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Sample records for hydrogeologic investigation summary

  1. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. ); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  2. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  3. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  4. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  5. Summary of hydrogeologic conditions by county for the state of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apple, Beth A.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2007-01-01

    Summaries of the major hydrogeologic features for each county in Michigan are presented. Each summary includes a listing of the major watersheds in the county and a description of the hydrogeology of the major aquifers in the county. Aquifer properties reported in the literature are given if available. Reports describing the hydrogeology of each county are cited. This work was prepared to provide a brief introduction to the ground‑water setting for each county.

  6. Hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Back, W.; Rosenshein, J.S.; Seaber, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book demonstrates hydrogeologic principles, concepts, and processes that control the occurrence, movement, storage, and chemical character of ground water. It aims to identify, clarify, and describe systematically the basic relation of hydrogeology to other disciplines of geology, such as geomorphology, stratigraphy, structure, and historical geology.

  7. Small Scale Multisource Site – Hydrogeology Investigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A site impacted by brackish water was evaluated using traditional hydrogeologic and geochemical site characterization techniques. No single, specific source of the brine impacted ground water was identified. However, the extent of the brine impacted ground water was found to be...

  8. Hydrogeological Investigations in the Pampa of Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannert, D.; Bender, H.; Kantor, W.; Kruck, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite imagery in combination with ground investigations allows the identification and delineation of the near surface ground water (depth to ground water, salinity). The degree of precision achieved is greater than that obtainable by conventional ground survey methods alone.

  9. Hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannert, D. (Principal Investigator); Bender, H.; Kruck, W.; Lago, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite imagery in combination with ground investigations allows identification and delineation of differences in the conditions of the near surface ground water (depth to ground water, salinity). The degree of precision achieved is greater than that obtainable by conventional ground survey methods alone.

  10. Skylab EREP Investigations Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The problems in the areas of agriculture, range and forestry; land use and cartography; geology and hydrology; oceans atmosphere, and data analysis techniques were investigated and summarized using Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) data.

  11. Supplemental Technical Data Summary M-Area Groundwater Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I.W., Bledsoe, H.W.

    1995-10-01

    This supplement to the Preliminary Technical Data Summary (TDS) (Gordon, 1982) presents the state of knowledge on the hydrogeology and contaminant plume characteristics in the vicinity of M Area as of October 1984. As discussed in the previous TDS, the contaminants consist of organic solvents used for metal degreasing, namely trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Since the issuance of the previous TDS, the groundwater consulting firm of Geraghty & Miller, Inc. has been retained to assist with program strategy, planning, and investigative techniques

  12. The application of seismic techniques to hydrogeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Kevin Donald Gibson

    The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate some new applications of seismic techniques for hydrogeological applications. A compressional-wave, surface-based, reflection seismic technique is used to map aquifer boundaries within a series of Pleistocene near-surface sediments. The interpretation uses both water wells and sequence stratigraphic concepts to identify the boundaries of new and existing aquifers. The use of the cone penetrometer is an integral part of this thesis. The seismic cone is demonstrated to be both cost-effective and reliable for the acquisition of high-quality vertical seismic profile (VSP) data. Other data from the cone, in particular the tip resistance data, are shown to be an integral link for the conversion of shear-wave velocities to values of hydraulic conductivity. Surface-based, shear-wave reflection seismic data are used to image an aquifer contained within Holocene deltaic sediments. A Bayesian inversion of the shear-wave seismic amplitudes (using cone-derived velocities) results in the generation of a two-dimensional profile of shear-wave velocity that is a direct indication of aquifer heterogeneity. Conversion of the velocity to hydraulic conductivity (using a cone-derived relationship) results in the distribution of a key hydrogeologic property within the aquifer. The results from the thesis show significant promise for improving groundwater flow models and providing new techniques for the management and protection of our groundwater resources.

  13. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on the use of hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify physical and hydrologic features that control ground-water flow to springs...

  15. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analyzed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analyzed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area of endemic waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to conduct water collection from wel...

  16. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  17. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report are two-fold: (1) to define the hydrogeologic conditions in the vicinity of the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) and, (2) to evaluate the potential for movement of a concentrated salt-solution waste if released at or near the DWPF. These purposes were accomplished by assembling and evaluating existing hydrogeologic data; collecting additional geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data; developing a local geologic framework; developing a conceptual model of the local ground-water flow system; and by performing laboratory experiments to determine the mobility of salt-solution waste in surface and near-surface sediments. Although the unconsolidated sediments are about 1000 ft thick in the study area, only the Tertiary age sediments, or upper 300 ft are discussed in this report. The top of the Ellenton Formation acts as the major confining unit between the overlying aquifers in Tertiary sediments and the underlying aquifers in Cretaceous sediments; therefore, the Ellenton Formation is the vertical limit of our hydrogeologic investigation. The majority of the hydrologic data for this study come from monitoring wells at the saltstone disposal site (SDS) in Z Area (fig. 3). No recent water-level data were collected in S Area owing to the removal of S Area monitoring wells prior to construction at the DWPF. 46 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-07-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  19. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira/, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  20. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  1. Integrating Multiple Subsurface Exploration Technologies in Slope Hydrogeologic Investigation: A Case Study in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, H.-C.; Hsu, S.-M.; Jeng, D.-I.; Ku, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    Taiwan is an island located at a tectonically active collision zone between the Eurasian Plate and the Pacific Plate. Also, the island is in the subtropical climate region with frequent typhoon events that are always accompanied by intense rainfalls within a short period of time. These seismic and climatic elements frequently trigger, directly or indirectly, natural disasters such as landslides on the island with casualties and property damages. Prompted by the urge for minimizing the detrimental effects of such natural disasters, Taiwan government has initiated and funded a series of investigations and studies aimed at better understanding the causes of the natural disasters that may lead to the formulation of more effective disaster contingency plans and possibly some forecasts system. The hydrogeology of a landslide site can help unveil the detention condition of storm water entering the aquifer system of the slope as well as its groundwater condition which, in turn, plays a critical role in slope stability. In this study, a hydrogeologic investigation employing a series of subsurface exploration technologies was conducted at an active landslide site in the vicinity of Hwa Yuan Village in northern Taiwan. The site, which covers an area of approximately 0.14 km2 (35 acres) and generally ranges between 25 to 36 degree in slope, was initially investigated with ground resistivity image profiling (RIP) and electrical logging in order to determine the lithology and possibly the water-bearing capacity of the geologic units beneath the slope surface. Subsequently, both acoustic and optical borehole loggings were then applied to identify potentially significant fracture features at depth and their hydrogeologic implications. In addition, flowmeter loggings and hydraulic packer tests were conducted to further characterize the hydrogeologic system of the site and quantitatively determine the hydraulic properties of major hydrogeologic units. According to the ground

  2. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeologic investigations were conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential for the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales area, southern Arizona. Results indicate that parts of the formation may provide new, deeper sources of groundwater for the area. Geologic mapping determined the hydrogeologic framework of the formation by defining lithologic, mineralogic, and stratigraphic characteristics; identifying potential aquifers and confining units; and mapping faults and fractures which likely influence groundwater flow. Geophysical modeling was used to determine the basin geometry and thickness of the Nogales Formation and younger alluvial aquifers and to identify target areas (deep subbasins) which may prove to be productive aquifers.Volcaniclastic sandstone samples from the formation were analyzed for porosity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fabric. Effective porosity ranges from 16 to 42 percent, bulk density from 1.6 to 2.47 grams per cubic centimeter, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) from 4 to 57 centimeters per day (4.9×10-5 to 6.7×10-4 centimeters per second). Thin sections show that sandstone framework grains consist of quartz, feldspar, biotite, hornblende, pumice, volcanic glass, and opaque minerals. The matrix in most samples consists of pumice fragments, and some contain predominantly silt and clay. Samples with a mostly silt and clay matrix have lower porosity and SHC compared to samples with mostly pumice, which have higher and wider ranges of porosity and SHC. Pore space in the Nogales Formation sediments includes moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Some intercrystalline pore space is partially filled with calcite cement. About one third of the samples contain fractures, which correspond to fractures noted in outcrops in all members of the formation.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that most of the samples contained the zeolite clinoptilolite

  3. A multidisciplinary geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigation of quick-clay landslides in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, A.; Krawczyk, C.; Polom, U.; Lundberg, E.; Adamczyk, A.; Malinowski, M.; Bastani, M.; Gurk, M.; Juhlin, C.; Persson, L.; Ismail, N.

    2012-04-01

    In Spring 2011, the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) through its Geoscientists Without Borders (GWB) program sponsored our project to study clay-related landslides in the Nordic countries. This project will study quick clay or rapid earth flow landslides in Sweden. Undisturbed quick clay resembles a water-saturated gel. When a mass of quick clay undergoes sufficient stress, it instantly turns into a flowing ooze, a process known as liquefaction. A small block of quick clay can liquefy from a stress change due to as little as a modest blow from a human hand, while a larger deposit is mainly vulnerable to greater stress changes, such as increased saturation by excess rainwater. Despite their abundance, our geophysical understanding of clay behavior in terms of both changes in the geometrical shape (clay formations) and changes in the physical properties are limited and require a better understanding. Quick clay landslides are not particularly constrained to steep slopes and have been known to slide even in low-to-moderate angle slopes. Geophysical investigations began in September 2011 over a known landslide scar near the Göta river in southwest Sweden, an area known to contain quick clays in parts of it. The investigations involved 2D and 3D P- and S-wave source and receiver surveys, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity and magnetic surveys. These data in combination with existing geotechnical information and hydrogeological investigations should allow better insight into the mechanism(s) governing clay-related landslides in the Nordic countries and to provide high-resolution images of subsurface structures down to the bedrock. We will present preliminary results from the seismic investigations, including the 2D and 3D reflection and refraction surveys. The reflection seismic data show excellent quality and image the bedrock topography and internal layering above it down to about 100 m. Tomography results suggest the

  4. Detailed hydrogeological investigation and conceptual modelling of an Alpine Main Valley crossed by the Brenner Bases tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich; San Nicolo, Lorenz; Zurlo, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    The Brenner Base Tunnel (BBT) will cross the Isarco Valley near the village of Fortezza (BZ) at a depth of approximately 20 m below the riverbed of the Isarco river. The design of this roughly 1 km long stretch through alluvial sediments and below groundwater level required detailed knowledge of the prevailing hydrogeological conditions. In particular, it was necessary to determine if dewatering procedures were feasible and what the impacts on natural water flows in the aquifer after completion of the infrastructure will be. The study area is a typical Alpine valley, filled with alluvial sediments to a maximum depth of approximately 120m. The valley is bounded by granitic rocks with regional, water saturated main fault zones. In addition to the Isarco River, the area is shaped by two lateral rivers. The deposits of these lateral rivers form main alluvial fans. The aim of the study was to study the geological structure and the hydrogeological behaviour of this alpine valley. Therefor a detailed geological and hydrogeological investigation program was carried out, including a geological detailed mapping, construction of 40 boreholes (max. depth 120m; 35 are equipped to groundwater monitoring wells) and 5 large wells (55m - 87m). In order to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of the aquifer in the valley, several pumping tests were carried out in different study stages: Stage 1: preliminary hydrogeological characterization of the area based on a pumping test carried out in the first well (100l/s pumping for 14 days). Stage 2: individual step tests and constant rate tests in additional four wells Stage 3: main pumping test including all the five wells with a maximum pumping rate of 450l/s for 14 days. The main topics oh the presentation are: - Overview of the BBT-project, the investigation area and investigation program - Description of the validated geological model of the main alpine valley - Results of the various hydraulic tests performed in the individual

  5. UNDERSTANDING HARD ROCK HYDROGEOLOGY THROUGH AN EXPERIMENTAL HYDROGEOLOGICAL PARK IN SOUTH INDIA: Site development and investigations on the major role of the fractured zone in crystalline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Guiheneuf, N.; Boisson, A.; Marechal, J.; Chandra, S.; Dewandel, B.; Perrin, J.

    2012-12-01

    In water stressed south India most of the groundwater used for irrigation is pumped from crystalline rocks aquifers. In those structures groundwater flow dominantly occur in a shallow higher-permeability zone that overlies a deeper lower-permeability zone hosting little flow. The fractured zone of the weathering profile plays an important role for groundwater. In order to understand clearly this impact on water availability and quality changes the Experimental Hydrogeological Park at Choutuppal, Andhra Pradesh, India is developed in the framework of the SORE H+ network. Several hydraulic tests (injection, flowmeter profiles, single-packer tests…) and geophysical measurements (ERT, Borehole logging…) are carried out on the site in order to characterize the depth-dependence of hydrodynamic parameters in the Indian Archean granite. Specific investigation on a borewell through packer tests demonstrate that the most conductive part of the aquifer corresponds to the upper part of the fractured layer, located just below the saprolite bottom, between 15 meters and 20 meters depth. There is no highly conductive fracture beyond 20 meters depth and no indication for any conductive fracture beyond 25 meters depth. Packer tests show that the upper part of the fractured layer (15-20 m depth) is characterized by a good vertical connectivity. On the contrary, the tests carried out below 20 m depth show no vertical connectivity at all. The geometry of the fracture network and associated hydrodynamic parameters are in agreement with the conceptual model of hard-rock aquifers that derive its properties from weathering processes. The general existence of such a highly conductive structure at the top of the fractured zone has a great impact on water prospection and exploitation in such crystalline aquifers.

  6. Incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeochemical investigations for rural development: the Bir Al-Nas approach for socio-hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Viviana

    2015-11-01

    A replicable multidisciplinary approach is presented for science-based groundwater management practices: Bir Al-Nas (Bottom-up IntegRated Approach for sustainabLe grouNdwater mAnagement in rural areaS). This approach provides a practical example of the concept of "socio-hydrogeology", a way of incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeological investigations, as reinforced by the translation of the Arabic bir al-nas: "the people's well". To achieve this, hydrogeologists act as "social hydrologists" during their monitoring activities, which often bring them into contact with local communities and end users (and polluters) of water. Not only can they retrieve reliable information about traditional know-how and local issues, but they can also change the public perception of science/scientists to create the basis for mutual collaboration and understanding in view of implementing improved integrated groundwater management. The final outcomes are expected to be an increased awareness of communities at the local level and a clear understanding of their water issues and needs from the very early stages of the investigation. Although the importance of using such methods in groundwater analysis and management is widely recognized, hydrogeological investigations are currently dominated by sectorial approaches that are easier to implement but less sustainable. The pressure of population growth, the shift towards more water-dependent economies, climate change and its impact on water availability will require scientists to use a more integrated approach, such as Bir Al-Nas, when dealing with increasing water pollution and water-scarcity issues.

  7. Integration of Thirty Years of Hydrogeological Investigations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauheim, R. L.; Domski, P. S.; Holt, R. M.; Powers, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogeological research has been going on at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Department of Energy's deep geologic repository for transuranic and mixed waste in southeastern New Mexico, for over thirty years. The main focus of the research has been on the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, a 7-m-thick fractured unit that would be the primary groundwater transport pathway for radionuclides released from the WIPP repository by inadvertent human intrusion. Since 1977, 90 wells have been completed to the Culebra on 63 drilling pads. Hydraulic tests have been performed in all of the wells, ranging from single-well slug and pumping tests to long-term (19-121 days) pumping tests with observation wells up to 9.5 km away. These tests have shown that Culebra transmissivity (T) varies over 10 orders of magnitude. Single-well injection-withdrawal, two-well recirculating, and multiwell convergent-flow tracer tests have been performed at six locations. Fluid electrical conductivity logging has been performed to identify the most transmissive sections of the Culebra, and a colloidal borescope has been used to identify specific flowing fractures. In addition to studies focused on groundwater flow and transport, geological, sedimentological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical investigations have also been performed. Variations in Culebra T have been related to dissolution of the underlying Salado Formation, the presence/absence of gypsum cements, the presence or absence of halite in Rustler members above and below the Culebra, and overburden thickness. Different types of porosity (fractures, vugs, interparticle, intercrystalline) have been found to be significant for both flow and transport. Culebra water chemistry shows significant spatial variation, with total dissolved solids ranging from 3,000 to 300,000 mg/L. Five distinct hydrochemical facies have been identified, ranging from high ionic strength syndepositional Na-Mg Cl brines to low ionic

  8. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  9. Hydrogeologic inferences from geophysical and geologic investigation of the Standard Mine site, Elk Basin, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Caine, J. S.; Ball, L. B.; Burton, B.; Curry-Elrod, E.; Manning, A. H.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geophysical and geologic data were collected at the Standard Mine in Elk Basin near Crested Butte, CO, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic controls in the basin and how they influence surface and groundwater interactions with nearby mine workings. The Tertiary Ohio Creek and Wasatch formations are the bedrock geologic units; both are primarily sandstones, but with differences in weathering and fracturing. Dikes, near-vertical normal faults, and polymetallic quartz veins with varying degrees of lateral continuity cut the sedimentary units. The net impact of these features, along with basin topography, makes it difficult to predict the behavior of the surface and groundwater systems. This integrated study utilizes geologic observations to help constrain subsurface information obtained from the analysis of surface geophysical measurements. This is a critical step toward using the geophysical data in a meaningful hydrogeologic framework. The approach combines the benefit of direct, but sparse, field observations with spatially continuous, but indirect, measurements of physical properties through the use of geophysics. Surface geophysical data includes electrical resistivity profiles aimed at imaging variability in subsurface structural properties and fluid content; self-potentials, which are sensitive to mineralized zones at this site and, to a lesser extent, shallow flow patterns; and magnetic measurements, which provide information on lateral variability in near-surface geologic features, although the minerals at this site are not strongly magnetized. Downhole caliper and optical televiewer logs were acquired in one well and provide valuable information on fracture properties. Field geologic observations include hand sample mineralogy and detailed mapping and characterization of faults, joints, and veins. Analyses of representative rock samples include magnetic susceptibility, mercury injection capillary pressure, semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction

  10. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation for below-sea-level quarrying at cement raw material site (Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Doyuran, Vedat; Karahanoğlu, Nurkan; Camur, Zeki; Topal, Tamer; Süzen, M Lütfi; Yeşilnacar, Ertan

    2003-08-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the effects of below sea level mining on the cement raw material quality of a limestone quarry located adjacent to the shoreline near Darica-Kocaeli-Turkey. Field studies involved rock mass characterization through discontinuity surveys performed at the working benches of the quarry as well as on the core samples, monitoring of groundwater levels, performance of water pressure tests, and in-situ hydrochemical measurements. Hydrogeological data suggest that the carbonate sequence forms a poor unconfined aquifer having hydraulic conductivity values ranging between 10(-6) m/s and 10(-8) m/s. In the quarry, water seepages can only be observed at the shear zones. Electrical conductivity profiles taken from the boreholes located at various distances from the shore line indicated the present position of the salt water wedge. PMID:12929797

  11. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the area around the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina consists of 2 to 3 separate water bearing units. In the northern half of the study area, the Barnwell and underlying McBean aquifers are considered one aquifer owing to the absence of the tan clay-confining unit between them. In the southern half of the study area they are separated by the tan clay into two aquifers. Underlying these aquifers, and separated from them by the green clay-confining unit, is the Congaree aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifers range from 0.00000001 to 0.0001 ft/sec. Directions of groundwater flow in the Barnwell and McBean aquifers are to the north, with a component of flow directed downward across the green clay and into the Congaree aquifer. The direction of flow in the Congaree aquifer is to the northwest. Water in these aquifers evolves from an acidic (pH < 6.5) mixed-cation type in the Barnwell aquifer to an alkaline (pH > 8) calcium bicarbonate water in the Congaree aquifer. Laboratory experiments indicate that reactions between sediments of the Barnwell aquifer and a salt-solution waste to be stored at the study area would significantly reduce the permeability of the sediment, thereby limiting the movement of the waste in groundwater at the site. (USGS)

  12. Direct investigations of supersymmetry: subgroup summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P Martin et al.

    2003-01-02

    A recurring element of the discussions in the Snowmass study is that there is a need and opportunity for improved theoretical tools in preparation for the discovery of Supersymmetry (SUSY). In order to be competitive with mass measurements at the LHC and a linear collider (LC), predictions of sparticle and Higgs masses from given model parameters need to be improved by an order of magnitude in some cases. There is also room for growth and improvement in (Monte Carlo) SUSY event generators. It seems injudicious to discuss priorities in the field of direct SUSY detection independently of having established directly the existence and mass of the Higgs since it is the particle that led to the founding of SUSY models. But under the hypothesis that a light Higgs exists with mass compatible with SUSY, then they should discuss such priorities. As outlined in section III in the context of the flavor-respecting minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), there is no fundamental symmetry to tie, e.g., squark masses to slepton masses, or the gluino mass to the chargino mass or the chargino mass to the neutralino mass. However, models such as mSUGRA do lead to such relationships and LHC studies show that the heaviest super-partners, the squarks and the gluino should be observable for masses up to about 2.5 TeV at the LHC in such models. Depending on the actual decay chains, some other superpartners may be identifiable in the cascade decays of the quarks and the gluino. On the other hand a LC with CM energy of 1 TeV could comprehensively explore and discover superpartners with masses less than 0.5 TeV largely independently of their nature (neutral, charged, strong, electroweak) and decay modes. In most supersymmetric models, the chargino and neutralino and often the sleptons are much lighter than the squarks and gluino. A VLHC could extend the mass reach for squarks and the gluino but would not necessarily add much value if these had already been seen at the LHC. In summary

  13. Anthropogenic wetlands due to over-irrigation of desert areas; A challenging hydrogeological investigation with extensive geophysical input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozmand, A. A.; Teatini, P.; Pedersen, J. B. B.; Auken, E.; Tosatto, O.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    During the last century, many large irrigation projects have been initiated in arid lands worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in food production, a common problem when characterizing these zones is land degradation in form of waterlogging. As results, large volumes of water are lost due to surplus irrigation in regions where water availability is extremely challenging for both population survival and economic development. The Nubariya depression, Western Desert (Egypt), is a clear example of this mechanism. Following the reclamation of desert lands for agricultural production, an artificial brackish and contaminated lake developed in the area in the late 1990s and presently extends for about 2.5 km2. Available data provide evidence of a simultaneous general deterioration of the groundwater system. With the main objectives of understanding the hydrological evolution of the area, characterizing the hydrogeological setting and developing scenarios for artificial aquifer remediation and recharge, an extensive hydrogeophysical investigation was carried out in this challenging environment using Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS, also called surface NMR) and ground-based Transient EM (TEM). The integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys, properly calibrated with a number of boreholes, provides a clear hydrogeological picture of the upper 100 m sedimentary structure, in terms of both lithology and groundwater quality. The information is then used to set up a regional groundwater flow and a local density-dependent flow and transport numerical model to reproduce the past evolution of the aquifer system and develop a few scenarios for artificial aquifer recharge using the treated waters provided by a nearby waste-water treatment plant. The research outcomes point the hydrological challenges that emerge for an effective management of water resources in reclaimed desert areas and highlight the effectiveness of integrating advanced geophysical and modeling

  14. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  15. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  16. Application of GPR and seismic methods in landslides investigation and determination of hydrogeological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Klaudia; Matuła, Rafał

    2013-04-01

    verify GPR interpretation seismic measurements was performed. The basic assumption of the applicability of seismic methods is the existance of a distinct boundary between two lithological horizons defined by a change in material density and elastic modulus, which results in an increase or a decrase in wave velocity. Seismic refraction and MASW (multichannel analysis of surface waves) were the main methods. Geophones with frequencies 4 Hz and 10 Hz were used. Topographical variations were included during interpretation. It is possible to correlate GPR and seismic results especially during localization of water saturation zones. All applied methods gave also satisfactory results in recognition of the hydrogeological conditions.

  17. Report Summary, Final Hells Canyon Environmental Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-01-01

    The Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 provided for the establishment of a Regional Power Planning Council (Regional Council) and mandated the development of a Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (F&W Program). The F&W Program was adopted by the Regional Council in November 1982. and is intended to mitigate fish and wildlife losses resulting from the development of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. One element of the FLW Program is the Water Budget. It calls for additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of juvenile salmon and steelhead migrating downstream. The Snake River's contribution to the Water Budget is 20,000 cubic feet per second-months (A volume of water equal to a flow of 20.000 cubic feet per second, 24 hours per day, for a period of a month) over and above water that would normally flow for power production. The water for the Water Budget would come out of Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells Canyon Complex and the Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Dvorshak Reservoir. IPCo's Hells Canyon Complex consists of three dams, Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon. Brownlee, at the upstream end, contains a large reservoir and controls flow to the lower dams. IPCo's participation in the Water Budget could affect the level of the Brownlee Reservoir and flows downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex on the Snake River. In light of this, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and IPCo contracted with the consulting firm of CH2!4 Hill to study the potential changes that could occur to the environment. The Environmental Investigation (EI) takes into account concerns that were expressed by the public at a series of public meetings held in the Snake River area during June 1983 and again during September 1984. Existing information and consultations with agencies which have management responsibilities in the project area formed the basis for the data used in the EI

  18. Contaminant hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogeology is a rapidly evolving field in which new approaches and tools are being applied to solve problems. This new book fills an important niche. Fetter focuses primarily on chemical processes in the subsurface, avoiding duplication of materials that are covered in other, more classical texts. This book is an excellent follow-up to his earlier text, Applied Hydrogeology, and reviews only briefly the foundational concepts covered in the earlier textbook. Contaminant Hydrogeology is written at the graduate student level and assumes prerequisite courses in physics, chemistry, and hydrogeology. For the most part, each of the nine chapters covers a major area of concern common to applied contaminant studies. A thorough, theoretical treatment of solute transport through the vadose zone is presented, and a sample problem and a case study add unusually high value to this discussion of a topic that generally is not well understood in the practice. Topics covered include the Buckingham Flux Law, the Richards Equation, vapor-phase transport, equilibrium and nonequilibrium models of mass transport, and preferential flow paths. Nonaqueous-phase liquid migrations under both saturated and unsaturated conditions is covered for horizontal as well as vertical migration. Both light and dense nonaqueous phase liquids are presented, and Darcy's Law for two-phase flow is introduced. The strength of Contaminant Hydrogeology lies in the author's ability to translate concepts through practical experience. This book links the theoretical to the practical through example problems and case histories. It should be considered for use in graduate classes and would be a valuable reference in the library of any practicing hydrogeologist.

  19. On Goal-Oriented, Hydrogeological Site Investigation: A Holistic Approach (Henry Darcy Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    UQ (for Uncertainty Quantification) is a critical element of groundwater management and by extension, of hydrological site investigation. While it is clear that UQ is an important goal, there is ambiguity as to what the target of the UQ should be, and how to make UQ relevant in the context of public policy. Planning for UQ (meaning what measurements to take, where, how many, what frequency, etc.), one could consider environmental performance parameters (EPMs, such as concentrations or travel time) as the targets of site investigation. But there is a need to go beyond EPMs, and to consider the uncertainty related to impacts such as enhanced cancer-risk due to groundwater contamination or, more generally, to decisions facing regulators. In any case, UQ requires site investigation, and decision-makers, who end up paying for it, are not really interested in EPMs: they care about making operational decisions that are defensible legally and justified from the perspective of public good. The key to UQ, whether considering EPMS or operational decisions concerning the public good, is defining a suitable strategy for site investigation. There is a body of published works on relating site investigations with EPMs, but much less is known on how to support operational decisions with strategies for site characterization. In this lecture, I will address this issue and I will outline a comprehensive approach for addressing it using a statistical formalism that couples hypothesis testing with Bayesian statistics. I refer to this approach as goal-oriented site investigation. I will show how site investigation strategies, with specifics such as which measurements to take and where, could be related to goals lined with operational decisions. This includes (1) defining the relevant goals; (2) formulating hypotheses; (3) defining alternative strategies for site investigation and (4) evaluating them in terms of probabilities for making errors in accepting or rejecting the hypotheses.

  20. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs.

  1. Integrated Hydrogeological Investigation on the Vulnerability of a Pumping Station at a Losing Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngueleu Kamangou, Stephane; Vogt, Tobias; Cirpka, Olaf

    2010-05-01

    River restoration usually includes alteration of the river channel morphology. Thereby the interaction between river and groundwater can be modified. For the design of a river restoration project - especially in the vicinity of a groundwater pumping well for drinking water production - this impact must be predicted. But a good prediction requires a proper understanding of the existing situation. Numerical models help to improve the strategy of a successful river restoration project. The main objective of this study was to investigate the vulnerability of a pumping station located at losing river in northeast Switzerland. Besides the effect that river restoration could create, a particular attention was placed on the effect of a beaver dam in a side channel close to the pumping station. Analysis of field measurements coupled with numerical modeling of the pumping station area improved the understanding of the interactions in the river corridor between the river, side channels and the alluvial aquifer.

  2. A quantitative investigation of the use of ground-penetrating radar in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, Stephen M. J.

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a useful tool for non-invasive imaging of the subsurface. However, the qualitative nature of current methods for the interpretation of GPR makes it difficult to use in groundwater modeling applications, especially for problems where accounting for uncertainty is important. In this thesis, the need for quantitative interpretations is addressed using observational, theoretical, and computational approaches that explore how complex subsurface heterogeneities are expressed in GPR data. This understanding of how radar samples the earth is exploited to suggest quantitative methods that can be used for interpreting radar data. In the first part of this thesis, radar facies analysis is examined as an approach to determine the large-scale architecture of the subsurface using GPR surface reflection data; it is often assumed that radar facies can act as a valuable proxy for defining hydrologic facies, given that both types of facies are related to lithology. In the approach explored here, artificial neural networks are used to probabilistically segment the subsurface into radar facies based on characteristic signatures of the radar data. Specifically, radar texture---the pattern of reflections within a window of radar data---is used to discriminate between different radar facies. In the second part of this thesis, the nature of the relationship between dielectric constant, determined by GPR surveys, and water content, important in hydrologic investigations, is investigated. Using a stochastic averaging approach that accounts for the way radar averages over heterogeneity it is demonstrated that field-scale dielectric constant-water content relationships are not necessarily equivalent to those measured in the laboratory. As a result, a numerical analog method for building field-scale rock physics relationships that accounts for heterogeneity, the physics of sampling, and geophysical survey design is proposed. In synthetic studies, it

  3. Hydrogeological investigation in Santiago Island (Cabo Verde) using magnetotellurics and VLF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Almeida, Eugénio P.; Gomes, Mota; Pina, António

    2006-08-01

    A geoelectromagnetic research was carried out in the Santa Cruz region (Santiago Island, Cabo Verde) during June 2004. The survey comprised MT soundings and VLF profiles. The main purpose of the MT profile, carried out across three important valleys associated with freshwater aquifers, was to study the tectonic structures correlated to seawater infiltration. The VLF method was used inside of the valleys for investigating shallow structures related to the aquifer contamination by seawater. Numerical modelling shows that the ocean effect is not important for MT data collected at periods shorter than 1 s. The MT data were inverted using a two-dimensional approach, to obtain the sub-superficial electrical conductivity distribution. The VLF data were processed applying the Karous-Hjelt filters to obtain the equivalent current distribution and inverted using 2-D approach. The results obtained in one of the most important valleys show anomalous current concentration/low resistivity (<20 Ω m) areas at depths greater than 40 m that may correspond to an increase in seawater content. The MT data modelling show that the deep zones beneath the valley are strongly fractured representing good pathways for seawater circulation. The depth of the conductive zones increases from south to north, suggesting a northward decreasing of the seawater infiltration effect. This observation correlates very well with in situ geochemical observations.

  4. Joint seismic, hydrogeological, and geomechanical investigations of a fracture zone in the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Myer, L.R.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Martel, S.J. ); Bluemling, P.; Vomvoris, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. From 1987 to 1989 the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Swiss Cooperative for the Storage of Nuclear Waste (Nagra) participated in an agreement to carryout experiments for understanding the effect of fractures in the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. As part of this joint work field and laboratory experiments were conducted at a controlled site in the Nagra underground Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The primary goal of these experiments in this fractured granite was to determine the fundamental nature of the propagation of seismic waves in fractured media, and to relate the seismological parameters to the hydrological parameters. The work is ultimately aimed at the characterization and monitoring of subsurface sites for the storage of nuclear waste. The seismic experiments utilizes high frequency (1000 to 10,000 Hertz) signals in a cross-hole configuration at scales of several tens of meters. Two-, three-, and four-sided tomographic images of the fractures and geologic structure were produced from over 60,000 raypaths through a 10 by 21 meter region bounded by two nearly horizontal boreholes and two tunnels. Intersecting this region was a dominant fracture zone which was the target of the investigations. In addition to these controlled seismic imaging experiments, laboratory work using core from this region were studied for the relation between fracture content, saturation, and seismic velocity and attenuation. In-situ geomechanical and hydrologic tests were carried out to determine the mechanical stiffness and conductivity of the fractures. 20 refs., 90 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  6. Sandia National Laboratories site-wide hydrogeologic characterization project calendar year 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Crowson, D.; Gibson, J.D.; Haase, C.S.; Holt, R.; Hyndman, D.; Krumhansl, J.; Lauffer, F.; McCord, J.P.; McCord, J.T.; Neel, D.

    1993-10-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) project has been implemented as part of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to develop the regional hydrogeologic framework and baseline for the approximately 100 mi of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) and adjacent withdrawn public lands upon which SNL/NM has performed research and development activities. Additionally, the SWHC project will investigate and characterize generic hydrogeologic issues associated with the 172 ER sites owned by SNL/NM across its facilities on KAFB. As called for in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the permitter and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL/NM as the permittees, an annual report is to be prepared by the SWHC project team. This document serves two primary purposes: (1) to identify and describe the conceptual framework for the hydrogeologic system underlying SNL/NM and (2) to describe characterization activities undertaken in the preceding year that add to our understanding (reduce our uncertainties) regarding the conceptual and quantitative hydrogeologic framework. This SWHC project annual report focuses primarily on purpose 1, providing a summary description of the current {open_quotes}state of knowledge{close_quotes} of the Sandia National Laboratories/Kirtland Air Force Base (SNL/KAFB) hydrogeologic setting.

  7. Undergraduate Education in Hydrogeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John Richard, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire which improved instruction in physical hydrogeology, chemical hydrogeology, and water resources. Describes 14 laboratory activities including objectives, methods, and a list of equipment needed. (Author/MVL)

  8. Hydrogeologic settings and groundwater-flow simulations for regional investigations of the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants to public-supply wells—Investigations begun in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study was designed to shed light on factors that affect the vulnerability of groundwater and, more specifically, water from public-supply wells to contamination to provide a context for the NAWQA Program's earlier finding of mixtures of contaminants at low concentrations in groundwater near the water table in urban areas across the Nation. The TANC study has included investigations at both the regional (tens to thousands of square kilometers) and local (generally less than 25 square kilometers) scales. At the regional scale, the approach to investigation involves refining conceptual models of groundwater flow in hydrologically distinct settings and then constructing or updating a groundwater-flow model with particle tracking for each setting to help quantify regional water budgets, public-supply well contributing areas (areas contributing recharge to wells and zones of contribution for wells), and traveltimes from recharge areas to selected wells. A great deal of information about each contributing area is captured from the model output, including values for 170 variables that describe physical and (or) geochemical characteristics of the contributing areas. The information is subsequently stored in a relational database. Retrospective water-quality data from monitoring, domestic, and many of the public-supply wells, as well as data from newly collected samples at selected public-supply wells, also are stored in the database and are used with the model output to help discern the more important factors affecting vulnerability in many, if not most, settings. The study began with investigations in seven regional areas, and it benefits from being conducted as part of the NAWQA Program, in which consistent methods are used so that meaningful comparisons can be

  9. Structure-based geoelectrical models derived from genetic algorithms: A case study for hydrogeological investigations along Elbe River coastal area, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwa, Mohamed; Akca, Irfan; Basokur, Ahmet T.; Günther, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are performed to assess the hydrogeological conditions along Elbe River coastal area, Germany. Because the interpretation of actual resistivity data still has a degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning, linear and non-linear inversion methods have been applied in this paper for optimal interpretation of the measured data. The 1D model generation using hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) represents an accurate and quick solution to image the subsurface resistivity distributions; freshwater aquifer and two highly conductive zones of perched saltwater and seawater intrusion. The longitudinal conductance of the interpreted layers above the water table is calculated to explain why the vulnerable zone to the perched saltwater concentrates at the central and southern parts of the area investigated.

  10. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A series of brief summaries of the results of individual investigations of LANDSAT 4 image data characteristics are presented. Topics are divided into MSS and TM investigations, and applications of the imaging techniques. Radiometric and geometric accuracy are emphasized.

  11. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  12. An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Investigation to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer in an Area of Northeastern Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clark, Allan K.; Payne, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrostratigraphy (hydrostratigraphic zones) and also the hydrogeologic features (karst features such as sinkholes and caves) of the Edwards aquifer in a 16-square-kilometer area of northeastern Bexar County, Texas, undergoing urban development. Existing hydrostratigraphic information, enhanced by local-scale geologic mapping in the area, and surface geophysics were used to associate ranges of electrical resistivities obtained from capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity surveys, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings, and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity surveys with each of seven hydrostratigraphic zones (equivalent to members of the Kainer and Person Formations) of the Edwards aquifer. The principal finding of this investigation is the relation between electrical resistivity and the contacts between the hydrostratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer and the underlying Trinity aquifer in the area. In general, the TDEM data indicate a two-layer model in which an electrical conductor underlies an electrical resistor, which is consistent with the Trinity aquifer (conductor) underlying the Edwards aquifer (resistor). TDEM data also show the plane of Bat Cave fault, a well-known fault in the area, to be associated with a local, nearly vertical zone of low resistivity that provides evidence, although not definitive, for Bat Cave fault functioning as a flow barrier, at least locally. In general, the CC resistivity, FDEM survey, and 2D-DC resistivity survey data show a sharp electrical contrast from north to south, changing from high resistivity to low resistivity across Bat Cave fault as well as possible karst features in the study area. Interpreted karst features that show relatively low resistivity within a relatively high

  13. An Integrated 3D Hydrogeological, Geophysical, and Microbiological Investigation of Geochemical Gradients in a Pristine Aquifer Located in Laurentian Hills, ON, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Graves, L.; Stojanovic, S.; Enright, A. M.; Bank, C.; Ferris, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    A pristine glaciofluvial aquifer displaying naturally occurring geochemical gradients was investigated using hydrogeological, geophysical, and microbiological methods. A network of 25 piezometers was used to collect samples for groundwater chemical analysis, including parameters such as total iron (Fe), ferrous iron (Fe2+), sulphate (SO42-), sulfur (S2-), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), silica (SiO2), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). Ion concentration values between piezometers were interpolated using kriging and inverse distance weighting. Yearly analysis of the network shows spatially and temporally persistent plumes of iron and sulfur. A 3D model of the aquifer was compiled to aid in the understanding of the nature and origin of the geochemical gradients. The resulting maps showed zones with high concentrations of dissolved total iron (predominantly soluble ferric iron and complexed iron compounds), followed immediately downgradient by a high concentration of ferrous iron. Similarly, zones of high sulfide concentration were followed by areas of high sulfate concentration. There was some overlap between the iron and sulfur plumes, and ion concentrations were higher in years with a lower water table elevation. Metagenomic analysis revealed a diverse microbial community in the sediment, capable of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, sulfur, and nitrogen. The aquifer basin, as bounded by a till aquitard, was delineated using ground penetrating radar tomography from 45 lines. The plumes corresponded to an area where there is large, channel-like depression in the till boundary. Flow vectors from hydrogeological modelling indicated increased velocity followed by a slowing and convergence of groundwater in this location. Resistivity values from 20 lines varied in general from high values (2000-6000 Ohm.m) above 1-2 m to lower values (less than 1000 Ohm.m) below 2 to a 5m depth. The resistivity surveys consistently showed

  14. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  15. Summary of 1991--1992 misadministration event investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, L.T.; Leahy, T.J.; Novack, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    Investigation team composed of representatives of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and subcontracts investigated and analyzed seven misadministration events selected by the NRC concerning medical radioisotopes. Each team was led by an INEL member and depending on the nature of the event, included three or more team members with appropriate expertise in radiation oncology, medical physics, nuclear medicine technology, risk analysis, and human factors. The investigations focused on causes of the event, consequences, mitigating actions, and corrective actions. The major findings are described in this report.

  16. Summary of Scale-Model Thrust-Reverser Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povolny, John H; Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

    1957-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine the characteristics of several basic types of thrust-reverser. Models of three types, target, tailpipe cascade, and ring cascade, were tested with unheated air. The effects of design variables on reverse-thrust performance, reversed-flow boundaries, and thrust modulation characteristics were determined.

  17. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Eight-year interim report (1986-1994). Volume 1 cluster-site description

    SciTech Connect

    Gellici, J.A.; Reed, R.H.; Logan, W.R.; Aadland, R.K.; Simones, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Division (SCWRD), in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is conducting a hydrogeologic investigation of the ground-water system(s) peripheral to the Savannah River Site. The study area is located in the Southeastern Coastal Plain hydrogeologic province in Aiken, Allendale and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Ground-water movement, quality, and availability are being evaluated in order to better protect and manage this valuable regional resource. The investigation involves a well-cluster system comparable to the one constructed on the SRS. Cluster sites are situated outside the SRS on the basis of study objectives, proximity to the plant`s borders, land availability, and for the optimization of hydrogeologic control. One to three wells are completed into each major aquifer, and at each cluster site, at least one borehole is continuously cored and geophysically logged from land surface to at least 10 feet into unweathered bedrock. Data collected from the ongoing study include 146 paleontologic and palynologic age dates, 100 x-ray diffraction analyses of clay and bulk mineralogy, 442 sieve analyses, 6,040 feet of detailed core description, mineral composition and porosity determined from thin-section analyses, and continuous water-level data. This report is a compilation and interpretation of the {open_quotes}C-well{close_quotes} data that have been generated from the project and that will be used to model and characterize the aquifers and confining units in the region.

  18. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  19. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  20. Seawater intrusion in the gravelly confined aquifer of the coastal Pisan Plain (Tuscany): hydrogeological and geochemical investigation to assess causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doveri, M.; Giannecchini, R.; Butteri, M.

    2012-12-01

    The gravelly horizon of the Pisa plain multilayered system is a confined aquifer tapped by a large number of wells. It hosts a very important water resource for drinking, industrial and irrigable uses, but may be affected by seawater intrusion coming from the coastal area; most wells is distributed inland, anyway a significant exploitation along the coastal area is also present to supply farms and tourist services. Previous hydrogeological and geochemical investigations carried out in coastal area stated maximum percentage of seawater in gravelly aquifer of about 7-9% and suggested the presence of two different mechanisms (Doveri et alii, 2010): i) a direct seawater intrusion from the zone where the gravelly aquifer is in contact with the sea floor; ii) a mixing process between freshwater and seawater, the latter deriving from the Arno river-shallow sandy aquifer system. Basing on these results, since January 2012 a new two-year project was financed by the MSRM Regional Park. Major aims are a better definition of such phenomena and their distribution on the territory, and an assessing of the seawater intrusion trend in relation to groundwater exploitation. Eleven piezometers were realised during first semester of 2012, thus improving the measurement network, which is now made up by 40 wells/piezometers distributed on about 60 km^2. Comparing new and previous borehole data a general confinement of the gravelly aquifer is confirmed, excepting in the northern part where the aquifer is in contact with the superficial sandy one. Preliminary field measurement was performed in June 2012, during which water level (WL) and electrical conductivity (EC) data were collected. WLs below the sea-level were observed on most of the studied area, with a minimum value of about -5 m a.s.l. in the inner part of the northern zone, where major exploitation is present. Moreover, a relative minimum of WL (about -2 m a.s.l.) is present near the shoreline in the southern zone. In the latter

  1. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  2. Seismic investigations of the HDR Safety Program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Kot, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the seismic investigations, performed at the HDR facility in Kahl/Main, FRG was to validate calculational methods for the seismic evaluation of nuclear-reactor systems, using experimental data from an actual nuclear plant. Using eccentric mass shaker excitation the HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure, exhibiting highly nonlinear response and demonstrating that structures not seismically designed can sustain loads equivalent to a design basin earthquake (DBE). Load transmission from the structure to piping/equipment indicated significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies, while the response of tanks/vessels depended mainly on their support conditions. The evaluation of various piping support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is important to limiting pipe greens. Piping at loads exceeding the DBE eightfold still had significant margins and failure is improbable inspite of multiple support failures. The mean value for pipe damping, even under extreme loads, was found to be about 4%. Comparison of linear and nonlinear computational results with piping response measurements showed that predictions have a wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces. For the soil/structure system the quality of the predictions did not depend so much on the complexity of the modeling, but rather on whether the model captured the salient features and nonlinearities of the system.

  3. Compact Subsurface Soil Investigation System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The compact subsurface soil investigation system is a mobile soil sampler used to obtain soil samples, including from below concrete floors, such as under fuel soil basins. If soils under buildings can be sampled and analyzed to document that the soil is not contaminated and thus can remain in place, the concrete structure over it may also be left in place or only partially removed. Taking soil samples through a concrete floor, often in inaccessible or congested locations, required rugged, portable equipment, such as the improved technology tested, the Geoprobe Model 540M soil sampler that is mounted on a hand cart. The traditional (baseline) technology used a comparable probe mounted on a full-size, 1-ton capacity, diesel-powered truck. The truck was not easily able to access all areas, because of its greater size and weight. In two sample holes from below the fuel storage basin at C-Reactor, the Geoprobe Model 540M was able to penetrate to the full sampling target depth of 3.3 m (10 ft). In the other three locations the sampler was stopped at lesser depths because of large stones. The Geoprobe 540M reduced schedule time and reduced costs by approximately 50% versus the baseline technology. For sampling at a congested fuel storage basin at five locations, the improved technology cost $7,300, whereas the baseline technology would have cost $13,000. As an extension of this demonstration, cost savings and schedule acceleration can be expected to increase commensurate with structure complexity/congestion and the number of samples required.

  4. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  5. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 1: Summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, E. E.; Bloomquist, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the KSC program for investigating the reliability aspects of the ground support activities is presented. An analysis of unsatisfactory condition reports (RC), and the generation of reliability assessment of components based on the URC are discussed along with the design considerations for attaining reliable real time hardware/software configurations.

  6. A Summary of Investigations Relating to the English Language Arts, Elementary and Secondary, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, William D.; And Others

    This collection of research reviews summarizes investigations in the English language arts on the elementary and secondary levels. The 76 elementary education research studies discussed were drawn from 55 journals, from January 1968 to December 1968, and are grouped in the following areas: summaries and listings of research, language, oral…

  7. A SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETTY, WALTER T.; AND OTHERS

    THIS COLLECTION OF RESEARCH REVIEWS SUMMARIZES A TOTAL OF 151 INVESTIGATIONS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ON THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY LEVELS. THE ELEMENTARY EDUCATION SECTION REVIEWS ALL RESEARCH REPORTED IN JOURNALS BETWEEN JANUARY AND DECEMBER OF 1966 IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS--(1) RESEARCH SUMMARIES AND LISTINGS, (2) LANGUAGE, (3) ORAL…

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  9. Principles of Hydrogeology, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferø, Paul

    Hydrogeology is a broadbased field of study, bringing together geology, physics, hydraulics, chemistry, geography, biology, and many branches of engineering. As a result, practicing hydrogeologists come from diverse back-grounds and must work closely with professionals with skills and experiences different from their own. Thorough understanding of the underlying physical, geological, and chemical principles of hydrogeology is a requisite basis for technical communication among hydrogeologists. A convenient source of working definitions and commonly used parameters is a useful tool for hydrogeologic practice.Principles of Hydrogeology falls somewhere between a complete introduction to the underlying concepts of hydrogeology and a detailed description of hydrogeologic methods. The simplified, schematic figures used throughout the text are clear and readable, well-suited for use in classroom instruction. Many sample calculations are provided together with tables of useful parameter values. A wide range of topics relevant to the practice of hydrogeology are introduced. Its clarity and brevity will make this book a useful primer for professionals working in fields related to hydrogeology for students at the beginning of their careers, and for hydrogeologic technicians who need an accessible source of definitions of hydrogeologic concepts.

  10. Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrogeologic Framework to Investigate Potential Sources of Water Springs in the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. C.; Belcher, W. R.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system encompasses a proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, and National Park and BLM properties, and provides water for local communities. The model was constructed using a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework and has been used as a resource planning mechanism by the many stakeholders involved, including four United States (U.S) federal agencies (U.S. Department of Energy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and local counties, towns, and residents. One of the issues in recent model development is simulation of insufficient water to regional discharge areas which form springs in valleys near the center of the system. Given what seems to be likely rock characteristics and geometries at depth, insufficient water is simulated to reach the discharge areas. This "surprise" thus challenges preconceived notions about the system. Here we use the hydrogeologic model to hypothesize alternatives able to produce the observed flow and use the groundwater simulation to test the hypotheses with other available data. Results suggest that the transmissivity measurements need to be used carefully because wells in this system are never fully penetrating, that multiple alternatives are able to produce the springflow, and that one most likely alternative cannot be identified given available data. Consequences of the alternatives are discussed.

  11. Geophysical and hydrogeologic investigations of two primary alluvial aquifers embedded in the southern San Andreas fault system: San Bernardino basin and upper Coachella Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisely, Beth Ann

    This study of alluvial aquifer basins in southern California is centered on observations of differential surface displacement and the search for the mechanisms of deformation. The San Bernardino basin and the Upper Coachella Valley aquifers are bound by range fronts and fault segments of the southern San Andreas fault system. I have worked to quantify long-term compaction in these groundwater dependent population centers with a unique synthesis of data and methodologies using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and groundwater data. My dissertation contributes to the understanding of alluvial aquifer heterogeneity and partitioning. I model hydrogeologic and tectonic interpretations of deformation where decades of overdraft conditions and ongoing aquifer development contribute to extreme rapid subsidence. I develop the Hydrogeologic InSAR Integration (HII) method for the characterization of surface deformation in aquifer basins. The method allows for the separation of superimposed hydraulic and/or tectonic processes in operation. This formalization of InSAR and groundwater level integration provides opportunities for application in other aquifer basins where overdraft conditions may be causing permanent loss of aquifer storage capacity through compaction. Sixteen years of SAR data for the Upper Coachella Valley exhibit rapid vertical surface displacement (≤ 48mm/a) in sharply bound areas of the western basin margin. Using well driller logs, I categorize a generalized facies analysis of the western basin margin, describing heterogeneity of the aquifer. This allowed for assessment of the relationships between observed surface deformation and sub-surface material properties. Providing the setting and context for the hydrogeologic evolution of California's primary aquifers, the mature San Andreas transform fault is studied extensively by a broad range of geoscientists. I present a compilation of observations of creep, line integrals across the Pacific

  12. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Phase VIII

    SciTech Connect

    Gellici, J.A.; Gawne, C.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Lower Savannah River Project was established in 1986 to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in west-central South Carolina. Six progress reports have been written since 1987. This report covers the period from July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995. During the current phase, work focused on locating and procuring suitable sites for future well clusters; drafting well-construction specifications and bid packages; drilling monitoring wells at site C-7; and completing two comprehensive reports. Land was acquired for three future well-cluster sites: C-11, C-13, and C-15. Site C-11 will be located at the Oakwood Fire Tower in Aiken County. This land was made available through the South Carolina Forestry Commission. Land for site C-13 was donated by the Wildlife Division of the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and will be located at Little Hell Landing on the Savannah River flood plain southwest of Millet in Allendale County. Site C-15 will be located at Gillisonville in northern Jasper County. A 0.9-acre parcel of land was purchased from Westvaco, Inc., for this site. Well specifications and bid packages were drawn up for the construction of seven monitoring wells at site C-10, three at C-13, and two at C-15. Specific-capacity values of nine wells at site C-7 range from 0.3 to 20.6 gpm/ft (gallons per minute per foot of drawdown). Two deep Cretaceous wells were drilled at site C-7, one each in the Midville and Dublin aquifer systems. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers. Two comprehensive reports were completed during this phase of the project: (1) a compilation and interpretation of data collected from the project since its inception in 1986, and (2) a detailed description of the hydrogeologic framework of west-central South Carolina and the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifers and confining units.

  13. Education and Employment in Hydrogeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Darryll T.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of position descriptions in the field of hydrogeology appearing in want ads, published studies describing the working professional, and published descriptions of hydrogeology programs. Results indicate an increase in positions of ten times that of five years ago. Suggests basic training requirements for beginning…

  14. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  15. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  16. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  17. Coral reef hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Oberdorfer, J.A.

    1985-05-21

    Knowledge of internal flow velocities and pore water residence time is important in understanding pore water geochemistry, nutrient fluxes at the benthic boundary, reef diagenesis, and fresh water resources in reef islands. Hydrogeologic studies of Pacific and Indian Ocean reef and atoll islands indicate a dual aquifer systems; the major Pleistocene aquifer has hydraulic conductivities on the order of 1000 m/d, while the overlying Holocene aquifer of unconsolidated sediments is at least an order of magnitude less permeable. The high permeability in the Pleistocene formation is the result of large voids, both constructional and from subaerial solution during low stands of the sea. Wind, wave and tide induced head differences ranging from a few centimeters to several tens of centimeters provide the driving force for internal flow. Pore water residence times and geochemistry will vary greatly, depending on whether the water is in a major flow channel or in more restricted pores. Studies of both submerged reefs and atoll islands give bulk pore water residence times on the order of months to a few years. Chemical analyses of pore water indicate that both carbonate solution and precipitation are taking place, which will alter porosity and permeability with time. The dual aquifer model also suggests that the Ghyben-Herzberg lens approach to reef island fresh water resources is inaccurate and can lead to a gross overestimation of the potable resource. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey and City of Albuquerque hydrologic investigations program

    SciTech Connect

    McAda, D.

    1995-12-31

    The US Geological Survey and Albuquerque have been cooperating in data collection programs and interpretive studies since 1982. The paper presents summaries on recently completed and ongoing projects, detailing the objectives, principal investigator, period of the project, and reports released or reports in progress on each study. Project names are: Ground-water-level monitoring network in the Albuquerque Basin; Water budget of the Rio Grande flood plain in the Albuquerque area; Modeling of groundwater flow in the Albuquerque Basin; Continuation of ground water flow modeling in the Albuquerque Basin; Evaluation of methods to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, near Albuquerque; Aquifer compaction and land subsidence in the Albuquerque, NM area; Aquifer test at the Griegos Well Field, Albuquerque, NM; Quality of urban stormwater runoff; Rio Grande water quality; Determining accurate concentrations and loads of trace elements and other selected chemical constituents in the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, NM; Digital geophysical-log data base; and Water quality data for the Albuquerque Basin.

  19. A summary of porous tube plant nutrient delivery system investigations from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is a research effort to evaluate biological processes at a one person scale to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This program focuses currently on the use of conventional crop plants and the use of hydroponic systems to grow them. Because conventional hydroponic systems are dependent on gravity to conduct solution flow, they cannot be used in the microgravity of space. Thus, there is a need for a system that will deliver water and nutrients to plant roots under microgravity conditions. The Plant Space Biology Program is interested in investigating the effect that the space environment has on the growth and development of plants. Thus, there is also a need to have a standard nutrient delivery method for growing plants in space for research into plant responses to microgravity. The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) utilizes a hydrophilic, microporous material to control water and nutrient delivery to plant roots. It has been designed and analyzed to support plant growth independent of gravity and plans are progressing to test it in microgravity. It has been used successfully to grow food crops to maturity in an earth-bound laboratory. This document includes a bibliography and summary reports from the growth trials performed utilizing the PTPNDS.

  20. Case studies in organic contaminant hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John A.

    1989-07-01

    The effective management of domestic solid waste and hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste is a major problem in the area of environmental geology and water sciences over the world. This series of case studies of organic contaminants from both solid and hazardous waste disposal facilities provides examples of these problems. The facilities were investigated to determine risks and liabilities before acquisition, to determine the site hydrogeologic conditions for design of appropriate groundwater monitoring plans, and/or to determine the potential for groundwater contamination. The results of these studies and investigations by Waste Management Inc. (WMI) and its consultants have shown certain relationships in the distribution of organic pollutants to the different geologic and hydrogeologic charac teristics of each facility. In each of the case studies, all 129 priority pollutants were analyzed in private wells and/or monitoring wells at the request of regulatory agencies. The 31 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the priority pollutant list were the majority of the organic compounds detected and these data are evaluated in each case study. The case studies are on disposal facilities located in glacial tills, carbonaceous weathered clay soils, weathered shale, limestone bedrock, dolomite bedrock, and alluvial and sedimentary deposits. A brief discussion of groundwater quality impacts and remedial measures also is included.

  1. The Contribution of Hydrogeophysics to Hydrogeological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, N. B.; Auken, E.; Sorensen, K.

    2005-12-01

    Electrical and electromagnetic (E&EM) methods are some of the most commonly used geophysical techniques for hydrogeophysical investigations. In this presentation, the use of E&EM methods for watershed-scale hydrogeological investigations are reviewed. Over the past two decades a tremendous development has taken place with regard to E&EM instrumentation, field procedures and interpretation algorithms; a process that to a large extent has been focussed on hydrogeological investigations. The primary parameter mapped by E&EM methods is the electrical resistivity (or the inverse: conductivity). High and low values of the resistivity of geological materials enable the discernment between sand and clay, unsaturated and saturated, fresh and salt water, unaffected and polluted, bedrock and sediment, respectively - all fundamental to hydrogeological modeling. Time-consuming, single-site, individual electrical sounding acquisition geometries have now been replaced by multi-electrode, profile oriented measurements that have the capability to image the variation in resistivity with both depth and along profiles to a depth of 70-100m and a productivity of 1-1.5 km/day/field person. Pulled-array methods, which acquire measurements using multiple electrode configurations while moving, can traverse 10-15 km per day with a depth penetration of approximately 20 m. Transient electromagnetic soundings are carried out as both single-site and pulled-array methods, and recently by helicopter. Very cost-efficient transient methods are now commercially available. E&EM data are complicated, nonlinear functions of the resistivity distribution and the full potential of the data can only be realized by inverting the data to obtain a physical model describing the subsurface resistivity distribution. Model calibration and inverse hydraulic modeling is most often carried out based on very sparse data sets and geological information from a few boreholes. Geophysical models covering an extended area

  2. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This book summarizes approximately 600 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1991 and June 30, 1992. Research studies in the book are categorized into six major areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and psychology of reading; (5) the teaching of…

  3. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1992 to June 30, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This book summarizes approximately 600 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1992 and June 30, 1993. Research studies in the book are categorized into six major areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and psychology of reading; (5) the teaching of…

  4. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1989 to June 30, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This book summarizes approximately 600 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1989 and June 30, 1990. The research studies in the book are categorized into six areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and psychology of reading; (5) the teaching of…

  5. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography summarizes approximately 600 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 1991. The research studies described in the book are categorized into six areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and psychology of…

  6. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This book (the 72nd and last in the annual series) summarizes approximately 500 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1995 and June 30, 1996. The research studies in the book are categorized into 6 major areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and…

  7. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1993 to June 30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This book summarizes approximately 500 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1993 and June 30, 1994. The research studies in the book are categorized into six major areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and psychology of reading; (5) the teaching of…

  8. Annual Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam, Ed.

    This book summarizes approximately 500 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. The research studies in the book are categorized into 6 major areas: (1) summaries of reading research; (2) teacher preparation and practice; (3) sociology of reading; (4) physiology and psychology of reading; (5) the teaching of…

  9. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1974, to June 30, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Samuel, Ed.; And Others

    Summaries of 558 reports of reading research published between July 1, 1974, and June 30, 1975, are collected in this volume. The research studies are categorized into six major areas, four of which have been further subcategorized. The majority of studies reported were classified into the physiology and psychology of reading area. Large…

  10. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  11. Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Baedecker, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how applications of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in

  12. Geological and hydrogeological investigations in west Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, J. B. (Principal Investigator); Khoon, S. Y.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large structures along the east coast of the peninsula were discovered. Of particular significance were the circular structures which were believed to be associated with mineralization and whose existence was unknown. The distribution of the younger sediments along the east coast appeared to be more widespread than previously indicated. Along the Pahang coast on the southern end, small traces of raised beach lines were noted up to six miles inland. The existence of these beach lines was unknown due to their isolation in large coastal swamps.

  13. Geophysical characterization of Hydrogeological processes at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrian; Gallistl, Jakob; Schlögel, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Oismüller, Markus; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of hydrogeological properties in the subsurface with high resolution across space and time scales is critical to improve our understanding of water flow and transport processes. However, to date, hydrogeological investigations are mainly performed through well-tests or the analysis of samples, thus, limiting the spatial resolution of the investigation. To properly capture heterogeneities in the subsurface controlling surface-groundwater interactions, modern hydrogeological studies require the development of innovative investigation techniques that permit to gain continuous information about subsurface state with high spatial and temporal resolution at different scales: from the pore-space all the way to the catchment. To achieve this, we propose the conduction of geophysical surveys, in particular field-scale Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) imaging measurements. SIP images provide information about the complex electrical conductivity (CEC), which is controlled by important hydrogeological parameters, such as porosity, water content and the chemical properties of the pore-water. Here, we present imaging results collected at the catchment scale (approximately 66 ha), which permitted to gain detailed information about the spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters at different scales. The heterogeneities observed in the geophysical images revealed consistency with independent information collected at the study area. In addition to this, and taking into account that different geophysical methods yield information about different properties and at diverse scales, interpretation of the SIP images was improved by incorporation of complementary measurements, such as: ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Multichannel Analysis of Surface-Waves (MASW) and Seismic Refraction-Reflection (SRR).

  14. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The criteria, guidelines, and an organized approach for use in the space station and space shuttle program definition phase are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) background information and evolution of the studies, (2) definition of terms used, (3) concepts of the space shuttle, space station, experiment modules, shuttle-sortie operations and modular space station, and (4) summary of functional program element (FPE) requirements. Diagrams of the various configurations and the experimental equipment to be installed in the structures are included.

  15. Hydrogeologic characterization of Illinois wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, J.J.; Miller, M.V.; Rorick, N.L.; Fucciolo, C.S. )

    1994-04-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), under contract from the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), is evaluating a series of selected wetlands and sites proposed for wetland construction and/or restoration. The program is associated with wetland mitigation for unavoidable effects of state highway construction. The goal of this ongoing program is: (1) to collect commonly lacking geologic, geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical data from various wetland sites; and (2) to create a database of this information for use by government agencies and the private sector. Some of the potential uses of this database include: (1) determination of history, role, and possible life cycle of various wetland types allowing more effective design criteria; (2) functional comparison of constructed or restored wetlands versus natural wetlands; (3) testing of wetland hypotheses and delineation techniques under a variety of known hydrogeologic conditions in Illinois; (4) hydrogeologic assessment of potential mitigation sites against a suite of known sites; and (5) determination of data and collection methods appropriate for hydrogeologic wetland studies. A series of tasks is required to complete each study. Historical information is collected from ISGS records, including data regarding topography, soils, sediments, bedrock, and local well records. A field-testing plan is prepared, which includes goals of the study, methods, research potential, and potential results. An initial report is prepared after geologic and geochemical characterization and the installation of needed ground water monitoring wells and surface water gauges. After one year of water-level monitoring, a final report is prepared regarding the present conditions of a site. Further monitoring may be required to determine the performance at constructed and/or restored sites.

  16. Summary and review of Materials Special Investigation Group evaluations of hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Funk, Joan; Pippin, H. Gary; Dursch, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Major materials findings obtained during LDEF post-flight investigations over the past three and one-half years are reported. The summary of findings to date includes results for thermal control coatings, thin polymeric films, composites, metals, adhesives, contamination, and environments definitions. Reaction rates of selected materials exposed to atomic oxygen are presented. Results useful for model verification and comparison with ground based facility data are specifically highlighted. Potential areas for future work are described. In conclusion, a rationale for a second long term flight experiment is presented.

  17. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process` components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process` usefulness.

  18. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing.

  19. Summaries of FY 1994 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward the long-term fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy byproducts of man. The Program is divided into five broad categories: Geophysics and earth dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy resource recognition, evaluation, and utilization; Hydrogeology and exogeochemistry; and Solar-terrestrial interactions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs in these main areas and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  20. Investigation of Alleged Scientific Misconduct on Grants MH-32206 and MH-37449. Final Report and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    The report presents results of a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) investigation into alleged scientific misconduct by Dr. Stephen Bruening in relation to two federally supported projects concerning tardive dyskinesia in retarded populations and stimulant drug use with mentally retarded children. The investigative panel of scientists…

  1. NRRI summary of New York Public Service Commission: Staff investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In June 1995, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) released a Staff investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. (O&R). The primary focus of the Staffs investigation was the Corporate Policy and External Affairs Department, a restricted disbursements account, the Internal Auditing Department, and O&R officer malfeasance. The Staffs` investigation uncovered widespread, alleged instances of lax internal controls, unethical and illegal actions, and lavish officer behavior. In addition, the Staff investigated O&R`s internal control and purchasing functions. The Staff proposed a series of recommendations to improve the Company`s internal control, purchasing, ethical, climate and addressed the issue of a New York ratepayer reimbursement. The Staffs findings and recommendations were presented in the form of a report, entitled Staff Investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. This article summarizes the Report.

  2. An investigation of transitional management problems for the NSTS at NASA, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the work of the University of Houston research team for the third quarter of effort in a yearly grant for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). As such it serves as a resting place for the ideas and concepts developed this quarter with the collaboration of the Management Integration Offices of NASA. Another objective is the hope that the report will help to stimulate the healthy problem solving process already present at NASA. The main goal of the contractual work is to help NASA to find ways and means of moving into a truly operational era with the shuttle program. This work is a continuation of early work and the reader is encouraged to read the final reports of earlier years. Chapter One of the report is an introduction. Chapter Two deals with industrial adaptation and is in two parts: theory and application. In the theory section, impressions of the management system immediately after reflight are discussed. A key issue, in the author's opinion is the seeming lack of purpose of the program. The application section has six appendices: 1988 Demographic Survey, Field Notes of Interview with HL/P South Texas Nuclear Project, a comparison of the Agendas of the current manager with that of a previous manager, a note on compartmentalization to assist in manifesting, a study on launch prediction for STS-26, and a discussion of a statistical decision-making course for upper level managers. Chapter Three deals with theoretical results returned on flow shop scheduling which will be of use downstream. Chapter Four deals with a statistical model developed to predict the flight rate in future years and indicates the program will have trouble making its schedule. Chapter Five covers the constructural effort and shows the work to be on schedule.

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 92-4016

    SciTech Connect

    Geldon, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No.2, and UE-25c No. 3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys, aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

  4. An Attempt of Hydrogeological Classification of Fault Zones in Karst Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Helene; Decker, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    Around 60% of Vienna`s drinking water originates in the Hochschwab plateau (Eastern Alps, Austria). The hydrogeology (groundwater storage and flow) of the Hochschwab is essentially governed by karstified, large-scale faults. Previous work has shown that faults that formed during the Oligocene/L. Miocene lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps act as groundwater pathways draining the karst massif preferably in E-W-direction. However, further analysis of flow processes in karstified aquifers requires hydrogeological relevant data from natural fault zones. We investigated E- to ENE- striking strike-slip faults in limestones and dolomites of the Wetterstein Fm. in terms of potential permeability properties that result from structural composition and fault rock content. Using the standard fault core-damage zone model, we analyzed fault rock characteristics and volumes at the fault cores and connective fracture networks surrounding faults in the damage zones. Special attention has been drawn to fracture densities and the spatial extent of fracture networks. Small-scale fractures are generally assumed to carry most of the effective porosity and have a great influence on the permeability of a fault zone. Therefore, we established a classification scheme and measuring method that provides semi-quantitative estimates of the density and abundance of small-scale fractures by using scanning line techniques to quantify the total joint surface in a volume of rock (m² joint surfaces per m³ rock). This easily applicable method allows to generate fracture density data for the entire damage zones (over tens of meters) and thus to enhance the understanding of permeability properties of damage zones. The field based data is supported by effective porosity and permeability measurements of fractured wall rock and fault rock samples. Different fault rock categories turned out to have complex poro/perm properties due to differences in grain sizes, matrix content, cementation and fracturing

  5. Hydrogeologic data from parts of the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, T.J.; Robson, S.G.; Romero, J.C.; Zawistowski, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    This report presents hydrogeologic data collected and compiled during 1956-81 as part of a comprehensive hydrogeologic data collected and compiled during 1956-81 as part of a comprehensive hdryogeologic investigation of the Denver basin, Colorado, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, Office of the State Engineer. The data, in tabular and graphic form, consist of records for 870 wells which include water-level data for 158 wells and water-quality analyses for 561 wells; geophysical logs from three wells which include resistivity, self potential, and natural gamma logs; and gain-and-loss data of streamflow measured at 54 sites. (USGS)

  6. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds: Phase 1: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structural response to aerodynamic buffet during moderate to high-g maneuvers at subsonic and transonic speeds was investigated. The investigation is reported in three volumes. This volume presents a summary of the investigation with a complete description of the technical approach, description of the aircraft, its instrumentation, the data reduction procedures, results and conclusion.

  7. A Hydrogeologic Map of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California, Developed Using GIS Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Turner, A. Keith

    1997-01-01

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  8. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  9. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A general overview of the LANDSAT 4 system with emphasis on the Thematic Mapper (TM) is presented. A variety of topics on the design, calibration, capabilities, and image processing techniques of the TM sensor are discussed in detail. The comparison of TM data with other MSS data is also investigated.

  10. Satellite Power System Concept Development and Evaluation Program, Critical Supporting Investigations. Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seyl, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations in critical technology of the solar power satellite (SPS) concept development program are summarized. Studies of the potential application of fiber optics transmission links across the SPS one kilometer antenna and evaluation of gallium arsenide field effect transistors and their associated power amplifier circuitry are discussed in more detail.

  11. Summary of medical investigations in the U.S.S.R. manned space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Genin, A. M.; Egorov, A. D.

    The results of biomedical investigations carried out in the U.S.S.R. manned space missions are discussed. Their basic result is well-documented evidence that man can perform space flights of long duration. The investigations have demonstrated no direct correlation between inflight or postflight physiological reactions of crewmembers and flight duration. In all likelihood, this can be attributed to the fact that special exercises done inflight efficiently prevented adverse effects of weightlessness. However, human reactions to weightlessness need further study. They include negative calcium balance and anemia as well as vestibulo-autonomic disorders shown by crewmembers at early stages of weightlessness. Attention should be given to psychological, social-psychological and ethical problems that may also limit further increase in flight duration.

  12. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  13. Investigation of the free flow electrophoretic process. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R. A.; Lanham, J. W.; Richman, D. W.; Walker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the free flow electrophoretic process was investigated. The demonstrated effects were then compared with predictions made by mathematical models. Results show that the carrier buffer flow was affected by gravity induced thermal convection and that the movement of the separating particle streams was affected by gravity induced buoyant forces. It was determined that if gravity induced buoyant forces were included in the mathematical models, then effective predictions of electrophoresis chamber separation performance were possible.

  14. Borehole Completion and Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model for the IFRC Well Field, 300 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Lanigan, David C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2009-04-20

    A tight cluster of 35 new wells was installed over a former waste site, the South Process Pond (316-1 waste site), in the Hanford Site 300 Area in summer 2008. This report documents the details of the drilling, sampling, and well construction for the new array and presents a summary of the site hydrogeology based on the results of drilling and preliminary geophysical logging.

  15. Geological realism in hydrogeological and geophysical inverse modeling: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Niklas; Renard, Philippe; Mukerji, Tapan; Caers, Jef

    2015-12-01

    Scientific curiosity, exploration of georesources and environmental concerns are pushing the geoscientific research community toward subsurface investigations of ever-increasing complexity. This review explores various approaches to formulate and solve inverse problems in ways that effectively integrate geological concepts with geophysical and hydrogeological data. Modern geostatistical simulation algorithms can produce multiple subsurface realizations that are in agreement with conceptual geological models and statistical rock physics can be used to map these realizations into physical properties that are sensed by the geophysical or hydrogeological data. The inverse problem consists of finding one or an ensemble of such subsurface realizations that are in agreement with the data. The most general inversion frameworks are presently often computationally intractable when applied to large-scale problems and it is necessary to better understand the implications of simplifying (1) the conceptual geological model (e.g., using model compression); (2) the physical forward problem (e.g., using proxy models); and (3) the algorithm used to solve the inverse problem (e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo or local optimization methods) to reach practical and robust solutions given today's computer resources and knowledge. We also highlight the need to not only use geophysical and hydrogeological data for parameter estimation purposes, but also to use them to falsify or corroborate alternative geological scenarios.

  16. Impacts of rainfall spatial variability on hydrogeological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapriza-Azuri, Gonzalo; Jódar, Jorge; Navarro, Vicente; Slooten, Luit Jan; Carrera, Jesús; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2015-02-01

    There is currently no general consensus on how the spatial variability of rainfall impacts and propagates through complex hydrogeological systems. Most studies to date have focused on the effects of rainfall spatial variability (RSV) on river discharge, while paying little attention to other important aspects of system response. Here, we study the impacts of RSV on several responses of a hydrological model of an overexploited system. To this end, we drive a spatially distributed hydrogeological model for the semiarid Upper Guadiana basin in central Spain with stochastic daily rainfall fields defined at three different spatial resolutions (fine → 2.5 km × 2.5 km, medium → 50 km × 50 km, large → lumped). This enables us to investigate how (i) RSV at different spatial resolutions, and (ii) rainfall uncertainty, are propagated through the hydrogeological model of the system. Our results demonstrate that RSV has a significant impact on the modeled response of the system, by specifically affecting groundwater recharge and runoff generation, and thereby propagating through to various other related hydrological responses (river discharge, river-aquifer exchange, groundwater levels). These results call into question the validity of management decisions made using hydrological models calibrated or forced with spatially lumped rainfall.

  17. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.; Mironenko, V.; Pozdniakov, S.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations.

  18. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  19. Lidar measurements from space for tropospheric chemistry investigations: Summary of workshop overview presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA has played a lead role in defining the scientific objectives and technology requirements for spaceborne lidar investigations of the atmosphere. An assessment of the potential for conducting lidar measurements from space for investigations that pertain specifically to tropospheric chemistry is presented. A description of potential lidar measurement techniques is given, and the scientific requirements for tropospheric chemistry are reviewed. The current status of airborne lidar measurements of aerosols, O3, and H2O is discussed, and a brief description of the evolution of lidar technology to space is given. Also, the measurement of tropospheric gases with a spaceborne lidar system is evaluated for a wide range of gas species. From this general assessment, it appears feasible to measure aerosols, H2O, O3, NH3, CO, CH4, NO2, atmospheric pressure and temperature, and wind with a lidar from space provided that the appropriate laser and receiver technology is available. For the mid-1990's, it is expected that lidar technology will be available for the measurement of aerosols, H2O, and O3 from a space platform.

  20. NASA geodynamics program investigations summaries: A supplement to the NASA geodynamics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of a time series of global atmospheric motion and mass fields through April 1984 to compare with changes in length of day and polar motion was investigated. Earth rotation was studied and the following topics are discussed: (1) computation of atmospheric angular momentum through April 1984; (2) comparisons of psi sub values with variations in length of day obtained by several groups utilizing B.I.H., lunar laser ranging, VLBI, or Lageos measurements; (3) computation of atmospheric excitation of polar motion using daily fields of atmospheric winds and pressures for a short test period. Daily calculations may be extended over a longer period to examine the forcing of the annual and Chandler wobbles, in addition to higher frequency nutations.

  1. Summary of Hydrologic and Geochemical Investigations of the Albion Basin, Little Cottonwood Canyon, Alta, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalbeck, J.; Clancy, J.; Kraus, J.

    2013-12-01

    This hydrologic and geochemical investigation of the Albion Basin was initiated in August 2005 as a background study that included reviewing existing reports, publications, maps, and other available data and preparing a phased research plan. Annual field investigations have continued with the goal to evaluate watershed characteristics of the Albion Basin and provide scientific information that can be used in watershed management decisions. In August 2006, ten piezometers were installed in the Albion Basin for water level and water chemistry monitoring at three wetland areas (Albion Basin Fen, Catherine's Pass, and Collins/Sugarloaf) and in the streambed of Little Cottonwood Creek. In August 2012, a single piezometer was installed in the Patsy Marley wetland area. The August 2013 field season represents the 8th monitoring period for this investigation. Annual monitoring consists of collecting: (1) automated water levels using pressure transducers, (2) manual water levels using an electronic sounder, (3) field water parametes (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity), and (4) water samples for laboratory chemical analysis of major cations and anions. Water samples have been collected from piezometers, springs, and surface water to characterize the potential source water for the wetland areas. In 2011 and 2012, snow samples were collected for laboratory chemical analysis to characterize the water chemistry from precipitation. A reconnaissance survey of springs located in each of the wetland areas within the basin was performed during the August 2013 record general vegetation and rock type, water field water parameter measurements, and relative flow characteristics. The goal is to assess the contribution of source water for each of the wetland areas and to identify water source areas and flow paths within the basin. In general the water sample results represent calcium, magnesium bicarbonate fresh water. These results, along with the snow sample results, provide for

  2. Scientific Objectives for UV-Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  3. Scientific Objectives for UV-Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  4. Scientific Objectives for UV/Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  5. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes. PMID:26578424

  6. The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation: A Summary of Conducted Research on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Luz, P.; Smith, G. A.; Spivey, R.; Jeter, L.; Volz, M. P.; Anilkumar, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) is being conducted in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) with the goal of understanding bubble generation and interactions during controlled directional solidification processing. Through the course of the experiments, beginning in September 2002, a number of key factors pertinent to solidification processing of materials in a microgravity environment have been directly observed, measured, and modeled. Though most experiments ran uninterrupted, on four separate occasions malfunctions to the PFMI hardware and software were experienced that required crew intervention, including in-space repair. Fortunately, each repair attempt was successful and restored the PFMI apparatus to a fully functional condition. Based on PFMI results and lessons learned, the intent of this presentation is to draw attention to the role ISS experiments/hardware can play in providing insight to potential fabrication processing techniques and repair scenarios that might arise during long duration space transport and/or on the lunar/Mars surface.

  7. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  8. Emerging Challenges and "Weird" Models in Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogeological research and practice have dealt in recent years with problems related to groundwater quantity and quality. Models have been used for water flow, solute transport and, at most, chemical reactions, which were required to address issues such as water resources assessment, artificial recharge, seawater intrusion, impact of public works, and the like. "Weird" (i.e., outside the mainstream practical hydrogeology, restricted to academy) models were virtually restricted to spatial variability of permeability and the problems it imposed on transport (i.e., scale dependence of dispersivity, mixing, etc.). Yet, a broad gap has grown between academy and practical hydrogeology. Energy demands have created a new suite of problems that need to be solved to address CO2 storage, shale gas impacts or enhanced geothermal systems. These require solving mechanical and thermal equations. We contend, and will use example from our own work for illustration, that (1) these problems are not so new (hydrogeologists started working on them some 40 years ago), (2) hydrogeological tools are as needed to solve energy problems as they were for water problems (permeability remains the key parameter for most of them), (3) collaboration with sister Earth Sciences remains essential (the problems are highly coupled and no one can master all disciplines involved). The real challenge is not so much whether hydrogeology can address these problems, it can, as whether hydrogeologists can reduce the gap between academy and practice, which will be strongly stretched by these emerging problems.

  9. Application of three dimensional geological models to hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, M.; Neukum, C.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation of subsurface structure has become a common engineering geological tool to investigate a variety of geological settings. Besides, hydrogeology always tightly combines with geological structures. For these reasons, coupling 3D geological models with hydrogeology will not only improve understanding of subsurface conditions, but also provide a common stratigraphic framework for hydrogeological applications. The reliability of 3D geological models largely depends on the quality and quantity of data. Normally, before 3D geological models are constructed in the software package, the initial data (borehole descriptions, geological maps, geological cross sections, outcrop data, geo-electrical survey, digital elevation model, etc.) are acquired from archive as much as possible and standardized in a single table. To ensure the precision of models, new drilling data should be gathered from local authorities such as Geological Survey in time. Some experimental data are necessary to be kept at the initial moment to create a subset for verification of the models. In particular, the resulting models will be used for hydrogeological applications. So, more parameters should be collected to construct the 3D property models. Properties contain porosities of soil, bearing capacity, compressibility and particular geological phenomenon such as the regional aquifers, aquitard and faults. During the processing of model construction, the minimum element of the models is grid, which can be converted to some finite elements software. Further studies of these models to hydrogeological application involve: integrating faulted horizons of the 3D geological model into the groundwater modeling software package and simulating the groundwater flow within the main relevant aquifers using a finite elements approach; simulating distribution and calculating volume of groundwater in particular area; providing 3D parameters for vulnerability maps of

  10. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity

  11. The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Scholl, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano and adjacent areas has been studied since the turn of this century. However, most studies to date have focused on the relatively shallow, low-salinity parts of the ground-water system, and the deeper hydrothermal system remains poorly understood. The rift zones of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano bound the regional ground-water flow system that includes Kilauea, and the area bounded by the rift zones of Kilauea and the ocean may comprise a partly isolated subsystem. Rates of ground-water recharge vary greatly over the area, and discharge is difficult to measure, because streams are ephemeral and most ground-water discharges diffusely at or below sea level. Hydrothermal systems exist at depth in Kilauea's east and southwest rift zone, as evidenced by thermal springs at the coast and wells in the lower east-rift zone. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones (probably [le]10[sup [minus]15] m[sup 2]) is much lower than that of unaltered basalt flows closer to the surface ([ge]10[sup [minus]10] m[sup 2]). Substantial variations in permeability and the presence of magmatic heat sources influence that structure of the fresh water-salt water interface, so the Ghyben-Herzberg model will often fail to predict its position. Numerical modeling studies have considered only subsets of the hydrothermal system, because no existing computer code solves the coupled fluid-flow, heat- and solute-transport problem over the temperature and salinity range encountered at Kilauea. 73 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  13. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  14. Summary of results from the Series 2 and Series 3 NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] bare fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.N.

    1987-11-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project is studying dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent nuclear fuel in Nevada Test Site groundwater. Specimens were tested for multiple cycles in J-13 well water. The Series 2 tests were run in unsealed silica vessels under ambient hot cell air (25{sup 0}C) for five cycles for a total of 34 months. The Series 3 tests were run in sealed stainless steel vessels at 25{sup 0}C and 85{sup 0}C for three cycles for a total of 15 months. Selected summary results from Series 2 and Series 3 tests with bare fuel specimens are reported. Uranium concentrations in later test cycles ranged from 1 to 2 {mu}g/ml in the Series 2 Tests versus about 0.1 to 0.4 {mu}g/ml in Series 3 with the lowest concentrations occurring in the 85{sup 0}C tests. Preferential release of fission products Cs, I, Sr and Tc, and activation product C-14, was indicated relative to the actinides. Tc-99 and Cs-137 activities measured in solution after Cycle 1 increased linearly with time, with the rate of increase greater at 85{sup 0}C than at 25{sup 0}C. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Hydrogeology in The Semi-Arid South-West of Madagascar - a Multi-Scale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, A.; Dworak, L.; Rasoloariniaina, J.; Brinkmann, K.; Kobbe, S.; Buerkert, A.

    2014-12-01

    The project „Sustainable Land Management" (SuLaMa) aims at the participatory development and implementation of alternative land-use management practices to protect the ecosystem and its biodiversity and improve the livelihood of the local population in a sustainable manner. One critical aspect within this project is the availability of sustainable water resources. To approach reliable estimates about the availability and dynamics of the water resources, we started a study to understand in detail the hydrogeology of the South-West of Madagascar. As this area has an extend of about 40000 square kilometers, the study is based on a multi-scale approach. Rough large scale estimates are utilized to develop a general understanding of the hydrogeology in the South-West of Madagascar, which allows for large scale estimates of hydrogeology under changing boundary conditions like climate change. Detailed investigations at target villages of the SuLaMa project, combined with boundary conditions derived from the large scale hydrogeological model, allows for estimates of the local hydrogeology under changing boundary conditions like enhanced water abstraction. Although several governmental and nongovernmental institutions have been working on the water resources of the South-West of Madagascar in the past, only few sources on the hydrogeology of this area can be found in literature. To improve the data base we installed five automatic loggers in the area to measure groundwater levels as function of time and investigated in detail about one hundred wells in terms of geometry, groundwater level, electrical conductivity and pH. First preliminary results of the study show that the hydrogeology in the study area is dominated by four major hydrogeological units (fractured crystalline basement, karstic plateau, porous perched aquifers and a porous coastal area) and can be analyzed effectively by assuming a radial symmetric geometry. Ongoing efforts are the development of a model for

  16. Conceptual model of hydrogeology in the Ozark Plateaus region during Pennsylvanian time

    SciTech Connect

    Brahana, J.V. )

    1993-03-01

    Recently completed studies of the Ozark Plateaus region of southern Missouri and northern Arkansas provide a conceptual framework for understanding current hydrogeology, and form the basis for numerical models that can be used to quantitatively assess flow and solute transport in the aquifers of this area. Three separate investigations were completed as part of the Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA) program of the US Geological Survey during 1985--1993. Although the objectives of these RASA studies [Northern Midwest (NM) RASA, Gulf Coast (GC) RASA, and Central Midwest (CM) RASA] focused on recent hydrologic conditions, each study has contributed o increased understanding of the evolution of the hydrogeology of the region.

  17. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  18. The French network of hydrogeological sites H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, P.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Gautier, S.; Porel, G.; Bodin, J.; de Dreuzy, J.; Pezard, P.

    2008-12-01

    For groundwater issues (potential leakages in waste repository, aquifer management "), the development of modeling techniques is far ahead of the actual knowledge of aquifers. This raises two fundamental issues: 1) which and how much data are necessary to make predictions accurate enough for aquifer management issues; 2) which models remain relevant to describe the heterogeneity and complexity of geological systems. The French observatory H+ was created in 2002 with the twofold motivation of acquiring a large database for validating models of heterogeneous aquifers, and of surveying groundwater quality evolution in the context of environmental changes. H+ is a network of 4 sites (Ploemeur, Brittany, France; HES Poitiers, France; Cadarache, France; Campos, Mallorca, Spain) with different geological, climatic, and economic contexts. All of them are characterized by a highly heterogeneous structure (fractured crystalline basement for Ploemeur, karstified and fractured limestone for Poitiers, Cadarache and Mallorca), which is far to be taken into account by basic models. Ploemeur is exploited as a tap-water plant for a medium-size coastal city (15,000 inhabitants) for 20 years. Each site is developed for long term investigation and monitoring. They involves a dense network of boreholes, detailed geological and geophysical surveys, periodic campaigns and/or permanent measurements of groundwater flow, water chemistry, geophysical signals (including ground motions), climatic parameter, etc. Several large-scale flow experiments are scheduled per year to investigate the aquifer structure with combined geophysical, hydrogeological, and geochemical instruments. All this information is recorded in a database that has been developed to improve the sustainability and quality of data, and to be used as a collaborative tool for both site researchers and modelers. This project lasts now for 5 years. It is a short time to collect the amount of information necessary to apprehend the

  19. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  20. Mapping pollution and coastal hydrogeology with helicopterborne transient electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Niels B.; Halkjær, Max

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hydrology is becoming the focus of increasing interest for several reasons. Hydrogeological models need good boundary conditions at the coastline, and with the expected sea level rise due to climate changes, it becomes increasingly important to grasp the dynamics of coastal hydrology in order to predict the consequences of sea level rise for nature and society. We present a helicopterborne transient electromagnetic survey from a region at the North Sea coast in western Jutland, Denmark, carried out at a seriously polluted site with the dual purpose of assessing the extent of the pollution and mapping the coastal hydrogeology to provide data for remediation activities. Data are subjected to constrained inversion with one-dimensional multi-layer (smooth) models. The extent of the pollution plume estimated from a conductive anomaly in the survey results is mainly in accordance with results from other investigations, but also points to hitherto unknown directions of seepage. The interleaving of freshwater extending under the offshore shallow sea and saltwater infiltrating under the onshore freshwater aquifer can be clearly discerned and preferential flow channels are revealed.

  1. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  2. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  3. Hydrogeology, waste disposal, science and politics: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Link, P.K.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Stochastic hydrogeology: what professionals really need?

    PubMed

    Renard, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative hydrogeology celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2006. Geostatistics is younger but has had a very large impact in hydrogeology. Today, geostatistics is used routinely to interpolate deterministically most of the parameters that are required to analyze a problem or make a quantitative analysis. In a small number of cases, geostatistics is combined with deterministic approaches to forecast uncertainty. At a more academic level, geostatistics is used extensively to study physical processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet, there is an important gap between the academic use and the routine applications of geostatistics. The reasons for this gap are diverse. These include aspects related to the hydrogeology consulting market, technical reasons such as the lack of widely available software, but also a number of misconceptions. A change in this situation requires acting at different levels. First, regulators must be convinced of the benefit of using geostatistics. Second, the economic potential of the approach must be emphasized to customers. Third, the relevance of the theories needs to be increased. Last, but not least, software, data sets, and computing infrastructure such as grid computing need to be widely available. PMID:17760580

  5. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Finn, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogeologic maps were constructed for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The ground-water flow system in the country can best be described as two interconnected regional systems: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system and the interior, fractured sedimentary Taoudeni Basin system. In these systems, ground-water flow occurs in fill deposits and carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks. Based on an evaluation of the potentiometric surface, there are three areas of ground-water recharge in the Taoudeni Basin system. One region occurs in the northwest at the edge of the Shield, one occurs to the south overlying the Tillites, and one is centered at the city of Tidjikdja. In contrast to the flow system in the Taoudeni Basin, the potentiometric surfaces reveal two areas of discharge in the Continental Terminal system but no localized recharge areas; the recharge is more likely to be areal. In addition to these recharge and discharge areas, ground water flows across the country's borders. Specifically, ground water from the Atlantic Ocean flows into Mauritania, transporting dissolved sodium from the west as a salt water intrusion, whereas fresh ground water discharges from the east into Mali. To the north, there is a relatively low gradient with inflow of fresh water to Mauritania, whereas ground-water flow discharges to the Senegal River to the south. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to digitize, manage, store, and analyze geologic data used to develop the hydrogeologic map. The data acquired for map development included existing digital GIS files, published maps, tabulated data in reports and public-access files, and the SIPPE2 Access database. Once in digital formats, regional geologic and hydrologic features were converted to a common coordinate system and combined into one map. The 42 regional geologic map units were then reclassified into 13 hydrogeologic units, each having considerable lateral extent and distinct

  7. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-12-31

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10{sup -6} to 9.8 x 10{sup -6} foot per day (2 x 10{sup -6} to 3 x 10{sup -6} meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10{sup -5} to 2.9 x 10{sup -2} foot per day (8 x 10{sup -6} to 9 x 10{sup -3} meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Importance of Hydrogeological Conditions on Open-loop Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D.; Bae, G.; Kim, S.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    groundwater flow direction has often been changed. Any effects of the seasonal river temperature variation and contaminant sources were not found on the wells because of the well screen installed at only the relatively deep gravel layer. Finally, it was evaluated whether if these results are valid in a homogeneous aquifer with the full screen of wells and the aquifer having a sediment layer with high hydraulic conductivity at a shallow depth, which are also typical aquifers near river. All the results concluded that it is essential to investigate and understand the site-specific hydrogeological conditions for the successful application of open-loop geothermal system.

  9. Two-hundred years of hydrogeology in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenshein, J. S., (Edited By); Moore, J.E.; Lohman, S.W.; Chase, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America (GSA) sponsored a symposium entitled ' Hydrogeology in the United States, 1776- 1976 ' at the annual meeting of the GSA on November 9, 1976. The symposium was organized to provide a forum for discussion of major eras in the history of American hydrogeology and to contribute to the bicentennial celebration of the founding of the United States. Presentations were broken down into 3 sections: The Early Era (with a tribute to Oscar E. Meinzer), 1776-1920; Meinzer Era, 1910-1940; and the Modern Era (including scientific advantages; the quantification of hydrogeology; geochemistry; surface and borehole geophysics; and hydrogeology, policy, and politics) 1940-1976. (Lantz-PTT)

  10. Hydrogeologic framework and borehole yields in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapaah-Siakwan, S.; Gyau-Boakye, P.

    2000-08-01

    In Ghana, 68% of the population live in rural communities, which are scattered and remote. Groundwater is the most feasible source of potable water supply for most of these dispersed and remote settlements. To meet the present and future challenges of population expansion vis-à-vis the observed declining rainfall in most parts of Africa including Ghana, it is necessary to assess, efficiently manage, and utilize the groundwater resources. The objective of this paper is therefore to describe the hydrogeologic framework and analyze borehole yields as part of the groundwater-resources assessment of Ghana. The hydrogeologic units are broadly categorized as: (1) the Basement Complex (crystalline rocks), which underlies about 54% of the country; (2) the Voltaian System, which underlies about 45%; and (3) the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic sedimentary strata (Coastal Provinces), which underlie the remaining 1% of the country. The Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces have higher groundwater potential than the Voltaian System. This is particularly significant, because the Basement Complex and the Coastal Provinces underlie the most densely populated areas of the country and can hence be tapped for human use. The average borehole yields of the Basement Complex, the Coastal Provinces and the Voltaian System range from 2.7-12.7, 3.9-15.6, and 6.2-8.5 m3/h, respectively.

  11. On the significance of contaminant plume-scale and dose-response models in defining hydrogeological characterization needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R.; Bai, H.

    2007-12-01

    Defining rational and effective hydrogeological data acquisition strategies is of crucial importance since financial resources available for such efforts are always limited. Usually such strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of the impacts of uncertainty. This paper presents an approach for determining site characterization needs based on human health risk factors. The main challenge is in striking a balance between improved definition of hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological parameters. Striking this balance can provide clear guidance on setting priorities for data acquisition and for better estimating adverse health effects in humans. This paper addresses this challenge through theoretical developments and numerical testing. We will report on a wide range of factors that affect the site characterization needs including contaminant plume's dimensions, travel distances and other length scales that characterize the transport problem, as well as health risk models. We introduce a new graphical tool that allows one to investigate the relative impact of hydrogeological and physiological parameters in risk. Results show that the impact of uncertainty reduction in the risk-related parameters decreases with increasing distances from the contaminant source. Also, results indicate that human health risk becomes less sensitive to hydrogeological measurements when dealing with ergodic plumes. This indicates that under ergodic conditions, uncertainty reduction in human health risk may benefit from better understanding of the physiological component as opposed to a detailed hydrogeological characterization

  12. Geological Investigation Program for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstenkorn, András; Trosits, Dalma; Chikán, Géza; János Katona, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    earlier studies, seismic sources in the near regional area are the dominating contributors to the site seimic hazard. Therefore a 3D geological model will be developed for the 50 km region around the site in order to consider different geological scenarios. Site-scale investigations are aimed on the characterization of local geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions. The geotechnical investigations provide data for the evaluation of site response, i.e. the free-field ground motion response spectra, assessment of the liquefaction hazard and foundation design. Important element of the hydrogeological survey is numerical groundwater modeling. The aim of hydrogeological modeling is the summary of hydrogeological data in a numeric system, the description, simulation of underground water flow and transport conditions.

  13. Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods.

  14. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain P.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. M.; Mahmoudzadeh Ardekani, Mohammad R.

    2014-11-01

    fault zones that control the hydrogeology of the catchment. The spatial discontinuities of the saprolite layer were well defined by RS techniques while subsurface geometry and aquifer parameters by hydrogeophysics. The GPR method was able to detect shallow water table at depth between 1 and 3 m b.g.s. The hydrostratigraphy and parameterization of the fissured layer remained uncertain because ERT and FDEM geophysical methods were quantitatively not conclusive while MRS detectability was restricted by low volumetric water content. The proposed multi-technique methodology integrating cost efficient RS, hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field investigations allowed us to characterize geometrically and parametrically the Sardón hard rock aquifer system, facilitating the design of hydrogeological conceptual model of the area.

  15. Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan Aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for selected city of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year investigation of the Upper Floridan aquifer and ground-water flow system in Leon County, Florida, and surrounding counties of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia began in 1990. The purpose of the investigation was to describe the ground-water flow system and to delineate the contributing areas to selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells. The investigation was prompted by the detection of low levels of tetrachloroethylene in ground-water samples collected from several of the city's water-supply wells. Hydrologic data and previous studies indicate that; ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer can be considered steady-state; the Upper Floridan aquifer is a single water-bearing unit; recharge is from precipitation; and that discharge occurs as spring flow, leakage to rivers, leakage to the Gulf of Mexico, and pumpage. Measured transmissivities of the aquifer ranged from 1,300 ft2/d (feet squared per day) to 1,300,000 ft2/d. Steady-state ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer was simulated using a three-dimensional ground- water flow model. Transmissivities ranging from less than 5,000 ft2/d to greater than 11,000,000 ft2/d were required to calibrate to observed conditions. Recharge rates used in the model ranged from 18.0 inches per year in areas where the aquifer was unconfined to less than 2 inches per year in broad areas where the aquifer was confined. Contributing areas to five Tallahassee water-supply wells were simulated by particle- tracking techniques. Particles were seeded in model cells containing pumping wells then tracked backwards in time toward recharge areas. The contributing area for each well was simulated twice, once assuming a porosity of 25 percent and once assuming a porosity of 5 percent. A porosity of 25 percent is considered a reasonable average value for the Upper Floridan aquifer; the 5 percent porosity simulated the movement of ground-water through only solution-enhanced bedding plains

  16. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  17. Morphometric analysis with open source software to explore shallow hydrogeological features in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Di Leo, Margherita; Bonomi, Tullia; Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Hamidou Kane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Water represents a vital resource for everyone on this Planet, but, for some populations, the access to potable water is not given for granted. Recently, the interest in low cost technical solutions to improve access to ground water in developing countries, especially for people located in remote areas, has increased. Manual drilling (techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries and represents a valid alternative to increase water access. Lately, this practice has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. This technique is applicable only where hydrogeological conditions are suitable, namely in presence of thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and a shallow water table Aim of this study is exploring the potential of morphometric analysis to improve the methodology to identify areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions for manual drilling, supporting the implementation of water supply programs that can have great impact on living condition of the population. The characteristics of shallow geological layers are strongly dependent from geomorphological processes and are usually reflected in the morphological characteristics of landforms. Under these hypotheses, we have been investigating the geo-statistical correlation between several morphometric variables and a set of hydrogeological variables used in the estimation of suitability for manual drilling: thickness of unconsolidated sediments, texture, hydraulic conductivity of shallow aquifer, depth of water table. The morphology of two study areas with different landscape characteristics in Guinea and Senegal has been investigated coupling the Free and Open Source Software GRASS GIS and R. Several morphometric parameters have been extracted from ASTER GDEM digital elevation model, and have been compared with a set of hydrogeological characteristics obtained from semi-automatic analysis of

  18. ALS beamlines for independent investigators: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of beamlines at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    There are two mods of conducting research at the ALS: To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT). To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT); to work as an independent investigator; PRTs are responsible for building beamlines, end stations, and, in some cases, insertion devices. Thus, PRT members have privileged access to the ALS. Independent investigators will use beamline facilities made available by PRTs. The purpose of this handbook is to describe these facilities.

  19. Insights into Mejerda basin hydrogeology, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guellala, Rihab; Tagorti, Mohamed Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi; Amri, Faouzi

    2012-09-01

    The present study concentrates on the interpretation of Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and well logs to understand the geometry and the functioning of the Ghardimaou multilayered aquifer, a potential target for water supply in the Mejerda basin (Tunisia). The analysis of isobath and isopach maps established in this study, shows a tectonic influence on the reservoirs structure; the Villafranchian folding and the NE-SW, and E-W normal faulting in the recent Quaternary created an aquifer system compartmentalized by raised and tilted blocks. Geoelectrical cross sections reveal that this structure influences the thickness of permeable formations and the groundwater circulation. These results will be useful for rationalizing the future hydrogeological research that will be undertaken in the Mejerda basin.

  20. Hydrogeological Conditions Changes of Tomsk, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, V. D.; Dutova, E. M.; Kuzevanov, K. I.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Nalivaiko, N. G.

    2015-11-01

    The hydro-geological conditions of Tomsk are determined by both natural factors and the impact of the urban infrastructure. Important impact on subsurface water flows involves the complex hydraulic relationship of several geological layers and the ancient and modern relief. Increasing groundwater abstraction has generally led to lowered piezometric heads in the deeper aquifer horizons, while in the uppermost horizons, rises in the water table and formation of new perched water tables are experienced due to leaking pipes and impedance of groundwater flow by deep foundations. In this paper special attention is paid to the Quaternary aquifer complex. Barrage effects of pile foundations and the intensive development of perched water distributed on flat surfaces of the watersheds and high terraces, complicated conditions for the construction and operation of facilities, leading in some cases to emergency situations.

  1. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Robey, T.H.; Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales.

  2. Analytical and experimental investigation of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of the shuttle orbiter. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, P. W.; Harris, H. G.; Zalesak, J.; Bernstein, M.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/8-scale structural dynamics model of the space shuttle orbiter was analyzed using the NASA Structural Analysis System (NASTRAN). Comparison of the calculated eigenvalues with preliminary test data for the unrestrained condition indicate that the analytical model was consistently stiffer, being about 20% higher in the first mode. The eigenvectors show reasonably good agreement with test data. A series of analytical and experimental investigations undertaken to resolve the discrepancy are described. Modifications in the NASTRAN model based upon these investigations resulted in close agreement for both eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  3. Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.

    2005-03-01

    Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogéologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des études ont été menées dans les différents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque océanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systèmes marins qui les rendent inadaptés à l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration océanographique, ont aidé à pousser en avant l'hydrogéologie marine ces dix dernières années. La plus part des études hydrogéologiques se sont concentrées jusqu'à présent sur la mesure ou

  4. Mirror Confinement Systems: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This report contains descriptions of the projects supported by the Mirror Confinement Systems (MCS) Division of the Office of Fusion Energy. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators, in collaboration with MCS staff office, and include objectives and milestones for each project. In addition to project summaries, statements of Division objectives and budget summaries are also provided.

  5. Hydrogeologic assessment of shallow flow systems in the Walnut Formation, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Feckley, D.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Walnut Formation crops out in the limestone dominated terrain of the Grand Prairie in Central Texas. The Walnut is the only clay-rich member within this dominantly limestone section. Because of its clay-rich nature, agricultural landuse of the Walnut Formation is greater than on surrounding formations. The clay content also makes the Walnut a natural consideration for waste disposal sites. However, many drainages and streams receive baseflow from the Walnut, and the Walnut overlies the Paluxy Aquifer, a minor aquifer in the State of Texas. Therefore, understanding the hydrogeology of the Walnut becomes increasingly important in order to protect baseflow water quality, and the underlying Paluxy Aquifer. Evaluation of hydrogeologic properties includes well hydrograph analysis, slug tests, pumping tests and laboratory tests. Results strongly indicate the presence of shallow flow systems, which are influenced by geomorphology and stratigraphy. An understanding of the geomorphic evolution of the region greatly aids the groundwater investigations.

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  7. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  8. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  9. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  10. Development of a Hydrogeological Site Description Based on a Discrete Fracture Network Concept and the Integration of Geological, Hydrogeological and Hydrochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Hartley, L. J.; Hoch, A.; Holton, D.; Hunter, F. M.; McCarthy, R.; Marsic, N.; Gylling, B.

    2006-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is carrying out site investigations in two different areas in Sweden with the objective of describing the in-situ conditions for a deep rock repository for spent nuclear fuel. The two candidate areas are Forsmark and Laxemar, both located on the east coast of Sweden. An important aspect of site investigations is to develop and demonstrate an understanding of groundwater flow and solute transport. Since the geology in both candidate areas is comprised of hard crystalline rocks, the groundwater flow is predominantly contained within fractures, and therefore a discrete fracture network (DFN) concept has been applied to describe and model the hydrogeological situation at the sites. Much observed field data from several different disciplines (geology, rock mechanics, geophysics, hydrogeology and hydrochemistry) has been acquired from the sites, including from several deep cored boreholes, to inform an overall description. Many aspects of the site description are brought together in constructing a regional scale hydrogeological model to integrate the concepts and data interpretations, which are then tested against a range of field observations to build confidence that the models are representative. A methodology has been developed based on assembling a regional hydrogeological model from three main components: hydraulic conductor domains (HCD) that represent deterministic large scale deformation zones; hydraulic rock domains (HRD) that use a stochastic DFN model to represent the background rock between the deformation zones; and hydraulic soil domains (HSD) that represent near-surface Quaternary deposits. The HCD are interpreted from geophysical methods, drilling and single-hole hydraulic tests. For the HRD, borehole image- and core-logs, outcrop maps, and short-interval flow-logging are integrated to parameterise a DFN model for specific hydrogeological rock domains. Geological information, statistical analysis

  11. Hydrogeology along the southern boundary of the Hanford Site between the Yakima and Columbia Rivers, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) operations at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington, have generated large volumes of hazardous and radioactive wastes since 1944. Some of the hazardous wastes were discharged to the ground in the 1100 and 3000 Areas, near the city of Richland. The specific waste types and quantities are unknown; however, they probably include battery acid, antifreeze, hydraulic fluids, waste oils, solvents, degreasers, paints, and paint thinners. Between the Yakima and Columbia rivers in support of future hazardous waste site investigations and ground-water and land-use management. The specific objectives were to collect and review existing hydrogeologic data for the study area and establish a water-level monitoring network; describe the regional and study area hydrogeology; develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model of the unconfined ground-water flow system beneath the study area, based on available data; describe the flow characteristics of the unconfined aquifer based on the spatial and temporal distribution of hydraulic head within the aquifer; use the results of this study to delineate additional data needs in support of future Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS), Fate and Transport modeling, Baseline Risk Assessments (BRA), and ground-water and land-use management.

  12. The influence of bedrock hydrogeology on catchment-scale nitrate fate and transport in fractured aquifers.

    PubMed

    Orr, Alison; Nitsche, Janka; Archbold, Marie; Deakin, Jenny; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Flynn, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Characterising catchment scale biogeochemical processes controlling nitrate fate in groundwater constitutes a fundamental consideration when applying programmes of measures to reduce risks posed by diffuse agricultural pollutants to water quality. Combining hydrochemical analyses with nitrate isotopic data and physical hydrogeological measurements permitted characterisation of biogeochemical processes influencing nitrogen fate and transport in the groundwater in two fractured bedrock aquifers with contrasting hydrogeology but comparable nutrient loads. Hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples collected from moderately fractured, diffusely karstified limestone indicated nitrification controlled dissolved nitrogen fate and delivery to aquatic receptors. By contrast nitrate concentrations in groundwater were considerably lower in a low transmissivity highly lithified sandstone and pyrite-bearing shale unit with patchy subsoil cover. Geophysical and hydrochemical investigations showed shallower intervals contained hydraulically active fractures where denitrification was reflected through lower nitrogen levels and an isotopic enrichment ratio of 1.7 between δ(15)N and δ(18)O. Study findings highlight the influence of bedrock hydrogeological conditions on aqueous nitrogen mobility. Investigation results demonstrate that bedrock conditions need to be considered when implementing catchment management plans to reduce the impact of agricultural practices on the quality of groundwater and baseflow in receiving rivers. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the groundwater of a freely draining catchment underlain by a karstified aquifer and a poorly draining aquifer with a low transmissivity aquifer. PMID:27432726

  13. Geology, ground-water flow, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water along hydrogeologic sections through Wisconsin aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was begun with the objectives of describing water quality and its relation to the hydrology of Wisconsin's principal aquifers and summarizing instances of ground-water contamination and quality problems from information available in DNR files. The first objective was met by a hydrologic investigation done by the USGS, and the second, by preparation of a report by the DNR, for their internal use, that describes the State's water resources and known ground-water quality and contamination problems and makes policy recommendations for ground-water management.The USGS investigation was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of compiling available water-quality and hydrogeologic data and collecting new data to describe general regional water-quality and hydrogeologic relations within and between Wisconsin aquifers. The second phase began concurrently with the later part of the first phase and consisted of an areal description of water quality and flow in the State's shallow aquifer system (Kammerer, 1995). The overall purpose of this investigation was to provide a regional framework that could serve as a basis for intensive local and site specific ground-water investigations by State and local government agencies.This report presents the results of the first phase of the USGS investigation. Regional hydrogeologic and water-quality relations within and between aquifers are shown along 15 hydrogeologic sections that traverse the State. Maps are used to show surficial geology of bedrock and unconsolidated deposits and horizontal direction of ground-water flow. Interpretations on the maps and hydrogeologic sections are based on data from a variety of sources and provide the basis for the areal appraisal of water quality in the State's shallow aquifer system in the second phase of the investigation.

  14. Calcific aortic valve disease: A consensus summary from the Alliance of Investigators on Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, Katherine E.; Demer, Linda L.; Body, Simon C.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Towler, Dwight A.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Hofmann-Bowman, Marion A.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options beyond surgical valve replacement are currently limited. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute assembled a working group on aortic stenosis. This group identified CAVD as an actively regulated disease process in need of further study. As a result, the Alliance of Investigators on CAVD was formed to coordinate and promote CAVD research, with the goals of identifying individuals at risk, developing new therapeutic approaches, and improving diagnostic methods. The group is composed of cardiologists, geneticists, imaging specialists, and basic science researchers. This report reviews the current status of CAVD research and treatment strategies with identification of areas in need of additional investigation for optimal management of this patient population. PMID:25189570

  15. Hydrogeologic and geothermal investigation of Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: geology; geophysical surveys; geothermal wells, springs, and heat flow; hydrology; drilling program, well testing, and mineralogical and petrographic studies of samples from geothermal wells. (MHR)

  16. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area. The resulting increase of the stage of the river causes the river to lose large amounts of water by infiltration to the ground-water reservoir in the study area. In addition, there is much recharge to the ground-water reservoir in the spring and early summer as a result of seepage losses from irrigation ditches and the downward percolation of some of the excess water applied for irrigation. The average net increase of ground water in storage in the deposits beneath and adjacent to the flood plain of the Humboldt River during the spring and early summer is about 10,000 acre-feet.

  17. Summary of Results Obtained in Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of the Ryan Flex-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Hassell, James L., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The performance and static stability and control characteristics of the Ryan Flex-Wing airplane were determined in an investigation conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel through an angle-of-attack range of the keel from about 14 to 44 deg. for power-on and -off conditions. Comparisons of the wind-tunnel data with flight-test data obtained with the same airplane by the Ryan Aeronautical Company were made in a number of cases.

  18. Phase 1 Data Summary Report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health Risk and Ecological Risk Screening Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address The transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The receiving river-reservoir system encompasses 140 river miles in length and 44,000 acres in surface area and is used for municipal water supply, sport fishing, navigation, boating, swimming, tourism, and residential development. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. A phased remedial investigation of the CR/WBR system is underway to (1) define the nature and extent of the off-site contamination, (2) evaluate associated environmental and human health risks, and (3) preliminarily identify and evaluate potential remediation alternatives. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI.

  19. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIE(PRESENTATION FOR MNA WORKSHOP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  20. Hydrogeologic Modeling at the Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site - 13419

    SciTech Connect

    Ewy, Ann; Heim, Kenneth J.; McGonigal, Sean T.; Talimcioglu, Nazmi M.

    2013-07-01

    A comparative groundwater hydrogeologic modeling analysis is presented herein to simulate potential contaminant migration pathways in a sole source aquifer in Nassau County, Long Island, New York. The source of contamination is related to historical operations at the Sylvania Corning Plant ('Site'), a 9.49- acre facility located at 70, 100 and 140 Cantiague Rock Road, Town of Oyster Bay in the westernmost portion of Hicksville, Long Island. The Site had historically been utilized as a nuclear materials manufacturing facility (e.g., cores, slug, and fuel elements) for reactors used in both research and electric power generation in early 1950's until late 1960's. The Site is contaminated with various volatile organic and inorganic compounds, as well as radionuclides. The major contaminants of concern at the Site are tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), nickel, uranium, and thorium. These compounds are present in soil and groundwater underlying the Site and have migrated off-site. The Site is currently being investigated as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The main objective of the current study is to simulate the complex hydrogeologic features in the region, such as numerous current and historic production well fields; large, localized recharge basins; and, multiple aquifers, and to assess potential contaminant migration pathways originating from the Site. For this purpose, the focus of attention was given to the underlying Magothy formation, which has been impacted by the contaminants of concern. This aquifer provides more than 90% of potable water supply in the region. Nassau and Suffolk Counties jointly developed a three-dimensional regional groundwater flow model to help understand the factors affecting groundwater flow regime in the region, to determine adequate water supply for public consumption, to investigate salt water intrusion in localized areas, to evaluate the impacts of regional pumping activity, and to

  1. A STOL airworthiness investigation using a simulation of an augmentor wing transport. Volume 1: Summary of results and airworthiness implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleford, R. L.; Heffley, R. K.; Hynes, C. S.; Scott, B. C.

    1974-01-01

    A simulator study of STOL airworthiness criteria was conducted using a model of an augmentor wing transport. The approach, flare and landing, go-around, and takeoff phases of flight were investigated. The results are summarized and possible implications with regard to airworthiness criteria are discussed. The results provide a data base for future STOL airworthiness requirements and a preliminary indication of potential problem areas. The results are also compared to the results from an earlier simulation of the Breguet 941S. Where possible, airworthiness criteria are proposed for consideration.

  2. Executive summary of the US Bureau of Mines investigations in the Colville Mining District, Alaska. Open file report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.P.

    1995-12-31

    During 1991 through 1993, the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Bureau) - Alaska Field Operations Center (AFOC) in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) - Arctic District Office and the State of Alaska, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS), conducted exploration, geological, geochemical, geophysical, mineral resource, and mineral potential investigations in the 6.7 million hectare Colville Mining District (CMD) study area. The document discusses the pertinent recent and historical information about the CMD, summarizes the findings of Bureau work performed in the CMD to date, and can be used as a principal reference to information on mineral resources within the CMD study area.

  3. A geochemical and hydrological investigation of groundwater recharge in the Roswell basin of New Mexico: summary of results and updated listing of tritium determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.W.; Hoy, R.N.

    1980-04-01

    Different approaches were used to study recharge and flow patterns in the Roswell, New Mexico, artesian basin. Isotope determination for tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 were made as a function of time and space. Observation well levels, springflow, and precipitation were analyzed by stochastic/numerical approaches. Also, a hydrogeologic survey was made of representative springs in the recharge zone on the basin western flank. An updated listing of tritium activity in precipitation, springs, surface runoff, and subsurface water from over 120 sampling sites in the basin covers 117 pages of the report. Substantial deep leakage contributions from the basin western flank must be included to account for the basin groundwater budget.

  4. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  5. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  6. Chemical Hydrogeology: Fifty Years of Advances, Breakthroughs, and Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical hydrogeology focuses on the composition, properties, and biogeochemical processes inherent to water in subsurface environments. Multiple avenues of research coalesced in the 1960's to foment the development of chemical hydrogeology as a distinct field. In the intervening 50 years, chemical hydrogeology principles have been applied to innumerable issues and problems, and concomitantly, the field has continually experienced advances, breakthroughs, and innovations in theory, analysis, and application. An overarching theme to chemical hydrogeology in both theory and application is integration--- integration of disciplines (interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary), integration of approaches (theoretical, experimental, analytical), and integration of scales (spatial, temporal). Chemical hydrogeology has never been more relevant and more challenged as today, as we face critical issues related to for example water scarcity and availability of clean water, impacts of energy development, production and storage, and human interactions with ecosystem services. This presentation will illustrate recent advances in chemical hydrogeology, ranging from application of advanced imaging for characterization of pore-scale multiphase systems to integrated physical and biogeochemical assessments of field-scale contaminant transport.

  7. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  8. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Group 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  9. A summary of the lateral cutoff analysis and results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliatt, Larry J.; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  10. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  11. A Summary of the Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from Nasa's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  12. Quality assurance/quality control summary report for Phase 1 of the Clinch River remedial investigation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.

    1994-07-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. Phase 1 of the CRRI was a preliminary study in selected areas of the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir. Fish, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radiological parameters. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels; (2) determine the range of contaminant concentrations present in the river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants. Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase I were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for field sampling, chain-of-custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; and (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy. These objectives were met through the development and implementation of (1) a QA oversight program of audits and surveillances; (2) standard operating procedures accompanied by a training program; (3) field sampling and analytical laboratory quality control requirements; (4) data and records management systems; and (5) validation of the data by an independent reviewer. Approximately 1700 inorganic samples, 1500 organic samples, and 2200 radiological samples were analyzed and validated. The QA completeness objective for the project was to obtain valid analytical results for at least 95% of the samples collected.

  13. Peatland hydrogeological function at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, M.; Avard, K.; Pellerin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Peatlands are important components of northern landscapes. In the Canadian province of Quebec, peatlands of the St. Lawrence Valley are rapidly disappearing, threatened by rapidly growing pressures from development. Peatlands are to varying extents groundwater dependent and as such are likely to respond drastically to changes in groundwater flow conditions and to contribute to the maintenance of groundwater levels within a superficial aquifer. Yet, there is very little understanding of the hydrogeological function of peatlands at the regional scale. For this reason, they are often simply discarded in complex groundwater management decisions. The implications are not clearly understood but could lead to the disruption of ecologically important fluxes and to significant impacts for the maintenance of long term water reservoirs across the land. This study was initiated in the Centre-du-Quebec region of southern Quebec to quantify how the peatland landscape has evolved in the last decades and to understand the hydrogeological function of peatlands at the regional scale. The study area (2856 km2) is located in the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The last deglaciation has contributed to a complex stratigraphy of unconsolidated sediments and peatlands have developed at the foot of the Appalachians. A recent regional study of Quaternary deposits has shown that a majority of these peatlands are found on aeolian deposits or reworked till, while only a few are set on marine clay, littoral deposits or directly on the bedrock. The area occupied by peatlands was measured with aerial photographs dating from 1966 and 2010. In 2010, peatlands were found on 6.1 % of the territory. Of these peatlands, 10 485 ha were intact and 7 015 underwent limited perturbations (e.g. drainage ditch, forest roads). Between 1966 and 2010, nearly a quarter of the peatlands observed in 1966 underwent irreversible perturbations (e.g. agriculture, paved roads). The main cause of peatland disappearance was from

  14. Hydrogeologic insights for a Devil's Slide-like system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Matthew A.; Loague, Keith

    2014-08-01

    Tectonically active coastal margins commonly host landslides that are influenced by hydrologic, geologic, and/or anthropogenic perturbations. The work reported here is motivated by the hydrologically driven, deep-seated bedrock slides that intersect the (former) Pacific Coast Highway in the active landslide zone at Devil's Slide near Pacifica, California. Numerical simulation of subsurface flow is employed to investigate saturated zone fluid pressure scenarios for 3-D Devil's Slide-like systems. The four-phase concept-development effort is comprised of 134 hydrogeologic simulation scenarios which investigate fluid pressure response for complex subsurface conditions and historically based climate forcings. Recharge, heterogeneity, and anisotropy are shown to increase fluid pressures in targeted failure-prone locations by up to 73.8, 10.3, and 1.8 %, respectively. The interaction between fault zone characteristics and topographically driven flow are shown to influence fluid pressures for up to 85% of the approximately 7.0 × 105 m2 study area. Simulated fluid pressures support the known slope instability for the Devil's Slide site. A quantitative hypothesis-testing discussion explores the likelihood of perched water above the regional water table at the site. Further understanding of hydrologically driven slope movement in the active landslide zone will require additional data focused on rigorous characterization of the unsaturated zone.

  15. The application of satellite differential SAR interferometry-derived ground displacements in hydrogeology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, D.L.; Hoffmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    The application of satellite differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, principally coherent (InSAR) and to a lesser extent, persistent-scatterer (PSI) techniques to hydrogeologic studies has improved capabilities to map, monitor, analyze, and simulate groundwater flow, aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence. A number of investigations over the previous decade show how the spatially detailed images of ground displacements measured with InSAR have advanced hydrogeologic understanding, especially when a time series of images is used in conjunction with histories of changes in water levels and management practices. Important advances include: (1) identifying structural or lithostratigraphic boundaries (e.g. faults or transitional facies) of groundwater flow and deformation; (2) defining the material and hydraulic heterogeneity of deforming aquifer-systems; (3) estimating system properties (e.g. storage coefficients and hydraulic conductivities); and (4) constraining numerical models of groundwater flow, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. As a component of an integrated approach to hydrogeologic monitoring and characterization of unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins differential SAR interferometry contributes unique information that can facilitate improved management of groundwater resources. Future satellite SAR missions specifically designed for differential interferometry will enhance these contributions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  16. Structure and genesis of the Cubango Megafan in northern Namibia: implications for its hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmaier, F.; Miller, R.; Fenner, J.; Christelis, G.; Dill, H. G.; Himmelsbach, T.; Kaufhold, S.; Lohe, C.; Quinger, M.; Schildknecht, F.; Symons, G.; Walzer, A.; van Wyk, B.

    2014-09-01

    An exploration strategy for groundwater was established and followed in the northern Namibian Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB). The data derived from transient electromagnetics, rotary-drilling, coring and sample investigation were used to refine stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy, and to develop a 3D map of aquifers within the Cubango Megafan. The results have delineated three major aquifers. The newly found, deep-seated Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) has the potential of providing significant additional water to the water supply of northern Namibia and Angola. While near-surface aquifers carry predominantly brackish water, freshwater in the deep-seated aquifer is further extended and features good hydraulic properties. To date, only a small part of the hydrogeological potential of arid CEB has been explored and an extension of exploration is needed, including southern Angola. The combination of structural, sedimentological and hydrogeological approaches greatly advanced both the geological and hydrogeological understanding. With regard to the deep-seated aquifer, strict measures need to be applied to ensure that the water in the KOH-2 reservoir is exploited sustainably. Water control areas need to be established to ensure long-term preservation of this newly explored aquifer.

  17. Geohydrodynamic properties of hydrogeological units in parts of Niger Delta, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nyakno J.; Emah, Joseph B.; Ekong, Ufot N.

    2015-05-01

    We used geophysical and laboratory techniques to study the geohydraulic properties of the geological units in the Niger Delta of southern Nigeria. Our main objective was to investigate the distribution of the geohydrodynamic parameters and to establish the interrelationships among them in the study area for effective characterisation of hydrogeological units. Measurements on the core samples aided in the estimation of effective porosities. The hydrogeological units' bulk resistivities measured from 1-D resistivity data constrained by nearby boreholes and the formation pore-water resistivities measured in the laboratory were used in computing the hydrogeological unit formation factor resistivity. Integration of field and laboratory measurements in conjunction with regression analysis of the data led to the determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of the hydrogeological units. The graphs and the contour maps generated from the data show the variations and the interrelationships among the parameters. A theoretical model for the porosity-resistivity formation factor relation which conforms to Dakhnov's formulation, obtained for similar sediment with different grain sizes in another geological province has been developed based on the measured data. A good approximation with error of the mean square of 2.48 and standard deviation of 1.5 was obtained between the experimental aquifer formation factor F and the predicted aquifer formation factor Fm. Generally, the results of our study reveal good correlations with similar studies carried out in literatures at different places. The juxtaposition of contour maps which show variations of geohydraulic parameters in a continuum is worthwhile. The changes in geohydraulic parameters are influenced by size of grains, magnitude of pore sizes and shapes, pore-water and formation conductivities, facies changes and anisotropy of aquifer sediments. Our results have not really shown any interaction between freshwater and saltwater

  18. Teaching and learning hydrogeology using a physically-based modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Dessirier, Benoit; Pannetier, Romain

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogeology involves studying the occurrence, distribution, movement and quality of water in geological formations. Hydrogeology typically enters in the curriculum of physical geography as well as civil and environmental engineering courses, is a multidisciplinary subject which encompasses several scientific areas including mathematics, physics, geology, geochemistry and numerical analysis. For applications such as resource management, decision and policy making, and an understanding and interpretation of uncertainty and risk assessment is also necessary. Teaching hydrogeology is not only challenged by its multidisciplinary nature, but also since groundwater occurrence and movement is hidden from view in the subsurface, and is generally inaccessible to direct observation. Field experiments are often costly and time consuming, and laboratory experiments limited in scale. However, suitably designed computational systems can help address such issues by providing numerical modelling investigations of field conditions. This contribution presents results from a recent project dedicated to develop an open-source, interactive, visual numerical modelling tool for teaching/learning hydrogeology, based on current pedagogical understanding of learning in higher education. It provides physically-based groundwater flow solutions within an intuitive user-friendly interface, which does not require advanced technical skills to operate. The aim is to be able to improve student's learning by providing immediate and visual feedback on groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The development and implementation of the tool as part of a teaching framework to address subsurface flow concepts and phenomena is presented, discussed and evaluated. By linking theoretical problem-solving exercises with modelling tasks in a learn-by-doing approach, we further discuss how student's learning experiences can be enhanced.

  19. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  20. Hydrogeologic Framework in Three Drainage Basins in the New Jersey Pinelands, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Richard L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Watson, Kara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Pinelands Commission, began a multi-phase hydrologic investigation in 2004 to characterize the hydrologic system supporting the aquatic and wetland communities of the New Jersey Pinelands area (Pinelands). The Pinelands is an ecologically diverse area in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain underlain by the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The demand for ground water from this aquifer system is increasing as local development increases. To assess the effects of ground-water withdrawals on Pinelands stream and wetland water levels, three drainage basins were selected for detailed hydrologic assessments, including the Albertson Brook, McDonalds Branch and the Morses Mill Stream basins. Study areas were defined surrounding the three drainage basins to provide sub-regional hydrogeologic data for the ground-water flow modeling phase of this study. In the first phase of the hydrologic assessments, a database of hydrogeologic information and a hydrogeologic framework model for each of the three study areas were produced. These framework models, which illustrate typical hydrogeologic variations among different geographic subregions of the Pinelands, are the structural foundation for predictive ground-water flow models to be used in assessing the hydrologic effects of increased ground-water withdrawals. During 2004-05, a hydrogeologic database was compiled using existing and new geophysical and lithologic data including suites of geophysical logs collected at 7 locations during the drilling of 21 wells and one deep boring within the three study areas. In addition, 27 miles of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surface geophysical data were collected and analyzed to determine the depth and extent of shallow clays in the general vicinity of the streams. On the basis of these data, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was divided into 7 layers to construct a hydrogeologic framework model for each study area. These

  1. Geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Vacher, H. L.; Shinn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys, and focuses on the islands formed of Pleistocene limestone. These islands, which are crossed when driving from Miami to Key West, are typically regarded as "the Florida Keys." The outstanding and fragile character of ecosystems on and around the Florida Keys has prompted State and Federal efforts to protect and preserve the remaining public portions of the region. The Florida Keys were largely ignored during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, although the waters just offshore provided a major shipping thoroughfare to and from the New World. The Florida Keys are now recognized as one of the great recreational and environmental resources of the United States. The islands are outposts of a laid-back, tropical resort culture that has as its foundation warmth and clear water. A significant part of the attraction is fishing, diving, and boating around the area's coral reefs, which the islands protect. But the reefs were not always so highly valued. The Florida Keys that have protected the reefs for millennia, may now be the source of the agents that may accomplish what Agassiz thought was beyond man's power a century ago.

  2. Hydrogeology of formation waters, northwestern Alberta basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R. )

    1993-10-01

    Generally, temperature seems to be the main controlling factor on salinity distributions. The salinity of formation waters increases in the vicinity of evaporitic beds, and decreases close to the surface because of mixing with fresh meteoric water introduced through local flow systems. The Lower and Middle Devonian pre-Prairie aquifer systems, beneath the regionally extensive Prairie aquiclude, are characterized by regional topographically-driven flow updip to the northeast. The flow of formation waters in the northeastern Alberta played an important role in the formation of the huge Athabasca oil sands deposits. Hydrocarbons that migrated into the area from the west were trapped into local reservoirs, and biodegraded and washed by fresh meteoric water introduced by local flow systems. Environmentally, the subsurface hydrogeology in the area imposes specific constraints on waste disposal in deep formations mostly because of the absence of a thick, continuous regional aquitard and because most aquifers subcrop at shallow depth or crop out and discharge along the valleys of the Athabasca River system and at the basin edge.

  3. Contaminant hydrogeology — Dollars and sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Franklin W.

    1988-07-01

    The unprecedented growth in contaminant-related aspects of hydrogeology has left an amazing legacy of science and technology. The stimulus for this growth in the United States was a group of regulations designed to clean up existing problems involving hazardous wastes and eliminate future problems. At the same time, there has been a continuing effort in developing subsurface repositories for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. There have been impressive technological achievements in direct and indirect methods for plume definition, new techniques for site remediation, and measurement of hydraulic parameters for low-permeability rock at great depths. Achievements on the theoretical side of the science are no less impressive. Great strides have been made in understanding some old transport processes (e.g., dispersion) and describing new ones (e.g., diffusion into the matrix), verifying these theoretical ideas in field tests, and dealing with an old nemesis — fractured rocks. Sprinkled in this mix are some disappointments, the great difficulty that seems to exist in translating theory into practice, the apparent difficulty in technology transfer. and the aimlessness of too much of our theoretical work. Trends for the future that seem to be emerging include a return to field and experimental work, a more systematic look at problems, an increased reliance on computer technology, and the demise of "blue-sky research".

  4. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Burton, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Trenton, New Jersey, a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site in the Newark Basin, is developed using an understanding of the geologic history of the strata, gamma-ray logs, and rock cores. NAWC is the newest field research site established as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, and DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program to investigate contaminant remediation in fractured rock. Sedimentary bedrock at the NAWC research site comprises the Skunk Hollow, Byram, and Ewing Creek Members of the Lockatong Formation and Raven Rock Member of the Stockton Formation. Muds of the Lockatong Formation that were deposited in Van Houten cycles during the Triassic have lithified to form the bedrock that is typical of much of the Newark Basin. Four lithotypes formed from the sediments include black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone, dark-gray laminated mudstone, light-gray massive mudstone, and red massive mudstone. Diagenesis, tectonic compression, off-loading, and weathering have altered the rocks to give some strata greater hydraulic conductivity than other strata. Each stratum in the Lockatong Formation is 0.3 to 8 m thick, strikes N65 degrees E, and dips 25 degrees to 70 degrees NW. The black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone tends to fracture easily, has a relatively high hydraulic conductivity and is associated with high natural gamma-ray count rates. The dark-gray laminated mudstone is less fractured and has a lower hydraulic conductivity than the black carbon-rich laminated mudstone. The light-gray and the red massive mudstones are highly indurated and tend to have the least fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity. The differences in gamma-ray count rates for different mudstones allow gamma-ray logs to be used to correlate and

  6. Hydrogeology of the Potsdam Sandstone in northern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Franzi, David A.; Romanowicz, Edwin A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The Potsdam Sandstone of Cambrian age forms a transboundary aquifer that extends across northern New York and into southern Quebec. The Potsdam Sandstone is a gently dipping sequence of arkose, subarkose, and orthoquartzite that unconformably overlies Precambrian metamorphic bedrock. The Potsdam irregularly grades upward over a thickness of 450 m from a heterogeneous feldspathic and argillaceous rock to a homogeneous, quartz-rich and matrix-poor rock. The hydrogeological framework of the Potsdam Sandstone was investigated through an analysis of records from 1,500 wells and geophysical logs from 40 wells, and through compilation of GIS coverages of bedrock and surficial geology, examination of bedrock cores, and construction of hydrogeological sections. The upper several metres of the sandstone typically is weathered and fractured and, where saturated, readily transmits groundwater. Bedding-related fractures in the sandstone commonly form sub-horizontal flow zones of relatively high transmissivity. The vertical distribution of sub-horizontal flow zones is variable; spacings of less than 10 m are common. Transmissivity of individual flow zones may be more than 100 m2/d but typically is less than 10 m2/d. High angle fractures, including joints and faults, locally provide vertical hydraulic connection between flow zones. Hydraulic head gradients in the aquifer commonly are downward; a laterally extensive series of sub-horizontal flow zones serve as drains for the groundwater flow system. Vertical hydraulic head differences between shallow and deep flow zones range from 1 m to more than 20 m. The maximum head differences are in recharge areas upgradient from the area where the Chateauguay and Chazy Rivers, and their tributaries, have cut into till and bedrock. Till overlies the sandstone in much of the study area; its thickness is generally greatest in the western part, where it may exceed 50 m. A discontinuous belt of bedrock pavements stripped of glacial drift extends

  7. Quality assurance/quality control summary report on phase 2 of the Clinch River remedial investigation at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Anderson, H.M.; Benson, S.B.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.; Chavannes, C.M.; Cook, R.B.; Evans, D.A.; Ford, C.J.; Harris, R.A.; Horwedel, B.M.; Jackson, B.L.

    1996-12-01

    Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase 2 were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific and legal scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for sample collection, sample handling and security, chain of custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy; and (4) data would meet data quality objectives defined in the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan. A review of the QA systems and quality control (QC) data associated with the Phase 2 investigation is presented to evaluate whether the data were of sufficient quality to satisfy Phase 2 objectives. The data quality indicators of precision, accuracy, representativeness, comparability, completeness, and sensitivity were evaluated to determine any limitations associated with the data. Data were flagged with qualifiers that were associated with appropriate reason codes and documentation relating the qualifiers to the reviewer of the data. These qualifiers were then consolidated into an overall final qualifier to represent the quality of the data to the end user. In summary, reproducible, precise, and accurate measurements consistent with CRRI objectives and the limitations of the sampling and analytical procedures used were obtained for the data collected in support of the Phase 2 Remedial Investigation.

  8. Hydrogeologic characterization of a fractured granitic rock aquifer, Raymond, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.J.B.

    1993-10-01

    The hydrogeologic properties of a shallow, fractured granitic rock aquifer in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California were investigated via the analysis of borehole geophysical logs and pumping tests. The drawdowns produced during these tests are not indicative of any simple conceptual aquifer model, and borehole logs show that the granite is intensely fractured. These observations are suggestive of a complex fracture-flow geometry which is extremely difficult to decipher. However, through the measurement of orientations of individual subsurface fractures from acoustic televiewer logs, and correlation between particular fractures and electrical resistivity and thermal-pulse flowmeter logs, it was found that the aquifer is, in general, comprised of two subhorizontal and nearly parallel zones of unloading fractures. Downhole flowmeter measurements taken in several wells provide further evidence for the inferred dual-layer structure of the aquifer, as well as yield quantitative measures of the contribution of flow from each zone. Analysis of drawdowns in pumped wells reveals that there are zones of relatively high transmissivity immediately around them. It was found that these properties, as well as a nearby zone of lower transmissivity, can account for their observed drawdowns. A numerical model was constructed to test whether these major heterogeneities could also account for the drawdowns in observation wells. This stepwise analysis of both the geophysical and hydrological data resulted in the formulation of a conceptual model of the aquifer which is consistent with observations, and which can account for its behavior when subjected to pumping.

  9. Geomorphology and hydrogeology of the Edwards Plateau karst, central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastning, E. H., Jr.

    The Edwards Plateau is one of the largest continuous karst regions of the United States; yet, its geomorphic evolution has previously received little systematic study. The overall objectives of this investigation are to: (1) describe the physical characteristics of karst features, (2) determine which geomorphic and hydrogeologic controls and processes have governed their development, and (3) relate genesis of karst spatially and chronologically to the geomorphic evolution of the Edwards Plateau. Cavern development provides a record of evolution of karst and the development of major carbonate aquifers of the region. Some control on cavern development are region-wide; nevertheless, many caves exhibit characteristics that suggest a strong influence of local factors. Development of cave chambers and passages has responded to the lithic character of bedrocks. Solution conduits were guided by variations in calcite and dolomite content, thickness of strata, and frequency of bedding-plane partings. This is particularly true of the Glen Rose Formation, limestone beds of the Edwards Group, and the Gorman Formation, the three principal cave-forming units.

  10. Python-Based Applications for Hydrogeological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambhammettu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Add-on packages supporting fast array computation (numpy), plotting (matplotlib), scientific /mathematical Functions (scipy), have resulted in a powerful ecosystem for scientists interested in exploratory data analysis, high-performance computing and data visualization. Three examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the Python environment in hydrogeological applications. Python programs were used to model an aquifer test and estimate aquifer parameters at a Superfund site. The aquifer test conducted at a Groundwater Circulation Well was modeled with the Python/FORTRAN-based TTIM Analytic Element Code. The aquifer parameters were estimated with PEST such that a good match was produced between the simulated and observed drawdowns. Python scripts were written to interface with PEST and visualize the results. A convolution-based approach was used to estimate source concentration histories based on observed concentrations at receptor locations. Unit Response Functions (URFs) that relate the receptor concentrations to a unit release at the source were derived with the ATRANS code. The impact of any releases at the source could then be estimated by convolving the source release history with the URFs. Python scripts were written to compute and visualize receptor concentrations for user-specified source histories. The framework provided a simple and elegant way to test various hypotheses about the site. A Python/FORTRAN-based program TYPECURVEGRID-Py was developed to compute and visualize groundwater elevations and drawdown through time in response to a regional uniform hydraulic gradient and the influence of pumping wells using either the Theis solution for a fully-confined aquifer or the Hantush-Jacob solution for a leaky confined aquifer. The program supports an arbitrary number of wells that can operate according to arbitrary schedules. The

  11. Hydrogeologic atlas of aquifers in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Bobay, K.E.; Greeman, T.K.; Hoover, M.E.; Cohen, D.A.; Fowler, K.K.; Woodfield, M.C.; and Durbin, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in 12 water-management basins of Indiana are identified in a series of 104 hydrogeologic sections and 12 maps that show the thickness and configuration of aquifers. The vertical distribution of water-bearing units and a generalized potentiometric profile are shown along 3,500 miles of section lines that were constructed from drillers' logs of more than 4,200 wells. The horizontal scale of the sections is 1:125,000. Maps of aquifers showing the areal distribution of each aquifer type were drawn at a scale of 1:500,000. Unconsolidated aquifers are the most widely used aquifers in Indiana and include surficial, buried, and discontinuous layers of sand and gravel. Most of the surficial sand and gravel is in large outwash plains in northern Indiana and along the major rivers. Buried sand and gravel aquifers are interbedded with till deposits in much of the northern two-thirds of Indiana. Discontinuous sand and gravel deposits are present as isolated lenses, primarily in glaciated areas. The bedrock aquifers generally have lower yields than most of the sand and gravel aquifers; however, bedrock aquifers are areally widespread and are an important source of water. Bedrock aquifer types consist of carbonates; sandstones; complexly interbedded sandstones, siltstones, shales, limestones, and coals; and an upper weathered zone in low permeability rock. Carbonate aquifers underlie about one-half of Indiana and are the most productive of the bedrock aquifers. The other principal bedrock aquifer type, sandstone, underlies large areas in the southwestern one-fifth of Indiana. No aquifer is known to be present in the southeastern corner of Indiana.

  12. An experimental investigation of shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions with and without boundary layer suction: A data summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. C.; Childs, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Tabulated data from a series of experimental studies of the interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer in axisymmetric flow configurations is presented. The studies were conducted at the walls of circular wind tunnels and on the cylindrical centerbody of an annular flow channel. Detailed pitot pressure profiles and wall static pressure profiles upstream of, within and downstream of the interaction region are given. Results are presented for flows at nominal freestream Mach Numbers of 2, 3 and 4. For studies at the tunnel sidewalls, the shock waves were produced by conical shock generators mounted on the centerline of the wind tunnel at zero angle of attack. The annular ring generator was used to produce the shock wave at the centerbody of the annular flow channel. The effects of boundary layer bleed were examined in the investigation. Both bleed rate and bleed location were studied. Most of the bleed studies were conducted with bleed holes drilled normal to the wall surface but the effects of slot suction were also examined. A summary of the principal results and conclusions is given.

  13. DRASTIC: A STANDARDIZED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING GROUND WATER POLLUTION USING HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is described that will allow the pollution potential of any hydrogeologic setting to be systematically evaluated anywhere in the United States. The system has two major portions: the designation of mappable units, termed hydrogeologic settings, and the superposit...

  14. DRASTIC: A STANDARDIZED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING GROUND WATER POLLUTION POTENTIAL USING HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is described that will allow the pollution potential of any hydrogeologic setting to be systematically evaluated anywhere in the United States. The system has two major portions: the designation of mappable units, termed hydrogeologic settings, and the superposition...

  15. Basin characteristics, history of stream gaging, and statistical summary of selected streamflow records for the Rapid Creek basin, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Zogorski, John S.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a summary of basin characteristics affecting streamflow, a history of the U.S. Geological Survey 's stream-gaging program, and a compilation of discharge records and statistical summaries for selected sites within the Rapid Creek basin. It is the first in a series which will investigate surface-water/groundwater relations along Rapid Creek. The summary of basin characteristics includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeology, physiography and climate, land use and vegetation, reservoirs, and water use within the basin. A recounting of the U.S. Geological Survey 's stream-gaging program and a tabulation of historic stream-gaging stations within the basin are furnished. A compilation of monthly and annual mean discharge values for nine currently operated, long-term, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations on Rapid Creek is presented. The statistical summary for each site includes summary statistics on monthly and annual mean values, correlation matrix for monthly values, serial correlation for 1 year lag for monthly values, percentile rankings for monthly and annual mean values, low and high value tables, duration curves, and peak-discharge tables. Records of monthend contents for two reservoirs within the basin also are presented. (USGS)

  16. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Summary of Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity Program to January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Scouting and monitoring techniques peculiar to geopressured-geothermal wells and legal problems are presented. The following are tabulated: priority wells actively monitored, industry contacts, and the summary of industry responses to well-or-opportunity solicitation. (MHR)

  17. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

    2009-04-01

    the volcanic edifices slopes. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological surveys that have been made in the Azores archipelago points out to more than 1000 springs and wells spread all over the archipelago (950 springs and 83 drilled wells). Spring distribution is heterogeneous, with densities varying between 0.01 springs/km2 at Pico island and 0.72 springs/km2 estimated at Santa Maria. Specific capacity ranges from 1.4x10-2 to 266.7 L/sm, with a median value of 32.3 L/sm. Transmissivity also present a large range, with values ranging between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. The heterogeneous distribution shown by these values expresses the influence of the hydrogeological characteristics of volcanic terrain, resulting from syngenetic characteristics and secondary processes, like weathering. The highest values are observed in wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured, with frequent clincker levels interbedded, and the lowest data was estimated in the older volcanic formations of Santa Maria island. Groundwater on perched-water bodies, excluding the numerous mineral waters that are spread in several islands of the archipelago, present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 S/cm; median=158.0 S/cm). The average temperature is equal to 15°C. Waters have an average temperature of 15°C and are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, but showing a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. The groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type and presents a higher mineralization, resulting in a median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 S/cm, expressing the

  18. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  19. A methodological integrated approach to optimize a hydrogeological engineering work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Bavusi, M.; Cerverizzo, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geoelectrical survey applied to hydraulic engineering is a well known in literature. However, despite of its large number of successful cases of application, the use of geophysics is still often not considered; this due to different reasons as: the poor knowledge of the potential performances; the difficulties in the practical implementation; the cost limitations. In this work, an integrated study of non-invasive (geoelectrical) and direct surveys is described, aimed at identifying a subsoil foundation where it possible to set up a watertight concrete structure able to protect the purifier of Senise, a little town in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The purifier, used by several villages, is located in a particularly dangerous hydrogeological position, as it is very close to the Sinni river, which has been obstructed from many years by the Monte Cotugno dam. During the rainiest periods, the river could flood the purifier, causing the drainage of waste waters in the Monte Cotugno artificial lake. The purifier is located in Pliocene- Calabrian clay and clay - marly formations covered by about 10m layer of alluvional gravelly-sandy materials carried by the Sinni river. The electrical resistivity tomography acquired with the Wenner Schlumberger array was revealed meaningful for the purpose to identify the potential depth of impermeable clays with high accuracy. In particular, the geoelectrical acquisition, orientated along the long side of purifier, was carried out using a multielectrodes system with 48 electrodes 2 m spaced leading to an achievable investigation depth of about 15 m The subsequent direct surveys have confirmed this depth so that it was possible to set up the foundation concrete structure with precision to protect the purifier. It is worth noting that the use of this methodological approach has allowed a remarkable economic saving as it has made it possible to correct the wrong information, regarding the depth of impermeably clays, previously

  20. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders…

  1. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  2. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  3. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  4. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  5. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  6. Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, P.; Koenigsberger, G.

    2008-08-01

    In this summary we will first talk a little bit about the woman whose work so inspired us and brought us here. We will then describe what we feel we learned this week, and finally we will pose some of the big questions that we are left with.

  7. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  8. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Katelyn A.; Mayer, Alex S.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  9. [The contents of radon in deep borehole water of hydro-geological region of Gdańsk].

    PubMed

    Pachocki, K A; Gorzkowski, B; Rózycki, Z; Majle, T

    1999-01-01

    Radon 222Rn in deep borehole water of Gdańsk Hydrogeological Region has been quantitative determined. This region is located in east part of Gdańsk Voivodship and in west part of Elblag Voivodship including Zuławy. The measurements were performed using alpha liquid scintillation counting method. Only in some case the concentrations of 222Rn in investigated samples exceed recommended limit 11 Bq/l. PMID:10523933

  10. An integrated theoretical and practical approach for teaching hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; Cavallin, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeology as an earth science intersects the broader disciplines of geology, engineering, and environmental studies but it does not overlap fully with any of them. It is focused on its own range of problems and over time has developed a rich variety of methods and approaches. The resolution of many hydrogeological problems requires knowledge of elements of geology, hydraulics, physics and chemistry; moreover in recent years the knowledge of modelling techniques has become a necessary ability. Successful transfer of all this knowledge to the students depends on the breadth of material taught in courses, the natural skills of the students and any practical experience the students can obtain. In the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca, the teaching of hydrogeology is developed in three inter-related courses: 1) general hydrogeology, 2) applied hydrogeology, 3) groundwater pollution and remediation. The sequence focuses on both groundwater flux and contaminant transport, supplemented by workshops involving case studies and computer labs, which provide the students with practical translation of the theoretical aspects of the science into the world of work. A second key aspect of the program utilizes the students' skill at learning through online approaches, and this is done through three approaches: A) by developing the courses on a University e-learning platform that allows the students to download lectures, articles, and teacher comments, and to participate in online forums; B) by carring out exercises through computer labs where the student analyze and process hydrogeological data by means of different numerical codes, that in turn enable them to manage databases and to perform aquifer test analysis, geostatistical analysis, and flux and transport modelling both in the unsaturated and saturated zone. These exercises are of course preceded by theoretical lectures on codes and software, highlighting their features and

  11. Project Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    A top level summary of activities conducted throughout the course of the EDOMP in response to initial concerns at the outset of the program is provided. Significant findings from the investigations are summarized, together with resulting countermeasures that were implemented and flight rules that were developed in response to these findings. Subsequent paragraphs provide more information; details will be found in the referenced sections.

  12. Hydrogeologic controls on water quality at a university dairy farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, L. D.; Hunter, R. W.; Lee, J.

    2010-12-01

    Dairy farms typically produce large quantities of manure and other waste products which are often stored or treated in lagoons and then applied to local fields as fertilizer. Contamination of nearby streams by dairy farm wastes through surface runnoff, drainage tile discharge, direct release of wastes or inundation of waste storage facilities during seasonal flooding have long been recognized as major environmental concerns. However, much less attention has been paid to fate and transport of dairy wastes in the subsurface and their potential impact on water quality in aquifers or in groundwater discharge to streams. One of the challenges in evaluating the environmental impact of dairy operations is that there are relatively few field research sites where all of the potential pathways for waterborne transport of dairy wastes are monitored and quantititatively evaluated. There are even fewer sites where extensive baseline water quality monitoring programs were established prior to operation of the dairy. This is essential to distinguish between environmental impacts from dairy operations and other nearby sources, such as beef production and human sewage from septic fields. This talk describes the development of a an integrated hydrogeologic/hydrologic site assessment and groundwater/surface water quality monitoring program at the University of Tennessee - Little River Dairy Farm, located near Townsend, TN. The dairy is currently under construction and the first cows are expected to arrive in late 2010. Hydrologic/hydrogeologic investigations of streams and groundwater at the site have been underway for more than 3 years, and these are expected to provide background data for assessing impacts of dairy wastes and for testing the effectiveness of different management practises. The lower half of the ~180 ha site consists of low-relief fields used for row crops, which are underlain by 4 - 8 m of alluvial deposits (mainly interbedded silt and fine-grained sands) on top of

  13. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeologic characterization was done to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic setting near Modesto by maximizing the use of existing data and building on previous work in the region. A substantial amount of new lithologic and hydrologic data are available that allow a more complete and updated characterization of the aquifer system. In this report, geologic units are described, a database of well characteristics and lithology is developed and used to update the regional stratigraphy, a water budget is estimated for water year 2000, a three-dimensional spatial correlation map of aquifer texture is created, and recommendations for future data collection are summarized. The general physiography of the study area is reflected in the soils. The oldest soils, which have low permeability, exist in terrace deposits, in the interfan areas between the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, at the distal end of the fans, and along the San Joaquin River floodplain. The youngest soils have high permeability and generally have been forming on the recently deposited alluvium along the major stream channels. Geologic materials exposed or penetrated by wells in the Modesto area range from pre-Cretaceous rocks to recent alluvium; however, water-bearing materials are mostly Late Tertiary and Quaternary in age. A database containing information from more than 3,500 drillers'logs was constructed to organize information on well characteristics and subsurface lithology in the study area. The database was used in conjunction with a limited number of geophysical logs and county soil maps to define the stratigraphic framework of the study area. Sequences of red paleosols were identified in the database and used as stratigraphic boundaries. Associated with these paleosols are very coarse grained incised valley-fill deposits. Some geophysical well logs and other sparse well information suggest the presence of one of these incised valley-fill deposits along and adjacent to the

  14. Integrated Research Methods for Applied Urban Hydrogeology of Karst Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epting, J.; Romanov, D. K.; Kaufmann, G.; Huggenberger, P.

    2008-12-01

    Integrated and adaptive surface- and groundwater monitoring and management in urban areas require innovative process-oriented approaches. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop and combine interdisciplinary instruments that facilitate adequately quantifying cumulative effects on groundwater flow regimes. While the characterization and modeling of flow in heterogeneous and fractured media has been investigated intensively, there are no well-developed long-term hydrogeological research sites for gypsum karst. Considering that infrastructures in karst regions, particularly in gypsum, are prone to subsidence, severe problems can arise in urban areas. In the 1880's, a river dam was constructed on gypsum-containing rock, Southeast of Basel, Switzerland. Over the last 30 years, subsidence of the dam and an adjacent highway has been observed. Surface water infiltrates upstream of the dam, circulates in the gravel deposits and in the weathered bedrock around and beneath the dam and exfiltrates downstream into the river. These processes enhance karstification processes in the soluble units of the gypsum. As a result an extended weathering zone within the bedrock and the development of preferential flow paths within voids and conduits can be observed. To prevent further subsidence, construction measures were conducted in two major project phases in 2006 and 2007. The highway was supported by a large number of pillars embedded in the non- weathered rock and by a sealing pile wall, to prevent infiltrating river water circulating around the dam and beneath the foundation of the highway. To safeguard surface and subsurface water resources during the construction measures, an extensive observation network was set up. Protection schemes and geotechnical investigations that are necessary for engineering projects often provide "windows of opportunity", bearing the possibility to change perceptions concerning the sustainable development of water resources and coordinate future

  15. Hydrogeologic facies characterization of an alluvial fan near Fresno, California, using geophysical techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Weissmann, G.S.; Miller, R.D.; Placzek, Gary

    1997-01-01

    DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) contamination in the sole source aquifer near Fresno, California, has significantly affected drinking-water supplies. Borehole and surface geophysical data were integrated with borehole textural data to characterize the Kings River alluvial fan sediments and to provide a framework for computer modeling of pesticide transport in ground water. Primary hydrogeologic facies units, such as gravel, coarse sand or gravel, fine sand, and silt and clay, were identified in cores collected from three borings located on a 4.6-kilometer transect of multilevel monitoring wells. Borehole geophysical logs collected from seven wells and surface geophysical surveys were used to extrapolate hydrogeologic facies to depths of about 82meters and to correlate the facies units with neighboring drilling sites. Thickness ranged from 0.3to 13 meters for sand and gravel units, and from 0.3 to 17 meters for silt and clay. The lateral extent of distinct silt and clay layers was mapped using shallow seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques. About 3.6 kilometers of seismic reflection data were collected; at least three distinct fine-grained layers were mapped. The depth of investigation of the seismic survey ranged from 34 to 107 meters below land surface, and vertical resolution was about 3.5 meters. The ground-penetrating radar survey covered 3.6kilometers and imaged a 1.5-meters thick, continuous fine-grained layer located at a depth of about 8 meters. Integrated results from the borehole sediment descriptions and geophysical surveys provided a detailed characterization over a larger areal extent than traditional hydrogeologic methods alone.

  16. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  17. Development of China Hydrogeology Exploring Techniques in 30 Years --Comparison of Handbook of Hydrogeology of 1st and 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Handbook of Hydrogeology (2nd edition) is supported by one program from China Geological Survey (CGS): Research of Technical Methods of Hydrogeological Survey and Revision of Handbook of Hydrogeology. It is a reference book for those who are engaged in hydrogeological survey and research in China and covers fundamental principles, theories, survey and exploring techniques, and traditional experiences and achievements in hydrogeology. By comparing the 1st (1978) and 2nd (2012) edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology (in Chinese), this paper analyses the development of China hydrogeological survey and exploring techniques in last 30 years, especially the great change and progress in survey techniques of hydro-remote sensing and hydro-geophysical prospecting. In the first edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology, hydro-remote sensing was only mentioned as an interpretation of aerial pictures in a hydrogeological way, but had not yet formed an independent system and discipline. In the second edition, hydro-remote sensing is an important and independent chapter as one of the hydrogeological techniques. In it, various survey techniques of hydro-remote sensing and types and features of remote sensing data are classified. General systems of interpretation marks of remote sensing images are established, including marks of landform and Quaternary sediment, bedrock, structure types, water yield property, environmental elements of hydrogeology, aquifer group and so on. Systematic workflow is constructed, esp. in remote sensing images mapping and interpreting techniques. GPS and GIS are integrated into remote sensing. Remote sensing exploring instruments and interpreting softwares are also introduced and classified. Although hydro-geophysical prospecting, in the first edition of Handbook of Hydrogeology, was one independent chapter, there were only 10 exploring techniques. Equipments and instruments were simple and lagged in comparison to those in the second edition. The precision and

  18. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post

  19. Characterization of Spatial Variability of Hydrogeologic Properties for Unsaturated Flow in the Fractured Rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Quanlin; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Liu, Hui-Hai; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2002-05-21

    The spatial variability of layer-scale hydrogeologic properties of the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is investigated using inverse modeling. The thick UZ is grouped into five hydrostratigraphic units and further into 35 hydrogeologic layers. For each layer, lateral variability is represented by the variations in calibrated values of layer-scale properties at different individual deep boreholes. In the calibration model, matrix and fracture properties are calibrated for the one-dimensional vertical column at each individual borehole using the ITOUGH2 code. The objective function is the summation of the weighted misfits between the ambient unsaturated flow (represented by measured state variables: water saturation, water potential, and pneumatic pressure) and the simulated one in the one-dimensional flow system. The objective function also includes the weighted misfits between the calibrated properties and their prior information. Layer-scale state variables and prior rock properties are obtained from their core-scale measurements. Because of limited data, the lateral variability of three most sensitive properties (matrix permeability, matrix of the van Genuchten characterization, and fracture permeability) is calibrated, while all other properties are fixed at their calibrated layer-averaged values. Considerable lateral variability of hydrogeologic properties is obtained. For example, the lateral variability of is two to three orders of magnitude and that of and is one order of magnitude. The effect of lateral variability on site-scale flow and transport will be investigated in a future study.

  20. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of ground-water volumes in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinaman, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana is an important source of energy resources for the United States. Coalbed methane gas is contained in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin. This gas is released when water pressure in coalbeds is lowered, usually by pumping ground water. Issues related to disposal and uses of by-product water from coalbed methane production have developed, in part, due to uncertainties in hydrologic properties. One hydrologic property of primary interest is the amount of water contained in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to describe the hydrogeologic framework and to estimate ground-water volumes in different facies of Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. A geographic information system was used to compile and utilize hydrogeologic maps, to describe the hydrogeologic framework, and to estimate the volume of ground water in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming. Maps of the altitudes of potentiometric surfaces, altitudes of the tops and bottoms of hydrogeologic units, thicknesses of hydrogeologic units, percent sand of hydrogeologic units, and outcrop boundaries for the following hydrogeologic units were used: Tongue River-Wasatch aquifer, Lebo confining unit, Tullock aquifer, Upper Hell Creek confining unit, and the Fox Hills-Lower Hell Creek aquifer. Literature porosity values of 30 percent for sand and 35 percent for non-sand facies were used to calculate the volume of total ground water in each hydrogeologic unit. Literature specific yield values of 26 percent for sand and 10 percent for non-sand facies, and literature specific storage values of 0.0001 ft-1 (1/foot) for sand facies and 0.00001 ft-1 for non-sand facies, were used to calculate a

  1. Hydrogeologic Framework of Onslow County, North Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    The unconsolidated sediments that underlie the Onslow County area are composed of interlayered permeable and impermeable beds, which overlie the crystalline basement rocks. The aquifers, composed mostly of sand and limestone, are separated by confining units composed mostly of clay and silt. The aquifers from top to bottom are the surficial, Castle Hayne, Beaufort, Peedee, Black Creek, and Upper and Lower Cape Fear aquifers. For this study, the Castle Hayne aquifer is informally divided into the upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers. The eight aquifers and seven confining units of the Tertiary and Cretaceous strata beneath Onslow County are presented in seven hydrogeologic sections. The hydrogeologic framework was refined from existing interpretations by using geophysical logs, driller's logs, and other available data from 123 wells and boreholes.

  2. The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.

    1989-01-01

    As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  4. Coastal hydrogeological system of Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy).

    PubMed

    Zuffianò, L E; Basso, A; Casarano, D; Dragone, V; Limoni, P P; Romanazzi, A; Santaloia, F; Polemio, M

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo basin is an internal sea basin located along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy), and it is surrounded primarily by fractured carbonate karstic environment. Because of the karstic features, the main continental water inflow is from groundwater discharge. The Mar Piccolo basin represents a peculiar and sensitive environment and a social emergency because of sea water and sediment pollution. This pollution appears to be caused by the overlapping effects of dangerous anthropogenic activities, including heavy industries and commercial and navy dockyards. The paper aims to define the contribution of subaerial and submarine coastal springs to the hydrological dynamic equilibrium of this internal sea basin. A general approach was defined, including a hydrogeological basin border assessment to detect inflowing springs, detailed geological and hydrogeological conceptualisation, in situ submarine and subaerial spring measurements, and flow numerical modelling. Multiple sources of data were obtained to define a relevant geodatabase, and it contained information on approximately 2000 wells, located in the study area (1600 km(2)). The conceptualisation of the hydrogeological basin, which is 978 km(2) wide, was supported by a 3D geological model that interpolated 716 stratigraphic logs. The variability in hydraulic conductivity was determined using hundreds of pumping tests. Five surveys were performed to acquire hydro-geochemical data and spring flow-yield measurements; the isotope groundwater age was assessed and used for model validation. The mean annual volume exchanged by the hydrogeological basin was assessed equal to 106.93 10(6) m(3). The numerical modelling permitted an assessment of the mean monthly yield of each spring outflow (surveyed or not), travel time, and main path flow. PMID:26201653

  5. Characterization of hydrogeologic units using matrix properties, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste requires the use of numerical flow and transport models. Input for these models includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all rock materials within the unsaturated zone, as well as some of the upper rocks in the saturated zone. There are 30 hydrogeologic units in the unsaturated zone, and each unit is defined by limited ranges where a discrete volume of rock contains similar hydrogeologic properties. These hydrogeologic units can be easily located in space by using three-dimensional lithostratigraphic models based on relation- ships of the properties with the lithostratigraphy. Physical properties of bulk density, porosity, and particle density; flow properties of saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture-retention characteristics; and the state variables (variables describing the current state of field conditions) of saturation and water potential were determined for each unit. Units were defined using (1) a data base developed from 4,892 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow and 8 deep boreholes, (2) described lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (3) recognition of transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (4) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (5) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. This study describes the correlation of hydrologic properties to porosity, a property that is well related to the lithostratigraphy and depositional and cooling history of the volcanic deposits and can, therefore, be modeled to be distributed laterally. Parameters of the hydrogeologic units developed in this study and the

  6. Hydrogeologic model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Retana, M.; Cuellar, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogeological model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field has been developed. It considers the lithology and structural features of the area and discerns their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids in the system. Three aquifers were identified, their zones of mixing and flow patterns were obtained on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  8. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  9. Application of ground-penetrating radar methods in determining hydrogeologic conditions in a karst area, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is useful as a surface geophysical method for exploring geology and subsurface features in karst settings. Interpretation of GPR data was used to infer lithology and hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida. This study demonstrates how GPR methods can be used to investigate the hydrogeology of an area. GPR transmits radio- frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground and receives reflected energy waves from subsurface interfaces. Subsurface profiles showing sediment thickness, depth to water table and clay beds, karst development, buried objects, and lake-bottom structure were produced from GPR traverses obtained during December 1987 and March 1990 in Pinellas, Hillsborough, and Hardee Counties in west-central Florida. Performance of the GPR method is site specific, and data collected are principally affected by the sediment and pore fluids, conductances and dielectric constants. Effective exploration depths of the GPR surveys through predominately unsaturated and saturated sand and clay sediments at five study sites ranged from a few feet to greater than 50 feet below land surface. Exploration depths were limited when high conductivity clay was encountered, whereas greater exploration depths were possible in material composed of sand. Application of GPR is useful in profiling subsurface conditions, but proper interpretation depends upon the user's knowledge of the equipment and the local hydrogeological setting, as well as the ability to interpret the graphic profile.

  10. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.