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Sample records for hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies

  1. Dual Studies on a Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Resorcinol and the Subsequent Kinetic Isotope Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Richard; Kim, Iris; Chao, Weyjuin Eric; Moore, Jennifer; Jung, Kyung Woon

    2014-01-01

    An efficient laboratory experiment has been developed for undergraduate students to conduct hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange of resorcinol by electrophilic aromatic substitution using D[subscript 2]O and a catalytic amount of H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]. The resulting labeled product is characterized by [superscript 1]H NMR. Students also…

  2. Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry to Study Conformational Changes in Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor upon PEGylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hui; Ahn, Joomi; Yu, Ying Qing; Tymiak, Adrienne; Engen, John R.; Chen, Guodong

    2012-03-01

    PEGylation is the covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol to proteins, and it can be used to alter immunogenicity, circulating half life and other properties of therapeutic proteins. To determine the impact of PEGylation on protein conformation, we applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) to analyze granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) upon PEGylation as a model system. The combined use of HDX automation technology and data analysis software allowed reproducible and robust measurements of the deuterium incorporation levels for peptic peptides of both PEGylated and non-PEGylated G-CSF. The results indicated that significant differences in deuterium incorporation were induced by PEGylation of G-CSF, although the overall changes observed were quite small. PEGylation did not result in gross conformational rearrangement of G-CSF. The data complexity often encountered in HDX MS measurements was greatly reduced through a data processing and presentation format designed to facilitate the comparison process. This study demonstrates the practical utility of HDX MS for comparability studies, process monitoring, and protein therapeutic characterization in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  3. Recombinant Nepenthesin II for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Menglin; Hoeppner, Morgan; Rey, Martial; Kadek, Alan; Man, Petr; Schriemer, David C

    2015-07-01

    The pitcher secretions of the Nepenthes genus of carnivorous plants contain a proteolytic activity that is very useful for hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS). Our efforts to reconstitute pitcher fluid activity using recombinant nepenthesin I (one of two known aspartic proteases in the fluid) revealed a partial cleavage profile and reduced enzymatic stability in certain HX-MS applications. We produced and characterized recombinant nepenthesin II to determine if it complemented nepenthesin I in HX-MS applications. Nepenthesin II shares many properties with nepenthesin I, such as fast digestion at reduced temperature and pH, and broad cleavage specificity, but in addition, it cleaves C-terminal to tryptophan. Neither enzyme reproduces the C-terminal proline cleavage we observed in the natural extract. Nepenthesin II is considerably more resistant to chemical denaturants and reducing agents than nepenthesin I, and it possesses a stability profile that is similar to that of pepsin. Higher stability combined with the slightly broader cleavage specificity makes nepenthesin II a useful alternative to pepsin and a more complete replacement for pitcher fluid in HX-MS applications. PMID:25993527

  4. A Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Study on Nickel-based Binary-Ternary Amorphous and Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibhatla, Anasuya

    Hydrogen is a major role player in current global sustainable energy scenario. Research around the world is carried out to harness hydrogen from all possible sources. One of these sources is water gas shift reaction after the coal gasification process. Sustainable infrastructure can be viable in countries like USA and Australia, making this process viable. Various methods are used to harness this hydrogen from the water gas. One of these methods is the use of inorganic membranes based on Pd, Ag, Ni, Zr and other transition metals. Pd addition to the membranes makes the membranes more expensive for commercial use. Various bulk properties like hydrogen permeation and absorption are studied on Pd and Pd-based alloys. Alternate alloys based on Ni, V, Ta etc are being studied to substitute the use of Pd making this technology more cost efficient. A current balance in research in this area is fund to exist by coating the non-precious metal membranes with Pd to improve the surface interaction with hydrogen. The nature of membranes used for hydrogen separation is important aspect for the overall performance. Crystalline materials provide better bulk properties, however, are not durable under high temperature and hydrogen pressure. In this research, non-Pd coated Ni-based amorphous membranes were made by melt spin technique, which have been studied for their surface properties. Gas phase H2-D2 exchange reaction has been carried out on the membrane surface. This provides a measure of catalytic activity of the above mentioned membranes. More studies included the crystallographic phase change determination, bulk hydrogen solubility measurements, surface conduction measurements and surface morphological studies. During this research, it has been observed that crystalline materials provide more surface activity for hydrogen than their amorphous counterparts. Ni64Zr36 alloy has been shown to exhibit similar kinetic rates as metallic Ni. Also, microkinetic analysis was performed to determine the heat of hydrogen absorption and desorption on the alloy surface. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was conducted on the membranes to determine the surface resistance and it was found that Ni64Zr36 as-spun ribbon displayed highest resistance while Ni60Ta20Zr20 showed lowest resistance. Absorption studies on Ni60V 40 binary alloy and Ni60V20Zr20 ternary alloy indicated that the addition of Zr to these non-coated alloys increased the hydrogen solubility in the bulk. SEM and TEM analyses showed the presence of possible nano crystalline phases in Ni64Zr36 membrane. XRD and SEM studies conducted on post treated samples showed the possible phase segregation of Ni and ZrO2. Ni60Nb40 did not show any phase transformations after hydrogen heat treated unlike its ternary composition, Ni60Nb20Zr20. It is noteworthy to mention that bubbles were observed during SEM on Ni 64Zr36 post-treated sample on the surface due to possible hydrogen trapping and subsequent release of hydrogen gas.

  5. Structural Analysis of Diheme Cytochrome c by Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry and Homology Modeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A lack of X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance structures of proteins inhibits their further study and characterization, motivating the development of new ways of analyzing structural information without crystal structures. The combination of hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) data in conjunction with homology modeling can provide improved structure and mechanistic predictions. Here a unique diheme cytochrome c (DHCC) protein from Heliobacterium modesticaldum is studied with both HDX and homology modeling to bring some definition of the structure of the protein and its role. Specifically, HDX data were used to guide the homology modeling to yield a more functionally relevant structural model of DHCC. PMID:25138816

  6. HDX Match Software for the Data Analysis of Top-Down ECD-FTMS Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) combined with mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for studying protein structure. The recently developed top-down ECD-FTMS HDX approach (Pan J. et al., JACS, 2008) allows determination of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange of a protein's amide bonds, down to the single residue resolution. One of the existing limitations of this technology has been the laborious manual analysis of the MS/MS spectra. Here we present a software program for processing the data from these experiments. This program assigns the c- and z-fragment ion series of the protein, and calculates the number of the exchanged amide protons for each fragment by fitting the theoretically predicted isotopic envelopes of the deuterated fragments to the experimental data.

  7. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 1. Peptides to Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoe, Gregory C.; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to study the conformations of negatively-charged peptide and protein ions. Results are presented for ion conformers of angiotensin 1, a synthetic peptide (SP), bovine insulin, ubiquitin, and equine cytochrome c. In general, the SP ion conformers demonstrate a greater level of HDX efficiency as a greater proportion of the sites undergo HDX. Additionally, these ions exhibit the fastest rates of exchange. Comparatively, the angiotensin 1 ions exhibit a lower rate of exchange and HDX level presumably because of decreased accessibility of exchange sites by charge sites. The latter are likely confined to the peptide termini. Insulin ions show dramatically reduced HDX levels and exchange rates, which can be attributed to decreased conformational flexibility resulting from the disulfide bonds. For the larger ubiquitin and protein ions, increased HDX is observed for larger ions of higher charge state. For ubiquitin, a conformational transition from compact to more elongated species (from lower to higher charge states) is reflected by an increase in HDX levels. These results can be explained by a combination of interior site protection by compact conformers as well as decreased access by charge sites. The elongated cytochrome c ions provide the largest HDX levels where higher values correlate with charge state. These results are consistent with increased exchange site accessibility by additional charge sites. The data from these enhanced IMS-HDX experiments are described in terms of charge site location, conformer rigidity, and interior site protection.

  8. Kinetics of hydrogen/deuterium exchanges in cometary ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Mathilde; Quirico, Eric; Faure, Alexandre; Schmitt, Bernard; Theulé, Patrice; Marboeuf, Ulysse

    2015-11-01

    The D/H composition of volatile molecules composing cometary ices brings key constraints on the origin of comets, on the extent of their presolar heritage, as well as on the origin of atmospheres and hydrospheres of terrestrial planets. Nevertheless, the D/H composition may have been modified to various extents in the nucleus when a comet approaches the Sun and experiences deep physical and chemical modifications in its subsurface. We question here the evolution of the D/H ratio of organic species by proton exchanges with water ice. We experimentally studied the kinetics of D/H exchanges on the ice mixtures H2O:CD3OD, H2O:CD3ND2 and D2O:HCN. Our results show that fast exchanges occur on the -OH and -NH2 chemical groups, which are processed through hydrogen bonds exchanges with water and by the molecular mobility triggered by structural changes, such as glass transition or crystallization. D/H exchanges kinetic is best described by a second-order kinetic law with activation energies of 4300 ± 900 K and 3300 ± 100 K for H2O:CD3OD and H2O:CD3ND2 ice mixtures, respectively. The corresponding pre-exponential factors ln(A(s-1)) are 25 ± 7 and 20 ± 1, respectively. No exchange was observed in the case of HCN trapped in D2O ice. These results strongly suggest that upon thermal heating (1) -OH and -NH2 chemical groups of any organic molecules loose their primordial D/H composition and equilibrate with water ice, (2) HCN does not experience proton transfer and keeps a primordial D/H composition and (3) C-H chemical groups are not isotopically modified.

  9. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (?-Gal-(1?3)-?-GalNAc-(1?4)[?-Neu5Ac-(2?3)]-?-Gal-(1?4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (?-Gal-(1?4)-?-Gal-(1?4)-Glc) and CD-grease (?-Gal-(1?3)-?-Gal-(1?4)-?-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26423923

  10. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N.; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S.

    2015-09-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (?-Gal-(1?3)-?-GalNAc-(1?4)[?-Neu5Ac-(2?3)]-?-Gal-(1?4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (?-Gal-(1?4)-?-Gal-(1?4)-Glc) and CD-grease (?-Gal-(1?3)-?-Gal-(1?4)-?-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  11. Localized Hydration in Lyophilized Myoglobin by Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry. 1. Exchange Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Andreas M.; Zhang, Jun; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The local effects of hydration on myoglobin (Mb) in solid matrices containing mannitol or sucrose (1:1 w/w, protein:additive) were mapped using hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (HDX-MS) at 5°C and compared to solution controls. Solid powders were exposed to D2O(g) at controlled activity (aw) followed by reconstitution and analysis of the intact protein and peptides produced by pepsin digestion. HDX varied with matrix type, aw, and position along the protein backbone. HDX was less in sucrose matrices than in mannitol matrices at all aw while the difference in solution was negligible. Differences in HDX in the two matrices were detectable despite similarities in their bulk water content. The extent of exchange in solids is proposed as a measure of the hydration of exchangeable amide groups, as well as protein conformation and dynamics; pepsin digestion allows these effects to be mapped with peptide-level resolution. PMID:22352965

  12. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange in Photolyzed Methane-Water Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Amanda S.; Hodyss, Robert; Johnson, Paul V.; Willacy, Karen; Kanik, Isik

    2009-09-01

    Previous work has concluded that H-D exchange occurs readily in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons frozen in deuterated water (D2O) irradiated with ultraviolet light. Here, we examine H-D exchange in methane-water ices following exposure to ultraviolet radiation and analyze the products formed as a result. We find that H-D exchange also occurs in methane-water ices by means of ultraviolet photolysis. Exchange proceeds through a radical mechanism that implies that almost all organic species will undergo significant H-D exchange with the matrix in water ices exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Given sufficient energetic processing of the ice, the H/D ratio of an ice matrix may be transferred to the organic species in the ice.

  13. Development and implementation of a FT-ICR mass spectrometer for the investigation of ion conformations of peptide sequence isomers containing basic amino acid residues by gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange 

    E-print Network

    Marini, Joseph Thomas

    2004-09-30

    The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular ...

  14. 2D IR cross peaks reveal hydrogen-deuterium exchange with single residue specificity.

    PubMed

    Dunkelberger, Emily B; Woys, Ann Marie; Zanni, Martin T

    2013-12-12

    A form of chemical exchange, hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX), has long been used as a method for studying the secondary and tertiary structure of peptides and proteins using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, we resolve cross peaks between the amide II band and a (13)C(18)O isotope-labeled amide I band, which we show measures HDX with site-specific resolution. By rapidly scanning 2D IR spectra using mid-IR pulse shaping, we monitor the kinetics of HDX exchange on-the-fly. For the antimicrobial peptide ovispirin bound to membrane bilayers, we find that the amide II peak decays with a biexponential with rate constants of 0.54 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 min(-1), which is a measure of the overall HDX in the peptide. The cross peaks between Ile-10-labeled ovispirin and the amide II mode, which specifically monitor HDX kinetics at Ile-10, decay with a single rate constant of 0.36 ± 0.1 min(-1). Comparing this exchange rate to theoretically determined exchange rates of Ile-10 for ovispirin in a solution random coil configuration, the exchange rate at Ile-10 is at least 100 times slower, consistent with the known ?-helix structure of ovispirin in bilayers. Because backbone isotope labels produce only a very small shift of the amide II band, site-specific HDX cannot be measured with FTIR spectroscopy, which is why 2D IR spectroscopy is needed for these measurements. PMID:23659731

  15. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry for Probing Higher Order Structure of Protein Therapeutics: Methodology and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Russell, Reb J.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Chen, Guodong; Iacob, Roxana E.; Engen, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The higher order structure of protein therapeutics can be interrogated with hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). HDX-MS is now a widely used tool in the structural characterization of protein therapeutics. In this article, HDX-MS based workflows designed for both protein therapeutic discovery and development processes are presented, focusing on the specific applications of epitope mapping for protein/drug interactions and biopharmaceutical comparability studies. Future trends in the application of HDX-MS to protein therapeutics characterization are also described. PMID:23928097

  16. Structural analysis of the interleukin-8/glycosaminoglycan interactions by amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tommy; Samsonov, Sergey A; Pichert, Annelie; Lemmnitzer, Katharina; Schiller, Jürgen; Huster, Daniel; Pisabarro, M Teresa; von Bergen, Martin; Kalkhof, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    The recruitment of different chemokines and growth factors by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate or hyaluronan plays a critical role in wound healing processes. Thus, there is a special interest in the design of artificial extracellular matrices with improved properties concerning GAG interaction with common regulating proteins. In this study, amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) combined with molecular modeling and docking experiments was used to obtain structural models of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in complex with hexameric chondroitin sulfate. Experiments on the intact protein showed a difference in deuterium labeling of IL-8 due to chondroitin sulfate binding. The extent of deuteration was reduced from 24% to 13% after 2min exchange time, which corresponds to a reduced exchange of approximately 10 backbone amides. By local HDX MS experiments, H/D exchange information on the complete sequence of IL-8 could be obtained. A significantly reduced H/D exchange, especially of the C-terminal ?-helical region comprising amino acids 70-77 and to the loop comprising amino acids 27-29 was observed in the presence of chondroitin sulfate. HDX MS data were used to model the IL-8/chondroitin sulfate complex. The binding interface of IL-8 and chondroitin sulfate determined this way correlated excellently with the corresponding NMR based atomistic model previously published. Our results demonstrate that HDX-MS in combination with molecular modeling is a valuable approach for the analysis of protein/GAG complexes at physiological pH, temperature, and salt concentration. The fact that HDX-MS requires only micrograms of protein and GAGs makes it a very promising technique to address protein-GAG interactions. PMID:25726910

  17. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) Study for the Identification and Characterization of In Vivo Metabolites of Cisplatin in Rat Kidney Cancer Tissues: Online Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) Exchange Study

    PubMed Central

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo rat kidney tissue metabolites of an anticancer drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) (CP) which is used for the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, esophageal, small cell lung, head and neck cancers, have been identified and characterized by using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with on line hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. To identify in vivo metabolites, kidney tissues were collected after intravenous administration of CP to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group). The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using newly optimized metabolite extraction procedure which involves liquid extraction with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with mixed solvents of methanol-water-chloroform followed by solid-phase clean-up procedure on Oasis HLB 3cc cartridges and then subjected to LC/ESI-HRMS analysis. A total of thirty one unknown in vivo metabolites have been identified and the structures of metabolites were elucidated using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. Online HDX experiments have been used to further support the structural characterization of metabolites. The results showed that CP undergoes a series of ligand exchange biotransformation reactions with water and other nucleophiles like thio groups of methionine, cysteine, acetylcysteine, glutathione and thioether. This is the first research approach focused on the structure elucidation of biotransformation products of CP in rats, and the identification of metabolites provides essential information for further pharmacological and clinical studies of CP, and may also be useful to develop various effective new anticancer agents. PMID:26244343

  18. Pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry probes conformational changes in amyloid beta (A?) peptide aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Rempel, Don L.; Zhang, Jun; Sharma, Anuj K.; Mirica, Liviu M.; Gross, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Probing the conformational changes of amyloid beta (A?) peptide aggregation is challenging owing to the vast heterogeneity of the resulting soluble aggregates. To investigate the formation of these aggregates in solution, we designed an MS-based biophysical approach and applied it to the formation of soluble aggregates of the A?42 peptide, the proposed causative agent in Alzheimer’s disease. The approach incorporates pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange coupled with MS analysis. The combined approach provides evidence for a self-catalyzed aggregation with a lag phase, as observed previously by fluorescence methods. Unlike those approaches, pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange does not require modified A?42 (e.g., labeling with a fluorophore). Furthermore, the approach reveals that the center region of A?42 is first to aggregate, followed by the C and N termini. We also found that the lag phase in the aggregation of soluble species is affected by temperature and Cu2+ ions. This MS approach has sufficient structural resolution to allow interrogation of A? aggregation in physiologically relevant environments. This platform should be generally useful for investigating the aggregation of other amyloid-forming proteins and neurotoxic soluble peptide aggregates. PMID:23959898

  19. Nepenthesin from Monkey Cups for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Martial; Yang, Menglin; Burns, Kyle M.; Yu, Yaping; Lees-Miller, Susan P.; Schriemer, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of protein dynamics, structure and interactions using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) have sharply increased over the past 5–10 years. The predominant technology requires fast digestion at pH 2–3 to retain deuterium label. Pepsin is used almost exclusively, but it provides relatively low efficiency under the constraints of the experiment, and a selectivity profile that renders poor coverage of intrinsically disordered regions. In this study we present nepenthesin-containing secretions of the pitcher plant Nepenthes, commonly called monkey cups, for use in HDX-MS. We show that nepenthesin is at least 1400-fold more efficient than pepsin under HDX-competent conditions, with a selectivity profile that mimics pepsin in part, but also includes efficient cleavage C-terminal to “forbidden” residues K, R, H, and P. High efficiency permits a solution-based analysis with no detectable autolysis, avoiding the complication of immobilized enzyme reactors. Relaxed selectivity promotes high coverage of disordered regions and the ability to “tune” the mass map for regions of interest. Nepenthesin-enriched secretions were applied to an analysis of protein complexes in the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway. The analysis of XRCC4 binding to the BRCT domains of Ligase IV points to secondary interactions between the disordered C-terminal tail of XRCC4 and remote regions of the BRCT domains, which could only be identified with a nepenthesin-based workflow. HDX data suggest that stalk-binding to XRCC4 primes a BRCT conformation in these remote regions to support tail interaction, an event which may be phosphoregulated. We conclude that nepenthesin is an effective alternative to pepsin for all HDX-MS applications, and especially for the analysis of structural transitions among intrinsically disordered proteins and their binding partners. PMID:23197791

  20. Aspartic protease nepenthesin-1 as a tool for digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Alan; Mrazek, Hynek; Halada, Petr; Rey, Martial; Schriemer, David C; Man, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HXMS) utilizes enzymatic digestion of proteins to localize the information about altered exchange patterns in protein structure. The ability of the protease to produce small peptides and overlapping fragments and provide sufficient coverage of the protein sequence is essential for localizing regions of interest. Recently, it was shown that there is an interesting group of proteolytic enzymes from carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes. In this report, we describe successful immobilization and the use of one of these enzymes, nepenthesin-1, in HXMS workflow. In contrast to pepsin, it has different cleavage specificities, and despite its high inherent susceptibility to reducing and denaturing agents, it is very stable upon immobilization and withstands even high concentration of guanidine hydrochloride and reducing agents. We show that denaturing agents can alter digestion by reducing protease activity and/or substrate solubility, and additionally, they influence the trapping of proteolytic peptides onto the reversed phase resin. PMID:24661217

  1. Structural analysis of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 intracellular loop 3 by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ko, In Y; Kim, Dong K; Chung, Ka Y

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) perform vital signaling functions and are involved in various diseases, making GPCRs major drug targets. GPCRs have seven ?-helical transmembrane domains connected by three extracellular loops (ECLs) and three intracellular loops (ICLs). Among the three ICLs, ICL3 has been reported to have a critical function in interacting with downstream signaling molecules. Despite its important role in GPCR signaling, the structure of ICL3 has not been fully defined. In the present study, we used muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 (M1) as a model system to analyze the structure of ICL3. Optimized purification conditions for M1_ICL3 comprised His-tag affinity purification and solubilization with n-dodecyl-b-D-maltopyranoside. Purified M1_ICL3 was analyzed using circular dichroism and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry; the results of these analyses suggested that M1_ICL3 is disordered and flexible. PMID:25311205

  2. Probing the dynamic regulation of peripheral membrane proteins using hydrogen deuterium exchange-MS (HDX-MS).

    PubMed

    Vadas, Oscar; Burke, John E

    2015-10-01

    Many cellular signalling events are controlled by the selective recruitment of protein complexes to membranes. Determining the molecular basis for how lipid signalling complexes are recruited, assembled and regulated on specific membrane compartments has remained challenging due to the difficulty of working in conditions mimicking native biological membrane environments. Enzyme recruitment to membranes is controlled by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, including binding to specific lipid species, protein-protein interactions, membrane curvature, as well as post-translational modifications. A powerful tool to study the regulation of membrane signalling enzymes and complexes is hydrogen deuterium exchange-MS (HDX-MS), a technique that allows for the interrogation of protein dynamics upon membrane binding and recruitment. This review will highlight the theory and development of HDX-MS and its application to examine the molecular basis of lipid signalling enzymes, specifically the regulation and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). PMID:26517882

  3. Start2Fold: a database of hydrogen/deuterium exchange data on protein folding and stability

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Varadi, Mihaly; Tompa, Peter; Vranken, Wim F.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins fulfil a wide range of tasks in cells; understanding how they fold into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures and how these structures remain stable while retaining sufficient dynamics for functionality is essential for the interpretation of overall protein behaviour. Since the 1950's, solvent exchange-based methods have been the most powerful experimental means to obtain information on the folding and stability of proteins. Considerable expertise and care were required to obtain the resulting datasets, which, despite their importance and intrinsic value, have never been collected, curated and classified. Start2Fold is an openly accessible database (http://start2fold.eu) of carefully curated hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) data extracted from the literature that is open for new submissions from the community. The database entries contain (i) information on the proteins investigated and the underlying experimental procedures and (ii) the classification of the residues based on their exchange protection levels, also allowing for the instant visualization of the relevant residue groups on the 3D structures of the corresponding proteins. By providing a clear hierarchical framework for the easy sharing, comparison and (re-)interpretation of HDX data, Start2Fold intends to promote a better understanding of how the protein sequence encodes folding and structure as well as the development of new computational methods predicting protein folding and stability. PMID:26582925

  4. Start2Fold: a database of hydrogen/deuterium exchange data on protein folding and stability.

    PubMed

    Pancsa, Rita; Varadi, Mihaly; Tompa, Peter; Vranken, Wim F

    2016-01-01

    Proteins fulfil a wide range of tasks in cells; understanding how they fold into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures and how these structures remain stable while retaining sufficient dynamics for functionality is essential for the interpretation of overall protein behaviour. Since the 1950's, solvent exchange-based methods have been the most powerful experimental means to obtain information on the folding and stability of proteins. Considerable expertise and care were required to obtain the resulting datasets, which, despite their importance and intrinsic value, have never been collected, curated and classified. Start2Fold is an openly accessible database (http://start2fold.eu) of carefully curated hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) data extracted from the literature that is open for new submissions from the community. The database entries contain (i) information on the proteins investigated and the underlying experimental procedures and (ii) the classification of the residues based on their exchange protection levels, also allowing for the instant visualization of the relevant residue groups on the 3D structures of the corresponding proteins. By providing a clear hierarchical framework for the easy sharing, comparison and (re-)interpretation of HDX data, Start2Fold intends to promote a better understanding of how the protein sequence encodes folding and structure as well as the development of new computational methods predicting protein folding and stability. PMID:26582925

  5. Guanine nucleotide induced conformational change of Cdc42 revealed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Wei; Ting, Hsiu-Chi; Lo, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Hung-Wei; Yang, Chia-Jung; Chan, Jui-Fen Riva; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Hsu, Yuan-Hao Howard

    2016-01-01

    Cdc42 regulates pathways related to cell division. Dysregulation of Cdc42 can lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. GTP induced activation mechanism plays an important role in the activity and biological functions of Cdc42. P-loop, Switch I and Switch II are critical regions modulating the enzymatic activity of Cdc42. We applied amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HDXMS) to investigate the dynamic changes of apo-Cdc42 after GDP, GTP and GMP-PCP binding. The natural substrate GTP induced significant decreases of deuteration in P-loop and Switch II, moderate changes of deuteration in Switch I and significant changes of deuteration in the ?7 helix, a region far away from the active site. GTP binding induced similar effects on H/D exchange to its non-hydrolysable analog, GMP-PCP. HDXMS results indicate that GTP binding blocked the solvent accessibility in the active site leading to the decrease of H/D exchange rate surrounding the active site, and further triggered a conformational change resulting in the drastic decrease of H/D exchange rate at the remote ?7 helix. Comparing the deuteration levels in three activation states of apo-Cdc42, Cdc42-GDP and Cdc42-GMP-PCP, the apo-Cdc42 has the most flexible structure, which can be stabilized by guanine nucleotide binding. The rates of H/D exchange of Cdc42-GDP are between the GMP-PCP-bound and the apo form, but more closely to the GMP-PCP-bound form. Our results show that the activation of Cdc42 is a process of conformational changes involved with P-loop, Switch II and ?7 helix for structural stabilization. PMID:26542736

  6. Optimization and Application of APCI Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX MS) for the Speciation of Nitrogen Compounds.

    PubMed

    Acter, Thamina; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Sungji; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the utility of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (APCI HDX MS) to identify the structures of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds. First, experiments were performed to determine the optimized experimental conditions, with dichloromethane and CH(3)OD found to be good cosolvents for APCI HDX. In addition, a positive correlation between the heated capillary temperature and the observed HDX signal was observed, and it was suggested that the HDX reaction occurred when molecules were contained in the solvent cluster. Second, 20 standard nitrogen-containing compounds were analyzed to investigate whether speciation could be determined based on the different types of ions produced from nitrogen-containing compounds with various functional groups. The number of exchanges occurring within the compounds correlated well with the number of active hydrogen atoms attached to nitrogen, and it was confirmed that APCI HDX MS could be used to determine speciation. The results obtained by APCI HDX MS were combined with the subsequent investigation of the double bond equivalence distribution and indicated that resins of shale oil extract contained mostly pyridine type nitrogen compounds. This study confirmed that APCI HDX MS can be added to previously reported chemical ionization, electrospray ionization, and atmospheric pressure photo ionization-based HDX methods, which can be used for structural elucidation by mass spectrometry. PMID:26115964

  7. Optimization and Application of APCI Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX MS) for the Speciation of Nitrogen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acter, Thamina; Cho, Yunju; Kim, Sungji; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Byungjoo; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-09-01

    A systematic study was performed to investigate the utility of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (APCI HDX MS) to identify the structures of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds. First, experiments were performed to determine the optimized experimental conditions, with dichloromethane and CH3OD found to be good cosolvents for APCI HDX. In addition, a positive correlation between the heated capillary temperature and the observed HDX signal was observed, and it was suggested that the HDX reaction occurred when molecules were contained in the solvent cluster. Second, 20 standard nitrogen-containing compounds were analyzed to investigate whether speciation could be determined based on the different types of ions produced from nitrogen-containing compounds with various functional groups. The number of exchanges occurring within the compounds correlated well with the number of active hydrogen atoms attached to nitrogen, and it was confirmed that APCI HDX MS could be used to determine speciation. The results obtained by APCI HDX MS were combined with the subsequent investigation of the double bond equivalence distribution and indicated that resins of shale oil extract contained mostly pyridine type nitrogen compounds. This study confirmed that APCI HDX MS can be added to previously reported chemical ionization, electrospray ionization, and atmospheric pressure photo ionization-based HDX methods, which can be used for structural elucidation by mass spectrometry.

  8. Platform Dependencies in Bottom-up Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Kyle M.; Rey, Martial; Baker, Charles A. H.; Schriemer, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry is an important method for protein structure-function analysis. The bottom-up approach uses protein digestion to localize deuteration to higher resolution, and the essential measurement involves centroid mass determinations on a very large set of peptides. In the course of evaluating systems for various projects, we established two (HDX-MS) platforms that consisted of a FT-MS and a high-resolution QTOF mass spectrometer, each with matched front-end fluidic systems. Digests of proteins spanning a 20–110 kDa range were deuterated to equilibrium, and figures-of-merit for a typical bottom-up (HDX-MS) experiment were compared for each platform. The Orbitrap Velos identified 64% more peptides than the 5600 QTOF, with a 42% overlap between the two systems, independent of protein size. Precision in deuterium measurements using the Orbitrap marginally exceeded that of the QTOF, depending on the Orbitrap resolution setting. However, the unique nature of FT-MS data generates situations where deuteration measurements can be inaccurate, because of destructive interference arising from mismatches in elemental mass defects. This is shown through the analysis of the peptides common to both platforms, where deuteration values can be as low as 35% of the expected values, depending on FT-MS resolution, peptide length and charge state. These findings are supported by simulations of Orbitrap transients, and highlight that caution should be exercised in deriving centroid mass values from FT transients that do not support baseline separation of the full isotopic composition. PMID:23197788

  9. Characterization of Stress-Exposed Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Using ELISA and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi; Akashi, Satoko

    2014-10-01

    Information on the higher-order structure is important in the development of biopharmaceutical drugs. Recently, hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate protein conformation, and unique automated systems for HDX-MS are now commercially available. To investigate the potential of this technique for the prediction of the activity of biopharmaceuticals, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which had been subjected to three different stress types, was analyzed using HDX-MS and through comparison with receptor-binding activity. It was found that HDX-MS, in combination with ion mobility separation, was able to identify conformational changes in G-CSF induced by stress, and a good correlation with the receptor-binding activity was demonstrated, which cannot be completely determined by conventional peptide mapping alone. The direct evaluation of biological activity using bioassay is absolutely imperative in biopharmaceutical development, but HDX-MS can provide the alternative information in a short time on the extent and location of the structural damage caused by stresses. Furthermore, the present study suggests the possibility of this system being a versatile evaluation method for the preservation stability of biopharmaceuticals.

  10. Determination of Histidine pKa Values in the Propeptides of Furin and Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Using Histidine Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Elferich, Johannes; Williamson, Danielle M; David, Larry L; Shinde, Ujwal

    2015-08-01

    Propeptides of proprotein convertases regulate activation of their protease domains by sensing the organellar pH within the secretory pathway. Earlier experimental work highlighted the importance of a conserved histidine residue within the propeptide of a widely studied member, furin. A subsequent evolutionary analysis found an increase in histidine content within propeptides of secreted eukaryotic proteases compared with their prokaryotic orthologs. However, furin activates in the trans-golgi network at a pH of 6.5 while a paralog, proprotein convertase 1/3, activates in secretory vesicles at a pH of 5.5. It is unclear how a conserved histidine can mediate activation at two different pH values. In this manuscript, we measured the pKa values of histidines within the propeptides of furin and proprotein convertase 1/3 using a histidine hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry approach. The high density of histidine residues combined with an abundance of basic residues provided challenges for generation of peptide ions with unique histidine residues, which were overcome by employing ETD fragmentation. During this analysis, we found slow hydrogen-deuterium exchange in residues other than histidine at basic pH. Finally, we demonstrate that the pKa of the conserved histidine in proprotein convertase 1/3 is acid-shifted compared with furin and is consistent with its lower pH of activation. PMID:26110992

  11. Effective Application of Bicelles for Conformational Analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Nguyen Minh; Du, Yang; Thorsen, Thor S.; Lee, Su Youn; Zhang, Cheng; Kato, Hideaki; Kobilka, Brian K.; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in physiology and pathology, and 40% of drugs currently on the market target GPCRs for the treatment of various diseases. Because of their therapeutic importance, the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling is of great interest in the field of drug discovery. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for analyzing ligand binding sites, the protein-protein interaction interface, and conformational changes of proteins. However, its application to GPCRs has been limited for various reasons, including the hydrophobic nature of GPCRs and the use of detergents in their preparation. In the present study, we tested the application of bicelles as a means of solubilizing GPCRs for HDX-MS studies. GPCRs (e.g., ?2-adrenergic receptor [?2AR], ?-opioid receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1) solubilized in bicelles produced better sequence coverage (greater than 90%) than GPCRs solubilized in n-dodecyl-?-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), suggesting that bicelles are a more effective method of solubilization for HDX-MS studies. The HDX-MS profile of ?2AR in bicelles showed that transmembrane domains (TMs) undergo lower deuterium uptake than intracellular or extracellular regions, which is consistent with the fact that the TMs are highly ordered and embedded in bicelles. The overall HDX-MS profiles of ?2AR solubilized in bicelles and in DDM were similar except for intracellular loop 3. Interestingly, we detected EX1 kinetics, an important phenomenon in protein dynamics, at the C-terminus of TM6 in ?2AR. In conclusion, we suggest the application of bicelles as a useful method for solubilizing GPCRs for conformational analysis by HDX-MS.

  12. Gaseous anion chemistry. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in mono- and dialcohol alkoxide ions: ionization reactions in dialcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.R.; Agosta, W.C.; Field, F.H.

    1980-08-15

    The subject of this work is H-D exchange in certain gaseous anions using D/sub 2/ as the exchanging agent. The anions involved are produced from ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. Spectra and postulated ionization reactions for these mono- and dialcohols are given. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange occurs in the (M - 1)/sup -/ and (2M - 1)/sup -/ ions of ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol. The amount of exchange occurring is 3-8 times greater in (2M - 1)/sup -/ than in (M - 1)/sup -/. The amount of H-D exchange occurring in ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol is small or zero in the (2M - 1)/sup -/ ions and in the (M - 1)/sup -/ ion for 1-butanol (the only (M - 1)/sup -/ ion which could be examined experimentally). The amount of exchange occurring in the (2M - 1)/sup -/ and (M - 1)/sup -/ ions from ethylene glycol is not affected by the total pressure or composition of the reaction mixture in the ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer. A novel hydrogen-bridging mechanism is suggested to account for the observed exchange occurring in the dialcohols.

  13. Recombinant immobilized rhizopuspepsin as a new tool for protein digestion in hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rey, Martial; Man, Petr; Brandolin, Gérard; Forest, Eric; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is nowadays routinely used to probe protein interactions or conformational changes. The method has many advantages, e.g. very low sample consumption, but offers limited spatial resolution. One way to higher resolution leads through the use of different proteases or their combinations. In the present work we describe recombinant production, purification and use of aspartic protease zymogen from Rhizopus chimensis, protease type XVIII (EC 3.4.23.6), commonly referred to as rhizopuspepsinogen (Rpg). The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified to homogeneity. A typical yield was approximately 100 mg of pure enzyme per 1 L of original bacterial culture. The kinetics of protease activation, i.e. removal of the propeptide achieved by autolysis in an acidic environment, was followed by mass spectrometry. The digestion efficiency was tested for the protease in solution as well as for the immobilized enzyme. Apomyoglobin was successfully digested under all conditions tested and the protease displayed very low or no autodigestion. The results outperformed those obtained with commercial protease where the digestion of apomyoglobin was incomplete and accompanied by many contaminating peptides. Taken together, the recombinant protease type XVIII can be considered as a new and highly efficient tool for H/D exchange followed by mass spectrometry. PMID:19827048

  14. Fast Comparative Structural Characterization of Intact Therapeutic Antibodies Using Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange and Electron Transfer Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jingxi; Zhang, Suping; Chou, Albert; Hardie, Darryl B; Borchers, Christoph H

    2015-06-16

    Higher-order structural characterization plays an important role in many stages of therapeutic antibody production. Herein, we report a new top-down mass spectrometry approach for characterizing the higher-order structure of intact antibodies, by combining hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX), subzero temperature chromatography, and electron transfer dissociation on the Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Individual IgG domain-level deuteration information was obtained for 6 IgG domains on Herceptin (HER), which included the antigen binding sites. This is the first time that top-down HDX has been applied to an intact protein as large as 150 kDa, which has never been done before on any instrument. Ligand-binding induced structural differences in HER were determined to be located only on the variable region of the light chain. Global glycosylation profile of antibodies and HDX property of the glycoforms were also determined by accurate intact mass measurements. Although the presence of disulfide bonds prevent the current approach from being able to obtain amino acid level structural information within the disulfide-linked regions, the advantages such as minimal sample manipulation, fast workflow, very low level of back exchange, and simple data analysis, make it well-suited for fast comparative structural evaluation of intact antibodies. PMID:25927482

  15. Characterization of IgG1 Conformation and Conformational Dynamics by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Damian; Arndt, Joseph; Domeier, Wayne; Berkowitz, Steven; Engen, John R.

    2009-04-22

    Protein function is dictated by protein conformation. For the protein biopharmaceutical industry, therefore, it is important to have analytical tools that can detect changes in protein conformation rapidly, accurately, and with high sensitivity. In this paper we show that hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) can play an important role in fulfilling this need within the industry. H/DX-MS was used to assess both global and local conformational behavior of a recombinant monoclonal IgG1 antibody, a major class of biopharmaceuticals. Analysis of exchange into the intact, glycosylated IgG1 (and the Fab and Fc regions thereof) showed that the molecule was folded, highly stable, and highly amenable to analysis by this method using less than a nanomole of material. With improved chromatographic methods, peptide identification algorithms and data-processing steps, the analysis of deuterium levels in peptic peptides produced after labeling was accomplished in 1--2 days. On the basis of peptic peptide data, exchange was localized to specific regions of the antibody. Changes to IgG1 conformation as a result of deglycosylation were determined by comparing exchange into the glycosylated and deglycosylated forms of the antibody. Two regions of the IgG1 (residues 236-253 and 292-308) were found to have altered exchange properties upon deglycosylation. These results are consistent with previous findings concerning the role of glycosylation in the interaction of IgG1 with Fc receptors. Moreover, the data clearly illustrate how H/DX-MS can provide important characterization information on the higher order structure of antibodies and conformational changes that these molecules may experience upon modification.

  16. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer. This was accomplished by employing a combination of soft ionization and desolvation conditions coupled with the radical-driven fragmentation technique electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here, a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap XL is systematically evaluated for its utility in providing single-amide deuterium incorporation for differential HDX analysis of a nuclear receptor upon binding small molecule ligands. We are able to show that instrumental parameters can be optimized to minimize scrambling and can be incorporated into an established and fully automated HDX platform making differential single-amide HDX possible for bottom-up analysis of complex systems. We have applied this system to determine differential single amide resolution HDX data for the peroxizome proliferator activated receptor bound with two ligands of interest.

  17. Applications of hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) for the characterization of conformational dynamics in light-activated photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Robert; Heintz, Udo; Winkler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Rational design of optogenetic tools is inherently linked to the understanding of photoreceptor function. Structural analysis of elements involved in signal integration in individual sensor domains provides an initial idea of their mode of operation, but understanding how local structural rearrangements eventually affect signal transmission to output domains requires inclusion of the effector regions in the characterization. However, the dynamic nature of these assemblies renders their structural analysis challenging and therefore a combination of high- and low-resolution techniques is required to appreciate functional aspects of photoreceptors. This review focuses on the potential of hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) for complementing the structural characterization of photoreceptors. In this respect, the ability of HDX-MS to provide information on conformational dynamics and the possibility to address multiple functionally relevant states in solution render this methodology ideally suitable. We highlight recent examples demonstrating the potential of HDX-MS and discuss how these results can help to improve existing optogenetic systems or guide the design of novel optogenetic tools. PMID:26157802

  18. Analysis of distinct molecular assembly complexes of keratin K8 and K18 by hydrogen-deuterium exchange.

    PubMed

    Premchandar, Aiswarya; Kupniewska, Anna; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Mücke, Norbert; Mauermann, Monika; Kaus-Drobek, Magdalena; Edelman, Aleksander; Herrmann, Harald; Dadlez, Micha?

    2015-12-01

    Keratins are intermediate filament (IF) proteins that form complex filament systems in epithelial cells, thus serving as scaffolding elements and mechanical stress absorbers. The building blocks of keratin IFs are parallel coiled-coil dimers of two distinct sequence-related proteins distinguished as type I and type II keratins. To gain more insight into their structural dynamics, we resorted to hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry of keratins K8 and K18, which are characteristic for simple epithelial cells. Using this powerful technique not employed with IFs before, we mapped patterns of protected versus unprotected regions in keratin complexes at various assembly levels. In particular, we localized protein segments exhibiting different hydrogen exchange patterns in tetramers versus filaments. We observed a general pattern of precisely positioned regions of stability intertwining with flexible regions, mostly represented by the non-?-helical segments. Notably, some regions within the coiled-coil domains are significantly more dynamic than others, while the IF-consensus motifs at the end domains of the central ?-helical "rod" segment, which mediate the "head-to-tail" dimer-dimer interaction in the filament elongation process, become distinctly more protected upon formation of filaments. Moreover, to gain more insight into the dynamics of the individual keratins, we investigated the properties of homomeric preparations of K8 and K18. The physiological importance of keratins without a partner is encountered in both pathological and experimental situations when one of the two species is present in robust excess or completely absent, such as in gene-targeted mice. PMID:26434626

  19. Construct Optimization for Protein NMR Structure Analysis Using Amide Hydrogen / Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Seema; Zheng, Haiyan; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Ertekin, Asli; Hamuro, Yoshitomo; Rossi, Paolo; Tejero, Roberto; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Mei; Zhao, Li; Ma, Li-Chung; Swapna, G. V. T.; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2009-01-01

    Disordered or unstructured regions of proteins, while often very important biologically, can pose significant challenges for resonance assignment and three-dimensional structure determination of the ordered regions of proteins by NMR methods. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of 1H/2H exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) for the rapid identification of disordered segments of proteins and design of protein constructs that are more suitable for structural analysis by NMR. In this benchmark study, DXMS is applied to five NMR protein targets chosen from the Northeast Structural Genomics project. These data were then used to design optimized constructs for three partially disordered proteins. Truncated proteins obtained by deletion of disordered N- and C-terminal tails were evaluated using 1H-15N HSQC and 1H-15N heteronuclear NOE NMR experiments to assess their structural integrity. These constructs provide significantly improved NMR spectra, with minimal structural perturbations to the ordered regions of the protein structure. As a representative example, we compare the solution structures of the full length and DXMS-based truncated construct for a 77-residue partially disordered DUF896 family protein YnzC from Bacillus subtilis, where deletion of the disordered residues (ca. 40% of the protein) does not affect the native structure. In addition, we demonstrate that throughput of the DXMS process can be increased by analyzing mixtures of up to four proteins without reducing the sequence coverage for each protein. Our results demonstrate that DXMS can serve as a central component of a process for optimizing protein constructs for NMR structure determination. PMID:19306341

  20. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange on plasma-exposed W and SS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Ikuji; Nomura, Shinji; Minamimoto, Toshihiro; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Sasaki, Takayuki

    2015-08-01

    The desorption cross section for hydrogen isotopes adsorbed on stainless steel (SS) and tungsten (W) has been evaluated experimentally to provide basic information on tritium exchange. One side of a sample sheet was alternately exposed to H and D plasma, and deuterium density on the surface was repeatedly observed using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) under continuous plasma exposure. From the time dependent change in the deuterium density, the desorption cross sections for SS and W were estimated to be 6.9 ± 2.3 × 10-23 m2 and 4.6 ± 1.0 × 10-23 m2, respectively. No significant differences in the cross section between H and D plasma were observed. Recombinative desorption was found to dominate the desorption process owing to the low incident energy of hydrogen atoms.

  1. Structure-dependent degradation of polar compounds in weathered oils observed by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ananna; Kim, Donghwi; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2015-10-15

    The resin fractions of fresh mixtures of three oils spilled during the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill, as well as weathered oils collected at weathering stages II and IV from the oil spill site were analyzed and compared by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The significantly decreased abundance of N(+) and [N-H+D](+) ions suggested that secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds were preferentially degraded during the early stage of weathering. [N+H](+) and [N+D](+) ions previously attributed to pyridine-type compounds degraded more slowly than secondary and tertiary amine-containing compounds. The preferential degradation of nitrogen-containing compounds was confirmed by photo-degradation experiments using 15 standard compounds. In addition, significant increases of [S1O1+H](+) and [S1O1+D](+) ions with higher DBE values were observed from fresh oil mixtures as compared to stages II and IV samples, and that could be linked with the decrease of higher DBE compounds of the S1 class. This study presented convincing arguments and evidence demonstrating that secondary and tertiary amines were more vulnerable to photo-degradation than compounds containing pyridine, and hence, preferential degradation depending on chemical structures must be considered in the production of hazardous or toxic components. PMID:25913675

  2. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry and Site-Directed Disulfide Cross-Linking Suggest an Important Dynamic Interface between the Two Lysostaphin Domains

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hai-Rong; Gu, Mei-Gang; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Jin-Jiang; Lu, Wan-Ying; Lu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Lysostaphin is a peptidoglycan hydrolase secreted by Staphylococcus simulans. It can specifically lyse Staphylococcus aureus and is being tested as a novel antibacterial agent. The protein contains an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal cell wall targeting domain. Although the two domains from homologous enzymes were structurally determined, the structural organization of lysostaphin domains remains unknown. We used hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) and site-directed disulfide cross-linking to probe the interface between the lysostaphin catalytic and targeting domains. H/DX-MS-mediated comparison of peptides from full-length lysostaphin and the separated domains identified four peptides of lower solvent accessibility in the full-length protein. Cross-linking analysis using cysteine pair substitutions within those peptides showed that two pairs of cysteines can form disulfide bonds, supporting the domain association role of the targeted peptides. The cross-linked mutant exhibited a binding capacity to S. aureus that was similar to that of the wild-type protein but reduced bacteriolytic activity probably because of restraint in conformation. The diminished activity was further reduced with increasing NaCl concentrations that can cause contractions of bacterial peptidoglycan. The lytic activity, however, could be fully recovered by reducing the disulfide bonds. These results suggest that lysostaphin may require dynamic association of the two domains for coordinating substrate binding and target cleavage on the elastic peptidoglycan. Our study will help develop site-specific PEGylated lysostaphin to treat systemic S. aureus infections. PMID:23380729

  3. Automated Data Reduction for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Experiments, Enabled by High-Resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kazazic, Sasa; Zhang, Hui-Min; Schaub, Tanner M.; Emmett, Mark R.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Blakney, Gregory T.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    Mass analysis of proteolytic fragment peptides following hydrogen/deuterium exchange offers a general measure of solvent accessibility/hydrogen bonding (and thus conformation) of solution-phase proteins and their complexes. The primary problem in such mass analyses is reliable and rapid assignment of mass spectral peaks to the correct charge state and degree of deuteration of each fragment peptide, in the presence of substantial overlap between isotopic distributions of target peptides, autolysis products, and other interferant species. Here, we show that at sufficiently high mass resolving power (m/?m50% ? 100,000), it becomes possible to resolve enough of those overlaps so that automated data reduction becomes possible, based on the actual elemental composition of each peptide without the need to deconvolve isotopic distributions. We demonstrate automated, rapid, reliable assignment of peptide masses from H/D exchange experiments, based on electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectra from H/D exchange of solution-phase myoglobin. Combined with previously demonstrated automated data acquisition for such experiments, the present data reduction algorithm enhances automation (and thus expands generality and applicability) for high-resolution mass spectrometry- based analysis of H/D exchange of solution-phase proteins. PMID:20116280

  4. Atomic hydrogen-deuterium mixtures at 1 kelvin: Recombination rates, spin-exchange cross sections, and solvation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, M. E.; Hardy, W. N.

    1995-06-01

    A new technique has been applied to the study of atomic hydrogen and deuterium mixtures confined by liquid helium coated walls. The method uses standard low-field hyperfine magnetic resonance of the H atoms at 1420 MHz, but takes advantage of the dramatically different spin-exchange broadening for H-H and H-D collisions to simultaneously monitor the H and D densities. This provides a powerful means for studying the interaction of D with itself and with liquid helium, something otherwise difficult to achieve, and it also makes possible the study of spin-exchange and recombination interactions between H and D. A wide range of experimental results are presented, including the rate constants for H-D and D-D recombination, the spin-exchange broadening cross sections for H-D and D-D collisions, the H-D spin-exchange frequency shift cross section and an improved value for the H-4He buffer gas shift. Finally, a detailed study of the solvation of D into liquid4He has yielded an improved value for the salvation energy, a useful lower bound for the effective mass for D in liquid4He, and evidence for the reaction D + HD ? D2 + H on the surface under the liquid4He film.

  5. A rapid, nonradioactive assay for measuring heparan sulfate C-5 epimerase activity using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ponnusamy; Victor, Xylophone V; Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2015-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans have important roles in anticoagulation, human development, and human diseases. HS C5-epimerase, which catalyzes the epimerization of GlcA to IdoA, is a crucial enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of heparin-related biomolecules. Here, we describe a detailed method for measuring the total activity of HS C5-epimerase that involves the following steps: H/D exchange upon epimerization of the substrate with HS C5-epimerase, low-pH nitrous acid treatment of the substrate, the separation of low-pH nitrous acid-cleaved disaccharides using HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis. This nonradioactive method is rapid and sensitive and, importantly, allows us to study the reversible nature of HS C5-epimerase. PMID:25325956

  6. Structure and Dynamics of NBD1 from CFTR Characterized Using Crystallography and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, H.A.; Wang, C.; Zhao, X.; Hamuro, Y.; Conners, K.; Kearins, M.C.; Lu, F.; Sauder, J.M.; Molnar, K.S.; Coales, S.J.; Maloney, P.C.; Guggino, W.B.; Wetmore, D.R.; Weber, P.C.; Hunt, J.F.

    2012-04-30

    The {Delta}F508 mutation in nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the predominant cause of cystic fibrosis. Previous biophysical studies on human F508 and {Delta}F508 domains showed only local structural changes restricted to residues 509-511 and only minor differences in folding rate and stability. These results were remarkable because {Delta}F508 was widely assumed to perturb domain folding based on the fact that it prevents trafficking of CFTR out of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the previously reported crystal structures did not come from matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs, and the {Delta}F508 structure contained additional mutations that were required to obtain sufficient protein solubility. In this article, we present additional biophysical studies of NBD1 designed to address these ambiguities. Mass spectral measurements of backbone amide {sup 1}H/{sup 2}H exchange rates in matched F508 and {Delta}F508 constructs reveal that {Delta}F508 increases backbone dynamics at residues 509-511 and the adjacent protein segments but not elsewhere in NBD1. These measurements also confirm a high level of flexibility in the protein segments exhibiting variable conformations in the crystal structures. We additionally present crystal structures of a broader set of human NBD1 constructs, including one harboring the native F508 residue and others harboring the {Delta}F508 mutation in the presence of fewer and different solubilizing mutations. The only consistent conformational difference is observed at residues 509-511. The side chain of residue V510 in this loop is mostly buried in all non-{Delta}F508 structures but completely solvent exposed in all {Delta}F508 structures. These results reinforce the importance of the perturbation {Delta}F508 causes in the surface topography of NBD1 in a region likely to mediate contact with the transmembrane domains of CFTR. However, they also suggest that increased exposure of the 509-511 loop and increased dynamics in its vicinity could promote aggregation in vitro and aberrant intermolecular interactions that impede trafficking in vivo.

  7. Isotopic effect study in the LHCD and LHH experiments in hydrogen/deuterium plasmas of the FT-2 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Lashkul, S. I.; Altukhov, A. B.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Esipov, L. A.; Irzak, M. A.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Saveliev, A. N.; Shatalin, S. V.; Stepanov, A. Yu.

    2014-02-12

    Results of comparative experimental studies of the efficiency of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and lower hybrid heating (LHH) in the FT-2 tokamak in hydrogen and deuterium plasmas are presented. In the new comparative experimental runs in deuterium/hydrogen plasmas suppression of the LHCD and beginning of the interaction of LH waves with ions is controlled by the plasma density rise. Role of parametric instabilities in CD switch-off is considered. In order to analyze the experimentally observed effect of LHCD the GRILL3D and FRTC codes has been used.

  8. Studies of THGEM-based detector at low-pressure Hydrogen/Deuterium, for AT-TPC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortesi, Marco; Yurkon, J.; Mittig, W.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Stolz, A.

    2015-09-01

    We study the performance of single- and double- THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors in pure Hydrogen (H2) and Deuterium (D2) at low pressures, in the range of 100-450 torr. The effect of the pressure on the maximum achievable gain, ion-back flow and long-term gain stability are investigated for single and double cascade detectors. In particular, it was found that maximum achievable gains above 104, from single-photoelectrons avalanche, can be achieved for pressures of 200 torr and above; for lower pressure the gains are limited by avalanche-induced secondary effects to a values of around 103. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particular for applications of THGEM end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  9. Studies of THGEM-based detector at low-pressure Hydrogen/Deuterium, for AT-TPC applications

    E-print Network

    Cortesi, Marco; Mittig, Wolfgang; Bazin, Daniel; Beceiro-Novo, Saul; Stolz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We study the performance of single- and double- THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors in pure Hydrogen and Deuterium at low pressures, in the range of 100-450 Torr. The effect of the pressure on the maximum achievable gain, ion-back flow and long-term gain stability are investigated for single and double cascade detectors. In particular, it was found that maximum achievable gains above 10^4, from single-photoelectrons avalanche, can be achieved for pressures of 200 Torr and above; for lower pressure the gains are limited by avalanche-induced secondary effects to a values of around 103. The results of this work are relevant in the field of avalanche mechanism in low-pressure, low-mass noble gases, in particular for applications of THGEM end-cap readout for active-target Time Projection Chambers (TPC) in the field of nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics.

  10. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry with top-down electron capture dissociation for characterizing structural transitions of a 17 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jingxi; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H; Konermann, Lars

    2009-09-01

    Amide H/D exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for protein structural studies. Traditionally, this technique involves protein labeling in D(2)O, followed by acid quenching, proteolytic digestion, and analysis of peptide deuteration levels by HPLC/MS. There is great interest in the development of alternative HDX approaches involving the top-down fragmentation of electrosprayed protein ions, instead of relying on enzymatic cleavage and solution-phase separations. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that electron capture dissociation (ECD) results in fragmentation of gaseous protein ions with little or no H/D scrambling. However, the successful application of this approach for in-depth protein conformational studies has not yet been demonstrated. The current work uses horse myoglobin as a model system for assessing the suitability of HDX-MS with top-down ECD for experiments of this kind. It is found that ECD can pinpoint the locations of protected amides with an average resolution of less than two residues for this 17 kDa protein. Native holo-myoglobin (hMb) shows considerable protection from exchange in all of its helices, whereas loops are extensively deuterated. Fraying is observable at some helix termini. Removal of the prosthetic heme group from hMb produces apo-myoglobin (aMb). Both hMb and aMb share virtually the same HDX protection pattern in helices A-E, whereas helix F is unfolded in aMb. In addition, destabilization is evident for some residues close to the beginning of helix G, the end of helix H, and the C-terminus of the protein. The structural changes reported herein are largely consistent with earlier NMR data for sperm whale myoglobin, although small differences between the two systems are evident. Our findings demonstrate that the level of structural information obtainable with top-down ECD for small to medium-sized proteins considerably surpasses that of traditional HDX-MS experiments, while at the same time greatly reducing undesired amide back exchange. PMID:19670873

  11. Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Reflects Binding of Human Centrin 2 to Ca2+ and Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group C Peptide: An Example of EX1 Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Sperry, Justin B.; Ryan, Zachary C.; Kumar, Rajiv; Gross, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disease affecting 1 in 10,000-100,000 and predisposes people to early-age skin cancer, a disease that is increasing. Those with XP have decreased ability to repair UV-induced DNA damage, leading to increased susceptibility of cancerous non-melanomas and melanomas. A vital, heterotrimeric protein complex is linked to the nucleotide excision repair pathway for the damaged DNA. The complex consists of XPC protein, human centrin 2, and RAD23B. One of the members, human centrin 2, is a ubiquitous, acidic, Ca2+-binding protein belonging to the calmodulin superfamily. The XPC protein contains a sequence motif specific for binding to human centrin 2. We report here the Ca2+-binding properties of human centrin 2 and its interaction with the XPC peptide motif. We utilized a region-specific H/D exchange protocol to localize the interaction of the XPC peptide with the C-terminal domain of centrin, the binding of which is different than that of calmodulin complexes. The binding dynamics of human centrin 2 to the XPC peptide in the absence and presence of Ca2+ are revealed by the observation of EX1 H/D exchange regime, indicating that a locally unfolded population exists in solution and undergoes fast H/D exchange. PMID:23439742

  12. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Reveals Unique Conformational and Chemical Transformations Occurring upon [4Fe-4S] Cluster Binding in the Type 2 L-Serine Dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuetian; Grant, Gregory A; Gross, Michael L

    2015-09-01

    The type 2 L-serine dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila (lpLSD) contains a [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster that acts as a Lewis acid to extract the hydroxyl group of L-serine during the dehydration reaction. Surprisingly, the crystal structure shows that all four of the iron atoms in the cluster are coordinated with protein cysteinyl residues and that the cluster is buried and not exposed to solvent. If the crystal structure of lpLSD accurately reflects the structure in solution, then substantial rearrangement at the active site is necessary for the substrate to enter. Furthermore, repair of the oxidized protein when the cluster has degraded would presumably entail exposure of the buried cysteine ligands. Thus, the conformation required for the substrate to enter may be similar to those required for a new cluster to enter the active site. To address this, hydrogen-deuterium exchange combined with mass spectrometry (HDX MS) was used to probe the conformational changes that occur upon oxidative degradation of the Fe-S cluster. The regions that show the most significant differential HDX are adjacent to the cluster location in the holoenzyme or connect regions that are adjacent to the cluster. The observed decrease in flexibility upon cluster binding provides direct evidence that the "tail-in-mouth" conformation observed in the crystal structure also occurs in solution and that the C-terminal peptide is coordinated to the [4Fe-4S] cluster in a precatalytic conformation. This observation is consistent with the requirement of an activation step prior to catalysis and the unusually high level of resistance to oxygen-induced cluster degradation. Furthermore, peptide mapping of the apo form under nonreducing conditions revealed the formation of disulfide bonds between C396 and C485 and possibly between C343 and C385. These observations provide a picture of how the cluster loci are stabilized and poised to receive the cluster in the apo form and the requirement for a reduction step during cluster formation. PMID:26266572

  13. Phonon localization by mass disorder in dense hydrogen-deuterium binary alloy.

    PubMed

    Howie, Ross T; Magd?u, Ioan B; Goncharov, Alexander F; Ackland, Graeme J; Gregoryanz, Eugene

    2014-10-24

    Using a combination of the Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations on dense hydrogen-deuterium mixtures of various concentrations, we demonstrate that, at 300 K and above 200 GPa, they transform into phase IV, forming a disordered binary alloy with six highly localized intramolecular vibrational (vibrons) and four delocalized low-frequency (<1200??cm(-1)) modes. Hydrogen-deuterium mixtures are unique in showing a purely mass-induced localization effect in the quantum solid: chemical bonding is isotope-independent while the mass varies by a factor of 2. PMID:25379921

  14. Folding Study of Venus Reveals a Strong Ion Dependence of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly Acidic Conditions*S

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    Folding Study of Venus Reveals a Strong Ion Dependence of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly- cencethatisrelativelyinsensitivetochangesinpHandionconcen- trations. Here, we present a detailed study of the stability and fold- ing of Venus. By following hydrogen-deuterium exchange of 15 N-labeled Venus using NMR spectroscopy over 13 months, residue

  15. Diffusion of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium in niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Matusiewicz, Gerald Robert

    1981-01-01

    The diffusion of hydrogen in niobium was investigated over the temperature range 148 to 500 degrees Kelvin, using measurements of the elastic after effect caused by long range diffusion (the Gorsky Effect). Relaxation curves for pure annealed niobium were generally not of the single exponential form expected from the Gorsky Effect theory, but were described well by a sum of two exponential curves with different amplitudes and relaxation times. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen interstitials on the diffusion were studied and were not in agreement with conventional trapping models. Deuterium and tritium diffusion in niobium were also studied, and a non-classical isotope effect was observed. Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in several Nb-Ta alloys were measured, and the diffusivity in all these alloys exhibited a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. Experimental results were compared to several models for diffusion and trapping. A model is presented which can account for the form of the relaxation curves observed in pure, annealed niobium.

  16. Computation of hyperfine energies of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çak?r, Bekir; Özmen, Ayhan; Yakar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    The hyperfine energies and hyperfine constants of the ground and excited states of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium quantum dots(QDs) are calculated. Quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) methods are employed to calculate the unperturbed wave functions and energy eigenvalues. The results show that in the medium and strong confinement regions the hyperfine energy and hyperfine constant are strongly affected by dot radius, impurity charge, electron spin orientation, impurity spin and impurity magnetic moment. Besides, in all dot radii, the hyperfine splitting and hyperfine constant of the confined hydrogen and tritium atoms are approximately equivalent to each other and they are greater than the confined deuterium atom.

  17. Study of H/D exchange rates to derive the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in halo substituted organic building blocks: An NMR spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Suryaprakash, N.

    2015-10-01

    Rates of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy are utilized to derive the strength of hydrogen bonds and to monitor the electronic effects in the site-specific halogen substituted benzamides and anilines. The theoretical fitting of the time dependent variation of the integral areas of 1H NMR resonances to the first order decay function permitted the determination of H/D exchange rate constants (k) and their precise half-lives (t1/2) with high degree of reproducibility. The comparative study also permitted the unambiguous determination of relative strength of hydrogen bonds and the contribution from electronic effects on the H/D exchange rate.

  18. Quantum interference effects in laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen, deuterium, and helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Pedro; Franke, Beatrice; Krauth, Julian J.; Diepold, Marc; Fratini, Filippo; Safari, Laleh; Machado, Jorge; Antognini, Aldo; Kottmann, Franz; Indelicato, Paul; Pohl, Randolf; Santos, José Paulo

    2015-08-01

    Quantum interference between energetically close states is theoretically investigated, with the state structure being observed via laser spectroscopy. In this work, we focus on hyperfine states of selected hydrogenic muonic isotopes, and on how quantum interference affects the measured Lamb shift. The process of photon excitation and subsequent photon decay is implemented within the framework of nonrelativistic second-order perturbation theory. Due to its experimental interest, calculations are performed for muonic hydrogen, deuterium, and helium-3. We restrict our analysis to the case of photon scattering by incident linear polarized photons and the polarization of the scattered photons not being observed. We conclude that while quantum interference effects can be safely neglected in muonic hydrogen and helium-3, in the case of muonic deuterium there are resonances with close proximity, where quantum interference effects can induce shifts up to a few percent of the linewidth, assuming a pointlike detector. However, by taking into account the geometry of the setup used by the CREMA collaboration, this effect is reduced to less than 0.2% of the linewidth in all possible cases, which makes it irrelevant at the present level of accuracy.

  19. Investigation of the role of the micro-porous layer in polymer electrolyte fuel cells with hydrogen deuterium contrast neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyu Taek; Mench, Matthew M

    2012-03-28

    In this study, the high resolution hydrogen-deuterium contrast radiography method was applied to elucidate the impact of the micro-porous layer (MPL) on water distribution in the porous fuel cell media. At the steady state, deuterium replaced hydrogen in the anode stream, and the large difference in neutron attenuation of the D(2)O produced at the cathode was used to track the produced water. It was found that the water content peaked in the cathode-side diffusion media (DM) for the cell without MPL, but with an MPL on the anode and cathode DM, the peak water amount was pushed toward the anode, resulting in a relatively flattened water profile through components and demonstrating a liquid barrier effect. Additionally, the dynamic water behavior in diffusion media was analyzed to understand the effect of a MPL and operating conditions. The water content in the DM changed with applied current, although there is a significant amount of residual liquid content that does not appear to be part of capillary channels. The effect of the MPL on irreducible saturation in DM and cell performance was also investigated. PMID:22337210

  20. Stainless-Steel Ball-Milling Method for Hydro-/Deutero-genation using H2 O/D2 O as a Hydrogen/Deuterium Source.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Niikawa, Miki; Goto, Ryota; Yabe, Yuki; Takahashi, Tohru; Marumoto, Takahisa; Itoh, Miki; Kimura, Yuuichi; Monguchi, Yasunari; Kondo, Shin-Ichi; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-11-01

    A one-pot continuous-flow method for hydrogen (deuterium) generation and subsequent hydrogenation (deuterogenation) was developed using a stainless-steel (SUS304)-mediated ball-milling approach. SUS304, especially zero-valent Cr and Ni as constituents of the SUS304, and mechanochemical processing played crucial roles in the development of the reactions. PMID:26493945

  1. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    E-print Network

    Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density of cryogenic implosions using a narrowband crystal imaging system (invited)a) Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 11E501 equivalence in cryogenic deuterium­tritium implosions on OMEGAa) Phys. Plasmas 21, 056315 (2014); 10

  2. Investigating the effect of electric field on ionization cross sections in antiproton-hydrogen/deuterium atoms collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Mukesh Kumar; Ho, Y. K.

    2012-01-01

    The Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method has been used to investigate the effects of aligned electric field on the ionization cross sections in antiproton and hydrogen atoms collisions. The cross sections for the ionization of hydrogen/deuterium collision with antiproton in the energy range 10-500 keV/amu have been calculated and compared with the available experiment and theoretical results. The ionization cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the recently reported experimental and theoretical results. Isotope effect in the ionization cross section is reported to be negligible. The effects of the external electric field are seen to be quite prominent. Differential cross sections for ionization at the scattering angle up to 0.1° are also reported in this paper.

  3. Hydrogen/deuterium recycling and initial results of helium ash study in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Sakasai, A.; Shimada, M.; Yoshino, R.; Arai, T.; Fukuda, T.; Hirayama, T.; Hosogane, N.; Ishida, S.; Kaminaga, A.; Koide, Y.; Kubo, H.; Nishitani, T.; Sugie, T.

    1992-12-01

    Reduction of particle recycling is an important technique in present plasma devices to improve energy confinement characteristics. Besides obtaining long pulse DT burning plasmas, controlled fuelling of the plasma with the primary species and removal of the helium ash are important issues. In the JT-60U tokamak, about 90% of the inner surface is covered with graphite tiles. Because recycling becomes more important with graphite surfaces, recycling characteristics of an all graphite first wall is important. In this paper, experimental results of JT-60U on recycling and helium ash removal are presented. The effect of wall temperature on recycling was observed. Significant hydrogen dilution was observed during deuterium discharges. Recycling characteristics in the ELMy H-mode discharges are also described where the neutral pressure increases with the electron density similar to L-mode discharges. In high ??/hot ion discharges, a highest neutron production rate of 1.3×10 16 s -1 was obtained with the lowest recycling. Initial results of helium ash experiment with strong He gas puffings in ohmically and neutral beam heated discharges are reported.

  4. A critical compilation of experimental data on spectral lines and energy levels of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Kramida, A.E.

    2010-11-15

    For more than 50 years, Charlotte Moore's compilation of atomic energy levels and its subsequent revisions have been the standard source of reference data for the spectra of hydrogen and its isotopes. In those publications, theoretical data based on quantum-electrodynamic calculations have been given. This reflects the fact that the theory of the hydrogen spectrum has been perfected to an extent far exceeding the capabilities of the best measurements. However, rapid advances in the techniques of laser spectroscopy and optical frequency metrology have recently put experiments on a par with theory in terms of precision. This calls for construction of new comprehensive data sets for H, D, and T that summarize the latest experimental work and can be directly compared with the modern theoretical reference data. The present work compiles several tens of recent measurements of the hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium fine and hyperfine structure intervals and presents sets of energy levels and Ritz wavelengths derived from those measurements. Data exist for the fine structure of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium up to principal quantum number n = 12. For higher lying levels, there are many observed lines with unresolved fine structure. From those observations, level centers (centers of the fine structure) are derived by a least-squares optimization, and Ritz wavelengths of series with upper levels up to n = 40 are obtained. For tritium, the n = 2 and 3 energy level intervals are derived from experimental observations.

  5. Determination of hydrogen/deuterium ratio with neutron measurements on MAST

    SciTech Connect

    Klimek, I. Cecconello, M.; Ericsson, G.; Sharapov, S. E.; Harrison, J.

    2014-11-15

    On MAST, compressional Alfvén eigenmodes can be destabilized by the presence of a sufficiently large population of energetic particles in the plasma. This dependence was studied in a series of very similar discharges in which increasing amounts of hydrogen were puffed into a deuterium plasma. A simple method to estimate the isotopic ratio n{sub H}/n{sub D} using neutron emission measurements is here described. The inferred isotopic ratio ranged from 0.0 to 0.6 and no experimental indication of changes in radial profile of n{sub H}/n{sub D} were observed. These findings are confirmed by TRANSP/NUBEAM simulations of the neutron emission.

  6. HK97 Maturation Studied by Crystallography and H/[superscript 2]H Exchange Reveals the Structural Basis for Exothermic Particle Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Gertsman, Ilya; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-03-22

    HK97 is an exceptionally amenable system for characterizing major conformational changes associated with capsid maturation in double-stranded DNA bacteriophage. HK97 undergoes a capsid expansion of {approx}20%, accompanied by major subunit rearrangements during genome packaging. A previous 3.44-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of the mature capsid Head II and cryo-electron microscopy studies of other intermediate expansion forms of HK97 suggested that, primarily, rigid-body movements facilitated the maturation process. We recently reported a 3.65-{angstrom}-resolution structure of the preexpanded particle form Prohead II (P-II) and found that the capsid subunits undergo significant refolding and twisting of the tertiary structure to accommodate expansion. The P-II study focused on major twisting motions in the P-domain and on refolding of the spine helix during the transition. Here we extend the crystallographic comparison between P-II and Head II, characterizing the refolding events occurring in each of the four major domains of the capsid subunit and their effect on quaternary structure stabilization. In addition, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, coupled to mass spectrometry, was used to characterize the structural dynamics of three distinct capsid intermediates: P-II, Expansion Intermediate, and the nearly mature Head I. Differences in the solvent accessibilities of the seven quasi-equivalent capsid subunits, attributed to differences in secondary and quaternary structures, were observed in P-II. Nearly all differences in solvent accessibility among subunits disappear after the first transition to Expansion Intermediate. We show that most of the refolding is coupled to this transformation, an event associated with the transition from asymmetric to symmetric hexamers.

  7. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 1015 neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  8. Exchange of deeply trapped and interstitial hydrogen in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.; Van de Walle, C.G.; Adams, J.B.

    1999-02-01

    Using {ital ab initio} density-functional calculations, we examine possible exchange mechanisms between an interstitial hydrogen atom and a deeply bound H at a silicon-hydrogen bond. We determine a low-energy pathway for exchange, which involves an intermediate, metastable {equivalent_to}SiH{sub 2} complex with both hydrogen atoms strongly bound to the silicon atom. The energy barrier for the exchange process is E{sub ex}{lt}0.2 eV, consistent with observations of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a-Si:H(D) films. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  10. Hydrogen isotope exchanges between water and methanol in interstellar ices

    E-print Network

    Faure, A; Theulé, P; Quirico, E; Schmitt, B

    2015-01-01

    The deuterium fractionation of gas-phase molecules in hot cores is believed to reflect the composition of interstellar ices. The deuteration of methanol is a major puzzle, however, because the isotopologue ratio [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD], which is predicted to be equal to 3 by standard grain chemistry models, is much larger (~20) in low-mass hot corinos and significantly lower (~1) in high-mass hot cores. This dichotomy in methanol deuteration between low-mass and massive protostars is currently not understood. In this study, we report a simplified rate equation model of the deuterium chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. We apply this model to the chemistry of hot corinos and hot cores, with IRAS 16293-2422 and the Orion~KL Compact Ridge as prototypes, respectively. The chemistry is based on a statistical initial deuteration at low temperature followed by a warm-up phase during which thermal hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanges occur between water and methanol. The exchange kinetics is incorpor...

  11. The use of spin desalting columns in DMSO-quenched H/D-exchange NMR experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Mahesh S; Nakamura, Takashi; Takenaka, Toshio; Chaudhuri, Tapan K; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Chen, Jin; Kato, Koichi; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-quenched hydrogen/deuterium (H/D)-exchange is a powerful method to characterize the H/D-exchange behaviors of proteins and protein assemblies, and it is potentially useful for investigating non-protected fast-exchanging amide protons in the unfolded state. However, the method has not been used for studies on fully unfolded proteins in a concentrated denaturant or protein solutions at high salt concentrations. In all of the current DMSO-quenched H/D-exchange studies of proteins so far reported, lyophilization was used to remove D2O from the protein solution, and the lyophilized protein was dissolved in the DMSO solution to quench the H/D exchange reactions and to measure the amide proton signals by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectra. The denaturants or salts remaining after lyophilization thus prevent the measurement of good NMR spectra. In this article, we report that the use of spin desalting columns is a very effective alternative to lyophilization for the medium exchange from the D2O buffer to the DMSO solution. We show that the medium exchange by a spin desalting column takes only about 10 min in contrast to an overnight length of time required for lyophilization, and that the use of spin desalting columns has made it possible to monitor the H/D-exchange behavior of a fully unfolded protein in a concentrated denaturant. We report the results of unfolded ubiquitin in 6.0M guanidinium chloride. PMID:23339068

  12. Hydrogen Isotope Exchange of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Aqueous Solution: Possibly a Termolecular Liquid Phase Reaction.

    PubMed

    Gabri?evi?, Mario; Lente, Gábor; Fábián, István

    2015-12-24

    This work reports an experimental study of the hydrogen/deuterium exchange in the basic aqueous solutions of trichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene using (1)H NMR as a monitoring method. 1,1-Dichlorethylene was also investigated but found not to exchange hydrogen isotopes with water. The kinetics of isotope exchange features two different pathways, the first is first order with respect to hydroxide ion, whereas the second is second order. The first pathway is interpreted as a straightforward bimolecular reaction between chloroethylene and hydroxide ion, which leads to the deprotonation of chloroethylene. The second pathway involves a transition state with the association of one molecule of the chloroethylene and two hydroxide ions. It is shown that the second pathway could involve the formation of a precursor complex composed of one chloroethylene molecule and one hydroxide ion, but a direct termolecular elementary reaction is also feasible, which is shown by deriving a theoretical highest limit for the rate constants of termolecular reactions in solution. PMID:26618984

  13. Hydrogen isotope exchanges between water and methanol in interstellar ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, A.; Faure, M.; Theulé, P.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The deuterium fractionation of gas-phase molecules in hot cores is believed to reflect the composition of interstellar ices. The deuteration of methanol is a major puzzle, however, because the isotopologue ratio [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD], which is predicted to be equal to 3 by standard grain chemistry models, is much larger (~20) in low-mass hot corinos and significantly lower (~1) in high-mass hot cores. This dichotomy in methanol deuteration between low-mass and massive protostars is currently not understood. In this study, we report a simplified rate equation model of the deuterium chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. We apply this model to the chemistry of hot corinos and hot cores, with IRAS 16293-2422 and the Orion KL Compact Ridge as prototypes, respectively. The chemistry is based on a statistical initial deuteration at low temperature followed by a warm-up phase during which thermal hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanges occur between water and methanol. The exchange kinetics is incorporated using laboratory data. The [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] ratio is found to scale inversely with the D/H ratio of water, owing to the H/D exchange equilibrium between the hydroxyl (-OH) functional groups of methanol and water. Our model is able to reproduce the observed [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] ratios provided that the primitive fractionation of water ice [HDO]/[H2O] is ~2% in IRAS 16293-2422 and ~0.6% in Orion KL. We conclude that the molecular D/H ratios measured in hot cores may not be representative of the original mantles because molecules with exchangeable deuterium atoms can equilibrate with water ice during the warm-up phase.

  14. Ceramic heat-exchanger applications study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlin, D. J.; Sgamboti, C. T.; Lessard, R. D.

    1982-10-01

    To put the potential benefits of ceramic heat exchangers (CHX) applications into quantitative perspective, several industrial cogeneration and electric utility power generation systems were evaluated. Coal based fuel fired applications, for which system performance and economic assessments were made were studied. Seven CHX applications were selected for evaluation. These include: (1) gasified coal fired gas turbine; (2) pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) gas turbine; (3) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) gas turbine; (4) and (5) AFBC combined cycle with and without reheat; and (6) and (7) indirect coal fired gas turbine and combined cycle. The performance and economics of these cogeneration systems were evaluated and compared with other competing systems. For the electric utility power generation sector five applications utilizing a CHX were selected and evaluated; their performance and cost factors were compared to those of a reference pulverized coal fired steam plant with flue gas desulfurization. The five applications included: PFBC combined cycle, AFBC combined cycle, industrial coal gasifier combined cycle, indirect coal fired combined cycle, and indirect coal fired simple cycle. Of the five CHX applications evaluated in the power generation sector, only the AFBC system shows a clear gain over the reference pulverized coal system.

  15. Mechanism of Ligand Exchange Studied Using Transition Path Sampling

    E-print Network

    Harris, Charles B.

    Mechanism of Ligand Exchange Studied Using Transition Path Sampling Preston T. Snee, Jennifer@socrates.berkeley.edu Abstract: The mechanism of intermolecular ligand exchange has been studied using transition path sampling that there are multiple steps in the reaction mechanism. The first involves partial dissociation of the coordinated

  16. International Exchange as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena; Slaubaugh, Michael; Kim, Ae-Sook

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of international exchange programs on the transformative learning of English-speaking students. A student exchange program at a South Korean university is used for this case study. It explores how learning experiences are translated by participants onto their perceptions about the host country. An analysis of a pre-…

  17. EXCHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    EXCHANGE is published monthly by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a multidisciplinary facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of EXCHANGE is to inform computer users about about recent changes and innovations in both the mainframe and personal computer environments and how these changes can affect work being performed at DOE facilities.

  18. Protein-like proton exchange in a synthetic host cavity.

    PubMed

    Hart-Cooper, William M; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Perrin, Charles L; Toste, F Dean; Bergman, Robert G; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2015-12-15

    The mechanism of proton exchange in a metal-ligand enzyme active site mimic (compound 1) is described through amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange kinetics. The type and ratio of cationic guest to host in solution affect the rate of isotope exchange, suggesting that the rate of exchange is driven by a host whose cavity is occupied by water. Rate constants for acid-, base-, and water-mediated proton exchange vary by orders of magnitude depending on the guest, and differ by up to 200 million-fold relative to an alanine polypeptide. These results suggest that the unusual microenvironment of the cavity of 1 can dramatically alter the reactivity of associated water by magnitudes comparable to that of enzymes. PMID:26621709

  19. Studies of inertial deposition of particles onto heat exchanger elements

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhs, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examines gas-side fouling mechanisms in heat exchangers that involve the inertial impaction of small particles onto tubular exchanger surfaces. An aerosol processes wind tunnel was constructed that facilitates quantitative studies of particle interactions with heat-exchanger surfaces. Three sets of experiments were performed. First, single heat-exchanger tubes were exposed to a cross flow of particle-laden air. Stainless steel tubes coated with a thin layer of grease to ensure that particle collisions resulted in capture were used to verify a numerical model for the inertial transport of ammonium fluorescein particles to the tube surface. Particle bound was quantified for the case of clean tubes and solid particles. Second, the transient deposition of particles onto single heat-exchanger tubes in cross flow was studied. It was found that a steady-state condition could be reached for cases in which particle bounce occurred. Finally, the deposition patterns for the aerosol particles as they passed through a tube bank were studied. The quantities of aerosol deposited on various tubes depended on tube surface condition, tube position within the tube bank, and the overall geometry of the bank. Using these findings, heat exchangers can be designed that will resist gas-side fouling.

  20. Mechanism of ligand exchange studied using transition path sampling.

    PubMed

    Snee, Preston T; Shanoski, Jennifer; Harris, Charles B

    2005-02-01

    The mechanism of intermolecular ligand exchange has been studied using transition path sampling (TPS) based molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Specifically, the exchange of solvent molecules bound to unsaturated Cr(CO)5 in methanol solution has been investigated. The results of the TPS simulations have shown that there are multiple steps in the reaction mechanism. The first involves partial dissociation of the coordinated solvent from the Cr metal center followed by association with a new methanol molecule between the normally void first and second solvent layers. After diffusive motion of the exchanging ligands, the last step involves the originally bound methanol molecule moving into the bath continuum followed by solvation of the Cr metal fragment by the exchanging ligand. It has been found that the reaction center (defined as the organometallic fragment and two exchanging ligands only) and the solvent bath have favorable interactions. This is likely due to the adiabatic nature of the ligand exchange transition. The ability to understand the microscopic molecular dynamics of a chemical process based on a free energy analysis is also discussed. PMID:15669868

  1. Ligand exchange in quaternary alloyed nanocrystals--a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Giedyk, Kamila; Kotwica, Kamil; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Lisowski, Wojciech; Sobczak, Janusz W; Pron, Adam

    2014-11-14

    Exchange of initial, predominantly stearate ligands for pyridine in the first step and butylamine (BA) or 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) in the second one was studied for alloyed quaternary Cu-In-Zn-S nanocrystals. The NMR results enabled us to demonstrate, for the first time, direct binding of the pyridine labile ligand to the nanocrystal surface as evidenced by paramagnetic shifts of the three signals attributed to its protons to 7.58, 7.95 and 8.75 ppm. XPS investigations indicated, in turn, a significant change in the composition of the nanocrystal surface upon the exchange of initial ligands for pyridine, which being enriched in indium in the 'as prepared' form became enriched in zinc after pyridine binding. This finding indicated that the first step of ligand exchange had to involve the removal of the surface layer enriched in indium with simultaneous exposure of a new, zinc-enriched layer. In the second ligand exchange step (replacement of pyridine with BA or MUA) the changes in the nanocrystal surface compositions were much less significant. The presence of zinc in the nanocrystal surface layer turned out necessary for effective binding of pyridine as shown by a comparative study of ligand exchange in Cu-In-Zn-S, Ag-In-Zn-S and CuInS2, carried out by complementary XPS and NMR investigations. PMID:25252174

  2. A piloted simulation study of data link ATC message exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Lohr, Gary W.

    1989-01-01

    Data link Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Traffic Service (ATS) message and data exchange offers the potential benefits of increased flight safety and efficiency by reducing communication errors and allowing more information to be transferred between aircraft and ground facilities. Digital communication also presents an opportunity to relieve the overloading of ATC radio frequencies which hampers message exchange during peak traffic hours in many busy terminal areas. A piloted simulation study to develop pilot factor guidelines and assess potential flight crew benefits and liabilities from using data link ATC message exchange was completed. The data link ATC message exchange concept, implemented on an existing navigation computer Control Display Unit (CDU) required maintaining a voice radio telephone link with an appropriate ATC facility. Flight crew comments, scanning behavior, and measurements of time spent in ATC communication activities for data link ATC message exchange were compared to similar measures for simulated conventional voice radio operations. The results show crew preference for the quieter flight deck environment and a perception of lower communication workload.

  3. Use of SAR in Regional Methane Exchange Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Livingston, G. P.; Durden, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Significant sources of uncertainty in global trace gas budgets are due to lack of knowledge concerning the areal and temporal extent of source and sink areas. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is particularly suited to studies of northern ecosystems because of its all-weather operating capability which enables the acquisition of seasonal data. As key controls on methane exchange, the ability to differentiate major vegetation communities, inundation, and leaf area index (LAI) with satellite and airborne SAR data would increase the accuracy and precision of regional and seasonal estimates of methane exchange. The utility of SAR data for monitoring key controls on methane emissions from Arctic and boreal ecosystems is examined.

  4. HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN STUDIES FOR AN LHC INNER TRIPLET UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    Rabehl, R. J.; Huang, Y.

    2008-03-16

    A luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is planned to coincide with the expected end of life of the existing inner triplet quadrupole magnets. The upgraded inner triplet will have much larger heat loads to be removed from the magnets by the cryogenics system. A number of cryogenics design studies have been completed under the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), including investigations of required heat exchanger characteristics to transfer this heat from the pressurized He II bath to the saturated He II system. This paper discusses heat exchangers both external to the magnet cold mass and internal to the magnet cold mass. A possible design for a heat exchanger external to the magnet cold mass is also presented.

  5. TRACER STUDY OF VERTICAL EXCHANGE BY CUMULUS CLOUDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exchange of material by convective cloud processes between the mixed layer and the overlying free troposphere is examined. The paper describes results of a field experiment that was conducted in Lexington, Kentucky during the period from July 20 to August 24, 1983 to study th...

  6. Needle-Exchange Program Curbed HIV Spread, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154470.html Needle-Exchange Program Curbed HIV Spread, Study Finds Washington, D.C.-based effort also saved $44 ...

  7. Conformational characterization of the charge variants of a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody using H/D exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liangjie; Sundaram, Shanmuuga; Zhang, Jingming; Carlson, Ping; Matathia, Alice; Parekh, Babita; Zhou, Qinwei; Hsieh, Ming-Ching

    2013-01-01

    MAb1, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced in a NS0 cell line, exhibits charge heterogeneity because of the presence of variants formed by processes such as N-terminal glutamate cyclization, C-terminal lysine truncation, deamidation, aspartate isomerization and sialylation in the carbohydrate moiety. Four major charge variants of MAb1 were isolated and the conformations of these charge variants were studied using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, including the H/D exchange time course (HX-MS) and the stability of unpurified proteins from rates of H/D exchange (SUPREX) techniques. HX-MS was used to evaluate the conformation and solution dynamics of MAb1 charge variants by measuring their deuterium buildup over time at the peptide level. The SUPREX technique evaluated the unfolding profile and relative stability of the charge variants by measuring the exchange properties of globally protected amide protons in the presence of a chemical denaturant. The H/D exchange profiles from both techniques were compared among the four charge variants of MAb1. The two techniques together offered extensive understanding about the local and subglobal/global unfolding of the charge variants of MAb1. Our results demonstrated that all four charge variants of MAb1 were not significantly different in conformation, solution dynamics and chemical denaturant-induced unfolding profile and stability, which aids in understanding the biofunctions of the molecules. The analytical strategy used for conformational characterization may also be applicable to comparability studies done for antibody therapeutics. PMID:23222183

  8. Distinguishing direct binding interactions from allosteric effects in the protease–HK97 prohead I ? domain complex by amide H/D exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, S; Veesler, D; Khayat, R; Snijder, J; Huang, Rk; Heck, AJR; Johnson, Je; Anand, GS

    2014-01-01

    A major question in mapping protein-ligand or protein-protein interactions in solution is to distinguish direct-binding interactions from long-range conformational changes at allosteric sites. We describe here the applicability of amide hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS) in addressing this important question using the bacteriophage HK97 capsid proteins’ interactions with their processing protease. HK97 is a lambda-like dsDNA bacteriophage that is ideal for studies of particle assembly and maturation. Its capsid precursor protein is composed of two main regions, the scaffolding protein (?-domain, residues 2-103), and the coat subunit (residues 104-385), which spontaneously forms a mixture of hexamers and pentamers upon association. Activation of the viral protease, which occurs after particle assembly, is initiated by the protease mediated digestion of the scaffolding domains to yield Prohead-2. This irreversible step is obligatory for activation of the virus maturation pathway. Here we provide an “addendum” to our previous study of Prohead I and Prohead I+pro (a transient complex of Prohead I and the protease) where we investigated the interactions between the ? domain and the packaged protease using HDXMS. Our results revealed two sites on the ? domain: one set of contiguous peptides that showed decreased exchange at the protease binding site at early time points of deuterium labeling and another separate set of continuous peptides that showed decreased exchange at later time points. Even though this cannot reveal the time scales of molecular processes governing binding and allostery, we believe this differential pattern of exchange across deuteration times can allow spatial distinction between binding sites and long range conformational changes with allosteric implications. This partitioning can be discerned from the lag between noncontiguous regions on a protein showing maximal changes in deuterium exchange and highlights a powerful application of HDXMS in distinguishing direct binding in transient protein-protein interactions from allosteric changes.

  9. Conformational characterization of the charge variants of a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody using H/D exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liangjie; Sundaram, Shanmuuga; Zhang, Jingming; Carlson, Ping; Matathia, Alice; Parekh, Babita; Zhou, Qinwei; Hsieh, Ming-Ching

    2013-01-01

    MAb1, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced in a NS0 cell line, exhibits charge heterogeneity because of the presence of variants formed by processes such as N-terminal glutamate cyclization, C-terminal lysine truncation, deamidation, aspartate isomerization and sialylation in the carbohydrate moiety. Four major charge variants of MAb1 were isolated and the conformations of these charge variants were studied using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, including the H/D exchange time course (HX-MS) and the stability of unpurified proteins from rates of H/D exchange (SUPREX) techniques. HX-MS was used to evaluate the conformation and solution dynamics of MAb1 charge variants by measuring their deuterium buildup over time at the peptide level. The SUPREX technique evaluated the unfolding profile and relative stability of the charge variants by measuring the exchange properties of globally protected amide protons in the presence of a chemical denaturant. The H/D exchange profiles from both techniques were compared among the four charge variants of MAb1. The two techniques together offered extensive understanding about the local and subglobal/global unfolding of the charge variants of MAb1. Our results demonstrated that all four charge variants of MAb1 were not significantly different in conformation, solution dynamics and chemical denaturant-induced unfolding profile and stability, which aids in understanding the biofunctions of the molecules. The analytical strategy used for conformational characterization may also be applicable to comparability studies done for antibody therapeutics. PMID:23222183

  10. Abelmoschus esculentus (Cultivated) 2 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    The gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of protonated di- and tripeptides containing a basic amino acid residue has been studied with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Bimolecular reactions...

  11. Practical and economical implementation of online H/D exchange in LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravi P; Garg, Amit; Putlur, Siva Prasad; Wagh, Santosh; Kumar, Vineet; Rao, Venugopala; Singh, Saranjit; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Desikan, Sridhar

    2013-11-19

    Structural elucidation is an integral part of drug discovery and development. In recent years, due to acceleration of the drug discovery and development process, there is a significant need for highly efficient methodologies for structural elucidation. In this work, we devised and standardized a simple and economical online hydrogen-deuterium exchange methodology, which can be used for structure elucidation purposes. Deuterium oxide (D2O) was infused as a postcolumn addition using the syringe pump at the time of elution of the analyte. The obtained hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange spectrum of the unknown analyte was compared with the nonexchanged spectrum, and the extent of deuterium incorporation was delineated by using an algorithm to deconvolute partial H/D exchange, which confirmed the number of labile hydrogen(s) in the analyte. The procedure was standardized by optimizing flow rates of LC output, D2O infusion, sheath gas, and auxiliary gas using the model compound sulfasalazine. The robustness of the methodology was demonstrated by performing sensitivity analysis of various parameters such as concentrations of analyte, effect of matrices, concentrations of aqueous mobile phase, and types of LC modifiers. The optimized technique was also applied to chemically diverse analytes and tested on various mass spectrometers. Moreover, utility of the technique was demonstrated in the areas of impurity profiling and metabolite identification, taking pravastatin-lactone and N-oxide desloratidine, as examples. PMID:24117319

  12. Protein Structure-Function Correlation in Living Human Red Blood Cells Probed by Isotope Exchange-based Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sreekala; Mitra, Gopa; Muralidharan, Monita; Mathew, Boby; Mandal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    To gain insight into the underlying mechanisms of various biological events, it is important to study the structure-function correlation of proteins within cells. Structural probes used in spectroscopic tools to investigate protein conformation are similar across all proteins. Therefore, structural studies are restricted to purified proteins in vitro and these findings are extrapolated in cells to correlate their functions in vivo. However, due to cellular complexity, in vivo and in vitro environments are radically different. Here, we show a novel way to monitor the structural transition of human hemoglobin upon oxygen binding in living red blood cells (RBCs), using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-based mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS). Exploiting permeability of D2O across cell membrane, the isotope exchange of polypeptide backbone amide hydrogens of hemoglobin was carried out inside RBCs and monitored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). To explore the conformational transition associated with oxygenation of hemoglobin in vivo, the isotope exchange kinetics was simplified using the method of initial rates. RBC might be considered as an in vivo system of pure hemoglobin. Thus, as a proof-of-concept, the observed results were correlated with structural transition of hemoglobin associated with its function established in vitro. This is the first report on structural changes of a protein upon ligand binding in its endogenous environment. The proposed method might be applicable to proteins in their native state, irrespective of location, concentration, and size. The present in-cell approach opens a new avenue to unravel a plethora of biological processes like ligand binding, folding, and post-translational modification of proteins in living cells. PMID:26531244

  13. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  14. John Locke's seed lists: a case study in botanical exchange.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen A; Anstey, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    This paper gives a detailed analysis of four seed lists in the journals of John Locke. These lists provide a window into a fascinating open network of botanical exchange in the early 1680s which included two of the leading botanists of the day, Pierre Magnol of Montpellier and Jacob Bobart the Younger of Oxford. The provenance and significance of the lists are assessed in relation to the relevant extant herbaria and plant catalogues from the period. The lists and associated correspondence provide the main evidence for Locke's own important, though modest contribution to early modern botany, a contribution which he would have regarded as a small part of the broader project of constructing a natural history of plants. They also provide a detailed case study of the sort of open and informal network of knowledge exchange in the early modern period that is widely recognised by historians of science, but all too rarely illustrated. PMID:19917484

  15. Competing Noncovalent Host-guest Interactions and H/D Exchange: Reactions of Benzyloxycarbonyl-Proline Glycine Dipeptide Variants with ND3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladi, Mahsan; Olaitan, Abayomi D.; Zekavat, Behrooz; Solouki, Touradj

    2015-11-01

    A combination of density functional theory calculations, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) reactions, ion mobility-mass spectrometry, and isotope labeling tandem mass spectrometry was used to study gas-phase "host-guest" type interactions of a benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-capped proline (P) glycine (G) model dipeptide (i.e., Z-PG) and its various structural analogues with ND3. It is shown that in a solvent-free environment, structural differences between protonated and alkali metal ion (Na+, K+, or Cs+)-complexed species of Z-PG affect ND3 adduct formation. Specifically, [Z-PG + H]+ and [Z-PG-OCH3 + H]+ formed gas-phase ND3 adducts ([Z-PG (or Z-PG-OCH3) + H + ND3]+) but no ND3 adducts were observed for [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ or [Z-PG + H - CO2]+. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated collision cross sections (CCSs) of protonated and alkali metal ion-complexed Z-PG species showed similar trends that agreed with the observed structural differences from molecular modeling results. Moreover, results from theoretical ND3 affinity calculations were consistent with experimental HDX observations, indicating a more stable ND3 adduct for [Z-PG + H]+ compared to [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ species. Molecular modeling and experimental MS results for [Z-PG + H]+ and [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ suggest that optimized cation-? and hydrogen bonding interactions of carbonyl groups in final products are important for ND3 adduct formation.

  16. Hydrophobic Peptides Affect Binding of Calmodulin and Ca as Explored by H/D Amide Exchange and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Justin B; Huang, Richard Y-C; Zhu, Mei M; Rempel, Don L; Gross, Michael L

    2011-04-30

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous intracellular sensor protein, binds Ca(2+) and interacts with various targets as part of signal transduction. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) and a high resolution PLIMSTEX (Protein-Ligand Interactions by Mass Spectrometry, Titration, and H/D Exchange) protocol, we examined five different states of calmodulin: calcium-free, calcium-loaded, and three states of calcium-loaded in the presence of either melittin, mastoparan, or skeletal myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). When CaM binds Ca(2+), the extent of HDX decreased, consistent with the protein becoming stabilized upon binding. Furthermore, Ca(2+)-saturated calmodulin exhibits increased protection when bound to the peptides, forming high affinity complexes. The protocol reveals significant changes in EF hands 1, 3, and 4 with saturating levels of Ca(2+). Titration of the protein using PLIMSTEX provides the binding affinity of Ca(2+) to calmodulin within previously reported values. The affinities of calmodulin to Ca(2+) increase by factors of 300 and 1000 in the presence of melittin and mastoparan, respectively. A modified PLIMSTEX protocol whereby the protein is digested to component peptides gives a region-specific titration. The titration data taken in this way show a decrease in the root mean square fit of the residuals, indicating a better fit of the data. The global H/D exchange results and those obtained in a region-specific way provide new insight into the Ca(2+)-binding properties of this well-studied protein. PMID:21765646

  17. Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Study Protein Structure and Interactions in Lyophilized Powders

    PubMed Central

    Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (ssHDX-MS) and side-chain photolytic labeling (ssPL-MS) followed by mass spectrometric analysis can be valuable for characterizing lyophilized formulations of protein therapeutics. Labeling followed by suitable proteolytic digestion allows the protein structure and interactions to be mapped with peptide-level resolution. Since the protein structural elements are stabilized by a network of chemical bonds from the main-chains and side-chains of amino acids, specific labeling of atoms in the amino acid residues provides insight into the structure and conformation of the protein. In contrast to routine methods used to study proteins in lyophilized solids (e.g., FTIR), ssHDX-MS and ssPL-MS provide quantitative and site-specific information. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters can be related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow) and directly reflects the degree of protein folding and structure in lyophilized formulations. Stable photolytic labeling does not undergo back-exchange, an advantage over ssHDX-MS. Here, we provide detailed protocols for both ssHDX-MS and ssPL-MS, using myoglobin (Mb) as a model protein in lyophilized formulations containing either trehalose or sorbitol. PMID:25938927

  18. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...an exchange format for many years, it is not an extensible modern technology. Moreover, it is not supported and maintained...g., messages, structured documents and Clinical Data Architecture) be a viable study data exchange standard? Please...

  19. Investigation of the effect of intra-molecular interactions on the gas-phase conformation of peptides as probed by ion mobility-mass spectrometry, gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and molecular mechanics 

    E-print Network

    Sawyer, Holly Ann

    2006-04-12

    -built ion mobility-surface-induced fragmentation-mass spectrometer ........................................................... 14 4 Schematic drawing of the 3 Tesla Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer..................................................................... 19 5 Schematic drawing of the 2-section cell (source and analyzer regions) of the 3 Tesla Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer pictured in Figure 4............................................................ 19 6...

  20. Ion temperatures in HIP-1 and SUMMA from charge-exchange neutral optical emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patch, R. W.; Lauver, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion temperatures were obtained from observations of the H sub alpha, D sub alpha, and He 587.6 nm lines emitted from hydrogen, deuterium, and helium plasmas in the SUMMA and HIP-1 mirror devices at Lewis Research Center. Steady state discharges were formed by applying a radially inward dc electric field between cylindrical or annular anodes and hollow cathodes located at the peaks of the mirrors. The ion temperatures were found from the Doppler broadening of the charge-exchange components of spectral lines. A statistical method was developed for obtaining scaling relations of ion temperature as a function of current, voltage, and magnetic flux density. Derivations are given that take into account triangular monochromator slit functions, loss cones, and superimposed charge-exchange processes. In addition, the Doppler broadening was found to be sensitive to the influence of drift on charge-exchange cross section. The effects of finite ion-cyclotron radius, cascading, and delayed emission are reviewed.

  1. Cation exchange pretreatment studies for high recovery - Yuma desalting plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kaakinen, J.W.; Laverty, P.E.

    1983-10-01

    The main purpose of the High Recovery Test Program was to obtain feasibility design data for cation exchange softening to allow a greater fractional recovery of desalted product water at the YDP(Yuma Desalting Plant). Compared to the original YDP design with 70-percent desalting recovery, additional removal of calcium in the desalting feed would allow recoveries over 90 percent. Pilot plant equipment to test this process was operated at the YDTF(Yuma Desalting Test Facility) and consisted of an IX unit and an electrodialyzer to supply reject-brine regenerant for the IX experiments. Gypsum scale buildup in the resin bed could be avoided by regeneration with a high upward flow rate causing a fluidized bed. Reuse of regenerant was also beneficial. Results show that the ion exchange high recovery pretreatment process is highly feasible, and that it is technically possible to achieve high recovery in the YDP. Numerous recommendations for a plant design are given and future studies are noted.

  2. Interlayer diffusion studies of a Laves phase exchange spring superlattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Kohn, A; Wang, S G; Ward, R C C

    2011-03-23

    Rare earth Laves phase (RFe(2)) superlattice structures grown at different temperatures are studied using x-ray reflectivity (XRR), x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized molecular beam epitaxy growth condition is matched with the XRR simulation, showing minimum diffusion/roughness at the interfaces. Electron microscopy characterization reveals that the epitaxial growth develops from initial 3D islands to a high quality superlattice structure. Under this optimum growth condition, chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy with high spatial resolution is used to study the interface. The analysis shows that the interface roughness is between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and there is no significant interlayer diffusion. The locally sharp interface found in this work explains the success of simple structural models in predicting the magnetic reversal behavior of Laves exchange spring superlattices. PMID:21358021

  3. Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum master equations

    E-print Network

    Li, Baowen

    Nonballistic heat conduction in an integrable random-exchange Ising chain studied with quantum numerically investigate the heat conduction in a random-exchange Ising spin chain by using the quantum master equation. The chain is subject to a uniform transverse field h, while the exchange couplings Qn between

  4. Monte Carlo study on exchange bias and coercivity properties in coupled ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liqin; Shen, Shuangjuan; Zhang, Jian-Min; Feng, Qian; Huang, Zhigao

    2015-12-01

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation, a model consisting of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) film coupled to a ferromagnetic (FM) film is developed to study the exchange bias and coercivity phenomenon. It is suggested that exchange bias is a consequence of exchange coupling in the AFM/FM interface, and the AFM anisotropy needs to have a threshold value for the occurrence of exchange bias. Simultaneously, exchange bias and coercivity as functions of the value of anisotropy, exchange coupling and film thickness are studied. By inducing a thickness dependence of the anisotropy in FM film, the coercivity can be reduced or enhanced by choosing suitable magnetic parameters, which can better account for the discrepancies found in previous studies. The results also provide evidence for the absence of a direct correlation between coercivity and exchange bias, which is in agreement with other studies.

  5. Monte Carlo study of double exchange interaction in manganese oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naa, Christian Fredy; Suprijadi, Viridi, Sparisoma; Fasquelle, Didier; Djamal, Mitra

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we study the magnetoresistance properties attributed by double exchange (DE) interaction in manganese oxide by Monte Carlo simulation. We construct a model based on mixed-valence Mn3+ and Mn4+ on the general system of Re2/3Ae1/3MnO3 in two dimensional system. The conduction mechanism is based on probability of eg electrons hopping from Mn3+ to Mn4+. The resistivity dependence on temperature and the external magnetic field are presented and the validity with related experimental results are discussed. We use the resistivity power law to fit our data on metallic region and basic activated behavior on insulator region. On metallic region, we found our result agree well with the quantum theory of DE interaction. From general arguments, we found our simulation agree qualitatively with experimental results.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    The foundation heat exchanger, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new concept for a cost-effective horizontal ground heat exchanger that can be connected to water-to-water or water-to-air heat pump systems for space conditioning as well as domestic water heating.

  7. HDXFinder: Automated Analysis and Data Reporting of Deuterium/Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Danny E.; Prasannan, Charulata B.; Villar, Maria T.; Fenton, Aron W.; Artigues, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in combination with mass spectrometry (H/D MS) is a sensitive technique for detection of changes in protein conformation and dynamics. However, wide application of H/D MS has been hindered, in part, by the lack of computational tools necessary for efficient analysis of the large data sets associated with this technique. We report a novel web-based application for automatic analysis of H/D MS experimental data. This application relies on the high resolution of mass spectrometers to extract all isotopic envelopes before correlating these envelopes with individual peptides. Although a fully automatic analysis is possible, a variety of graphical tools are included to aid in the verification of correlations and rankings of the isotopic peptide envelopes. As a demonstration, the rate constants for H/D exchange of peptides from rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase are mapped onto the structure of this protein.

  8. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

    2013-09-01

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  9. In ESI-source H/D exchange under atmospheric pressure for peptides and proteins of different molecular weights from 1 to 66?kDa: the role of the temperature of the desolvating capillary on H/D exchange.

    PubMed

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Spasskiy, Alexander; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Transition of proteins from the solution to the gas phase during electrospray ionization remains a challenging problem despite the large amount of attention it has received during the past few decades. One of the major questions relates to the extent to which proteins in the gas phase retain their condensed phase structures. We have used in-electrospray source hydrogen/deuterium exchange to determine the number of deuterium incorporations as a function of protein mass, charge state and temperature of the desolvating capillary where the reaction occurs. All experiments were performed on a Thermo LTQ FT Ultra equipped with a 7-T superconducting magnet. Ions were generated by an IonMax Electrospray ion source operated in the positive ESI mode. Deuterium exchange was performed by introducing a droplet of D2 O beneath the ESI capillary. We systematically investigated gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange under atmospheric pressure for peptides and proteins of different molecular weights from 1 to 66?kDa. We observed that almost all proteins demonstrate similar exchange rates for all charge states and that these rates increase exponentially with the temperature of the desolvating capillary. We did not observe any clear correlation of the number of H/D exchanges with the value of the cross section for a corresponding charge state. We have demonstrated the possibility of performing in-ESI source H/D exchange of large proteins under atmospheric pressure. The simplicity of the experimental setup makes it a useful experimental technique that can be applied for the investigation of gas phase conformations of proteins. PMID:25601674

  10. Experimental Studies on Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at an Emittance Exchange Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaraj, J.C.T.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Santucci, J.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    One of the goals of the Fermilab A0 photoinjector is to experimentally investigate the transverse to longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) principle. Coherent synchrotron radiation in the emittance exchange line could limit the performance of the emittance exchanger at short bunch lengths. In this paper, we present experimental and simulation studies of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the emittance exchange line at the A0 photoinjector. We report on time-resolved CSR studies using a skew-quadrupole technique. We also demonstrate the advantages of running the EEX with an energy chirped beam.

  11. XAFS Studies of Silver Environments in Ion-Exchanged Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X. C.; Dubiel, M.

    2007-02-02

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique was used to analyze the structural geometry of Ag atoms introduced into soda-lime silicate glass and soda aluminosilicate glass by ion-exchange methods. The results show that Ag+ ions in aluminosilicate glass are coordinated by about two oxygens and the nearest-neighbor Ag-O distance increases when the Ag+-for-Na+ ion-exchange ratio is larger than 0.47. When the exchange ratio is low, the introduced Ag+ ions are stabilized at the non-bridge oxygen (NBO) site with a Ag-O distance of 2.20 A, and the Na+ ions in the AlO4 site are exchanged by Ag+ ions after full replacement of the NBO sites with a Ag-O distance of 2.28 A. The disorder of Ag-O coordination increases with increasing ion-exchange ratio in aluminosilicate glass where Ag+ ions are coordinated by NBO and bridge oxygen (BO)

  12. The combined effect of rain and wind on airwater gas exchange: A feasibility study

    E-print Network

    Ho, David

    The combined effect of rain and wind on air­water gas exchange: A feasibility study David T. Ho a to examine the combined effects of rain and wind on air­water gas exchange. During this study, ASIL WRX I, a combination of 3 rain rates and 4 wind speeds were used, for a total of 12 different environmental conditions

  13. 75 FR 77636 - Public Information Exchange on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... AGENCY Public Information Exchange on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Information on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies and Their Purpose SUMMARY: EPA is announcing a public meeting to receive comments and questions on the EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies (...

  14. 75 FR 77636 - Public Information Exchange on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...Public Information Exchange on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies AGENCY: Environmental...Questions and To Provide Information on EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies and Their Purpose...receive comments and questions on the EPA Nanomaterial Case Studies...

  15. Positional isotope exchange studies on enzyme using NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopically enriched compounds, /sup 18/O-..beta..,..gamma..-ATP and /sup 18/O bridge-labeled pyrophosphate, synthesized previously in this laboratory, were used to investigate and measure the exchange vs. turnover of substrates and products from their central complexes in four selected enzyme systems. Using hi-field /sup 31/P NMR, we were able to differentiate between /sup 18/O labeled in the bridge vs. the non-bridge positions by virtue of the isotope shift upon the phosphorus nuclei. The bridge to non-bridge scrambling of the label was quantitated and the exchange vs. turnover ratios under a variety of conditions was determined. Using the substrate inhibitor carboxycreatinine, PIX experiments with /sup 18/O-..beta..,..gamma..-ATP and creatine kinase were conducted. It was shown that carboxycreatinine and creatine kinase promoted exchange of the /sup 18/O label as determined by NMR. We have concluded that carboxycreatinine is either a substrate that catalyzes very slow turnover or it catalyzes exchange by a dissociative (SN/sub 1//sub P/) type of mechanism

  16. swinburne.edu.au/abroad Exchange, study tours and

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    for degree, diploma and certificate students ­ exchange, short-term programs, work experience placements skills. Add to your professional skills Give your résumé an international edge and increase your job have access to the university's international network, with many choosing to broaden their horizons

  17. Feasibility Study of Secondary Heat Exchanger Concepts for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-09-01

    The work reported herein represents a significant step in the preliminary design of heat exchanger options (material options, thermal design, selection and evaluation methodology with existing challenges). The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production using either a subcritical or supercritical Rankine cycle.

  18. Hydrogen exchange studies of protein structure Tanya M Raschke and Susan Marqusee*

    E-print Network

    Raschke, Tanya M.

    80 Hydrogen exchange studies of protein structure Tanya M Raschke and Susan Marqusee* Hydrogen partially folded ensembles present at equilibrium. Analysis of hydrogen exchange mechanisms has revealed intrinsicexchangerate kobs observedexchangerate NH amide hydrogen AGHx free energy of the opening reaction Introduction

  19. ATP-induced dimerization of the F0F1 ? subunit from Bacillus PS3: a hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Antony D; Dunn, Stanley D; Konermann, Lars

    2014-06-24

    F0F1 ATP synthase harnesses a transmembrane electrochemical gradient for the production of ATP. When operated in reverse, this multiprotein complex catalyzes ATP hydrolysis. In bacteria, the ? subunit is involved in regulating this ATPase activity. Also, ? is essential for coupling ATP hydrolysis (or synthesis) to proton translocation. The ? subunit consists of a ? sandwich and two C-terminal helices, ?1 and ?2. The protein can switch from a compact fold to an alternate conformation where ?1 and ?2 are separated, resulting in an extended structure. ? from the thermophile Bacillus PS3 (T?) binds ATP with high affinity such that this protein may function as an intracellular ATP level sensor. ATP binding to isolated T? triggers a major conformational transition. Earlier data were interpreted in terms of an ATP + T?extended ? ATP·T?compact transition that may mimic aspects of the regulatory switching within F0F1 (Yagi et al. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 11233–11238). In this work, we employ complementary biophysical techniques for examining the ATP-induced conformational switching of isolated T?. CD spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of a large-scale conformational transition upon ATP binding, consistent with the formation of stable helical structure. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry revealed that this transition is accompanied by a pronounced stabilization in the vicinity of the ATP-binding pocket. Surprisingly, dramatic stabilization is also seen in the ?8??9 region, which is remote from the site of ATP interaction. Analytical ultracentrifugation uncovered a previously unrecognized feature of T?: a high propensity to undergo dimerization in the presence of ATP. Comparison with existing crystallography data strongly suggests that the unexpected ?8??9 HDX protection is due to newly formed protein–protein contacts. Hence, ATP binding to isolated T? proceeds according to 2ATP + 2T?extended ? (ATP·T?compact)2. Implications of this dimerization propensity for the possible role of T? as an antibiotic target are discussed. PMID:24870150

  20. Partially Unfolded Forms of the Prion Protein Populated under Misfolding-promoting Conditions: CHARACTERIZATION BY HYDROGEN EXCHANGE MASS SPECTROMETRY AND NMR.

    PubMed

    Moulick, Roumita; Das, Ranabir; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2015-10-16

    The susceptibility of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to convert to an alternative misfolded conformation (PrP(Sc)), which is the key event in the pathogenesis of prion diseases, is indicative of a conformationally flexible native (N) state. In the present study, hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) in conjunction with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used for the structural and energetic characterization of the N state of the full-length mouse prion protein, moPrP(23-231), under conditions that favor misfolding. The kinetics of HDX of 34 backbone amide hydrogens in the N state were determined at pH 4. In contrast to the results of previous HDX studies on the human and Syrian hamster prion proteins at a higher pH, various segments of moPrP were found to undergo different extents of subglobal unfolding events at pH 4, a pH at which the protein is known to be primed to misfold to a ?-rich conformation. No residual structure around the disulfide bond was observed for the unfolded state at pH 4. The N state of the prion protein was observed to be at equilibrium with at least two partially unfolded forms (PUFs). These PUFs, which are accessed by stochastic fluctuations of the N state, have altered surface area exposure relative to the N state. One of these PUFs resembles a conformation previously implicated to be an initial intermediate in the conversion of monomeric protein into misfolded oligomer at pH 4. PMID:26306043

  1. Separation and identification of degradation products in eprinomectin formulation using LC, LTQ FT-MS, H/D exchange, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Atul; Razzak, Majid; Al-Kassas, Raida; Greenwood, David R; Harvey, Joanne; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the compendial active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) method for the analysis of finished products and characterization of degradation products in eprinomectin (EPM) samples. Heat stressed sample tests revealed a limitation of the API method in distinguishing an impurity merging with the principal analyte peak. A new selective, specific and sensitive method was therefore developed for the determination of EPM in formulations that separates its degradation products currently undetectable with the official method. The determination was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC using an isocratic solvent elution. The method was validated and found to be precise, accurate and specific; the detector response was linear over 50-150 ?g/ml (EPM) and 0.1-3 ?g/ml (degradation product) range of concentrations. Two major degradation products detected with the new method were isolated from sample matrices and characterized using LC-PDA, high resolution FT-ICR MS, NMR and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HX-MS) studies. FTMS analysis showed accurate mass of molecular ion peaks for EPM and its two degradation products at m/z 914.52505 (mass error ? 1 ppm) with almost identical fragmentation patterns. Given the isomeric nature of the compounds, all three were further evaluated by ¹H, ¹³C, 1D NOESY and 2D (COSY) NMR experiments. The interpretation of experimental data positively identified Unknown 1 as the 2-epimer of EPM and Unknown 2 as the structural isomer ?2,3-EPM containing a conjugated enoate. The new HPLC method and identification exercise is useful for analysis of EPM and its degradation products. PMID:22341479

  2. Continuation of Studies on Development of ODS Heat Exchanger Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Brown; David Workman; Bimal Kad; Gaylord Smith; Archie Robertson; Ian Wright

    2008-04-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Center (NETL), has initiated a strategic plan for the development of advanced technologies needed to design and build fossil fuel plants with very high efficiency and environmental performance. These plants, referred to as 'Vision 21' and FutureGen programs by DOE, will produce electricity, chemicals, fuels, or a combination of these products, and possibly secondary products such as steam/heat for industrial use. MA956 is a prime candidate material being considered for a high temperature heat exchanger in the 'Vision 21' and FutureGen programs. This material is an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy; however, there are some gaps in the data required to commit to the use of these alloys in a full-size plant. To fill the technology gaps for commercial production and use of the material for 'Advanced Power Generation Systems' this project has performed development activity to significant increase in circumferential strength of MA956 as compared to currently available material, investigated bonding technologies for bonding tube-to-tube joints through joining development, and performed tensile, creep and fire-side corrosion tests to validate the use and fabrication processes of MA956 to heat exchanger tubing applications. Development activities within this projected has demonstrated increased circumferential strength of MA956 tubes through flow form processing. Of the six fabrication technologies for bonding tube-to-tube joints, inertia friction welding (IFW) and flash butt welding (FBW) were identified as processes for joining MA956 tubes. Tensile, creep, and fire-side corrosion test data were generated for both base metal and weld joints. The data can be used for design of future systems employing MA956. Based upon the positive development activities, two test probes were designed and fabricated for field exposure testing at 1204 C ({approx}2200 F) flue gas. The probes contained tube portions with FBW and IFW welded MA956. Field testing of the probes and remaining heat exchanger design activity will be performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  3. Competing Noncovalent Host-guest Interactions and H/D Exchange: Reactions of Benzyloxycarbonyl-Proline Glycine Dipeptide Variants with ND3.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Mahsan; Olaitan, Abayomi D; Zekavat, Behrooz; Solouki, Touradj

    2015-11-01

    A combination of density functional theory calculations, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) reactions, ion mobility-mass spectrometry, and isotope labeling tandem mass spectrometry was used to study gas-phase "host-guest" type interactions of a benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-capped proline (P) glycine (G) model dipeptide (i.e., Z-PG) and its various structural analogues with ND3. It is shown that in a solvent-free environment, structural differences between protonated and alkali metal ion (Na(+), K(+), or Cs(+))-complexed species of Z-PG affect ND3 adduct formation. Specifically, [Z-PG + H](+) and [Z-PG-OCH3 + H](+) formed gas-phase ND3 adducts ([Z-PG (or Z-PG-OCH3) + H + ND3](+)) but no ND3 adducts were observed for [Z-PG + alkali metal](+) or [Z-PG + H - CO2](+). Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated collision cross sections (CCSs) of protonated and alkali metal ion-complexed Z-PG species showed similar trends that agreed with the observed structural differences from molecular modeling results. Moreover, results from theoretical ND3 affinity calculations were consistent with experimental HDX observations, indicating a more stable ND3 adduct for [Z-PG + H](+) compared to [Z-PG + alkali metal](+) species. Molecular modeling and experimental MS results for [Z-PG + H](+) and [Z-PG + alkali metal](+) suggest that optimized cation-? and hydrogen bonding interactions of carbonyl groups in final products are important for ND3 adduct formation. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:26289383

  4. Study of thermal energy storage using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weast, T. E.; Shannon, L. J.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of fluid bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in waste heat recovery applications is assessed by analysis of two selected conceptual systems, the rotary cement kiln and the electric arc furnace. It is shown that the inclusion of TES in the energy recovery system requires that the difference in off-peak and on-peak energy rates be large enough so that the value of the recovered energy exceeds the value of the stored energy by a wide enough margin to offset parasitic power and thermal losses. Escalation of on-peak energy rates due to fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  5. Two-photon exchange effect studied with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-09-15

    An approach to the extraction of the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction from elastic ep scattering data is presented. The cross-section, polarization transfer (PT), and charge asymmetry data are considered. It is assumed that the TPE correction to the PT data is negligible. The form factors and TPE correcting term are given by one multidimensional function approximated by the feedforward neural network (NN). To find a model-independent approximation, the Bayesian framework for the NNs is adapted. A large number of different parametrizations is considered. The most optimal model is indicated by the Bayesian algorithm. The obtained fit of the TPE correction behaves linearly in {epsilon} but it has a nontrivial Q{sup 2} dependence. A strong dependence of the TPE fit on the choice of parametrization is observed.

  6. Preliminary time-of-flight neutron diffraction studies of Escherichia coli ABC transport receptor phosphate-binding protein at the Protein Crystallography Station.

    PubMed

    Sippel, K H; Bacik, J; Quiocho, F A; Fisher, S Z

    2014-06-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential molecule for all known life. Organisms have developed many mechanisms to ensure an adequate supply, even in low-phosphate conditions. In prokaryotes phosphate transport is instigated by the phosphate-binding protein (PBP), the initial receptor for the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) phosphate transporter. In the crystal structure of the PBP-phosphate complex, the phosphate is completely desolvated and sequestered in a deep cleft and is bound by 13 hydrogen bonds: 12 to protein NH and OH donor groups and one to a carboxylate acceptor group. The carboxylate plays a key recognition role by accepting a phosphate hydrogen. PBP phosphate affinity is relatively consistent across a broad pH range, indicating the capacity to bind monobasic (H2PO4-) and dibasic (HPO4(2-)) phosphate; however, the mechanism by which it might accommodate the second hydrogen of monobasic phosphate is unclear. To answer this question, neutron diffraction studies were initiated. Large single crystals with a volume of 8?mm3 were grown and subjected to hydrogen/deuterium exchange. A 2.5?Å resolution data set was collected on the Protein Crystallography Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Initial refinement of the neutron data shows significant nuclear density, and refinement is ongoing. This is the first report of a neutron study from this superfamily. PMID:24915101

  7. Study of the forced degradation behavior of prasugrel hydrochloride by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with NMR detection and prediction of the toxicity of the characterized degradation products.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dilip Kumar; Sahu, Archana; Handa, Tarun; Narayanam, Mallikarjun; Singh, Saranjit

    2015-09-01

    Prasugrel was subjected to forced degradation studies under conditions of hydrolysis (acid, base, and neutral), photolysis, oxidation, and thermal stress. The drug showed liability in hydrolytic as well as oxidative conditions, resulting in a total of four degradation products. In order to characterize the latter, initially mass fragmentation pathway of the drug was established with the help of mass spectrometry/time-of-flight, multiple stage mass spectrometry and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data. The degradation products were then separated on a C18 column using a stability-indicating volatile buffer method, which was later extended to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies. The latter highlighted that three degradation products had the same molecular mass, while one was different. To characterize all, their mass fragmentation pathways were established in the same manner as the drug. Subsequently, liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data were collected. Proton and correlation liquid chromatography with NMR spectroscopy studies highlighted existence of diastereomeric behavior in one pair of degradation products. Lastly, toxicity prediction by computer-assisted technology (TOPKAT) and deductive estimation of risk from existing knowledge (DEREK) software were employed to assess in silico toxicity of the characterized degradation products. PMID:26114771

  8. Numerical Study on Crossflow Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Sabharwall, Piyush; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Various fluids such as water, gases (helium), molten salts (FLiNaK, FLiBe) and liquid metal (sodium) are used as a coolant of advanced small modular reactors (SMRs). The printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) has been adopted as the intermediate and/or secondary heat exchanger of SMR systems because this heat exchanger is compact and effective. The size and cost of PCHE can be changed by the coolant type of each SMR. In this study, the crossflow PCHE analysis code for advanced small modular reactor has been developed for the thermal design and cost estimation of the heat exchanger. The analytical solution of single pass, both unmixed fluids crossflow heat exchanger model was employed to calculate a two dimensional temperature profile of a crossflow PCHE. The analytical solution of crossflow heat exchanger was simply implemented by using built in function of the MATLAB program. The effect of fluid property uncertainty on the calculation results was evaluated. In addition, the effect of heat transfer correlations on the calculated temperature profile was analyzed by taking into account possible combinations of primary and secondary coolants in the SMR systems. Size and cost of heat exchanger were evaluated for the given temperature requirement of each SMR.

  9. Coming to Canada to Study: Factors that Influence Student's Decisions to Participate in International Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Jennifer; Burrow, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are participating in study abroad programs. Outcomes associated with these programs have been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about what motivates and influences students to participate. This study investigated factors that motivate and influence students to study on exchange and explored how…

  10. An experimental study of bubble mediated gas exchange for a single bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Nobuhito; Imamura, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ryosuke

    An experimental study of bubble mediated gas exchange for a single bubble was performed. Medium sized air bubbles were generated into a water column by a computer-controlled electromagnetic valve. Temporal variations of gas concentration were analyzed by a gas chromatography with a head space method. The total amount of gas exchange for a single bubble with several radii are compared with the experimental results and theory.

  11. New data on Cu-exchanged phillipsite: a multi-methodological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatta, G. Diego; Cappelletti, Piergiulio; de'Gennaro, Bruno; Rotiroti, Nicola; Langella, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    The cation exchange capacity of a natural phillipsite-rich sample from the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, Southern Italy (treated in order to obtain a 95 wt% zeolite-rich sample composed mainly of phillipsite and minor chabazite) for Cu was evaluated using the batch exchange method. The sample had previously been exchanged into its monocationic form (Na), and then used for the equilibrium studies of the exchange reaction 2Na+ ? Cu2+. Reversibility ion exchange tests were performed. The isotherm displays an evident hysteresis loop. Interestingly, the final Cu-exchanged polycrystalline material was green-bluish. Natural, Na- and Cu-exchanged forms were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, and the Cu-phillipsite was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structure refinement of Cu-phillipsite was performed by the Rietveld method using synchrotron data, and it indicates a small, but significant, fraction of Cu sharing with Na two-three independent extra-framework sites. The TEM experiment shows sub-spherical nano-clusters of crystalline species (with average size of 5 nm) lying on the surfaces of zeolite crystals or dispersed in the amorphous fraction, with electron diffraction patterns corresponding to those of CuO (tenorite-like structure) and Cu(OH)2 (spertiniite-like structure). X-ray and TEM investigations show that Cu is mainly concentrated in different species (crystalline or amorphous) within the sample, not only in phillipsite. The experimental findings based on X-ray and TEM investigations, along with the hysteresis loop of the ion exchange tests, are discussed and some general considerations about the mechanisms of exchange reactions involving divalent cations with high hydration energy are provided.

  12. New data on Cu-exchanged phillipsite: a multi-methodological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatta, G. Diego; Cappelletti, Piergiulio; de'Gennaro, Bruno; Rotiroti, Nicola; Langella, Alessio

    2015-05-01

    The cation exchange capacity of a natural phillipsite-rich sample from the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff, Southern Italy (treated in order to obtain a 95 wt% zeolite-rich sample composed mainly of phillipsite and minor chabazite) for Cu was evaluated using the batch exchange method. The sample had previously been exchanged into its monocationic form (Na), and then used for the equilibrium studies of the exchange reaction 2Na+ ? Cu2+. Reversibility ion exchange tests were performed. The isotherm displays an evident hysteresis loop. Interestingly, the final Cu-exchanged polycrystalline material was green-bluish. Natural, Na- and Cu-exchanged forms were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction, and the Cu-phillipsite was also investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structure refinement of Cu-phillipsite was performed by the Rietveld method using synchrotron data, and it indicates a small, but significant, fraction of Cu sharing with Na two-three independent extra-framework sites. The TEM experiment shows sub-spherical nano-clusters of crystalline species (with average size of 5 nm) lying on the surfaces of zeolite crystals or dispersed in the amorphous fraction, with electron diffraction patterns corresponding to those of CuO (tenorite-like structure) and Cu(OH)2 (spertiniite-like structure). X-ray and TEM investigations show that Cu is mainly concentrated in different species (crystalline or amorphous) within the sample, not only in phillipsite. The experimental findings based on X-ray and TEM investigations, along with the hysteresis loop of the ion exchange tests, are discussed and some general considerations about the mechanisms of exchange reactions involving divalent cations with high hydration energy are provided.

  13. Transthyretin slowly exchanges subunits under physiological conditions: A convenient chromatographic method to study subunit exchange in oligomeric proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Frank; Hammarström, Per; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) subunits were labeled with a charge-modifying tag to evaluate the possibility of subunit exchange between tetramers under physiological conditions. Starting with a mixture of two TTR homotetramers, one having all subunits tagged at the N termini and the other composed of untagged subunits, heterotetramer formation as a function of time and temperature was evaluated using ion exchange chromatography. The data indicate that the subunit exchange can occur under native conditions at physiological pH in vitro, albeit slowly. Wild-type TTR exchanges subunits on a timescale of days at 37°C and on a timescale of hours at 4°C. The familial amyloid polyneuropathy-associated variant V30M exchanges subunits at the same rate as wild-type TTR at 4°C but slower and less efficiently at 37°C. Small molecule tetramer stabilizers abolish TTR subunit exchange, supporting a dissociative mechanism. PMID:11468357

  14. Brillouin light scattering study of spin waves in NiFe/Co exchange spring bilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Haldar, Arabinda; Banerjee, Chandrima; Laha, Pinaki; Barman, Anjan

    2014-04-07

    Spin waves are investigated in Permalloy(Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20})/Cobalt(Co) exchange spring bilayer thin films using Brillouin light scattering (BLS) experiment. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured by magneto-optical Kerr effect show a monotonic decrease in coercivity of the bilayer films with increasing Py thickness. BLS study shows two distinct modes, which are modelled as Damon-Eshbach and perpendicular standing wave modes. Linewidths of the frequency peaks are found to increase significantly with decreasing Py layer thickness. Interfacial roughness causes to fluctuate exchange coupling at the nanoscale regimes and the effect is stronger for thinner Py films. A quantitative analysis of the magnon linewidths shows the presence of strong local exchange coupling field which is much larger compared to macroscopic exchange field.

  15. The Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Characteristics of The External Heat Exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, X. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Yang, L.; Liu, H. Z.

    Using the external heat exchanger in large-scale CFB boilers can control combustion and heat transfer separately, make the adjustments of bed temperature and steam temperature convenient. The state of gas-solid two phase flow in the external heat exchanger is bubbling fluidized bed, but differs from the regular one as there is a directional flow in it. Consequently, the temperature distribution changes along the flow direction. In order to study the heat transfer characteristics of the water cooled tubes in the bubbling fluidized bed and ensure the uniformity of heat transfer in the external heat exchanger, a physical model was set up according to the similarity principle and at the geometric ratio of 1?28 to an external heat exchanger of a 300MW CFB boiler. The model was connected with an electrically heated CFB test-bed which provides the circulating particles. The influencing factors and the distribution rule of the particles' heat transfer coefficient in the external heat exchanger were assessed by measuring the temperature changes of the water in the tubes and different parts of particles flow along the flow direction. At the end, an empirical correlation of particles' heat transfer coefficient in external heat exchanger was given by modifying the Veedendery empirical correlation.

  16. Experimental study of a novel manifold structure of micro-channel heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Kunhao; Wei, Wei; Han, Qing; Chen, Jiangping

    2013-07-01

    Refrigerant flow distribution with phase change heat transfer was experimentally studied for a micro-channel heat exchanger having horizontal headers. In order to solve the problem of maldistribution, a novel manifold structure with orifice and bypass tube was proposed and experimentally studied compared to the conventional structure. Tests were conducted with downward flow for mass flux from 70 to 110 kg m-2s-1 (air side flow velocity from 1 to 2ms-1). The surface temperature distribution of the heat exchanger recorded by thermal imager and the square deviation of it were used to judge the uniformity of flow distribution. It is shown that as mass flux increased, better flow distribution is obtained (small square deviation of temperature distribution means better flow distribution: conventional structure from 32 to 27, novel structure from 19 to 14), and flow distribution of the novel structure was much better than that of the conventional one. The heat transfer performances of the two heat exchangers were also studied. The cooling capacity of the novel heat exchanger was 14.8% higher than that of the conventional because of the better flow distribution. And the refrigerant pressure drop was 120% higher because of bigger mass flow and the resistance of the orifice. It's worth noting that the air pressure drop of novel heat exchanger was also higher (about 28.3%)than that of the conventional one, even when they have same fin and flat tube structure. From the pictures of the heat exchanger surfaces, it was found that some surface area of the conventional heat exchanger was not wet because of the low mass flow and high superheat, which leaded to a poor performance and relatively small air pressure drop.

  17. Information Exchange Procedures Cost Study Procedures Manual. Technical Report No. 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard S.; Huff, Robert A.

    This document provides the definitions and procedures for the costing portion of the NCHEMS Information Exchange Procedures (IEP). Also included is an overview of the eight steps and more detailed activities to be performed by institutions using related computer software to conduct the IEP cost study. The IEP cost study implementation steps are:…

  18. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived and verified. The 600 MWt VHTR core input file developed in preparation for the transient tritium analysis of VHTR systems was replaced with the original steady-state inputs for future calculations. A Finite Element Method analysis was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software to accurately predict tritium permeation through the PCHE type heat exchanger walls. This effort was able to estimate the effective thickness for tritium permeations and develop a correlation for general channel configurations, which found the effective thickness to be much shorter than the average channel distance because of dead spots on the channel side.

  19. Benefits and problems of electronic information exchange as perceived by health care professionals: an interview study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various countries are currently implementing a national electronic patient record (n-EPR). Despite the assumed positive effects of n-EPRs, their overall adoption remains low and meets resistance from health care providers. This study aims to increase our understanding of health care providers' attitude towards the n-EPR, by investigating their perceptions of the benefits and problems of electronic information exchange in health care and the n-EPR in particular. Methods The study was conducted in three Dutch health care settings: acute care, diabetes care, and ambulatory mental health care. Two health care organisations were included per setting. Between January and June 2010, interviews were conducted with 17 stakeholders working in these organisations. Relevant themes were deduced by means of thematic qualitative analysis. Results Health care providers perceived electronic information exchange to promote the efficiency and quality of care. The problems they perceived in electronic information exchange mainly concerned the confidentiality and safety of information exchange and the reliability and quality of patient data. Many problems perceived by health care providers did not specifically apply to the n-EPR, but to electronic information exchange in general. Conclusions The implementation of the Dutch n-EPR has mainly followed a top-down approach, thereby neglecting the fact that the perceptions and preferences of its users (health care providers) need to be addressed in order to achieve successful implementation. The results of this study provide valuable suggestions about how to promote health care providers' willingness to adopt electronic information exchange, which can be useful for other countries currently implementing an n-EPR. Apart from providing information about the benefits and usefulness of electronic information exchange, efforts should be focused on minimising the problems as perceived by health care providers. The safety and confidentiality of electronic information exchange can be improved by developing tools to evaluate the legitimacy of access to electronic records, by increasing health care providers' awareness of the need to be careful when using patient data, and by measures to limit access to sensitive patient data. Improving health care providers' recording behaviour is important to improve the reliability and quality of electronically exchanged patient data. PMID:21982395

  20. SuperLig Ion Exchange Resin Swelling and Buoyancy Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this study was to achieve a fundamental understanding of SuperLig resin swelling and shrinking characteristics, which lead to channeling and early breakthrough during loading cycles. The density of salt solution that causes resin floating was also determined to establish a limit for operation. Specific tests performed include (a) pH dependence, (b) ionic strength dependence and (c) buoyancy effect vs. simulant composition.

  1. Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Linnea

    2001-01-01

    At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

  2. Semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate treatment by ion exchange resin: isotherm and kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Foo, Keng Yuen

    2015-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the treatability of ion exchange resin (Indion MB 6 SR) for the removal of chromium (VI), aluminium (III), zinc (II), copper (II), iron (II), and phosphate (PO4)3-, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and colour from semi-aerobic stabilized leachate by batch test. A range of ion exchange resin dosage was tested towards the removal efficiency of leachate parameters. It was observed that equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir model for metal ions and Freundlich was ideally fit for COD, NH3-N and colour. Intra particle diffusion model, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order isotherm models were found ideally fit with correlation of the experimental data. The findings revealed that the models could describe the ion exchange kinetic behaviour efficiently, which further suggests comprehensive outlook for the future research in this field.

  3. Development of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger, Phase 1 Study Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1978-01-01

    Electric power generation from geothermal brine requires, first, bringing the hot brine to the surface and then converting the heat to electric power. Binary conversion schemes were proposed, with the heat transfer between the brine and the working organic fluid taking place in a conventional tube and shell heat exchanger. If the brine is heavily laden with dissolved solids, however, solids buildup on the heat exchanger surfaces leads to a considerable degree of fouling and an accompanying drop in performance is experienced. A possible solution to this problem is the use of a direct contact exchanger with the secondary fluid power cycle. The proposed concept involves the formation of fluid sheets and bells as heat angles. Results of a study concerning the fluid mechanics of such surfaces are given.

  4. Sorption of SPADNS azo dye on polystyrene anion exchangers: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Greluk, Magdalena; Hubicki, Zbigniew

    2009-12-15

    The sorption of SPANDS from aqueous solution onto the macroporous polystyrene anion exchangers of weakly basic Amberlyst A-21 and strongly basic Amberlyst A-29 in a batch method was studied. The effect of initial dye concentration and phase contact time was considered to evaluate the sorption capacity of anion exchangers. Equilibrium data were attempted by various adsorption isotherms including the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption rate constants and equilibrium sorption capacities was made for the Lagergren first-order, pseudo second-order and Morris-Weber intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption isotherm is in the good agreement with the Langmuir equation and that the adsorption kinetics of SPADNS on both anion exchangers can be best described by the pseudo second-order model. PMID:19660863

  5. Projector Monte Carlo Study of a 2D Fermionic Ring Exchange Only Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, Katharine; Clark, Bryan; Fisher, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    There has been significant recent interest in understanding non-Fermi liquid phases and searching for candidate Hamiltonians which may support them. DMRG and variational Monte Carlo students on 2-leg ladders have suggested the presence of such a phase, the d-wave metal, in certain regime of the t - J - K model on the 2D square lattice. K is a nearest neighbor ring exchange term. Non-variational quantum Monte Carlo studies of this model are hampered by the presence of a fermionic sign problem over most of the parameter space. However, in the t = J = 0 limit, where only ring exchange occurs, the Hamiltonian is sign problem free. Using Green's function Monte Carlo, we investigate the phase diagram of this ring exchange only fermionic model and report our results.

  6. A study on the exchange coupling of NdFeB-type nanocomposites using Henkel plots

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    A study on the exchange coupling of NdFeB-type nanocomposites using Henkel plots Q. Chen and B. MNb2B10.5 nanocomposite have been investigated systematically via thermomagnetic analysis, vibration of Physics. S0021-8979 99 47508-5 INTRODUCTION Recently, NdFeB nanocomposite intermetallic com- pounds have

  7. Update: Feb 2015 / International Office -B EXCHANGE YOUR PERSPECTIVE -STUDY AT EINSTEIN'S BIRTHPLACE!

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    & Management Biometrical Mathematics Faculty of Sciences Biochemistry | Biology | Chemical Process Engineering and Economics Finance Faculty of Sciences Biophysics Advanced Materials Biology Energy Science & Technology://www.uni-ulm.de/international > ERASMUS / EXCHANGE Students > Why Choose Ulm? STUDY OPTIONS - RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS

  8. Research on Study Abroad, Mobility, and Student Exchange in Comparative Education Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitwieser, Bernhard T.; Le, Emily; Rust, Val

    2012-01-01

    For many years there has been research on study abroad, student mobility and international student exchange; however in the last two decades the volume and scope of this work has increased significantly. There are now specific academic journals, a host of new books each year, expansive reports by international research organizations, and an…

  9. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  10. A molecular dynamics study of bond exchange reactions in covalent adaptable networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Yu, Kai; Mu, Xiaoming; Shi, Xinghua; Wei, Yujie; Guo, Yafang; Qi, H Jerry

    2015-08-21

    Covalent adaptable networks are polymers that can alter the arrangement of network connections by bond exchange reactions where an active unit attaches to an existing bond then kicks off its pre-existing peer to form a new bond. When the polymer is stretched, bond exchange reactions lead to stress relaxation and plastic deformation, or the so-called reforming. In addition, two pieces of polymers can be rejoined together without introducing additional monomers or chemicals on the interface, enabling welding and reprocessing. Although covalent adaptable networks have been researched extensively in the past, knowledge about the macromolecular level network alternations is limited. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the macromolecular details of bond exchange reactions in a recently reported epoxy system. An algorithm for bond exchange reactions is first developed and applied to study a crosslinking network formed by epoxy resin DGEBA with the crosslinking agent tricarballylic acid. The trace of the active units is tracked to show the migration of these units within the network. Network properties, such as the distance between two neighboring crosslink sites, the chain angle, and the initial modulus, are examined after each iteration of the bond exchange reactions to provide detailed information about how material behaviors and macromolecular structure evolve. Stress relaxation simulations are also conducted. It is found that even though bond exchange reactions change the macroscopic shape of the network, microscopic network characteristic features, such as the distance between two neighboring crosslink sites and the chain angle, relax back to the unstretched isotropic state. Comparison with a recent scaling theory also shows good agreement. PMID:26166382

  11. CFD Simulation Studies on the Performance of Rectangular Coil Heat Exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudeen, N.; Anantharaman, N.; Raviraj, Pol.

    2010-10-01

    The simulation studies are made to understand the concept of heat transfer by convection in a rectangular coiled type heat exchanger. The rectangular coil heat exchanger consists of inner and outer coil arrangements with several straight portions and bends so that the exterior flow is very similar to flow within tube-bundles. The present work focuses mainly on exploring the various flow pattern and temperature distribution through the pipe. Computer simulation studies were performed for four different angle of tube bundle inclination (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°) with two set flow arrangements (inline and staggered arrangement) in the shell side of the heat exchanger. The simulation results show that the effect of the tube bundle inclination on the fluid velocity distribution and the heat transfer performance is observed maximum for the coil with tube bundle inclination angle between 30 degrees and 60 degrees with the staggered arrangement than with the inline arrangement due to proper mixing in the shell side and the outside flow over the tube bundle helps to create turbulence without increasing the velocity in the shell side of the heat exchanger.

  12. Experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer in vertical helically coiled tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorbani, N.; Taherian, H.; Gorji, M.; Mirgolbabaei, H.

    2010-10-15

    In this study the mixed convection heat transfer in a coil-in-shell heat exchanger for various Reynolds numbers, various tube-to-coil diameter ratios and different dimensionless coil pitch was experimentally investigated. The experiments were conducted for both laminar and turbulent flow inside coil. Effects of coil pitch and tube diameters on shell-side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger were studied. Different characteristic lengths were used in various Nusselt number calculations to determine which length best fits the data and several equations were proposed. The particular difference in this study in comparison with the other similar studies was the boundary conditions for the helical coils. The results indicate that the equivalent diameter of shell is the best characteristic length. (author)

  13. Conformations of cationized linear oligosaccharides revealed by FTMS combined with in-ESI H/D exchange.

    PubMed

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Previously (Kostyukevich et al. Anal Chem 2014, 86, 2595), we have reported that oligosaccharides anions are produced in the electrospray in two different conformations, which differ by the rate of gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reaction. In the present paper, we apply the in-electrospray ionization (ESI) source H/D exchange approach for the investigation of the oligosaccharides cations formed by attaching of metal ions (Na, K) to the molecule. It was observed that the formation of different conformers can be manipulated by varying the temperature of the desolvating capillary of the ESI interphase. Separation of the conformers was performed using gas phase H/D approach. Because the conformers have different rates of the H/D exchange reaction, the deuterium distribution spectrum becomes bimodal. It was found that the conformation corresponding to the slow H/D exchange rate dominates in the spectrum when the capillary temperature is low (~200?°C), and the conformation corresponding to the fast H/D exchange rate dominates at high (~400 °C) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature region, two conformers are present simultaneously. It was also observed that large oligosaccharide requires higher temperature for the formation of another conformer. It was found that the presence of the conformers considerably depends on the solvent used for ESI and the pH. We have compared these results with the previously performed in-ESI source H/D exchange experiments with peptides and proteins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26456784

  14. Cation exchange surface-mediated denaturation of an aglycosylated immunoglobulin (IgG1).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Ron; Nguyen, Thao; Macneil, Sean; Jones, Laurie; Crampton, Shon; Vunnum, Suresh

    2012-08-17

    Cation exchange chromatography of an aglycosylated IgG1 resulted in two distinct peaks during gradient elution. The early eluting peak contained <1% high molecular weight (HMW) species, while the later peak contained 23% HMW species. Analysis by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that aggregate formation and generation of the second peak were caused by antibody denaturation on the resin surface. Denaturation and HMW generation was increased by the use of strong cation exchange media, by increasing antibody residence time on the exchanger, or increasing temperature. Denaturation and HMW generation was reduced by increasing pH or ionic strength, by the use of preferentially excluded solutes such as citrate or glycine and controlled entirely by addition of 125 mM arginine to the process buffers. This leads to the hypothesis that denaturation and HMW generation of this antibody can be managed by reducing the strength of binding, by increasing its conformational stability, or by suppressing non-native protein-protein interactions. The glycosylated version of this antibody exhibited less than 2% denatured form, suggesting that glycosylation contributes significantly to the stability of this antibody. These findings may be helpful in managing aggregation in other antibodies, and particularly useful in developing purification processes for aglycosylated antibodies. PMID:22771262

  15. H-D exchange in metal carbene complexes: Structure of cluster (?-H)(?-OCD3)Os3(CO)9{:C(CD3)NC2H8O}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savkov, Boris; Maksakov, Vladimir; Kuratieva, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray and spectroscopic data for the new complex (?-H)(?-OCH3)Os3(CO)9{:C(CD3)NC2H8O} (2) obtained in the reaction of the (?-H)(?-Cl)Os3(CO)9{:C(CH3)NC2H8O} (1) with NaOCD3 in CD3OD solution are reported. It is shown that cluster 1 has the property of CH-acidity inherent of Fisher type carbenes. This had demonstrated using hydrogen deuterium exchange reaction in the presence of a strong base. Bridging chlorine to metoxide ligand substitution takes place during the reaction. The molecular structure of 2 is compared with known analogues.

  16. Science and Technology Policies Information Exchange System (SPINES) Feasibility Study. Science Policy Studies and Documents No. 33(1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblans, H.; And Others

    A feasibility study was made to define, within the conceptual framework and in accordance with the recommendations of the UNISIST program, the managerial, technical, legal, and financial framework for the setting up of an International Science and Technology Policies Information Exchange System (SPINES). This report describes in some detail the…

  17. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang; Lim, Hyug

    2010-11-15

    Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

  18. Systematic modeling study of channel waveguide fabrication by thermal silver ion exchange.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyu; Winick, Kim A; Griffin, Henry C; Hayden, Joseph S

    2006-03-10

    A systematic study of thermal silver ion exchange used for the fabrication of optical channel waveguides is reported in a single-alkali glass. The diffusion equilibrium and diffusion dynamics are experimentally studied, and the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients are determined. The relationship between the fabrication conditions, i.e., time, temperature, and melt concentration, and the induced waveguide refractive index profile is established. It is demonstrated that the diffusion equation can be solved, without use of any free parameters, to predict the refractive index profiles of both planar and channel waveguides. A 1.6 cm diameter integrated optic ring resonator, with a propagation loss of 0.1 dB/cm, is fabricated in a glass by thermal silver ion exchange. The induced refractive index profile is related to the optical characteristics of the functional device. PMID:16572690

  19. been conducted to analyze the exchanger experimentally (Bose and Parker 1983; Bose et al. 1980, 1982). An analytical study of such heat exchangers, which uses a detailed mathematical model to describe their

    E-print Network

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    , 1982). An analytical study of such heat exchangers, which uses a detailed mathematical model-tube heat exchangers. Six 6-in (152-mm) wells were drilled at depths of 53, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 ft (16#12;been conducted to analyze the exchanger experimentally (Bose and Parker 1983; Bose et al. 1980

  20. Neutron Reflectivity Study in Py/CoO Exchange Bias System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, San-Wen; Lu, Xiangshun; Sinha, Sunil; Berkowitz, Ami; Fullerton, Eric; Chan, Keith; Lauter, Valaria; Ambaye, Hailemariam; Blackburn, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    We have studied the permalloy-cobalt monoxide exchange bias system using polarized neutron reflectivity. Both polycrystalline and epitaxial single crystalline (with the (111) and (100) CoO planes at the interface) CoO films were studied. By fitting the reflectivity for both directions of the applied field relative to the cooling field, we are able to obtain both the nuclear and spin depth profiles, as well as locating the pinned spins which are responsible for the exchange bias effect. The pinned spins at the interface can be resolved in the polycrystalline sample, which is consistent with our previous study with resonant soft x-ray reflectivity. One could reasonably have expected a stronger exchange bias effect in the (111) single crystal CoO film, because it has more uncompensated spins at the interface. The neutron reflectivity, however, shows lesser pinned spins. In the presentation, we will show the difference between the magnetic density profiles of the samples involving polycrystalline, (111) and (100) single crystalline CoO films respectively.

  1. A Study of Jordanian University Students' Perceptions of Using Email Exchanges with Native English Keypals for Improving Their Writing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahfouz, Safi Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    English foreign language learners generally tend to consider email exchanges with native speakers (NSs) as an effective tool for improving their foreign language proficiency. This study investigated Jordanian university students' perceptions of using email exchanges with native English keypals (NEKs) for improving their writing competency. A…

  2. STUDY OF FROST GROWTH ON HEAT EXCHANGERS USED AS OUTDOOR COILS IN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    STUDY OF FROST GROWTH ON HEAT EXCHANGERS USED AS OUTDOOR COILS IN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS OF FROST GROWTH ON HEAT EXCHANGERS USED AS OUTDOOR COILS IN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Dissertation like to acknowledge the technical and financial support from Heat Transfer Center of Excellence

  3. A Motivation Case Study of English/Japanese Language Exchange Partners Using Computer Mediated Communication and Telecommunication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert Harrison

    This case study examines the motivation of two intermediate foreign language learners engaged in a remote language exchange partnership. A learner of English in Japan and a learner of Japanese in Australia completed language exchange activities using the telephone, Internet text chat, and e-mail over 10 weeks. Quantitative and qualitative methods…

  4. A pilot study of manual chronic partial exchange transfusion in children with sickle disease.

    PubMed

    Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Lê, Phu-Quoc; Heijmans, Catherine; Huybrechts, Sophie; Devalck, Christine; Azzi, Nadira; Ngalula-Mujinga, Malou; Ferster, Alina

    2015-06-01

    Objective Red cell exchange transfusion is frequently used in the management of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) either electively or chronically to maintain hemoglobin S (HbS) <30%. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of manual chronic partial exchange transfusion (MCPET) on level of Hb and HbS, on iron load and on the need for chelation, on risk of immunization, monitoring transfusion-transmitted viral infection, and clinical outcome. Methods We reviewed the long-term effect of MCPET in 10 children (six men and four women) with SCD and evaluated the iron balance during a median follow-up of 20 months (range: 6-36) in which 248 exchanges were performed. Results The pre-exchange median Hb value was 9.5 g/dl (range: 7.7-10.9 g/dl) and the median post-exchange value was 9.4 g/dl (range: 8.4-11.1 g/dl).The majority of patients reached an HbS of <50% with a median HbS value of 40.04% (range: 30-54). At start of the MCPET program, the median ferritin was 439 ng/ml (range: 80-1704 ng/ml). In the final evaluation, the median value of ferritin was 531 ng/ml (range: 84-3840 ng/ml). The annual calculated iron balance was 0. 28 ± 0.08 mg/kg/day. MCPET was well tolerated, and adverse effects were limited. Discussion MCPET in children with SCD is safe to prevent iron overload, and is effective and easy to use in our cohort. Conclusion Indication for chronic exchange blood transfusion is essential for patients with SCD with recurrent and frequent crises who do not respond to hydroxyurea. However, there is no consensual study for the period at which chronic transfusion can safely be stopped and further research in large population of patients with SCD will need to clarify this question. PMID:25133935

  5. Electron capture rates in stars studied with heavy ion charge exchange reactions

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, C A

    2015-01-01

    Indirect methods using nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies (here, high energies mean $\\sim$ 50 MeV/nucleon and higher) are now routinely used to extract information of interest for nuclear astrophysics. This is of extreme relevance as many of the nuclei involved in stellar evolution are short-lived. Therefore, indirect methods became the focus of recent studies carried out in major nuclear physics facilities. Among such methods, heavy ion charge exchange is thought to be a useful tool to infer Gamow-Teller matrix elements needed to describe electron capture rates in stars and also double beta-decay experiments. In this short review, I provide a theoretical guidance based on a simple reaction model for charge exchange reactions.

  6. Electron capture rates in stars studied with heavy ion charge exchange reactions

    E-print Network

    C. A. Bertulani

    2015-10-02

    Indirect methods using nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies (here, high energies mean $\\sim$ 50 MeV/nucleon and higher) are now routinely used to extract information of interest for nuclear astrophysics. This is of extreme relevance as many of the nuclei involved in stellar evolution are short-lived. Therefore, indirect methods became the focus of recent studies carried out in major nuclear physics facilities. Among such methods, heavy ion charge exchange is thought to be a useful tool to infer Gamow-Teller matrix elements needed to describe electron capture rates in stars and also double beta-decay experiments. In this short review, I provide a theoretical guidance based on a simple reaction model for charge exchange reactions.

  7. Charge-exchange erosion studies of accelerator grids in ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    A particle simulation model is developed to study the charge-exchange grid erosion in ion thrusters for both ground-based and space-based operations. Because the neutral gas downstream from the accelerator grid is different for space and ground operation conditions, the charge-exchange erosion processes are also different. Based on an assumption of now electric potential hill downstream from the ion thruster, the calculations show that the accelerator grid erosion rate for space-based operating conditions should be significantly less than experimentally observed erosion rates from the ground-based tests conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). To resolve this erosion issue completely, we believe that it is necessary to accurately measure the entire electric potential field downstream from the thruster.

  8. Application of Magnetic Reorientation Phase Transition in the Study of Exchange Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youjun; Lottis, D. K.; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    A Magnetic Reorientation Phase Transition (MRPT) was discovered in 1981 in Molecular-Beam-Epitaxially (MBE) grown thin iron (Fe) films on (110) GaAs substrates. The reorientation transition was characterized by the sudden switching of the in-plane magnetization in the Fe films. Subsequent to this work it was discovered that at low temperatures, the natural oxide on these films becomes antiferromagnetic and provides an exchange anisotropy field. In a ferromagnetic material such as Fe, because of the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect the resistance depends on the angle between the current and the magnetization which is in turn determined by the magnetic energy expression. This paper reviews the application of the MRPT in the study of exchange anisotropy in both the experimental and theoretical aspects.

  9. Computational Studies of Water-Exchange Rates around Aqueous Mg2+ and Be2+

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Liem X.

    2014-12-18

    The water-exchange mechanisms occurring around aqueous divalent Mg2+ and Be2+ ions were studied using molecular dynamics simulations and rate theory methods. Properties associated with the water-exchange process, such as ion-water potentials of mean force, time-dependent transmission coefficients, and rate constants, were examined along with transition rate theory and the reactive flux method, which includes the role of solvent friction. The effects of pressure on water-exchange rates and activation volumes also were studied. The simulated activation volume values and mechanism were different for Mg2+ and Be2+ because of the nature of their solvation shells. We found the agreement with experiments was improved up on solvent effects were taken into account. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded this work. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES.

  10. Study of a market model with conservative exchanges on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.; Iglesias, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    Many models of market dynamics make use of the idea of conservative wealth exchanges among economic agents. A few years ago an exchange model using extremal dynamics was developed and a very interesting result was obtained: a self-generated minimum wealth or poverty line. On the other hand, the wealth distribution exhibited an exponential shape as a function of the square of the wealth. These results have been obtained both considering exchanges between nearest neighbors or in a mean field scheme. In the present paper we study the effect of distributing the agents on a complex network. We have considered archetypical complex networks: Erdös-Rényi random networks and scale-free networks. The presence of a poverty line with finite wealth is preserved but spatial correlations are important, particularly between the degree of the node and the wealth. We present a detailed study of the correlations, as well as the changes in the Gini coefficient, that measures the inequality, as a function of the type and average degree of the considered networks.

  11. Study of a Market Model with Conservative Exchanges on Complex Networks

    E-print Network

    Braunstein, L A; Iglesias, J R

    2012-01-01

    Many models of market dynamics make use of the idea of conservative wealth exchanges among economic agents. A few years ago an exchange model using extremal dynamics was developed and a very interesting result was obtained: a self-generated minimum wealth or poverty line. On the other hand, the wealth distribution exhibited an exponential shape as a function of the square of the wealth. These results have been obtained both considering exchanges between nearest neighbors or in a mean field scheme. In the present paper we study the effect of distributing the agents on a complex network. We have considered archetypical complex networks: Erd\\"{o}s-R\\'enyi random networks and scale-free networks. The presence of a poverty line with finite wealth is preserved but spatial correlations are important, particularly between the degree of the node and the wealth. We present a detailed study of the correlations, as well as the changes in the Gini coefficient, that measures the inequality, as a function of the type and av...

  12. Engineering study for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin resulting from nuclear process applications

    SciTech Connect

    Place, B.G.

    1990-09-01

    This document is an engineering study of spent ion exchange resin treatment processes with the purpose of identifying one or more suitable treatment technologies. Classifications of waste considered include all classes of low-level waste (LLW), mixed LLW, transuranic (TRU) waste, and mixed TRU waste. A total of 29 process alternatives have been evaluated. Evaluation parameters have included economic parameters (both total life-cycle costs and capital costs), demonstrated operability, environmental permitting, operational availability, waste volume reduction, programmatic consistency, and multiple utilization. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of alternative process configurations that are suitable for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin. The determinative evaluation parameters were economic variables (total life-cycle cost or capital cost) and waste volume reduction. Immobilization processes are generally poor in volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction processes tend to have high capital costs. There are immobilization processes and thermal volume reduction processes that can treat all classifications of spent ion exchange resin likely to be encountered. 40 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Study of junction flows in louvered fin round tube heat exchangers using the dye injection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Huisseune, H.; Willockx, A.; De Paepe, M.; T'Joen, C.; De Jaeger, P.

    2010-11-15

    Detailed studies of junction flows in heat exchangers with an interrupted fin design are rare. However, understanding these flow structures is important for design and optimization purposes, because the thermal hydraulic performance of heat exchangers is strongly related to the flow behaviour. In this study flow visualization experiments were performed in six scaled-up models of a louvered fin round tube heat exchanger. The models have three tube rows in a staggered layout and differ only in their fin spacing and louver angle. A water tunnel was designed and built and the flow visualizations were carried out using dye injection. At low Reynolds numbers the streakline follows the tube contours, while at higher Reynolds numbers a horseshoe vortex is developed ahead of the tubes. The two resulting streamwise vortex legs are destroyed by the downstream louvers (i.e. downstream the turnaround louver), especially at higher Reynolds numbers, smaller fin pitches and larger louver angles. Increasing the fin spacing results in a larger and stronger horseshoe vortex. This illustrates that a reduction of the fin spacing results in a dissipation of vortical motion by mechanical blockage and skin friction. Furthermore it was observed that the vortex strength and number of vortices in the second tube row is larger than in the first tube row. This is due to the thicker boundary layer in the second tube row, and the flow deflection, which is typical for louvered fin heat exchangers. Visualizations at the tube-louver junction showed that in the transition part between the angled louver and the flat landing a vortex is present underneath the louver surface which propagates towards the angled louver. (author)

  14. Health Information Exchange Implementation: Lessons Learned and Critical Success Factors From a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Much attention has been given to the proposition that the exchange of health information as an act, and health information exchange (HIE), as an entity, are critical components of a framework for health care change, yet little has been studied to understand the value proposition of implementing HIE with a statewide HIE. Such an organization facilitates the exchange of health information across disparate systems, thus following patients as they move across different care settings and encounters, whether or not they share an organizational affiliation. A sociotechnical systems approach and an interorganizational systems framework were used to examine implementation of a health system electronic medical record (EMR) system onto a statewide HIE, under a cooperative agreement with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and its collaborating organizations. Objective The objective of the study was to focus on the implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE; provide insight into the technical, organizational, and governance aspects of a large private health system and the Virginia statewide HIE (organizations with the shared goal of exchanging health information); and to understand the organizational motivations and value propositions apparent during HIE implementation. Methods We used a formative evaluation methodology to investigate the first implementation of a health system onto the statewide HIE. Qualitative methods (direct observation, 36 hours), informal information gathering, semistructured interviews (N=12), and document analysis were used to gather data between August 12, 2012 and June 24, 2013. Derived from sociotechnical concepts, a Blended Value Collaboration Enactment Framework guided the data gathering and analysis to understand organizational stakeholders’ perspectives across technical, organizational, and governance dimensions. Results Several challenges, successes, and lessons learned during the implementation of a health system to the statewide HIE were found. The most significant perceived success was accomplishing the implementation, although many interviewees also underscored the value of a project champion with decision-making power. In terms of lessons learned, social reasons were found to be very significant motivators for early implementation, frequently outweighing economic motivations. It was clear that understanding the guides early in the project would have mitigated some of the challenges that emerged, and early communication with the electronic health record vendor so that they have a solid understanding of the undertaking was critical. An HIE implementations evaluation framework was found to be useful for assessing challenges, motivations, value propositions for participating, and success factors to consider for future implementations. Conclusions This case study illuminates five critical success factors for implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE. This study also reveals that organizations have varied motivations and value proposition perceptions for engaging in the exchange of health information, few of which, at the early stages, are economically driven. PMID:25599991

  15. Nucleotide exchange in dimeric MCAK induces longitudinal and lateral stress at microtubule ends to support depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Kyle M.; Wagenbach, Mike; Wordeman, Linda; Schriemer, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Members of the kinesin-13 sub-family use their motor domains in an unconventional fashion to initiate microtubule depolymerization at microtubule (MT) ends, suggesting unique conformational transitions for lattice engagement, end adaptation or both. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange and electron microscopy, we explored conformational changes in kinesin-13 MCAK in its dimeric form and when bound to a depolymerization intermediate. ATP hydrolysis relaxes the conformation of the free dimer, notably in the neck and N-terminal domain. Exchanging dimeric MCAK with ATP at the MT plus end induces outward curvature in ?/?-tubulin, accompanied by a restructuring of the MCAK neck and N-terminus, as it returns to a closed state. Re-establishing a closed dimer state imparts a lateral separation of paired tubulin dimers, which may assist in depolymerization. Thus, full-length ADP-MCAK transitions from an open diffusion-competent configuration to a closed state upon plus-end mediated nucleotide exchange, which is primarily mediated by conformational changes in the N-terminal domains of the dimer. PMID:25066134

  16. Functional Dynamics of Hexameric Helicase Probed by Hydrogen Exchange and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Radou, Gaël; Dreyer, Frauke N.; Tuma, Roman; Paci, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of large macromolecular assemblies depends on their structure and their dynamics over a broad range of timescales; for this reason, it is a significant challenge to investigate these assemblies using conventional experimental techniques. One of the most promising experimental techniques is hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe to our knowledge a new computational method for quantitative interpretation of deuterium exchange kinetics and apply it to a hexameric viral helicase P4 that unwinds and translocates RNA into a virus capsid at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Room-temperature dynamics probed by a hundred nanoseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is sufficient to predict the exchange kinetics of most sequence fragments and provide a residue-level interpretation of the low-resolution experimental results. The strategy presented here is also a valuable tool to validate experimental data, e.g., assignments, and to probe mechanisms that cannot be observed by x-ray crystallography, or that occur over timescales longer than those that can be realistically simulated, such as the opening of the hexameric ring. PMID:25140434

  17. Functional dynamics of hexameric helicase probed by hydrogen exchange and simulation.

    PubMed

    Radou, Gaël; Dreyer, Frauke N; Tuma, Roman; Paci, Emanuele

    2014-08-19

    The biological function of large macromolecular assemblies depends on their structure and their dynamics over a broad range of timescales; for this reason, it is a significant challenge to investigate these assemblies using conventional experimental techniques. One of the most promising experimental techniques is hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe to our knowledge a new computational method for quantitative interpretation of deuterium exchange kinetics and apply it to a hexameric viral helicase P4 that unwinds and translocates RNA into a virus capsid at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Room-temperature dynamics probed by a hundred nanoseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is sufficient to predict the exchange kinetics of most sequence fragments and provide a residue-level interpretation of the low-resolution experimental results. The strategy presented here is also a valuable tool to validate experimental data, e.g., assignments, and to probe mechanisms that cannot be observed by x-ray crystallography, or that occur over timescales longer than those that can be realistically simulated, such as the opening of the hexameric ring. PMID:25140434

  18. Simulation of the CLAS12 dual hydrogen-deuterium target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musalo, Christopher; Gilfoyle, Gerard

    2011-10-01

    The primary mission of Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is to reveal the quark and gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei and to deepen our understanding of matter and quark confinement. This mission will be done using a 12-GeV electron beam incident on nuclear targets. One approved experiment E12-07-104 will measure the elastic scattering of electrons from deuterium to extract the neutron magnetic form factor (GMn) using the CLAS12 detector. Calibrations will be done with a dual, co-linear target consisting of liquid hydrogen(LH2) and liquid deuterium (LD2) cells. The hydrogen target is used for calibration, and the deuterium one provides the data for the physics analysis. A CLAS12 simulation has been developed called gemc, where Geant4 is used to simulate the components of CLAS12. We have added the dual LH2 - LD2 target to the gemc simulation. The targets parameters are stored in a mysql database and then read into the simulation at run time. Simulated particles start at a random point in the target volume and are propagated through the CLAS12 detector. We will present initial results showing the effect of target size and position on the distribution of hits in CLAS12.

  19. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P.

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  20. Effects of hemoperfusion adsorption and/or plasma exchange in treatment of severe viral hepatitis: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    He, Nian-Hai; Wang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ze-Wen; Liu, Jun; Li, Jia-Jia; Liu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Non-bioartificial liver has been applied to clinic for quite a long time, but the reported efficacy has been very different. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of hemoperfusion adsorption, plasma exchange and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption in treatment of severe viral hepatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with severe viral hepatitis were treated with hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (24 cases), plasma exchange therapy (17 cases) and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (34 cases). The data of liver function, renal function, blood routine test, prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTa) pre-and post-therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical symptoms of patients improved after treatment. The levels of aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin decreased significantly after 3 therapies (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). PT, the level of total serum protein decreased significantly and PTa increased significantly after plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The side effects were few and mild in all patients. CONCLUSION: Three therapies were effective in the treatment of severe viral hepatitis. Plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy are better than hemoperfusion adsorption therapy. PMID:15069730

  1. Studies on PVA based nanocomposite Proton Exchange Membrane for Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavan Palani, P.; Kannan, R.; Rajashabala, S.; Rajendran, S.; Velraj, G.

    2015-02-01

    Different concentrations of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Montmorillonite (PVA/MMT) based proton exchange membranes (PEMs) have been prepared by solution casting method. The structural and electrical properties of these composite membranes have been characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and AC impedance spectroscopic methods. The conductivity of the PEMs has been estimated for the different concentration of MMT. Water/Methanol uptake measurement were also analyzed for the prepared PEMs and presented. The proton conductivity studies were carried out at room temperature with 100% of humidity.

  2. Study of cation-exchange capacity of soil near fluorspar mining with special reference to Kadipani mine (Gujarat, India).

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Alka; Deshmukh, Jitendra P

    2011-10-01

    One of the important functions of soil is exchange of cations, whereby essential trace metals are made available to plants as nutrients. Both minerals and organics fractions of soil exchange the cations. Clay minerals exchange cation because of the presence of negatively charged sites on the mineral while organic materials exchange cations by means of their carboxylate groups and other basic functional groups. Cation exchange in soil provides trace metal nutrients to plant. The metal ions are taken up by the roots while H+ is exchanged for the metal ions. Therefore, the measurement of Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of soil is important and this becomes more significant when the mining activity is carried out in the surrounding environment as mining activity may adversely impact the soil texture and organic matter content and sometimes changes the pH which is the main regulator of CEC in soil. The studies related to the assessment of CEC of soil were carried out. 14 soil samples, including one sample of mine site, were collected during summer season from different villages within 10 km radius from the mine site. These samples were then analyzed. The efforts were made to establish the CEC of soil quality of Kadipani, Distt. Vadodara, Gujarat, India. This study is useful for making the decisions regarding the environmental measures required for mining activity. PMID:23505823

  3. Hydrogen exchange studies of the Arc repressor: evidence for a monomeric folding intermediate.

    PubMed

    Burgering, M J; Hald, M; Boelens, R; Breg, J N; Kaptein, R

    1995-02-01

    The hydrogen exchange rates of the backbone amide and labile side-chain protons of the dimeric Arc repressor have been measured. For the slowly exchanging amides in the alpha-helical regions, these rates show a concentration dependence. To account for this dependence, the role of the monomer-dimer equilibrium was considered. Extrapolating the observed exchange rates to zero dimer concentration provides estimates of these rates in the monomer and shows that they are significantly retarded compared to those of an unfolded polypeptide. This suggests that the monomer is in a structured "molten globule" like state. In particular, the two helices of Arc retain a high degree of their secondary structure and it is proposed that the two amphiphilic helices are packed together with their hydrophobic faces. Evidence for a partially folded structure in the Arc monomer was reported earlier in two other studies [J. L. Silva, C. F. Silveira, A. Correia, Jr., and L. Pontes (1992) Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 223, pp. 545-555; X. Peng, J. Jonas, and J. L. Silva (1993) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, Vol. 90, pp. 1776-1780]. By combining the results of these studies and ours, a folding pathway of the dimeric Arc repressor involving four different stages is proposed. Due to the low concentration of Arc repressor in the cell, the protein is present either as a free monomer or it is bound to DNA presumably as a tetramer. Therefore the folding pathway can be regarded as an integral part of the overall DNA binding process. PMID:7696567

  4. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Widdows, Kate L; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P; Please, Colin P; Hanson, Mark A; Sibley, Colin P; Johnstone, Edward D; Sengers, Bram G; Lewis, Rohan M; Glazier, Jocelyn D

    2015-06-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [(14)C]L-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [(14)C]L-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with L-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers. PMID:25761365

  5. Treadmill chamber for studies of respiratory gas exchange in the rat during exercise.

    PubMed

    Ardévol, A; Adán, C; Fernández-López, J A; Pérez, J; Corts, J L; Binagui, D; Remesar, X; Alemany, M

    1995-05-01

    A treadmill for studying gas exchange in small mammals during exercise is presented. The system consists of a motor-driven running mat enclosed in a gastight chamber that receives a measured flow of air from a compressed air cylinder. The gas flow and temperature, pressure and instantaneous gas composition of the chamber (oxygen, carbon dioxide and water) are measured continuously and the data are computed to include the effects on chamber atmosphere of the rat activity, either running or at rest. The system is completed with a shock delivery grid that stimulates the rat to run. The calculations are based on the changes in the composition of the gas in the chamber (constantly stirred by a small electric fan) induced by the rat instead of relying on the alterations induced in the outflowing gas. The consumption of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide and water by the rat are computed in real time, giving a very fast response to physiological change induced by exercise. The chamber is custom-made from an aluminium block and a plexiglass lid; all other components are available commercially. The system, as described, allows for a detailed analysis of respiratory gas (and water) exchange by rats under varying exercise conditions, there is practically no time lag between changes in respiratory gases and the detection of these changes, and the buffering effect of the chamber size is practically eliminated because of the calculation approach used. PMID:9338089

  6. Exchange interaction in hexagonal MnRhP from first-principles studies

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. B. Zhang, Qiming; Ping Liu, J.; Yue, M.; Altounian, Z.

    2014-05-07

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties for MnRhP have been studied from a first-principles density functional calculation. The calculated lattice constants, a?=?6.228 Å and c?=?3.571?Å, are in good agreement with the experimental values of a?=?6.223 Å and c?=?3.585?Å. The calculated moment of Mn is 3.1 ?{sub B}/atom, resulting in a total moment of 3.0 ?{sub B}/atom due to small moments induced at Rh and P sites. The magnetic moment of Mn decreases with unit cell size. The exchange interactions are dominated by positive Mn-Mn exchange coupling (J{sub Mn?Mn}), implying a stable ferromagnetic ordering in Mn sublattice. In particular, J{sub Mn?Mn} shows a maximum value (1.5 mRy) at the the optimized unit cell size. The structural distortion or unit cell size change will affect J{sub Mn?Mn}, which is intimately related to the magneto-elastic and magneto-caloric effect.

  7. Exchange interaction in hexagonal MnRhP from first-principles studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. B.; Zhang, Qiming; Yue, M.; Altounian, Z.; Ping Liu, J.

    2014-05-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties for MnRhP have been studied from a first-principles density functional calculation. The calculated lattice constants, a = 6.228 Å and c = 3.571 Å, are in good agreement with the experimental values of a = 6.223 Å and c = 3.585 Å. The calculated moment of Mn is 3.1 ?B/atom, resulting in a total moment of 3.0 ?B/atom due to small moments induced at Rh and P sites. The magnetic moment of Mn decreases with unit cell size. The exchange interactions are dominated by positive Mn-Mn exchange coupling (JMn -Mn), implying a stable ferromagnetic ordering in Mn sublattice. In particular, JMn -Mn shows a maximum value (1.5 mRy) at the the optimized unit cell size. The structural distortion or unit cell size change will affect JMn -Mn, which is intimately related to the magneto-elastic and magneto-caloric effect.

  8. A study of PV/T collector with honeycomb heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, F.; Othman, M. Y. H.; Yatim, B.; Ruslan, H.; Sopian, K.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2013-11-01

    This paper present a study of a single pass photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector combined with honeycomb heat exchanger. A PV/T system is a combination of photovoltaic panel and solar thermal components in one integrated system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, a honeycomb heat exchanger is installed horizontally into the channel located under the PV module. Air is used as the heat remover medium. The system is tested with and without the honeycomb at irradiance of 828 W/m2 and mass flow rate spanning from 0.02 kg/s to 0.13 kg/s. It is observed that the aluminum honeycomb is capable of enhancing the thermal efficiency of the system efficiently. At mass flow rate of 0.11 kg/s, the thermal efficiency of the system without honeycomb is 27% and with honeycomb is 87 %. Throughout the range of the mass flow rate, the electrical efficiency of the PV module improved by 0.1 %. The improved design is suitable to be further investigated as solar drying system and space heating.

  9. Experimental study of an integral catalytic combustor: Heat exchanger for Stirling engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using catalytic combustion with heat removal for the Stirling engine to reduce exhaust emissions and also improve heat transfer to the working fluid was studied using spaced parallel plates. An internally air-cooled heat exchanger was placed between two noble metal catalytic plates. A preheated fuel-air mixture passed between the plates and reacted on the surface of the catalyzed plates. Heat was removed from the catalytic surface by radiation and convection to the aircooled heat exchangers to control temperature and minimize thermal nitrogen oxide emissions. Test conditions were inlet combustion air temperatures from 850 to 900 K, inlet velocities of about 10 m/s, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 0.9, and pressures from 1.3x10 to the 5th power to 2.0x10 to the 5th power Pa. Propane fuel was used for all testing. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5 percent were measured. Nitrogen oxide emissions ranged from 1.7 to 3.3 g NO2/kg fuel. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and indicate that further investigation of the concept is warranted.

  10. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Widdows, Kate L.; Panitchob, Nuttanont; Crocker, Ian P.; Please, Colin P.; Hanson, Mark A.; Sibley, Colin P.; Johnstone, Edward D.; Sengers, Bram G.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Glazier, Jocelyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of system L amino acid substrates into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles in the absence of opposing side amino acid (zero-trans uptake) is incompatible with the concept of obligatory exchange, where influx of amino acid is coupled to efflux. We therefore hypothesized that system L amino acid exchange transporters are not fully obligatory and/or that amino acids are initially present inside the vesicles. To address this, we combined computational modeling with vesicle transport assays and transporter localization studies to investigate the mechanisms mediating [14C]l-serine (a system L substrate) transport into human placental microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) vesicles. The carrier model provided a quantitative framework to test the 2 hypotheses that l-serine transport occurs by either obligate exchange or nonobligate exchange coupled with facilitated transport (mixed transport model). The computational model could only account for experimental [14C]l-serine uptake data when the transporter was not exclusively in exchange mode, best described by the mixed transport model. MVM vesicle isolates contained endogenous amino acids allowing for potential contribution to zero-trans uptake. Both L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)1 and LAT2 subtypes of system L were distributed to MVM, with l-serine transport attributed to LAT2. These findings suggest that exchange transporters do not function exclusively as obligate exchangers.—Widdows, K. L., Panitchob, N., Crocker, I. P., Please, C. P., Hanson, M. A., Sibley, C. P., Johnstone, E. D., Sengers, B. G., Lewis, R. M., Glazier, J. D. Integration of computational modeling with membrane transport studies reveals new insights into amino acid exchange transport mechanisms. PMID:25761365

  11. Low Mass MS/MS Fragments of Protonated Amino Acids used for Distinction of their 13C- Isotopomers in Metabolic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Dagan, Shai; Somogyi, Árpád; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.

    2013-01-01

    Glu, Gln, Pro and Ala are the main amino acids involved in ammonia detoxification in mosquitoes. In order to develop a tandem mass spectrometry method (MS2) to monitor each carbon of the above isotopically-labeled 13C-amino acids for metabolic studies, the compositions and origins of atoms in fragments of the protonated amino acid should be first elucidated. Thus, various electrospray (ESI)-based MS2 tools were employed to study the fragmentation of these unlabeled and isotopically-labeled amino acids and better understand their dissociation pathways. A broad range of fragments, including previously-undescribed low m/z fragments was revealed. The formulae of the fragments (from m/z 130 down to m/z 27) were confirmed by their accurate masses. The structures and conformations of the larger fragments of Glu were also explored by ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. It was found that some low m/z fragments (m/z 27-30) are common to Glu, Gln, Pro and Ala. The origins of carbons in these small fragments are discussed and additional collision induced dissociation (CID) MS2 fragmentation pathways are proposed for them. It was also found that small fragments (? m/z 84) of protonated, methylated Glu and methylated Gln are the same as those of the underivatized Glu and Gln. Taken together, the new approach of utilizing low m/z fragments can be applied to distinguish, identify and quantify 13C-amino acids labeled at various positions, either in the backbone or side chain. PMID:23444051

  12. Heat transfer and flow studies of the liquid droplet heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Shariatmadar, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a lightweight, highly effective liquid droplet heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for thermal management in space. Heat is transferred by direct contact between fine droplets (100 to 300 micron diameter) of a low vapor pressure liquid and an inert working gas. Complete separation of the droplet and gas media in the microgravity environment is accomplished by configuring the LDHX as a vortex chamber. A quasi-one-dimensional, two-phase heat transfer model of the LDHX is developed and used to investigate the potential use of the LDHX for both heating and cooling the working gas in a 100-k W(e) Braytoan cycle. Experimental studies on a small scale LDHX chamber, using air and water as the two media, show excellent agreement with the theoretical model.

  13. Study on X(3872) from effective field theory with pion exchange interaction

    E-print Network

    P. Wang; X. G. Wang

    2013-04-03

    We study $D\\bar{D}^*$ ($D^*\\bar{D}$) scattering in the framework of unitarized heavy meson chiral perturbation theory with pion exchange and a contact interaction. $^3S_1-$$^3D_1$ mixing effects are taken into account. A loosely bound state X(3872), with the pole position being $M_{pole}=(3871.70-i0.39)\\mathrm{MeV}$, is found. The result is not sensitive to the strength of the contact interaction. Our calculation provides a theoretical confirmation of the existence of the $1^{++}$ state X(3872). The light quark mass dependence of the pole position indicates it has a predominately $D\\bar{D}^*$ ($D^*\\bar{D}$) molecular nature. When the $\\pi$ mass is larger than 142 MeV, the pole disappears which makes impossible the lattice simulation of this state at large quark mass.

  14. Study of the operation temperature in the spin-exchange relaxation free magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiancheng; Li, Rujie; Duan, Lihong; Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of the cell temperature on the sensitivity of the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) magnetometer and analyze the possibility of operating at a low temperature. Utilizing a 25 × 25 × 25 mm(3) Cs vapor cell with a heating temperature of 85?°C, which is almost half of the value of potassium, we obtain a linewidth of 1.37 Hz and achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 55 fT/Hz(1/2) in a single channel. Theoretical analysis shows that fundamental sensitivity limits of this device with an active volume of 1 cm(3) could approach 1 fT/Hz(1/2). Taking advantage of the higher saturated vapor pressure, SERF magnetometer based on Cs opens up the possibility for low cost and portable sensors and is particularly appropriate for lower temperature applications. PMID:26233365

  15. Study of the operation temperature in the spin-exchange relaxation free magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Li, Rujie; Duan, Lihong; Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei

    2015-07-01

    We study the influence of the cell temperature on the sensitivity of the spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) magnetometer and analyze the possibility of operating at a low temperature. Utilizing a 25 × 25 × 25 mm3 Cs vapor cell with a heating temperature of 85 ?C, which is almost half of the value of potassium, we obtain a linewidth of 1.37 Hz and achieve a magnetic field sensitivity of 55 fT/Hz1/2 in a single channel. Theoretical analysis shows that fundamental sensitivity limits of this device with an active volume of 1 cm3 could approach 1 fT/Hz1/2. Taking advantage of the higher saturated vapor pressure, SERF magnetometer based on Cs opens up the possibility for low cost and portable sensors and is particularly appropriate for lower temperature applications.

  16. Study on passive momentum exchange landing gear using two-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hara, Susumu; Otsuki, Masatsugu

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses a landing response control system based on the momentum exchange principle for planetary exploration spacecraft. In the past, landing gear systems with cantilever designs that incorporate honeycomb materials to dissipate shock energy through plastic deformation have been used, but once tested before launch, the system cannot be used in a real mission. The sky crane system used for the Mars Science Laboratory by NASA can achieve a safe and precise landing, but it is highly complex. This paper introduces a momentum exchange impact damper (MEID) that absorbs the controlled object's momentum with extra masses called damper masses. The MEID is reusable, which makes it easy to ensure the landing gear's reliability. In this system, only passive elements such as springs are needed. A single-axis (SA) model has already been used to verify the effectiveness of MEIDs through simulations and experiments measuring the rebound height of the spacecraft. However, the SA model cannot address the rotational motion and tipping of the spacecraft. This paper presents a two-landing-gear-system (TLGS) model in which multiple MEIDs are equipped for two-dimensional analysis. Unlike in the authors' previous studies, in this study each MEID is launched when the corresponding landing gear lands and the MEIDs do not contain active actuators. This mechanism can be used to realize advanced control specifications, and it is simply compared with previous mechanisms including actuators, in which all of the MEIDs are launched simultaneously. If each MEID works when the corresponding gear lands, the rebound height of each gear can be minimized, and tipping can be prevented, as demonstrated by the results of our simulations.

  17. Element exchange between minerals at hydrothermal conditions: A case study with spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, L.; Muller, T.; Dohmen, R.

    2013-12-01

    It is generally believed that the presence of a fluid phase enhances the reactivity of minerals and promotes exchange reactions between minerals that are physically separated from each other. Two end-member mechanisms can be considered for the bulk equilibration of the mineral with the fluid: volume diffusion and dissolution-precipitation. A key parameter, which may control the overall kinetic behavior, is the solubility of the relevant elements within the fluid (e.g., [1]). We investigated the reaction mechanism of a model system to identify the role of the various parameters, in particular those controlling the solubility. Two polished spinel crystals (hercynite with xFe=0.6 and synthetic Mg-spinel) react in the presence of H2O at 750 °C and 0.2 GPa in a welded-shut Au-capsule for 1-24 hrs. The crystals are physically separated by a tube of noble metal dividing the capsule into two connected chambers. The surface of the reacted crystals is analyzed using optical methods and SEM and the near surface chemistry is studied via RBS. From the latter we are able to extract Fe-concentration depth profiles. First results show an increasing surface concentration of Fe in Mg-spinel with time. The depth profiles for experiments up to 8 hours reveal a decrease of Fe-concentration within the first 100 nm from the surface towards the center of the Mg-spinel. The Fe depth profiles can be simulated with a simplified diffusion model, assuming a fixed surface concentration and their shapes indicate that the inter-diffusion coefficient in spinel is concentration dependent. Our derived Fe-Mg diffusion coefficient [D(Fe-Mg) ? 1x10-19 m2/s for pure MgAl2O4) and its compositional dependence is consistent with an independent experimental study using thin film diffusion couples that were annealed at dry conditions at 1 atm [2]. The observed kinetic behavior of the experimental system was simulated using the model of [1]. The model geometry is identical to the present experimental setup and for the mineral fluid interaction a pure exchange of elements is considered without any mass transfer. From the simulations we obtain constraints for the effective transport rate of Fe through the fluid, which is basically controlled by the diffusion coefficient in the fluid and the solubility of Fe. Our calculations suggest that the concentration of dissolved Fe is up to two orders of magnitude higher than predicted by theoretical solubility calculations. The reaction mechanism map reveals that the reaction is controlled by diffusion in both the solid and the fluid. These results highlight the importance of the concentration of dissolved species for the exchange process. The solubility of the mineral phases is an important factor controlling the development of compositional profiles and may even control the reaction mechanism. This study demonstrates that the following common wisdoms are wrong in the general case: (I) The presence of fluid enhances the rate of the overall exchange reaction. (II) The presence of H2O enhances diffusion in the solid phase. [1] Dohmen & Chakraborty (2003), AmMin, 88, pp. 1251-1270; [2] Vogt (2009), Msc-Thesis, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, p.78

  18. Study of multi-electron ionization and charge exchange in HIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linchun

    Beam ion stripping on background gases or plasma in a Heavy Ion Beam Fusion (HIBF) chamber increases the charge state of the beam and the diameter of the focus, complicating the final focusing on the focusing target. To model beam transport in the chamber, it is necessary to know the beam charge-state evolution, including both ionization and charge exchange dynamics. The main objective of this research is to explore theoretical approaches including scaling law. Improved models are developed to calculate multi-electron loss, especially ion stripping and charge exchange cross sections, for both near-term experiments and future power plant scale HIBF research. First, a new space-charge neutralization approach that uses electron injection is proposed for the ion beam transport in HIBF chamber. An analytical study was performed to illustrate the plasma dynamics and final neutralization effects with this technique. The results examine the effect of different injected electron profiles. Next, to improve the accuracy of such simulations, methods to improve cross sections of ionization and charge exchange are studied. Both classical and quantum mechanical approaches are examined. Attention is focused on the interaction by low-charge-state heavy ions. Multi-electron processes for dressed ions, including screening and anti-screening effects, internuclear forces, are given special attention, This analysis is complex and requires a combining several different theoretical approaches. Finally, a Classic Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) model based on an improvement of Olson's n-body CTMC method is presented. This model solves the n-body ion-atom ionization problem in a regime of intent to HIBF. In the paper, a new and complete computational module for these interactions has been developed. The cross section data for Xe, Cs, and Bi ions colliding with various background gases (Xe, N2, Ar and Flibe) is presented. After the calculation of the cross section data, the predicted energy dependence of the beam ion and background gas target is analyzed and scaling laws are developed to give a larger range of energies. Due to the scarcity of prior experimental and theoretical data, comparisons between the calculated data and prior data is limited to selected cases, The cross section data is being implemented into the Large Scale Plasmas (LSP) code package, a beam transport code that is widely used for HIBF studies. This improved LSP package can be used to study the effects of ionization on neutralized drift compression and focusing in HIBF. This code package studied will provide further physical insight into current neutralized transport experiments, and future HIBF studies. In addition to the study of atomic effects for HIBF, plasma dynamics in a low-energy radio frequency (RF) discharge is studied through the implementation of a new Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) module developed for including into a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) package, The MCC module uses available cross section data for the light ion-atom collisions as the input. The results illustrate the collision effects on particle transport in the discharge.

  19. Aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform with simplified medium exchange process for facilitating cell-surface interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyeonjun; Park, Sung Jea; Han, Seon Jin; Lim, Jiwon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2016-02-01

    Establishing fundamentals for regulating cell behavior with engineered physical environments, such as topography and stiffness, requires a large number of cell culture experiments. However, cell culture experiments in cell-surface interaction studies are generally labor-intensive and time-consuming due to many experimental tasks, such as multiple fabrication processes in sample preparation and repetitive medium exchange in cell culture. In this work, a novel aquatic flower-inspired cell culture platform (AFIP) is presented. AFIP aims to facilitate the experiments on the cell-surface interaction studies, especially the medium exchange process. AFIP was devised to capture and dispense cell culture medium based on interactions between an elastic polymer substrate and a liquid medium. Thus, the medium exchange can be performed easily and without the need of other instruments, such as a vacuum suction and pipette. An appropriate design window of AFIP, based on scaling analysis, was identified to provide a criterion for achieving stability in medium exchange as well as various surface characteristics of the petal substrates. The developed AFIP, with physically engineered petal substrates, was also verified to exchange medium reliably and repeatedly. A closed structure capturing the medium was sustained stably during cell culture experiments. NIH3T3 proliferation results also demonstrated that AFIP can be applied to the cell-surface interaction studies as an alternative to the conventional method. PMID:26683462

  20. A computational study of an HCCI engine with direct injection during gas exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Haiyun; Vikhansky, Alexander; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus; Bhave, Amit; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Mauss, Fabian

    2006-10-15

    We present a new probability density function (PDF)-based computational model to simulate a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with direct injection (DI) during gas exchange. This stochastic reactor model (SRM) accounts for the engine breathing process in addition to the closed-volume HCCI engine operation. A weighted-particle Monte Carlo method is used to solve the resulting PDF transport equation. While simulating the gas exchange, it is necessary to add a large number of stochastic particles to the ensemble due to the intake air and EGR streams as well as fuel injection, resulting in increased computational expense. Therefore, in this work we apply a down-sampling technique to reduce the number of stochastic particles, while conserving the statistical properties of the ensemble. In this method some of the most important statistical moments (e.g., concentration of the main chemical species and enthalpy) are conserved exactly, while other moments are conserved in a statistical sense. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the statistical error associated with the down-sampling algorithm is more sensitive to the number of particles than to the number of conserved species for the given operating conditions. For a full-cycle simulation this down-sampling procedure was observed to reduce the computational time by a factor of 8 as compared to the simulation without this strategy, while still maintaining the error within an acceptable limit. Following the detailed numerical investigation, the model, intended for volatile fuels only, is applied to simulate a two-stroke, naturally aspirated HCCI engine fueled with isooctane. The in-cylinder pressure and CO emissions predicted by the model agree reasonably well with the measured profiles. In addition, the new model is applied to estimate the influence of engine operating parameters such as the relative air-fuel ratio and early direct injection timing on HCCI combustion and emissions. The qualitative trends observed in the parametric variation study match well with experimental data in literature. (author)

  1. Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies of the Deuterium Exchange in Classical Keto-Enol Tautomeric Equilibrium Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Michael A.; Waner, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the classic keto-enol tautomerization of beta-dicarbonyl compounds into a kinetic analysis of deuterium exchange is presented. It is shown that acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate undergo nearly complete deuterium exchange of the alpha-methylene carbon when dissolved in methanol-d[subscript 4]. The extent of deuteration may be…

  2. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce; Sompyrac, Robert; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2008-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  3. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  4. Fouling of an anion exchange chromatography operation in a monoclonal antibody process: Visualization and kinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Close, Edward J; Salm, Jeffrey R; Iskra, Timothy; Sørensen, Eva; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Fouling of chromatographic resins over their operational lifetimes can be a significant problem for commercial bioseparations. In this article, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), batch uptake experiments, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small-scale column studies were applied to characterize a case study where fouling had been observed during process development. The fouling was found to occur on an anion exchange (AEX) polishing step following a protein A affinity capture step in a process for the purification of a monoclonal antibody. Fouled resin samples analyzed by SEM and batch uptake experiments indicated that after successive batch cycles, significant blockage of the pores at the resin surface occurred, thereby decreasing the protein uptake rate. Further studies were performed using CLSM to allow temporal and spatial measurements of protein adsorption within the resin, for clean, partially fouled and extensively fouled resin samples. These samples were packed within a miniaturized flowcell and challenged with fluorescently labeled albumin that enabled in situ measurements. The results indicated that the foulant has a significant impact on the kinetics of adsorption, severely decreasing the protein uptake rate, but only results in a minimal decrease in saturation capacity. The impact of the foulant on the kinetics of adsorption was further investigated by loading BSA onto fouled resin over an extended range of flow rates. By decreasing the flow rate during BSA loading, the capacity of the resin was recovered. These data support the hypothesis that the foulant is located on the particle surface, only penetrating the particle to a limited degree. The increased understanding into the nature of the fouling can help in the continued process development of this industrial example. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), batch uptake experiments, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small-scale column experiments were applied to characterize a case study where fouling had been observed on an anion exchange chromatography in a monoclonal antibody process. The results suggest the foulant is located on the particle surface, resulting in a minimal decrease in saturation capacity, but having a significant impact on the kinetics of adsorption, severely decreasing protein uptake rate. PMID:23483524

  5. Modified capillary cell for foam film studies allowing exchange of the film-forming liquid.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Peter A; Basheva, Elka S; Denkov, Nikolai D

    2009-06-01

    Many of the macroscopic properties of foams and emulsions are controlled by the mesoscopic properties of the thin films separating the bubbles or droplets. The properties of these films depend on contributions (1) from the adsorbed surface layers and (2) from the liquid that separates these adsorbed layers. To separate in the experimental studies the effects of these two contributions, we developed a new modified version of the capillary cell for foam film studies (originally developed by Scheludko and Exerowa (Scheludko, A.; Exerowa, D. Kolloid Z. 1959, 165, 148-151), which allows exchange of the film-forming liquid between the air-water surfaces. This modified cell allows one to distinguish between the role of the adsorbed species (e.g., proteins, particles, or long-chain synthetic polymers) and the species present in the film interior (e.g., particles, electrolytes, or surfactants). The film properties that can be studied in this way include film stability, rate of film thinning, and surface forces stabilizing the film. These properties are of significant interest in understanding and controlling the stability of dispersed systems. The experimental procedure and the capabilities of the modified cell are demonstrated in several examples. PMID:19397272

  6. High-resolution Studies of Charge Exchange in Supernova Remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Sarah N.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Castro, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. Supernova remnants, especially in the immediate shock region, provide conditions conducive to charge exchange. The emission from post charge-exchange ions as the captured electron cascades down to the ground state, can shed light on the physical conditions of the shock and the immediate post-shock material, providing an important tool to understanding supernova explosions and their aftermath.I present a study of charge exchange in the galactic supernova remnant G296.1-0.5 in two bands: the optical and the X-ray. The optical study, performed using both imaging and spectroscopy from the IMACS instrument on the Magellan Baade Telescope at Las Companas Observatory, seeks to identify `Balmer-dominated shocks' in the remnant, which occur when charge exchange occurs between hot, post-shock protons and colder neutral hydrogen in the environment. The X-ray study probes line ratios in dispersed spectral data obtained with XMM-Newton RGS from an X-ray lobe in the NW of the remnant to hunt for signatures of charge exchange. The dispersed data are degraded by the extended nature of the source, blending many of the lines.We are working towards the future of spectroscopic studies in the X-ray for such extended sources with Micro-X: a sounding rocket-borne, high energy resolution X-ray telescope, utilizing an array of microcalorimeters to achieve high energy resolution for extended sources. I describe the design and commissioning of the payload and the steps toward launch, which is anticipated in the summer of 2015.

  7. Improving DNA data exchange: validation studies on a single 6 dye STR kit with 24 loci.

    PubMed

    Martín, Pablo; de Simón, Lourdes Fernández; Luque, Gracia; Farfán, María José; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    The idea of developing a new multiplex STR amplification system was conceived in 2011 as an effective way to implement the new European standard set (ESS) of 12 STR markers adopted by The Council of the European Union in 2009 while maintaining an effective compatibility and information exchange with the historical DNA profiles contained in the Spanish national DNA database (around 200,000 DNA profiles) mainly based on the 13 CODIS core STR loci plus D19S433 and D2S1338 markers. With this goal in mind we proposed to test and validate a single STR amplification system for simultaneous analysis of 21 STR markers covering both CODIS and ESS core STR loci plus three additional markers (D19S433, D2S1338, and SE33) also contained in commonly used STR kits and national DNA databases. In 2012, we started the first beta-testing with a 6-dye STR kit prototype containing 24 loci (now known as the GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit) developed by Life Technologies in response to the CODIS Core Loci Working Group's recommendation to expand the CODIS Core Loci. This prototype included our proposal of 21 autosomal STR markers and two Y-chromosome markers (DYS391 and Y-indel) and maximizes concordance with established databases and previously analyzed samples by maintaining primer sequences of previous Identifiler(®)/NGM SElect™ kits for the 21 STR markers except for TPOX. This paper describes the validation studies conducted with the first commercial available 6-dye STR kit for casework using a 3500 genetic analyzer for fragment detection that included the analysis of the following parameters and aspects: analytical threshold, sensitivity & stochastic threshold, heterozygous balance, stutter threshold, precision and accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility, genotype concordance, DNA mixtures, species specificity, and stability studies with case type samples. The studies demonstrated that the GlobalFiler™ system provided equivalent overall performance to previous forensic STR PCR kits, but with enhanced discrimination power for a better match efficiency that would reduce the chance of adventitious matches during DNA data exchange among national DNA databases. PMID:25082138

  8. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  9. Speciation study of aluminium in beverages by Competitive Ligand Exchange-Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Magnier, A; Fekete, V; Van Loco, J; Bolle, F; Elskens, M

    2014-05-01

    Competitive Ligand Exchange-Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-AdSV) was used for determining the speciation of aluminium in commonly consumed beverages (water, tea, infusion, coffee, orange juice, tomato juice, beer and red wine). Aluminium determination involves the adsorption of Al-complexes with the ligand cupferron onto a hanging mercury drop electrode. All samples were studied at pH 6.5 with an accumulation step at -0.60 V (all potential values in the paper are given versus the Ag/AgCl, [KCl]=3 M reference electrode) during 60 s, and a final cupferron concentration of 4 × 10(-4)M. These conditions were used to establish (i) the concentration of electro-labile aluminium, (ii) the range of ligand concentrations and (iii) the conditional stability constants of beverage samples using titration procedures. The results based on Ruzic plots were compared to computer simulation with Visual MINTEQ. This comparison suggests that labile monomeric Al-forms and soluble organic complexes of low molecular weight can be quantified by the CLE-AdSV procedure. Overall the relative uncertainties on the determination of the electro-active Al fraction and the complexing parameters, i.e., concentration and conditional stability constant of natural ligands in the samples, are less than 15%. Thanks to these results, information on Al bioavailability in beverages was collected and discussed. This study also illustrates the value of computer simulations when complex, time-consuming voltammetric techniques are applied. PMID:24720958

  10. Custom-tailored adsorbers: A molecular dynamics study on optimal design of ion exchange chromatography material.

    PubMed

    Lang, Katharina M H; Kittelmann, Jörg; Pilgram, Florian; Osberghaus, Anna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-09-25

    The performance of functionalized materials, e.g., ion exchange resins, depends on multiple resin characteristics, such as type of ligand, ligand density, the pore accessibility for a molecule, and backbone characteristics. Therefore, the screening and identification process for optimal resin characteristics for separation is very time and material consuming. Previous studies on the influence of resin characteristics have focused on an experimental approach and to a lesser extent on the mechanistic understanding of the adsorption mechanism. In this in silico study, a previously developed molecular dynamics (MD) tool is used, which simulates any given biomolecule on resins with varying ligand densities. We describe a set of simulations and experiments with four proteins and six resins varying in ligand density, and show that simulations and experiments correlate well in a wide range of ligand density. With this new approach simulations can be used as pre-experimental screening for optimal adsorber characteristics, reducing the actual number of screening experiments, which results in a faster and more knowledge-based development of custom-tailored adsorbers. PMID:26319376

  11. Tuning magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic chains by exchange interactions: ab initio studies.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kun; Guo, Qing; Jena, Puru; Xue, Desheng; Stepanyuk, Valeri S

    2015-10-21

    The possibility of using exchange interactions to manipulate the spin state of an antiferromagnetic nanostructure is explored using ab initio calculations. By considering M (M = Mn, Fe, Co) mono-atomic chains supported on Cu2N islands on a Cu(001) surface as a model system, it is demonstrated that two indistinguishable Néel states of an antiferromagnetic chain can be tailored into a preferred state by the exchange interaction with a magnetic STM tip. The magnitude and direction of the anisotropy for antiferromagnetic chains can also be tuned by exchange coupling upon varying the tip-chain separation. PMID:26387802

  12. Material Studies Related to the Use of NaK Heat Exchangers Coupled to Stirling Heater Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid. Technology development efforts have included fabrication and evaluation of components used in a Stirling engine power conversion system. Destructive material evaluation was performed on a NaK shell heat exchanger that was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and integrated with a commercial 1 kWe Stirling convertor from Sunpower Incorporated. The NaK Stirling test demonstrated Stirling convertor electrical power generation using a pumped liquid metal heat source under thermal conditions that represent the heat exchanger liquid metal loop in a Fission Power Systems (FPS) reactor. The convertors were operated for a total test time of 66 hr at a maximum temperature of 823 K. After the test was completed and NaK removed, the heat exchanger assembly was sectioned to evaluate any material interactions with the flowing liquid metal. Several dissimilar-metal braze joint options, crucial for the heat exchanger transfer path, were also investigated. A comprehensive investigation was completed and lessons learned for future heat exchanger development efforts are discussed.

  13. Ultrasonic relaxation studies of the exchange of butoxyethanol with mixed micelles in aqueous micellar solutions of ionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.P.; Verrall, R.E.

    1982-11-25

    Ultrasonic absorption measurements have been used to study the dynamics of micellar systems and to obtain semiquantitative information on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the cosurfactant exchange process from mixed micelles of surfactant and cosurfactant. Ultrasonic relaxation parameters for the micellar systems containing water, surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, myristyltrimethylammonium bromide, cetylpyridinium bromide, and Dowfax 2A1), and cosurfactant (butoxyethanol) are reported. The kinetic parameters for the exchange of butoxyethanol between the mixed micelles containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and myristyltrimethylammonium bromide are estimated and the results are discussed in light of the proposed mechanism.

  14. One- and two-dimensional chemical exchange nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the creatine kinase catalyzed reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gober, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium chemical exchange dynamics of the creatine kinase enzyme system were studied by one- and two-dimensional {sup 31}P NMR techniques. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants were measured by the saturation transfer method under an array of experimental conditions of pH and temperature. Quantitative one-dimensional spectra were collected under the same conditions in order to calculate the forward and reverse reaction rates, the K{sub eq}, the hydrogen ion stoichiometry, and the standard thermodynamic functions. The pure absorption mode in four quadrant two-dimensional chemical exchange experiment was employed so that the complete kinetic matrix showing all of the chemical exchange process could be realized.

  15. Numerical study of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Semenova, Yuliya; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Qiang; Muhamad Hatta, Agus; Farrell, Gerald

    2011-06-01

    A numerical study is carried out to compare the two-dimensional (2-D) case and three-dimensional (3-D) case for the modelling of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide. It is shown that different waveguide widths on the photomask correspond to different ion concentration distributions after an annealing process. A numerical example is presented of two waveguide sections with different widths indicates that due to the abrupt change of the waveguide width, a 3-D theoretical model is required for an accurate prediction of the parameters of ion-exchanged glass waveguides. The good agreement between the modelled and measured results proves that the developed 3-D numerical model can be beneficially utilized in the generalized design of optical devices based on ion-exchange waveguides.

  16. Study of the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Individual Objective Performance within a University Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Shontarius D.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and individual objective performance. While the LMX literature suggests a positive correlation between LMX and performance, a closer look at the research examined showed that the performance measurements were based on subjective measurements rather than objective…

  17. Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning a l a b s t r a c t STXM is used to analyze polymer membrane fuel cell cathodes. Carbon corrosion and Pt-in- membrane degradation is tracked. Low surface area and medium sur- face area carbon supports

  18. Adsorption of Nitrogen Monoxide and Carbon Monoxide on Copper-Exchanged ZSM-5: A Cluster and Embedded Cluster Study

    E-print Network

    Truong, Thanh N.

    Adsorption of Nitrogen Monoxide and Carbon Monoxide on Copper-Exchanged ZSM-5: A Cluster study on the adsorption of NO and CO in Cu-ZSM-5, using an ab initio embedded cluster methodology are small for adsorption energies of CO and NO. For adsorption of CO, the calculated binding energy of 32

  19. Effect of Taiwan Mutation (D7H) on Structures of Amyloid Peptides: Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-print Network

    Effect of Taiwan Mutation (D7H) on Structures of Amyloid Peptides: Replica Exchange Molecular that the Taiwan mutation (D7H) slows the fibril formation of amyloid peptides A40 and A42. Motivated by this finding, we have studied the influence of D7H mutation on structures of A peptide monomers using

  20. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  1. Laboratory studies of eddy structures and exchange processes through tidal inlets 

    E-print Network

    Nicolau del Roure, Francisco

    2009-06-02

    The exchange flow through tidal inlets generates two-dimensional large coherent vortical structures (2DLCS), that are much broader than the water depth and exist because of the inherent instability of shallow shear flows. These vortical starting...

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles : synthesis, characterization, applications and systematic study of exchanging biasing

    E-print Network

    Tracy, Joseph B. (Joseph Benjamin)

    2005-01-01

    We systematically investigated the magnetic properties of colloidal cobalt nanoparticles after three extents of oxidation: The native sample has a thin (1.0 nm) CoO shell and exhibits no exchange biasing. The purposefully ...

  3. Experimental studies of alunite: II. Rates of alunite-water alkali and isotope exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffregen, R.E.; Rye, R.O.; Wasserman, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Rates of alkali exchange between alunite and water have been measured in hydrothermal experiments of 1 hour to 259 days duration at 150 to 400??C. Examination of run products by scanning electron microscope indicates that the reaction takes place by dissolution-reprecipitation. This exchange is modeled with an empirical rate equation which assumes a linear decrease in mineral surface area with percent exchange (f) and a linear dependence of the rate on the square root of the affinity for the alkali exchange reaction. This equation provides a good fit of the experimental data for f = 17% to 90% and yields log rate constants which range from -6.25 moles alkali m-2s-1 at 400??C to - 11.7 moles alkali m-2s-1 at 200??C. The variation in these rates with temperature is given by the equation log k* = -8.17(1000/T(K)) + 5.54 (r2 = 0.987) which yields an activation energy of 37.4 ?? 1.5 kcal/mol. For comparison, data from O'Neil and Taylor (1967) and Merigoux (1968) modeled with a pseudo-second-order rate expression give an activation energy of 36.1 ?? 2.9 kcal/mol for alkali-feldspar water Na-K exchange. In the absence of coupled alkali exchange, oxygen isotope exchange between alunite and water also occurs by dissolution-reprecipitation but rates are one to three orders of magnitude lower than those for alkali exchange. In fine-grained alunites, significant D-H exchange occurs by hydrogen diffusion at temperatures as low as 100??C. Computed hydrogen diffusion coefficients range from -15.7 to -17.3 cm2s-1 and suggest that the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion may be as low as 6 kcal/mol. These experiments indicate that rates of alkali exchange in the relatively coarse-grained alunites typical of hydrothermal ore deposits are insignificant, and support the reliability of K-Ar age data from such samples. However, the fine-grained alunites typical of low temperature settings may be susceptible to limited alkali exchange at surficial conditions which could cause alteration of their radiometric ages. Furthermore, the rapid rate of hydrogen diffusion observed at 100-150??C suggests that fine-grained alunites are susceptible to rapid D-H re-equilibration even at surficial conditions. ?? 1994.

  4. An experimental study on the thermal performance of ground heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kyoungbin; Lee, Sanghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2007-08-15

    A knowledge of ground thermal properties is most important for the proper design of large GHE (ground heat exchanger) systems. Thermal response tests have so far been used primarily not only for in situ determination of design data for GHE systems, but also for the evaluation of grout material, heat exchanger types and groundwater effects. The main purpose has been to determine in situ values of effective ground thermal conductivity, including the effect of groundwater flow and natural convection in boreholes. (author)

  5. Preliminary study of iron removal from hydrochloric pickling liquor by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Maranon, E.; Suarez, F.; Alonso, F.; Fernandez, Y.; Sastre, H.

    1999-07-01

    Hydrochloric acid from exhausted pickling baths is a residue that has to be managed adequately because of its high pollutant potential. In this work, an ion exchange treatment for removing iron from the spent acid was studied in an attempt to make the re-utilization of said acid viable for industry while reducing the amount of waste generated. Several cationic, anionic, and chelating resins were tested. Cationic and chelating resins are able to remove Fe(II) that is present as a cation in the acid, whereas anionic resins are able to remove Fe(III) that forms anionic complexes with the chloride anion. The capacity of the cationic and chelating resins, although not high, does improve as the iron concentration in the hydrochloric acid increases and when the acid concentration decreases, because there is less competition between the ferrous cation and the protons. The anionic resins showed higher capacity for removing iron, especially the Lewatit MP-500, and this capacity also increased with iron concentration.

  6. Three-iron clusters in iron-sulfur proteins: An EPR study of the exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayda, Jean-Pierre; Bertrand, Patrick; Theodule, François-Xavier; Moura, José J. G.

    1982-10-01

    A detailed discussion of the Mössbauer data on the three-iron clusters in the iron-sulfur proteins from Azotobacter vinelandii and Desulfovibrio gigas [T. A. Kent, B. H. Huynh, and E. Münck, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6574 (1980).] has shown that the iron atoms were coupled by antiferromagnetic interactions. The three coupling constants should be equal within a factor 2. We present an EPR investigation of the magnetic properties of the cluster from the iron-sulfur protein from D. gigas (ferredoxin II) in the temperature range 5.5 to 50 K. The main characteristics of the EPR spectrum are the appearance of a new component above 8 K, the rapid decrease of the intensity, and the relaxation broadening which appears above 16 K. The temperature dependence of these properties has been systematically studied. The results are well interpreted with an Heisenberg Hamiltonian. We found that the exchange coupling constants are about -20 cm-1 and that their relative differences do not exceed 20%.

  7. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragani?, I. N.; Seely, D. G.; McCammon, D.; Havener, C. C.

    2011-06-01

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  8. Using ion-exchange resins to study soil response to experimental watershed acidification.

    PubMed

    Szillery, Johanna E; Fernandez, Ivan J; Norton, Stephen A; Rustad, Lindsey E; White, Alan S

    2006-05-01

    Ion-exchange resins (IER) offer alternative approaches to measuring ionic movement in soils that may have advantages over traditional approaches in some settings, but more information is needed to understand how IER compare with traditional methods of measurement in forested ecosystems. At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), one of two paired, forested watersheds is treated bi-monthly with S and N (28.8 and 25.2kg ha(-1)yr(-1) of S and N, respectively). Both IER and ceramic cup tension lysimeters were used to study soil solution responses after approximately 11 years of treatment. Results from both methods showed treatments resulted in the mobilization of base cations and Al, and higher SO(4)-S and inorganic N in the treated watershed. Both methods indicated similar differences in results associated with forest type (hardwoods versus softwoods), a result of differences in litter quality and atmospheric aerosol interception capacity. The correlation between lysimeter and IER data for individual analytes varied greatly. Significant correlations were evident for Na (r=0.75), Al (r=0.65), Mn (r=0.61), Fe (r=0.57), Ca (r=0.49), K (r=0.41) and NO(3)-N (r=0.59). No correlation was evident between IER and soil solution data for NH(4)-N and Pb. Both IER and soil solution techniques suggested similar interpretations of biogeochemical behavior in the watershed. PMID:16779603

  9. A comparison study of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) fabricated with Nafion and other ion exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiyeon; Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Kwang; Shin, Dongsuk; Kim, Daniel H.; Yim, Woosoon; Bae, Chulsung

    2013-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have been and still are one of the best candidates with great potential to be used as actuators and sensors particularly in bioengineering where the environmental conditions are in an aqueous medium. Each component of an IPMC is important. However, the ion exchange membrane should be more emphasized because it is where ions migrate when electrical stimulation is applied and eventually it produces deformation of the IPMC. So far, the most commonly used ion exchange membrane is Nafion and many studies have been conducted with it for IPMC applications. There are a number of other commercially available ion exchange membranes now, but only a few studies have been done on those membranes to be used in IPMC applications. In this study, four commercially available membranes, (1) Nafion N115 (DuPont), (2) CMI7000S (Membranes International Inc.), (3) F-14100 (fumatech), (4) GEFC-700 (Golden Energy Fuel Cell) were selected and fabricated in IPMCs and their potentials as actuators were examined by conducting various characterizations such as water uptake, ion exchange capacity, SEM, DSC, blocking force and bending displacement.

  10. Fouling of an anion exchange chromatography operation in a monoclonal antibody process: Visualization and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Close, Edward J; Salm, Jeffrey R; Iskra, Timothy; Sørensen, Eva; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2013-09-01

    Fouling of chromatographic resins over their operational lifetimes can be a significant problem for commercial bioseparations. In this article, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), batch uptake experiments, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small-scale column studies were applied to characterize a case study where fouling had been observed during process development. The fouling was found to occur on an anion exchange (AEX) polishing step following a protein A affinity capture step in a process for the purification of a monoclonal antibody. Fouled resin samples analyzed by SEM and batch uptake experiments indicated that after successive batch cycles, significant blockage of the pores at the resin surface occurred, thereby decreasing the protein uptake rate. Further studies were performed using CLSM to allow temporal and spatial measurements of protein adsorption within the resin, for clean, partially fouled and extensively fouled resin samples. These samples were packed within a miniaturized flowcell and challenged with fluorescently labeled albumin that enabled in situ measurements. The results indicated that the foulant has a significant impact on the kinetics of adsorption, severely decreasing the protein uptake rate, but only results in a minimal decrease in saturation capacity. The impact of the foulant on the kinetics of adsorption was further investigated by loading BSA onto fouled resin over an extended range of flow rates. By decreasing the flow rate during BSA loading, the capacity of the resin was recovered. These data support the hypothesis that the foulant is located on the particle surface, only penetrating the particle to a limited degree. The increased understanding into the nature of the fouling can help in the continued process development of this industrial example. PMID:23483524

  11. Study and verification of the superposition method used for determining the pressure losses of the heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petru, Michal; Kulhavy, Petr; Srb, Pavel; Rachitsky, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with study of the pressure losses of the new heat convectors product line. For all devices connected to the heating circuit of the building, it`s required to declare a tabulated values of pressure drops. The heat exchangers are manufactured in a lot of different dimensions and atypical shapes. An individual assessment of the pressure losses for each type is very time consuming. Therefore based on the resulting data of the experiments and numerical models, an electronic database was created that can be used for calculating the total values of the pressure losses in the optionally assembled exchanger. The measurements are standardly performed by the manufacturer Licon heat hydrodynamic laboratory and the numerical models are carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics. Different variations of the convectors geometry cause non-linear process of energy losses, which is proportionately about 30% larger for the smaller exchanger than for the larger types. The results of the experiments and the numerical simulations were in a very good conjuncture. Considerable influence of the water temperature onto the total size of incurred energy losses has been proven. This is mainly caused by the different ranges of the Reynolds number depending on the viscosity of the used liquid. Concerning to the tested method of superposition, it is not possible to easily find the characteristic values appropriate for the each individual components of the heat exchanger. Every of the components behaves differently, depend on the complexity of the exchanger. However, the correction coefficient, depended on the matrix of the exchanger, that is suitable for the entire range of the developed product line has been found.

  12. Structure and properties of metal-exchanged zeolites studied using gradient-corrected and hybrid functionals. I. Structure and energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göltl, Florian; Hafner, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    The structural and energetic properties of purely siliceous, proton-, and Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite have been studied using periodic density-functional (DFT) calculations with both conventional gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals and hybrid functionals mixing exact (i.e., Hartree-Fock) and DFT exchange. Spin-polarized and fixed-moment calculations have been performed to determine the equilibrium and excited spin-configurations of the metal-exchanged chabazites. For the purely siliceous chabazite, hybrid functionals predict a slightly more accurate cell volume and lattice geometry. For isolated Al/Si substitution sites, gradient-corrected functionals predict that the lattice distortion induced by the substitution preserves the local tetrahedral symmetry, whereas hybrid functionals lead to a distorted Al coordination with two short and two long Al-O bonds. Hybrid functionals yield a stronger cation-framework binding that conventional functionals in metal-exchanged zeolites, they favor shorter cation-oxygen bonds and eventually also a higher coordination of the cation. Both types of functionals predict the same spin in the ground-state. The structural optimization of the excited spin-states shows that the formation of a high-spin configuration leads to a strong lattice relaxation and a weaker cation-framework bonding. For both Cu- and Co-exchanged chabazite, the prediction of a preferred location of the cation in a six-membered ring of the zeolite agrees with experiment, but the energy differences between possible cation locations and the lattice distortion induced by the Al/Si substitution and the bonding of the cation depends quite significantly on the choice of the functional. All functionals predict similar energy differences for excited spin states. Spin-excitations are shown to be accompanied by significant changes in the cation coordination, which are more pronounced with hybrid functionals. The consequences of electronic spectra and chemical reactivity are analyzed in the following papers.

  13. The study of RMB exchange rate complex networks based on fluctuation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Can-Zhong; Lin, Ji-Nan; Zheng, Xu-Zhou; Liu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-10-01

    In the paper, we research on the characteristics of RMB exchange rate time series fluctuation with methods of symbolization and coarse gaining. First, based on fluctuation features of RMB exchange rate, we define the first type of fluctuation mode as one specific foreign currency against RMB in four days' fluctuating situations, and the second type as four different foreign currencies against RMB in one day's fluctuating situation. With the transforming method, we construct the unique-currency and multi-currency complex networks. Further, through analyzing the topological features including out-degree, betweenness centrality and clustering coefficient of fluctuation-mode complex networks, we find that the out-degree distribution of both types of fluctuation mode basically follows power-law distributions with exponents between 1 and 2. The further analysis reveals that the out-degree and the clustering coefficient generally obey the approximated negative correlation. With this result, we confirm previous observations showing that the RMB exchange rate exhibits a characteristic of long-range memory. Finally, we analyze the most probable transmission route of fluctuation modes, and provide probability prediction matrix. The transmission route for RMB exchange rate fluctuation modes exhibits the characteristics of partially closed loop, repeat and reversibility, which lays a solid foundation for predicting RMB exchange rate fluctuation patterns with large volume of data.

  14. Study on direct mixing type axial flow cyclone heat exchanger between gas and particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Akihiko; Yokomine, Takehiko

    1999-07-01

    A direct mixing type axial flow cyclone heat exchanger between gas and high temperature particles is proposed and its heat exchange performance is examined experimentally by using the mock-up apparatus. The proposal was motivated by the concept of high temperature nuclear energy conversion system for which dense gas-solid suspension flow is considered as primary coolant. However, this heat exchanger will be very useful for the existing industrial processes. In this heat exchanger, the particles, after being mixed directly with gas, transfer their heat to the gas in the form of quasi-counter-flow and are effectively re-separated by centrifugal force due to swirling motion of the gas. Figure A-1 shows the exergy efficiency obtained from the experimental data. In this figure, {Gamma}{sub th}, {eta}{sub e}, G{sub g} and d{sub p} are thermal loading ratio, exergy efficiency, inlet gas flow rate and particle diameter, respectively. The following results were obtained from the experiments. (1) The dispersion of particles is saturated if the thermal loading ratio becomes unity and more. (2) The exergy efficiency has its maximum value when the thermal loading ratio is unity and less. The smaller particle diameter is obtained with the higher the exergy efficiency. (3) Though the gas flow rate does not have much effect on the exergy efficiency, its value is restricted by the re-separation efficiency. The present heat exchanger does not need any driving mechanical and huge facility. Therefore, it is anticipated that the promotion of energy-saving in the existing industrial processes by means of this heat exchanger.

  15. A study on the surface shape and roughness of aluminum alloy for heat exchanger using ball end milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Kim, Y.; jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum alloy is a material with a high strength-weight ratio and excellent thermal conductivity. It neither readily corrodes nor quickly weakens at low temperatures, but can be easily recycled. Because of these features, aluminum heat exchangers are widely used in aluminum alloy. In addition, the aluminum alloy used in other areas is expected to gradually increase. As a result, researchers have been continuously studying the cutting patterns of aluminium alloy. However, such studies are fewer than those on the cutting patterns of ordinary steel. Moreover, the research on ball end milling with aluminium alloys has not received much attention. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to find the optimal cutting pattern among the seven cutting patterns for the machining of the commonly used aluminum alloy using ball end milling for a heat exchanger. The optimal pattern was found by comparing the different shapes and surface roughness values produced by the seven patterns.

  16. A simulation study to rescue the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sarai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Noma, Akinori

    2006-06-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is the major Ca(2+) efflux system in cardiac myocytes, and thereby its global knockout is embryonically lethal. However, Henderson et al. (2004) found that mice with the cardiospecific knockout of NCX1 lived to adulthood. No adaptation was detected in expression levels of other proteins except for a 50% reduction in the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(CaL)) as revealed in electrophysiological studies. To predict mechanisms of survival, we simulated cardiac myocyte activity in the absence of NCX using a mathematical model of guinea pig ventricular myocytes. The NCX knockout resulted in contracture of the model cell because of a rise in the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)). However, up-regulation of the sarcolemmal Ca(2+) pump (PMCA) and/or down-regulation of I(CaL) enables steady rhythmic contractions even if NCX is totally excluded. The simulation predicted that the steady activities are maintained by a functional up-regulation of PMCA by about 2.3 times in addition to the down-regulation of I(CaL) to a half, as observed in the experiment. However, the model analysis predicted that the myocyte depending on PMCA for Ca(2+) extrusion is unstable against any changes in ionic fluxes and energetically unfavorable in comparison with the control. The reason for the instability is that the activity of PMCA driven by the ATP hydrolysis is hardly affected by changes in [Ca(2+)](i), but NCX has a reversal potential in the middle level of the action potential and is immediately affected by the Ca(2+) flux via NCX itself. The source code of the model is available at http://www.sim-bio.org/. PMID:16839455

  17. Microcalorimetric study of adsorption and disassembling of virus-like particles on anion exchange chromatography media.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengran; Zhang, Songping; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Yanli; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-04-01

    Chromatographic purification of virus-like particles (VLPs) is important to the development of modern vaccines. However, disassembly of the VLPs on the solid-liquid interface during chromatography process could be a serious problem. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) measurements, together with chromatography experiments, were performed on the adsorption and disassembling of multi-subunits hepatitis B virus surface antigen virus-like particles (HB-VLPs). Two gigaporous ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) media, DEAE-AP-280 nm and DEAE-POROS, were used. The application of gigaporous media with high ligand density led to significantly increased irreversible disassembling of HB-VLPs and consequently low antigen activity recovery during IEC process. To elucidate the thermodynamic mechanism of the effect of ligand density on the adsorption and conformational change of VLPs, a thermodynamic model was proposed. With this model, one can obtain the intrinsic molar enthalpy changes related to the binding of VLPs and the accompanying conformational change on the liquid-solid interface during its adsorption. This model assumes that, when intact HB-VLPs interact with the IEC media, the total adsorbed proteins contain two states, the intact formation and the disassembled formation; accordingly, the apparent adsorption enthalpy, ?appH, which can be directly measured from ITC experiments, presents the sum of three terms: (1) the intrinsic molar enthalpy change associated to the binding of intact HB-VLPs (?bindHintact), (2) the intrinsic molar enthalpy change associated to the binding of HB-VLPs disassembled formation (?bindHdis), and (3) the enthalpy change accompanying the disassembling of HB-VLPs (?confHdis). The intrinsic binding of intact HB-VLPs and the disassembled HB-VLPs to both kinds of gigaporous media (each of which has three different ligand densities), were all observed to be entropically driven as indicated by positive values of ?bindHintact and ?bindHdis; while the nagative ?confHdis values suggested a spontenous enthalpy-driven process for the forming of HB-VLPs disassembled formation at all conditions studied. As ligand density increases, ?confHdis became more negative, which was in agreement with the findings from chromatography experiments, that higher ligand density leads to more serious disassembling of HB-VLPs. Results from thermodynamic studies provided us insight understanding on the mechanism of adsorption and conformational change of VLPs, as well as the effect of ligand densities on the structural stability of VLPs during IEC process. PMID:25744549

  18. Promoting Intercultural Exchanges with Blogs and Podcasting: A Study of Spanish-American Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2009-01-01

    Blogs and podcasts open new ways for global communication and development of intercultural awareness. This article reports a Spanish-American telecollaborative project through which students created blogs and podcasts for intercultural exchanges in light of the sociocultural perspectives. The article outlines the methodology for the project…

  19. Cerebral autoregulation and gas exchange studied using a human cardiopulmonary model

    E-print Network

    developed a model of the human cardiopulmonary (CP) system, which included the whole body circulatory system Dynamical Systems Group, Rice University, Houston 77005; 2 Baylor College of Medicine, Houston 77005; 3, lung and peripheral tissue gas exchange, and the central nervous system control of arterial pressure

  20. "Actually, I Wanted to Learn": Study-Related Knowledge Exchange on Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwammlein, Eva; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Social media open up multiple options to add a new dimension to learning and knowledge processes. Particularly, social networking sites allow students to connect formal and informal learning settings. Students can find like-minded people and organize informal knowledge exchange for educational purposes. However, little is known about in which way…

  1. Study Abroad Programs: Elements of Effective International Student and Faculty Exchange Programs. CRB 09-006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Pam

    2009-01-01

    As part of Assembly Concurrent Resolution 146 (Solorio), the California Research Bureau was asked to report on the programmatic and funding elements of an effective international student and faculty exchange program, including good practices nationally, with an emphasis on public higher education institutions in California and Mexico. The CRB…

  2. Japan Exchange & Teaching Programme -JET Nicole Halseth, International Studies Major 2014

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Programme). JET is run by the Japanese government and is one of the largest exchange programs in the world are the transportation of choice here. My modest Japanese language abilities have been getting quite a workout. I and towering castles, eat delicious food, and take my first ride on the bullet train (which, yeah, was pretty

  3. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  4. A STAGE-BASED STUDY OF DROUGHT RESPONSE IN CRYPTANTHA FLAVA (BORAGINACEAE): GAS EXCHANGE, WATER USE

    E-print Network

    Wait, D. Alexander

    is known about morphological and physiological adaptations of plants to consistently arid environments in another. Small, presumably younger, plants sometimes had lower rates of maximum photosynthesis, lower leaf plants, suggesting a decline in plant vigor with age. Drought depressed gas exchange and leaf water

  5. Study and development of a cryogenic heat exchanger for life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype cryogenic heat exchanger for removal of waste heat from a spacecraft environmental control life support system was developed. The heat exchanger uses the heat sink capabilities of the cryogenic propellants and, hence, can operate over all mission phases from prelaunch to orbit, to post landing, with quiescent periods during orbit. A survey of candidate warm fluids resulted in the selection of E-2, a fluorocarbon compound, because of its low freezing point and high boiling point. The final design and testing of the heat exchanger was carried out, however, using Freon-21, which is similar to E-2 except for its low boiling point. This change was motivated by the desire for cost effectiveness of the experimental program. The transient performance of the heat exchanger was demonstrated by an analog simulation of the heat sink system. Under the realistic transient heat load conditions (20 sec ramp from minimum to maximum Freon-21 inlet temperature), the control system was able to maintain the warm fluid outlet temperature within + or - 3 F. For a 20-sec ramp from 0 F to -400 F in the hydrogen inlet temperature, at maximum heat load, the warm fluid outlet temperature was maintained within + or - 7 F.

  6. Studying the Early Stages of Protein Aggregation Using Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Shea, Joan-Emma; Levine, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of protein aggregation poses several computational challenges due to the disparate time and lengths scales that are involved. This chapter focuses on the use of atomistically detailed simulations to probe the initial steps of aggregation, with an emphasis on the Tau peptide as a model system, run under a replica exchange molecular dynamics protocol. PMID:26453216

  7. 1H NMR studies of electron exchange rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin.

    PubMed Central

    U?urbil, K; Mitra, S

    1985-01-01

    T1 values of the His-35 C-2 proton resonance of reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin were determined at 25 degrees C and pH values 4.5, 7.3, and 9.0 in the presence of different fractional amounts of oxidized azurin. The C-2 proton of His-35 undergoes very rapid spin relaxation in oxidized azurin because of its close proximity to the paramagnetic copper. In the presence of oxidized protein, the T1 values of this proton in reduced azurin depend on the lifetime of the reduced protein. From the T1 data, the electron self-exchange rate constant for azurin was calculated to be 1.4 X 10(4) M-1 X s-1, 4.3 X 10(3) M-1 X s-1, and 6.0 X 10(3) M-1 X s-1 at pH values 4.5, 7.3, and 9, respectively. At pH 7.3, the C-2 proton of His-35 is in slow exchange between the imidazole and imidazolium forms and gives rise to two separate resonances at 9.39 and 8.00 ppm. By using these two resonances, the electron self-exchange rate constants were determined separately for the two species of azurin for which the His-35 residue is in the imidazole or the imidazolium forms; results showed that both species participate in self-exchange of electrons with equal efficiency. PMID:2984677

  8. Effects of River Discharge on Hyporheic Exchange Flows in Large Gravel-Bed Rivers: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrahan, T. P.

    2004-12-01

    Current in situ understanding of exchange flows in riverbeds, and the ecological implications, has been largely derived from research in small streams. Comparatively little research has been conducted in large rivers, making it difficult to "scale-up" (spatially and temporally) our knowledge from small streams to understand observations and develop predictive models for large rivers. The studies conducted on small streams typically encompass too few sites, over too small of a longitudinal scale, with discrete sampling events (versus continuous sampling), resulting in an understanding of processes that is not directly transferrable to the study of much larger rivers. In addition, very few of these studies evaluate the effects of variable river discharge on riverbed exchange flows. We studied exchange flows between the river and riverbed at 14 sites distributed throughout 160km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA. Interactions between river water and pore water within the riverbed were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. The data were recorded at 20 min intervals over a period of 200 days when the mean daily discharge was 218-605 m3 s-1, with hourly stage changes as large as 1.5 m. The effects of discharge on vertical exchange between the river and riverbed were evaluated through measured hydraulic and temperature gradients, and the application of a numerical model. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small VHG at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. Our observations confirm the presence, and quantify the relative importance, of both advective and diffusive riverbed transport processes. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicated that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on mean daily riverbed temperatures.

  9. Hydrophilic and antimicrobial Ag-exchanged zeolite a coatings: A year-long durability study and preliminary evidence for their general microbiocidal efficacy

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    of silver content, and high antimicrobial activity to Escherichia Coli after submersion in double deHydrophilic and antimicrobial Ag-exchanged zeolite a coatings: A year-long durability study Antimicrobial Micro-gravity a b s t r a c t Silver exchanged zeolite A (Ag­ZA) coatings have been proposed

  10. The Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A South African Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Julia; Geiger, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the frequency of requesting and commenting and the length of verbal utterances of two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presented with some spoken language, but limited use of language in communicative exchanges. A mixed research…

  11. A pilot study on phosphate and nitrate removal from secondary wastewater effluent using a selective ion exchange process.

    PubMed

    Kney, A D; Zhao, D

    2004-05-01

    A pilot study was conducted at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Easton, Pennsylvania, for the removal of varying concentrations of phosphate (HPO4(2-)) and nitrate NO3- using a newly developed ion exchange material referred to as Polymeric Ligand Exchanger (PLE). The PLE was prepared by immobilizing copper (II) ions onto a commercially available chelating resin, DOW-3N. The loaded copper ions act as ligand exchanger sites that selectively bind with target ligands such as phosphate and nitrate. This pilot study was the final experimental testing phase of the PLE toward the full process development for the selective removal of both phosphate and nitrate using secondary effluent from a fully operational WWTP. In order to establish the effectiveness of the PLE, a commercially available activated alumina (AA) was also tested for comparison. Effluent phosphorus and nitrate concentration of less than 0.1 mg l(-1) were achieved for up to 500 bed volumes; phosphorous was reduced from an average concentration of 4.0 mg l(-1) and nitrate from average concentration of 16.4 mg l(-1). In accord with prior laboratory observations, the pilot test results showed that the PLE could selectively remove phosphate from secondary municipal wastewater effluent under normal conditions (pH, ionic strength, dissolved organic carbon content). In addition, the pilot study provided new evidence that nitrate could be removed from secondary municipal wastewater effluent and concurrently with phosphate. The selective ion exchange process provides an alternative for concurrent removal of the eutrophic-enhancing nutrients, phosphate and nitrate. PMID:15242229

  12. Allelic Exchange.

    PubMed

    Lehman, McKenzie K; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Methods used to understand the function of a gene/protein are one of the hallmarks of modern molecular genetics. The ability to genetically manipulate bacteria has become a fundamental tool in studying these organisms and while basic cloning has become a routine task in molecular biology laboratories, generating directed mutations can be a daunting task. This chapter describes the method of allelic exchange in Staphylococcus aureus using temperature-sensitive plasmids that have successfully produced a variety of chromosomal mutations, including in-frame deletions, insertion of antibiotic-resistance cassettes, and even single-nucleotide point mutations. PMID:25646609

  13. A Good Learning Opportunity, but Is It for Me? A Study of Swedish Students' Attitudes towards Exchange Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2014-01-01

    This article describes students' involvement and interest in exchange programmes in Swedish higher education. Law and Engineering bachelor's programmes were chosen to exemplify an over-represented and under-represented group respectively in terms of international mobility in this context. The study combines interview and survey data. The…

  14. Real-space renormalization-group study of the exchange-interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. H.; Lee, Felix

    1990-12-01

    Through use of an approximation introduced by Suzuki and Takano, the Migdal-Kadanoff (MK) renormalization-group transformation with the rescaling length b=2 is derived for the exchange-interaction (EI) model. Both the standard MK method and its modification, which preserves the free energy in the renormalization transformation, are used to determine critical temperatures and thermal exponents of the EI model on cubic lattices for various spins.

  15. Trip time comparison of conventional and exchange container mode for solid waste collection a case study of Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aremu, A S; Vijay, Ritesh; Adeleke, O O

    2013-01-01

    The use of hauled container system for municipal solid waste collection and transportation often results in socio-economic and environmental impacts which are linearly related to trip time. In this study, trip times for the conventional and exchange container mode of solid waste collection by the hauled container system were evaluated. A trip time model was developed for this evaluation through field studies. The model was applied on ten trips to collect solid waste bins and its transportation to disposal site in the city of Ilorin, Nigeria. The results of the model for both modes were compared and Showed that at 5 % significance level,.the trip time for the conventional mode was greater than the trip time for the exchange container mode. Also, the exchange container mode resulted in haul distance reduction by 3 to 15% and trip time reduction by 2.5 to 13 %. This reduction could help in improving logistics and also reduce the negative, impacts associated with collection operation. PMID:25464703

  16. Trip time comparison of conventional and exchange container mode for solid waste collection a case study of Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aremu, A S; Vijay, Ritesh; Adeleke, O O

    2013-01-01

    The use of hauled container system for municipal solid waste collection and transportation often results in socio-economic and environmental impacts which are linearly related to trip time. In this study, trip times for the conventional and exchange container mode of solid waste collection by the hauled container system were evaluated. A trip time model was developed for this evaluation through field studies. The model was applied on ten trips to collect solid waste bins and its transportation to disposal site in the city of Ilorin, Nigeria. The results of the model for both modes were compared and Showed that at 5 % significance level,.the trip time for the conventional mode was greater than the trip time for the exchange container mode. Also, the exchange container mode resulted in haul distance reduction by 3 to 15% and trip time reduction by 2.5 to 13 %. This reduction could help in improving logistics and also reduce the negative, impacts associated with collection operation. PMID:25508334

  17. IMPACT OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION MELT RATE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Koopman, D.

    2011-04-26

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential impacts of the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) streams - particularly the addition of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) - on the melt rate of simulated feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Additional MST was added to account for contributions from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) was used to evaluate four melter feed compositions: two with simulated SCIX and SWPF material and two without. The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was then used to compare two different feeds: one with and one without bounding concentrations of simulated SCIX and SWPF material. Analyses of the melter feed materials confirmed that they met their targeted compositions. Four feeds were tested in triplicate in the MRF. The linear melt rates were determined by using X-ray computed tomography to measure the height of the glass formed along the bottom of the beakers. The addition of the SCIX and SWPF material reduced the average measured melt rate by about 10% in MRF testing, although there was significant scatter in the data. Two feeds were tested in the SMRF. It was noted that the ground CST alone (ground CST with liquid in a bucket) was extremely difficult to resuspend during preparation of the feed with material from SCIX and SWPF. This feed was also more difficult to pump than the material without MST and CST due to settling occurring in the melter feed line, although the yield stress of both feeds was high relative to the DWPF design basis. Steady state feeding conditions were maintained for about five hours for each feed. There was a reduction in the feed and pour rates of approximately 15% when CST and MST were added to the feed, although there was significant scatter in the data. Analysis of samples collected from the SMRF pour stream showed that the composition of the glass changed as expected when MST and CST were added to the feed. These reductions in melt rate are consistent with previous studies that showed a negative impact of increased TiO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of melting. The impact of agitating the melt pool via bubbling was not studied as part of this work, but may be of interest for further testing. It is recommended that additional melt rate testing be performed should a potential reduction in melt rate of 10-15% be considered an issue of concern, or should the anticipated composition of the glass with the addition of material from salt waste processing be modified significantly from the current projections, either due to changes in sludge batch preparation or changes in the composition or volume of SCIX and SWPF material.

  18. Open inquiry-based learning experiences: a case study in the context of energy exchange by thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio; Rosario Battaglia, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    An open inquiry (OI)-based teaching/learning experience, regarding a scientific investigation of the process of energy exchange by thermal radiation, is presented. A sample of upper secondary school physics teachers carried out this experience at the University of Palermo, Italy, in the framework of ESTABLISH, a FP7 European Project aimed at promoting and developing inquiry-based science education. The teachers had the opportunity to personally experience an OI-based learning activity, with the aim of exploring the pedagogical potentialities of this teaching approach to promote both the understanding of difficult concepts and a deeper view of scientific practices. The teachers were firstly engaged in discussions concerning real-life problematic situations, and then stimulated to design and carry out their own laboratory activities, aimed at investigating the process of energy exchange by thermal radiation. A scientific study on the energy exchange between a powered resistor and its surrounding environment, during the heating and cooling processes, was designed and performed. Here we report the phases of this experiment by following the teachers' perspective. A structured interview conducted both before and after the OI experience allowed us to analyze and point out the teachers' feedback from a pedagogical point of view. The advantages and limits of an OI-based approach to promote the development of more student-centred inquiry-oriented teaching strategies are finally discussed.

  19. The Study of Energy and Water Exchanges above an Evergreen Forest in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Li, M.; Wei, G.

    2006-12-01

    Energy and water exchanges above forest ecosystems are fundamental processes for characterizing land- atmosphere interactions in earth hydrological cycles. The objective of this study is to improve our understanding of the influence of atmospheric forcing on the rate and magnitude of forest energy and water fluxes. The Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC) observation site (23o55'52" N, 120o53'39" E, 773 m elevation) was established in the summer of 2006 in a natural evergreen forest. It is located inside an experimental watershed (No.4 watershed, 8.39 ha) managed by the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute and the averaged canopy height is about 17 m. Soil moistures/temperatures were measured at -10 cm, -30 cm, -50 cm, -70 cm, and - 90 cm. Soil heat flux plate was placed at -5 cm. A drainage gauge was installed at -50 cm to collect infiltrated water. Temperature and relative humidity sensors were placed every 5 m from ground surface to the top of the tower at 20 m, where net radiation and wind speed/directions were also installed. Long-term data of low response instruments were recorded every 30-minute averaged from 10-minute samplings. A nearby weather station provides daily pan evaporation and precipitation data. Prior to the construction of observation tower, soil moistures/temperatures at multiple depths of three different sites were measured since the summer of 2004. By neglecting horizontal soil water flow (e.g., small surface gradient) and infiltration (e.g., normally 2~3 days after rainfalls), the loss of soil water is equivalent to the amount of evapotranspiration (ET). For those days right after rainfalls cease, the ET is estimated by potential ET due to high soil moisture content. Since the response of soil water variations is relatively slow to the fluctuations of atmospheric forcing, only daily ET is estimated from daily soil water loss. The annual precipitation (P) of 2005 was 2674 mm and the annual ET estimated from soil water losses was 664 mm. The amount of winter ET is larger than that of winter P and the ET/P ratio of spring is 28%. For wet seasons of summer and autumn, the ratios are 16% and 17%, respectively. Although the ET/P ratios of summer and autumn are low, the amounts of ETs are higher than that of spring due to high precipitation of typhoons and strong radiations in summer and autumn. In additional to low frequency instruments, an eddy covariance (EC) system, including a 3-D sonic anemometer Young 81000 and a Krypton Hygrometer KH20, were periodically practiced for LH and SH measurements above canopy at 25 m. During wet seasons (summer and autumn), fogs and afternoon thunderstorms often caused failures of the EC system. For those days right after rainfall, the ETs estimated by EC are often larger than those estimated from soil water losses due to the contributions of substantial amounts of ETs from interceptions.

  20. Droplet infiltration and OM composition of intact soil structural surfaces for studying mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Martin, ,, Dr.; Gerke, PD Horst H., ,, Dr.; Godow, Sophie Ch.; Ellerbrock, PD Ruth H., ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    During rapid percolation through macropores with local nonequilibrium conditions water and solute mass exchange with the porous matrix and sorption of reactive components is both taken place at the surface of preferential flow paths. Aggregate surfaces can be coated by illuviated clayey particles and biopores covered by plant residues or earthworm casts. By controlling wettability and sorption properties, the organic matter (OM) of surface coatings may also affect the transport properties of structured soils. Composition of OM in wall coatings was found spatially distributed at the mm-scale; thus, it remained unclear if water absorption by the soil matrix (i.e., mass exchange) was affected by locally-distributed OM. For samples with intact aggregate surfaces and biopore walls taken at clay-illuvial subsoil horizon of Luvisols developed from Loess and glacial till, the mm-scale spatial distribution of OM composition was measured using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Spectra were analysed with respect to alkyl and carboxyl functional groups in OM to obtain an estimate for its potential wettability. The infiltration dynamic of water droplets was evaluated using contact angle measurements and droplet penetration time. The potential wettability of OM differed for coatings and burrow walls and was generally lower for the Loess-derived than for the till-derived samples. The droplet infiltration times were significantly lower only for the Loess Luvisol samples. The results suggest that mass exchange between flow path and matrix can be affected by OM composition of structural surfaces among other factors such as texture, moisture, and chemical status (pH).

  1. Ion exchange and dehydration experimental studies of clinoptilolite: Implications to zeolite dating

    SciTech Connect

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1995-02-01

    Variable effects were noted on the argon (Ar) and potassium (K) contents of clinoptilolite fractions used in ion-exchange and dehydration experiments. The K contents of clinoptilolite fractions were differently affected during cation exchange with Ca-, Cs-, K-, and Na-chloride solutions. Ar was generally less affected during these experiments, except for a Na-clinoptitolite fraction exchanged for five days. Loss of Ar during organic heavy-liquid treatment and cleaning using acetone and deionized water does occur, as indicated by comparing the amounts of radiogenic Ar of treated and untreated fractions. Moreover, a regular decrease in radiogenic Ar contents was noted in clinoptilolite fractions during dehydration experiments at different temperatures for 16 hours. Comparable losses do not occur from saturated samples that were heated in 100 C for more than five months. Water appears to play a vital role in stabilizing the clinoptilolite framework structure and in the retention of Ar. The radiogenic Ar depletion pattern noted in clinoptilolite fractions dehydrated in unsaturated environment at different temperatures is similar to variations in the amount of radiogenic Ar observed in clinoptilolite samples from the unsaturated zone of an altered tuff. These results can be used to evaluate the extent of zeolitic water (and hence Ar) retention in unsaturated geologic settings. The utility of alkali zeolites (e.g., phillipsite, clinoptilolite, and mordenite) from low-temperature, open-hydrologic alteration as potential dateable minerals was evaluated using the K/Ar method as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, which is evaluating Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository site.

  2. Study of the Heat-Transfer Processes of Tubular Elements of Ground Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaiynov, K.; Shuyushbayeva, N. N.; Shaimerdenova, K. M.; Nurgalieva, Zh. G.; Omarov, N. N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, consideration is given to the efficiency of utilization of the low-potential heat of the ground. Also, the advantages and distinctive features of polyethylene tubes used in vertical tubular elements of heat pumps are described. This paper gives the results of investigation of the heat transfer of tubular elements of ground heat exchangers. The dependences of the temperature distributions in the ground in the vicinity of a tube and the change in the temperature with time in dry and moist grounds are determined.

  3. Exchange integrals in magnetoelectric hexagonal ferrite (SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19}): A density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Min; Shao, Bin; Lu, Yuan; Zuo, Xu

    2014-05-07

    The exchange integrals in magnetoelectric hexagonal ferrite SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} have been calculated by using density functional theory. To get 10 inter-sublattice and 3 intra-sublattice exchange integrals, the electronic structures and total energies of 20 spin arrangements have been calculated with General Gradient Approximation (GGA) + U method. The dependence of exchange integrals on U has been studied. The comparison between the exchange integrals in SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and those in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} shows that substitution of Co and Ti decreases the most interactions involving the 12?k sites. The investigation based on our exchange integrals indicates that magnetic interaction between R and S blocks reduces significantly in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19}.

  4. Field and Laboratory Study of a Ground-Coupled Water Source Heat Pump with an Integral Enthalpy Exchange System for Classrooms 

    E-print Network

    Domitrovic, R.; Hayzen, G. J.; Johnson, W. S.; Chen, F. C.

    2002-01-01

    technologies is needed to increase the dehumidification abilities of equipment without compromising energy efficiency or the need for fresh ventilation air. To study the effectiveness of integrated heat pump and enthalpy exchange equipment, a nominal 4-ton...

  5. Real-time monitoring of in situ gas-phase H/D exchange reactions of cations by atmospheric pressure helium plasma ionization mass spectrometry (HePI-MS).

    PubMed

    Attygalle, Athula B; Gangam, Rekha; Pavlov, Julius

    2014-01-01

    An enclosed atmospheric-pressure helium-plasma ionization (HePI-MS) source avoids, or minimizes, undesired back-exchange reactions usually encountered during deuterium incorporation experiments under ambient-pressure open-source conditions. A simple adaptation of an ESI source provides an economical way of conducting gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions (HDX) in real time without the need for complicated hardware modifications. For example, the spectrum of [(2)H8]toluene recorded under exposed ambient conditions showed the base peak at m/z 96 due to fast leaching of ring hydrogens because of interactions with H2O vapor present in the open source. Such D/H exchanges are rapidly reversed if the deuterium-depleted [(2)H8]toluene is exposed to D2O vapor. In addition to the enumeration of labile protons, our procedure enables the identification of protonation sites in molecules unambiguously, by the number of H/D exchanges observed in real time. For example, molecules such as tetrahydrofuran and pyridine protonate at the heteroatom and consequently undergo only one H/D exchange, whereas ethylbenzene, which protonates at a ring position of the aromatic ring, undergoes six H/D exchanges. In addition, carbocations generated in situ by in-source fragmentation of precursor protonated species, such as benzyl alcohol, do not undergo any rapid H/D exchanges. Because radical cations, second-generation cations (ions formed by losing a small molecule from a precursor ion), or those formed by hydride abstraction do not undergo rapid H/D exchanges, our technique provides a way to distinguish these ions from protonated molecules. PMID:24325360

  6. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-08-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  7. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  8. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles include: (1) "Foreword"…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  12. Multiscale study of bacterial growth: Experiments and model to understand the impact of gas exchange on global growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalanne-Aulet, David; Piacentini, Adalberto; Guillot, Pierre; Marchal, Philippe; Moreau, Gilles; Colin, Annie

    2015-11-01

    Using a millifluidics and macroscale setup, we study quantitatively the impact of gas exchange on bacterial growth. In millifluidic environments, the permeability of the incubator materials allows an unlimited oxygen supply by diffusion. Moreover, the efficiency of diffusion at small scales makes the supply instantaneous in comparison with the cell division time. In hermetic closed vials, the amount of available oxygen is low. The growth curve has the same trend but is quantitatively different from the millifluidic situation. The analysis of all the data allows us to write a quantitative modeling enabling us to capture the entire growth process.

  13. Experimental Background Studies in the Two Photon Exchange (TPE) Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Cristian; Brooks, W. K.; Hakobyan, Hayk

    2010-08-01

    This work is based on the improvement of an existing simulation for the two photon exchange (TPE) experiment at Jefferson Lab developed within the GEANT4 framework. This experiment will determine the ratio of the positron-proton elastic scattering cross section and the electron-proton elastic scattering cross section with high precision. To accomplish this measurement requires the use of a variety of devices and complex arrangements, creating background particles that manage to reach the detector system (CLAS). A number of test runs have identified the sources of background in the detector guided by previous simulations. Even so, the remaining background can be reduced considerably by the microscopic identification and locating of the background sources performed by our new simulation.

  14. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  15. Influence of 8-Oxoguanosine on the Fine Structure of DNA Studied with Biasing-Potential Replica Exchange Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kara, Mahmut; Zacharias, Martin W.

    2013-03-05

    Chemical modification or radiation can cause DNA damage, which plays a crucial role for mutagenesis of DNA, carcinogenesis, and aging. DNA damage can also alter the fine structure of DNA that may serve as a recognition signal for DNA repair enzymes. A new, advanced sampling replica-exchange method has been developed to specifically enhance the sampling of conformational substates in duplex DNA during molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach employs specific biasing potentials acting on pairs of pseudodihedral angles of the nucleic acid backbone that are added in the replica simulations to promote transitions of the most common substates of the DNA backbone. The sampled states can exchange with a reference simulation under the control of the original force field. The application to 7,8-dihydro-8oxo-guanosine, one of the most common oxidative damage in DNA indicated better convergence of sampled states during 10 ns simulations compared to 20 times longer standard MD simulations. It is well suited to study systematically the fine structure and dynamics of large nucleic acids under realistic conditions, including explicit solvent and ions. The biasing potential-replica exchange MD simulations indicated significant differences in the population of nucleic acid backbone substates in the case of 7,8-dihydro-8oxo-guanosine compared to a regular guanosine in the same sequence context. This concerns both the ratio of the B-DNA substates BI and BII associated with the backbone dihedral angles ? and z but also coupled changes in the backbone dihedral angles a and g. Such differences may play a crucial role in the initial recognition of damaged DNA by repair enzymes.

  16. Prospects for HERMES-spin structure studies at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1994-12-31

    HERMES (HERA Measurement of Spin), is a second generation experiment to study the spin structure of the nucleon by using polarized internal gas targets in the HERA 35-GeV electron storage ring. Scattered electrons and coincident hadrons will be detected in an open geometry spectrometer which will include particle identification. Measurements are planned for each of the inclusive structure functions, g{sub 1},(x), g{sub 2}(x), b{sub 1}(x) and A(x), as well as the study of semi-inclusive pion and kaon asymmetries. Targets of hydrogen, deuterium and {sup 3}He will be studied. The accuracy of data for the inclusive structure functions will equal or exceed that of current experiments. The semi-inclusive asymmetries will provide a unique and sensitive probe of the flavor dependence of quark helicity distributions and properties of the quark sea. Monte Carlo simulations of HERMES data for experiment asymmetries and polarized structure functions are discussed.

  17. Numerical study on the cathode flooding of direct humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Haruhiko; Shimotori, Soichiro; Aoki, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    In proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack, the water management in the cell is required in order to ensure high cell performance. The water dry-out interferes with the proton migration in the electrode and electrolyte, and the water flooding interferes with the reactant gas transfer in the gas diffusion layer, consequently these phenomena affect the cell performance. One of the approaches to prevent the dry-out, a direct humidified cell with the channel to supply liquid phase water has been considered. In this cell configuration, sufficient water will be supplied to the anode, however the migrated water to the cathode from the anode shall be removed immediately in order to prevent the flooding. In this paper, numerical analysis that includes the behavior of the electrode reaction, heat transfer, gas flow, and evaporation and condensation of water was conducted regarding a direct humidified model cell. The co-flow and counter-flow of fuel and oxidant gases were considered for the pressure conditions of 1 atm and 3 atm. The water distribution in the vapor phase and liquid phase at the oxidant gas and cathode were calculated, and as a result of those, the flooding characteristics for each condition were evaluated.

  18. TRENTA Facility for Trade-Off Studies Between Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange and Cryogenic Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I.R.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Welte, S.; Kveton, O.; Murdoch, D

    2005-07-15

    One of the most used methods for tritium recovery from different sources of tritiated water is based on the combination between Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) and Cryogenic Distillation (CD) processes. The development, i.e. configuration, design and performance testing of critical components, of a tritium recovery system based on the combination CECE-CD is essential for both JET and ITER. For JET, a Water Detritiation System (WDS) is not only needed to process tritiated water which has already been accumulated from operation, but also for the tritiated water which will be generated during decommissioning. For ITER, the WDS is one of the key systems to control the tritium content in the effluents streams, to recover as much tritium as possible and consequently to minimize the impact on the environment. A cryogenic distillation facility with the aim to investigate the trade-off between CECE-CD, to validate different components and mathematical modelling software is current under development at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as an extension of the existing CECE facility.

  19. The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS): Influence of canopy density and atmospheric stability on turbulent exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, E. G.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the micrometeorology within and above forest canopies is of great interest for many environmental applications such as weather and climate forecasting as well as for vegetation-atmosphere scalar exchanges. Within a canopy, both the ground and the vegetation can act as scalar sources/sinks, where the distribution of canopy sources/sinks depends on the amount and state of the canopy foliage. For deciduous trees, the foliage evolves across a seasonal cycle from bare limbs in winter (no photosynthesis and an open canopy) to rapid growth in spring (increasing photosynthesis and canopy density), to maturity in summer (more constant photosynthesis and canopy density), to senescence and leaf-drop in fall (decreasing photosynthesis and canopy density). Thus a broad spectrum of different conditions occurs through the year, thereby imposing height and seasonal dependence on dynamical and scalar fluxes. The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) took place in 2007 focusing on a 10 m tall deciduous walnut orchard in Dixon, California (USA). High spatial resolution micrometeorological measurements were deployed aiming to establish the influence of seasonality (prior to, and follwing leaf-out) on canopy exchange. This talk will discuss the sensitivity of velocity, temperature and humidity fields within and above the deciduous walnut orchard at CHATS to the canopy evolution and atmospheric stability.

  20. Orientation and electronic structure of ion exchanged dye molecules on mica: An X-ray absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Caseri, W.R.; Haehner, G.

    1998-02-15

    Dye molecules are frequently used to determine the specific surface area and the ion exchange capacity of high-surface-area materials such as mica. The organic molecules are often considered to be planar and to adsorb in a flat orientation. In the present study the authors have investigated the orientation and electronic structure of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) on muscovite mica, prepared by immersing the substrates for extended periods into aqueous solutions of the dyes of various concentrations. The K{sup +} ions of the mica surface are replaced by the organic cations via ion exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that only one amino group is involved in the interaction of CV and MG with the muscovite surface, i.e., certain resonance structures are abolished upon adsorption. With near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy a significant tilt angle with respect to the surface was found for all investigated species. A flat orientation, as has often been proposed before, can effectively be ruled out. Hence, results are in marked contrast to the often quoted orientation and suggest that the specific surface areas determined with dyes may, in general, be overestimated.

  1. Quantal Study of the Exchange Reaction for N + N2 using an ab initio Potential Energy Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Dunyou; Stallcop, James R.; Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The N + N2 exchange rate is calculated using a time-dependent quantum dynamics method on a newly determined ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the ground A" state. This ab initio PES shows a double barrier feature in the interaction region with the barrier height at 47.2 kcal/mol, and a shallow well between these two barriers, with the minimum at 43.7 kcal/mol. A quantum dynamics wave packet calculation has been carried out using the fitted PES to compute the cumulative reaction probability for the exchange reaction of N + N2(J=O). The J - K shift method is then employed to obtain the rate constant for this reaction. The calculated rate constant is compared with experimental data and a recent quasi-classical calculation using a LEPS PES. Significant differences are found between the present and quasiclassical results. The present rate calculation is the first accurate 3D quantal dynamics study for N + N2 reaction system and the ab initio PES reported here is the first such surface for N3.

  2. A Comprehensive Study of the Solubility, Thermochemistry, Ion Exchange, and Precipitation Kinetics of NO3 Cancrinite and NO3 Sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, Carlos F. Joyce; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Krumhansl, James L.; Nyman, May

    2003-06-01

    NO3 cancrinite and NO3 sodalite haves been found as a common sodium alumino-silicate forming in strongly caustic alkaline aqueous solutions associated with radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) stored in many underground tanks and also in nuclear waste treatment facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS). The precipitation of alumino-silicate phases from caustic nuclear wastes has proven to be problematic in a number of processes in waste treatment facilities including radionuclide separations (cementation of columns by aluminosilicate phases), tank emptying (aluminosilicate tank heels), and condensation of wastes in evaporators (aluminosilicate precipitates in the evaporators, providing nucleation sites for growth of critical masses of radioactive actinide salts). Therefore, in order to prevent their formation an assessment of the relative stability, formation kinetics, and the ion-exchange characteristics of these two phases in HLW solutions needs to be investigated. The goals of this project are to: (1) Develop a robust equilibrium thermodynamic framework to accurately describe and predict the formation of NO3 cancrinite and NO3 sodalite. (2) Provide a comprehensive characterization of the solid precipitation rates and mechanisms using novel spectroscopic (e.g., NMR) and thermochemical techniques in conditions encountered in HLW waste solutions. (3) Characterize the precipitation kinetics of the aluminosilicates and study the effects of temperature and fluid composition. (4) Investigate the ion exchange capacity of these zeolitic phases with respect to radionuclides and RCRA metal species.

  3. Salt-Zeolite Ion Exchange Equilibrium Studies for Complete Set of Fission Products in Molten LiCl-KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Steven M. Frank; Michael F. Simpson; Paula A. Hahn; Terry J. Battisti; Supathorn Phongikaroon

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents results on LiCl-KCl based molten salts/zeolite-A contact experiments and the associated equilibrium ion exchange model. Experiments examine the contact behaviors of various ternary salts (LiCl-KCl-YCl3, LiCl-KCl-LaCl3, and LiCl-KCl-PrCl3) and quaternary salts (LiCl-KCl-CsCl-NdCl3 and LiCl-KCl-CsCl-SrCl2) with the zeolite-A. The developed equilibrium model assumes that there are ion exchange and occlusion sites, both of which are in equilibrium with the molten salt phase. A systematic approach in estimating total occlusion capacity of the zeolite-A is developed. The parameters of the model, including the total occlusion capacity of the zeolite-A, were determined from fitting experimental data collected via multiple independent studies including the ones reported in this paper. Experiments involving ternary salts were used for estimating the parameters of the model, while those involving quaternary salts were used to validate the model.

  4. A portable hydro-thermo-mechanical loading cell for in situ small angle neutron scattering studies of proton exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dunji; An, Ke; Gao, Carrie Y.; Heller, William T.; Chen, Xu

    2013-10-01

    A portable hydro-thermo-mechanical loading cell has been designed to enable in situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) under immersed tensile loadings at different temperatures. The cell consists of three main parts as follows: a letter-paper-size motor-driven mechanical load frame, a SANS friendly reservoir that provides stable immersed and thermal sample conditions, and a data acquisition and control system. The ex situ tensile tests of Nafion 212 membranes demonstrated a satisfactory thermo-mechanical testing performance of the cell for either dry or immersed conditions at elevated temperatures. The in situ SANS tensile measurements on the Nafion 212 membranes immersed in D2O at 70 °C proved the feasibility and capability of the cell for small angle scattering study on deformation behaviors of PEM and other polymer materials under hydro-thermo-mechanical loading.

  5. Synthesis and application of a novel GTP phosphonamide photoaffinity reagent: Study of exchangeable GTP-binding domain on tubulin

    SciTech Connect

    Chavan, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory role played by nucleotides in various biochemical processes has been the topic of study for several years. This has led to the identification of several regulatory proteins which require guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a nucleotide, for their action. The G-protein family utilizes GTP and displays many common features in the mechanism of their action. Chapter 1 is an overview of several GTP-binding proteins including G-proteins. Tubulin, a structural protein also requires GTP for its assembly/disassembly process. The nature of interaction of GTP with tubulin, particularly at the exchangeable GTP-binding site has been under investigation for several years. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the structure of tubulin, and the studies leading up to the present understanding of the GTP-tubulin interaction. To study the exchangeable GTP-binding domain on tubulin which would complement the other techniques, and reagents used, the author synthesized a novel GTP phosphonamide photoaffinity reagent. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of {sup 125}I-APTG (36). He utilized {sup 125}I-APTG to establish that it could act as a mimic to GTP. Using the combination of anion-exclusion chromatography, gel-filtration and reverse-phase HPLC techniques he isolated residues 65-79 on the {beta}-chain as the major peptide in the GTP-binding domain. He also isolate residues 65-79 and 353-370 on the {alpha}-chain as minor peptides supporting the hypothesis that the phosphate region is in close proximity of the {alpha}-subunit.

  6. Direct observations of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) Air-Sea Exchange in the remote North Atlantic from the High-Wind Gas-Exchange Study (HiWinGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Yang, M. X.; Blomquist, B.; Huebert, B. J.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) are reactive trace gases that impact both chemistry and climate by regulating oxidant loadings, determining secondary organic aerosol production rates as well as altering particle hygroscopicity. While continental BVOC exchange rates are well studied, global marine flux estimates are poorly constrained. In Fall 2013, a chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToF-MS) utilizing benzene cations was deployed as part of the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGs) to quantify monoterpenes, isoprene and dimethylsulfide fluxes in the remote North Atlantic. Dimethylsulfide measurements are in strong agreement with those determined by the University of Hawaii's atmospheric pressure ionization mass-spectrometer. In the remote marine boundary layer, positive monoterpene fluxes (i.e. emissions) were observed while isoprene levels rarely exceeded the detection limit.

  7. Studying temporal and spatial variations of groundwater-surface water exchange flux for the Slootbeek (Belgium) using the LPML method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anibas, Christian; Schneideweind, Uwe; Vandersteen, Gerd; Huysmans, Marijke; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of groundwater-surface water interaction is important for the assessment of water resources and for the investigation of fate and transport of contaminants and nutrients. In streams and rivers exchange fluxes of water are sensitive to local and regional factors such as riverbed hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradients. Field monitoring in time and space is therefore indispensible for assessing the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction. Not only the complexity of the examined processes demand novel data processing and characterization tools, the amount of acquired data also urges for new modeling tools. These tools should be easily applicable, allow for a fast computation, and utilize the maximum amount of available data for detailed analysis, including uncertainties. Such analytical tools should be combined with modern field equipment, data processing tools, geographical information systems and geostatistics for best results. A simple and cost effective methodology to estimate groundwater-surface water interaction is the use of temperature as an environmental tracer (ANDERSON, 2005). LPML (VANDERSTEEN et al., 2014) is one of the most advanced analytical 1D coupled water flow and heat transport models, combining a local polynomial method with a maximum likelihood estimator. It is flexible, fast and able to create time series of exchange fluxes, as well as model quality and parameter uncertainty. LPML determines frequency response functions from measured temperature time series and an analytical model, and applies a non-linear optimization technique. With this tool the variability of groundwater-surface water interaction of the Belgian stream Slootbeek was assessed. Multilevel temperature sensors were placed in seven locations to obtain temperature-time series. Located at the streambed top and at six depths below, several months worth of data was collected and analyzed. Results identified a high spatial and temporal variability of vertical exchange fluxes for the investigated stream section. Fluxes ranged from strong exfiltration of -450 mm/d to infiltration fluxes of 110 mm/d. Events of high stream stages strongly influenced groundwater-surface water interaction, changing the normally gaining reach into a losing one. Measurements of vertical hydraulic gradients were used for validation. It was possible to relate the flow system of Slootbeek to earlier studies performed in the catchment (e.g. ANIBAS et al., 2009) to further advance the understanding of the regional groundwater flow system. These results show that the presented LPML methodology is flexible, fast and able to create reliable time series of groundwater-surface water interaction and their uncertainties. References ANDERSON, M.P. (2005): Heat as a Groundwater Tracer. Ground Water 43 (6): 951-968. ANIBAS, C., FLECKENSTEIN, J.H., VOLZE, N., BUIS, K., VERHOEVEN, R., MEIRE, P., BATELAAN, O. (2009): Transient or steady-state? Using vertical temperature profiles to quantify groundwater-surface water exchange. Hydrological Processes 23(15) 2165-2177. VANDERSTEEN, G., SCHNEIDEWIND, U., ANIBAS, C., SCHMIDT, C., SEUNTJENS, P., BATELAAN, O. (2014): Determining groundwater-surface water exchange from temperature time series: Combining a local polynomial method with a maximum likelihood estimator. Water Resour. Res. DOI: 10.1002/2014wr015994.

  8. Hosted by the Centre for Asian Studies, Institute of Promoting International Exchange Programs

    E-print Network

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    ) and ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). The keynote speech, on research and education in Japanese Studies. It is with great pleasure that the university invites leading authorities on Japanese Studies from prestigious for Leaders of Japanese Studies (AFJAS) in Prestigious Asian Universities, a forum focusing on Japanese

  9. Exploring Knowledge Exchange between Senior and Future Leaders: A Grounded-Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzaga, Stephanie Young

    2009-01-01

    A grounded theory study examined senior leaders methods of knowledge sharing with junior leaders in a small commercial mortgage company. The study was designed to develop an emergent theory to explain the cultural elements that influenced the methods leaders used to transfer knowledge to junior people. The study identified a systemic value of…

  10. Short-Term Faculty-Led Study Abroad Programs Enhance Cultural Exchange and Self-Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaia, A. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Though many experts argue that semester or year abroad study is the optimal path, short-term programs meet the needs of students who would not otherwise study abroad and can be effective at increasing intercultural competency. The present study describes one type of short-term program--the embedded faculty-led model--and provides evidence that…

  11. Perpendicular exchange bias behaviors of CoPt/IrMn and CoPt/FeMn bilayers: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, K. F.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2015-05-07

    In this study, FeMn was introduced as an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer to couple with a single-layered Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51} alloy thin film, and it was compared with a Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayer system in exchange bias (EB) effect, to explore the mechanism of spontaneous perpendicular exchange bias (PEB), which has been recently observed in CoPt/IrMn bilayers. Bilayers of CoPt/IrMn and CoPt/FeMn were prepared under the same conditions by sputtering at room temperature without any inducing field. Although PEB was observed in as-grown CoPt/FeMn bilayers, the loop shape and PEB behavior were found to exhibit different characteristics from those of CoPt/IrMn bilayers. The CoPt (5?nm)/FeMn (10?nm) bilayer has a sheared loop that is similar to a double-shifted loop and a much lower squareness ratio (SQR?=?0.52) and exchange bias field (H{sub e}?=?180?Oe) than the CoPt (5?nm)/IrMn (10?nm) system, which has a rectangular loop shape and a high SQR of 0.97 and large H{sub e} of 290?Oe. The two systems present entirely different dependences of PEB on the thickness of the AFM layer. CoPt/IrMn exhibits behavior that is typical of most EB systems, but for CoPt/FeMn, this dependence is more complicated with an unusual peak at an AFM layer thickness of 10?nm. Based on the dissimilar loop shapes and dependences of PEB on AFM thickness, the mechanisms of the spontaneously established PEB in these two systems are considered to differ. Investigations of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed no apparent difference between the interfacial microstructures of the two systems. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated the ?111? texture of both systems. Therefore, different interfacial spin configurations may be responsible for the dissimilar PEB behaviors in these two FM/AFM bilayer systems.

  12. Web-based documentation system with exchange of DICOM RT for multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, Kerstin A.; Bougatf, Nina; Bohn, Christian; Engelmann, Uwe; Oetzel, Dieter; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2012-02-01

    Conducting clinical studies is rather difficult because of the large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in radiation oncology. In this paper, we describe our development of a web-based documentation system with first approaches of automatic statistical analyses for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. It is possible to have immediate access to all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, all types of DICOM images, especially DICOM RT, and any other multimedia data. Accessing the documentation system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users (e.g. referring physicians from abroad, who are seeking the new technique of particle therapy for their patients). Thereby, security and privacy protection is ensured with the encrypted https protocol, client certificates, and an application gateway. Furthermore, all data can be pseudonymized. Integrated into the existing hospital environment, patient data is imported via various interfaces over HL7-messages and DICOM. Several further features replace manual input wherever possible and ensure data quality and entirety. With a form generator, studies can be individually designed to fit specific needs. By including all treated patients (also non-study patients), we gain the possibility for overall large-scale, retrospective analyses. Having recently begun documentation of our first six clinical studies, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and ultimately, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy.

  13. Parameter motivated mutual correlation analysis: Application to the study of currency exchange rates based on intermittency parameter and Hurst exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Constantin P.; Stan, Cristina; Scarlat, Eugen I.; Minea, Teofil; Cristescu, Cristina M.

    2012-04-01

    We present a novel method for the parameter oriented analysis of mutual correlation between independent time series or between equivalent structures such as ordered data sets. The proposed method is based on the sliding window technique, defines a new type of correlation measure and can be applied to time series from all domains of science and technology, experimental or simulated. A specific parameter that can characterize the time series is computed for each window and a cross correlation analysis is carried out on the set of values obtained for the time series under investigation. We apply this method to the study of some currency daily exchange rates from the point of view of the Hurst exponent and the intermittency parameter. Interesting correlation relationships are revealed and a tentative crisis prediction is presented.

  14. Experimental study of convective exchange in a low aspect ratio perforation: Application to cooling of multiperforated wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Phu Hung; Dorignac, Eva

    2008-10-15

    This work presents an experimental study pertaining to convective transfer in pipes with a square-edged inlet simulating the perforation of a multiperforated wall. The experiments were performed for a range of Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 35,000 and an aspect ratio from 2 to 8. The results achieved have allowed us to characterize the different flow areas within the pipe: takeoff, landing, and developed; they have also enabled us to highlight the influence of aerothermic (Re) and geometric (l/d, type of inlet and number of perforations) parameters. We are likewise proposing correlations allowing for determination of the convective exchange coefficient from preliminarily underscored characteristic points (maximum, minimum and established) in the perforation. (author)

  15. Exchangeable equilibria

    E-print Network

    Stein, Noah D. (Noah Daniel)

    2011-01-01

    The main contribution of this thesis is a new solution concept for symmetric games (of complete information in strategic form), the exchangeable equilibrium. This is an intermediate notion between symmetric Nash and symmetric ...

  16. Experimental study of a constrained vapor bubble fin heat exchanger in the absence of external natural convection.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sumita; Plawsky, Joel L; Wayner, Peter C

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for a microgravity flight experiment on the International Space Station, a constrained vapor bubble fin heat exchanger (CVB) was operated both in a vacuum chamber and in air on Earth to evaluate the effect of the absence of external natural convection. The long-term objective is a general study of a high heat flux, low capillary pressure system with small viscous effects due to the relatively large 3 x 3 x 40 mm dimensions. The current CVB can be viewed as a large-scale version of a micro heat pipe with a large Bond number in the Earth environment but a small Bond number in microgravity. The walls of the CVB are quartz, to allow for image analysis of naturally occurring interference fringes that give the pressure field for liquid flow. The research is synergistic in that the study requires a microgravity environment to obtain a low Bond number and the space program needs thermal control systems, like the CVB, with a large characteristic dimension. In the absence of natural convection, operation of the CVB may be dominated by external radiative losses from its quartz surface. Therefore, an understanding of radiation from the quartz cell is required. All radiative exchange with the surroundings occurs from the outer surface of the CVB when the temperature range renders the quartz walls of the CVB optically thick (lambda > 4 microns). However, for electromagnetic radiation where lambda < 2 microns, the walls are transparent. Experimental results obtained for a cell charged with pentane are compared with those obtained for a dry cell. A numerical model was developed that successfully simulated the behavior and performance of the device observed experimentally. PMID:15644365

  17. An Ethnographic Study of Elementary Teachers', Paraprofessionals', and Students' Language Exchanges during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron-Stanton, Desiree

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic study of language shows the importance of educators' appropriate use of linguistic, nonlinguistic, and paralinguistic communication techniques when working with elementary students within two classrooms who have behavioral and emotional disorders. This study focused on communication techniques used by teachers and…

  18. 77 FR 48491 - Regulatory New Drug Review: Solutions for Study Data Exchange Standards; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... comments to the Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane... study data management? Please address each of the following areas: (a) Study design/set-up, (b) capture... management process more efficient? 3. What does industry need to make clinical trials data management...

  19. Numerical study of heat transfer in two-row heat exchangers having extended fin surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sheui, T.W.H.; Tsai, S.F.; Chiang, T.P.

    1999-05-28

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional study of air through two-row cylinder tubes. The analysis is intended to present a comparison of numerical and experimental data to validate the laminar flow postulation. The current study explores the influence of four perforated fin surfaces on the pressure drop and heat transfer rate. To gain further insight into the three-dimensional vortical flow structure, the authors conduct a topological study of the velocity field. Examination of the surface flow topology and the flow patterns at cross-flow plumes sheds some light on the complex interaction of the cylinder tube with the mainstream flow. This study clearly reveals a saddle point in front of the first row of cylinder tubes. Also clearly revealed by the computed solutions is a flow reversal found in the wake of the tube. The character of the critical-point-induced flow is also addressed. This study shows that the addition of perforated fins is not without deficiency. There is, in fact, a trade-off between the benefit of having an improved heat transfer and the penalty of having an increased pressure drop.

  20. Toward a Checklist for Exchange and Interpretation of Data froma Toxicology Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of toxicogenomics came the need to share data across interdisciplinary teams and to deposit data associated with publications into public data repositories. Within a single institution, many variables associated with a study are standardized, for instance diet, an...

  1. LAB STUDY ON REGENERATION OF SPENT DOWEX 21K 16-20 MESH ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, J.B.

    2007-01-24

    Currently the effort to remove chromate from groundwater in the 100K and 100H Areas uses DOWEX 21K 16-20. This report addresses the procedure and results of a laboratory study for regeneration of the spent resin by sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, or sodium sulfate to determine if onsite regeneration by the Effluent Treatment Facility is a feasible option.

  2. Studies of Charge Exchange in a High?Pressure Pulsed Electron Impact Source

    E-print Network

    Sharma, D. K. Sen; Hierl, Peter M.; Franklin, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    A high pressure pulsed ion source has been used in a time?of?flight mass spectrometer in order to study the charge exchangereactions in Ar–H2 and Ar–D2 systems using the ion source in the ?ermák mode of operation. As the source was used in a pulsed...

  3. Cultural Exchange and the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Landsverk, John; Weisz, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The dynamics of interactions between evidence-based intervention (EBI) developers and trainers and organizations and providers that deliver the EBI was examined in two case studies, a statewide randomized effectiveness trial of an EBI to reduce child neglect and a randomized trial of EBIs for depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in…

  4. Synchronous brain activity during cooperative exchange depends on gender of partner: A fNIRS-based hyperscanning study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Xianchun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that brain activity between partners is synchronized during cooperative exchange. Whether this neural synchronization depends on the gender of partner (i.e., opposite or same to the participant) is open to be explored. In current study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based hyperscanning to study cooperation in a two-person game (female-female, female-male, and male-male) while assaying brain-to-brain interactions. Cooperation was greater in male-male pairs than in female-female pairs, with intermediate cooperation levels for female-male pairs. More importantly, in dyads with partners with opposite gender (female-male pairs), we found significant task-related cross-brain coherence in frontal regions (i.e., frontopolar cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) whereas the cooperation in same gender dyads (female-female pairs and male-male pairs) was not associated with such synchronization. Moreover, the changes of such interbrain coherence across task blocks were significantly correlated with change in degree of cooperation only in mixed-sex dyads. These findings suggested that different neural processes underlie cooperation between mixed-sex and same-sex dyadic interactions. PMID:25691124

  5. Monte Carlo study of the multiple exchange model in solid 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki

    1990-08-01

    By the mean field approximation, the Stipdonk and Hetherington's (SH) model which explains magnetism of solid 3He exhibits two successive phase transitions at H=O. Experimentally, there is only one phase transition, however. Then more detailed analysis is needed to remove this discrepancy. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation have done for the SH model. From the result, we can see that this mismatch is due to inaccuracy of the mean field approximation. We have also determined the phase boundary (U2D2-PARA and U2D2-HFP) in the H-T phase diagram.

  6. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-02-02

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections.

  7. Radioisotopic studies of the binding, exchange, and distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesized from its radioactivity precursor

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, M. D.; Ross, L. L.

    1966-01-01

    1. The synthesis, distribution, storage, and subsequent metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced in mice from the administration of its radioactive precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, has been investigated to form the basis for a similar study to be conducted by radioautography. 2. Intravenous injection of the radioactive material was found to be essential for significant uptake of radioactivity by tissue. The duration of the period during which radioactive material was available for uptake by the tissue was 2 hr. 3. The relative distribution of radioactivity in individual organs was studied and the radioactive compounds present in each were identified and quantitatively assayed. No unrelated routes of metabolism of the labelled material were found and radioautographic results may be interpreted in terms of the metabolic picture which emerged. 4. Radioactive 5-HT was bound in tissues in preference to both its precursor, and metabolite, 5-hydroxytryptamine-O-glucuronide, and the radioactive 5-HT produced in vivo after the injection of labelled 5-hydroxytryptophan probably entered and labelled the endogenous 5-HT pool. 5. Fixatives prepared with buffer solutions made hypertonic by the addition of sucrose could rapidly and effectively halt the movement of radioactive 5-HT out of tissues and prevent its subsequent extraction during histological processing. 6. It is concluded that localization of sites concerned with 5-HT metabolism by means of radioautography is feasible and the 5-HT so localized will probably reflect the physiological compartmentalization of the amine. PMID:5298336

  8. A Comprehensive Study of the Solubility, Thermochemistry, Ion Exchange and Precipitation Kinetics of NO3 Cancrinite and No3 Sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Jove-Colon, Carlos; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2004-12-31

    The precipitation of aluminosilicate phases from caustic nuclear wastes has proven to be problematic in a number of processes including radionuclide separations (cementation of columns by aluminosilicate phases), tank emptying (aluminosilicate tank heels), and condensation of wastes in evaporators (aluminosilicate precipitates in the evaporators, providing nucleation sites for growth of critical masses of radioactive actinide salts). In a collaboration between SNL and UCD, we have investigated why and how these phases form, and which conditions favor the formation of which phases. These studies have involved synthesis and characterization of aluminosilicate phases formed using a variety of synthesis techniques, kinetics of precipitation, structural investigations of aluminosilicate phases, thermodynamic calculations of aluminosilicate solubility, calorimetric studies of aluminosilicate precipitation, and a limited investigation of radionuclide partitioning and ion exchange processes (involving typical tank fluid chemistries and these materials). The predominant phases that are observed in the aluminosilicate precipitates from basic tanks wastes (i.e. Hanford, Savannah River Site ''SRS'' wastes) are the salt enclathrated zeolites: sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide sodalite and cancrinite. These phases precipitate readily from the high ionic strength, highly basic solutions at ambient temperatures as well as at elevated temperatures, with or without the presence of an external Al and Si source (both are contained in the waste solutions), and upon interactions with reactive soil components such as clays. This report focuses on the portion of the work performed at UC Davis by Professor Navrotsky's group.

  9. Comprehensive Study of the Solubility, Thermochemistry, Ion Exchange, and Precipitation Kinetics of NO3 Cancrinite and NO33 Sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Liu, Qinyuan

    2004-12-01

    The precipitation of aluminosilicate phases from caustic nuclear wastes has proven to be problematic in a number of processes including radionuclide separations (cementation of columns by aluminosilicate phases), tank emptying (aluminosilicate tank heels), and condensation of wastes in evaporators (aluminosilicate precipitates in the evaporators, providing nucleation sites for growth of critical masses of radioactive actinide salts). In a collaboration between SNL and UCD, we have investigated why and how these phases form, and which conditions favor the formation of which phases. These studies have involved synthesis and characterization of aluminosilicate phases formed using a variety of synthesis techniques, kinetics of precipitation, structural investigations of aluminosilicate phases, thermodynamic calculations of aluminosilicate solubility, calorimetric studies of aluminosilicate precipitation, and a limited investigation of radionuclide partitioning and ion exchange processes (involving typical tank fluid chemistries and these materials). The predominant phases that are observed in the aluminosilicate precipitates from basic tanks wastes (i.e. Hanford, Savannah River Site ''SRS'' wastes) are the salt enclathrated zeolites: sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide sodalite and cancrinite. These phases precipitate readily from the high ionic strength, highly basic solutions at ambient temperatures as well as at elevated temperatures, with or without the presence of an external Al and Si source (both are contained in the waste solutions), and upon interactions with reactive soil components such as clays.

  10. Forecasting of high frequency foreign currency data using artificial neural networks. A study of intraday USD/DEM exchange rates

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhia, P.; Antonious, A.; Esat, I.

    1996-12-31

    There has been much recent interest in the application of artificial intelligence systems to real world problems. Substantial interest has been shown in their application to investment markets. Artificial Neural Networks are the most common technique here. This paper is concerned with the use of ANNs in forecasting exchange rates. Much research has been carried out in currency markets. However, many of the studies use end of day or average quotes for currencies as a basis for prediction. A growing school of thought propose that markets are non-random in the short-term and can be shown to follow patterns. This short-term time span can be described as being a period when the markets are inefficient at price adjustments. The use of intraday data is an ideal testing ground for ANNs based research. This paper aims to study the intraday forecasting of the US Dollar/German Deutschmark and to address the question of whether ANNs can make acceptable predictions. The problems of forecasting in such a complex environment will be addressed.

  11. Study of Mesoscale Eddies in the Gulf of Lion and their role in the coastal-offshore exchanges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. Y.; Doglioli, A. M.; Petrenko, A. A.; Compbell, R.; Diaz, F.; Dekeyser, I.

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of LAgrangian Transport EXperiment (LATEX) project (2008-2011) is to study the influence of mesoscale structures on shelf-offshore exchanges in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). The LATEX strategy combines use of data from Lagrangian drifters, satellite images and hull-mounted ADCP data with numerical modeling. In this work, we simulate the mesoscale structures, occurring at the interface between the continental slope and the coastal margin in the GoL, by using a realistic numerical model. Numerical studies show a clear influence of mesoscale eddies on matter and energies transfers between the coastal zone and open sea. The features of the eddies such as their size, position and behaviour issued from the numerical modeling help us set up the sampling strategy of the cruises. The in situ measurements allow us to validate the numerical results and furthermore, combined with the modeling results, to well understand the eddies's dynamics. A numerical Lagrangian diagnostic tool is applied to analyze the model outputs. Qualitative and quantitative simulations are made in order to evaluate the eddies' potential impact on the coastal-offshore transfer of matter and energy.

  12. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability to capture rapidly-varying or small scale features such as rain cells or the mesoscale variability associated with river plumes and major western boundary currents. Finally, the study explores the ability of SMOS SSS to provide insights into new oceanographic processes when used in synergy with other data. Hence, synergy with Aquarius will be used to seek evidence of the possible impact of diurnal warming on the SMOS SSS data, and to explore differences in the salinity signatures of Tropical Instability Waves observed in the Pacific with SMOS and Aquarius.

  13. Experimental and numerical study of a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Sachin S.

    Hydrogen as a fuel source has received attention from researchers globally due to its potential to replace fossil based fuels for energy production. Research is being performed on hydrogen production, storage and utilization methods to make its use economically feasible relative to current energy sources. The PEM electrolyzer is used to produce hydrogen and oxygen using water and electricity. Focus of our study is to provide a benchmark experiment and numerical model of a single cell electrolyzer that can assist in improving the current state of understanding of this system. Parametric analysis of an experimental cell was performed to understand the effect of operating parameters of electrolyzer on its performance. A CFD model was developed to model the physics of electrolyzer. The model was validated with the experiment; the information presented here can be used as a tool to improve the design from thermo-fluid aspects of the electrolyzer.

  14. Comparative studies of land-atmosphere energy exchange in high and low Arctic tundra ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegler, Christian; Lindroth, Anders; Lund, Magnus; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

    2013-04-01

    The energy balance of arctic terrestrial ecosystems is of crucial importance to understand future climate change in high northern latitudes. Despite a growing interest in the Arctic local measurements and observations of climate characteristics are still scarce. Therefore, we present first results of comparative short- and long-term eddy covariance and energy balance measurements of high and low Arctic terrestrial ecosystems in Greenland. The study area covers high Arctic tundra heath and fen ecosystems in Zackenberg (Northeast Greenland National Park, 74°30'N, 21°00'W) and low Arctic terrestrial ecosystems in the Kobbefjord area close to the city of Nuuk (West Greenland, 64°07'N, 51°21'W). By using a mobile eddy covariance and energy balance tower we collected data during late winter (April 2012), early summer (June/July 2012) and late summer (August 2012). Mobile eddy covariance and energy balance measurements during late winter in Zackenberg focus on the energy balance of undisturbed snow covered surfaces with variable snow depth and snow layer structure. Data collection on thin snow layers with disturbed surfaces and exposed vegetation also show the impact of Muskox cratering on the surface energy balance. Measurements during early summer in the Kobbefjord area were conducted on characteristic bare soils with scattered cushion plants, on grasslands with sedge vegetation and on shrub vegetation up to 100 cm in height. Late summer measurements of energy balance and eddy covariance in the Zackenberg valley focus on transect measurements of energy balance components and active layer thickness of adjacent high arctic fen and heath ecosystems. In addition to the short-term mobile measurements we use and analyse data sets from permanent stations monitoring eddy covariance and energy balance on heath and fen sites in both high and low Arctic environments. Long-term measurements provide continuous data since early April 2012 and in this study we compare our mobile measurements with this long-term energy balance data sets. First results of albedo characteristics during late winter show distinct differences among the measured snow surfaces. Albedo during summer varies considerably within and between the high and low Arctic tundra sites. Further results of energy flux partitioning and energy balance closure will be presented and discussed at the conference.

  15. Spectroscopic study of water adsorption on Li(+), TMA(+) and HDTMA(+) exchanged montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Pálková, Helena; Hronský, Viktor; Bizovská, Valéria; Madejová, Jana

    2015-10-01

    The potential of IR and NMR spectroscopy in characterization the interaction of water with natural and organically modified montmorillonites was introduced. Organoclays were prepared from Li-saturated montmorillonite (Li-S) and tetramethylammonium (TMA) or hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) salts. The influence of organic cation size on the water vapour uptake was examined and a comparative study with natural clay mineral was provided. The near-IR spectra confirmed the reduced water content in TMA-S and HDTMA-S. After exposure of the samples to water vapour under various relative humidities (RH) the H2O content was determined. According to the adsorption isotherms the amount of water decreased in order Li-S>TMA-S>HDTMA-S. The intensities of the 2?OH and [Formula: see text] bands, corresponding to the vibrations of H2O, gradually increased in hydrated samples. The (13)C MAS NMR and near-IR of hydrated organoclays confirmed the presence of H2O close to the cation's headgroup. NMR signals of inner -CH2- groups in HDTMA-S were also affected by hydration: the intensity of disordered gauche conformers (31.1 ppm) overtook the intensity of ordered all-trans conformers (33.0 ppm). PMID:25989613

  16. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on conformation states and metal ion exchange properties of vanadium bromoperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    de Boer, E.; Boon, K.; Wever, R.

    1988-03-08

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study was carried out to examine structural aspects of vanadium-containing bromoperoxidase from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. At high pH, the reduced form of bromoperoxidase showed an apparently axially symmetric EPR signal with 16 hyperfine lines. When the pH was lowered, a new EPR spectrum was formed. When EPR spectra of the reduced enzyme were recorded in the pH range from 4.2 to 8.4, it appeared that these changes were linked to a functional group with an apparent pK/sub a/ of about 5.4. In D/sub 2/O this value for the pK/sub a/ was 5.3. It is suggested that these effects arise from protonation of histidine or aspartate/glutamate residues near the metal ion. The values for the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant of the reduced enzyme at both high and low pH are also consistent with a ligand field containing nitrogen and/or oxygen donor atoms. When reduced bromoperoxidase was dissolved in D/sub 2/O or H/sub 2//sup 17/O instead of H/sub 2//sup 16/O, vanadium (IV) hyperfine line widths were markedly affected, demonstrating that water is a ligand of the metal ion. Together with previous work these findings suggest that vanadium (IV) is not involved in catalytic turnover and confirm the model in which the vanadium (V) ion of the native enzyme only serves to bind both hydrogen peroxide and bromide. After excess vanadate was added to a homogeneous preparation of purified bromoperoxidase, the extent of vanadium bound to the protein increased from 0.5 to 1.1, with a concomitant enhancement of enzymic activity. Finally, it is demonstrated that both vanadate (VO/sub 4//sup 3 -/) and molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) compete for the same site on apobromoperoxidase.

  17. Manitoba Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coss, Maurice

    Planning ideas and follow-up activities are described for a reciprocal exchange program between groups of 5th and 6th grade students in Manitoba who are "twinned" with another school in the province. Emphasis is on providing learning experiences which help students become familiar with the economic activity in the area, with the local government…

  18. High-resolution studies of charge exchange in supernova remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X

    E-print Network

    Heine, Sarah Nicole Trowbridge

    2014-01-01

    Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. ...

  19. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1990-12-01

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their microtube-strip heat exchanger will contribute significantly to the following: (1) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (2) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (3) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO2 removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98 percent and relative pressure drops below 0.1 percent with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8 to 10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means.

  20. Cation exchange capacity (Qv) estimation in shaly sand reservoirs: case studies in the Junggar Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Mao, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Zhong-Chun; Luo, Xing-Ping; Deng, Ren-Shuang; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Ren, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Cation exchange capacity (Qv) is a key parameter in resistivity-based water saturation models of shaly sand reservoirs, and the accuracy of Qv calculation is crucial to the prediction of saturations of oil and gas. In this study, a theoretical expression of Qv in terms of shaly sand permeability (Kshaly-sand), total porosity (?t), and salinity of formation water (S) is deduced based on the capillary tube model and the physics volume model. Meanwhile, the classical Schlumberger-Doll research (SDR) model has been introduced to estimate Kshaly-sand. On this basis, a novel technique to estimate Qv from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs is proposed, and the corresponding model is also established, whose model parameters are calibrated by laboratory Qv and NMR measurements of 15 core samples from the Toutunhe formation of the Junggar Basin, northwest China. Based on the experimental data sets, this technique can be extended to reservoir conditions to estimate continuous Qv along the intervals. The processing results of field examples illustrate that the Qv calculated from field NMR logs are consistent with the analyzed results, with the absolute errors within the scope of??±0.1?mmol?cm-3 for the majority of core samples.

  1. Language and Development in Multilingual Settings: A Case Study of Knowledge Exchange and Teacher Education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassool, Naz; Edwards, Viv; Bloch, Carole

    2006-12-01

    The quality of a country's human-resource base can be said to determine its level of success in social and economic development. This study focuses on some?of the major human-resource development issues that surround the implementation of South Africa's policy of multilingualism in education. It begins by discussing the relationship between knowledge, language, and human-resource, social and economic development within the global cultural economy. It then considers the situation in South Africa and, in particular, the implications of that country's colonial and neo-colonial past for attempts to implement the new policy. Drawing on the linguistic-diversity-in-education debate in the United Kingdom of the past three decades, it assesses the first phase of an in-service teacher-education programme that was carried out at the Project for Alternative Education in South Africa (PRAESA) based at the University of Cape Town. The authors identify key short- and long-term issues related to knowledge exchange in education in multilingual societies, especially concerning the use of African languages as mediums for teaching and learning.

  2. A modeling study of water and salt exchange for a micro-tidal, stratified northern Gulf of Mexico estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Kyeong

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to the Mobile Bay system to study water and salt exchange with the northern Gulf of Mexico via Main Pass (MP) and eastern Mississippi Sound via Pass-aux-Herons (PaH). On average, more water leaves the Bay through MP than through PaH, and the Bay gains salt through MP and loses about the same amount through PaH. However, the volume discharge rate Qf and salt transport rate FS vary greatly in response to wind and river discharge with the range of variation 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding mean. Stratification plays a key role for salt transport through MP. During periods of large river discharge, the landward shear dispersive transport FE peaking during equatorial tides and the landward tidal oscillatory transport FT peaking during tropic tides, respectively, balance the seaward advective transport QfS0. During periods of relatively weak stratification, FS at MP is almost entirely determined by QfS0 and its variability is well correlated with north-south (along-estuary) wind, associated with the barotropic (water level) adjustment. At the shallow, weakly stratified PaH, FS is almost identical to QfS0, and Qf is well correlated with east-west wind, with the correlation becoming stronger during the dry period.

  3. Study of acetylene poisoning of Pt cathode on proton exchange membrane fuel cell spatial performance using a segmented cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetenko, Tatyana V.; St-Pierre, Jean

    2015-08-01

    Acetylene is a welding fuel and precursor for organic synthesis, which requires considering it to be a possible air pollutant. In this work, the spatial performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell exposed to 300 ppm C2H2 and different operating currents was studied with a segmented cell system. The injection of C2H2 resulted in a cell performance decrease and redistribution of segments' currents depending on the operating conditions. Performance loss was 20-50 mV at 0.1-0.2 A cm-2 and was accompanied by a rapid redistribution of localized currents. Acetylene exposure at 0.4-1.0 A cm-2 led to a sharp voltage decrease to 0.07-0.13 V and significant changes in current distribution during a transition period, when the cell reached a voltage of 0.55-0.6 V. A recovery of the cell voltage was observed after stopping the C2H2 injection. Spatial electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data showed different segments' behavior at low and high currents. It was assumed that acetylene oxidation occurs at high cell voltage, while it reduces at low cell potential. A detailed analysis of the current density distribution, its correlation with EIS data and possible C2H2 oxidation/reduction mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  4. A joint x-ray and neutron study on amicyanin reveals the role of protein dynamics in electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, N.; Mathews, F.S.; Langan, P.; Davidson, V.L.

    2010-06-21

    The joint x-ray/neutron diffraction model of the Type I copper protein, amicyanin from Paracoccus denitrificans was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. The protein was crystallized using reagents prepared in D{sub 2}O. About 86% of the amide hydrogen atoms are either partially or fully exchanged, which correlates well with the atomic depth of the amide nitrogen atom and the secondary structure type, but with notable exceptions. Each of the four residues that provide copper ligands is partially deuterated. The model reveals the dynamic nature of the protein, especially around the copper-binding site. A detailed analysis of the presence of deuterated water molecules near the exchange sites indicates that amide hydrogen exchange is primarily due to the flexibility of the protein. Analysis of the electron transfer path through the protein shows that residues in that region are highly dynamic, as judged by hydrogen/deuterium exchange. This could increase the rate of electron transfer by transiently shortening through-space jumps in pathways or by increasing the atomic packing density. Analysis of C-H{hor_ellipsis}X bonding reveals previously undefined roles of these relatively weak H bonds, which, when present in sufficient number can collectively influence the structure, redox, and electron transfer properties of amicyanin.

  5. Feature- and Face-Exchange illusions: new insights and applications for the study of the binding problem

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Arthur G.; Caplovitz, Gideon P.; Dixon, Erica L.

    2014-01-01

    The binding problem is a longstanding issue in vision science: i.e., how are humans able to maintain a relatively stable representation of objects and features even though the visual system processes many aspects of the world separately and in parallel? We previously investigated this issue with a variant of the bounce-pass paradigm, which consists of two rectangular bars moving in opposite directions; if the bars are identical and never overlap, the motion could equally be interpreted as bouncing or passing. Although bars of different colors should be seen as passing each other (since the colors provide more information about the bars' paths), we found “Feature Exchange”: observers reported the paradoxical perception that the bars appear to bounce off of each other and exchange colors. Here we extend our previous findings with three demonstrations. “Peripheral Feature-Exchange” consists of two colored bars that physically bounce (they continually meet in the middle of the monitor and return to the sides). When viewed in the periphery, the bars appear to stream past each other even though this percept relies on the exchange of features and contradicts the information provided by the color of the bars. In “Face-Exchange” two different faces physically pass each other. When fixating centrally, observers typically report the perception of bouncing faces that swap features, indicating that the Feature Exchange effect can occur even with complex objects. In “Face-Go-Round,” one face repeatedly moves from left to right on the top of the monitor, and the other from right to left at the bottom of the monitor. Observers typically perceive the faces moving in a circle—a percept that contradicts information provided by the identity of the faces. We suggest that Feature Exchange and the paradigms used to elicit it can be useful for the investigation of the binding problem as well as other contemporary issues of interest to vision science. PMID:25360096

  6. Heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; Keller, E. E. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An improved lightweight heat exchanger particularly suited for use in systems having low volume flow, high longitudinal gradient and high effectiveness requirements is described. The heat exchanger is characterized by a shell of an annular configuration, an endless plate of minimal thickness and of a substantially uniformly convoluted configuration disposed within the annular shell for defining a plurality of endless, juxtaposed passages, each having a low Reynold's number and being of an annular configuration. A pair of manifolds disposed 180 deg apart is mounted on the shell in communication with the passages through which counterflowing fluids are simultaneously introduced and extracted from the passageways for achieving a continuous transfer of heat through the convoluted plate.

  7. The stereoselective separation of serine containing peptides by zwitterionic ion exchanger type chiral stationary phases and the study of serine racemization mechanisms by isotope exchange and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reischl, Roland Johann; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2015-12-10

    The occurrence of d-amino acids (d-AAs) in higher-developed organisms in their free form, and within peptides and proteins, has been investigated with an increasing number of studies. Often the inversion of the stereochemical configuration of an individual amino acid drastically changes its biological activity. Alongside Asn and Asp, Ser is most prone to racemization within peptides. Specific enzymes catalyzing d-Ser generation and breakdown have been described. Hence, the applicability of enantioselective ZWIX(+)(®) and ZWIX(-)(®) chiral stationary phases (CSPs) to peptide separations was assessed and a set of 14 pairs of diastereomeric and enantiomeric Ser and Thr containing di-, tri- and tetra-peptides was chromatographically separated without prior hydrolysis to the individual amino acids. To a certain extent, RP chromatography also enabled the separation of peptide diastereomers. The ZWIX CSPs delivered chromatographic selectivities between 1.04 and 7.23, allowing a change of elution order by switching between the ZWIX(+) and the ZWIX(-) CSP. Coupling these highly selective chromatographic columns with an LTQ-Orbitrap XL™ mass spectrometer and performing high resolution MS(2) measurements enabled us to investigate mechanistic aspects of chemically induced racemization of Ser embedded in short peptides. As reaction medium an alkaline aqueous solution (pH 12.3) was selected. Proton/deuterium exchange experiments provided evidence of a fast C? proton exchange with simultaneous racemization. Additionally, (18)O/(16)O exchange allowed the identification of an alternative, and somewhat retarded racemization via a reversible ?-elimination and reintroduction of water at the hydroxymethyl side chain of Ser. This involved the intermediate generation of the prochiral didehydro alanine unit. PMID:25743621

  8. High-productivity membrane adsorbers: Polymer surface-modification studies for ion-exchange and affinity bioseparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenette, Heather C. S.

    This dissertation centers on the surface-modification of macroporous membranes to make them selective adsorbers for different proteins, and the analysis of the performance of these membranes relative to existing technology. The common approach used in these studies, which is using membrane technology for chromatographic applications and using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) as a surface modification technique, will be introduced and supported by a brief review in Chapter 1. The specific approaches to address the unique challenges and motivations of each study system are given in the introduction sections of the respective dissertation chapters. Chapter 2 describes my work to develop cation-exchange membranes. I discuss the polymer growth kinetics and characterization of the membrane surface. I also present an analysis of productivity, which measures the mass of protein that can bind to the stationary phase per volume of stationary phase adsorbing material per time. Surprisingly and despite its importance, this performance measure was not described in previous literature. Because of the significantly shorter residence time necessary for binding to occur, the productivity of these cation-exchange membrane adsorbers (300 mg/mL/min) is nearly two orders of magnitude higher than the productivity of a commercial resin product (4 mg/mL/min). My work studying membrane adsorbers for affinity separations was built on the productivity potential of this approach, as articulated in the conclusion of Chapter 2. Chapter 3 focuses on the chemical formulation work to incorporate glycoligands into the backbone of polymer tentacles grown from the surface of the same membrane stationary phase. Emphasis is given to characterizing and testing the working formulation for ligand incorporation, and details about how I arrived at this formulation are given in Appendix B. The plant protein, or lectin, Concanavalin A (conA) was used as the target protein. The carbohydrate affinity membrane adsorbers were found to have a static binding capacity for con A (6.0 mg/mL) that is nearly the same as the typical dextran-based separation media used in practice. Binding under dynamic conditions was tested using flow rates of 0.1-1.0 mL/min. No bound lectin was observed for the higher flow rate. The first Damkohler number was used to assess whether adsorption kinetics or mass transport contributed the limitation to conA binding. Analyses indicate that this system is not limited by the accessibility of the binding sites, but by the inherently low rate of adsorption of conA onto the glycopolymer. The research described in Chapter 4 focuses on reaction chemistry experiments to incorporate a phosphonate-based polymer in the membrane platform to develop a new class of affinity adsorbers that function based on their affinity for Arginine (Arg) amino acid residues. The hypothesis was that benzyl phosphonate-containing functional polymers would form strong complexes with Arg-rich proteins as a result of multivalent binding. Introducing a new class of affinity membranes for purification of Arg-rich and Arg-tagged proteins may have an impact similar to the introduction of immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), which would be a significant achievement. Using Arg-tags would overcome some of the associated drawbacks of using metal ions in IMAC. Additionally, some cell penetrating peptides are said to be Arg-rich, and this would be a convenient feature to exploit for their isolation and purification. Lysozyme was used as a model Arg-rich protein. The affinity membranes show a static binding capacity of 3 mg/mL. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Exchange bias in two-dimensional layers of interacting nanoparticles with random magnetic anisotropy: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruyters, M.

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate magnetic properties of two-dimensional layers of interacting nanoparticles (clusters) with random anisotropy. The model refers to thin granular antiferromagnetic films with net particle moments which are often encountered in exchange bias systems. The shape and the shift of hysteresis loops experimentally observed in metal oxide and metal oxide/ferromagnet systems can be reproduced by the interplay of two microscopic properties, the random anisotropy and the interparticle interaction. The existence of hysteresis turns out to be connected with spin-glass-like behavior. Random magnetic anisotropy of exchange-interacting nanoparticles (clusters) thus emerges as a new approach to the problem of exchange bias in granular (cluster) systems.

  10. Increasing NDVI values in northern Alaska: studies that mix shrub density, spectral and CO2 exchange measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Smith, A.; Lewis, A.; Sullivan, P.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Delineating the mechanisms and consequences of changes in tundra landscapes is central to predicting the functional ecology of Alaska in the 21st Century. Evidence has been mounting during the last decade that shrub communities are expanding in the Arctic and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values which measure surface greenness are rising. Several studies have suggested that NDVI increases are being driven by increases in shrub abundance. While it is clear that NDVI has increased across vegetation types, it is not clear that NDVI values are increasing in moist acidic tundra (MAT), the most extensive vegetation type in arctic Alaska and the one most likely to be changed by global warming. The MAT is important to large mammal herbivores such as caribou which provide subsistence for indigenous people. The focus of this research was to determine what rising NDVI values actually mean in the MAT. The degree to which tundra community composition affects NDVI is still very poorly understood. In order to clarify the role of shrub encroachment per se as opposed to other functional groups in driving increases in NDVI, we measured functional group composition in moist acidic tundra in conjunction with hand-held measures of NDVI and direct CO2 exchange measurements to explicitly link spectral properties, shrub, graminoid and bryophyte density and trace gas feedbacks to atmospheric chemistry. Point frame data shows a shrub coverage of Betula nana (Dwarf Birch) and Salix pulchra (Diamond Leaf Willow) combined of 5% to 35% in MAT. Our results seem to indicate that high shrub density (>30%) corresponds to peak season NDVI values greater than .75 whereas low shrub density correspond to values below .65 (R2=.66). Furthermore, NDVI is closely correlated with canopy leaf area and greater leaf area is associated with higher rates of gross and net ecosystem CO2 uptake.

  11. Study of plate-fin heat exchanger and cold plate for the active thermal control system of Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyu, MING-C.

    1992-01-01

    Plate-fin heat exchangers will be employed in the Active Thermal Control System of Space Station Freedom. During ground testing of prototypic heat exchangers, certain anomalous behaviors have been observed. Diagnosis has been conducted to determine the cause of the observed behaviors, including a scrutiny of temperature, pressure, and flow rate test data, and verification calculations based on such data and more data collected during the ambient and thermal/vacuum tests participated by the author. The test data of a plate-fin cold plate have been also analyzed. Recommendation was made with regard to further tests providing more useful information of the cold plate performance.

  12. Validation of a Mechanistic Model for Non-Invasive Study of Ecological Energetics in an Endangered Wading Bird with Counter-Current Heat Exchange in its Legs

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Megan J.; Mathewson, Paul D.; Porter, Warren P.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic models provide a powerful, minimally invasive tool for gaining a deeper understanding of the ecology of animals across geographic space and time. In this paper, we modified and validated the accuracy of the mechanistic model Niche Mapper for simulating heat exchanges of animals with counter-current heat exchange mechanisms in their legs and animals that wade in water. We then used Niche Mapper to explore the effects of wading and counter-current heat exchange on the energy expenditures of Whooping Cranes, a long-legged wading bird. We validated model accuracy against the energy expenditure of two captive Whooping Cranes measured using the doubly-labeled water method and time energy budgets. Energy expenditure values modeled by Niche Mapper were similar to values measured by the doubly-labeled water method and values estimated from time-energy budgets. Future studies will be able to use Niche Mapper as a non-invasive tool to explore energy-based limits to the fundamental niche of Whooping Cranes and apply this knowledge to management decisions. Basic questions about the importance of counter-current exchange and wading to animal physiological tolerances can also now be explored with the model. PMID:26308207

  13. Structure-dynamic determinants governing a mode of regulatory response and propagation of allosteric signal in splice variants of Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) proteins.

    PubMed

    Giladi, Moshe; Lee, Su Youn; Hiller, Reuben; Chung, Ka Young; Khananshvili, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent allosteric regulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) proteins represents Ca(2+) interaction with the cytosolic domains, CBD1 (calcium-binding domain 1) and CBD2, which is associated either with activation, inhibition or no response to regulatory Ca(2+) in a given splice variant. CBD1 contains a high affinity Ca(2+)-sensor (which is highly conserved among splice variants), whereas primary information upon Ca(2+) binding to CBD1 is modified by alternative splicing of CBD2, yielding the diverse regulatory responses to Ca(2+). To resolve the structure-dynamic determinants of splicing-dependent regulation, we tested two-domain tandem (CBD12) constructs possessing either positive, negative or no response to Ca(2+) using hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS (HDX-MS), SAXS, equilibrium 45Ca(2+) binding and stopped-flow kinetics. Taken together with previously resolved crystallographic structures of CBD12, the data revealed that Ca(2+) binding to CBD1 rigidifies the main-chain flexibility of CBD2 (but not of CBD1), whereas CBD2 stabilizes the apo-CBD1. Strikingly, the extent and strength of Ca(2+)-dependent rigidification of CBD2 is splice-variant dependent, where the main-chain rigidification spans from the Ca(2+)-binding sites of CBD1, through a helix of CBD2 (positioned at the domains' interface) up to the tip of CBD2 [>50 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm)] or alternatively, it stops at the CBD2 helix in the splice variant exhibiting an inhibitory response to regulatory Ca(2+). These results provide a structure-dynamic basis by which alternative splicing diversifies the regulatory responses to Ca(2+) as well as controls the extent and strength of allosteric signal propagation over long distance. PMID:25387769

  14. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  15. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, Phillip J. (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  16. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Saperstein, Z.P.; Awe, R.C.; Costello, N.F.; Larrabee, S.R.

    1986-10-07

    A heat exchanger is described which consists of: spaced generally parallel header and tank constructions; each of the header and tank constructions having elongated, spaced, tube receiving holes in a header surface thereof; the holes in one header surface being aligned with and facing corresponding holes in the other header surface; and elongated open ended, flattened tubes extending between and into the header and tank constructions through aligned ones of the holes; the portions of each header surface between the holes including exteriorly convex domes defined by compound curves to thereby provide increased resistance to deformation as a result of force exerted by a pressurized fluid within the header and tank construction.

  17. Heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbury, P.J.

    1983-12-08

    A heat exchanger comparising a shell attached at its open end to one side of a tube sheet and a detachable head connected to the other side of said tube sheet. The head is divided into a first and second chamber in fluid communication with a nozzle inlet and nozzle outlet, respectively, formed in said tube sheet. A tube bundle is mounted within said shell and is provided with inlets and outlets formed in said tube sheet in communication with said first and second chambers, respectively.

  18. Native American-Native Siberian Cultural Exchange: Ancient Tribal Connections Come to Light in Monument Valley Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Describes the 1995-97 student exchange program between the Navajo Nation in San Juan School District, Utah, and the Khanty-Mansisk region of Siberia. Similarities were found in language, string games, folk tales, sweat lodges, clan traditions, traditional arts and crafts, and stories of ancient meetings between the two peoples and use of the…

  19. A Study of Learners' Perceptions of Online Intercultural Exchange through Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina; Markey, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a Spanish-American telecollaborative project through which students used "Twitter," blogs and podcasts for intercultural exchange over the course of one semester. The paper outlines the methodology for the project including pedagogical objectives, task design, selection of web tools and implementation. Using…

  20. The Consortium for Student Retention Data Exchange: A Case Study of Consortium Development. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Theresa Y.

    The Consortium for Student Retention Data Exchange was established in 1994. Its membership increased from 163 colleges and universities in 1994 to more than 400 in 2001. Over the past 8 years, the routine of working with a large and diverse group of institutions has culminated in a valuable collection of experiences and lessons. The 8-year…

  1. Knowledge Exchange between Universities and the Creative Industries in the UK: A Case Study of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Morag

    2014-01-01

    The importance to the economy of knowledge exchange between universities and industry has long been recognized, and in the UK a number of initiatives are in place to support such activities. These initiatives have helped to stimulate engagement between universities and the creative industries, a sector of increasing importance to the UK economy.…

  2. Linguistic and Cultural Exchange and Appropriation: A Survey Study in a Multi-Ethnic Neighbourhood in The Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongenburger, Willy; Aarssen, Jeroen

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the interplay between languages and cultures in the multilingual and multicultural neighborhood of Lombok/Transvaal in Utrecht in The Netherlands. Results confirm that because Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese immigrants differ with respect to immigration history, level of education, and Dutch proficiency, processes of exchange and…

  3. Studies on the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cells by various tobacco alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Riebe, M; Westphal, K

    1983-12-01

    Of five tobacco alkaloids tested, only anatabine led to a dose-dependent enhancement of the number of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). Nicotine and nornicotine at high concentrations increased the baseline frequency of SCEs moderately. Anabasine and myosmine had no influence on the spontaneous frequency of SCEs. PMID:6318103

  4. Dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism at Cu(II) in water: An ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics study with extended quantum mechanical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Syed Tarique; Hofer, Thomas S.; Weiss, Alexander K. H.; Rode, Bernd M.

    2013-07-01

    Ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF-MD) were successfully applied to Cu(II) embedded in water to elucidate structure and to understand dynamics of ligand exchange mechanism. From the simulation studies, it was found that using an extended large quantum mechanical region including two shells of hydration is required for a better description of the dynamics of exchanging water molecules. The structural features characterized by radial distribution function, angular distribution function and other analytical parameters were consistent with experimental data. The major outcome of this study was the dynamics of exchange mechanism and reactions in the first hydration shell that could not be studied so far. The dynamical data such as mean residence time of the first shell water molecules and other relevant data from the simulations are close to the results determined experimentally. Another major characteristic of hydrated Cu(II) is the Jahn-Teller distortion which was also successfully reproduced, leading to the final conclusion that the dominating aqua complex is a 6-coordinated species. The ab initio QMCF-MD formalism proved again its capabilities of unraveling even ambiguous properties of hydrated species that are far difficult to explore by any conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach or experiment.

  5. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  6. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering study of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weidong; Wu, Zhaojun; Gu, Xiaohua; Xing, Xueqing; Mo, Guang; Wu, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    The size and distribution of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged silicate glass induced by thermal treatments in air at different temperatures were investigated by means of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering technique, X-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra. Silver-sodium ion exchange of soda-lime silicate glasses was done at 350 °C for 240 min, then the samples were treated by thermal annealing in air at different temperatures 400, 500 and 550 °C, respectively, for 1 h. After the annealing treatment above 400 °C for 1 h, smaller Ag nanoparticles occurred, together with bigger ones. Both dissolution of smaller Ag nanoparticles and diffusion of larger ones are discussed in these stages of annealing in this contribution.

  7. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  8. Flax pond ecosystem study: exchanges of CO/sub 2/ between a salt marsh and the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1980-12-01

    Profiles of CO/sub 2/ concentration, windspeed, and temperature were used in the aerodynamic flux technique to calculate the CO/sub 2/ exchange between a Long Island salt marsh and the atmosphere. Uptake of CO/sub 2/ by the marsh during hours of sunlight and release during the night occurred during all times of the year. The rates of CO/sub 2/ exchange were highest during midsummer, 2.3 g CO/sub 2/.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/ averaged over the daylight hours of July, and 1.3 g CO/sub 2/.m/sup -2/.h/sup -1/ for both uptake and release. The net 24-h exchange rates followed Spartina growth and senescence during the summer and fall, and photosynthesis of benthic algae during late winter and spring. There was a net uptake of Co/sub 2/ over 24 h by the marsh during all seasons except autumn. The net annual flow of carbon was from the atmosphere to Flax Pond (approx. = 300 g C.m/sup -2/.yr/sup -1/ averaged over the entire marsh ecosystem). This flux was larger than the net exchange of carbon between the marsh and either uplands, sediments, or coastal waters. The net uptake of CO/sub 2/ during summer was less than the net productivity of the vascular plants, indicating that some of the CO/sub 2/ assimilated by the plants came from heterotrophic respiration within the marsh. Nevertheless, respiration by the plants was by far the largest source of CO/sub 2/ from the marsh surface. Nighttime respiration of the ecosystem released a total of approx. = 510 g C.m/sup -2/.yr/sup -1/ to the atmosphere.

  9. Experimental study and numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer performance on an offset plate-fin heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Juan; Qian, Zuo-Qin; Dai, Zhong-yuan

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of an offset plate-fin heat exchanger for cooling of lubricant oil is conducted. The empirical correlations for j-factor and f-factor are obtained by evaluating the experimental data with a modified Wilson plot method. A numerical simulation is performed and the comparison between numerical results and experimental data are presented and discussed. The results show that the simulation results are consistent with experimental data.

  10. Studies of the effect of variation of blend ratio on permselectivity and heterogeneity of ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Vyas, P V; Ray, P; Adhikary, S K; Shah, B G; Rangarajan, R

    2003-01-01

    Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes (both cationic and anionic types) have been synthesized by solution casting techniques using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as binder and ion-exchange resin (-300+400 mesh). The binder:resin ratio varied from 60:40 to 30:70. The transport behavior of the membranes has been evaluated chronopotentiometrically in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions of different concentrations. The different parameters E(0) (potential drop across the membrane at the instant of application of current I), E(max) (maximum potential drop across the membrane after the application of current I), DeltaE (magnitude of the potential jump across the membrane at transition time tau), Itau(1/2), tau, etc., have been evaluated. The isoconductance points were determined and based on the microheterogeneous model proposed by Zabolotsky and Nikonenko (J. Membrane Sci. 79 (1993) 181) the distribution factors beta has been evaluated for both types of ion exchange membranes. The electroconductivity of the joint gel (kappa ) and pure gel phases (kappa ' ) has been determined. At any particular solution concentration the transport number as well as the permselectivity of membranes increases with increased resin content of the membrane. The microheterogeneity factor beta exhibits synchronization among the each set of four different membranes for both the cationic and anionic type. PMID:16256464

  11. High ionic strength narrows the population of sites participating in protein ion-exchange adsorption: a single-molecule study.

    PubMed

    Kisley, Lydia; Chen, Jixin; Mansur, Andrea P; Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Kulla, Eliona; Kang, Marci K; Shuang, Bo; Kourentzi, Katerina; Poongavanam, Mohan-Vivekanandan; Dhamane, Sagar; Willson, Richard C; Landes, Christy F

    2014-05-23

    The retention and elution of proteins in ion-exchange chromatography is routinely controlled by adjusting the mobile phase salt concentration. It has repeatedly been observed, as judged from adsorption isotherms, that the apparent heterogeneity of adsorption is lower at more-eluting, higher ionic strength. Here, we present an investigation into the mechanism of this phenomenon using a single-molecule, super-resolution imaging technique called motion-blur Points Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (mbPAINT). We observed that the number of functional adsorption sites was smaller at high ionic strength and that these sites had reduced desorption kinetic heterogeneity, and thus narrower predicted elution profiles, for the anion-exchange adsorption of ?-lactalbumin on an agarose-supported, clustered-charge ligand stationary phase. Explanations for the narrowing of the functional population such as inter-protein interactions and protein or support structural changes were investigated through kinetic analysis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and microscopy of agarose microbeads, respectively. The results suggest the reduction of heterogeneity is due to both electrostatic screening between the protein and ligand and tuning the steric availability within the agarose support. Overall, we have shown that single molecule spectroscopy can aid in understanding the influence of ionic strength on the population of functional adsorbent sites participating in the ion-exchange chromatographic separation of proteins. PMID:24751557

  12. High ionic strength narrows the population of sites participating in protein ion-exchange adsorption: A single-molecule study

    PubMed Central

    Kisley, Lydia; Chen, Jixin; Mansur, Andrea P.; Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Kulla, Eliona; Kang, Marci; Shuang, Bo; Kourentzi, Katerina; Poongavanam, Mohan-Vivekanandan; Dhamane, Sagar; Willson, Richard C.; Landes, Christy F.

    2014-01-01

    The retention and elution of proteins in ion-exchange chromatography is routinely controlled by adjusting the mobile phase salt concentration. It has repeatedly been observed, as judged from adsorption isotherms, that the apparent heterogeneity of adsorption is lower at more-eluting, higher ionic strength. Here, we present an investigation into the mechanism of this phenomenon using a single-molecule, super-resolution imaging technique called motion-blur Points Accumulation for Imaging in Nanoscale Topography (mbPAINT). We observed that the number of functional adsorption sites was smaller at high ionic strength and that these sites had reduced desorption kinetic heterogeneity, and thus narrower predicted elution profiles, for the anion-exchange adsorption of ?-lactalbumin on an agarose-supported, clustered-charge ligand stationary phase. Explanations for the narrowing of the functional population such as inter-protein interactions and protein or support structural changes were investigated through kinetic analysis, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and microscopy of agarose microbeads, respectively. The results suggest the reduction of heterogeneity is due to both electrostatic screening between the protein and ligand and tuning the steric availability within the agarose support. Overall, we have shown that single molecule spectroscopy can aid in understanding the influence of ionic strength on the population of functional adsorbent sites participating in the ion-exchange chromatographic separation of proteins. PMID:24751557

  13. Kinetics of Hg(II) exchange between organic ligands, goethite, and natural organic matter studied with an enriched stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Saile, Damian; Wiederhold, Jan G; Bourdon, Bernard; Björn, Erik; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-11-18

    The mobility and bioavailability of toxic Hg(II) in the environment strongly depends on its interactions with natural organic matter (NOM) and mineral surfaces. Using an enriched stable isotope approach, we investigated the exchange of Hg(II) between dissolved species (inorganically complexed or cysteine-, EDTA-, or NOM-bound) and solid-bound Hg(II) (carboxyl-/thiol-resin or goethite) over 30 days under constant conditions (pH, Hg and ligand concentrations). The Hg(II)-exchange was initially fast, followed by a slower phase, and depended on the properties of the dissolved ligands and sorbents. The results were described by a kinetic model allowing the simultaneous determination of adsorption and desorption rate coefficients. The time scales required to reach equilibrium with the carboxyl-resin varied greatly from 1.2 days for Hg(OH)2 to 16 days for Hg(II)-cysteine complexes and approximately 250 days for EDTA-bound Hg(II). Other experiments could not be described by an equilibrium model, suggesting that a significant fraction of total-bound Hg was present in a non-exchangeable form (thiol-resin and NOM: 53-58%; goethite: 22-29%). Based on the slow and incomplete exchange of Hg(II) described in this study, we suggest that kinetic effects must be considered to a greater extent in the assessment of the fate of Hg in the environment and the design of experimental studies, for example, for stability constant determination or metal isotope fractionation during sorption. PMID:25280234

  14. Preliminary studies on the heat exchanger option for S-CO{sub 2} power conversion cycle coupled to water cooled SMR

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Y.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    For more than a half century, the steam Rankine cycle had been the major power conversion cycle for a nuclear power plant. However, as the interest on the next generation reactors grows, a variety of alternative power conversion systems have been studied. Among them, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle (Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle) is considered as a promising candidate due to several benefits such as 1) Relatively high thermal efficiency at relatively low turbine inlet temperature, 2) High efficiency with simple lay-out 3) Compactness of turbo-machineries. 4) Compactness of total cycle combined with PCHE (Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger). According to the conventional classification of heat exchangers (HE), there are three kind of HE, 1) Tubular HEs, 2) Plate-type HEs, 3) Extended surface HEs. So far, the researcher has mostly assumed PCHE type HE for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle due to its compactness with reasonably low pressure drop. However, PCHE is currently one of the most expensive components in the cycle, which can have a negative effect on the economics of the cycle. Therefore, an alternative for the HE should be seriously investigated. By comparing the operating condition (pressure and temperature) there are three kind of HE in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, 1) IHX (Intermediate Heat exchanger) 2) Recuperator and 3) Pre-cooler. In each heat exchanger, hot side and cold side coolants are different, i.e. reactor coolant to S-CO{sub 2} (IHX), S-CO{sub 2} to S-CO{sub 2}(Recuperator), S-CO{sub 2} to water (Pre-cooler). By considering all the attributes mentioned above, all existing types of heat exchangers are compared to find a possible alternative to PCHE. The comparing factors are 1) Size(volume), 2) Cost. Plate fin type HEs are considered to be the most competitive heat exchanger regarding the size and the cost after some improvements on the design limit are made. (authors)

  15. Single crystal EPR study of electronic structure and exchange interactions for copper(II)(L-arginine)2(SO4).(H2O)6: a model system to study exchange interactions between unpaired spins in proteins.

    PubMed

    Santana, R C; Cunha, R O; Carvalho, J F; Vencato, I; Calvo, R

    2005-02-01

    We report EPR measurements at 9.77 and 34.1 GHz in powder and single crystal samples of the ternary copper amino acid complex Cu(L-arginine)(2)(SO(4)).(H(2)O)(6). The single crystal Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra display a single resonance for all magnetic field orientations in the ca and cb crystal planes. In the ab plane they display two resonances for most orientations of the magnetic field, and only one resonance for orientations close to the crystal axes. This behavior is a result of the selective collapse of the resonances corresponding to the four copper sites in the unit cell produced by the exchange interactions between copper ions. From the characteristics of the collapse and the angular dependences of the position and width of the resonances we evaluate the g-tensors of the copper molecules and estimate exchange interactions |J(1)/k(B)|=0.9 K and |J(2)/k(B)|=0.009 K between copper neighbors at 5.908 A and at 15.684 A, respectively. J(1) is assigned to a syn-anti equatorial-apical carboxylate bridge with a total bond length of 7.133 A. J(2) is assigned to a long bridge of 12 atoms with a total bond length of 19.789 A, that includes two hydrogen bonds. The results are discussed in terms of the crystal and electronic structure of Cu(L-arginine)(2)(SO(4)).(H(2)O)(6). We show that J(2) is in excellent agreement with the observed magnetic interaction between the reduced quinone acceptors in the photosynthetic reaction center protein of the bacterium Rb. sphaeroides, which is transmitted along a similar chemical path containing two hydrogen bonds. Our findings indicate that it is valid to estimate values for the exchange interactions between redox centers in proteins transmitted along long chemical paths containing sigma and H-bonds, from data obtained in model systems, and emphasize the importance of measuring exchange interactions in biologically relevant model systems. PMID:15621273

  16. Origin of Terrestrial Water: Hydrogen/Deuterium Fractionation into Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Buseck, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic compositions are among the most important constraints on the origin of Earth's water. Earth's bulk water content, which is small but not negligible, is significantly greater than what the thermal gradient of the solar nebula disk would suggest for planetesimal materials condensed at one astronomical unit. The proto-solar nebula is a likely source of early Earth's water, with probable contributions from one or more of the following: water-rich planetesimals, ordinary and carbonaceous meteorites, comets, asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles. However, all of these sources have been questioned, and the proposed proto-solar nebular origin has been disputed in light of the large difference in hydrogen isotopic composition between it and terrestrial water. Current opposition to the solar nebular hypothesis is based on the critical assumption that no processes in the interior of the early Earth changed the isotopic composition of hydrogen. Nevertheless, a hypothesized hydrogenation reaction of liquid iron (2Fe + xH2 ? 2FeHx) during core formation likely provided a fractionation mechanism between hydrogen and deuterium (D). We propose that modern D/H ratios at Earth's surface resulted from this isotopic fractionation and that terrestrial water originated from oxidation of proto-solar hydrogen dissolved in the magma ocean in the early Earth by coexisting oxides (such as FeO). Thus, the isotopic composition of water on Earth can be mainly explained by internal terrestrial processes.

  17. Extragalactic Abundances of Hydrogen, Deuterium and Helium New Steps, Missteps and Next Steps

    E-print Network

    Hogan, C J

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the deuterium abundance in quasar absorbers are reviewed, including a brief account of incorrect claims published by the author and a brief review of the problem of hydrogen contamination. It is concluded that the primordial abundance may be universal with a value $(D/H)_P\\approx 10^{-4}$, within about a factor of two, corresponding to $\\Omega_B h_{0.7}^2\\approx 0.02$ or $\\eta_{10}\\approx 2.7$ in the Standard Big Bang. This agrees with current limits on primordial helium, $Y_P\\le 0.243$, which are shown to be surprisingly insensitive to models of stellar enrichment. It also agrees with a tabulated sum of the total density of baryons in observed components. Much lower primordial deuterium ($\\approx 2\\times 10^{-5}$) is also possible but disagrees with currently estimated helium abundances; the larger baryon density in this case fits better with current models of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest but requires the bulk of the baryons to be in some currently uncounted form.

  18. Extragalactic Abundances of Hydrogen, Deuterium and Helium: New Steps, Missteps and Next Steps

    E-print Network

    Craig J. Hogan

    1997-12-02

    Estimates of the deuterium abundance in quasar absorbers are reviewed, including a brief account of incorrect claims published by the author and a brief review of the problem of hydrogen contamination. It is concluded that the primordial abundance may be universal with a value $(D/H)_P\\approx 10^{-4}$, within about a factor of two, corresponding to $\\Omega_B h_{0.7}^2\\approx 0.02$ or $\\eta_{10}\\approx 2.7$ in the Standard Big Bang. This agrees with current limits on primordial helium, $Y_P\\le 0.243$, which are shown to be surprisingly insensitive to models of stellar enrichment. It also agrees with a tabulated sum of the total density of baryons in observed components. Much lower primordial deuterium ($\\approx 2\\times 10^{-5}$) is also possible but disagrees with currently estimated helium abundances; the larger baryon density in this case fits better with current models of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest but requires the bulk of the baryons to be in some currently uncounted form.

  19. Neighbourhood Book Exchanges: Localising Information Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Tenny; Gollner, Kathleen; Nathan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Through this paper we report on an exploratory study into the design and use of neighbourhood book exchanges in North America. We identify dominant media framings of these book exchanges in North America, along with claims made concerning the influence of the exchanges. We compare the media claims with insights from interviews with…

  20. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  1. Fully correlated study of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He hypernucleus including {lambda}N space-exchange correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, A. A.; Hasan, Z.

    2006-09-15

    We present a fully correlated study of the six-body {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 6}He hypernucleus. The wave function involves all relevant dynamic correlations as well as the space-exchange correlation (SEC). Calculations for energy breakdown, {lambda}{lambda}-separation energy, nuclear core polarization, and point proton radius have been performed. The baryon density profiles have also been calculated. Effect of SEC on all these physical observables is found to be significant. The findings suggest that a study ignoring SEC would be deficient.

  2. The spin-transition properties of Fe(III) complexes with hetarylformazan in an ion-exchange polymer: An EPR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskaya, G. P.; Frolova, E. N.; Ovchinnikov, I. V.; Pervova, I. G.; Rezinskikh, Z. G.

    2010-08-01

    For the first time, the EPR method was used to reveal and study the special features of spin-transition processes between high-spin and low-spin iron(III) complexes with hetarylformazans immobilized on an ion-exchange polymer. An analysis of completely reversible temperature dependences of EPR line positions, widths, and integral intensities in the spectra of high-spin and low-spin complexes allowed four temperature intervals to be identified. These intervals corresponded to preparative periods of spin-transition processes (450-275 K, intervals I and II), their appearance (275-230 K, interval III), and occurrence (230-100 K, interval IV). Local concentrations and spin exchange frequencies in clusters were estimated. Effects related to high-spin complex EPR signal shifts during temperature changes and to the duration of sample storage were revealed. High-spin complexes were found to be very sensitive to external actions, as distinct from very stable low-spin complexes. Experimental EPR observations obtained for ion-exchange polymer satisfied the concept of the nucleation and growth of domains in the spin-transition process.

  3. Heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Niggemann, R.E.

    1987-01-20

    A heat exchanger is described comprising: a liquid impingement plate having a liquid carrying channel therein; means for spraying a liquid carrying channel; a liquid containment plate disposed in spaced relation to the liquid carrying channel, the liquid containment plate and the liquid impingement plate defining a liquid flow chamber therebetween; liquid inlet means in communication with the liquid spraying means to permit the liquid to flow through the liquid spraying means into the liquid carrying channel; liquid outlet means in communication with the liquid flow chamber to permit liquid to be removed from the liquid flow chamber; and means for cooling the liquid impingement plate on the side thereof opposite the liquid flow chamber to a temperature at or below the freezing point of the liquid; the liquid carrying channel including means for retaining a portion of the liquid in a frozen state there-within, the retaining means comprising a narrowed channel opening facing the liquid spraying means in spaced relation to cooling means.

  4. A Monte Carlo study of the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths phase diagrams within biquadratic exchange anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dani, Ibtissam; Tahiri, Najim; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2014-08-01

    The effect of the bi-quadratic exchange coupling anisotropy on the phase diagram of the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model on simple-cubic lattice is investigated using mean field theory (MFT) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC). It is found that the anisotropy of the biquadratic coupling favors the stability of the ferromagnetic phase. By decreasing the parallel and/or perpendicular bi-quadratic coupling, the ferrimagnetic and the antiquadrupolar phases broaden in contrast, the ferromagnetic and the disordered phases become narrow. The behavior of magnetization and quadrupolar moment as a function of temperature is also computed, especially in the ferrimagnetic phase.

  5. Reverse ion exchange as a major process controlling the groundwater chemistry in an arid environment: a case study from northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Faisal K; Nazzal, Yousef; Jafri, Muhammad Kamran; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmed, Izrar

    2015-10-01

    Assessment of groundwater quality is of utmost significance in arid regions like Saudi Arabia where the lack of present-day recharge and high evaporation rates coupled with increasing groundwater withdrawal may restrict its usage for domestic or agricultural purposes. In the present study, groundwater samples collected from agricultural farms in Hail (15 samples), Al Jawf (15 samples), and Tabuk (30 samples) regions were analyzed for their major ion concentration. The objective of the study was to determine the groundwater facies, the main hydrochemical process governing the groundwater chemistry, the saturation index with respect to the principal mineral phases, and the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational use. The groundwater samples fall within the Ca-Cl type, mixed Ca-Mg-Cl type, and Na-Cl type. Evaporation and reverse ion exchange appear to be the major processes controlling the groundwater chemistry though reverse ion exchange process is the more dominating factor. The various ionic relationships confirmed the reverse ion exchange process where the Ca and Mg in the aquifer matrix have been replaced by Na at favorable exchange sites. This phenomenon has accounted for the dominance of Ca and Mg ions over Na ion at all the sites. The process of reverse ion exchange was further substantiated by the use of modified Piper diagram (Chadha's classification) and the chloro-alkaline indices. Evaporation as a result of extreme aridity has resulted in the groundwater being oversaturated with aragonite/calcite and dolomite as revealed by the saturation indices. The groundwater samples were classified as safe (less than 10) in terms of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) values, good (less than 1.25) in terms of residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values, and safe to moderate (between 0 and 3) in terms of Mg hazard for irrigation purposes. Though the high salinity groundwater in the three regions coupled with low SAR values are good for the soil structure, it can have a negative impact on the crop production by adversely affecting the crop physiology. Cultivation of high-salinity-resistant varieties of crops is recommended for maximum agricultural productivity. PMID:26329266

  6. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This will not only reduce the quantity of unneeded chemicals and the amount spent on new purchases, but will also avoid disposal costs. If SNL/NM were to realize a 5 percent reduction in chemical inventory and a 10 percent reduction in disposal of unused chemicals the total savings would be $189, 200 per year.

  7. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  8. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is targeted for Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17, regardless of the addition of SCIX or SWPF streams. This indicates that the blending strategy for these sludge batches should be reevaluated by Savannah River Remediation (SRR). (2) In general, candidate frits were available to accommodate CST additions to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. A larger number of candidate frits were typically available for the sludge batches when CST is added to Tank 51 rather than Tank 40, meaning that more compositional flexibility would be available for frit selection and DWPF operation. Note however that for SB8 and SB17, no candidate frits were available to accommodate CST going to Tank 40 with and without SWPF streams. The addition of SWPF streams generally improves the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. (3) The change in production rate from 40 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batches per year (i.e., the current production rate) to 75 SRAT batches per year, without SWPF streams included, had varied results in terms of the number of candidate frits available for processing of a given sludge batch. Therefore, this variable is not of much concern in terms of incorporating the SCIX streams. Note that the evaluation at 75 SRAT batches per year (approximately equivalent to 325 canisters per year) is more conservative in terms of the impact of SCIX streams as compared to a production rate of 400 canisters per year. Overall, the outcome of this paper study shows no major issues with the ability to identify an acceptable glass processing window when CST from the SCIX process is transferred to either Tank 40 or Tank 51. The assumptions used and the model limitations identified in this report must be addressed through further experimental studies, which are currently being performed. As changes occur to the planned additions of MST and CST, or to the sludge batch preparation strategy, additional evaluations will be performed to determine the potential impacts. As stated above, the issues with Sludge Batches 8, 16, and 17 should be further evaluated by SRR. A

  9. A Comprehensive Study of the Solubility, Thermochemistry, Ion Exchange, and Precipitation Kinetics of NO3 Cancrinite and NO3 Sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, Carlos F. Jove; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Krumhansl, James L.; Nyman, May

    2002-06-01

    NO3 cancrinite and NO3 sodalite haves been found as a common sodium alumino-silicate forming in strongly caustic alkaline aqueous solutions associated with radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) stored in many underground tanks and also in nuclear waste treatment facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS). The appearance of these phases have created very expensive problems in waste treatment plants by fouling process evaporators in the SRS waste processing facility. Therefore, in order to prevent their formation an assessment of the relative stability, formation kinetics, and the ion-exchange characteristics of these two phases in HLW solutions needs to be investigated. The goals of this project are to: (1) Develop a robust equilibrium thermodynamic framework to accurately describe and predict the formation of NO3 cancrinite and NO3 sodalite. (2) Provide a comprehensive characterization of the solid precipitation rates and mechanisms using novel spectroscopic (e.g., NMR) and thermochemical techniques in conditions encountered in HLW waste solutions. (3) Investigate the ion exchange capacity of these zeolitic phases with respect to radionuclides and RCRA metal species.

  10. Conformational analysis of large and highly disulfide-stabilized proteins by integrating online electrochemical reduction into an optimized H/D exchange mass spectrometry workflow.

    PubMed

    Trabjerg, Esben; Jakobsen, Rasmus U; Mysling, Simon; Christensen, Søren; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Rand, Kasper D

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of disulfide-bonded proteins by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) requires effective and rapid reduction of disulfide bonds before enzymatic digestion in order to increase sequence coverage. In a conventional HDX-MS workflow, disulfide bonds are reduced chemically by addition of a reducing agent to the quench solution (e.g., tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP)). The chemical reduction, however, is severely limited under quenched conditions due to a narrow time window as well as low pH and temperature. Here, we demonstrate the real-world applicability of integrating electrochemical reduction into an online HDX-MS workflow. We have optimized the electrochemical reduction efficiency during HDX-MS analysis of two particularly challenging disulfide stabilized proteins: a therapeutic IgG1-antibody and nerve growth factor-? (NGF). Several different parameters (flow rate and applied square wave potential, as well as the type of labeling and quench buffer) were investigated, and the optimized workflow increased the sequence coverage of NGF from 46% with chemical reduction to 99%, when electrochemical reduction was applied. Additionally, the optimized workflow also enabled a similar high sequence coverage of 96% and 87% for the heavy and light chain of the IgG1-antibody, respectively. The presented results demonstrate the successful electrochemical reduction during HDX-MS analysis of both a small exceptional tightly disulfide-bonded protein (NGF) as well as the largest protein attempted to date (IgG1-antibody). We envision that online electrochemical reduction is poised to decrease the complexity of sample handling and increase the versatility of the HDX-MS technique. PMID:26249042

  11. Radiochemical study of the medium energy pion double charge exchange reactions: /sup 209/Bi(pi/sup +/pi/sup -/)/sup 209-x/At

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Carrier-free radiochemical techniques have been used to measure cross sections for the double charge exchange reactions of the type /sup 209/Bi(pi/sup +/, pi/sup -/xn)/sup 209-x/At for 100, 180, and 300 MeV incident pions. The observed formation of astatine products with mass numbers ranging from 208 to 205 is interpreted as evidence of processes in which energy deposited in the initial double charge exchange interaction is subsequently dissipated through neutron evaporation. The excitation functions for these reactions are seen to rise rapidly with decreasing incident pion energy with the maximum results for this study at 100 MeV. The astatine production cross secions measured for these positive pion irradiations of thick bismuth targets must be corrected for secondary processes, particularly the pion induced production of fast alpha particles which can contribute to the total cross sections through reactions like /sup 209/Bi(alpha,xn)/sup 213-x/At. The importance of these secondary contributions was studied through a series of negative pion irradiations of bismuth in which secondary pathways furnish the only means of producing astatine. The failure of evaporation calculations to reproduce the astatine product mass yields observed in these secondary studies suggests that direct mechanisms for energetic complex particle formation are quite important. Values for the alpha decay branches of /sup 207/At, /sup 208/At, and /sup 209/At were determined through a study of the electron capture and alpha decay characteristics of chemically purified astatine fractions.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of micelle-enhanced ligand exchange of gallium (III)/4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol complex by calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeika, Jennifer M.; Spurgeon, Charina L.; Yan, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the interaction of gallium (III) with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) under varying conditions has been studied spectrophotometrically. At pH 6.0, CTAB (0.05% w/v) markedly enhanced the absorption intensity of gallium (III)-PAR complex. Furthermore, the introduction of CTAB provided unique selectivity for the ligand exchange of Ga(III)-PAR by calf thymus dsDNA over calf thymus ssDNA. This phenomenon offers a novel spectrophotometric sensing strategy for direct detection of dsDNA.

  13. Experimental and numerical study of mixed convection with flow reversal in coaxial double-duct heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Mare, Thierry; Voicu, Ionut; Miriel, Jacques; Galanis, Nicolas; Sow, Ousmane

    2008-04-15

    Velocity vectors in a vertical coaxial double-duct heat exchanger for parallel ascending flow of water under conditions of laminar mixed convection have been determined experimentally using the particle image velocimetry technique. The measured velocity distributions for large annular flow rates, resulting in an essentially isothermal environment for the stream in the inner tube, are in very good agreement with corresponding numerical predictions. For flow rates of the same order of magnitude in the inner tube and the annulus, and corresponding temperature differences of about 20 C, experimental observations show that flow reversal occurs simultaneously in both streams over large axial distances for both heating and cooling of the flow in the inner tube. (author)

  14. Application of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer vegetation index to study atmosphere-biosphere exchange of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, I. Y.; Tucker, C. J.; Prentice, K. C.

    1987-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation indices derived from radiances measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were used to prescribe the phasing of terrestrial photosynthesis. The satellite data were combined with field data on soil respiration and a global map of net primary productivity to obtain the seasonal exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere. The monthly fluxes of CO2 thus obtained were employed as source/sink functions in a global three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model to simulate the annual oscillations of CO2 in the atmosphere. The results demonstrate that satellite data of high spatial and temporal resolution can be used to provide quantitative information about seasonal and longer-term variations of photosynthetic activity on a global scale.

  15. Strong cation exchange chiral stationary phase--a comparative study in high-performance liquid chromatography and subcritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wolrab, Denise; Macíková, Pavla; Boras, Mario; Kohout, Michal; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2013-11-22

    The performance of a strong cation exchange-type (SCX) chiral stationary phase (CSP) was evaluated with subcritical fluid chromatography (subFC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatographic conditions in subFC were optimized by changing the amount of polar organic modifier, concentration of a basic additive in the modifier, system pressure and temperature. In this way the concentration of in situ formed transient ionic species could be varied. The gradual change of the concentration of the transient buffer, i.e. gradient elution conditions in subFC, was found beneficial for separation of a mixture of racemic compounds. The strength and amount of the in situ formed buffer was estimated on the basis of comparative experiments in subSFC and HPLC. PMID:24028932

  16. Charge exchange in low-energy proton-surface scattering studied by discrete variational [ital X][alpha] cluster calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Souda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Tilley, B.; Hayami, W.; Aizawa, T.; Ishizawa, Y. )

    1994-12-15

    Neutralization and electronic excitation during low-energy proton-surface scattering have been investigated from a combination of experiments and discrete variational [ital X][alpha] calculations of the adiabatic molecular-orbital-energy diagram. The charge exchange in D[sup +] scattering seems to have a more local character than expected from the conventional band picture of resonance neutralization, especially for the ionic-compound surfaces or surfaces with positively or negatively charged adatoms. Some of these local features are shown to arise from the formation of the surface molecule or the promotion of the H 1[ital s] orbital during the violent collision, which results in electronic excitation, such as reionization or electron-hole pair formation, and suppression of ion neutralization to some extent. The experimentally observed target-element dependencies of these processes are elucidated qualitatively in line with this scheme.

  17. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: a study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Coriani, Sonia; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as the state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger ?-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to ??-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate ??-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to this method. PMID:23556727

  18. Shelf-slope exchanges and particle dispersion in Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea): A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada-Sempoal, M.-A.; Flexas, M. M.; Bernardello, R.; Bahamon, N.; Cruzado, A.; Reyes-Hernández, C.

    2015-10-01

    A climatological simulation performed with a fine-resolution (?1.2 km) 3D circulation model nested in one-way to a coarse-resolution (?4 km) 3D regional model is used to examine the cross-shelf break water exchange in the Blanes submarine canyon (?41°00?-41°46?N; ?02°24?-03°24?E). A Lagrangian particle-tracking model coupled to the fine-resolution 3D circulation model is used to investigate the role of the incident regional flow (i.e. the Northern Current, NC) and its seasonal variability on the dispersion and residence time of passive particles inside Blanes Canyon. The NC flows southwestward, along the slope, with the coastline to the right. Water is advected offshore/onshore at the upstream/downstream canyon walls, with a net water transport toward the slope (i.e. offshore). The amount of water moved across the shelf break of the upstream wall is approximately three times larger than the amount moved across the shelf break of the downstream wall. This preferential zone for cross-shelf break water exchange is explained by the asymmetric geometry of the canyon and the orientation of the incident current with respect to the canyon bathymetry. Passive particles released upstream Blanes Canyon between the mid-shelf and the upper-slope drift within the NC and accumulate over the shelf edge of the canyon. About half of the particles released at depths above the shelf break move towards shallower areas inside the canyon. In contrast, about two-thirds of particles released below the shelf break move to deeper areas. Particle dispersion is higher under weakly (e.g. winter) than strongly (e.g. summer) stratified conditions. The residence time of passive particles inside the canyon (?4-6 days) is double than the residence time downstream of the canyon, indicating that the canyon acts as an efficient retention zone for passive particles.

  19. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  20. Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: Implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 40 years, ion-exchange resins have been used to characterize nutrient bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To date, however, no standardized methodology has been developed, particularly with respect to the counterions that initially occupy resin exchange sites. To determine whether different resin counterions yield different measures of soil nutrients and rank soils differently with respect to their measured nutrient bioavailability, we compared nutrient measurements by three common counterion combinations (HCl, HOH, and NaHCO3). Five sandy calcareous soils were chosen to represent a range of soil characteristics at Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and resin capsules charged with the different counterions equilibrated in saturated pastes of these soils for one week. Data were converted to proportions of total ions of corresponding charge for ANOVA. Results from the different methods were not comparable with respect to any nutrient. Of eleven nutrients measured, all but iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), and zinc (Zn2+) differed significantly (p ??? 0.05) as a function of soil x counterion interactions; Fe2+ and Zn2+ varied as functions of counterion alone. Of the counterion combinations, HCl-resins yielded the most net ion exchange with all measured nutrients except Na+, NH4+, and HPO42-, the three of which desorbed in the greatest quantities from HOH-resins. Conventional chemical extractions using ammonium acetate generally yielded high proportional values of Ca2+, K+, and Na+. Further, among-soil rankings of nutrient bioavailability varied widely among methods. This study highlights the fact that various ion-exchange resin techniques for measuring soil nutrients may have differential effects on the soil-resin environment and yield data that should not be compared nor considered interchangeable. The most appropriate methods for characterizing soil-nutrient bioavailability depends on soil characteristics and likely on the physiological uptake mechanisms of plants or functional groups of interest. The effects of different extraction techniques on nutrient measures should be understood before selecting an extraction method. For example, in the calcareous soils used for this experiment, nutrient extraction methods that alter soil carbonates through dissolution or precipitation could compromise the accurate measurement of plant-available nutrients. The implications of this study emphasize the universal importance of understanding the differential effects of alternate methods on soil chemistry.

  1. Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 40 years, ion-exchange resins have been used to characterize nutrient bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To date, however, no standardized methodology has been developed, particularly with respect to the counterions that initially occupy resin exchange sites. To determine whether different resin counterions yield different measures of soil nutrients and rank soils differently with respect to their measured nutrient bioavailability, we compared nutrient measurements by three common counterion combinations (HCl, HOH, and NaHCO3). Five sandy calcareous soils were chosen to represent a range of soil characteristics at Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and resin capsules charged with the different counterions equilibrated in saturated pastes of these soils for one week. Data were converted to proportions of total ions of corresponding charge for ANOVA. Results from the different methods were not comparable with respect to any nutrient. Of eleven nutrients measured, all but iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), and zinc (Zn2+) differed significantly (pa??0.05) as a function of soilcounterion interactions; Fe2+ and Zn2+ varied as functions of counterion alone. Of the counterion combinations, HCl-resins yielded the most net ion exchange with all measured nutrients except Na+, and the three of which desorbed in the greatest quantities from HOH-resins. Conventional chemical extractions using ammonium acetate generally yielded high proportional values of Ca2+, K+, and Na+. Further, among-soil rankings of nutrient bioavailability varied widely among methods. This study highlights the fact that various ion-exchange resin techniques for measuring soil nutrients may have differential effects on the soil-resin environment and yield data that should not be compared nor considered interchangeable. The most appropriate methods for characterizing soil-nutrient bioavailability depends on soil characteristics and likely on the physiological uptake mechanisms of plants or functional groups of interest. The effects of different extraction techniques on nutrient measures should be understood before selecting an extraction method. For example, in the calcareous soils used for this experiment, nutrient extraction methods that alter soil carbonates through dissolution or precipitation could compromise the accurate measurement of plant-available nutrients. The implications of this study emphasize the universal importance of understanding the differential effects of alternate methods on soil chemistry.

  2. Woven heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1984-07-16

    This invention relates to a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery from high temperature industrial exhaust streams. In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

  3. Heavy-Ion Double-Charge Exchange Study via a 12C(18O,18Ne)12Be Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Motonobu; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Aoi, Nori; Dozono, Masanori; Hashimoto, Takashi; Kawabata, Takahiro; Kawase, Shoichiro; Kisamori, Keiichi; Kubota, Yuki; Lee, Cheng Soo; Lee, Jenny; Maeda, Yukie; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Miki, Kenjiro; Ota, Shinsuke; Sasano, Masaki; Shimoura, Susumu; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Takahisa, Keiji; Tang, Tsz Leung; Tamii, Atsushi; Tokieda, Hiroshi; Yako, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Rin; Zenihiro, Juzo

    Heavy-ion double-charge exchange (HIDCX) reactions are a new promising spectroscopic tool for double spin-isospin flips excitation modes by taking an advantage of transferring isospin and/or spin quantum numbers by an amount of two to target nuclei. However, the data on HIDCX reactions is very scarce. A measurement of a (n,p)-type HIDCX reaction, 12C(18O,18Ne)12Be at 80 MeV/nucleon, was performed by employing the high-resolution spectrometer Grand Raiden at Research Center Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. The excitation energy spectrum of 12Be was obtained, and three clear peaks were observed at 0.0, 2.2, and 4.5 MeV, which are corresponding to ground and excited states of 12Be. The angular distributions of the cross sections for these peaks were obtained within the scattering angle range of 0.0°-4.0° in the center of mass system. We found that the angular distributions have characteristic shapes according to their mulpolarities.

  4. Novel Indium Arsenide double gate and gate all around nanowire MOSFETs for diminishing the exchange correlation effect: A quantum study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Nejaty, Mohammad; Mohtasham, Alireza

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we present novel double gate (DG) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate all around (GAA) nanowire metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (NWT) with a diminished exchange-correlation (Ex-Corr) effect. The key idea in this work is to use Indium Arsenide (InAs) semiconductor instead of Si. We have evaluated and compared different parameters of DG-MOSFET and GAA-NWTs such as threshold voltage, sub-threshold slope, drain induced barrier lowering and ON and OFF state currents from quantum view. Quantum mechanical transport approach based on non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) has been performed in the frame work of effective mass theory in consideration with Ex-Corr effect. This simulation method consists of three dimensional Poisson's equation in which a Schrodinger equation is first solved in each slice of the device to find Eigen energies and Eigen functions. Then, a transport equation of electrons moving in the sub-bands is solved. This fully quantum method treats such effects as source-to-drain tunneling, ballistic transport, and quantum confinement on equal footing. The results show that only a few lowest Eigen sub-bands are occupied and the upper sub-bands can be safely neglected. Also, the interaction between electrons and Ex-Corr effect is diminished in the proposed structure.

  5. On-chip surface acoustic wave lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane detection of exosomal RNA for pancreatic cancer study and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Taller, Daniel; Richards, Katherine; Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Hill, Reginald; Go, David B; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-04-01

    There has been increasing evidence that micro and messenger RNA derived from exosomes play important roles in pancreatic and other cancers. In this work, a microfluidics-based approach to the analysis of exosomal RNA is presented based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) exosome lysis and ion-exchange nanomembrane RNA sensing performed in conjunction on two separate chips. Using microRNA hsa-miR-550 as a model target and raw cell media from pancreatic cancer cell lines as a biological sample, SAW-based exosome lysis is shown to have a lysis rate of 38%, and an ion-exchange nanomembrane sensor is shown to have a limit of detection of 2 pM, with two decades of linear dynamic range. A universal calibration curve was derived for the membrane sensor and used to detect the target at a concentration of 13 pM in a SAW-lysed sample, which translates to 14 target miRNA per exosome from the raw cell media. At a total analysis time of ~1.5 h, this approach is a significant improvement over existing methods that require two overnight steps and 13 h of processing time. The platform also requires much smaller sample volumes than existing technology (~100 ?L as opposed to ~mL) and operates with minimal sample loss, a distinct advantage for studies involving mouse models or other situations where the working fluid is scarce. PMID:25690152

  6. On the stability of metal-aminoacid complexes in water based on water-ligand exchange reactions and electronic properties: detailed study on iron-glycine hexacoordinated complexes.

    PubMed

    Mandado, Marcos; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2010-11-30

    Thermodynamic stability of metal-aminoacid complexes in water is discussed in terms of the Gibbs free energy of water-ligand exchange processes, and the electronic stabilizing factors thoroughly investigated by means of 1-electron and 2-electron density properties. Hexacoordinated complexes formed between iron cations and glycine molecules acting as monodentate or bidentate ligands have been chosen as targets for the current study. Results agree with experimental findings, and complexes formed with bidentate ligands are found to be more stable than those formed with monodentate ones. The larger the number of the coordinated glycine molecules the more stable is the complex. Fe(III) complexes are more stable than Fe(II) ones, but differences are small and the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) exchange process appears to be energetically feasible for these complexes. Formation of the second glycine-iron interaction involving the amino nitrogen in the bidentate ligands is enthalpycally unfavorable but takes place due to the large entropy rise of the process. The larger stability of Fe(III) complexes is due however to the balance between energetic and solvation terms, which is favorable to these complexes. Electron density properties account satisfactorily for the electronic energy changes along the complex formation in terms of ligand-metal electron transfer and covalent bond orders. PMID:20839300

  7. A study of spin-flipping in sputtered IrMn using Py-based exchange-biased spin-valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, R.; Nguyen, H. Y. T.; Pratt, W. P.; Bass, J.

    2011-04-01

    To study spin-flipping within the antiferromagnet IrMn, we extended prior current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance studies of Permalloy (Py)-based exchange-biased-spin-valves containing IrMn inserts to thicker IrMn layers—5 nm ? tIrMn ? 30 nm. Unexpectedly, A?R = A(RAP - RP)—the difference in specific resistance between the antiparallel (AP) and parallel (P) magnetic states of the two Py layers—did not decrease with increasing tIrMn, for tIrMn ? 5 nm, but rather became constant to within our measuring uncertainty. This constant looks to be due mostly to a new, small magnetoresistance in thin Py layers. The constant complicates isolating the spin-diffusion length, lsfIrMn, in bulk IrMn, but lsfIrMn is probably short, ?1 nm. Similar results were found with FeMn.

  8. Efficient Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange in hPSCs to Study the Hepatocyte Lineage Reveals AAVS1 Locus-Mediated Transgene Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ordovás, Laura; Boon, Ruben; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Chen, Yemiao; Wolfs, Esther; Guo, Wenting; Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Helsen, Nicky; Vanhove, Jolien; Berckmans, Pieter; Cai, Qing; Vanuytsel, Kim; Eggermont, Kristel; Vanslembrouck, Veerle; Schmidt, Béla Z; Raitano, Susanna; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Nahmias, Yaakov; Cathomen, Toni; Struys, Tom; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2015-11-10

    Tools for rapid and efficient transgenesis in "safe harbor" loci in an isogenic context remain important to exploit the possibilities of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We created hPSC master cell lines suitable for FLPe recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) in the AAVS1 locus that allow generation of transgenic lines within 15 days with 100% efficiency and without random integrations. Using RMCE, we successfully incorporated several transgenes useful for lineage identification, cell toxicity studies, and gene overexpression to study the hepatocyte lineage. However, we observed unexpected and variable transgene expression inhibition in vitro, due to DNA methylation and other unknown mechanisms, both in undifferentiated hESC and differentiating hepatocytes. Therefore, the AAVS1 locus cannot be considered a universally safe harbor locus for reliable transgene expression in vitro, and using it for transgenesis in hPSC will require careful assessment of the function of individual transgenes. PMID:26455413

  9. Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.

    2007-04-22

    We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.

  10. Study on adsorption properties of QCS/PS-G8-2-8 anion exchange membrane for Rhodamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Jilin; Wang, Lulu; Feng, Ruijiang; Zhang, Fan

    2015-06-01

    A series of novel anion exchange composite membrane (QCS/PS-G8-2-8) were synthesized based on the quaternized chitosan (QCS, DQ = 89.20 (±3.50)%) blended with block polymer of polystyrene (PS) and G8-2-8 (maleic acid diethyl brace base pairs [octyl dimethyl chloride/ammonium bromide]). Then the QCS was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde (GA). The parameters including adsorption time (t), pH, and initial concentration of Rhodamine B (C0), temperature (T), the mass fraction of G8-2-8 and GA (WGA) on the adsorption were investigated to determine the optimum condition for the removal of RB. The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the adsorption process were also discussed. The optimum adsorption condition was that the adsorption time was 100 min, pH was 4, the initial concentration of RB was 100 mg L-1, the mass fraction of G8-2-8 was 5.0 wt%, the mass fraction of GA was 2.0 wt%, the temperature was 40 °C. Thus, RB optimum adsorption capacity (q) of the composite membrane QCS/PS-G8-2-8 (5.0%) (G8-2-8 mass content (wt.%) was 5.0%) was 17.04 mg g-1. The adsorption isotherm of the RB on the composite membrane can be well fitted with the Temkin equation. The adsorption kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The values of ?G, ?H and ?S indicated that the adsorption of RB onto QCS/PS-G8-2-8 was spontaneous and exothermic.

  11. Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin

    SciTech Connect

    DE Kurath; JR Bontha; DL Blanchard; SK Fiskum; BM Rapko

    2000-08-23

    BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] {approximately} 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K{sub d} {approximately} 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be correlated with the resin's ability to selectively complex sulfate, then maintaining even the current limited resin characteristics for sulfate complexation over multiple cycles becomes questionable.

  12. Solvent Dependence of the Molecular Order in Ion-Exchanged Self-Assembled dialkylammonium Monolayers on Mica Studied with Soft X-ray Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Hahner,G.; Zwahlen, M.; Caseri, W.

    2005-01-01

    Dialkyldimethylammonium films on mica prepared via ion exchange from solution have been reported to be of high quality in terms of their density and molecular orientation. Different preparation procedures are described in the literature. The molecular order and the inclination of the alkyl chains, however, are often deduced from indirect experimental evidence such as the wettability and the film thickness. In the present study we employed near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) to determine directly the order of the molecules adsorbed from different solvents (water, methanol, water/methanol 1:1, cyclohexanol, and chloroform). It was found that films prepared from different solvents are displaying large differences in the established surface coverage and orientation. In particular, NEXAFS disclosed that the orientation of the alkyl chains can differ significantly even when similar water contact angle values are observed.

  13. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Cancer.gov

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  14. What do external consultants from private and not-for-profit companies offer healthcare commissioners? A qualitative study of knowledge exchange

    PubMed Central

    Wye, Lesley; Brangan, Emer; Cameron, Ailsa; Gabbay, John; Klein, Jonathan H; Anthwal, Rachel; Pope, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of external consultants from private and not-for-profit providers in the National Health Service (NHS) is intended to improve the quality of commissioning. The aim of this study was to learn about the support offered to healthcare commissioners, how external consultants and their clients work together and the perceived impact on the quality of commissioning. Setting NHS commissioning organisations and private and not-for-profit providers. Design Mixed methods case study of eight cases. Data collection 92 interviews with external consultants (n=36), their clients (n=47) and others (n=9). Observation of 25 training events and meetings. Documentation, for example, meeting minutes and reports. Analysis Constant comparison. Data were coded, summarised and analysed by the research team with a coding framework to facilitate cross-case comparison. Results In the four contracts presented here, external providers offered technical solutions (eg, software tools), outsourcing and expertise including project management, data interpretation and brokering relationships with experts. In assessing perceived impact on quality of commissioning, two contracts had limited value, one had short-term benefits and one provided short and longer term benefits. Contracts with commissioners actively learning, embedding and applying new skills were more valued. Other elements of success were: (1) addressing clearly agreed problems of relevance to managerial and operational staff (2) solutions co-produced at all organisational levels (3) external consultants working directly with clients to interpret data outputs to inform locally contextualised commissioning strategies. Without explicit knowledge exchange strategies, outsourcing commissioning to external providers resulted in the NHS clients becoming dependent. Conclusions NHS commissioning will be disadvantaged if commissioners both fail to learn in the short term from the knowledge of external providers and in the longer term lose local skills. Knowledge exchange mechanisms are a vital component of commissioning and should be embedded in external provider contracts. PMID:25716174

  15. Field study on effects of a heat exchanger on broiler performance, energy use, and calculated carbon dioxide emission at commercial broiler farms, and the experiences of farmers using a heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; van Zanten, H H E; van den Brand, H

    2010-12-01

    In broiler houses, ventilation removes moisture and maintains ambient temperature and air quality. During cold weather conditions, ventilation can result in undesirable heat loss from the house. Extra input of energy for heating the building is needed then, resulting in extra CO(2) emissions when fossil fuels are used for this purpose. In such a situation, an air-to-air heat exchanger (HE) might be valuable because it recovers heat by prewarming fresh supply air with warm inside air. The aim of this study was to analyze effects of on-farm use of an HE on broiler performance, energy use, and CO(2) emission by comparing production cycles with and without an HE, and to inventory the experiences of farmers using an HE. Data were collected of production cycles finished with (102) or without (149) an HE on 25 farms. Data on mortality, feed intake, water intake, and BW gain were obtained to analyze broiler performance. When available, gas and electricity use were obtained to analyze energy use and to calculate CO(2) emission. Farmers were interviewed about their experiences regarding the HE. The use of an HE tended to increase daily weight gain (56 vs. 55, SEM 0.3 g/d; P = 0.07), but did not affect other performance variables. Based on 13 farms, gas use was reduced by 38% (P < 0.01) after installing an HE. Based on 3 farms only, an HE did not affect electricity use, total energy use, or calculated CO(2) emission. It appeared that farmers were satisfied with the HE because they experienced an increase in job satisfaction, an improvement of climate conditions and litter quality in the broiler house, and a more uniform temperature and broiler distribution in the house. We concluded that the use of an HE reduced gas use and has the ability to improve broiler weight gain but had no effect on other broiler performance variables. Effects on CO(2) emission were unclear. Farmers appeared to be positive about using an HE, because it improved broiler house climate and job satisfaction. PMID:21076115

  16. The sites of respiratory gas exchange in the planktonic crustacean daphnia magna: an in vivo study employing blood haemoglobin as an internal oxygen probe

    PubMed

    Pirow; Wollinger; Paul

    1999-11-01

    Recent studies on Daphnia magna have revealed that the feeding current is important for uptake of oxygen from the ambient medium. Respiratory gas exchange should therefore mainly occur within the filtering chamber, whose boundaries are formed by the trunk and the extended carapace shell valves. The precise site of gas exchange in the genus Daphnia is, however, a matter of conjecture. We have developed a method of imaging the haemoglobin oxygen-saturation in the circulatory system of transparent animals, which provides an opportunity to localize oxygen uptake from the environment and oxygen release to the tissues. Experiments were carried out at 20 degrees C on 2.8-3.0 mm long parthenogenetic females maintained in hypoxic culturing conditions, which had resulted in an increased haemoglobin content in the haemolymph. In lateral views of D. magna, the highest values of haemoglobin oxygen-saturation occurred near the posterior margin of the carapace and, surprisingly, in the rostral part of the head. The ambient oxygen partial pressures at which haemoglobin was half-oxygenated were 15 mmHg (2.0 kPa) for the posterior carapace region and 6 mmHg (0.8 kPa) for the rostrum. Although not all parts of the circulatory system could be analyzed using this technique, the data obtained from the accessible regions suggest that the inner wall of the carapace is a major site of respiratory gas exchange. Taking the circulatory pattern and the flow pattern of the medium in the filtering chamber into consideration, it becomes clear that the haemolymph, after passing from the limbs to the carapace lacuna, becomes oxygenated while flowing through the ventral part of the double-walled carapace in a posterior direction. The laterally flattened rostral region, where sensory and central nervous system structures are located, seems to have direct diffusive access to ambient oxygen, which could be especially advantageous during severe hypoxia when the convective transport systems fail to supply enough oxygen to that region. PMID:10539957

  17. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Burke, Janet M.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Vette, Alan F.; Godwin, Christopher; Croghan, Carry W.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Long, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. The residential air exchange rate (AER), which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for house-to-house (spatial) and temporal variations of air pollution infiltration. Our goal was to evaluate and apply mechanistic models to predict AERs for 213 homes in the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS), a cohort study of traffic-related air pollution exposures and respiratory effects in asthmatic children living near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. We used a previously developed model (LBL), which predicts AER from meteorology and questionnaire data on building characteristics related to air leakage, and an extended version of this model (LBLX) that includes natural ventilation from open windows. As a critical and novel aspect of our AER modeling approach, we performed a cross validation, which included both parameter estimation (i.e., model calibration) and model evaluation, based on daily AER measurements from a subset of 24 study homes on five consecutive days during two seasons. The measured AER varied between 0.09 and 3.48 h?1 with a median of 0.64 h?1. For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 29% (0.19 h?1) for both the LBL and LBLX models. The LBL and LBLX models predicted 59% and 61% of the variance in the AER, respectively. Daily AER predictions for all 213 homes during the three year study (2010–2012) showed considerable house-to-house variations from building leakage differences, and temporal variations from outdoor temperature and wind speed fluctuations. Using this novel approach, NEXUS will be one of the first epidemiology studies to apply calibrated and home-specific AER models, and to include the spatial and temporal variations of AER for over 200 individual homes across multiple years into an exposure assessment in support of improving risk estimates. PMID:25386953

  18. Modeling spatial and temporal variability of residential air exchange rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS).

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Burke, Janet M; Batterman, Stuart A; Vette, Alan F; Godwin, Christopher; Croghan, Carry W; Schultz, Bradley D; Long, Thomas C

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. The residential air exchange rate (AER), which is the rate of exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for house-to-house (spatial) and temporal variations of air pollution infiltration. Our goal was to evaluate and apply mechanistic models to predict AERs for 213 homes in the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS), a cohort study of traffic-related air pollution exposures and respiratory effects in asthmatic children living near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. We used a previously developed model (LBL), which predicts AER from meteorology and questionnaire data on building characteristics related to air leakage, and an extended version of this model (LBLX) that includes natural ventilation from open windows. As a critical and novel aspect of our AER modeling approach, we performed a cross validation, which included both parameter estimation (i.e., model calibration) and model evaluation, based on daily AER measurements from a subset of 24 study homes on five consecutive days during two seasons. The measured AER varied between 0.09 and 3.48 h(-1) with a median of 0.64 h(-1). For the individual model-predicted and measured AER, the median absolute difference was 29% (0.19 h?1) for both the LBL and LBLX models. The LBL and LBLX models predicted 59% and 61% of the variance in the AER, respectively. Daily AER predictions for all 213 homes during the three year study (2010-2012) showed considerable house-to-house variations from building leakage differences, and temporal variations from outdoor temperature and wind speed fluctuations. Using this novel approach, NEXUS will be one of the first epidemiology studies to apply calibrated and home-specific AER models, and to include the spatial and temporal variations of AER for over 200 individual homes across multiple years into an exposure assessment in support of improving risk estimates. PMID:25386953

  19. A Case Study of the Use of BIM and Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) for Facility Management 

    E-print Network

    Jawadekar, Salil

    2012-10-19

    is divided into the sections of Responsibility for database formulation, Characteristics of database, Technology and Effect on work order response times. A qualitative analysis is conducted to study the application of these concepts and identify any problems...

  20. Developing an exchange mindset.

    PubMed

    Thackeray, Rosemary

    2010-09-01

    Exchange is a fundamental concept that underlies all social marketing efforts. In a successful exchange, both parties receive something of value and the benefits that they desire in return for a price. The purpose of this article is to describe how practitioners can develop an "exchange mindset." A practitioner's answer to five basic questions will enable him or her to see the exchange through the eyes of the customer and increase the likelihood of creating a successful exchange that will benefit both parties involved and result in positive behavior change. PMID:20817631

  1. Exchange flow with geological heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Hesse, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Two aquifers can be hydraulically connected by a fault cutting across the intermediate aquitard. If the upper aquifer contains denser fluid, an exchange flow across the fault will develop. The unstable density stratification leads to fingering pattern with localized zones of upwelling and downwelling along the fault. Due to the small volume of the fault relative to the aquifers the exchange-flow will quickly approach a quasi steady state. If the permeability of the fault plane is homogeneous, the average number of the quasi-steady plume fingers, , follows a power law function of the Rayleigh number Ra (? Ra1/2) and the exchange rate measured by dimensionless convective flux, the Sherwood number Sh, is a linear function of Ra (Sh? Ra). The presence of flow barriers along the fault triggers unsteady exchange flow and subsequently controls the growth of the plume fingers. If the barriers are sufficiently wide to dominate the flow system, they creates preferential pathways for exchange flow that determines the distribution of the quasi-steady fingers, and converges to a constant value. In addition, wider barriers induce substantial lateral spreading and enhance the efficiency of structural trapping, and reduce the exchange rate that follows a power law Sh? Ran, where n<1 and decreases with increasing barrier length. This study is motivated by geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in brine-saturated aquifer, but the unstable exchange of multiphase fluids through conductive faults is also important in many other geological and engineering applications, in particular the migration of hydrocarbons in tectonic-driven faulting system or hydraulically developed fractures in unconventional reservoirs. Better understanding of the density-driven flow in a faulted system will allow more precise estimate of the reservoir capacity as well as more efficient operation of injection or production wells.

  2. A photoionization study of the COOH species

    SciTech Connect

    Ruscic, B.; Schwarz, M.; Berkowitz, J. )

    1989-12-01

    A photoionization mass spectrometric study has been performed on the products of the F+HCOOH, F+DCOOH, and F+HCOOD reactions. Hydrogen/deuterium abstraction on the carbon site yields the COOH/COOD radical which can be photoionized and detected. Abstraction on the oxygen site also occurs, but does not yield a detectable isomeric HCOO/DCOO product. Instead, CO{sub 2} is readily observed, implying that HCOO/DCOO is unstable to decomposition under the conditions of this experiment. The detection of COOH is believed to be the first experimental evidence for the stability of this species in the gas phase. An adiabatic ionization potential of 8.486{plus minus}0.012 eV is obtained. Combined with the recently obtained {Delta}{ital H}{sub {ital f}{sup 0}{sub 0}} (COOH{sup +})=143.2{plus minus}0.5 kcal/mol, this ionization potential leads to {Delta}{ital H}{sub {ital f}{sup 0}{sub 0}} (COOH)={minus}52.5{plus minus}0.6 kcal/mol. Hence, COOH is stable with respect to the lowest energy dissociation products (H+CO{sub 2}) by 10.2{plus minus}0.6 kcal/mol.

  3. Exchange effects in a cold plasma

    E-print Network

    Ekman, Robin; Brodin, Gert

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically we have considered the zero temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long wavelength limit, i.e. wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density functional theory.

  4. Effect of Material Ion Exchanges on the Mechanical Stiffness Properties and Shear Deformation of Hydrated Cement Material Chemistry Structure C-S-H Jennite -- A Computational Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebiyi, Babatunde Mattew

    Material properties and performance are governed by material molecular chemistry structures and molecular level interactions. Methods to understand relationships between the material properties and performance and their correlation to the molecular level chemistry and morphology, and thus find ways of manipulating and adjusting matters at the atomistic level in order to improve material performance, are required. A computational material modeling methodology is investigated and demonstrated for a key cement hydrated component material chemistry structure of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) Jennite in this work. The effect of material ion exchanges on the mechanical stiffness properties and shear deformation behavior of hydrated cement material chemistry structure of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Jennite was studied. Calcium ions were replaced with Magnesium ions in Jennite structure of the C-S-H gel. Different level of substitution of the ions was used. The traditional Jennite structure was obtained from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database and super cells of the structures were created using a Molecular Dynamics Analyzer and Visualizer Material Studio. Molecular dynamics parameters used in the modeling analysis were determined by carrying out initial dynamic studies. 64 unit cell of C-S-H Jennite was used in material modeling analysis studies based on convergence results obtained from the elastic modulus and total energies. NVT forcite dynamics using COMPASS force field based on 200 ps dynamics time was used to determine mechanical modulus of the traditional C-S-H gel and the Magnesium ion modified structures. NVT Discover dynamics using COMPASS forcefield was used in the material modeling studies to investigate the influence of ionic exchange on the shear deformation of the associated material chemistry structures. A prior established quasi-static deformation method to emulate shear deformation of C-S-H material chemistry structure that is based on a triclinic crystal structure was used, by deforming the triclinic crystal structure at 0.2 degree per time step for 75 steps of deformation. It was observed that there is a decrease in the total energies of the systems as the percentage of magnesium ion increases in the C-S-H Jennite molecular structure systems. Investigation of effect of ion exchange on the elastic modulus shows that the elastic stiffness modulus tends to decrease as the amount of Mg in the systems increases, using either COMPASS or universal force field. On the other hand, shear moduli obtained after deforming the structures computed from the stress-strain curve obtained from material modeling increases as the amount of Mg increases in the system. The present investigations also showed that ultimate shear stress obtained from predicted shear stress---strain also increases with amount of Mg in the chemistry structure. Present study clearly demonstrates that computational material modeling following molecular dynamics analysis methodology is an effective way to predict and understand the effective material chemistry and additive changes on the stiffness and deformation characteristics in cementitious materials, and the results suggest that this method can be extended to other materials.

  5. Negative ion mass spectrometry and the detection of carbonyls and HCN from clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, Thomas G.; Kato, Shuji; Fall, Ray; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2000-12-01

    We have demonstrated that negative ion-chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NI-CIMS) can be used to distinguish several isomeric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted from wounded plants. Reaction chemistry with HO-, hydrogen/deuterium exchange patterns, and collision-induced dissociation spectra allow identification of the isomers. Laboratory studies of emissions from wounded clover using NI-CIMS show several previously detected VOCs, but also clearly demonstrate the emission of HCN. This compound is presumably formed by the decomposition of cyanogenic glycosides which also form aldehyde and ketone byproducts. These results suggest that NI-CIMS may be a valuable tool for investigating VOCs and HCN release from vegetation.

  6. Numerical Study of Convective Heat Transfer in Flat Tube Heat Exchangers Operating in Self-Sustained Oscillatory Flow Regimes 

    E-print Network

    Fullerton, Tracy

    2012-02-14

    tested over a range of Reynolds numbers. A maximum Reynolds number (Re) of 2000 was established to keep the study within the transition range. For each domain, a critical Reynolds number (Re_crit) was found such that for Re < Re_crit the flow was steady...

  7. Language and Development in Multilingual Settings: A Case Study of Knowledge Exchange and Teacher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz; Edwards, Viv; Bloch, Carole

    2006-01-01

    The quality of a country's human-resource base can be said to determine its level of success in social and economic development. This study focuses on some of the major human-resource development issues that surround the implementation of South Africa's policy of multilingualism in education. It begins by discussing the relationship between…

  8. Study on the occurrence of spontaneously established perpendicular exchange bias in Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, K. F.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Saravanan, P.

    2014-05-07

    In this study, perpendicular exchange bias (PEB) effect in the as-grown Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51}/IrMn bilayers was demonstrated at room temperature using single-layered Co{sub 49}Pt{sub 51} alloy thin film as ferromagnetic (FM) layer. Several unusual features were observed in this system, viz.,: (i) the PEB was spontaneously established without any external magnetic field treatments, (ii) single-shifted loops were obtained rather than double-shifted ones, and (iii) the spontaneous PEB effect was accompanied by a reduction in perpendicular coercivity, H{sub c?} from 1024 to 632?Oe. The results of x–ray diffraction revealed the formation of IrMn (111) texture. Training effect studies indicate that the PEB effect is stable in this system with less than 5% variation in PEB value within 15 repetitive scans. Significant reduction in the PEB effect was found for the CoPt/IrMn films either grown or subjected to post-annealing under external magnetic field (H{sub ind}). The thickness dependence of PEB effect with respect to the FM and antiferromagnetic layers were also investigated and a largest PEB value of 533?Oe was obtained for the sample grown with 3-nm thick CoPt and 10-nm thick IrMn layers. The results of present study thus establish an opportunity to realize PEB effect in the absence of external field during fabrication.

  9. An experimental study of the solvent-dependent self-assembly/disassembly and conformer preferences of gramicidin A.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liuxi; Chen, Shu-Hua; Russell, David H

    2013-08-20

    The solvent dependence of self-assembly/disassembly kinetics and conformer preferences of the gramicidin A (GA) dimer is investigated using a combination of techniques, viz., electrospray ionization-ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), collision-induced dissociation (CID), and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX)-MS. IM-MS measurements reveal that there are possibly three distinct GA dimeric species, detected as sodium ion adduct ions [2GA + 2Na](2+), and these are assigned as the parallel ?-helix, antiparallel ?-helix, and head-to-head dimer. The monomerization kinetics and equilibrium abundances of the dimer ions depend upon solvent polarity. The antiparallel ?-helix was the thermodynamically preferred species in less polar solvents. HDX measurements and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the intermediate complex confirm the well-protected dimer geometry with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. This combined IM-HDX-CID methodology provides a comprehensive view of GA self-assembly/disassembly in low dielectric solutions, showing its potential utility in solving solution-phase protein self-assembly/disassembly kinetics and providing structural information of the multimers at the same time. PMID:23855712

  10. Rationalising lysozyme amyloidosis: insights from the structure and solution dynamics of T70N lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Russell J K; Christodoulou, John; Dumoulin, Mireille; Caddy, Gemma L; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Murtagh, Gareth J; Kumita, Janet R; Larsson, Göran; Robinson, Carol V; Archer, David B; Luisi, Ben; Dobson, Christopher M

    2005-09-30

    T70N human lysozyme is the only known naturally occurring destabilised lysozyme variant that has not been detected in amyloid deposits in human patients. Its study and a comparison of its properties with those of the amyloidogenic variants of lysozyme is therefore important for understanding the determinants of amyloid disease. We report here the X-ray crystal structure and the solution dynamics of T70N lysozyme, as monitored by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and NMR relaxation experiments. The X-ray crystal structure shows that a substantial structural rearrangement results from the amino acid substitution, involving residues 45-51 and 68-75 in particular, and gives rise to a concomitant separation of these two loops of up to 6.5A. A marked decrease in the magnitudes of the generalised order parameter (S2) values of the amide nitrogen atom, for residues 70-74, shows that the T70N substitution increases the flexibility of the peptide backbone around the site of mutation. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange protection factors measured by NMR spectroscopy were calculated for the T70N variant and the wild-type protein. The protection factors for many of backbone amide groups in the beta-domain of the T70N variant are decreased relative to those in the wild-type protein, whereas those in the alpha-domain display wild-type-like values. In pulse-labelled hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments monitored by mass spectrometry, transient but locally cooperative unfolding of the beta-domain of the T70N variant and the wild-type protein was observed, but at higher temperatures than for the amyloidogenic variants I56T and D67H. These findings reveal that such partial unfolding is an intrinsic property of the human lysozyme structure, and suggest that the readiness with which it occurs is a critical feature determining whether or not amyloid deposition occurs in vivo. PMID:16126226

  11. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  12. A Study of Co-Relation between the Length of English Low Vowels and Diphthongs by Korean Exchange Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heesuk

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at comparing the five English diphthongs, /ei/, /ou/, /au/, /ai/, /[inverted c]i/, in the aspect of length, to find out a common feature in /au/, ai/, /[inverted c]i/ and /ei/, and /ou/ and to see if there is any evidence between English low vowels and diphthongs. This study is a following research of Park (2009), and I analyzed…

  13. Time-varying volatility in Malaysian stock exchange: An empirical study using multiple-volatility-shift fractionally integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen

    2008-02-01

    This article investigated the influences of structural breaks on the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in the Malaysian stock markets which included the Kuala Lumpur composite index and four major sectoral indices. A fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model combined with sudden changes is developed to study the possibility of structural change in the empirical data sets. Our empirical results showed substantial reduction in fractional differencing parameters after the inclusion of structural change during the Asian financial and currency crises. Moreover, the fractionally integrated model with sudden change in volatility performed better in the estimation and specification evaluations.

  14. SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGES IN MAMMALIAN MEIOTIC CHROMOSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in meiotic cells--only that they occur (1) and reveal frequency and distribution patterns apparently unaffected by cross-over (CO) exchange conditions in those cells; (2) unfortunately, the number of studies from which ...

  15. UV resonance Raman studies of the NaClO4 dependence of poly-L-lysine conformation and hydrogen exchange kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lu; Hong, Zhenmin; Sharma, Bhavya; Asher, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    We used 204 nm excitation UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy to examine the effects of NaClO4 on the conformation of poly–L–lysine (PLL). The presence of NaClO4 induces the formation of ?–helix, ?–helix/bulge and turn conformations. The dependence of the AmIII3 frequency on the peptide ? Ramachandran angle allows us to experimentally determine the conformational population distributions and the energy landscape of PLL along the Ramachandran ? angle. We also used UVRR to measure the NaClO4 concentration dependence of PLL amide hydrogen exchange kinetics. Exchange rates were determined by fitting the D2O exchanging PLL UVRR AmII? band time evolution. Hydrogen exchange is slowed at high NaClO4 concentrations. The PLL AmII? band exchange kinetics at 0.0, 0.2 and 0.35 M NaClO4 can be fit by single exponentials, but the AmII? band kinetics of PLL at 0.8 M NaClO4 requires a double exponential fit. The exchange rates for the extended conformations were monitored by measuring the C?–H band kinetics. These kinetics are identical to those of the AmII? band until 0.8 M NaClO4 whereupon the extended conformation exchange becomes clearly faster than that of the ?–helix–like conformations. Our results indicate that ClO4? binds to the PLL backbone to protect it from OH? exchange catalysis. In addition, ClO4? binding also slows the conformational exchange between the extended and ?–helix–like conformations, probably by increasing the activation barriers for conformational interchanges. PMID:22117822

  16. A full dimensional time-dependent wave packet study for the H4 four-center, collision induced dissociation, and single exchange reactions: Reaction probabilities for J =0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yunpeng; Lee, Soo-Y.; Zhang, Dong H.

    2006-01-01

    A time-dependent initial state selected wave packet method has been developed to study the H2(v1=10-11,j1=0)+H2'(v2=0,j2=0)?HH'+HH' four-center (4C) reaction, and two other competing reactions: the H2+H2'?H+H+H2' collision induced dissociation (CID) and the H2+H2'?H+HH'+H' single exchange (SE) reaction, in full six dimensions. Initial state-specific total reaction probabilities for these three competing reactions are presented for total angular momentum J =0 and the effects of reagent vibration on reactions are examined. It is found that (a) the CID process is the dominant process over the whole energy range considered in this study, but the 4C and SE processes also have non-negligible probabilities; (b) the SE process has a lower threshold energy than the 4C process, but the SE probability increases slower than the 4C probability as collision energy increases; (c) the vibrational excitation of H2(v1) is much more efficient than translational motion for promoting these processes, in particular to the CID process.

  17. Carbon dioxide and water exchange rates by a wheat crop in NASA's biomass production chamber: Results from an 86-day study (January to April 1989)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements were taken for a 20 sq m wheat stand grown from seed to harvest in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber. Respiration of the wheat stand caused the CO2 concentrations to rise an average of 440 ppm during the 4-h dark period each day, or 7.2 umol/sq m/sec. Dark period respiration was sensitive to temperature changes and could be increased 70 to 75 percent by raising the temperature from 16 C to 24 C. Stand photosynthesis (measured from the rate of CO2 drawdown immediately after the lights came on each day) peaked at 27 umol/sq m/sec at 25 days after planting and averaged 15 umol/sq m/sec throughout the study. By combining the average light period photosynthesis and average dark period respiration, a net of 860 g or 470 liters of CO2 were fixed per day. Stand photosynthetic rates showed a linear increase with increasing irradiance (750 umol/sq m/sec PPF the highest level tested), with an average light compensation point after day 30 of 190 umol/sq m/sec. Stand photosynthesis decreased slightly when CO2 levels were decreased from 2200 to 800 ppm, but dropped sharply when CO2 was decreased below 700 to 800 ppm. Water production from stand transpiration peaked at 120 L/day near 25 days and averaged about 90 L/day, or 4.5 L/sq m/day throughout the study.

  18. Temporal Dynamics of Social Exchange and the Development of Solidarity: "Testing the Waters" versus "Taking a Leap of Faith"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwabara, Ko; Sheldon, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In their concerted efforts to unpack the microprocesses that transform repeated exchanges into an exchange relation, exchange theorists have paid little attention to how actors perceive changes and dynamics in exchanges over time. We help fill this gap by studying how temporal patterns of exchange affect the development of cohesion. Some exchange

  19. Effective Exchange Rates in Japan, 1879-1938

    E-print Network

    Shimazaki, Masao; Solomou, Solomos

    2004-06-16

    This paper constructs nominal and real multilateral effective exchange rates ffor Japan during the period 1879-1938. Existing studies of Japanese quantitative economic history have tended to use the dollar-yen bilateral exchange rate. A...

  20. Integrated Studies of Atmosphere-Surface Exchanges and Processes at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory in the Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander; Laurila, Tuomas

    2013-04-01

    The Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory facility has been developed over the last 6 years through a partnership between Russian, U.S. and Finnish agencies responsible for environmental monitoring. The current facility has a clean air facility, a 20 meter tower and an upgraded weather station. Measurements are being made of LW/SW radiation, climate grade meteorological parameters, turbulent fluxes, CO2, methane, aerosols, H2O, greenhouse gases (via flask sampling), black carbon, ozone, surface temperatures and permafrost active layer temperature profiles. Tiksi is located in a boundary region at the confluence of Atlantic and Pacific influences on the Arctic atmosphere; this results in a wide variety of air masses with variable cloud, aerosol and pollutant characteristics in the vicinity of the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory creating a natural laboratory to study the influence that the various source regions of Russia, Northern America, Europe and Central Asia have on regional boundary layer processes. Tiksi is on the edge of the Laptev Sea that is an area of such large ice production that it has been termed "the ice factory of the Arctic Ocean" providing much of the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. Thus the observatory sensors are frequently influenced by the maritime as well as continental air which is already showing up in multiple data lines as having distinctive properties. An integrated picture is emerging of ozone depletion events, black carbon on snow impacts, methane and CO2 flux seasonal variability, and short-lived temperature events that can be interpreted in the context of feed-backs with the local off-shore ice conditions and on-shore active layer morphology. This presentation summaries preliminary results with an emphasis on identifying linkages being study lines that are typically conducted separately.

  1. Planktonic Foraminifera Study at Site ODP 999A (Caribbean Sea): Insights into Oceanic Exchange and Paleocirculation During the last 450 Kyrs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vautravers, M. J.; Spero, H. J.; Schmidt, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    A recent micro-palaeontological study of a core from the South Atlantic (Peeters et al., Nature. 430, 661, 2004) stresses the importance of the Agulhas leakage intensity as a key control on North Atlantic Thermohaline operation. Planktonic foraminifera counts were conducted on the Colombian Basin core ODP 999A (12° N, 74° W, 2878 m); results are presented on a SPECMAP-based age model (Schmidt et al., in prep 2004). At present both climate and surface circulation are driven by the motion of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which governs dry/wet seasons and upwelling intensity. Caribbean surface water originates from both the south Atlantic, which re-circulates Indian Ocean water, and the north Atlantic subtropical gyre. Similarly the deep-water is a mixture of AAIW and UNADW, originating in the southern and northern hemispheres respectively. A CaCO3 preservation index, which is deduced from planktonic fragments and pteropod remains, is used to trace changes in the intermediate water mixture. This study confirms that the sediments are better preserved during glacial times. Furthermore, it shows that the sediments of MIS11 are intensely dissolved, suggesting a maximal contribution of AAIW. Over the last 450 kyr, we observe a decreasing contribution of the AAIW during both interglacial and glacial times. In addition, the Holocene appears unusual, with a low AAIW to UNADW ratio in comparison to previous warm intervals. An examination of the percentages of the surface Indo-Pacific species G. menardii seems to confirm part this result, identifying MIS11 as a time of maximal Indian-Atlantic exchange via the Agulhas 3valve2. It also confirms that during MIS2, 3 and 4, Caribbean surface waters were unusually unfavourable for this species and/or that the Agulhas connection was absent. The % of G. Hexagona, another Indo-Pacific species, which lives in deeper thermocline waters, peaks during MIS11, MIS9e, MIS7c and MIS5e but is absent during the Holocene and MIS7e. This observation suggests a slightly different scenario for the intermediate water flowing through the 3valve2. This confirms the peculiarity of the Holocene as was found on the basis of benthic \\delta13C measurements in the North Atlantic (Raymo et al., Paleoceanography. 19, PA2008, 2004). Finally, on the basis of the species mentioned above in the Caribbean Sea we cannot find evidence of enhanced exchange between the Indian and the Atlantic at the end of the past five glacial as found in the Agulhas area. This disagreement and the factors controlling the late reappearance of these species in the Caribbean Sea need further investigation.

  2. Behavioral Consequences of Embeddedness: Effects of the Underlying Forms of Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Melamed, David; Whitham, Monica M.

    2013-01-01

    Network structures have strong effects on the frequency and terms of negotiated exchanges, shaping who exchanges with whom and who fares better or worse. In this study we ask how exchange patterns of commitment and inequality are affected when negotiated exchanges are combined with reciprocal exchanges in more complex relationships of…

  3. International Studies of Hazardous Groundwater/Surface Water Exchange in the Volcanic Eruption and Tsunami Affected Areas of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Izbekov, P. E.; Gordeev, E.; Titov, V. V.; Verstraeten, I. M.; Pinegina, T. K.; Tsadikovsky, E. I.; Heilweil, V. M.; Gingerich, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    During the US-Russia Geohazards Workshop held July 17-19, 2012 in Moscow, Russia the international research effort was asked to identify cooperative actions for disaster risk reduction, focusing on extreme geophysical events. As a part of this recommendation the PIRE project was developed to understand, quantify, forecast and protect the coastal zone aquifers and inland water resources of Kamchatka (Russia) and its ecosystems affected by the November 4, 1952 Kamchatka tsunami (Khalatyrka Beach near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy) and the January 2, 1996 Karymskiy volcano eruption and the lake tsunami. This project brings together teams from U.S. universities and research institutions located in Russia. The research consortium was briefed on recent technical developments and will utilize samples secured via major international volcanic and tsunami programs for the purpose of advancing the study of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected coastal areas and inland lakes of Kamchatka. We plan to accomplish this project by developing and applying the next generation of field sampling, remote sensing, laboratory techniques and mathematical tools to study groundwater-surface water interaction processes and SGD. We will develop a field and modeling approach to define SGD environment, key controls, and influence of volcano eruption and tsunami, which will provide a framework for making recommendations to combat contamination. This is valuable for politicians, water resource managers and decision-makers and for the volcano eruption and tsunami affected region water supply and water quality of Kamchatka. Data mining and results of our field work will be compiled for spatial modeling by Geo-Information System (GIS) using 3-D Earth Systems Visualization Lab. The field and model results will be communicated to interested stakeholders via an interactive web site. This will allow computation of SGD spatial patterns. In addition, thanks to the conceptual integrated approach, the mathematical tool will be transportable to other regions affected by volcanic eruption and tsunami. We will involve students in the work, incorporate the results into our teaching portfolio and work closely with the IUGG GeoRisk Commission and AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group to communicate our findings to the broader public, specifically local communities that will be most impacted. Under the PIRE education component, a cohort of U.S. and Russian post-doctoral researchers and students will receive training and contribute to the overall natural hazards SGD science agenda in cooperation with senior U.S. researchers and leading investigators from the Russian institutions. Overall, the extensive team of researchers, students and institutions is poised to deliver an innovative and broad spectrum of science associated with the study of SGD in the volcanic eruption and tsunami affected areas, in a way not possible to achieve in isolation.

  4. Experimental study on performance of a planar membrane humidifier for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Chang, Wei Ru; Kao, Jenn Kun; Wu, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of a planar membrane humidifier for a PEM fuel cell stack. The humidification performance of the humidifier adopted here includes the dew point approach temperature (DPAT), water recovery ratio (WRR), and water vapor transfer rate (WVTR). Parametric studies involve the dry inlet temperature, the wet inlet dew point, and the flow rate across the humidifier. Results show that increasing the flow rate across the humidifier linearly increases its pressure drop. However, the DPAT increases sharply at high flow rates (>350 SLPM) due to the inadequate WVTR limited by the humidifier size. In addition, increasing the wet inlet dew point reduces the humidification performance by increasing the DPAT and reducing in the WRR. Moreover, an increase in the dry inlet temperature could reduce the DPAT at the low flow rate of 100 SLPM, but does not affect the DPAT at the high flow rate of 450 SLPM. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of the stack-humidifier assembly is only 10% less than that of the stack tested on a commercial test station. Stability test reveals a satisfactory reliability of the present membrane humidifier as well.

  5. Modelling of the batch biosorption system: study on exchange of protons with cell wall-bound mineral ions.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vishal

    2015-12-01

    The interchange of the protons with the cell wall-bound calcium and magnesium ions at the interface of solution/bacterial cell surface in the biosorption system at various concentrations of protons has been studied in the present work. A mathematical model for establishing the correlation between concentration of protons and active sites was developed and optimized. The sporadic limited residence time reactor was used to titrate the calcium and magnesium ions at the individual data point. The accuracy of the proposed mathematical model was estimated using error functions such as nonlinear regression, adjusted nonlinear regression coefficient, the chi-square test, P-test and F-test. The values of the chi-square test (0.042-0.017), P-test (<0.001-0.04), sum of square errors (0.061-0.016), root mean square error (0.01-0.04) and F-test (2.22-19.92) reported in the present research indicated the suitability of the model over a wide range of proton concentrations. The zeta potential of the bacterium surface at various concentrations of protons was observed to validate the denaturation of active sites. PMID:26017669

  6. Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.

  7. Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

  8. Emittance exchange results

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller, R.P., III; Koeth, T.; /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2009-09-01

    The promise of next-generation light sources depends on the availability of ultra-low emittance electron sources. One method of producing low transverse emittance beams is to generate a low longitudinal emittance beam and exchange it with a large transverse emittance. Experiments are underway at Fermilab's A0 Photoinjector and ANL's Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using the exchange scheme of Kim and Sessler. The experiment at the A0 Photoinjector exchanges a large longitudinal emittance with a small transverse emittance. AWA expects to exchange a large transverse emittance with a small longitudinal emittance. In this paper we discuss recent results at A0 and AWA and future plans for these experiments.

  9. Everyday drug diversions: A qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus

    PubMed Central

    Vrecko, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of ‘drug diversion’—that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity. PMID:25455480

  10. Development of new chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis system with amino acid ionic liquids ligands and its application in studying the kinetics of L-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Mu, Xiaoyu; Qi, Li

    2014-04-22

    New kinds of amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) with pyridinium as cations and L-lysine (L-Lys) as anion have been developed as the available chiral ligands coordinated with Zn(II) in chiral ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis (CLE-CE). Four kinds of AAILs, including [1-ethylpyridinium][L-lysine], 1-butylpyridinium][L-lysine], [1-hexylpyridinium][L-lysine] and 1-[octylpyridinium][L-lysine], were successfully synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Compared with other AAILs, the best chiral separation of Dns-D, L-amino acids could be achieved when [1-ethylpyridinium][L-lysine] was chosen as the chiral ligand. It has been found that after investigating the influence of key factors on the separation efficiency, such as pH of buffer solution, the ratio of Zn(II) to ligand and complex concentration, eight pairs of Dns-D, L-AAs enantiomers could be baseline separated and three pairs were partly separated under the optimum conditions. The proposed CLE-CE method also exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of Dns-D, L-Met with good linearity (r(2)=0.998) and favorable repeatability (RSD?1.5%). Furthermore, the CLE-CE system was applied in investigating the kinetic contents of L-amino acid oxidase, which implied that the proposed system has the potential in studying the enzymatic reaction mechanism. PMID:24703219

  11. Pulse EPR detection of lipid exchange between protein-rich raft and bulk domains in the membrane: methodology development and its application to studies of influenza viral membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, K; Yin, J J; Subczynski, W K; Hyde, J S; Kusumi, A

    2001-01-01

    A pulse saturation-recovery electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method has been developed that allows estimation of the exchange rates of a spin-labeled lipid between the bulk domain and the protein-rich membrane domain, in which the rate of collision between the spin label and molecular oxygen is reduced (slow-oxygen transport domain, or SLOT domain). It is based on the measurements of saturation-recovery signals of a lipid spin label as a function of concentrations of both molecular oxygen and the spin label. Influenza viral membrane, one of the simplest paradigms for the study of biomembranes, showed the presence of two membrane domains with slow and fast collision rates with oxygen (a 16-fold difference) at 30 degrees C. The outbound rate from and the inbound rate into the SLOT domain (or possibly the rate of the domain disintegration and formation) were estimated to be 7.7 x 10(4) and 4.6 x 10(4) s(-1), (15 micros residency time), respectively, indicating that the SLOT domain is highly dynamic and that the entire SLOT domain represents about one-third of the membrane area. Because the oxygen transport rate in the SLOT domain is a factor of two smaller than that in purple membrane, where bacteriorhodopsin is aggregated, we propose that the SLOT domain in the viral membrane is the cholesterol-rich raft domain stabilized by the trimers of hemagglutinin and/or the tetramers of neuraminidase. PMID:11159441

  12. Barriers and Potential Improvements for Needle and Syringe Exchange Programs (NSPs) in China: A Qualitative Study from Perspectives of Both Health and Public Security Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric P. F.; Jing, Jun; Zheng, Jun; Zhao, Junshi; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acceptability, the barriers to the implementation of needle and syringe exchange programs (NSPs) and the potential improvement strategies in China from the perspectives of governmental health and public security officials. Purposive sampling was used for recruitment of participants who had been involved in NSPs implementation. Semi-Structured individual interviews were conducted in Mandarin to address three aspects of NSPs: (1) participants’ attitudes towards NSPs, (2) participants’ opinions on the effectiveness and barriers of NSPs, and (3) suggestions for improving the program. Content analysis was used to analyse the translated interview data. A total of 68 participants from 12 Hunan counties were interviewed (34 from each of the Bureau of Health and the Narcotic Division). Both groups recognised the importance and effectiveness of NSPs in HIV prevention, but public security officials regarded NSPs as a temporary intervention in place of punitive measures. Most health officials (32/34) regarded the main barriers to its implementation as administrative and structural, whereas participants from Narcotics Division (n=24) questioned the legitimacy of NSPs and concerned about the poor management of drug users’ risk behaviours. Close cooperation between the health and public security sectors, engagement of the drug user community and an enabling policy environment were reportedly to be critical for potential improvements of NSPs in China. Misconceptions about NSPs encourage drug users’ addictive behaviour, and an unclear leadership and insufficient support de-motivate the participants from the Bureau of Health and the Narcotics Division to actively support the program implementation. PMID:26114556

  13. Nanostructured gadolinium-doped ceria microsphere synthesis from ion exchange resin: Multi-scale in-situ studies of solid solution formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caisso, Marie; Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis; Picart, Sébastien; Martin, Philippe M.; Bès, René; Renard, Catherine; Roussel, Pascal; Neuville, Daniel R.; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2014-10-01

    In the current nano-sized material revolution, the main limitations to a large-scale deployment of nanomaterials involve health concerns related to nano-dissemination via air. Developing new chemical routes benefiting from nano-size advantages while avoiding their hazards could overcome these limitations. Addressing this need, a chemical route leading to soft nano-particle agglomerates, i.e., macroscopic precursors presenting the ability to be decomposed into nano-sized materials, was developed and applied to Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-?. Using cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin, the Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-? solid solution formation as a function of temperature was studied in-situ through X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Temperatures corresponding to the organic skeleton decomposition and to the mixed oxide crystallization were identified. An optimal heat treatment, leading to nanostructured soft agglomerates, was established. Microsphere processing capabilities were evaluated and particle size distribution measurements were recorded. A very low fracture strength was calculated, and a nanometric particle size distribution (170 nm) was determined.

  14. Everyday drug diversions: a qualitative study of the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription stimulants on a university campus.

    PubMed

    Vrecko, Scott

    2015-04-01

    This article investigates everyday experiences and practises that are associated with processes of pharmaceuticalization and with practices of 'drug diversion'--that is, the illicit exchange and non-medical use of prescription drugs. It reports results from a qualitative study that was designed to examine the everyday dimensions of non-medical prescription stimulant use among students on an American university campus, which involved 38 semi-structured interviews with individuals who used prescription stimulants as a means of improving academic performance. While discussions of drug diversion are often framed in terms of broad, population-level patterns and demographic trends, the present analysis provides a complementary sociocultural perspective that is attuned to the local and everyday phenomena. Results are reported in relation to the acquisition of supplies of medications intended for nonmedical use. An analysis is provided which identifies four different sources of diverted medications (friends; family members; black-market vendors; deceived clinicians), and describes particular sets of understandings, practices and experiences that arise in relation to each different source. Findings suggest that at the level of everyday experience and practice, the phenomenon of prescription stimulant diversion is characterised by a significant degree of complexity and heterogeneity. PMID:25455480

  15. Structural Diversity and Initial Oligomerization of PrP106–126 Studied by Replica-Exchange and Conventional Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Lulu; Guo, Jingjing; Bai, Qifeng; Jin, Nengzhi; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are marked by cerebral accumulation of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein. A fragment of prion protein composed of residues 106–126 (PrP106–126) exhibits similar properties to full length prion and plays a key role in the conformational conversion from cellular prion to its pathogenic pattern. Soluble oligomers of PrP106–126 have been proposed to be responsible for neurotoxicity. However, the monomeric conformational space and initial oligomerization of PrP106–126 are still obscure, which are very important for understanding the conformational conversion of PrP106–126. In this study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate monomeric and dimeric states of PrP106–126 in implicit solvent. The structural diversity of PrP106–126 was observed and this peptide did not acquire stable structure. The dimeric PrP106–126 also displayed structural diversity and hydrophobic interaction drove the dimerization. To further study initial oligomerization of PrP106–126, 1 µs conventional molecular dynamics simulations of trimer and tetramer formation were carried out in implicit solvent. We have observed the spontaneous formation of several basic oligomers and stable oligomers with high ?-sheet contents were sampled in the simulations of trimer and tetramer formation. The ?-hairpin formed in hydrophobic tail of PrP106–126 with residues 118–120 in turn may stabilize these oligomers and seed the formation oligomers. This study can provide insight into the detailed information about the structure of PrP106–126 and the dynamics of aggregation of monomeric PrP106–126 into oligomers in atomic level. PMID:24586266

  16. Experimental study on latent heat storage characteristics of W/O emulsion -Supercooling rate of dispersed water drops by direct contact heat exchange-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Inaba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to investigate the latent heat storage system. Using of ice heat storage system brings an equalization of electric power demand, because it will solved the electric -power-demand-concentration on day-time of summer by the air conditioning. The flowable latent heat storage material, Oil/Water type emulsion, microencapsulated latent heat material-water mixture or ice slurry, etc., is enable to transport the latent heat in a pipe. The flowable latent heat storage material can realize the pipe size reduction and system efficiency improvement. Supercooling phenomenon of the dispersed latent heat storage material in continuous phase brings the obstruction of latent heat storage. The latent heat storage rates of dispersed water drops in W/O (Water/Oil) emulsion are investigated experimentally in this study. The water drops in emulsion has the diameter within 3 ˜ 25?m, the averaged water drop diameter is 7.3?m and the standard deviation is 2.9?m. The direct contact heat exchange method is chosen as the phase change rate evaluation of water drops in W/O emulsion. The supercooled temperature and the cooling rate are set as parameters of this study. The evaluation is performed by comparison between the results of this study and the past research. The obtained experimental result is shown that the 35K or more degree from melting point brings 100% latent heat storage rate of W/O emulsion. It was clarified that the supercooling rate of dispersed water particles in emulsion shows the larger value than that of the bulk water.

  17. Setup Exchange 2010 on an Android Device Exchange 2010

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    an email app that can use ActiveSync to identify Exchange settings. Add an Exchange Account to an AndroidSetup Exchange 2010 on an Android Device Exchange 2010 The following instructions are for setting up an Exchange 2010 account on an Android device such as a Samsung Galaxy III or tablet

  18. Effects of ATP and CTP on the conformation of the regulatory subunit of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase in solution: A medium-resolution hydrogen exchange study

    SciTech Connect

    Mallikarachchi, D.; Burz, D.S.; Allewell, N.M. )

    1989-06-27

    Medium-resolution hydrogen exchange methods have been used to examine the solvent accessibility of seven peptides in the regulatory subunit (r2) of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase in the presence and absence of ATP and CTP. Both nucleotides are allosteric effectors of the holoenzyme; binding of ATP increases the affinity of the holoenzyme for the substrate L-Asp, while CTP has the opposite effect. Following Rosa and Richards and Englander et al., exchange-out curves for individual peptides were generated by adjusting the pH to 2.7 to quench exchange-out, digesting the protein with pepsin, separating peptides by reverse-phase HPLC, determining their radioactivity, and correcting for radioactivity lost during the analysis. Sixteen peptides from segments 1-11 and 76-153 were identified by amino acid and N-terminal analysis. Nine fell in regions where background was too high or were present at too low concentrations for exchange to be monitored. The number of protons whose exchange could be followed in peptides 1-11, 76-91, 78-90, 84-101, 93-112, 108-114, and 115-125 ranged from approximately 1 (1-11, 108-114) to 10 (84-101) and 11 (93-112). The pattern of results obtained suggests that the structure of r2 in solution is similar to that of the regulatory subunits in crystalline ATCase. Both CTP and ATP reduce rates of exchange from all seven peptides except 115-125. Although CTP slows exchange more than ATP, the effect is small except for peptides 76-91 and 78-90 which are near the nucleotide binding site.

  19. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  20. Handicapping Social Exchange Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishler, Barbara

    The economic theory of social exchange has some serious shortcomings when applied to minorities--especially the disabled. First, it assumes dyads comprise the basic unit where exchange occurs and that rewards and costs must occur at that level. Second, the model standardizes the experience of white, Western European and American males. The model…

  1. exchange? Part Universiteit

    E-print Network

    Lange, Tanja

    that it takes at least 15 years. ECC­encrypted long­term­confidential documents (e.g. health records, stateWhat is a use case for quantum key exchange? Part I Tanja Lange Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. . DH key exchange is dead. . DSA is dead. . XTR is dead. . ECDSA is dead. . ECC is dead. . HECC is dead

  2. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  3. Building Relationships through Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  4. CO 2 and H 2O gas exchange of a triticale field: II. Micrometeorological flux studies and comparison with upscaling from porometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Meixner, F. X.; Busch, J.; Lösch, R.

    1996-05-01

    During June and July 1995 a field experiment was conducted at a 9 ha field of cereal crop (triticale) located in Bellheim, Germany. Our investigation focused on the exchange processes of H 2O and CO 2 and micrometeorological quantities within and above the triticale canopy. Data were collected by porometer measurements at leaf scale, and canopy scale flux measurements using eddy correlation techniques. Due to the senescent state of triticale, the CO 2 exchange was generally small. The micrometeorological flux data are compared to estimates which were upscaled from porometer measurements. The results of one particular day are selected for presentation. The good agreement for both the CO 2 and H 2O fluxes, indicates that a relatively simple and direct upscaling procedure from single leaf porometry data may correctly describe the net exchange of an entire canopy.

  5. High throughput study of fuel cell proton exchange membranes: Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic polyelectrolyte blends and nanocomposites with zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata B., Pedro Jose

    Sustainability is perhaps one of the most heard buzzwords in the post-20 th century society; nevertheless, it is not without a reason. Our present practices for energy supply are largely unsustainable if we consider their environmental and social impact. In view of this unfavorable panorama, alternative sustainable energy sources and conversion approaches have acquired noteworthy significance in recent years. Among these, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being considered as a pivotal building block in the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the 21st century. The polyelectrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a vital component, as well as a performance-limiting factor, of the PEMFC. Consequently, the development of high-performance PEM materials is of utmost importance for the advance of the PEMFC field. In this work, alternative PEM materials based on semi-interpenetrated networks from blends of poly(vinyledene fluoride) (PVDF) (inert phase) and sulfonated crosslinked acrylic polyelectrolytes (PE) (proton-conducting phase), as well as tri-phase PVDF/PE/zirconium-based composites, are studied. To alleviate the burden resulting from the vast number of possible combinations of the different precursors utilized in the preparation of the membranes (PVDF: 5x, PE: 2x, Nanoparticle: 3x), custom high-throughput (HT) screening systems have been developed for their characterization. By coupling the data spaces obtained via these systems with the appropriate statistical and data analysis tools it was found that, despite not being directly involved in the proton transport process, the inert PVDF phase plays a major role on proton conductivity. Particularly, a univocal inverse correlation between the PVDF crystalline characteristics (i.e., crystallinity and crystallite size) and melt viscosity, and membrane proton conductivity was discovered. Membranes based on highly crystalline and viscous PVDF homopolymers exhibited reduced proton conductivity due to precluded segmental motion and physical blockage of the PE chains during crosslinking. In addition, a maximum effective amount of PE (55-60wt%, neutralized form) beneficial for proton conductivity was revealed. Some of the aforementioned effects may possibly have been overlooked if a high-throughput study including plentiful combinations of multiple precursors hadn't been performed. In the case of composite membranes, despite the fact that nanoparticle dispersion was thermodynamically limited, a general improvement in proton conductivity was evidenced at low to medium nanoparticle loadings (0.5 to 1wt%) in comparison to non-hybrid PVDF/PE references. This beneficial effect was particularly noticeable in membranes based on PVDF homopolymers (7% to 14.3% increment), where the nanoparticles induced a "healing" effect by providing proton-conducting paths between non-crosslinked PE channels separated by dense PVDF areas resulting from large PVDF crystallites. In general, the results presented herein are promising for the development of new cost-effective alternative PEMs.

  6. Interpreting hydrodynamic behaviour by the model of stirred tanks in series with exchanged zones: preliminary study in lab-scale trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ming; Soric, Audrey; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Roche, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In trickling filters for wastewater treatment, hydrodynamic behaviour is affected by the growth of biofilm on the porous medium. Therefore, modelling hydrodynamic behaviour is necessary and efficient to predict the biodegradation of pollutants. In this study, laboratory-scale trickling filters were filled with two different porous media (glass beads and plastic rings) and were fed by a synthetic substrate in batch mode. Total organic carbon (TOC) of the effluent was measured and retention time distribution (RTD) was determined by injecting NaCl. Results showed that medium had no significant effect on TOC removal rate (around 80% and 60% respectively for batch time of seven and two days). However, regarding the hydrodynamic behaviour, the effective volume ratio and hydraulic efficiency in the glass beads bed increased remarkably from 28% and 18% to 80% and 70%, respectively, with the reduction of dispersion coefficient (from 4.55 to 1.53). Moreover, the short batch time accelerated this change. Conversely, no variation of hydrodynamic behaviour in plastic rings bed was evident. Along with the feeding of synthetic substrate, biofilm concentration ranged from 1.5 to 10.1 g/L in the glass beads reactor and it achieved around 2.8 g/L in the plastic rings reactor. Hydrodynamic modelling indicated that the model of stirred tanks in series with exchanged zones fitted the experimental results well. These gave values of mobile and immobile volumes of 51 mL and 17 mL, respectively, in the glass beads filter and 25 mL and 15 mL, respectively, in the plastic rings filter. PMID:24527618

  7. Hydrogen spillover on Rh/TiO2: the FTIR study of donated electrons, co-adsorbed CO and H/D exchange.

    PubMed

    Panayotov, D; Ivanova, E; Mihaylov, M; Chakarova, K; Spassov, T; Hadjiivanov, K

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen dissociation and spillover on supported metal nanoparticles have received renewed interest because these chemical processes are closely related to applications in heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage. In heterogeneous catalysis, spillover can control the reaction rate and selectivity of a wide range of reactions, e.g. hydrogenation, synthesis of methanol and hydroisomerization. In this work, we combine three spectroscopic approaches, i.e. the FT-IR spectroscopy of donated electrons, co-adsorbed CO and H/D exchange, to obtain detailed information on the dynamics of hydrogen interaction with a model 1.3% Rh/TiO2 catalyst. Our spectroscopic results helped us to build a physical picture of the processes occurring during the H-spillover on Rh/TiO2. It was found that molecular H2 dissociates on nanocrystalline Rh; H atoms spillover onto the titania thus protonating the semiconductor, while donating electrons to shallow trap (ST) states and the conduction band (CB) of TiO2. These donated electrons are observed by their specific IR features. By simultaneously monitoring the changes in the vibrational modes of CO, and, the infrared absorbance due to transitions involving CB and ST electrons, we found that both CO-reduced and partially re-oxidized Rh nanocrystallites promote the H-spillover and thus the n-doping of TiO2 materials. Upon evacuation, the process reverses: hydrogen atoms spillover back to Rh nanoparticles where they recombine to form H2 molecules that desorb from the surface. These new mechanistic insights into the process of H2 dissociation and spillover on the powder Rh/TiO2 catalyst call for further model surface science studies with model metal nanoparticle-single crystal substrate systems, in which a detailed picture of energetics and spatial distribution of hydrogen and injected electrons could be obtained. PMID:26198672

  8. Effects of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal mucociliary clearance in laryngectomized patients: a multi-center case-control study.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, C; Muller, S H; van der Noort, V; Olmos, R A Valdés; Minni, A; Parrilla, C; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M; van der Baan, S

    2015-11-01

    After total laryngectomy, inspired air is no longer optimally conditioned by the upper airways. Impaired mucociliary clearance and histological changes of respiratory epithelium, such as loss of ciliated cells, have been described in laryngectomized patients. Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are passive humidifiers that re-condition the inspired air. Aim of this study was to assess the effect of HMEs on tracheal epithelium and tracheal mucus transport velocity (TMV). Tracheal brush biopsies were collected in three groups of TLE patients: 21 long-term HME users, 10 non-HME users, and 16 non-HME users before and after 4-9 months HME use. Tracheal epithelium biopsies were assessed using a digital high-speed camera mounted onto a light microscope. TMV was determined by scintigraphy in the first two patient groups. Significantly more ciliated cells were found in HME users compared to non-HME users (p = 0.05). TMV was higher in HME users (median 2 mm/min; 0-7.9) compared to non-HME users (median 0.8 mm/min; 0-12.3), but this difference was not significant (p = 0.37). One-hour breathing without HME in long-term HME users did not measurably decrease TMV (p = 0.13). The long-term use of an HME restores/prevents the loss of tracheal ciliated cells. A significant improvement in TMV was not found. Short-term (one hour) detachment of an HME has no measurable effect on TMV. PMID:25338182

  9. Room-temperature ultrahigh-resolution time-of-flight neutron and X-ray diffraction studies of H/D-exchanged crambin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Julian C-H; Fisher, Zoë; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y; Mustyakimov, Marat; Hanson, B Leif; Zhurov, Vladimir V; Langan, Paul

    2012-02-01

    The room-temperature (RT) X-ray structure of H/D-exchanged crambin is reported at 0.85 Å resolution. As one of the very few proteins refined with anisotropic atomic displacement parameters at two temperatures, the dynamics of atoms in the RT and 100 K structures are compared. Neutron diffraction data from an H/D-exchanged crambin crystal collected at the Protein Crystallography Station (PCS) showed diffraction beyond 1.1 Å resolution. This is the highest resolution neutron diffraction reported to date for a protein crystal and will reveal important details of the anisotropic motions of H and D atoms in protein structures. PMID:22297981

  10. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2011-06-28

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  11. Heat and mass exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

    2007-09-18

    A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

  12. Wound tube heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

    1983-01-01

    What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

  13. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1991-10-16

    This progress report is for the September--October 1991 quarter. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  14. Anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  15. Identifying Housing and Meteorological Conditions Influencing Residential Air Exchange Rates in the DEARS and RIOPA Studies: Development of Distributions for Human Exposure Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of fact...

  16. ROLE OF CANOPY-SCALE PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN MODIFYING BIOGENIC-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGE OF REACTIVE TERPENE SPECIES: RESULTS FROM THE CELTIC FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A one-dimensional canopy model was used to quantify the impact of photochemistry in modifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of trace gases. Canopy escape efficiencies, defined as the fraction of emission that escapes into the well-mixed boundary layer, were calculated for reactiv...

  17. Feasibility study for an advanced coal fired heat exchanger/gas turbine topping cycle for a high efficiency power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Zhao, Y.; Pines, D.; Buggeln, R.C.; Shamroth, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Significant improvements in efficiency for the conversion of coal into electricity can be achieved by cycles which employ a high temperature gas turbine topping cycle. The objective of this project is the development of an externally fired gas turbine system. The project computationally tested a new concept for a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) and high temperature heat exchanger with a proprietary design to reduce the problems associated with the harsh coal environment. The program addressed two key technology issues: (1) the HITAF/heat exchanger heat transfer through a 2-D computer analysis of the HITAF configuration; (2) 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model application to simulate the exclusion of particles and corrosive gases from the heat exchanger surface. The basic concept of this new combustor design was verified through the 2D and 3D modeling. It demonstrated that the corrosion and erosion of the exchanger material caused by coal and ash particles can be largely reduced by employing a specially designed firing scheme. It also suggested that a proper combustion geometry design is necessary to maximize the cleaning effect.

  18. Mössbauer effect study of correlation between structure and exchange-bias effect in ferromagnetic Fe/antiferromagnetic FeSn2 bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncser, V. E.; Stromberg, F.; Acet, M.; Keune, W.

    2005-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic (AF) FeSn2(001) epitaxial and polycrystalline layers were grown in ultrahigh vacuum under various conditions on clean InSb(001) substrates and covered by polycrystalline ferromagnetic Fe layers, forming a new system with exchange bias. Isotopically enriched Fe57- and Fe57Sn2-tracer layers were placed on either side of the Fe /FeSn2 interface for a microscopic investigation of the spin structure and atomic interdiffusion phenomena in near-interfacial regions by Fe57 conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) at room temperature and T =10K. Several spectral components, assigned to pure bcc Fe, Sn-containing bcc Fe, AF-ordered FeSn2, and paramagnetic FeSn2 were resolved in the CEM spectra. Evidence is provided for interdiffusion across the interface. The temperature dependence of the exchange-bias field HE was measured by magnetometry. The CEMS data provide evidence for a correlation between HE at low T and chemical disorder (defects) in the FeSn2 films via the intensity of the paramagnetic line. These results support the assumption that exchange bias is related to the presence of AF domains formed via magnetic defects in the antiferromagnet. The T dependence of HE suggests interfacial exchange-coupling energies higher than the AF wall energy.

  19. A Comprehensive Study of the Solubility, Thermochemistry, Ion Exchange, and Precipitation Kinetics of NO3 Cancrinite and NO3 Sodalite (Project No.: 81959)

    SciTech Connect

    Colon, Carlos F. Jove; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Krumhansl, James L.; Nyman, May; Liu, Qingyuan

    2004-06-01

    NO3 cancrinite and NO3 sodalite haves been found as a common sodium alumino-silicate forming in strongly caustic and alkaline aqueous solutions associated with radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) stored in many underground tanks and also in nuclear waste treatment facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS). The appearance of these phases have created very expensive problems in waste treatment plants by fouling process evaporators in the SRS waste processing facility. Therefore, in order to prevent their formation an assessment of the relative stability, formation kinetics, and the ion-exchange characteristics of these two phases in HLW solutions needs to be investigated. The goals of this project are to: (1) Develop a robust equilibrium thermodynamic framework to accurately describe the formation of NO3 cancrinite and NO3 sodalite. (2) Provide quantification and characterization of the solid precipitation rates through long-term batch kinetic experiments and novel analytical techniques. (3) Investigate the partitioning and ion exchange properties of these zeolitic phases with respect to radionuclides and RCRA metal species. This also includes compositional and structural characterization of ion exchanged solids elucidate the exchange properties of these phases.

  20. Magnetic stability in exchange-spring and exchange bias systems after multiple switching cycles.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J. S.; Inomata, A.; You, C.-Y.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    We have studied the magnetic stability in exchange bias and exchange spring systems prepared via epitaxial sputter deposition. The two interfacial exchange coupled systems, Fe/Cr(211) double superlattices consisting of a ferromagnetic and an antiferromagnetic Fe/Cr superlattice that are exchange coupled through a Cr spacer, and Sin-Co/Fe exchange-spring bilayer structures with ferromagnetically coupled hard Sin-Co layer and soft Fe layer, were epitaxially grown on suitably prepared Cr buffer layers to give rise to different microstructure and magnetic anisotropy. The magnetic stability was investigated using the magneto-optic Kerr effect during repeated reversal of the soft layer magnetization by field cycling up to 10{sup 7} times. For uniaxial Fe/Cr exchange biased double superlattices and exchange spring bilayers with uniaxial Sin-Co, small but rapid initial decay in the exchange bias field HE and in the remanent magnetization is observed. However, the exchange spring bilayers with biaxial and random in-plane anisotropy in the Sin-Co layer shows gradual decay in H{sub E} and without large reduction of the magnetization. The different decay behaviors are attributed to the different microstructure and spin configuration of the pinning layers.

  1. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  2. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  3. Munich, Germany Exchange Program

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Munich, Germany Exchange Program Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Founded in 1472, Ludwig talented scholars and students from all over the world. As one of Germany's most dynamic universities, LMU, psychology, physics, biology, chemistry, social sciences, economics, business administration, and geosciences

  4. Place of exchange

    E-print Network

    Hollander, Adi

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is written as a theoretical presentation of the research I conducted at MIT between 2013 and 2015. I will discuss what I consider to be an important aspect of my artistic practice; creating places of exchange, ...

  5. The CROSTVOC project - an integrated approach to study the effect of stress on BVOC exchange between agricultural crops and grassland ecosystems and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelynck, Crist; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc; Bachy, Aurélie; Delaplace, Pierre; Digrado, Anthony; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Mozaffar, Ahsan; Schoon, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Global changes in atmospheric composition and climate are expected to affect BVOC exchange between terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere through changes in the drivers of constitutive BVOC emissions and by increases in frequency and intensity of biotic or abiotic stress episodes. Indeed, several studies indicate changes in the emission patterns of constitutive BVOCs and emission of stress-induced BVOCs following heat, drought and oxidative stress, amongst others. Relating changes in BVOC emissions to the occurrence of one or multiple stressors in natural environmental conditions is not straightforward and only few field studies have dealt with it, especially for agricultural crop and grassland ecosystems. The CROSTVOC project aims to contribute in filling this knowledge gap in three ways. Firstly, it aims at performing long-term BVOC emission field measurements from maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), two important crop species on the global scale, and from grassland. This should lead to a better characterization of (mainly oxygenated) BVOC emissions from these understudied ecosystems, allowing a better representation of those emissions in air quality and atmospheric chemistry and transport models. BVOC fluxes are obtained by the Disjunct Eddy Covariance by mass scanning (DEC-MS) technique, using a hs-PTR-MS instrument for BVOC analysis. Secondly, the eddy covariance BVOC flux measurements (especially at the grassland site) will be accompanied by ozone flux, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and soil moisture measurements, amongst others, to allow linking alterations in BVOC emissions to stress episodes. Simultaneously, automated dynamic enclosures will be deployed in order to detect specific abiotic and biotic stress markers by PTR-MS and identify them unambiguously by GC-MS. Thirdly, the field measurements will be accompanied by laboratory BVOC flux measurements in an environmental chamber in order to better disentangle the responses of the BVOC emissions to driving factors that co-occur in field conditions and to determine the influence of single abiotic stressors on BVOC emissions. Next to a general presentation, some preliminary results of the project will be shown.

  6. Study of coupled transport and its effect on different electrochemical systems: Implications in high temperature energy storage batteries and proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Preethy

    Coupled transport is studied on two electrochemical systems: Na-ZnCl 2 batteries and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). The energy storage system of interest here is based on sodium ?"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE): Na/BASE/ZnCl2. BASE is an excellent Na+ conductor with a very high conductivity at 300°C. Its high Na+ ion conductivity and high stability are the principal reasons for its application in electrochemical storage systems. A novel vapor phase process was invented facilitating the fabrication of high strength and moisture/CO 2 resistant BASE. A two-phase composite of alumiNa+YSZ is formed by sintering and exposed to Na2O vapor, keeping the activity of Na2O lower than that in NaAlO2. This prevents the formation of hygroscopic NaAlO2 at the grain boundaries. A thin layer of ?"-alumina is formed on the surface upon exposure. Further reaction occurs by transporting Na+ ions through the formed ?"-alumina and a parallel transport of O2- ions through YSZ. This occurs by a coupled transport of Na+ through ?"-alumina and O 2- ions through YSZ, thus expediting the process. The second electrochemical system of interest is PEMFC. The degradation mechanism of catalysts is studied using inexpensive copper particles. The mechanism of growth involves a coupled transport of Cu2+ through the aqueous medium and an electron transport through the direct particle-to-particle contact. Effect of applied stress on coarsening of platinum was also investigated. Two platinum wires/foils were immersed in a PtCl4+DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide) solution. A tensile load was applied to one wire/foil and the other one was left load-free. The wire/foil subjected to a tensile load became cathodic with respect to the unstressed wire/foil. Thus, under a tensile stress, the chemical potential of Pt decreases. This result suggests design strategies for core-shell catalysts used in PEMFCs: stable core-shell catalysts for PEMFC with Pt shell should be designed such that the shell is under a tensile stress. Specific surface energies (?) of f.c.c. metals as a function of shape and size were investigated using the broken-bond model. ? decreased with increasing particle size and approached asymptotic values beyond an equivalent diameter of ˜5 nm. Octahedral-shaped particles were the most stable.

  7. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1992-07-09

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with conventional'' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  8. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. D.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this contract has been to explore the limits of miniaturization of heat exchangers with the goals of (1) improving the theoretical understanding of laminar heat exchangers, (2) evaluating various manufacturing difficulties, and (3) identifying major applications for the technology. A low-cost, ultra-compact heat exchanger could have an enormous impact on industry in the areas of cryocoolers and energy conversion. Compact cryocoolers based on the reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) would become practical with the availability of compact heat exchangers. Many experts believe that hardware advances in personal computer technology will rapidly slow down in four to six years unless lowcost, portable cryocoolers suitable for the desktop supercomputer can be developed. Compact refrigeration systems would permit dramatic advances in high-performance computer work stations with 'conventional' microprocessors operating at 150 K, and especially with low-cost cryocoolers below 77 K. NASA has also expressed strong interest in our MTS exchanger for space-based RBC cryocoolers for sensor cooling. We have demonstrated feasibility of higher specific conductance by a factor of five than any other work in high-temperature gas-to-gas exchangers. These laminar-flow, microtube exchangers exhibit extremely low pressure drop compared to alternative compact designs under similar conditions because of their much shorter flow length and larger total flow area for lower flow velocities. The design appears to be amenable to mass production techniques, but considerable process development remains. The reduction in materials usage and the improved heat exchanger performance promise to be of enormous significance in advanced engine designs and in cryogenics.

  9. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  10. Vacuum powered heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, R.F.

    1986-06-24

    In an internal combustion engine including an oil lubrication system, a liquid cooling system, and an improved air intake system is described. The improved air intake system comprises: a housing including a first opening in one end, which opening is open to the atmosphere and a second opening comprising an air outlet opening in the other end open to the air intake manifold of the engine, a heat exchanger positioned in the first opening. The heat exchanger consists of a series of coils positioned in the flow path of the atmospheric air as it enters the housing, the heat exchanger being fluidly connected to either the engine lubrication system or the cooling system to provide a warm heat source for the incoming air to the housing, acceleration means positioned in the housing downstream of the heat exchanger, the acceleration means comprising a honeycomb structure positioned across the air intake flow path. The honey-comb structure includes a multitude of honey combed mini-venturi cells through which the heated air flows in an accelerated mode, a removable air filter positioned between the heat exchanger and the acceleration means and a single opening provided in the housing through which the air filter can be passed and removed, and additional openings in the housing positioned downstream of the heat exchanger and upstream of the air filter, the additional openings including removable flaps for opening and closing the openings to control the temperature of the air flowing through the housing.

  11. Energy-Exchange Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what energy savings can be achieved by coordinating the resources and requirements of two facilities, the 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and a housing development named Starrett City with its own total energy system. It was determined that three energy exchange options were economically and technically feasible. These include: the transfer of digester gas produced at the 26th Ward to the boilers at the Starrett City's total energy plant (TEP); the transfer of hot water heated at the TEP to the 26th Ward for space and process heating; and the transfer of coal effluent waste water from the 26th Ward to the condenser cooling systems at the TEP. Technical information is presented to support the findings. The report addresses those tasks of the statement of work dedicated to data acquisition, analysis, and energy conservation strategies internal to the Starrett City TEP and the community it supplies as well as to the 26th Ward WPCP. (MCW)

  12. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  13. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  14. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  15. Measuring the impact of a health information exchange intervention on provider-based notifiable disease reporting using mixed methods: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health information exchange (HIE) is the electronic sharing of data and information between clinical care and public health entities. Previous research has shown that using HIE to electronically report laboratory results to public health can improve surveillance practice, yet there has been little utilization of HIE for improving provider-based disease reporting. This article describes a study protocol that uses mixed methods to evaluate an intervention to electronically pre-populate provider-based notifiable disease case reporting forms with clinical, laboratory and patient data available through an operational HIE. The evaluation seeks to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators to implementation, adoption and utilization of the intervention; (2) measure impacts on workflow, provider awareness, and end-user satisfaction; and (3) describe the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of the intervention within heterogeneous clinical settings and the HIE. Methods/Design The intervention will be implemented over a staggered schedule in one of the largest and oldest HIE infrastructures in the U.S., the Indiana Network for Patient Care. Evaluation will be conducted utilizing a concurrent design mixed methods framework in which qualitative methods are embedded within the quantitative methods. Quantitative data will include reporting rates, timeliness and burden and report completeness and accuracy, analyzed using interrupted time-series and other pre-post comparisons. Qualitative data regarding pre-post provider perceptions of report completeness, accuracy, and timeliness, reporting burden, data quality, benefits, utility, adoption, utilization and impact on reporting workflow will be collected using semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey items. Data will be triangulated to find convergence or agreement by cross-validating results to produce a contextualized portrayal of the facilitators and barriers to implementation and use of the intervention. Discussion By applying mixed research methods and measuring context, facilitators and barriers, and individual, organizational and data quality factors that may impact adoption and utilization of the intervention, we will document whether and how the intervention streamlines provider-based manual reporting workflows, lowers barriers to reporting, increases data completeness, improves reporting timeliness and captures a greater portion of communicable disease burden in the community. PMID:24171799

  16. Trace Element Mobility and Lithium Isotope Exchange During Hydrothermal Alteration of Seafloor Weathered Basalt: An Experimental Study at 350°C, 500 Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Chen, Xian; Chan, Lui-Heung

    1998-03-01

    The relative mobility of trace incompatible elements and exchange of lithium isotopes during alteration of basalt previously altered by exposure to seawater at low temperatures (seafloor weathered) were experimentally determined at 350°C, 500 bars. These data are important as a means to test models calling for hydrothermal alteration of weathered basalt as a source of alkali elements for hot spring vent fluids at mid-ocean ridges. Weathered basalt used for the experiment was characterized by high Cs, Rb, B, K, and Li concentrations, high Cs/Rb, and low K/Rb and Ba/Rb ratios, respectively, relative to fresh basalt. The basalt is enriched in 7Li consistent with a history involving Li uptake during seafloor weathering. The experiment involved a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid and flexible cell hydrothermal equipment, which permitted periodic sampling of the fluid phase at experimental conditions. The extraction efficiency of all trace incompatible elements was significant and ranged from 40 to 80%. Cesium, rubidium, lithium, and boron were particularly mobile, whereas Ba, Sr, and to a lesser degree, K were taken up by alteration minerals. Early stage release of Li was dominated by 7Li, most probably as a consequence of the dissolution of low temperature alteration phases in the weathered basalt that were rendered unstable at the elevated temperatures of the experiment. Subsequently, however, an increase in 6Li in solution was observed owing to a combination of mineral dissolution (from Li-bearing components in fresh basalt) and isotopic equilibration effects. Owing to the mobility of Li during hydrothermal alteration of weathered basalt, it is unlikely that dissolution of weathered basalt components in subseafloor reaction zones (350-400°C) could occur without noticeably affecting the lithium isotope composition of vent fluids, as inferred previously from field studies. Thus, the relatively high Cs/Rb ratios of some vent fluids, which were thought to be the result of hydrothermal alteration of weathered basalt, may be caused by other effects, such as partitioning of Rb relative to Cs into hydrothermal minerals at temperatures in excess of 400°C. Cs/Rb ratios in vent fluids from a wide range of Pacific and Atlantic-ridge localities, however, reveal relatively large variations in space and time, which suggest that a single process is unlikely to account for all of the data. The relative mobility of trace alkali elements in weathered basalt not only constrains models of alkali element enrichment in hot spring vent fluids at mid-ocean ridges, but also provides data bearing on potential sources of alkali elements for arc magmas in subduction zones.

  17. Conformational Stability of Mammalian Prion Protein Amyloid Fibrils Is Dictated by a Packing Polymorphism within the Core Region*

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Nathan J.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Chen, Shugui; Smirnovas, Vytautas; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian prion strains are believed to arise from the propagation of distinct conformations of the misfolded prion protein PrPSc. One key operational parameter used to define differences between strains has been conformational stability of PrPSc as defined by resistance to thermal and/or chemical denaturation. However, the structural basis of these stability differences is unknown. To bridge this gap, we have generated two strains of recombinant human prion protein amyloid fibrils that show dramatic differences in conformational stability and have characterized them by a number of biophysical methods. Backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments revealed that, in sharp contrast to previously studied strains of infectious amyloid formed from the yeast prion protein Sup35, differences in ?-sheet core size do not underlie differences in conformational stability between strains of mammalian prion protein amyloid. Instead, these stability differences appear to be dictated by distinct packing arrangements (i.e. steric zipper interfaces) within the amyloid core, as indicated by distinct x-ray fiber diffraction patterns and large strain-dependent differences in hydrogen/deuterium exchange kinetics for histidine side chains within the core region. Although this study was limited to synthetic prion protein amyloid fibrils, a similar structural basis for strain-dependent conformational stability may apply to brain-derived PrPSc, especially because large strain-specific differences in PrPSc stability are often observed despite a similar size of the PrPSc core region. PMID:24338015

  18. Novel Ultra Stable Silica-Based Stationary Phases for Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography-Study of a Hydrophobically Assisted Weak Acid Cation Exchange Phase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Carr, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak cation exchange (RP/WCX) phase has been developed by introducing a small amount of carboxylate functionality into a hydrophobic hyper-crosslinked (HC) platform. This silica based HC-platform was designed to form an extensive polystyrene network completely confined to the particle's surface. The fully connected polymer network prevents the loss of bonded phase, which leads to superior hydrolytic stability of the new phase when compared to conventional silica based phases. Compared to previously introduced HC phases the added carboxylic groups impart a new weak cation exchange selectivity to the base hydrophobic HC platform. The phase thus prepared shows a mixed-mode retention mechanism, allowing for both neutral organic compounds and bases of a wide polarity range to be simultaneously separated on the same phase under the same conditions. In addition, the new phase offers the flexibility that gradients in organic modifier, pH or ionic competitors can be used to affect the separation of a wide range of solutes. Moreover, the inherent weak acid cation exchange groups allow formic and acetic acid buffers to be used as eluents thereby avoiding the mass spectrometric ionization suppression problems concomitant to the use of non-volatile additives such as strong amine modifiers (e.g. triethylamine) or salts (e.g. NaCl) to elute basic solutes from the strong cation exchange phase which was previously developed in this lab. The use of the new phase for achieving strong retention of rather hydrophilic neurotransmitters and drugs of abuse without the need for ion pairing agents is demonstrated. PMID:21227426

  19. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-08-23

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C.

  20. Accessible Passively Stored Highly Spin-Polarized Deuterium in Solid Hydrogen Deuterium, with Application to Inertially Confined Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Neil Brooks

    1992-01-01

    Highly spin-polarized D in solid HD was produced in a dilution refrigerator-magnet system under conditions whereby the polarization remains high upon removal of the sample to a 1K, modest field (~0.1 T) environment. This retained polarization remains for many hours to days, sufficient to allow the polarized material to be transported to distant locations and utilized there. The first intended application of this system is for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments with spin-polarized D fuel. The actual (vector) polarization attained thus far is P^{rm D} = 38%. The maximum D polarization obtainable with our present refrigerator and magnet (8 mK and 13 T) is 61%. The difference is due to our reluctance to wait the full time constants in these demonstration experiments and due to the inability to attain full efficiency in radio-frequency dynamic polarization transfer between D and H, the maximum polarizability of the latter in our system equaling about 85%. In addition to implementation of the polarization method, it was also necessary to develop methods for cold (4 K) sample transfer with engagement and disengagement provisions for the dilution-refrigerator apparatus, a storage -transport cryostat, various sample-preparation and diagnostic apparatuses, and an interface to an experimental destination facility, in the present case, the OMEGA fusion chamber at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The nature of the fusion experiments required designing and constructing a complex mating system with interchange of cold shrouds to ascertain the sample was always shielded from room temperature black body radiation, and still provide means for positioning the target to within a few microns of the intersection of the high power laser beams. Means of filling plastic target shells to high pressure (at room temperature) with our special isotopic composition of HD with H_2 and D_2 impurities, and condensing them at cryogenic temperatures, were also perfected.

  1. Batch test equilibration studies examining the removal of Cs, Sr, and Tc from supernatants from ORNL underground storage tanks by selected ion exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.; Bell, J.T.

    1995-06-01

    Bench-scale batch equilibration tests have been conducted with supernatants from two underground tanks at the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to determine the effectiveness of selected ion exchangers in removing cesium, strontium, and technetium. Seven sorbents were evaluated for cesium removal, nine for strontium removal, and four for technetium removal. The results indicate that granular potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate was the most effective of the exchangers evaluated for removing cesium from the supernatants. The powdered forms of sodium titanate (NaTiO) and cystalline silicotitanate (CST) were superior in removing the strontium; however, for the sorbents of suitable particle size for column use, titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP {phi}), sodium titanate/polyacrylonitrile (NaTiO-PAN), and titanium monohydrogen phosphate/polyacrylonitrile (TiP-PAN) gave the best results and were about equally effective. Reillex{trademark} 402 was the most effective exchanger in removing the technetium; however, it was only slightly more satisfactory than Reillex{trademark} HPQ.

  2. Estimation of seawater-groundwater exchange rate: case study in a tidal flat with a large-scale seepage face (Laizhou Bay, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qian; Li, Hailong; Wang, Xuejing; Wang, Chaoyue; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2015-03-01

    The exchange rate between seawater and groundwater in a tidal flat was investigated at Laizhou Bay, China, where there are large-scale seepage faces with horizontal extension of several hundred meters developed during low tides. Taking into account the effects of seepage face and density, a simple and efficient method for estimating seawater-groundwater exchange rate is proposed, based on field measurements of groundwater hydraulic head, temperature and salinity. First, the exchange rate at each well was obtained using the generalized Darcy's law, then the results were interpolated and integrated along the whole transect. The total submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and inflow were estimated to be 8.8 and 15.3 m3 d-1 m-1, respectively. The spatial distributions of SGD and inflow were different from those of sandy or gravel beaches possibly owing to the low-permeability sediment (silty sand with mud), very gentle slope, and the large-scale seepage faces. A freshwater discharge tube was identified near the low-tide line, as evidenced by significant increase in outflow and low salinity of groundwater observed there. The SGD from the seepage faces accounted for ˜21 % of the total SGD. The outflow rate that occurred from the seepage faces, and the ratio of the outflow from the seepage faces to the total outflow, decreased seaward significantly and monotonically.

  3. Understand spiral heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are standard in most chemical process industries (CPI) applications. However, they do have limitations related to thermal efficiency, mechanical design, and maintenance requirements that will not allow the standard straight-tube fixed-tubesheet shell-and-tube (S and T) heat exchanger to work properly in certain applications. It is in these problem areas that spiral heat exchangers (SHEs) have been used successfully worldwide for over 60 years. The SHE can be a viable alternative to the complex and often expensive shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The SHEs' unique spiral countercurrent monochannel design gives them exceptionally high heat-transfer rates and low fouling tendencies. The mechanical configuration of the SHE also allows full access to all heat-transfer surfaces for simplified inspection, maintenance, and cleaning. This article describes how SHEs operate, discusses their advantages in terms of thermal efficiency, fouling, mechanical design, and maintenance characteristics, and provides guidance on choosing between spiral and tubular exchangers.

  4. Downhole heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1999-09-01

    The downhole heat exchanger (DHE) eliminates the problem of disposal of geothermal fluid, since only heat is taken from the well. The exchanger consists of a system of pipes or tubes suspended in the well through which clean secondary water is pumped or allowed to circulate by natural convection. These systems offer substantial economic savings over surface heat exchangers where a single-well system is adequate (typically less than 0.8 MWt, with well depths up to about 500 ft) and may be economical under certain conditions at well depths to 1500 ft. Several designs have proven successful; but, the most popular are a simple hairpin loop or multiple loops of iron pipe (similar to the tubes in a U-tube and shell exchanger) extending to near the well bottom. An experimental design consisting of multiple small tubes with headers at each end suspended just below the water surface appears to offer economic and heating capacity advantages. The paper describes design and construction details and New Zealand`s experience with downhole heat exchangers.

  5. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  6. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  7. Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger

    E-print Network

    Al-Shayea, Naser Abdul-Rahman

    1 Energy, Exergy and Uncertainty Analyses of the Thermal Response Test for a Ground Heat Exchanger response test of a ground heat exchanger. In this study, a vertical U-shaped ground heat exchanger with 80 of the ground heat exchanger. The thermal response test was carried out four times at different thermal loads

  8. Seed exchange networks, ethnicity, and sorghum diversity.

    PubMed

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K; Leclerc, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers' social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers' membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers' homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed. PMID:26699480

  9. Exchange flow through multiple porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K.; Hesse, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geological formations are crossed by multiscale fractures and/or faults, and conductive faults may mainly control reservoir performance. Conductive faults are modeled using small grids in a vertical two-dimensional domain to see the multiphase flow exchange between neighboring medium across the fault or the vertical fluid migration through the fault. A major limitation of this modeling approach is that faults appear as one-dimensional structures in which fluid migration occurs only by counter-current flows. This simplified model cannot capture unstable exchange flows within the fault that will determine the rate of leakage. In three-dimensional models, the fluids can bypass each other and the exchange will be much faster. Because the reservoir volume is large relative to the fault, a quasi-steady exchange flow across the fault will be developed and determine the leakage rate. We aim to quantify the quasi-steady exchange rate as a function of the fault properties and geometry, the fluid properties, and the type of fluid bypassing. Limitations of geophysical imaging and uncertainty in the fault properties makes it difficult to constrain numerical models of the dynamics of the exchange flow through the fault. Therefore, our experimental study complements the numerical model to understand the dynamics of the unstable exchange flow. This study is motivated by geological CO2 storage in brine-saturated aquifer, but the unstable exchange of multiphase fluids through conductive faults is also important in many other geological and engineering applications, in particular the migration of hydrocarbons in tectonic-driven faulting system or hydraulically developed fractures in unconventional reservoirs. Better understanding of the density-driven flow in a faulted system will allow more precise estimate of the reservoir capacity as well as more efficient operation of injection or production wells.

  10. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  11. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  12. Heat exchanger support

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Weitzel, P.S.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes a support structure for in-bed heat exchanger tubes of a fluidzed bed boiler having wall means defining a fluidized bed region and a freeboard region above the fluidized bed region, the wall means including tubular means disposed near a transition zone between the fluidized bed and freeboard regions, the structure comprising support tubes having opposite ends extending respectively through the wall means and over the tubular means for support thereby, each support tube having at least one upright portion disposed in the fluidized bed region, and at least one heat exchanger tube being supportingly secured to the upright portion.

  13. Nuclear reactor exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doublet, P.; Jullien, G.

    1983-03-22

    Nuclear reactor exchanger which assures the transfer of heat between two streams of coolant sodium. It includes an outlet connector which channels coolant sodium leaving a bundle of exchanger tubes traversed on the inside by the sodium and immersed externally in coolant sodium, and an inner tubular jacket forming a surface of revolution about a vertical axis and an outer tubular jacket. The wall of the inner jacket has a folded portion distinguished by at least one flank in the form of a crown.

  14. Comprehensive study of Al-induced layer-exchange growth for orientation-controlled Si crystals on SiO{sub 2} substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2014-11-07

    Orientation-controlled crystalline Si films on insulating substrates are strongly required to achieve high-performance thin-film devices for next-generation electronics. We have comprehensively investigated the layer-exchange kinetics of Al-induced crystallization (AIC) in stacked structures, i.e., amorphous-Si/Al-oxide/Al/SiO{sub 2}-substrates, as a function of the air-exposure time of Al surfaces (t{sub air}: 0–24?h) to form Al-oxide interface-layers, the thickness of Al and Si layers (d{sub Al,} d{sub Si}: 50–200?nm), the annealing temperature (450–500?°C), and the annealing time (0–50?h). It has been clarified that longer t{sub air} (>60?min) and/or thinner d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (<50?nm) lead to the (111) oriented growth; in contrast, shorter t{sub air} (<60?min) and/or thicker d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (>100?nm) lead to the (100) oriented growth. No correlation between the annealing temperature and the crystal orientation is observed. Detailed analysis reveals that the layer-exchange kinetics are dominated by “supply-limited” processing, i.e., diffusion of Si atoms into Al layers through Al-oxide layer. Based on the growth rate dependent Si concentration profiles in Al layers, and the free-energy of Si at Al-oxide/Al or Al/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, a comprehensive model for layer-exchange growth is proposed. This well explains the experimental results of not only Si-AIC but also another material system such as gold-induced crystallization of Ge. In this way, a growth technique achieving the orientation-controlled Si crystals on insulating substrates is established from both technological and scientific points of view.

  15. Comprehensive study of Al-induced layer-exchange growth for orientation-controlled Si crystals on SiO2 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2014-11-01

    Orientation-controlled crystalline Si films on insulating substrates are strongly required to achieve high-performance thin-film devices for next-generation electronics. We have comprehensively investigated the layer-exchange kinetics of Al-induced crystallization (AIC) in stacked structures, i.e., amorphous-Si/Al-oxide/Al/SiO2-substrates, as a function of the air-exposure time of Al surfaces (tair: 0-24 h) to form Al-oxide interface-layers, the thickness of Al and Si layers (dAl, dSi: 50-200 nm), the annealing temperature (450-500 °C), and the annealing time (0-50 h). It has been clarified that longer tair (>60 min) and/or thinner dAl and dSi (<50 nm) lead to the (111) oriented growth; in contrast, shorter tair (<60 min) and/or thicker dAl and dSi (>100 nm) lead to the (100) oriented growth. No correlation between the annealing temperature and the crystal orientation is observed. Detailed analysis reveals that the layer-exchange kinetics are dominated by “supply-limited” processing, i.e., diffusion of Si atoms into Al layers through Al-oxide layer. Based on the growth rate dependent Si concentration profiles in Al layers, and the free-energy of Si at Al-oxide/Al or Al/SiO2 interfaces, a comprehensive model for layer-exchange growth is proposed. This well explains the experimental results of not only Si-AIC but also another material system such as gold-induced crystallization of Ge. In this way, a growth technique achieving the orientation-controlled Si crystals on insulating substrates is established from both technological and scientific points of view.

  16. DXL: A Sounding Rocket Mission for the Study of Solar Wind Charge Exchange and Local Hot Bubble X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galeazzi, M.; Prasai, K.; Uprety, Y.; Chiao, M.; Collier, M. R.; Koutroumpa, D.; Porter, F. S.; Snowden, S.; Cravens, T.; Robertson, I.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lepri, S.; McCammon, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Diffuse X-rays from the Local galaxy (DXL) mission is an approved sounding rocket project with a first launch scheduled around December 2012. Its goal is to identify and separate the X-ray emission generated by solar wind charge exchange from that of the local hot bubble to improve our understanding of both. With 1,000 square centimeters proportional counters and grasp of about 10 square centimeters sr both in the 1/4 and 3/4 keV bands, DXL will achieve in a 5-minute flight what cannot be achieved by current and future X-ray satellites.

  17. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  18. Ankara, Turkey Exchange Program

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Ankara, Turkey Exchange Program Bilkent University Bilkent University (BU) was founded in 1984 as Turkey's first private, non-profit institution of higher education. BU is recognized and ranked internationally as the premier institution of higher education in Turkey. Its lively campus with its cultural

  19. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1991-04-02

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis, however they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a CFD model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  20. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…