, the oxygen reduction in fuel cells and batteries. Herein, we developed a simple template-free approach to three-dimensional porous carbon networks codoped with nitrogen and phosphorus by pyrolysis of a supermolecular aggregate of self-assembled melamine, phytic acid, and graphene oxide (MPSA/GO). The pyrolyzed MPSA/GO acted as the first metal-free bifunctional catalyst with high activities for both oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution. Zn-air batteries with the pyrolyzed MPSA/GO air electrode showed a high peak power density (310 W g(-1) ) and an excellent durability. Thus, the pyrolyzed MPSA/GO is a promising bifunctional catalyst for renewable energy technologies, particularly regenerative fuel cells. PMID:26709954

  12. Networks of DNA-templated palladium nanowires: structural and electrical characterisation and their use as hydrogen gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Al-Hinai, Mariam N; Hassanien, Reda; Wright, Nicholas G; Horsfall, Alton B; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R

    2013-01-01

    Electroless templating on DNA is established as a means to prepare high aspect ratio nanowires via aqueous reactions at room temperature. In this report we show how Pd nanowires with extremely small grain sizes (< 2 nm) can be prepared by reduction of PdCl4(2-) in the presence of lambda-DNA. In AFM images the wires are smooth and uniform in appearance, but the grain size estimated by the Scherrer treatment of line broadening in X-ray diffraction is less than the diameter of the wires from AFM (of order 10 nm). Electrical characterisation of single nanowires by conductive AFM shows ohmic behaviour, but with high contact resistances and a resistivity (-10(-2) omega cm) much higher than the bulk value for Pd metal (-10(-5) cm @ 20 degrees C). These observations can be accounted for by a model of the nanowire growth mechanism which naturally leads to the formation of a granular metal. Using a simple combing technique with control of the surface hydrophilicity, DNA-templated Pd nanowires have also been prepared as networks on an Si/SiO2 substrate. These networks are highly convenient for the preparation of two-terminal electronic sensors for the detection of hydrogen gas. The response of these hydrogen sensors is presented and a model of the sensor response in terms of the diffusion of hydrogen into the nanowires is described. The granular structure of the nanowires makes them relatively poor conductors, but they retain a useful sensitivity to hydrogen gas. PMID:24466659

  13. Self-assembly of electroactive thiacrown ruthenium(II) complexes into hydrogen-bonded chain and tape networks.

    PubMed

    Shan, Naz; Hawxwell, Samuel M; Adams, Harry; Brammer, Lee; Thomas, Jim A

    2008-12-15

    amide-amide N-H...O hydrogen bonds leading to networks constructed from amide C(4) chains or tapes containing R(2)(2) (8) hydrogen-bonded rings. The other two, 2(PF(6)) and 8(PF(6)), form networks linked through amide-anion N-H...F hydrogen bonds. The role of counterions and solvent in interrupting or augmenting direct amide-amide network propagation is explored, and the systematic relationship between the hydrogen-bonded networks formed across the series of structures is presented, showing the relationship between chain and tape arrangements and the progression from 1D to 2D networks. The scope for future systematic development of electroactive tectons into network materials is discussed. PMID:18998622

  14. The hydrogen bond network in I β cellulose as observed by infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maréchal, Y.; Chanzy, H.

    2000-05-01

    FT-IR spectra of I β cellulose were recorded on films made of hydrothermally treated Valonia microcrystals. Polarized spectra of these not completely disordered systems allowed to define the spectra along the cellulose c chain axis as well as along a perpendicular axis which may slightly vary from one sample to another one. Weakening and ruptures of some hydrogen bonds upon heating the samples at 115°C, as well as evaporation of D 2O molecules and H/D exchanges after immersion in a D 2O vapor were followed spectroscopically. A critical analysis of the spectra allowed to propose a detailed assignment for most of the bands at wavenumbers higher than 800 cm -1. From this analysis it appeared that the majority (more than 2/3) of C2O2H alcohols were involved in weak hydrogen bonds or perhaps even not hydrogen-bonded at all. On the other hand, the minority of C2O2H established a hydrogen bond with the O6 atom of an adjacent primary alcohol of the same chain. This particular hydrogen bond was the strongest found in these crystals. With the proposed assignment, hydroxymethyl moieties were found adopting three conformations (a dominant one and two minor) allowing the formation of different hydrogen bonds on adjacent chains. These conformations corresponded to three slightly different C4-C5-C6-O6 ( χ) dihedral angles. Most probably the primary alcohols that accept a hydrogen bond from the adjacent C2O2H alcohols were not the ones which adopt the dominant conformation.

  15. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItÆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  16. Integrating large-scale functional genomics data to dissect metabolic networks for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-12-17

    The goal of this project is to identify gene networks that are critical for efficient biohydrogen production by leveraging variation in gene content and gene expression in independently isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains. Coexpression methods were applied to large data sets that we have collected to define probabilistic causal gene networks. To our knowledge this a first systems level approach that takes advantage of strain-to strain variability to computationally define networks critical for a particular bacterial phenotypic trait.

  17. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  18. Pillared Graphene: A New 3-D Innovative Network Nanostructure Augments Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgios, Dimitrakakis K.; Emmanuel, Tylianakis; George, Froudakis E.

    2009-08-01

    Nowadays, people have turned into finding an alternative power source for everyday applications. One of the most promising energy fuels is hydrogen. It can be used as an energy carrier at small portable devices (e.g. laptops and/or cell phones) up to larger, like cars. Hydrogen is considered as the perfect fuel. It can be burnt in combustion engines and the only by-product is water. For hydrogen-powered vehicles a big liming factor is the gas tank and is the reason for not using widely hydrogen in automobile applications. According to United States' Department of Energy (D.O.E.) the target for reversible hydrogen storage in mobile applications is 6% wt. and 45 gr. H2/L and these should be met by 2010. After their synthesis Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) were considered as ideal candidates for hydrogen storage especially after some initially incorrect but invitingly results. As it was proven later, pristine carbon nanotubes cannot achieve D.O.E.'s targets in ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. Therefore, a way to increase their hydrogen storage capacity should be found. An attempt was done by doping CNTs with alkali metal atoms. Although the results were promising, even that increment was not enough. Consequently, new architectures were suggested as materials that could potentially enhance hydrogen storage. In this work a novel three dimensional (3-D) nanoporous carbon structure called Pillared Graphene (Figure 1) is proposed for augmented hydrogen storage in ambient conditions. Pillared Graphene consists of parallel graphene sheets and CNTs that act like pillars and support the graphene sheets. The entire structure (Figure 1) can be resembled like a building in its early stages of construction, where the floors are represented by graphene sheets and the pillars are the CNTs. As shown in Figure 1, CNTs do not penetrate the structure from top to bottom. Instead, they alternately go up and down, so that on the same plane do not exist two neighboring CNTs with the

  19. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  20. Hydrogen bond network fluctuations in small (H2O)n clusters (n=8-12-24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masella, Michel; Flament, Jean-Pierre

    1999-09-01

    Molecular dynamic studies of three (H2O)n clusters (n=8-12-24) were performed using our recently developed many-body model TCPE [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9105 (1997)] in the microcanonical ensemble. The trajectories were analyzed using a new structural local index derived from one of the many-body energetic term of TCPE. In the energy domain where the clusters are in a liquidlike state, a dynamical equilibrium is theoretically predicted to exist among molecules in the PHB1 and the PHB2 state (i.e., among molecules which one of their protons is involved in one hydrogen bond, the PHB1 state, and molecules which both of their protons are involved in two hydrogen bonds, the PHB2 state). The enthalpy and entropy changes corresponding to that equilibrium for the three clusters range from 0.75 to 1.10 kcal mol-1 and from -7 to -3.8 cal mol-1 K-1. Such an equilibrium between two species of hydrogen bonded molecules could be related to that experimentally observed in the case of liquid water at ambient conditions. In particular, the entropy changes corresponding to PHB2/PHB1 equilibrium in the case of the three clusters are very close to those experimentally reported for liquid water (about 6.6±0.5 cal mol-1 K-1), suggesting that the equilibrium observed in the case of liquid water could correspond to a PHB2/PHB1 equilibrium. The analysis of hydrogen bond networks in terms of PHBm states appears thus to be an encouraging way in characterising the dynamical properties of water systems.

  1. Theoretical Prediction of Hydrogen Separation Performance of Two-Dimensional Carbon Network of Fused Pentagon.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Xue, Qingzhong; Li, Xiaofang; Jin, Yakang; Zheng, Haixia; Wu, Tiantian; Guo, Qikai

    2015-12-30

    Using the van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, we theoretically predict the H2 separation performance of a new two-dimensional sp(2) carbon allotropes-fused pentagon network. The DFT calculations demonstrate that the fused pentagon network with proper pore sizes presents a surmountable energy barrier (0.18 eV) for H2 molecule passing through. Furthermore, the fused pentagon network shows an exceptionally high selectivity for H2/gas (CO, CH4, CO2, N2, et al.) at 300 and 450 K. Besides, using MD simulations we demonstrate that the fused pentagon network exhibits a H2 permeance of 4 × 10(7) GPU at 450 K, which is much higher than the value (20 GPU) in the current industrial applications. With high selectivity and excellent permeability, the fused pentagon network should be an excellent candidate for H2 separation. PMID:26632974

  2. Internet Infrastructures and Health Care Systems: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on Networks and Markets in the British National Health Service and Kaiser Permanente

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. Objective To identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization. Methods A qualitative comparative analysis focusing on the British National Health Service and the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization to show how system infrastructures vary according to market dynamics dominated by health care institutions ("push") or by consumer demand ("pull"). System control mechanisms may be technologically embedded, institutional, or behavioral. Results The analysis suggests that telecommunications technologies and the Internet may contribute significantly to health care system performance in a context of ideological diversity. Conclusions The study offers evidence to validate alternative models of health care governance: the national constitution model, and the enterprise business contract model. This evidence also suggests important questions for health care policy makers as well as researchers in telecommunications, organizational theory, and health care management. PMID:12554552

  3. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II: A hydrogen bonded water network switch is observed between pH 7.8 and 10.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Zoe; Langan, Paul; Mustyakimov, Marat; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The neutron structure of wild type human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 7.8 has been determined to 2.0 resolution. Detailed analysis and comparison to the previous determined structure at pH 10.0 shows important differences in protonation of key catalytic residues in the active site as well as a rearrangement of the hydrogen bonded water network. For the first time, a completed hydrogen bonded network stretching from the Zn-bound solvent to the proton shuttling residue His64 has been directed observed.

  4. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  5. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  6. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liriano, Melissa L.; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Lawton, Timothy J.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  7. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol.

    PubMed

    Liriano, Melissa L; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A; Murphy, Colin J; Lawton, Timothy J; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Therrien, Andrew J; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E Charles H

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  8. Towards A Hydrogen Economy, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect

    2007-05-15

    The report provides a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future and takes a high-level look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and, providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

  9. Towards a hydrogen economy. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    The report is a study of the movement towards using hydrogen as a key energy carrier in the future. It takes a look at the current state of hydrogen and addresses the infrastructure requirements needed to make the hydrogen economy a reality. The report offers a detailed look at the move to a hydrogen economy by: Identifying the current status of hydrogen production and use; Discussing the key business drivers of the move towards hydrogen; Discussing the barriers to implementation that stand in the way of a transition; Providing a critical look at whether the hydrogen economy can succeed; Describing the options that exist for a hydrogen infrastructure; Identifying the key government initiatives making the hydrogen economy a reality; Providing company-by-company profiles of automobile manufacturer efforts to develop and commercialize hydrogen vehicles; and Providing profiles of key hydrogen infrastructure manufacturers.

  10. 47 CFR 59.2 - Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING § 59.2 Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing. (a) An... to, enter into joint ownership or operation of public switched network infrastructure,...

  11. 47 CFR 59.2 - Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING § 59.2 Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing. (a) An... to, enter into joint ownership or operation of public switched network infrastructure,...

  12. 47 CFR 59.2 - Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING § 59.2 Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing. (a) An... to, enter into joint ownership or operation of public switched network infrastructure,...

  13. Water Hydrogen-Bonding Network Structure and Dynamics at Phospholipid Multibilayer Surface: Femtosecond Mid-IR Pump-Probe Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Achintya; Błasiak, Bartosz; Lim, Joon-Hyung; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-03-01

    The water hydrogen-bonding network at a lipid bilayer surface is crucial to understanding membrane structures and its functional activities. With a phospholipid multibilayer mimicking a biological membrane, we study the temperature dependence of water hydrogen-bonding structure, distribution, and dynamics at a lipid multibilayer surface using femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy. We observe two distinguished vibrational lifetime components. The fast component (0.6 ps) is associated with water interacting with a phosphate part, whereas the slow component (1.9 ps) is with bulk-like choline-associated water. With increasing temperature, the vibrational lifetime of phosphate-associated water remains constant though its relative fraction dramatically increases. The OD stretch vibrational lifetime of choline-bound water slows down in a sigmoidal fashion with respect to temperature, indicating a noticeable change of the water environment upon the phase transition. The water structure and dynamics are thus shown to be in quantitative correlation with the structural change of liquid multibilayer upon the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition. PMID:26859047

  14. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios for selected sites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Huang, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Increasingly, hydrologic studies require information on the isotopic composition of natural waters. This report presents stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen isotope ratios (δ180) of precipitation samples from seven selected sites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN) collected during the years 1992-1994.

  15. 1H NMR studies on the hydrogen-bonding network in mono-altro-beta-cyclodextrin and its complex with adamantane-1-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Birgit; Fujita, Kahee; Immel, Stefan; Kenne, Lennart; Sandström, Corine

    2005-06-13

    The hydrogen-bond network in mono-altro-beta-cyclodextrin and in its inclusion complex with adamantane-1-carboxylic acid were investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the chemical shifts, temperature coefficients and vicinal coupling constants of the exchangeable hydroxy protons. The chemical shifts of the 3-OH signals indicated that the hydrogen-bond network between the 2-OH and 3-OH groups was disturbed not only on each side of the altrose residue, but also along the whole dextrin chain. Upon addition of adamantane-1-carboxylic acid, altrose underwent a conformational change from the (1)C(4) to the (O)S(2) form, allowing a more continuous belt of hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the downfield shift experienced by the 3-OH proton signals of the glucose residues. PMID:15885670

  16. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  17. Architecture-based multiscale computational modeling of plant cell wall mechanics to examine the hydrogen-bonding hypothesis of cell wall network structure model

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hojae; Puri, Virendra M.

    2012-11-01

    A primary plant cell wall network was computationally modeled using the finite element approach to study the hypothesis of hemicellulose (HC) tethering with the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) as one of the major load-bearing mechanisms of the growing cell wall. A computational primary cell wall network fragment (10 × 10 μm) comprising typical compositions and properties of CMFs and HC was modeled with well-aligned CMFs. The tethering of HC to CMFs is modeled in accordance with the strength of the hydrogen bonding by implementing a specific load-bearing connection (i.e. the joint element). The introduction of the CMF-HC interaction to the computational cell wall network model is a key to the quantitative examination of the mechanical consequences of cell wall structure models, including the tethering HC model. When the cell wall network models with and without joint elements were compared, the hydrogen bond exhibited a significant contribution to the overall stiffness of the cell wall network fragment. When the cell wall network model was stretched 1% in the transverse direction, the tethering of CMF-HC via hydrogen bonds was not strong enough to maintain its integrity. When the cell wall network model was stretched 1% in the longitudinal direction, the tethering provided comparable strength to maintain its integrity. This substantial anisotropy suggests that the HC tethering with hydrogen bonds alone does not manifest sufficient energy to maintain the integrity of the cell wall during its growth (i.e. other mechanisms are present to ensure the cell wall shape).

  18. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-11-22

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  19. An insight into liquid water networks through hydrogen bonding halide anion: Stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Tianyu; Li, Fangfang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Zuowei; Huang, Yuxin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the interaction between water molecules and halide anions and acquired the influence of concentration by the spontaneous Raman spectrum. The results agreed well with the previous researches. To explore further, the stimulated Raman scattering of a halide-water binary solution is measured to study the nature of the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and halogen anions. Under the effect of laser-induced plasma, the OH stretching vibration spectra of aqueous solutions of halogen ions pretty exhibit different trend compared with that of spontaneous Raman spectrum. The frequency shifts of water OH vibration show different values and directions with adding different halide anions. The red shift of F-- and Cl--water molecule clusters is due to the process of charge transfer, whereas the blue shift of Br-- and I--water molecule cluster is due to polarization effect without charge transfer. The results demonstrate that F- and Cl- slightly weaken the hydrogen bond (HB), whereas Br- and I- enhance HB in the water cluster. The decrease of concentration of halogen ions aqueous solution can weaken the effect on the HB.

  20. Tetrahedral oxyanions-assisted supramolecular assemblies of pyridine-based tectons into hydrogen-bonding networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xue-Hua; Wang, Shi; Li, Yong-Hua; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research has been done into structural variations of supramolecular architectures by the self assembly of two pyridine-based potential anion receptors, 1-(4-pyridyl)piperazine (L1) and 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (L2), and different inorganic acids (HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, HIO4, H2SO4 and H3PO4). The formation of four fascinating salts, i.e. (H2L12+)·(H2PO4-)2 (1), (H2L12+)·(ClO4-)2 (2), (HL2+)·(ClO4-) (3) and (HL2+)·(IO4-) (4), indicates that N-heterocyclic L1 and L2 are prone to cocrystallize with tetrahedral oxyanions and anionic topologies play a crucial role in the crystallization process. Structural analyses reveal that various intermolecular ring motifs have been generated by robust hydrogen-bonding interactions in compounds 1-4. In particular, interesting substructures were observed in H2PO4- from salts 1 due to its polytopic potential hydrogen-bonding donor and acceptor oxygen atoms, including ring motifs, 1D ribbons and 2D supramolecular framework. Much to our surprise, crystal 4 proves to be a member of few supramolecular salts crystallizing with IO4- anion according to the Cambridge Structure Database (CSD).

  1. Levoglucosan formation from crystalline cellulose: importance of a hydrogen bonding network in the reaction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takashi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) formation by the thermal degradation of native cellulose was investigated by MP4(SDQ)//DFT(B3LYP) and DFT(M06-2X)//DFT(B3LYP) level computations. The computational results of dimer models lead to the conclusion that the degradation occurs by a concerted mechanism similar to the degradation of methyl β-D-glucoside reported in our previous study. One-chain models of glucose hexamer, in which the interchain hydrogen bonds of real cellulose crystals are absent, do not exhibit the correct reaction behavior of levoglucosan formation; for instance, the activation enthalpy (Ea =≈38 kcal mol(-1) ) is considerably underestimated compared to the experimental value (48-60 kcal mol(-1) ). This problem is solved with the use of two-chain models that contain interchain hydrogen bonds. The theoretical study of this model clearly shows that the degradation of the internal glucosyl residue leads to the formation of a levoglucosan precursor at the chain end and levoglucosan is selectively formed from this levoglucosan end. The calculated Ea (56-62 kcal mol(-1) ) agrees well with the experimental value. The computational results of three-chain models indicate that this degradation occurs selectively on the crystalline surface. All these computational results provide a comprehensive understanding of several experimental facts, the mechanisms of which have not yet been elucidated. PMID:24243863

  2. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  3. Insight into methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Cu(111): Complex reaction network and the effects of H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yafan; Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Peden, Charles HF; Li, Jun; Mei, Donghai

    2011-05-31

    Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on supported Cu catalysts is of considerable importance in the chemical and energy industries. Although extensive experimental and theoretical efforts have been carried out in the past decades, the most fundamental questions such as the reaction mechanisms and the key reaction intermediates are still in debate. In the present work, a comprehensive reaction network for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu(111) was studied using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All of the elementary reaction steps in the reaction network were identified in an unbiased way with the dimer method. Our calculation results show that methanol synthesis from direct hydrogenation of formate on Cu(111) is not feasible due to the high activation barriers for some of the elementary steps. Instead, we find that CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocarboxyl (trans-COOH) is kinetically more favorable than formate in the presence of H2O via a unique proton transfer mechanism. The trans-COOH is then converted into hydroxymethylidyne (COH) via dihydroxycarbene (COHOH) intermediates, followed by three consecutive hydrogenation steps to form hydroxymethylene (HCOH), hydroxymethyl (H2COH), and methanol. This is consistent with recent experimental observations [1], which indicate that direct hydrogenation of formate will not produce methanol under dry hydrogen conditions. Thus, both experiment and computational modeling clearly demonstrate the important role of trace amounts of water in methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Cu catalysts. The proposed methanol synthesis route on Cu(111) not only provides new insights into methanol synthesis chemistry, but also demonstrates again that spectroscopically observed surface species are often not critical reaction intermediates but rather spectator species. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  4. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of glucose aqueous solution: Analysis of the hydration state and the hydrogen bond network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Tajima, Takuro; Nakamura, Masahito; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of saccharides' peculiar anti-freezing and anti-dehydration properties point to a close association with their strong hydration capability and destructuring effect on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of bulk water. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. In this respect, examination of the complex dielectric constants of saccharide aqueous solutions, especially over a broadband frequency region, should provide interesting insights into these properties, since the dielectric responses reflect corresponding dynamics over the time scales measured. In order to do this, the complex dielectric constants of glucose solutions between 0.5 GHz and 12 THz (from the microwave to the far-infrared region) were measured. We then performed analysis procedures on this broadband spectrum by decomposing it into four Debye and two Lorentz functions, with particular attention being paid to the β relaxation (glucose tumbling), δ relaxation (rotational polarization of the hydrated water), slow relaxation (reorientation of the HB network water), fast relaxation (rotation of the non-HB water), and intermolecular stretching vibration (hindered translation of water). On the basis of this analysis, we revealed that the hydrated water surrounding the glucose molecules exhibits a mono-modal relaxational dispersion with 2-3 times slower relaxation times than unperturbed bulk water and with a hydration number of around 20. Furthermore, other species of water with distorted tetrahedral HB water structures, as well as increases in the relative proportion of non-HB water molecules which have a faster relaxation time and are not a part of the surrounding bulk water HB network, was found in the vicinity of the glucose molecules. These clearly point to the HB destructuring effect of saccharide solutes in aqueous solution. The results, as a whole, provide a detailed picture of glucose-water and water-water interactions in the vicinity of the glucose molecules at

  5. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of glucose aqueous solution: Analysis of the hydration state and the hydrogen bond network.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Tajima, Takuro; Nakamura, Masahito; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-21

    Recent studies of saccharides' peculiar anti-freezing and anti-dehydration properties point to a close association with their strong hydration capability and destructuring effect on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of bulk water. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. In this respect, examination of the complex dielectric constants of saccharide aqueous solutions, especially over a broadband frequency region, should provide interesting insights into these properties, since the dielectric responses reflect corresponding dynamics over the time scales measured. In order to do this, the complex dielectric constants of glucose solutions between 0.5 GHz and 12 THz (from the microwave to the far-infrared region) were measured. We then performed analysis procedures on this broadband spectrum by decomposing it into four Debye and two Lorentz functions, with particular attention being paid to the β relaxation (glucose tumbling), δ relaxation (rotational polarization of the hydrated water), slow relaxation (reorientation of the HB network water), fast relaxation (rotation of the non-HB water), and intermolecular stretching vibration (hindered translation of water). On the basis of this analysis, we revealed that the hydrated water surrounding the glucose molecules exhibits a mono-modal relaxational dispersion with 2-3 times slower relaxation times than unperturbed bulk water and with a hydration number of around 20. Furthermore, other species of water with distorted tetrahedral HB water structures, as well as increases in the relative proportion of non-HB water molecules which have a faster relaxation time and are not a part of the surrounding bulk water HB network, was found in the vicinity of the glucose molecules. These clearly point to the HB destructuring effect of saccharide solutes in aqueous solution. The results, as a whole, provide a detailed picture of glucose-water and water-water interactions in the vicinity of the glucose molecules at

  6. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 6 Report Promoting a Southeast Hydrogen Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project task was to establish a technical consortium to promote the deployment of hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. The goal was to partner with fuel cell manufacturers, hydrogen fuel infrastructure providers, electric utilities, energy service companies, research institutions, and user groups to improve education and awareness of hydrogen technologies in an area that is lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of vehicle and infrastructure demonstrations and deployments. This report documents that effort.

  7. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  8. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  9. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  10. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  11. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  12. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  13. Carbonyl carbon transverse relaxation dispersion measurements and ms-micros timescale motion in a protein hydrogen bond network.

    PubMed

    Ishima, Rieko; Baber, James; Louis, John M; Torchia, Dennis A

    2004-06-01

    A constant-time, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation, R(2), dispersion experiment for carbonyl carbons was designed and executed to detect micros-ms time-scale dynamics of protein backbone carbonyl sites. Because of the large (ca. 55 Hz) C(alpha)-C' J-coupling, the carbonyl signal intensity is strongly modulated as the spacing between CPMG pulses is varied, in uniformly (13)C enriched proteins, unless care is taken to minimize the perturbation of the C(alpha) magnetization by the CPMG pulses. CPMG pulse trains consisting of either a band-selective pulse, such as RE-BURP, or rectangular (with an excitation null in the C(alpha) region of the spectrum) pulses were employed in order to minimize C' signal modulation by C(alpha)-C' J-coupling. The performance of these types of CPMG refocusing pulses was assessed by computer simulation, and by comparing dispersion profiles measured for (1) uniformly [(13)C,(15)N, (2)H] ((2)H at non-labile hydrogen sites) labeled, and (2) uniformly (15)N/selectively-(13)C' labeled samples of HIV-1 protease bound to a potent inhibitor, DMP323. In addition, because the uniformly (13)C/(15)N/(2)H labeled sample was well suited to measure (15)N and (1)H R(2) dispersion as well as (13)C' dispersion, conformational exchange in the inter subunit beta-sheet hydrogen-bond network of the inhibitor-bound protease was elucidated using relaxation dispersion data of all three types of nuclei. PMID:15014232

  14. Water in Carbon Nanotubes: The Peculiar Hydrogen Bond Network Revealed by Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bernardina, Simona; Paineau, Erwan; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Judeinstein, Patrick; Rouzière, Stéphan; Launois, Pascale; Roy, Pascale

    2016-08-24

    A groundbreaking discovery in nanofluidics was the observation of the tremendously enhanced water permeability of carbon nanotubes, those iconic objects of nanosciences. The origin of this phenomenon is still a subject of controversy. One of the proposed explanations involves dramatic modifications of the H-bond network of nanoconfined water with respect to that of bulk water. Infrared spectroscopy is an ideal technique to follow modifications of this network through the inter- and intramolecular bonds of water molecules. Here we report the first infrared study of water uptake at controlled vapor pressure in single walled carbon nanotubes with diameters ranging from 0.7 to 2.1 nm. It reveals a predominant contribution of loose H bonds even for fully hydrated states, irrespective of the nanotube size. Our results show that, while the dominating loosely bond signature is attributed to a one-dimensional chain structure for small diameter nanotubes, this feature also results from a water layer with "free" OH (dangling) bonds facing the nanotube wall for larger diameter nanotubes. These experimental findings provide a solid reference for further modeling of water behavior in hydrophobic nanochannels. PMID:27455124

  15. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  16. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  17. Reconceptualizing the Role of Infrastructure in Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Sheahan, Thomas C.

    2014-08-01

    The Sustainable Adaptive Gradients in the Coastal Environment (SAGE) research collaboration network is composed of U.S., Caribbean, and European engineers, geoscientists, ecologists, social scientists, planners, and policy makers. The goal of SAGE is to establish international, cross-disciplinary networks of researchers working on resilient coastal infrastructure (gray, green, and cultural), with a focus on understanding how varying coastal characteristics contribute toward resilient adaptation strategies (funded under National Science Foundation grant ICER-1338767).

  18. The operational performance of hydrogen masers in the deep space network: The performance of laboratory reference frequency standards in an operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen masers used as aids in meeting the routine frequency and time operational requirements within the 64 m antenna Deep Space Network. Both the operational syntonation (frequency synchronization) and the the clock (epoch) synchronization requirements were established through the use of specifically calibrated H-P E215061A flying clock. The sync/synt to UTC was maintained using LORAN and TV in simultaneous reception mode. The sync/synt within the 64 m net was maintained through the use of very long base interferometry. Results indicate that the hydrogen masers perform well within the required specifications.

  19. The ICT Infrastructure: A Driver of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure changes on higher education. Addresses issues such as ICT hardware, networks, and leadership and skills; budgets; policy (including access to information, information privacy, information security, and ownership of faculty course materials); changes in…

  20. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the National Information Infrastructure and the role of the government. Topics include private sector investment; universal service; technological innovation; user orientation; information security and network reliability; management of the radio frequency spectrum; intellectual property rights; coordination with other levels of…

  1. Predictable and SuStainable Implementation of National Cardiovascular Registries (PASSION) infrastructure: A think tank report from Medical Device Epidemiological Network Initiative (MDEpiNet).

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Emily P; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Drozda, Joseph P; Kessler, Larry G; Kirtane, Ajay J; Kong, David F; Laschinger, John; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Morice, Marie-Claude; Reed, Terrie; Sedrakyan, Art; Stein, Kenneth M; Tcheng, James; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2016-01-01

    The MDEpiNet is a public-private partnership between the US Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health and participating partners. The PASSION program is an MDEpiNet-sponsored program that aims to demonstrate the goals of MDEpiNet by using cardiovascular medical device registries to bridge evidence gaps across the medical device total product life cycle. To this end, a PASSION Think Tank meeting took place in October 2014 in Silver Spring, MD, to facilitate discussion between stakeholders about the successes, challenges, and future novel applications of medical device registries, with particular emphasis on identifying pilot projects. Participants spanned a broad range of groups including patients, device manufacturers, regulators, physicians/academicians, professional societies, providers, and payers. The meeting focus included 4 areas of cardiovascular medicine intended to cultivate interest in 4 MDEpiNet disease-specific/device-specific working groups: coronary intervention, electrophysiology, valvular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. In addition, more general issues applying to registry-based infrastructure and analytical methodologies for assessing device benefit/risk were considered to provide context for the working groups as PASSION programs going forward. This article summarizes the discussions at the meeting and the future directions of the PASSION program. PMID:26699602

  2. The Proximal Hydrogen Bond Network Modulates Bacillus subtilis Nitric-oxide Synthase Electronic and Structural Properties

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Albane; Wilson, Adjélé; Henry, Laura; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins are believed to be genuine NOSs. As for cytochromes P450 (CYPs), NOS-proximal ligand is a thiolate that exerts a push effect crucial for the process of dioxygen activation. Unlike CYPs, this catalytic electron donation seems controlled by a hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction between the thiolate ligand and a vicinal tryptophan. Variations of the strength of this H-bond could provide a direct way to tune the stability along with the electronic and structural properties of NOS. We generated five different mutations of bsNOS Trp66, which can modulate this proximal H-bond. We investigated the effects of these mutations on different NOS complexes (FeIII, FeIICO, and FeIINO), using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR, FTIR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Our results indicate that (i) the proximal H-bond modulation can selectively decrease or increase the electron donating properties of the proximal thiolate, (ii) this modulation controls the σ-competition between distal and proximal ligands, (iii) this H-bond controls the stability of various NOS intermediates, and (iv) a fine tuning of the electron donation by the proximal ligand is required to allow at the same time oxygen activation and to prevent uncoupling reactions. PMID:21310962

  3. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  4. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  5. Systematic N-methylation of oxytocin: Impact on pharmacology and intramolecular hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Sciabola, Simone; Goetz, Gilles H; Bai, Guoyun; Rogers, Bruce N; Gray, David L; Duplantier, Allen; Fonseca, Kari R; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle A; Kablaoui, Natasha M

    2016-08-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a peptide hormone agonist of the OT receptor (OTR) that plays an important role in social behaviors such as pair bonding, maternal bonding and trust. The pharmaceutical development of OT as an oral peptide therapeutic has been hindered historically by its unfavorable physicochemical properties, including molecular weight, polarity and number of hydrogen bond donors, which determines poor cell permeability. Here we describe the first systematic study of single and multiple N-methylations of OT and their effect on physicochemical properties as well as potency at the OT receptor. The agonist EC50 and percent effect for OTR are reported and show that most N-methylations are tolerated but with some loss in potency compared to OT. The effect of N-methylation on exposed polarity is assessed through the EPSA chromatographic method and the results validated against NMR temperature coefficient experiments and the determination of NMR solution structures. We found that backbone methylation of residues not involved in IMHB and removal of the N-terminal amine can significantly reduce the exposed polarity of peptides, and yet retain a significant OTR agonist activity. The results of this study also expose the potential challenge of using the N-methylation strategy for the OT system; while exposed polarity is reduced, in some cases backbone methylation produces a significant conformational change that compromises agonist activity. The data presented provides useful insights on the SAR of OT and suggests future design strategies that can be used to develop more permeable OTR agonists based on the OT framework. PMID:27297999

  6. A Federal Response: The President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection Board's purpose, budget, principles, and priorities. Describes the board's role in coordinating all federal activities related to protection of information systems and networks supporting critical infrastructures. Also discusses its responsibility in creating a policy and road map for government…

  7. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  8. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  9. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method ofmore » Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.« less

  10. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  11. The Emerging National Information Infrastructure and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerhill, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses networked information resources used by reference librarians in research libraries. Highlights include the NREN (National Research and Education Network); the Internet; network architecture; the national information infrastructure; the effect of electronic information on reference desk transactions; the changing nature of research; the…

  12. What lessons can the eVLBI and Networking community learn from the massive advances in the deployment of High Energy Physics infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin George

    Over the last two years, in the lead-up to the launch of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (an instrument capable of generating Petabytes of data each day) the High Energy Physics and the Networking communities have worked closely to ensure that this data will be readily distributed around the world and be available to scientists everywhere. The 2nd International HEP, Grid and Global Digital Divide workshop was held in Korea in May. Relevant contributions made at the HEP meeting, that may have a bearing on the evolution of the global eVLBI Grid, will be discussed.

  13. 3Drefine: Consistent Protein Structure Refinement by Optimizing Hydrogen Bonding Network and Atomic-Level Energy Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cheng, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    One of the major limitations of computational protein structure prediction is the deviation of predicted models from their experimentally derived true, native structures. The limitations often hinder the possibility of applying computational protein structure prediction methods in biochemical assignment and drug design that are very sensitive to structural details. Refinement of these low-resolution predicted models to high-resolution structures close to the native state, however, has proven to be extremely challenging. Thus, protein structure refinement remains a largely unsolved problem. Critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP) specifically indicated that most predictors participating in the refinement category still did not consistently improve model quality. Here, we propose a two-step refinement protocol, called 3Drefine, to consistently bring the initial model closer to the native structure. The first step is based on optimization of hydrogen bonding (HB) network and the second step applies atomic-level energy minimization on the optimized model using a composite physics and knowledge-based force fields. The approach has been evaluated on the CASP benchmark data and it exhibits consistent improvement over the initial structure in both global and local structural quality measures. 3Drefine method is also computationally inexpensive, consuming only few minutes of CPU time to refine a protein of typical length (300 residues). PMID:22927229

  14. Raman Spectra of Liquid Water from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics: Vibrational Signatures of Charge Fluctuations in the Hydrogen Bond Network.

    PubMed

    Wan, Quan; Spanu, Leonardo; Galli, Giulia A; Gygi, François

    2013-09-10

    We report the first ab initio simulations of the Raman spectra of liquid water, obtained by combining first principles molecular dynamics and density functional perturbation theory. Our computed spectra are in good agreement with experiments, especially in the low frequency region. We also describe a systematic strategy to analyze the Raman intensities, which is of general applicability to molecular solids and liquids, and it is based on maximally localized Wannier functions and effective molecular polarizabilities. Our analysis revealed the presence of intermolecular charge fluctuations accompanying the hydrogen bond (HB) stretching modes at 270 cm(-1), in spite of the absence of any Raman activity in the isotropic spectrum. We also found that charge fluctuations partly contribute to the 200 cm(-1) peak in the anisotropic spectrum, thus providing insight into the controversial origin of such peak. Our results highlighted the importance of taking into account electronic effects in interpreting the Raman spectra of liquid water and the key role of charge fluctuations within the HB network; they also pointed at the inaccuracies of models using constant molecular polarizabilities to describe the Raman response of liquid water. PMID:26592405

  15. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  16. Cooperative Roles of Charge Transfer and Dispersion Terms in Hydrogen-Bonded Networks of (H2O)n, n = 6, 11, and 16

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Suehiro; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-08-01

    The perturbation expansion based on the locally-projected molecular orbital (LPMO PT) was applied to the study of the hydrogenbonded networks of water clusters with up to 16 molecules. Utilizing the local nature of the occupied and excited MOs on each monomer, the chargetransfer and dispersion terms are evaluated for every pair of molecules. The two terms are strongly correlated with each other for the hydrogen-bonded pairs. The strength of the hydrogen bonds in the clusters is further classified by the types of the hydrogen donor and acceptor water molecules. The relative energies evaluated with th LPMO PT among the isomers of (H2O)6, (H2O)11, and (H2O)16 agree very well with those obtained from CCSD(T) calculations with large basis sets. The binding energy of the LPMO PT is approximately free of the basis set superposition errors caused both by the orbital basis inconsistency and by the configuration basis inconsistency.

  17. An Easily Accessible Self-Healing Transparent Film Based on a 2D Supramolecular Network of Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions between Polymeric Chains.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nabarun; Tomović, Željko; Buhler, Eric; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2016-09-12

    Self-healing polymers hold great promise for the future, enhancing in particular the longevity of polymeric materials. We describe a self-healing covalent polymer, presenting an extensive array of hydrogen-bonding sites based on the combination of urea, urethane, and bis-acyl-hydrazine units. Solvent-cast thin-films prepared by polycondensation of a commercially available dihydrazide and a diisocyanate prepolymer exhibited excellent room temperature autonomous healing with almost full recovery of mechanical properties when two parts of a cut film were overlapped and gently pressed together. This autonomous healing upon damage may be attributed to the supramolecular dynamics of multiple lateral inter-chain hydrogen-bonding interactions between the polymer chains. The solid-state structure of a model compound incorporating the same structural backbone corroborates the existence of an extensive two-dimensional supramolecular hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:27226034

  18. Proton transfer reactions and hydrogen-bond networks in protein environments.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Saito, Keisuke

    2014-02-01

    In protein environments, proton transfer reactions occur along polar or charged residues and isolated water molecules. These species consist of H-bond networks that serve as proton transfer pathways; therefore, thorough understanding of H-bond energetics is essential when investigating proton transfer reactions in protein environments. When the pKa values (or proton affinity) of the H-bond donor and acceptor moieties are equal, significantly short, symmetric H-bonds can be formed between the two, and proton transfer reactions can occur in an efficient manner. However, such short, symmetric H-bonds are not necessarily stable when they are situated near the protein bulk surface, because the condition of matching pKa values is opposite to that required for the formation of strong salt bridges, which play a key role in protein-protein interactions. To satisfy the pKa matching condition and allow for proton transfer reactions, proteins often adjust the pKa via electron transfer reactions or H-bond pattern changes. In particular, when a symmetric H-bond is formed near the protein bulk surface as a result of one of these phenomena, its instability often results in breakage, leading to large changes in protein conformation. PMID:24284891

  19. Proton transfer reactions and hydrogen-bond networks in protein environments

    PubMed Central

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Saito, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In protein environments, proton transfer reactions occur along polar or charged residues and isolated water molecules. These species consist of H-bond networks that serve as proton transfer pathways; therefore, thorough understanding of H-bond energetics is essential when investigating proton transfer reactions in protein environments. When the pKa values (or proton affinity) of the H-bond donor and acceptor moieties are equal, significantly short, symmetric H-bonds can be formed between the two, and proton transfer reactions can occur in an efficient manner. However, such short, symmetric H-bonds are not necessarily stable when they are situated near the protein bulk surface, because the condition of matching pKa values is opposite to that required for the formation of strong salt bridges, which play a key role in protein–protein interactions. To satisfy the pKa matching condition and allow for proton transfer reactions, proteins often adjust the pKa via electron transfer reactions or H-bond pattern changes. In particular, when a symmetric H-bond is formed near the protein bulk surface as a result of one of these phenomena, its instability often results in breakage, leading to large changes in protein conformation. PMID:24284891

  20. Photoelectrochemical water splitting and hydrogen generation by a spontaneously formed InGaN nanowall network

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, N. H. E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es; Soto Rodriguez, P. E. D.; Kumar, Praveen; Gómez, V. J.; Aseev, P.; Nötzel, R. E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es; Alvi, M. A.; Willander, M.

    2014-06-02

    We investigate photoelectrochemical water splitting by a spontaneously formed In-rich InGaN nanowall network, combining the material of choice with the advantages of surface texturing for light harvesting by light scattering. The current density for the InGaN-nanowalls-photoelectrode at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode is 3.4 mA cm{sup −2} with an incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 16% under 350 nm laser illumination with 0.075 W·cm{sup −2} power density. In comparison, the current density for a planar InGaN-layer-photoelectrode is 2 mA cm{sup −2} with IPCE of 9% at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The H{sub 2} generation rates at zero externally applied voltage versus the Pt counter electrode per illuminated area are 2.8 and 1.61 μmol·h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} for the InGaN nanowalls and InGaN layer, respectively, revealing ∼57% enhancement for the nanowalls.

  1. Water Splitting: Strongly Coupled Nafion Molecules and Ordered Porous CdS Networks for Enhanced Visible-Light Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Li; Song, Ji-Peng; Ling, Tao; Hu, Zhen Peng; Yin, Peng-Fei; Davey, Kenneth; Du, Xi-Wen; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-06-01

    T. Ling, X.-W. Du, S. Z. Qiao, and co-workers report strongly coupled Nafion molecules and ordered-porous CdS networks for visible-light water splitting. The image conceptually shows how the three-dimensional ordered structure effectively harvests incoming light. As described on page 4935, the inorganic CdS skeleton is homogeneously passivated by the organic Nafion molecules to facilitate hydrogen generation. PMID:27311095

  2. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  3. Neuron-Inspired Interpenetrative Network Composed of Cobalt-Phosphorus-Derived Nanoparticles Embedded within Porous Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juanxia; Yang, Zhi; Ge, Mengzhan; Li, Ping; Nie, Huagui; Cai, Qiran; Gu, Cancan; Yang, Keqin; Huang, Shaoming

    2016-07-13

    The ongoing search for cheap and efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to replace currently used catalysts based on Pt or its alloys has been considered as an prevalent strategy to produce renewable and clean hydrogen energy. Herein, inspired by the neuron structure in biological systems, we demonstrate a novel fabrication strategy via a simple two-step method for the synthesis of a neuronlike interpenetrative nanocomposite network of Co-P embedded in porous carbon nanotubes (NIN-Co-P/PCNTs). It is found that the interpenetrative network provides a natural transport path to accelerate the hydrogen production process. The embedded-type structure improves the utilization ratio of Co-P and the hollow, tubelike, and porous structure of PCNTs further promote charge and reactant transport. These factors allow the as-prepared NIN-Co-P/PCNTs to achieve a onset potential low to 43 mV, a Tafel slope as small as 40 mV/decade, an excellent stability, and a high turnover frequency value of 3.2 s(-1) at η = 0.2 V in acidic conditions. These encouraging properties derived from the neuronlike interpenetrative network structure might offer new inspiration for the preparation of more nanocomposites for applications in other catalytic and optoelectronic field. PMID:27315228

  4. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Chang, Gary; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users andmore » vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.« less

  5. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    SciTech Connect

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Chang, Gary; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users and vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.

  6. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  7. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  8. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cassidy, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    NASA policy concerning the commercial infrastructure of the Space Station is examined. Plans for receiving and evaluating unsolicited proposals to provide commercial infrastructure are outlined. The guidelines for development of the commercial infrastructure and examples of opportunities for industry are listed. Also, a program for industry feedback concerning the commercial infrastructure policy is discussed.

  9. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  10. A sociotechnical framework for understanding infrastructure breakdown and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Benjamin H

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at how and why infrastructure is repaired. With a new era of infrastructure spending underway, policymakers need to understand and anticipate the particular technical and political challenges posed by infrastructure repair. In particular, as infrastructure problems are increasingly in the public eye with current economic stimulus efforts, the question has increasingly been asked: why has it been so difficult for the United Statesto devote sustained resources to maintaining and upgrading its national infrastructure? This paper provides a sociotechnical framework for understanding the challenges of infrastructure repair, and demonstrates this framework using a case study of seismic retrofit of freeway bridges in California. The design of infrastructure is quite different from other types of design work even when new infrastructure is being designed. Infrastructure projects are almost always situated within, and must work with, existing infrastructure networks. As a result, compared to design of more discrete technological artifacts, the design of infrastructure systems requires a great deal of attention to interfaces as well as adaptation of design to the constraints imposed by existing systems. Also, because of their scale, infrastructural technologies engage with social life at a level where explicit political agendas may playa central role in the design process. The design and building of infrastructure is therefore often an enormously complex feat of sociotechnical engineering, in which technical and political agendas are negotiated together until an outcome is reached that allows the project to move forward. These sociotechnical settlements often result in a complex balancing of powerful interests around infrastructural artifacts; at the same time, less powerful interests have historically often been excluded or marginalized from such settlements.

  11. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  12. Vulnerability of network of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  13. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  14. Disruption of a hydrogen bond network in human versus spider monkey cytochrome c affects heme crevice stability.

    PubMed

    Goldes, Matthew E; Jeakins-Cooley, Margaret E; McClelland, Levi J; Mou, Tung-Chung; Bowler, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    The hypothesis that the recent rapid evolution of primate cytochromes c, which primarily involves residues in the least stable Ω-loop (Ω-loop C, residues 40-57), stabilizes the heme crevice of cytochrome c relative to other mammals, is tested. To accomplish this goal, we have compared the properties of human and spider monkey cytochrome c and a set of four variants produced in the process of converting human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability of all variants has been measured by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. The stability of the heme crevice has been assessed with the alkaline conformational transition. Structural insight into the effects of the five amino acid substitutions needed to convert human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c is provided by a 1.15Å resolution structure of spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability for all variants is near 9.0kcal/mol at 25°C and pH7, which is higher than that observed for other mammalian cytochromes c. The heme crevice stability is more sensitive to the substitutions required to produce spider monkey cytochrome c with decreases of up to 0.5 units in the apparent pKa of the alkaline conformational transition relative to human cytochrome c. The structure of spider monkey cytochrome c indicates that the Y46F substitution destabilizes the heme crevice by disrupting an extensive hydrogen bond network that connects three surface loops including Ω-loop D (residues 70-85), which contains the Met80 heme ligand. PMID:26775610

  15. Hydrogen Bonding Networks Tune Proton-Coupled Redox Steps during the Enzymatic Six-Electron Conversion of Nitrite to Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multielectron multiproton reactions play an important role in both biological systems and chemical reactions involved in energy storage and manipulation. A key strategy employed by nature in achieving such complex chemistry is the use of proton-coupled redox steps. Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) catalyzes the six-electron seven-proton reduction of nitrite to ammonia. While a catalytic mechanism for ccNiR has been proposed on the basis of studies combining computation and crystallography, there have been few studies directly addressing the nature of the proton-coupled events that are predicted to occur along the nitrite reduction pathway. Here we use protein film voltammetry to directly interrogate the proton-coupled steps that occur during nitrite reduction by ccNiR. We find that conversion of nitrite to ammonia by ccNiR adsorbed to graphite electrodes is defined by two distinct phases; one is proton-coupled, and the other is not. Mutation of key active site residues (H257, R103, and Y206) modulates these phases and specifically alters the properties of the detected proton-dependent step but does not inhibit the ability of ccNiR to conduct the full reduction of nitrite to ammonia. We conclude that the active site residues examined are responsible for tuning the protonation steps that occur during catalysis, likely through an extensive hydrogen bonding network, but are not necessarily required for the reaction to proceed. These results provide important insight into how enzymes can specifically tune proton- and electron transfer steps to achieve high turnover numbers in a physiological pH range. PMID:25137350

  16. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  17. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  19. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  20. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  1. 1H NMR detection of immobilized water molecules within a strong distal hydrogen-bonding network of substrate-bound human heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Syvitski, Ray T; Li, Yiming; Auclair, Karine; Ortiz De Montellano, Paul R; La Mar, Gerd N

    2002-12-01

    Solution 1H NMR is used to probe the environments of the donor protons of eight strong hydrogen bonds on the distal side of the heme substrate in the cyanide-inhibited, substrate-bound complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO. It is demonstrated that significant magnetization transfer from the bulk water signal to the eight labile protons does not result from chemical exchange, but from direct nuclear Overhauser effect due to the dipolar interaction of these labile protons with "ordered" water molecules. The enzyme labile proton to water proton distances are estimated at approximately 3 A. It is proposed that the role of the strong hydrogen-bonding network is to immobilize numerous water molecules which both stabilize the activated hydroperoxy species and funnel protons to the active site. PMID:12452690

  2. Tuning the tetrahedrality of the hydrogen-bonded network of water: Comparison of the effects of pressure and added salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-01

    Experiments and simulations demonstrate some intriguing equivalences in the effect of pressure and electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. Here, we examine the extent and nature of equivalence effects between pressure and salt concentration using relationships between structure, entropy, and transport properties based on two key ideas: first, the approximation of the excess entropy of the fluid by the contribution due to the atom-atom pair correlation functions and second, Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling relations for transport properties. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of LiCl-H2O and bulk SPC/E water spanning the concentration range 0.025-0.300 molefraction of LiCl at 1 atm and pressure range from 0 to 7 GPa, respectively. The temperature range considered was from 225 to 350 K for both the systems. To establish that the time-temperature-transformation behaviour of electrolyte solutions and water is equivalent, we use the additional observation based on our simulations that the pair entropy behaves as a near-linear function of pressure in bulk water and of composition in LiCl-H2O. This allows for the alignment of pair entropy isotherms and allows for a simple mapping of pressure onto composition. Rosenfeld-scaling implies that pair entropy is semiquantitatively related to the transport properties. At a given temperature, equivalent state points in bulk H2O and LiCl-H2O (at 1 atm) are defined as those for which the pair entropy, diffusivity, and viscosity are nearly identical. The microscopic basis for this equivalence lies in the ability of both pressure and ions to convert the liquid phase into a pair-dominated fluid, as demonstrated by the O-O-O angular distribution within the first coordination shell of a water molecule. There are, however, sharp differences in local order and mechanisms for the breakdown of tetrahedral order by pressure and electrolytes. Increasing pressure increases orientational disorder within the first

  3. Tuning the tetrahedrality of the hydrogen-bonded network of water: Comparison of the effects of pressure and added salts.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-21

    Experiments and simulations demonstrate some intriguing equivalences in the effect of pressure and electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. Here, we examine the extent and nature of equivalence effects between pressure and salt concentration using relationships between structure, entropy, and transport properties based on two key ideas: first, the approximation of the excess entropy of the fluid by the contribution due to the atom-atom pair correlation functions and second, Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling relations for transport properties. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of LiCl-H2O and bulk SPC/E water spanning the concentration range 0.025-0.300 molefraction of LiCl at 1 atm and pressure range from 0 to 7 GPa, respectively. The temperature range considered was from 225 to 350 K for both the systems. To establish that the time-temperature-transformation behaviour of electrolyte solutions and water is equivalent, we use the additional observation based on our simulations that the pair entropy behaves as a near-linear function of pressure in bulk water and of composition in LiCl-H2O. This allows for the alignment of pair entropy isotherms and allows for a simple mapping of pressure onto composition. Rosenfeld-scaling implies that pair entropy is semiquantitatively related to the transport properties. At a given temperature, equivalent state points in bulk H2O and LiCl-H2O (at 1 atm) are defined as those for which the pair entropy, diffusivity, and viscosity are nearly identical. The microscopic basis for this equivalence lies in the ability of both pressure and ions to convert the liquid phase into a pair-dominated fluid, as demonstrated by the O-O-O angular distribution within the first coordination shell of a water molecule. There are, however, sharp differences in local order and mechanisms for the breakdown of tetrahedral order by pressure and electrolytes. Increasing pressure increases orientational disorder within the first

  4. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  5. Hydrogen cluster/network in tobermorite as studied by multiple-quantum spin counting {sup 1}H NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Mogami, Yuuki; Yamazaki, Satoru; Matsuno, Shinya; Matsui, Kunio; Noda, Yasuto; Takegoshi, K.

    2014-12-15

    Proton multiple-quantum (MQ) spin-counting experiment has been employed to study arrangement of hydrogen atoms in 9 Å/11 Å natural/synthetic tobermorites. Even though all tobermorite samples give similar characterless, broad static-powder {sup 1}H NMR spectra, their MQ spin-counting spectra are markedly different; higher quanta in 11 Å tobermorite do not grow with the MQ excitation time, while those in 9 Å one do. A statistical analysis of the MQ results recently proposed [26] is applied to show that hydrogens align in 9 Å tobermorite one dimensionally, while in 11 Å tobermorite they exist as a cluster of 5–8 hydrogen atoms.

  6. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  7. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Launch facilities as infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trial, Mike

    The idea is put forth that launch facilities in the U.S. impose inefficiencies on launch service providers due to the way they have been constructed. Rather than constructing facilities for a specific program, then discarding them when the program is complete, a better use of the facilities investment would be in constructing facilities flexible enough for use by multiple vehicle types over the course of a 25-year design lifetime. The planned National Launch System (NLS) program offers one possible avenue for the federal government to provide a nucleus of launch infrastructure which can improve launch efficiencies. The NLS goals are to develop a new space launch system to meet civil and national needs. The new system will be jointly funded by DOD and NASA but will actively consider commercial space needs. The NLS will improve reliability, responsiveness, and mission performance, and reduce operating costs. The specifics of the infrastructure concept are discussed.

  9. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  10. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  11. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  12. Performance of the MM/GBSA scoring using a binding site hydrogen bond network-based frame selection: the protein kinase case.

    PubMed

    Adasme-Carreño, Francisco; Muñoz-Gutierrez, Camila; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2014-07-21

    A conformational selection method, based on hydrogen bond (Hbond) network analysis, has been designed in order to rationalize the configurations sampled using molecular dynamics (MD), which are commonly used in the estimation of the relative binding free energy of ligands to macromolecules through the MM/GBSA or MM/PBSA method. This approach makes use of protein-ligand complexes obtained from X-ray crystallographic data, as well as from molecular docking calculations. The combination of several computational approaches, like long MD simulations on protein-ligand complexes, Hbond network-based selection by scripting techniques and finally MM/GBSA, provides better statistical correlations against experimental binding data than previous similar reported studies. This approach has been successfully applied in the ranking of several protein kinase inhibitors (CDK2, Aurora A and p38), which present both diverse and related chemical structures. PMID:24901037

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  14. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  15. Status of U.S. FCEV and Infrastructure Learning Demonstration Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2011-03-01

    Presented at the Japan Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC), 1 March 2011, Tokyo, Japan. This presentation summarizes the status of U.S. fuel cell electric vehicles and infrastructure learning demonstration project.

  16. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  17. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience. PMID:25808298

  18. Does fluoride disrupt hydrogen bond network in cationic lipid bilayer? Time-dependent fluorescence shift of Laurdan and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Pokorna, Sarka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Vazdar, Mario; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jungwirth, Pavel; Hof, Martin

    2014-12-14

    Time-dependent fluorescence shift (TDFS) of Laurdan embedded in phospholipid bilayers reports on hydration and mobility of the phospholipid acylgroups. Exchange of H2O with D2O prolongs the lifetime of lipid-water and lipid-water-lipid interactions, which is reflected in a significantly slower TDFS kinetics. Combining TDFS measurements in H2O and D2O hydrated bilayers with atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provides a unique tool for characterization of the hydrogen bonding at the acylgroup level of lipid bilayers. In this work, we use this approach to study the influence of fluoride anions on the properties of cationic bilayers composed of trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The results obtained for DOTAP are confronted with those for neutral phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Both in DOTAP and DOPC H2O/D2O exchange prolongs hydrogen-bonding lifetime and does not disturb bilayer structure. These results are confirmed by MD simulations. TDFS experiments show, however, that for DOTAP this effect is cancelled in the presence of fluoride ions. We interpret these results as evidence that strongly hydrated fluoride is able to steal water molecules that bridge lipid carbonyls. Consequently, when attracted to DOTAP bilayer, fluoride disrupts the local hydrogen-bonding network, and the differences in TDFS kinetics between H2O and D2O hydrated bilayers are no longer observed. A distinct behavior of fluoride is also evidenced by MD simulations, which show different lipid-ion binding for Cl(-) and F(-). PMID:25494787

  19. The Temperature-Dependent Thermal Expansion of 2,6-Diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide Effected by Hydrogen Bond Network Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyou; Zhang, Haobin; Wen, Maoping; Xu, Jinjiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Sun, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The temperature-dependent thermal expansion of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105) was investigated by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) together with Rietveld refinement to estimate the dimension at a crystal lattice level. In the temperature range of 30-200°C, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of LLM-105 is temperature dependent, which is different from other explosives, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-hexanitrostilbene (HNS) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), with constant CTEs. The results of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra indicated that the intermolecular hydrogen bond network relaxes with increasing temperature, which results in temperature-dependent thermal expansion. In this work, more accurate CTEs for LLM-105 crystals are obtained and the effects of the hydrogen bond network on the thermal expansion are further clarified. These results are beneficial to the design of materials with structural peculiarities and as-expected thermal expansion to satisfy different application requirements.

  20. Important Hydrogen Bond Networks in Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) Inhibitor Design Revealed by Crystal Structures of Imidazoleisoindole Derivatives with IDO1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi-Hui; Ueng, Shau-Hua; Tseng, Chen-Tso; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Song, Jen-Shin; Wu, Jian-Sung; Liao, Fang-Yu; Fan, Yu-Shiou; Wu, Mine-Hsine; Hsiao, Wen-Chi; Hsueh, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Shu-Yu; Cheng, Chia-Yi; Tu, Chih-Hsiang; Lee, Lung-Chun; Cheng, Ming-Fu; Shia, Kak-Shan; Shih, Chuan; Wu, Su-Ying

    2016-01-14

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), promoting immune escape of tumors, is a therapeutic target for the cancer immunotherapy. A number of IDO1 inhibitors have been identified, but only limited structural biology studies of IDO1 inhibitors are available to provide insights on the binding mechanism of IDO1. In this study, we present the structure of IDO1 in complex with 24, a NLG919 analogue with potent activity. The complex structure revealed the imidazole nitrogen atom of 24 to coordinate with the heme iron, and the imidazoleisoindole core situated in pocket A with the 1-cyclohexylethanol moiety extended to pocket B to interact with the surrounding residues. Most interestingly, 24 formed an extensive hydrogen bond network with IDO1, which is a distinct feature of IDO1/24 complex structure and is not observed in the other IDO1 complex structures. Further structure-activity relationship, UV spectra, and structural biology studies of several analogues of 24 demonstrated that extensive hydrophobic interactions and the unique hydrogen bonding network contribute to the great potency of imidazoleisoindole derivatives. These results are expected to facilitate the structure-based drug design of new IDO inhibitors. PMID:26642377

  1. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  2. Molybdenum(VI) network polymers based on anion-π interaction and hydrogen bonding: Synthesis, crystal structures and oxidation catalytic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Ge; Shi, Zhan; Yang, Mu; Luck, Rudy L.

    2009-11-01

    A crystallographic investigation of anion-π interactions and hydrogen bonds on the preferred structural motifs of molybdenum(VI) complexes has been carried out. Two molybdenum(VI) network polymers MoO 2F 4·(Hinca) 2 ( 1) and MoO 2F 3(H 2O)·(Hinpa) ( 2), where inca = isonicotinamide and inpa = isonipecotamide, have been synthesized, crystallographically characterized and successfully applied to alcohol oxidation reaction. Complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space C2/ c: a = 16.832(3) Å, b = 8.8189(15) Å, c = 12.568(2) Å, β = 118.929(3)°, V = 1560.1(5) Å 3, Z = 4. Complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space P-1: a = 5.459(2) Å, b = 9.189(4) Å, c = 12.204(5) Å, α = 71.341(6)°, β = 81.712(7)°, γ = 77.705(7)°, V = 564.8(4) Å 3, Z = 2. Complex 1 consists of hydrogen bonding and anion-π interactions, both of which are considered as important factors for controlling the geometric features and packing characteristics of the crystal structure. The geometry of the sandwich complex of [MoO 2F 4] 2- with two pyridine rings indicates that the anion-π interaction is an additive and provides a base for the design and synthesis of new complexes. For complex 2, the anions and the protonated inpa ligands form a 2D supramolecular network by four different types of hydrogen contacts (N-H⋯F, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯F and O-H⋯O). The catalytic ability of complexes 1 and 2 has also been evaluated by applying them to the oxidation of benzyl alcohol with TBHP as oxidant.

  3. Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

  4. Biased Gs versus Gq proteins and β-arrestin signaling in the NK1 receptor determined by interactions in the water hydrogen bond network.

    PubMed

    Valentin-Hansen, Louise; Frimurer, Thomas M; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Holliday, Nicholas D; Schwartz, Thue W

    2015-10-01

    X-ray structures, molecular dynamics simulations, and mutational analysis have previously indicated that an extended water hydrogen bond network between trans-membranes I-III, VI, and VII constitutes an allosteric interface essential for stabilizing different active and inactive helical constellations during the seven-trans-membrane receptor activation. The neurokinin-1 receptor signals efficiently through Gq, Gs, and β-arrestin when stimulated by substance P, but it lacks any sign of constitutive activity. In the water hydrogen bond network the neurokinin-1 has a unique Glu residue instead of the highly conserved AspII:10 (2.50). Here, we find that this GluII:10 occupies the space of a putative allosteric modulating Na(+) ion and makes direct inter-helical interactions in particular with SerIII:15 (3.39) and AsnVII:16 (7.49) of the NPXXY motif. Mutational changes in the interface between GluII:10 and AsnVII:16 created receptors that selectively signaled through the following: 1) Gq only; 2) β-arrestin only; and 3) Gq and β-arrestin but not through Gs. Interestingly, increased constitutive Gs but not Gq signaling was observed by Ala substitution of four out of the six core polar residues of the network, in particular SerIII:15. Three residues were essential for all three signaling pathways, i.e. the water-gating micro-switch residues TrpVI:13 (6.48) of the CWXP motif and TyrVII:20 (7.53) of the NPXXY motif plus the totally conserved AsnI:18 (1.50) stabilizing the kink in trans-membrane VII. It is concluded that the interface between position II:10 (2.50), III:15 (3.39), and VII:16 (7.49) in the center of the water hydrogen bond network constitutes a focal point for fine-tuning seven trans-membrane receptor conformations activating different signal transduction pathways. PMID:26269596

  5. An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

    2000-03-29

    US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

  6. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  7. v9fb: a remote framebuffer infrastructure of linux

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ionkov, Latchesar

    2008-01-01

    v9fb is a software infrastructure that allows extending framebufFer devices in Linux over the network by providing an abstraction to them in the form of a filesystem hierarchy. Framebuffer based graphic devices export a synthetic filesystem which offers a simple and easy-to-use interface for performing common framebuffer operations. Remote framebuffer devices could be accessed over the network using the 9P protocol support in Linux. We describe the infrastructure in detail and review some of the benefits it offers similar to Plan 9 distributed systems. We discuss the applications of this infrastructure to remotely display and run interactive applications on a terminal while ofFloading the computation to remote servers, and more importantly the flexibility it offers in driving tiled-display walls by aggregating graphic devices in the network.

  8. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  9. Space-Based Information Infrastructure Architecture for Broadband Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kent M.; Inukai, Tom; Razdan, Rajendev; Lazeav, Yvonne M.

    1996-01-01

    This study addressed four tasks: (1) identify satellite-addressable information infrastructure markets; (2) perform network analysis for space-based information infrastructure; (3) develop conceptual architectures; and (4) economic assessment of architectures. The report concludes that satellites will have a major role in the national and global information infrastructure, requiring seamless integration between terrestrial and satellite networks. The proposed LEO, MEO, and GEO satellite systems have satellite characteristics that vary widely. They include delay, delay variations, poorer link quality and beam/satellite handover. The barriers against seamless interoperability between satellite and terrestrial networks are discussed. These barriers are the lack of compatible parameters, standards and protocols, which are presently being evaluated and reduced.

  10. Highly Extensible Supramolecular Elastomers with Large Stress Generation Capability Originating from Multiple Hydrogen Bonds on the Long Soft Network Strands.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikihiro; Noro, Atsushi; Matsushita, Yushu

    2016-04-01

    Highly extensible supramolecular elastomers are prepared from ABA triblock-type copolymers bearing glassy end blocks and a long soft middle block with multiple hydrogen bonds. The copolymer used is polystyrene-b-[poly(butyl acrylate)-co-polyacrylamide]-b-polystyrene (S-Ba-S), which is synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Tensile tests reveal that the breaking elongation (εb ) increases with an increase in the middle block molecular weight (Mmiddle ). Especially, the largest S-Ba-S with Mmiddle of 3140k, which is synthesized via high-pressure RAFT polymerization, achieves εb of over 2000% with a maximum tensile stress of 3.6 MPa, while the control sample without any middle block hydrogen bonds, polystyrene-b-poly(butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene with Mmiddle of 2780k, is merely a viscous material due to the large volume fraction of soft block. Thus, incorporation of hydrogen bonds into the large molecular weight soft middle block is found to be beneficial to prepare supramolecular elastomers attaining high extensibility and sufficiently large stress generation ability simultaneously. This outcome is probably due to concerted combination of entropic changes and internal potential energy changes originating from the dissociation of multiple hydrogen bonds by elongation. PMID:26914643

  11. Improving the Resilience of Major Ports and Critical Supply Chains to Extreme Coastal Flooding: a Combined Artificial Neural Network and Hydrodynamic Simulation Approach to Predicting Tidal Surge Inundation of Port Infrastructure and Impact on Operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.

    2015-12-01

    Ports are vital to the global economy, but assessments of global exposure to flood risk have generally focused on major concentrations of population or asset values. Few studies have examined the impact of extreme inundation events on port operation and critical supply chains. Extreme water levels and recurrence intervals have conventionally been estimated via analysis of historic water level maxima, and these vary widely depending on the statistical assumptions made. This information is supplemented by near-term forecasts from operational surge-tide models, which give continuous water levels but at considerable computational cost. As part of a NERC Infrastructure and Risk project, we have investigated the impact of North Sea tidal surges on the Port of Immingham, eastern, UK. This handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK and flows of coal and biomass that are critically important for national energy security. The port was partly flooded during a major tidal surge in 2013. This event highlighted the need for improved local forecasts of surge timing in relation to high water, with a better indication of flood depth and duration. We address this problem using a combination of data-driven and numerical hydrodynamic models. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is first used to predict the surge component of water level from meteorological data. The input vector comprises time-series of local wind (easterly and northerly wind stress) and pressure, as well as regional pressure and pressure gradients from stations between the Shetland Islands and the Humber estuary. The ANN achieves rms errors of around 0.1 m and can generate short-range (~ 3 to 12 hour) forecasts given real-time input data feeds. It can also synthesize water level events for a wider range of tidal and meteorological forcing combinations than contained in the observational records. These are used to force Telemac2D numerical floodplain simulations using a LiDAR digital elevation model of the port

  12. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  13. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  14. Robustness of networks of networks with degree-degree correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Canals, Santiago; Makse, Hernan

    Many real-world complex systems ranging from critical infrastructure and transportation networks to living systems including brain and cellular networks are not formed by an isolated network but by a network of networks. Randomly coupled networks with interdependency between different networks may easily result in abrupt collapse. Here, we seek a possible explanation of stable functioning in natural networks of networks including functional brain networks. Specifically, we analyze the robustness of networks of networks focused on one-to-many interconnections between different networks and degree-degree correlation. Implication of the network robustness on functional brain networks of rats is also discussed.

  15. Two three-dimensional cadmium supramolecular architectures containing extensive hydrogen-bonding networks based on CdSO4 and bis-imidazole ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yang-Fan; Wang, Tao; Pi, Min; Song, Wen; Jin, Chuan-Ming

    2012-11-01

    In this study, two novel three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular networks, [Cd(BIM)2(SO4)(H2O)]·(C2H5OH) (H2O)2 (1) and [Cd(2-mBIM)(SO4)(H2O)3]·H2O (2) [BIM = bis(imidazol-1-yl)-methane, 2-mBIM = bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methane], were synthesized by the reactions of CdSO4 with BIM or 2-mBIM ligand via solvent diffusion methods. The networks were then characterized by elemental analyses, IR, TGA, and X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1 and 2 have a 3D hydrogen-bonding network with an infinite one-dimensional (1D) double chain structure and an infinite 1D helix channel, respectively. These results suggest that the subtle change in the ligand structure may have a strong influence on the resulting architectures of the metal-organic frameworks. The solid-state luminescent spectra of compounds 1 and 2 indicate weak fluorescent emissions at ca. 338 and 389 nm, respectively.

  16. Back Propagation Neural Network Model for Predicting the Performance of Immobilized Cell Biofilters Handling Gas-Phase Hydrogen Sulphide and Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Rene, Eldon R.; López, M. Estefanía; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Hung Suck

    2013-01-01

    Lab scale studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of two simultaneously operated immobilized cell biofilters (ICBs) for removing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) from gas phase. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the biofilter treating H2S varied from 50 to 100% at inlet loading rates (ILRs) varying up to 13 g H2S/m3·h, while the NH3 biofilter showed REs ranging from 60 to 100% at ILRs varying between 0.5 and 5.5 g NH3/m3·h. An application of the back propagation neural network (BPNN) to predict the performance parameter, namely, RE (%) using this experimental data is presented in this paper. The input parameters to the network were unit flow (per min) and inlet concentrations (ppmv), respectively. The accuracy of BPNN-based model predictions were evaluated by providing the trained network topology with a test dataset and also by calculating the regression coefficient (R2) values. The results from this predictive modeling work showed that BPNNs were able to predict the RE of both the ICBs efficiently. PMID:24307999

  17. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  18. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  19. Converged Infrastructure for Emerging Regions - A Research Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrollier, Nicolas; Zidbeck, Juha; Ntlatlapa, Ntsibane; Simsek, Burak; Marikar, Achim

    In remote parts of Africa, the lack of energy supply, of wired infrastructure, of trained personnel and the limitation in OPEX and CAPEX impose stringent requirements on the network building blocks that support the communication infrastructure. Consequently, in this promising but untapped market, the research aims at designing and implementing energy-efficient, robust, reliable and affordable wide heterogeneous wireless mesh networks to connect geographically very large areas in a challenged environment. This paper proposes a solution that is aimed at enhancing the usability of Internet services in the harsh target environment and especially how the end-users experience the reliability of these services.

  20. Genetic Algorithms for Agent-Based Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    May Permann

    2007-03-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, electric power, telecommunication, and financial networks. This paper describes initial research combining agent-based infrastructure modeling software and genetic algorithms (GAs) to help optimize infrastructure protection and restoration decisions. This research proposes to apply GAs to the problem of infrastructure modeling and analysis in order to determine the optimum assets to restore or protect from attack or other disaster. This research is just commencing and therefore the focus of this paper is the integration of a GA optimization method with a simulation through the simulation’s agents.

  1. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  2. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  3. The dependence of educational infrastructure on clinical infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cimino, C

    1998-01-01

    The Albert Einstein College of Medicine needed to assess the growth of its infrastructure for educational computing as a first step to determining if student needs were being met. Included in computing infrastructure are space, equipment, software, and computing services. The infrastructure was assessed by reviewing purchasing and support logs for a six year period from 1992 to 1998. This included equipment, software, and e-mail accounts provided to students and to faculty for educational purposes. Student space has grown at a constant rate (averaging 14% increase each year respectively). Student equipment on campus has grown by a constant amount each year (average 8.3 computers each year). Student infrastructure off campus and educational support of faculty has not kept pace. It has either declined or remained level over the six year period. The availability of electronic mail clearly demonstrates this with accounts being used by 99% of students, 78% of Basic Science Course Leaders, 38% of Clerkship Directors, 18% of Clerkship Site Directors, and 8% of Clinical Elective Directors. The collection of the initial descriptive infrastructure data has revealed problems that may generalize to other medical schools. The discrepancy between infrastructure available to students and faculty on campus and students and faculty off campus creates a setting where students perceive a paradoxical declining support for computer use as they progress through medical school. While clinical infrastructure may be growing, it is at the expense of educational infrastructure at affiliate hospitals. PMID:9929262

  4. Spectral Graph Analyses of Water Hydrogen-Bonding Network and Osmolyte Aggregate Structures in Osmolyte-Water Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hochan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-11-12

    Recently, it was shown that the spectral graph theory is exceptionally useful for understanding not only morphological structural differences in ion aggregates but also similarities between an ion network and a water H-bonding network in highly concentrated salt solutions. Here, we present spectral graph analysis results on osmolyte aggregates and water H-bonding network structures in aqueous renal osmolyte solutions. The quantitative analyses of the adjacency matrices that are graph-theoretical representations of aggregates of osmolyte molecules and water H-bond structures provide the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra and degree distribution. We show that urea molecules form quite different morphological structures compared to other protecting renal osmolyte molecules in water, particularly sorbitol and trimethylglycine, which are well-known protecting osmolytes, and at high concentrations exhibit a strong propensity to form morphological structures that are graph-theoretically similar to that of the water H-bond network. Conversely, urea molecules, even at similarly high concentrations, form separated clusters instead of extended osmolyte-osmolyte networks. This difference in morphological structure of osmolyte-osmolyte aggregates between protecting and destabilizing osmolytes is considered to be an important observation that led us to propose a hypothesis on the osmolyte aggregate growth mechanism via either osmolyte network formation or segregated osmolyte cluster formation. We anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of osmolyte aggregate structures and their interplay with the water H-bond network structure in highly concentrated renal osmolyte solutions could provide important information on the osmolyte effects of not only water structures but also protein stability in biologically relevant osmolyte solutions. PMID:26473387

  5. Toward modeling and simulation of critical national infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Albert T.; Son, Young-Jun; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Min, Hyeung-Sik Jason; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2005-08-01

    Modern society's physical health depends vitally upon a number of real, interdependent, critical infrastructure networks that deliver power, petroleum, natural gas,water, and communications. Its economic health depends on a number of other infrastructure networks, some virtual and some real, that link residences, industries, commercial sectors, and transportation sectors. The continued prosperity and national security of the US depends on our ability to understand the vulnerabilities of and analyze the performance of both the individual infrastructures and the entire interconnected system of infrastructures. Only then can we respond to potential disruptions in a timely and effective manner. Collaborative efforts among Sandia, other government agencies, private industry, and academia have resulted in realistic models for many of the individual component infrastructures. In this paper, we propose an innovative modeling and analysis framework to study the entire system of physical and economic infrastructures. That framework uses the existing individual models together with system dynamics, functional models, and nonlinear optimization algorithms. We describe this framework and demonstrate its potential use to analyze, and propose a response for, a hypothetical disruption.

  6. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  7. Distributed telemedicine for the National Information Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Lee, Seong H.; Reverbel, F.C.

    1997-08-01

    TeleMed is an advanced system that provides a distributed multimedia electronic medical record available over a wide area network. It uses object-based computing, distributed data repositories, advanced graphical user interfaces, and visualization tools along with innovative concept extraction of image information for storing and accessing medical records developed in a separate project from 1994-5. In 1996, we began the transition to Java, extended the infrastructure, and worked to begin deploying TeleMed-like technologies throughout the nation. Other applications are mentioned.

  8. Shifting from hydrogen bond network to π-π stacking: a key mechanism for reversible thermochromic sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone).

    PubMed

    Jarumaneeroj, Chatchai; Tashiro, Kohji; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-08-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) thin film performs reversible thermochromic property by developing the color to be yellowish at the temperature above 190 °C. The detailed analyses based on temperature-dependent techniques suggest the thermal treatment inducing the shifting of the hydrogen bond network between the sulfonated group and the hydrated water molecules to the π-π stacking among aromatic rings in SPEEK chains. Although it is general that the polymer chain packing is unfavorable at high temperature, the present work shows a good example that when the polymer chains can form specific molecular interaction, such as π-π stacking, even in harsh thermal treatment, a rearrangement will effectively occur, which leads to an external stimuli-responsive property. PMID:24942891

  9. Molecular Dynamics Study of Twister Ribozyme: Role of Mg(2+) Ions and the Hydrogen-Bonding Network in the Active Site.

    PubMed

    Ucisik, Melek N; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2016-07-12

    The recently discovered twister ribozyme is thought to utilize general acid-base catalysis in its self-cleavage mechanism, but the roles of nucleobases and metal ions in the mechanism are unclear. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations of the env22 twister ribozyme are performed to elucidate the structural and equilibrium dynamical properties, as well as to examine the role of Mg(2+) ions and possible candidates for the general base and acid in the self-cleavage mechanism. The active site region and the ends of the pseudoknots were found to be less mobile than other regions of the ribozyme, most likely providing structural stability and possibly facilitating catalysis. A purported catalytic Mg(2+) ion and the closest neighboring Mg(2+) ion remained chelated and relatively immobile throughout the microsecond trajectories, although removal of these Mg(2+) ions did not lead to any significant changes in the structure or equilibrium motions of the ribozyme on the microsecond time scale. In addition, a third metal ion, a Na(+) ion remained close to A1(O5'), the leaving group atom, during the majority of the microsecond trajectories, suggesting that it might stabilize the negative charge on A1(O5') during self-cleavage. The locations of these cations and their interactions with key nucleotides in the active site suggest that they may be catalytically relevant. The P1 stem is partially melted at its top and bottom in the crystal structure and further unwinds in the trajectories. The simulations also revealed an interconnected network comprised of hydrogen-bonding and π-stacking interactions that create a relatively rigid network around the self-cleavage site. The nucleotides involved in this network are among the highly conserved nucleotides in twister ribozymes, suggesting that this interaction network may be important to structure and function. PMID:27295275

  10. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  11. Does fluoride disrupt hydrogen bond network in cationic lipid bilayer? Time-dependent fluorescence shift of Laurdan and molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorna, Sarka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Hof, Martin; Vazdar, Mario; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-12-14

    Time-dependent fluorescence shift (TDFS) of Laurdan embedded in phospholipid bilayers reports on hydration and mobility of the phospholipid acylgroups. Exchange of H{sub 2}O with D{sub 2}O prolongs the lifetime of lipid-water and lipid-water-lipid interactions, which is reflected in a significantly slower TDFS kinetics. Combining TDFS measurements in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O hydrated bilayers with atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provides a unique tool for characterization of the hydrogen bonding at the acylgroup level of lipid bilayers. In this work, we use this approach to study the influence of fluoride anions on the properties of cationic bilayers composed of trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The results obtained for DOTAP are confronted with those for neutral phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Both in DOTAP and DOPC H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O exchange prolongs hydrogen-bonding lifetime and does not disturb bilayer structure. These results are confirmed by MD simulations. TDFS experiments show, however, that for DOTAP this effect is cancelled in the presence of fluoride ions. We interpret these results as evidence that strongly hydrated fluoride is able to steal water molecules that bridge lipid carbonyls. Consequently, when attracted to DOTAP bilayer, fluoride disrupts the local hydrogen-bonding network, and the differences in TDFS kinetics between H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O hydrated bilayers are no longer observed. A distinct behavior of fluoride is also evidenced by MD simulations, which show different lipid-ion binding for Cl{sup −} and F{sup −}.

  12. Fiber optic sensor applications in transportation infrastructure protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David; Nicholls, Paul

    2009-05-01

    In a recent study (1) on transportation infrastructure, the results are very disturbing. It states that 83% of the United States transportation infrastructure in not capable of meeting the needs of the next 10 years. While other countries have been more aggressive in infrastructure development and monitoring, the United States is lagging behind. There are a broad range of infrastructure sensing applications in transportation that are not being met. Many of these vital assets are aging or not adequately monitored with the potential for catastrophic failure. As examples, the bridge failure in Minneapolis, Minnesota was due to a structural failure. Fire safety problems, with recent life-loss fires, in road tunnels are challenging due to specific features of their infrastructure, nature of traffic using them and insufficient safety rules on vehicles. As a result, road tunnel fire safety issues are a concern. NIST has recognized the need and is funding innovative research for the development of infrastructure monitoring and inspection technologies. Specifically, NIST through its Technology Innovation Program (TIP) will fund the development of a network of distributed, integrated sensor architectures that will monitor bridges, roadways, tunnels, dams and other critical infrastructure applications (2) Many of these applications can be facilitated by using fiber optic sensors. This paper will specifically address monitoring bridges and tunnels using distributed fiber optic sensors to monitor strain, vibration, temperature and the associated benefits.

  13. Distributed Data Integration Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, T; Ludaescher, B; Vouk, M; Pu, C

    2003-02-24

    The Internet is becoming the preferred method for disseminating scientific data from a variety of disciplines. This can result in information overload on the part of the scientists, who are unable to query all of the relevant sources, even if they knew where to find them, what they contained, how to interact with them, and how to interpret the results. A related issue is keeping up with current trends in information technology often taxes the end-user's expertise and time. Thus instead of benefiting from this information rich environment, scientists become experts on a small number of sources and technologies, use them almost exclusively, and develop a resistance to innovations that can enhance their productivity. Enabling information based scientific advances, in domains such as functional genomics, requires fully utilizing all available information and the latest technologies. In order to address this problem we are developing a end-user centric, domain-sensitive workflow-based infrastructure, shown in Figure 1, that will allow scientists to design complex scientific workflows that reflect the data manipulation required to perform their research without an undue burden. We are taking a three-tiered approach to designing this infrastructure utilizing (1) abstract workflow definition, construction, and automatic deployment, (2) complex agent-based workflow execution and (3) automatic wrapper generation. In order to construct a workflow, the scientist defines an abstract workflow (AWF) in terminology (semantics and context) that is familiar to him/her. This AWF includes all of the data transformations, selections, and analyses required by the scientist, but does not necessarily specify particular data sources. This abstract workflow is then compiled into an executable workflow (EWF, in our case XPDL) that is then evaluated and executed by the workflow engine. This EWF contains references to specific data source and interfaces capable of performing the desired

  14. Education, Infrastructure and America's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley-Braun, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Senator Carol Moseley-Braun, D-Ill., a recognized advocate for federal funding of educational facilities, describes the strategy of placing school infrastructure in the same category as commercial and transportation infrastructure. Three researchers in the facilities field present empirical evidence that facility conditions directly affect…

  15. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  16. Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) multi-scale infrastructure assessment project supports both water resource adaptation to climate change and the rehabilitation of the nation’s aging water infrastructure by providing tools, scientific data and information to progra...

  17. The 1990 direct support infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The airport and cargo terminal were individually analyzed in depth as the principal direct infrastructure components having cross impacts with aircraft carrying cargo. Containerization was also addressed in depth as an infrastructure component since it categorically is linked with and cross impacted by the aircraft, the cargo terminal, the surface transport system, the shipper and consignee, and the actual cargo being moved.

  18. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  19. Precise Geodetic Infrastructure: National Requirements for a Shared Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J. H.; Altamimi, Z.; Blewitt, G.; Carter, W. E.; Cazenave, A. A.; Dragert, H.; Herring, T.; Larson, K. M.; Ries, J. C.; Sandwell, D. T.; Wahr, J. M.; Davis, J. L.; Feary, D. A.; Shanley, L. A.; Nrc Committee On The National RequirementsPrecision Geodetic Infrastructure

    2010-12-01

    Recognizing the growing reliance of a wide range of scientific and societal endeavors on infrastructure for precise geodesy, and recognizing geodetic infrastructure as a shared national resource, NASA, USNO, NGA (DoD), NSF, NGS (NOAA), and USGS requested the National Research Council (NRC) to provide an independent assessment of the benefits provided by geodetic observations and networks, as well as a plan for the future development and support of the infrastructure needed to meet the demand for increasingly greater precision. We recommend in this study that “The United States, to maintain leadership in industry and science, and as a matter of national security, should invest in maintaining and improving the geodetic infrastructure, through upgrades in network design and construction, modernization of current observing systems, deployment of improved multi-technique observing capabilities, and funding opportunities for research, analysis, and education in global geodesy.” Today’s precise global geodetic infrastructure is fragile, and we also recommend (1) an international cooperative effort to increase the density of the international geodetic network with a goal of reaching a network of at least 24 fundamental stations; (2) a national GNSS network constructed to scientific specifications, capable of streaming high-rate data in real-time, with no restrictions on data access; (3) continued support of international geodetic services; (4) a long-term commitment to maintain the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The astonishing advances toward higher geodetic accuracy at increasing temporal resolution are made possible only by all components of the geodetic infrastructure working together as a coherent system. The components of the geodetic infrastructure, however, are dispersed among various departments, agencies, and organizations. The nation’s precise geodetic infrastructure has not been considered holistically before now. Nevertheless, it is a

  20. Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-15

    The report provides an overview of the development of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). Metering has historically served as the cash register for the utility industry. It measured the amount of energy used and supported the billing of customers for that usage. However, utilities are starting to look at meters in a whole different way, viewing them as the point of contact with customers in supporting a number of operational imperatives. The combination of smart meters and advanced communications has opened up a variety of methods for utilities to reduce operating costs while offering new services to customers. A concise look is given at what's driving interest in AMI, the components of AMI, and the creation of a business case for AMI. Topics covered include: an overview of AMI including the history of metering and development of smart meters; a description of the key technologies involved in AMI; a description of key government initiatives to support AMI; an evaluation of the current market position of AMI; an analysis of business case development for AMI; and, profiles of 21 key AMI vendors.

  1. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  2. The history of infrastructures and the future of cyberinfrastructure in the Earth system sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P. N.

    2012-12-01

    Infrastructures display similar historical patterns of inception, development, growth and decay. They typically begin as centralized systems which later proliferate into competing variants. Users' desire for seamless functionality tends eventually to push these variants toward interoperability, usually through "gateway" technologies that link incompatible systems into networks. Another stage is reached when these networks are linked to others, as in the cases of container transport (connecting trucking, rail, and shipping) or the Internet. End stages of infrastructure development include "splintering" (specialized service tiering) and decay, as newer infrastructures displace older ones. Temporal patterns are also visible in historical infrastructure development. This presentation, by a historian of science and technology, describes these patterns through examples of both physical and digital infrastructures, focusing on the global weather forecast infrastructure since the 19th century. It then investigates how some of these patterns might apply to the future of cyberinfrastructure for the Earth system sciences.

  3. Elucidating the role of the proximal cysteine hydrogen-bonding network in ferric cytochrome P450cam and corresponding mutants using magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Galinato, Mary Grace I; Spolitak, Tatyana; Ballou, David P; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2011-02-15

    Although extensive research has been performed on various cytochrome P450s, especially Cyt P450cam, there is much to be learned about the mechanism of how its functional unit, a heme b ligated by an axial cysteine, is finely tuned for catalysis by its second coordination sphere. Here we study how the hydrogen-bonding network affects the proximal cysteine and the Fe-S(Cys) bond in ferric Cyt P450cam. This is accomplished using low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy on wild-type (wt) Cyt P450cam and on the mutants Q360P (pure ferric high-spin at low temperature) and L358P where the "Cys pocket" has been altered (by removing amino acids involved in the hydrogen-bonding network), and Y96W (pure ferric low-spin). The MCD spectrum of Q360P reveals fourteen electronic transitions between 15200 and 31050 cm(-1). Variable-temperature variable-field (VTVH) saturation curves were used to determine the polarizations of these electronic transitions with respect to in-plane (xy) and out-of-plane (z) polarization relative to the heme. The polarizations, oscillator strengths, and TD-DFT calculations were then used to assign the observed electronic transitions. In the lower energy region, prominent bands at 15909 and 16919 cm(-1) correspond to porphyrin (P) → Fe charge transfer (CT) transitions. The band at 17881 cm(-1) has distinct sulfur S(π) → Fe CT contributions. The Q band is observed as a pseudo A-term (derivative shape) at 18604 and 19539 cm(-1). In the case of the Soret band, the negative component of the expected pseudo A-term is split into two features due to mixing with another π → π* and potentially a P → Fe CT excited state. The resulting three features are observed at 23731, 24859, and 25618 cm(-1). Most importantly, the broad, prominent band at 28570 cm(-1) is assigned to the S(σ) → Fe CT transition, whose intensity is generated through a multitude of CT transitions with strong iron character. For wt, Q360P, and L358P, this band

  4. Data Diodes in Support of Trustworthy Cyber Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Frederick T; Okhravi, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Interconnections between process control networks and en- terprise networks has resulted in the proliferation of stan- dard communication protocols in industrial control systems which exposes instrumentation, control systems, and the critical infrastructure components they operate to a variety of cyber attacks. Various standards and technologies have been proposed to protect industrial control systems against cyber attacks and to provide them with confidentiality, in- tegrity, and availability. Among these technologies, data diodes provide protection of critical systems by the means of physically enforcing traffic direction on the network. In order to deploy data diodes effectively, it is imperative to un- derstand the protection they provide, the protection they do not provide, their limitations, and their place in the larger security infrastructure. In this work, we briefly review the security challenges in an industrial control system, study data diodes, their functionalities and limitations, and pro- pose a scheme for their effective deployment in trusted pro- cess control networks (TPCNs.)

  5. Simulating economic effects of disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Barton, Dianne Catherine; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Eidson, Eric D.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-01-01

    CommAspen is a new agent-based model for simulating the interdependent effects of market decisions and disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure on other critical infrastructures in the U.S. economy such as banking and finance, and electric power. CommAspen extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen-EE, an agent-based model previously developed by Sandia National Laboratories to analyze the interdependencies between the electric power system and other critical infrastructures. CommAspen has been tested on a series of scenarios in which the communications network has been disrupted, due to congestion and outages. Analysis of the scenario results indicates that communications networks simulated by the model behave as their counterparts do in the real world. Results also show that the model could be used to analyze the economic impact of communications congestion and outages.

  6. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Public Key Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Tuey, Richard; Ma, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Security is an essential part of network communication. The advances in cryptography have provided solutions to many of the network security requirements. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the foundation of the cryptography applications. The main objective of this research is to design a model to simulate a reliable, scalable, manageable, and high-performance public key infrastructure. We build a model to simulate the NASA public key infrastructure by using SimProcess and MatLab Software. The simulation is from top level all the way down to the computation needed for encryption, decryption, digital signature, and secure web server. The application of secure web server could be utilized in wireless communications. The results of the simulation are analyzed and confirmed by using queueing theory.

  7. Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2009-04-24

    We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

  8. Contributions of a hydrogen bond/salt bridge network to the stability of secondary and tertiary structure in lambda repressor.

    PubMed Central

    Marqusee, S.; Sauer, R. T.

    1994-01-01

    In the N-terminal domain of lambda repressor, the Asp 14 side chain forms an intrahelical, hydrogen bond/salt bridge with the Arg 17 side chain and a tertiary hydrogen bond with the Ser 77 side chain. By measuring the stabilities to urea denaturation of the wild-type N-terminal domain and variants containing single, double, and triple alanine substitutions at positions 14, 17, and 77, the side-chain interaction energies, the coupling energy between interactions, and the intrinsic effects of each wild-type side chain on protein stability have been estimated. These studies indicate that the Asp 14-Arg 17 and Asp 14-Ser 77 interactions are stabilizing by roughly 0.8 and 1.5 kcal/mol, respectively, but that Asp 14, by itself, is destabilizing by roughly 0.9 kcal/mol. We also show that a peptide model of alpha-helix 1, which contains Asp 14 and Arg 17, forms a reasonably stable, monomeric helix in solution and responds to alanine mutations at positions 14 and 17 in the fashion expected from the intact protein studies. These studies suggest that it is possible to view the stability effects of mutations in intact proteins in a hierarchical fashion, with the stability of units of secondary structure being distinguishable from the stability of tertiary structure. PMID:7756981

  9. Hydrogen bonded networks in hydrophilic channels: crystal structure of hydrated Ciprofloxacin Lactate and comparison with structurally similar compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, M. D.; Guru Row, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin Lactate {4-(3-carboxy-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-quinolinyl-)-1-piperazinium-lactate-water(1/1/1.5)}(C 20H 24N 3O 6F 1·5H 2O) belonging to the family of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents with wide spectrum activity has been studied using single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The crystal structure has channels running along crystallographic b-axis with π-stacks of Ciprofloxacin moieties linked through water molecules. A ten-membered hydrogen bonded pattern formed by centrosymmetrically related lactate and water molecules fill the center of the channel. The molecular assembly viewed down the b-axis depicts an infinitely extended open framework channels with the major diameter of about 10.60 Å and minor diameter of 4.79 Å. The structure also has a C-H⋯F intramolecular interaction and an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Analysis of the structures containing 7-piperazin-1-oyl-quinolin-4(1H)-one moiety using the Cambridge Structural Database reveals that a majority of the structures show the propensity to form channels via π⋯π interactions. Also, a detailed comparative study with the structure of magnesium sulfate adduct of ciprofloxacin shows that such interactions lead to similar molecular assemblies.

  10. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  11. A Science Information Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, C. A.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.; Dow, K.; Murray, S.

    1994-12-01

    We have created a partnership of science museums, research institutions, teachers, and other centers of informal science education to enable access to the rich resources of remote sensing data available from NASA and other sources and to deliver this information to the general community. We are creating science resource centers in the nation's science museums and planetarium facilities, linking them together through a national Science Information Infrastructure (SII). The SII framework is being founded on Internet connections between the resource centers, which are in turn linked to research institutions. The most up-to-date and exciting science data, related information, and interpretive material will be available from the research institutions. The science museums will present this information in appropriate ways that respond to the needs and interest of the general public and K--12 communities. The science information will be available through the World Wide Web using a Mosaic interface that individuals will use to explore the on-line materials through self-guided learning modules. K--12 teachers will have access to the materials and, in a workshop forum, learn to find and use the information to create lesson plans and curricula for their classrooms. Eventually, as the connectivity of schools and libraries improves, students and teachers will have access to the resource centers from their own locations. The core partnership of the SII includes the Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA), and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Exploratorium, Lawrence Hall of Science, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Science Museum of Virginia, New York Hall of Science, Adler Museum of Chicago, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Boston Museum of Science, and the Earth Observing Satellite Company (EOSAT). A demonstration of the application of resource center materials in the K--12 community is being conducted through the Science On-Line project at the Center

  12. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

  13. The Construction of Infrastructure for Library's Digital Document Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changxing, Ying; Zuzao, Lin

    This paper discusses the construction of the infrastructure for libraries' digital document telecommunications. The first section describes the topologies of the library LAN (Local Area Network) cabling system, including the main characteristics of the LAN and three classical topologies typically used with LANs, i.e., the bus, star, and ring…

  14. Branch Campus Librarianship with Minimal Infrastructure: Rewards and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickman, Elena; Walton, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Delaware County Community College provides library services to its branch campus community members by stationing a librarian at a campus 5 to 20 hours each week, without any more library infrastructure than an Internet-enabled computer on the school network. Faculty and students have reacted favorably to the increased presence of librarians.…

  15. Benefits and Challenges of Linking Green Infrastructure and Highway Planning in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Daniel J.; Jordan, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  16. Network of hydrogen bonds near the oxygen-evolving Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster of photosystem II probed with FTIR difference spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Service, Rachel J; Hillier, Warwick; Debus, Richard J

    2014-02-18

    We previously provided experimental evidence that an extensive network of hydrogen bonds exists near the oxygen-evolving Mn4CaO5 cluster in photosystem II and that elements of this network form part of a dominant proton-egress pathway leading from the Mn4CaO5 cluster to the thylakoid lumen. The evidence was based on (i) the elimination of the same ν(C═O) mode of a protonated carboxylate group in the S2-minus-S1 FTIR difference spectrum of wild-type PSII core complexes from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by the mutations D1-E65A, D2-E312A, and D1-E329Q and (ii) the substantial decrease in the efficiency of the S3 to S0 transition caused by the mutations D1-D61A, D1-E65A, and D2-E312A. The eliminated ν(C═O) mode corresponds to an unidentified carboxylate group whose pKa value decreases in response to the increased charge that develops on the Mn4CaO5 cluster during the S1 to S2 transition. In the current study, we have extended our work to include the ν(C═O) regions of other Sn+1-minus-Sn FTIR difference spectra and to additional mutations of residues inferred to participate in networks of hydrogen bonds near the Mn4CaO5 cluster or leading from the Mn4CaO5 cluster to the thylakoid lumen. Our data suggest that a different carboxylate group has its pKa value increased during the S2 to S3 transition and that a third carboxylate group experiences a change in its environment during the S0 to S1 transition. The pKa values that shift during the S1 to S2 and S2 to S3 transitions appear to be restored during the S3 to S0 transition. The D1-R334A mutation decreases or eliminates the same ν(C═O) modes from the S2-minus-S1 and S3-minus-S2 spectra as mutations D1-E65A, D2-E312A, and D1-E329Q and substantially decreases the efficiency of the S3 to S0 transition. We conclude that D1-R334 participates in the same dominant proton-egress pathway that was identified in our previous study. The D1-Q165E mutation leaves the ν(C═O) region of the S2-minus-S1

  17. The Declining Infrastructure of the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Great effort has been dedicated to mapping the functional architecture of the brain in health and disease. The neural centers that support cognition and behavior are the “hubs” defining the salient geographic landmarks of the cerebral topography. Similar to urban cartography, however, the functionality of these hubs is critically dependent on the infrastructure permitting the transfer of relevant information from site to site, and this infrastructure is susceptible to deterioration. The groundwork of the brain lies in the form of the complexly organized myelinated nerve fibers responsible for the inter-regional transmission of electrical impulses among distinct neural areas. Damage to the myelin sheath and reduction in the total number of nerve fibers with aging are thought to result in a degradation in the efficiency of communication among neural regions and to contribute to the decline of function in older adults. This article describes selected studies that are relevant to understanding the deterioration in structural connectivity of the aging brain with a focus on potential consequences to functional network activity. First, the neural substrates of connectivity and techniques used in the study of connectivity are described with a focus on neuroimaging methodologies. This is followed with discussion of the negative effects of age on connective integrity, and the possible mechanisms and neural and cognitive consequences of this progressive disconnection. Given the potential for natural repair of certain elements of the connective network, understanding the basis of age-associated decline in connectivity could have important implications with regard to the amelioration of neural dysfunction and the restoration of the infrastructure necessary for optimal function in older adults. PMID:22432418

  18. AFDX Based Data Infrastructures in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Torsten

    2010-08-01

    An assessment on the requirements for the avionics infrastructure of future spacecraft like the Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle ARV has identified a distinctive lack of performance on the traditional MIL-STD-1553B installations and thus initiated a quest for an equally reliable but much more powerful successor. Ever increasing processing performance available for onboard computers opens opportunities for advanced applications like real time image processing for close range navigation. In a distributed data handling system these functions heavily rely on equally advanced and powerful network architecture. This paper will identify the requirements for modern avionics data-buses and evaluate the suitability of possible candidates. Subsequently a dedicated focus will be given to an Avionics Full DupleX Switched Ethernet (AFDX) infrastructure as backbone for future spacecraft control applications. A detailed section will focus on the central aspects that make AFDX an interesting choice for space network installations. It will cover specifically the enhancements of the underlying IEEE 802.3 Ethernet technology.

  19. 2007 Annual Progress Report - DOE Hydrogen Program (CD-Rom)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments in FY2007 for the DOE Hydrogen Program, including the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program and hydrogen-related work in the Offices of Science; Fossil Energy; and Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology. It includes reports on all of the research projects funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program between October 2006 and September 2007.

  20. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  1. 76 FR 81956 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, January 10, 2012, at the National Press Club... CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National Infrastructure Advisory Council Designated Federal Officer, Department...

  2. Infrastructure Redesign and Instructional Reform in Mathematics: Formal Structure and Teacher Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Spillane, James P.; Jakopovic, Paula; Heaton, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Designing infrastructures to support instruction remains a challenge in educational reform. This article reports on a study of one school system's efforts to redesign its infrastructure for mathematics instruction by promoting teacher leadership. Using social network and interview data from 12 elementary schools, we explore how the…

  3. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security and way of life. These complex and often interconnected systems have become so ubiquitous and essential to day-to-day life that they are easily taken for granted. Often it is only when the important services provided by such infrastructure are interrupted--when we lose easy access to electricity, health care, telecommunications, transportation or water, for example--that we are conscious of our great dependence on these networks and of the vulnerabilities that stem from such dependence. Unfortunately, it must be assumed that many terrorists are all too aware that CI facilities pose high-value targets that, if successfully attacked, have the potential to dramatically disrupt the normal rhythm of society, cause public fear and intimidation, and generate significant publicity. Indeed, revelations emerging at the time of this writing about Al Qaida's efforts to prepare for possible attacks on major financial facilities in New York, New Jersey, and the District of Columbia remind us just how real and immediate such threats to CI may be. Simply being aware that our nation's critical infrastructure presents terrorists with a plethora of targets, however, does little to mitigate the dangers of CI attacks. In order to prevent and preempt such terrorist acts, better understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities relating to critical infrastructure is required. The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) presents this document as both a contribution to the understanding of such threats and an initial effort at ''operationalizing'' its findings for use by analysts who work on issues of critical infrastructure protection. Specifically, this study focuses on a subsidiary aspect of CI threat assessment that has thus far remained largely unaddressed by contemporary terrorism research: the motivations and related factors that determine whether a terrorist

  4. Front Range Infrastructure Resources project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Project goal: To provide the public and decision makers with objective information about the location and characteristics of land, natural aggregate, water, and energy resources that are vital to sustaining an area and its infrastructure.

  5. Infrastructure dynamics: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bencosme, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The term infrastructure is used to denote the set of life support and public service systems which is necessary for the development of growth of human settlements. Included are some basic references in the field of dynamic simulation, as well as a number of relevant applications in the area of infrastructure planning. The intent is to enable the student or researcher to quickly identify such applications to the extent necessary for initiating further work in the field.

  6. RIDE: the Research Infrastructure Database for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailo, Daniele; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Jeffery, Keith G.; Clemenceau, Alice; Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2013-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is a European initiative which aims to promote and make possible innovative approaches for a better understanding of the physical processes laying behind natural events and geo-science phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, unrest episodes and tsunamis etc.) by integrating existing national and trans-national Research Infrastructures (RIs). Such integration will increase access and use of the multidisciplinary data recorded by solid Earth monitoring networks, acquired in laboratory experiments and/or produced by computational simulations. Here we present the Research Infrastructures Database for EPOS (RIDE), a database containing technical information about the different RIs declared by EPOS partners and EPOS associate partners, which will eventually compose the EPOS distributed Research Infrastructure. The main goals of RIDE are (i) to allow the EPOS RI to be organized, with interactive access and information mining available to a broad community of users and stakeholders, (ii) to have a first set of information to be stored in the EPOS catalogue, which will be used as a basis for the development of EPOS Core Services, (iii) to enable EPOS partners to revise and update the current RI information, (iv) to show the contents of the EPOS integration plan to all stakeholders, (v) to facilitate the dissemination of existing data infrastructures to different communities and to promote a discussion within the community to implement the present data infrastructures. RIDE - whose driving technology is Apache CouchDB - contains at the current status detailed information on more than 200 Research Infrastructures. It enables any user to visualize RIs and sensors on a map, to carry out statistics on the stored data and to browse through the details of any RI. Based on the content of RIDE it is now possible to estimate the potential size of the new EPOS distributed RI: EPOS is going to integrate more than 7000 sensors (seismic

  7. Strategic plan for infrastructure optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, C.D.

    1998-05-27

    This document represents Fluor Daniel Hanford`s and DynCorp`s Tri-Cities Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 1998--2002, the road map that will guide them into the next century and their sixth year of providing safe and cost effective infrastructure services and support to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hanford Site. The Plan responds directly to the issues raised in the FDH/DOE Critical Self Assessment specifically: (1) a strategy in place to give DOE the management (systems) and physical infrastructure for the future; (2) dealing with the barriers that exist to making change; and (3) a plan to right-size the infrastructure and services, and reduce the cost of providing services. The Plan incorporates initiatives from several studies conducted in Fiscal Year 1997 to include: the Systems Functional Analysis, 200 Area Water Commercial Practices Plan, $ million Originated Cost Budget Achievement Plan, the 1OO Area Vacate Plan, the Railroad Shutdown Plan, as well as recommendations from the recently completed Review of Hanford Electrical Utility. These and other initiatives identified over the next five years will result in significant improvements in efficiency, allowing a greater portion of the infrastructure budget to be applied to Site cleanup. The Plan outlines a planning and management process that defines infrastructure services and structure by linking site technical base line data and customer requirements to work scope and resources. The Plan also provides a vision of where Site infrastructure is going and specific initiatives to get there.

  8. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  9. Comparative transcriptomic profiling of hydrogen peroxide signaling networks in zebrafish and human keratinocytes: Implications toward conservation, migration and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Lisse, Thomas S.; King, Benjamin L.; Rieger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Skin wounds need to be repaired rapidly after injury to restore proper skin barrier function. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a conserved signaling factor that has been shown to promote a variety of skin wound repair processes, including immune cell migration, angiogenesis and sensory axon repair. Despite growing research on H2O2 functions in wound repair, the downstream signaling pathways activated by this reactive oxygen species in the context of injury remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of gene expression changes in the epidermis upon exposure to H2O2 concentrations known to promote wound repair. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA-seq data from larval zebrafish and previously reported microarray data from a human epidermal keratinocyte line shows that H2O2 activates conserved cell migration, adhesion, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic programs in both zebrafish and human keratinocytes. Further assessment of expression characteristics and signaling pathways revealed the activation of three major H2O2–dependent pathways, EGF, FOXO1, and IKKα. This study expands on our current understanding of the clinical potential of low-level H2O2 for the promotion of epidermal wound repair and provides potential candidates in the treatment of wound healing deficits. PMID:26846883

  10. Hydrogen and Storage Initiatives at the NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel; Woods, Stephen S.

    2006-01-01

    NASA WSTF Hydrogen Activities: a) Aerospace Test; b) System Certification & Verification; c) Component, System, & Facility Hazard Assessment; d) Safety Training Technical Transfer: a) Development of Voluntary Consensus Standards and Practices; b) Support of National Hydrogen Infrastructure Development.

  11. Geoscientific Workflows using Grid Computing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Ryan; Woodcock, Robert; Rankine, Terry

    2010-05-01

    A major benefit of high-performance computing is the vast improvement it offers scientists and researchers in Australia when it comes to exploring large data problems. Thus, high performance computers and grid computing have become key components in exploration and mining applications in the past few years; anything from running numerical simulations to creating a virtual laboratories or providing a mechanism to discover and process geodetic information collected by GPS stations. However, scientists have previously been restricted in their abilities to access high-performance computing for these and other uses due to the fragmented nature of the infrastructure. Australia's high-performance centres host a range of different supercomputers from different manufacturers, with differing configurations, different architectures. Each supercomputer is different so users who want to use more than one supercomputer successfully need to know the difference between them all. CSIRO has found an answer to this dilemma via the AuScope Grid. AuScope Grid is creating an e-Research Infrastructure to federate and make nationally distributed datasets and high-performance computing resources interoperable. AuScope Grid is developing tools to manipulate large data volumes and establishing an appropriate governance framework to ensure sustainability. AuScope Grid's premise is to comprise distributed data storage hardware, high bandwidth network links, data management protocols, middleware and software. Major geoscience and geospatial data stores of the government agencies are deploying this technology for use internally and as an external face to their data. Combining this with high-performance compute resources and high-bandwidth networks the academic community can now tackle some of the science problems they have wanted to attempt for some time but have not been feasible until now. AuScope has deployed a grid computing platform which standardises access to high performance computers

  12. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  13. Tetrapeptide-coumarin conjugate 3D networks based on hydrogen-bonded charge transfer complexes: gel formation and dye release.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zongxia; Gong, Ruiying; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Xiaobo

    2015-08-14

    Oligopeptide-based derivatives are important synthons for bio-based functional materials. In this article, a Gly-(L-Val)-Gly-(L-Val)-coumarin (GVGV-Cou) conjugate was synthesized, which forms 3D networks in ethanol. The gel nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and TEM. It is suggested that the formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes between the coumarin moieties is the main driving force for the gel formation. The capability of the gel to encapsulate and release dyes was explored. Both Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB) can be trapped in the CT gel matrix and released over time. The present gel might be used as a functional soft material for guest encapsulation and release. PMID:26138931

  14. Development of a Turnkey Hydrogen Fueling Station Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Guro; Edward Kiczek; Kendral Gill; Othniel Brown

    2010-07-29

    The transition to hydrogen as a fuel source presents several challenges. One of the major hurdles is the cost-effective production of hydrogen in small quantities (less than 1MMscf/month). In the early demonstration phase, hydrogen can be provided by bulk distribution of liquid or compressed gas from central production plants; however, the next phase to fostering the hydrogen economy will likely include onsite generation and extensive pipeline networks to help effect a pervasive infrastructure. Providing inexpensive hydrogen at a fleet operator’s garage or local fueling station is a key enabling technology for direct hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs). The objective of this project was to develop a comprehensive, turnkey, stand-alone, commercial hydrogen fueling station for FCVs with state-of-the-art technology that is cost-competitive with current hydrocarbon fuels. Such a station would promote the advent of the hydrogen fuel economy for buses, fleet vehicles, and ultimately personal vehicles. Air Products, partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), The Pennsylvania State University, Harvest Energy Technology, and QuestAir, developed a turnkey hydrogen fueling station on the Penn State campus. Air Products aimed at designing a station that would have 65% overall station efficiency, 82% PSA (pressure swing adsorption) efficiency, and the capability of producing hydrogen at $3.00/kg (gge) H2 at mass production rates. Air Products designed a fueling station at Penn State from the ground up. This project was implemented in three phases. The first phase evaluated the various technologies available in hydrogen generation, compression, storage, and gas dispensing. In the second phase, Air Products designed the components chosen from the technologies examined. Finally, phase three entailed a several-month period of data collection, full-scale operation, maintenance of the station, and optimization of system reliability and performance. Based on field data

  15. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  16. Study on dioxygen reduction by mutational modifications of the hydrogen bond network leading from bulk water to the trinuclear copper center in bilirubin oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hirotoshi; Kurita, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Proton transport pathway in bilirubin oxidase was mutated. • Two intermediates in the dioxygen reduction steps were trapped and characterized. • A specific glutamate for dioxygen reduction by multicopper oxidases was identified. - Abstract: The hydrogen bond network leading from bulk water to the trinuclear copper center in bilirubin oxidase is constructed with Glu463 and water molecules to transport protons for the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. Substitutions of Glu463 with Gln or Ala were attributed to virtually complete loss or significant reduction in enzymatic activities due to an inhibition of the proton transfer steps to dioxygen. The single turnover reaction of the Glu463Gln mutant afforded the highly magnetically interacted intermediate II (native intermediate) with a broad g = 1.96 electron paramagnetic resonance signal detectable at cryogenic temperatures. Reactions of the double mutants, Cys457Ser/Glu463Gln and Cys457Ser/Glu463Ala afforded the intermediate I (peroxide intermediate) because the type I copper center to donate the fourth electron to dioxygen was vacant in addition to the interference of proton transport due to the mutation at Glu463. The intermediate I gave no electron paramagnetic resonance signal, but the type II copper signal became detectable with the decay of the intermediate I. Structural and functional similarities between multicopper oxidases are discussed based on the present mutation at Glu463 in bilirubin oxidase.

  17. From tools and services to e-Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Tobias

    This paper presents tools and services, humanities researchers use to work with digital resources. It will then analyse how these tools and services can be brought together in one integrated research infrastructure empowered by e-Science tools and methodologies e-Science stands the development and deployment of a networked infrastructure and culture through which resources can be shared in secure environments. This networked infrastructure allows a culture of collaboration, in which new forms of collaboration can emerge, and new and advanced methodologies can be explored.

  18. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  19. LCG/AA build infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkins, Alex Liam; Diez, Victor; Hegner, Benedikt

    2012-12-01

    The Software Process & Infrastructure (SPI) project provides a build infrastructure for regular integration testing and release of the LCG Applications Area software stack. In the past, regular builds have been provided using a system which has been constantly growing to include more features like server-client communication, long-term build history and a summary web interface using present-day web technologies. However, the ad-hoc style of software development resulted in a setup that is hard to monitor, inflexible and difficult to expand. The new version of the infrastructure is based on the Django Python framework, which allows for a structured and modular design, facilitating later additions. Transparency in the workflows and ease of monitoring has been one of the priorities in the design. Formerly missing functionality like on-demand builds or release triggering will support the transition to a more agile development process.

  20. Infrastructure for the Geospatial Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Ron; Farley, Jim

    Geospatial data and geoprocessing techniques are now directly linked to business processes in many areas. Commerce, transportation and logistics, planning, defense, emergency response, health care, asset management and many other domains leverage geospatial information and the ability to model these data to achieve increased efficiencies and to develop better, more comprehensive decisions. However, the ability to deliver geospatial data and the capacity to process geospatial information effectively in these domains are dependent on infrastructure technology that facilitates basic operations such as locating data, publishing data, keeping data current and notifying subscribers and others whose applications and decisions are dependent on this information when changes are made. This chapter introduces the notion of infrastructure technology for the Geospatial Web. Specifically, the Geography Markup Language (GML) and registry technology developed using the ebRIM specification delivered from the OASIS consortium are presented as atomic infrastructure components in a working Geospatial Web.

  1. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  2. A General Purpose High Performance Linux Installation Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, Alf

    2002-06-17

    With more and more and larger and larger Linux clusters, the question arises how to install them. This paper addresses this question by proposing a solution using only standard software components. This installation infrastructure scales well for a large number of nodes. It is also usable for installing desktop machines or diskless Linux clients, thus, is not designed for cluster installations in particular but is, nevertheless, highly performant. The infrastructure proposed uses PXE as the network boot component on the nodes. It uses DHCP and TFTP servers to get IP addresses and a bootloader to all nodes. It then uses kickstart to install Red Hat Linux over NFS. We have implemented this installation infrastructure at SLAC with our given server hardware and installed a 256 node cluster in 30 minutes. This paper presents the measurements from this installation and discusses the bottlenecks in our installation.

  3. A national-scale authentication infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.; Engert, D.; Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Volmer, J.; Welch, V.; National Center for Supercomputing Applications; Univ. of Chicago; USC Information Sciences Institute

    2000-12-01

    Today, individuals and institutions in science and industry are increasingly forming virtual organizations to pool resources and tackle a common goal. Participants in virtual organizations commonly need to share resources such as data archives, computer cycles, and networks - resources usually available only with restrictions based on the requested resource's nature and the user's identity. Thus, any sharing mechanism must have the ability to authenticate the user's identity and determine if the user is authorized to request the resource. Virtual organizations tend to be fluid, however, so authentication mechanisms must be flexible and lightweight, allowing administrators to quickly establish and change resource-sharing arrangements. However, because virtual organizations complement rather than replace existing institutions, sharing mechanisms cannot change local policies and must allow individual institutions to maintain control over their own resources. Our group has created and deployed an authentication and authorization infrastructure that meets these requirements: the Grid Security Infrastructure. GSI offers secure single sign-ons and preserves site control over access policies and local security. It provides its own versions of common applications, such as FTP and remote login, and a programming interface for creating secure applications.

  4. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  5. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  6. Metallopeptide Based Mimics with Substituted Histidines Approximate a Key Hydrogen Bonding Network in the Metalloenzyme Nickel Superoxide Dismutase

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, J.; Neupane, K; Callan, P

    2009-01-01

    Nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) is a recently discovered superoxide dismutase that utilizes the Ni{sup III}/Ni{sup II} couple to facilitate the disproportionation of O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} into H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. A key structural component of NiSOD is an elongated axial His-imidazole Ni{sup III} bond (2.3-2.6 {angstrom}) that is the result of a H-bonding network between His(1), Glu(17), and Arg(47). Herein we utilize metallopeptide based mimics of NiSOD with His(1) {var_epsilon}-nitrogen substituted imidazoles to approximate the electronic influence of this H-bonding network ({l_brace}Ni{sup III/II}(SOD{sup M1}-Im-X){r_brace} X = Me, H, DNP, and Tos; SOD{sup M1}-Im-X = H{prime}CDLPCGVYDPA where H{prime} is an N-substituted His). All reduced {l_brace}Ni{sup II}(SOD{sup M1}-Im-X){r_brace} are similar to one another as assessed by electronic absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and Ni K-edge x-ray absorption (XAS). This indicates that the change in His(1) is having little influence on the square-planar Ni{sup II}N{sub 2}S{sub 2} center. In contrast, changes to the axial His(1) ligand impart differential spectroscopic properties on the oxidized {l_brace}Ni{sup III}(SOD{sup M1}-Im-X){r_brace} metallopeptides. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (405 nm excitation) in conjunction with a normal coordinate analysis indicates that as the axial His imidazole is made less Lewis basic there is an increase in Ni{sup III}-S bond strength in the equatorial plane, with force constants for the Ni-S bond trans to the amine ranging from 1.54 to 1.70 mdyn {angstrom}{sup -1}. The rhombic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the four oxidized metallopeptides are all consistent with low-spin Ni{sup III} contained in a square pyramidal coordination environment, but show changes in the hyperfine coupling to {sup 14}N along g{sub z}. This is attributable to a reorientation of the g{sub z} vector in the more (along the Ni{sup III

  7. Cyberspace Policy For Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkin, Dorsey; Raines, Richard; Williams, Paul; Hopkinson, Kenneth

    The first step in preparing any battlespace is to define the domain for attack and maneuver. The various military service components have directed authority to focus their efforts in specific domains of operations (e.g., naval operations are mainly in the maritime domain). However, cyberspace operations pose challenges because they span multiple operational domains. This paper focuses on U.S. cyberspace policy related to defending and exploiting critical infrastructure assets. Also, it examines the issues involved in delineating responsibility for U.S. defensive and offensive operations related to critical infrastructures.

  8. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  9. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Joseph [Encino, CA; Oberg, Carl L [Canoga Park, CA; Russell, Larry H [Agoura, CA

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  10. Telemedicine and the National Information Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mary Gardiner

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Health care is shifting from a focus on hospital-based acute care toward prevention, promotion of wellness, and maintenance of function in community and home-based facilities. Telemedicine can facilitate this shifted focus, but the bulk of the current projects emphasize academic medical center consultations to rural hospitals. Home-based projects encounter barriers of cost and inadequate infrastructure. The 1996 Telecommunications Act as implemented by the Federal Communications commission holds out significant promise to overcome these barriers, although it has serious limitations in its application to health care providers. Health care advocates must work actively on the federal, state, and local public and private sector levels to address these shortcomings and develop cost effective partnerships with other community-based organizations to build network links to facilitate telemedicine-generated services to the home, where the majority of health care decisions are made. PMID:9391928

  11. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  12. Hydrogen production costs -- A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Basye, L.; Swaminathan, S.

    1997-12-04

    Hydrogen, produced using renewable resources, is an environmentally benign energy carrier that will play a vital role in sustainable energy systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure. International interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier is high. Research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of hydrogen energy systems are in progress in many countries. Annex 11 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) facilitates member countries to collaborate on hydrogen RD and D projects. The United States is a member of Annex 11, and the US representative is the Program Manager of the DOE Hydrogen R and D Program. The Executive Committee of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in its June 1997 meeting decided to review the production costs of hydrogen via the currently commercially available processes. This report compiles that data. The methods of production are steam reforming, partial oxidation, gasification, pyrolysis, electrolysis, photochemical, photobiological, and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  13. An Advanced Decision Support Tool for Electricity Infrastructure Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Ma, Jian; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-01-31

    Electricity infrastructure, as one of the most critical infrastructures in the U.S., plays an important role in modern societies. Its failure would lead to significant disruption of people’s lives, industry and commercial activities, and result in massive economic losses. Reliable operation of electricity infrastructure is an extremely challenging task because human operators need to consider thousands of possible configurations in near real-time to choose the best option and operate the network effectively. In today’s practice, electricity infrastructure operation is largely based on operators’ experience with very limited real-time decision support, resulting in inadequate management of complex predictions and the inability to anticipate, recognize, and respond to situations caused by human errors, natural disasters, or cyber attacks. Therefore, a systematic approach is needed to manage the complex operational paradigms and choose the best option in a near-real-time manner. This paper proposes an advanced decision support tool for electricity infrastructure operations. The tool has the functions of turning large amount of data into actionable information to help operators monitor power grid status in real time; performing trend analysis to indentify system trend at the regional level or system level to help the operator to foresee and discern emergencies, studying clustering analysis to assist operators to identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets, and interactively evaluating the alternative remedial actions to aid operators to make effective and timely decisions. This tool can provide significant decision support on electricity infrastructure operations and lead to better reliability in power grids. This paper presents examples with actual electricity infrastructure data to demonstrate the capability of this tool.

  14. Can Sensors Solve the Deterioration Problems of Public Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Chitoshi

    2014-11-01

    Various deteriorations are detected in public infrastructures, such as bridges, viaducts, piers and tunnels and caused fatal accidents in some cases. The possibility of the applications of health monitoring by using sensors is the issues of this lecture. The inspection and diagnosis are essential in the maintenance works which include appropriate rehabilitations and replacements. The introduction of monitoring system may improve accuracy and efficiency of inspection and diagnosis. This seems to be innovation of maintenance, old structures may change smart structures by the installation of nerve network and brain, specifically. Cost- benefit viewpoint is also important point, because of public infrastructures. The modes of deterioration are fatigue, corrosion, and delayed fracture in steel, and carbonization and alkali aggregate reaction in concrete. These are like adult disease in human bodies. The developments of Infrastructures in Japan were concentrated in the 1960th and 1970th. These ages are approaching 50 and deterioration due to aging has been progress gradually. The attacks of earthquakes are also a major issue. Actually, these infrastructures have been supporting economic and social activities in Japan and the deterioration of public infrastructure has become social problems. How to secure the same level of safety and security for all public infrastructures is the challenge we face now. The targets of monitoring are external disturbances such as traffic loads, earthquakes, winds, temperature, responses against external disturbances, and the changes of performances. In the monitoring of infrastructures, 3W1H(WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and HOW) are essential, that is what kind of data are necessary, where sensors place, when data are collected, and how to collect and process data. The required performances of sensors are accuracy, stability for long time. In the case of long term monitoring, the durability of systems needs more than five years, because the interval

  15. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  16. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    PubMed

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future. PMID:27402749

  17. Analysis of CERN computing infrastructure and monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieke, C.; Lassnig, M.; Menichetti, L.; Motesnitsalis, E.; Duellmann, D.

    2015-12-01

    Optimizing a computing infrastructure on the scale of LHC requires a quantitative understanding of a complex network of many different resources and services. For this purpose the CERN IT department and the LHC experiments are collecting a large multitude of logs and performance probes, which are already successfully used for short-term analysis (e.g. operational dashboards) within each group. The IT analytics working group has been created with the goal to bring data sources from different services and on different abstraction levels together and to implement a suitable infrastructure for mid- to long-term statistical analysis. It further provides a forum for joint optimization across single service boundaries and the exchange of analysis methods and tools. To simplify access to the collected data, we implemented an automated repository for cleaned and aggregated data sources based on the Hadoop ecosystem. This contribution describes some of the challenges encountered, such as dealing with heterogeneous data formats, selecting an efficient storage format for map reduce and external access, and will describe the repository user interface. Using this infrastructure we were able to quantitatively analyze the relationship between CPU/wall fraction, latency/throughput constraints of network and disk and the effective job throughput. In this contribution we will first describe the design of the shared analysis infrastructure and then present a summary of first analysis results from the combined data sources.

  18. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  19. Managing Mission-Critical Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    In the library context, they depend on sophisticated business applications specifically designed to support their work. This infrastructure consists of such components as integrated library systems, their associated online catalogs or discovery services, and self-check equipment, as well as a Web site and the various online tools and services…

  20. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  1. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  2. The Neuronal Infrastructure of Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menenti, Laura; Segaert, Katrien; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Models of speaking distinguish producing meaning, words and syntax as three different linguistic components of speaking. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain's integrated neuronal infrastructure for speech production. We investigated semantic, lexical and syntactic aspects of speaking using fMRI. In a picture description task, we…

  3. FY 2005 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-01

    In cooperation with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies, the Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program is advancing the state of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in support of the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The initiative seeks to develop hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies needed to make it practical and cost-effective for Americans to choose to use fuel cell vehicles by 2020. Significant progress was made in fiscal year 2005 toward that goal.

  4. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  5. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  6. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  7. People at risk - nexus critical infrastructure and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, Micha; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Strategic infrastructure networks include the highly complex and interconnected systems that are so vital to a city or state that any sudden disruption can result in debilitating impacts on human life, the economy and the society as a whole. Recently, various studies have applied complex network-based models to study the performance and vulnerability of infrastructure systems under various types of attacks and hazards - a major part of them is, particularly after the 9/11 incident, related to terrorism attacks. Here, vulnerability is generally defined as the performance drop of an infrastructure system under a given disruptive event. The performance can be measured by different metrics, which correspond to various levels of resilience. In this paper, we will address vulnerability and exposure of critical infrastructure in the Eastern Alps. The Federal State Tyrol is an international transport route and an essential component of the north-south transport connectivity in Europe. Any interruption of the transport flow leads to incommensurable consequences in terms of indirect losses, since the system does not feature redundant elements at comparable economic efficiency. Natural hazard processes such as floods, debris flows, rock falls and avalanches, endanger this infrastructure line, such as large flood events in 2005 or 2012, rock falls 2014, which had strong impacts to the critical infrastructure, such as disruption of the railway lines (in 2005 and 2012), highways and motorways (in 2014). The aim of this paper is to present how critical infrastructures as well as communities and societies are vulnerable and can be resilient against natural hazard risks and the relative cascading effects to different compartments (industrial, infrastructural, societal, institutional, cultural, etc.), which is the dominant by the type of hazard (avalanches, torrential flooding, debris flow, rock falls). Specific themes will be addressed in various case studies to allow cross

  8. Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS): Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, Kenneth D; Kohane, Isaac S; McFadden, Douglas; Weber, Griffin M; Natter, Marc; Mandel, Joshua; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Weiler, Sarah; Klann, Jeffrey G; Bickel, Jonathan; Adams, William G; Ge, Yaorong; Zhou, Xiaobo; Perkins, James; Marsolo, Keith; Bernstam, Elmer; Showalter, John; Quarshie, Alexander; Ofili, Elizabeth; Hripcsak, George; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    We describe the architecture of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) funded Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS, http://www.SCILHS.org) clinical data research network, which leverages the $48 billion dollar federal investment in health information technology (IT) to enable a queryable semantic data model across 10 health systems covering more than 8 million patients, plugging universally into the point of care, generating evidence and discovery, and thereby enabling clinician and patient participation in research during the patient encounter. Central to the success of SCILHS is development of innovative ‘apps’ to improve PCOR research methods and capacitate point of care functions such as consent, enrollment, randomization, and outreach for patient-reported outcomes. SCILHS adapts and extends an existing national research network formed on an advanced IT infrastructure built with open source, free, modular components. PMID:24821734

  9. Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS): architecture.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Kenneth D; Kohane, Isaac S; McFadden, Douglas; Weber, Griffin M; Natter, Marc; Mandel, Joshua; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Weiler, Sarah; Klann, Jeffrey G; Bickel, Jonathan; Adams, William G; Ge, Yaorong; Zhou, Xiaobo; Perkins, James; Marsolo, Keith; Bernstam, Elmer; Showalter, John; Quarshie, Alexander; Ofili, Elizabeth; Hripcsak, George; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    We describe the architecture of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) funded Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS, http://www.SCILHS.org) clinical data research network, which leverages the $48 billion dollar federal investment in health information technology (IT) to enable a queryable semantic data model across 10 health systems covering more than 8 million patients, plugging universally into the point of care, generating evidence and discovery, and thereby enabling clinician and patient participation in research during the patient encounter. Central to the success of SCILHS is development of innovative 'apps' to improve PCOR research methods and capacitate point of care functions such as consent, enrollment, randomization, and outreach for patient-reported outcomes. SCILHS adapts and extends an existing national research network formed on an advanced IT infrastructure built with open source, free, modular components. PMID:24821734

  10. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen Bonding Network

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kavetski, Alexandre G.; Kimmel, Greg A.

    2006-09-28

    The low-energy, electron-stimulated production of molecular oxygen from thin amorphous solid water (ASW) films adsorbed on Pt(111) is investigated. For ASW coverages less than {approx}60 monolayers (ML), the O2 ESD yield depends on coverage in a manner that is very similar to the H2 ESD yield. In particular, both the O2 and H2 ESD yields have a pronounced maximum at {approx}20 ML due to reactions at the Pt/water interface. The O2 yield is dose-dependent and several precursors (OH, H2O2 and HO2) are involved in the O2 production. Layered films of H216O and H218O are used to profile the spatial distribution of the electron-stimulated reactions leading to oxygen within the water films. Independent of the ASW film thickness, the final reactions leading to O2 occur at or near the ASW/vacuum interface. However for ASW coverages less than {approx}40 ML, the results indicate that dissociation of water molecules at the ASW/Pt interface contributes to the O2 production at the ASW/vacuum interface presumably via the generation of OH radicals near the Pt substrate. The OH (or possibly OH-) segregates to the vacuum interface where it contributes to the reactions at that interface. The electron-stimulated migration of precursors to the vacuum interface occurs via transport through the hydrogen bond network of the ASW without motion of the oxygen atoms. A simple kinetic model of the non-thermal reactions leading to O2, which was previously used to account for reactions in thick ASW films, is modified to account for the electron-stimulated migration of precursors.

  11. Neuroprotection of (+)-2-(1-Hydroxyl-4-Oxocyclohexyl) Ethyl Caffeate Against Hydrogen Peroxide and Lipopolysaccharide Induced Injury via Modulating Arachidonic Acid Network and p38-MAPK Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiao-Ning; Xu, Liu-Xin; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Hong-Lin; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are highly relevant to the pathological processes of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). (+)-2-(1-hydroxyl-4-oxocyclohexyl) ethyl caffeate (HOEC), a novel 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, was isolated from the whole plant of Incarvillea mairei var granditlora (Wehrhahn) Grierson. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of HOEC on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced cytotoxicity and neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay, LDH release assay, morphological observation and Hoechst 33342/PI dual staining followed by EIA, immunofluorescence staining and Western Blotting analysis were performed to elucidate the neuroprotective effect of HOEC. Treatment with HOEC at various concentrations prior to H2O2 exposure significantly enhanced cell viability, decreased LDH release, prevented cell morphologic changes and apoptosis. Instead of PGE2 reduction, HOEC markedly inhibited the production of LTB4 and suppressed the macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining showed that HOEC inhibited H2O2-induced p38 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. Neuroprotective effect of HOEC was abolished by a p38 inhibitor. Further in vivo studies of LPS-induced neuroinflammation confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of HOEC. These findings that HOEC protects SH-SY5Y cells from H2O2 and LPS-induced injury via arachidonic acid network modulation followed by p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, might make HOEC be considered as a therapeutic candidate for prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases involving oxidative stress or/and inflammation. PMID:26510982

  12. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Kathleen; Lopez, Hugo; Cairns, Julie; Wichert, Richard; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Buttner, William

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  13. Photoinduced hydrogen-bonding dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Xu, Jinmei

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen bonding dynamics has received extensive research attention in recent years due to the significant advances in femtolaser spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. Usually, photoexcitation would cause changes in the hydrogen bonding formed through the interaction between hydrogen donor and acceptor molecules on their ground electronic states, and such transient strengthening or weakening of hydrogen bonding could be crucial for the photophysical transformations and the subsequent photochemical reactions that occurred on a time scale from tens of femtosecond to a few nanoseconds. In this article, we review the combined experimental and theoretical studies focusing on the ultrafast electronic and vibrational hydrogen bonding dynamics. Through these studies, new mechanisms and proposals and common rules have been put forward to advance our understanding of the hydrogen bondings dynamics in a variety of important photoinduced phenomena like photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer processes, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network including forming and breaking hydrogen bond in water. Graphical Abstract We review the recent advances on exploring the photoinduced hydrogen bonding dynamics in solutions through a joint approach of laser spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The reviewed studies have put forward a new mechanism, new proposal, and new rule for a variety of photoinduced phenomena such as photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, and rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network in water. PMID:27491849

  14. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numazawa, T.; Kamiya, K.; Utaki, T.; Matsumoto, K.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. When we compare the consuming energy of hydrogen liquefaction with high pressurized hydrogen gas, FOM must be larger than 0.57 for hydrogen liquefaction. Thus, we need to develop a highly efficient liquefaction method. Magnetic refrigeration using the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency >50%, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system with >80% liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 s of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained for operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  15. European distributed seismological data archives infrastructure: EIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, John; Hanka, Winfried; Mazza, Salvatore; Pederson, Helle; Sleeman, Reinoud; Stammler, Klaus; Strollo, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    The European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) is a distributed Data Center system within ORFEUS that (a) securely archives seismic waveform data and related metadata gathered by European research infrastructures, and (b) provides transparent access to the archives for the geosciences research communities. EIDA was founded in 2013 by ORFEUS Data Center, GFZ, RESIF, ETH, INGV and BGR to ensure sustainability of a distributed archive system and the implementation of standards (e.g. FDSN StationXML, FDSN webservices) and coordinate new developments. Under the mandate of the ORFEUS Board of Directors and Executive Committee the founding group is responsible for steering and maintaining the technical developments and organization of the European distributed seismic waveform data archive and the integration within broader multidisciplanry frameworks like EPOS. EIDA currently offers uniform data access to unrestricted data from 8 European archives (www.orfeus-eu.org/eida), linked by the Arclink protocol, hosting data from 75 permanent networks (1800+ stations) and 33 temporary networks (1200+) stations). Moreover, each archive may also provide unique, restricted datasets. A webinterface, developed at GFZ, offers interactive access to different catalogues (EMSC, GFZ, USGS) and EIDA waveform data. Clients and toolboxes like arclink_fetch and ObsPy can connect directly to any EIDA node to collect data. Current developments are directed to the implementation of quality parameters and strong motion parameters.

  16. The Emerging Infrastructure of Autonomous Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.; Allan, A.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K.; White, R.; Williams, R.

    2007-10-01

    Advances in the understanding of cosmic processes demand that sky transient events be confronted with statistical techniques honed on static phenomena. Time domain data sets require vast surveys such as LSST {http://www.lsst.org/lsst_home.shtml} and Pan-STARRS {http://www.pan-starrs.ifa.hawaii.edu}. A new autonomous infrastructure must close the loop from the scheduling of survey observations, through data archiving and pipeline processing, to the publication of transient event alerts and automated follow-up, and to the easy analysis of resulting data. The IVOA VOEvent {http://voevent.org} working group leads efforts to characterize sky transient alerts published through VOEventNet {http://voeventnet.org}. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN {http://www.telescope-networks.org}) consortium are observatories and robotic telescope projects seeking interoperability with a long-term goal of creating an e-market for telescope time. Two projects relying on VOEvent and HTN are eSTAR {http://www.estar.org.uk} and the Thinking Telescope {http://www.thinkingtelescopes.lanl.gov} Project.

  17. A Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Buntinas, Darius; Bosilca, George; Graham, Richard L; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Watson, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The Scalable Tools Communication Infrastructure (STCI) is an open source collaborative effort intended to provide high-performance, scalable, resilient, and portable communications and process control services for a wide variety of user and system tools. STCI is aimed specifically at tools for ultrascale computing and uses a component architecture to simplify tailoring the infrastructure to a wide range of scenarios. This paper describes STCI's design philosophy, the various components that will be used to provide an STCI implementation for a range of ultrascale platforms, and a range of tool types. These include tools supporting parallel run-time environments, such as MPI, parallel application correctness tools and performance analysis tools, as well as system monitoring and management tools.

  18. Perspective: The Climate-Population-Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation Fertile Area for New Research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Walker, Kimberly A; Fu, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change and extreme weather to energy production and delivery is a challenge to communities worldwide. As climate conditions change, populations will shift, and demand will re-locate; and networked infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers, and, hopefully, minimize vulnerability to natural disaster. Climate effects such as sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, force populations to move locations. Displaced population creates new demand for built infrastructure that in turn generates new economic activity that attracts new workers and associated households to the new locations. Infrastructures and their interdependencies will change in reaction to climate drivers as the networks expand into new population areas and as portions of the networks are abandoned as people leave. Thus, infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Forecasting the location of these vulnerabilities by combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for defining these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. By combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory it has been only recently possible to examine electricity demand response to increased climactic temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. These emerging results suggest a research agenda of coupling these disparate modelling approaches to understand the implications of climate change for protecting the nation s critical infrastructure.

  19. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  20. 77 FR 39247 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... SECURITY National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, July 17, 2012, at the Department of Transportation's... at the meeting location. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy Wong, National...