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1

The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

1991-01-01

2

27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

2010-04-01

3

27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

2013-04-01

4

27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

2009-04-01

5

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

2009-04-01

6

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

2010-04-01

7

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

2013-04-01

8

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

2010-04-01

9

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

2009-04-01

10

27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30... § 30.25 Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of...handling, and use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

2009-04-01

11

27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30... § 30.25 Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of...handling, and use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

2010-04-01

12

27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...by the applicable correction factor in Table 7. Example: The specific gravity hydrometer reading is 1.1525, the thermometer reading is 68 degrees Fahrenheit, and the true proof of the spirits is 115 degrees. The correct specific gravity...

2013-04-01

13

Hydrometer in the mantle: dln(Vs)/dln(Vp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption of water into nominally non-hydrous phases is the probable storage mechanism of hydrogen throughout most of the mantle. Thus the water capacity in the mantle is greatest in the transition zone owing to the large water-solubility of ringwoodite and wadsleyite. However, the actual amount of water that is stored there is highly uncertain. Since water is probably brought down by subduction activity, its abundance is probably laterally variable. Thus, a metric that is sensitive to variations of water content are good candidates for hydrometers. Here we evaluate the parameter, dln(Vs)/dln(Vp), as such a parameter. It is useful to detect lateral variations of water if the effects of hydration on the parameter are different than those of temperature or composition. We compare the value of dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to the temperature with that due to the water content as a function of depth for the upper mantle. We have calculated dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to both water and temperature using a density functional theory approach, and available experimental data. Our results indicate that dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to water is distinguishable from dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to temperature or variations in iron content, particularly in ringwoodite. The difference increases with depth and making the lower part of the transition zone most identifiable as a water reservoir.

Li, L.; Weidner, D. J.

2010-12-01

14

Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

2006-05-31

15

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...likely to occur in practice at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...horizontal line, in the body of the table, in the Temperature column corresponding to...

2010-04-01

16

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...likely to occur in practice at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...horizontal line, in the body of the table, in the Temperature column corresponding to...

2009-04-01

17

Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products by hydrometer method  

SciTech Connect

This method covers the laboratory determination, using a glass hydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), of API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure (Method D 323, or IP 69) of 26 lb or less. Values are measured on a hydrometer at convenient temperatures, reading of density being reduced to 15/sup 0/C, and readings of relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity to 60/sup 0/F, by means of international standard tables. By means of these same tables, values determined in any one of the three systems of measurement are convertible to equivalent values in either of the other two so that measurements may be made in the units of local convenience.

Not Available

1980-01-01

18

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proof spirits, and 200 for absolute alcohol. Because of temperature-density relationships...true percent of proof at temperatures below 60 degrees Fahrenheit...true percent of proof at temperatures above 60 degrees...

2013-04-01

19

A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.  

SciTech Connect

The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

2007-08-06

20

27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions or graduations...officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...verify the accuracy of hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors. (Sec....

2013-04-01

21

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the same horizontal line, in the body of the table, in the Temperature column corresponding to the reading of the thermometer is the corrected reading or true percent of proof. The table is computed for tenths of a percent. Example....

2013-04-01

22

27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or weight are...

2013-04-01

23

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

2013-04-01

24

27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 except...determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been distilled in a small...

2013-04-01

25

7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association, Crystal Square-3, Suite 903, 1735 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. The pulp temperature of the potatoes...

2013-01-01

26

Use of Visibility Observations for the Investigation of Hazy Air Masses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of visibility observations in the meteorological SYNOP reports for tracing anthropogenic emissions of SO2 in hazy air masses is discussed. Since visibility is not only obscured by anthropogenic emissions, but also by, e.g., hydrometers like rain, ...

C. Morales R. B. Husar O. El-ghazzaway

1986-01-01

27

Simple test method to assess the relative effectiveness of plasticising chemical admixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a simple test method capable of assessing the relative effectiveness of plasticising chemical admixtures. Using a hydrometer, the test measures the relative ability of different admixtures to disperse the individual particles of Portland cement (PC)\\/silica fume (SF) binder combinations. In a laboratory study carried out to examine the relative performance of three separate admixtures, the test clearly

B. J Magee; M. G Alexander

2001-01-01

28

27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of § 30.31, the proprietor...

2013-04-01

29

27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...solids in excess of 600 milligrams per 100 milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23, to determine the apparent proof of the spirits (if specific...

2013-04-01

30

27 CFR 30.32 - Determination of proof obscuration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...addition of distilled water. The proof of the restored distillate is then determined by use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 to the nearest 0.1 degree of proof. The difference between the proof...

2013-04-01

31

Modeling the Response of Glaciers to Climate Change in the Upper North Saskatchewan River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research will quantify the historical and future impacts of climate change on the glacial contribution to stream flow in the Upper North Saskatchewan River basin, Alberta, Canada. The physically based Generate Earth SYstems Science (GENESYS) hydromet model will be used to analyze the regional impact of historical data, and to forecast future trends in the hydrology and climatology of

E. Booth; J. M. Byrne; H. Jiskoot; R. J. MacDonald

2010-01-01

32

Salinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

33

Soil texture classification algorithm using RGB characteristics of soil images  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil texture has an important influence on agriculture, affecting crop selection, movement of nutrients and water, soil electrical conductivity, and crop growth. Soil texture has traditionally been determined in the laboratory using pipette and hydrometer methods that require a considerable amount o...

34

Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

Robert W Peters

1999-01-01

35

Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for Highly Supercooled Cirrus Cloud Droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixed-phase hydrometer growth model has been applied to determining the nucleation mode and rate responsible for the glaciation of a highly supercooled liquid cloud studied jointly by ground-based polarization lidar and aircraft in situ probes. The cloud droplets were detected at the base of an orographically induced cirrus cloud at temperatures between 34.3 and 37.3C. The vertical distribution above

Kenneth Sassen; Gregory C. Dodd

1988-01-01

36

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland,\\u000a Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the\\u000a solvent extraction\\/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid\\u000a and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for

D. R. Shaw; D. B. Dreisinger; T. Lancaster; G. D. Richmond; M. Tomlinson

2004-01-01

37

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.'s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction\\/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for

D. R. Shaw; D. B. Dreisinger; T. Lancaster; G. D. Richmond; M. Tomlinson

2004-01-01

38

Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. Design and Setting: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. Subjects: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. Measurements: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. Results: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R = .998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R = .987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R = .869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R = .573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. Conclusions: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process.

Drury, Daniel G.

2003-01-01

39

The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

2004-07-01

40

Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements  

PubMed Central

An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

2012-01-01

41

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1984-11-01

42

Modeling the Response of Glaciers to Climate Change in the Upper North Saskatchewan River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine glaciers act as barometers of climatic change, responding directly to longterm changes in temperature and precipitation with changes in mass balance, resulting in volume and length modifications. The heavily glaciated Upper North Saskatchewan River Basin (UNSRB), Alberta, Canada, represents a crucial portion of the headwaters for the Saskatchewan-Nelson watershed that spans the northern interior of the continent and drains into Hudson's Bay over 1500 km away. Historically, glacier melt runoff provides a significant percentage of late-summer streamflow in the UNSRB. Evidence suggests that recent warming has caused a change in glacier mass balance in the UNSRB that is unprecedented during the Holocene. Analysis of projected climate indices shows that the longterm negative mass balance of glaciers in the region will likely continue to decline over the next century. The effect of recent historical climate change on the glaciers in UNSRB is simulated using a modified version of the physically based Generate Earth SYstems Science (GENESYS) hydromet model. GENESYS has previously been employed to watersheds on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains to simulate daily hydro-met processes at a high resolution over complex terrain, focusing on modeling snow water equivalent and the timing of the spring melt. A mass balance glacier routine is incorporated into GENESYS to more accurately gauge the effects of climate change on the glaciers located in the UNSRB. GENESYS daily micrometeorological data is used to drive a series of glacial ice and snow algorithms that include accumulation, ablation and ice redistribution over the glacier. GCM future ensembles were downscaled and applied to the model to predict changes in the mass balance of glaciers in the UNSRB under a range of likely climate scenarios. Results include time series of changes in glacier mass balance, length, and hydrologic response to changing ice volumes up to the year 2100.

Booth, E.; Byrne, J. M.; Jiskoot, H.; MacDonald, R. J.

2011-12-01

43

Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.  

PubMed

Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. PMID:15701402

Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

2005-05-01

44

Density, vapor pressure, solubility, and viscosity for water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + 1,3-propanediol  

SciTech Connect

Four physical properties (solubility, vapor pressure, density, and viscosity) of water + lithium bromide + lithium nitrate + 1,3-propanediol (LiBr/LiNO{sub 3} mole ratio = 4, (LiBr + LiNO{sub 3})/HO(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OH mass ratio = 3.5) were measured. The system, a possible working fluid for an absorption heat pump, mainly consists of absorbent (LiBr + LiNO{sub 3} + HO(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}OH) and refrigerant (H{sub 2}O). Solubilities were measured by the visual polythermal method in the temperature range (285.55 to 346.65) K and in the absorbent concentration range (68.0 to 75.0) mass %. Vapor pressures were measured by the boiling point method in the temperature range (325.35 to 395.15) K and in the absorbent concentration range (46.0 to 69.6) mass %. Densities and viscosities were measured by a set of hydrometers and viscometers, respectively, in the temperature range (283.15 to 343.15) K and in the absorbent concentration range (24.3 to 70.3) mass %. The measured values were correlated.

Park, Y.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yu, S.I. [Rinnai Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). R and D Lab.

1997-01-01

45

Permeability and compressibility of resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a constant-rate-of strain consolidation test on resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock to determine the compression index (Cc) to be 0.618 and the expansion index (Ce) to be 0.083. We used crushed, homogenized Pliocene and Pleistocene mudrock extracted from cored wells in the Eugene Island block 330 oil field. This powdered material has a liquid limit (LL) of 87, a plastic limit (PL) of 24, and a plasticity index (PI) of 63. The particle size distribution from hydrometer analyses is approximately 65% clay-sized particles (<2 ?m) with the remainder being less than 70 microns in diameter. Resedimented specimens have been used to characterize the geotechnical and geophysical behavior of soils and mudstones independent of the variability of natural samples and without the effects of sampling disturbance. Previous investigations of resedimented offshore Gulf of Mexico sediments (e.g. Mazzei, 2008) have been limited in scope. This is the first test of the homogenized Eugene Island core material. These results will be compared to in situ measurements to determine the controls on consolidation over large stress ranges.

Betts, W. S.; Flemings, P. B.; Schneider, J.

2011-12-01

46

Estimation of nutrients and organic matter in Korean swine slurry using multiple regression analysis of physical and chemical properties.  

PubMed

Swine waste land application has increased due to organic fertilization, but excess application in an arable system can cause environmental risk. Therefore, in situ characterizations of such resources are important prior to application. To explore this, 41 swine slurry samples were collected from Korea, and wide differences were observed in the physico-biochemical properties. However, significant (P<0.001) multiple property correlations (R) were obtained between nutrients with specific gravity (SG), electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS) and pH. The different combinations of hydrometer, EC meter, drying oven and pH meter were found useful to estimate Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Al, Na, N and 5-day biochemical oxygen demands (BOD?) at improved R values of 0.83, 0.82, 0.77, 0.75, 0.67, 0.47, 0.88 and 0.70, respectively. The results from this study suggest that multiple property regressions can facilitate the prediction of micronutrients and organic matter much better than a single property regression for livestock waste. PMID:21767950

Suresh, Arumuganainar; Choi, Hong Lim

2011-07-01

47

W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

Matrosov, S. Y.

2010-12-01

48

A flood routing Muskingum type simulation and forecasting model based on level data alone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the use of remote hydrometers for measuring the level in water courses is both economical and widespread, the same cannot be said for cross section and channel profile measurements and, even less, for rating curves at the measuring cross sections, all of which are more often than not incomplete, out of date, and unreliable. The mass of data involved in level measurements alone induces a degree of perplexity in those who try to use them, for example, for flood event simulations or the construction of forecasting models which are not purely statistical. This paper proposes a method which uses recorded level data alone to construct a simulation model and a forecasting model, both of them characterized by an extremely simple structure that can be used on any pocket calculator. These models, referring to a river reach bounded by two measuring sections, furnish the downstream levels, where the upstream levels are known, and the downstream level at time t + ?t*, where the upstream and downstream levels are known at time t, respectively. The numerical applications performed show that while the simulation model is somewhat penalized by the simplifications adopted, giving not consistently satisfactory results on validation, the forecasting model generated good results in all the cases examined and seems reliable.

Franchini, Marco; Lamberti, Paolo

1994-07-01

49

Rating Curve Estimation from Local Levels and Upstream Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current technology allows for low cost and easy level measurements while the discharge measurements are still difficult and expensive. Thus, these are rarely performed and usually not in flood conditions because of lack of safety and difficulty in activating the measurement team in due time. As a consequence, long series of levels are frequently available without the corresponding discharge values. However, for the purpose of planning, management of water resources and real time flood forecasting, discharge is needed and it is therefore essential to convert local levels into discharge values by using the appropriate rating curve. Over this last decade, several methods have been proposed to relate local levels at a site of interest to data recorded at a river section located upstream where a rating curve is available. Some of these methods are based on a routing approach which uses the Muskingum model structure in different ways; others are based on the entropy concepts. Lately, fuzzy logic has been applied more and more frequently in the framework of hydraulic and hydrologic problems and this has prompted to the authors to use it for synthesising the rating curves. A comparison between all these strategies is performed, highlighting the difficulties and advantages of each of them, with reference to a long reach of the Po river in Italy, where several hydrometers and the relevant rating curves are available, thus allowing for both a parameterization and validation of the different strategies.

Franchini, M.; Mascellani, G.

2003-04-01

50

QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

Innis, B.E.

1993-07-21

51

Cloud Ice: A Climate Model Challenge With Signs and Expectations of Progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate models (GCMs), including those assessed in the IPCC AR4, exhibit considerable disagreement in the amount of cloud ice - both in terms of the annual global mean as well as their spatial variability. Global measurements of cloud ice have been difficult due to the challenges involved in remotely sensing ice water content (IWC) and its vertical profile - including complications associated with multi-level clouds, mixed-phases and multiple hydrometer types, the uncertainty in classifying ice particle size and shape for remote retrievals, and the relatively small time and space scales associated with deep convection. Together, these measurement difficulties make it a challenge to characterize and understand the mechanisms of ice cloud formation and dissipation. Fortunately, there are new observational resources recently established that can be expected to lead to considerable reduction in the observational uncertainties of cloud ice, and in turn improve the fidelity of model representations. Specifically, these include the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite, and the CloudSat and Calipso satellite missions, all of which fly in formation in what is referred to as the A-Train. Based on radar and limb-sounding techniques, these new satellite measurements provide a considerable leap forward in terms of the information gathered regarding upper-tropospheric cloud IWC as well as other macrophysical and microphysical properties. In this presentation, we describe the current state of GCM representations of cloud ice and their associated uncertainties, the nature of the new observational resources for constraining cloud ice values in GCMs, the challenges in making model-data comparisons with these data resources, and prospects for near-term improvements in model representations.

Li, F.; Waliser, D.; Bacmeister, J.; Chern, J.; Del Genio, T.; Jiang, J.; Kharitondov, M.; Liou, K.; Meng, H.; Minnis, P.; Rossow, B.; Stephens, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Tao, W.; Vane, D.; Woods, C.; Tompkins, A.; Wu, D.

2007-12-01

52

A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%)?0.5*silt(%)+8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%)?0.5*silt(%)?6 across a sample batch with clay(%)?0.5*silt(%)+8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

Goodfellow, Bradley W.

2012-12-01

53

Flood forecasting for the Ukrainian part of the Tisza Basin: linking with the numerical weather forecasts, comparative testing of distributed and lumped models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of new flood forecasting systems for the Ukrainian part of the Tisza basin has started last years by the customisation of Mike-11 model for the Uzh River and Latoritsa River (part of the Bodrog Catchment) in the frame of the joint project with the 'DHI Water&Environment'. The calibration and testing of the lumped parameter model NAM was provided in collaboration with the Ukrainian Hydrometcenter and the Uzhgorod Hydrometcenter for the period 1998-2000, which includes two hazardous floods of years 1998 and 2000. The tuning of hydrodynamical module of Mike-11 is provided in collaboration with the Transcarpathian Branch of State Committee of Water Management (SCWM), Uzhgorod. The information about existing and designed hydraulic structures in the river channels, -bridges, polders, dikes, pump stations is used for the model tuning. The flood forecasting system for Uzh River and Latoritsa River based on Mike -11 is in pre-operational use in Uzhgorod Hydromet and SCUWM offices. The advance time of the flood forecasts can be increased by the real-time assimilation of the precipitation forecasts of a Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP) model. The Penn State University /UCAR NWP model MM5 was customized for the Ukrainian territory in resolution 30*30 km on the basis of the rare gridded forecasting data from the German meteorological center Offenbach, assimilating the data from the Ukrainian meteorological stations, processed by the Ukrainian Hydrometcenter. The region of the Uzh and Latoritsa watersheds was simulated by MM5 in the resolution 10*10 km for the linking with the Mike -11 (NAM). The preliminary results of flood forecasting on the basis of the meteorological forecasts are analyzed. For further improvement of the flood forecasting systems the implementations of GIS based distributed models are planned. Two types of distributed models based upon physically meaningful parameters are comparatively studied- 2-D finite- difference model RUNTOX (Kivva, Zheleznyak, 2001) based on Saint Venant equations and TOPographic Kinematic Approximation and Integration - TOPKAPI model (Todini, 1995,2000). The new computer code was developed, based on the TOPKAPI equations. Both models was initially tested for the small watersheds ( from 0.085 km2 to 0.40 km2 ) of the Boguslav Field Experimental Laboratory of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute. The comparison with the experimental data shows that TOPKAPI produces the reasonable results for the different floods without special tuning of the model parameters. The study of the applicability of TOPKAPI for the sub-watersheds of Uzh and Latoritsa rivers is going on.

Belov, S.; Donchytz, G.; Kivva, S.; Kuschan, A.; Zheleznyak, M.

2003-04-01

54

A search for model parsimony in a real time flood forecasting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As regards the hydrological simulation of flood events, a physically based distributed approach is the most appealing one, especially in those areas where the spatial variability of the soil hydraulic properties as well as of the meteorological forcing cannot be left apart, such as in mountainous regions. On the other hand, dealing with real time flood forecasting systems, less detailed models requiring a minor number of parameters may be more convenient, reducing both the computational costs and the calibration uncertainty. In fact in this case a precise quantification of the entire hydrograph pattern is not necessary, while the expected output of a real time flood forecasting system is just an estimate of the peak discharge, the time to peak and in some cases the flood volume. In this perspective a parsimonious model has to be found in order to increase the efficiency of the system. A suitable case study was identified in the northern Apennines: the Taro river is a right tributary to the Po river and drains about 2000 km2 of mountains, hills and floodplain, equally distributed . The hydrometeorological monitoring of this medium sized watershed is managed by ARPA Emilia Romagna through a dense network of uptodate gauges (about 30 rain gauges and 10 hydrometers). Detailed maps of the surface elevation, land use and soil texture characteristics are also available. Five flood events were recorded by the new monitoring network in the years 2003-2007: during these events the peak discharge was higher than 1000 m3/s, which is actually quite a high value when compared to the mean discharge rate of about 30 m3/s. The rainfall spatial patterns of such storms were analyzed in previous works by means of geostatistical tools and a typical semivariogram was defined, with the aim of establishing a typical storm structure leading to flood events in the Taro river. The available information was implemented into a distributed flood event model with a spatial resolution of 90m; then the hydrologic detail was reduced by progressively assuming a uniform rainfall field and constant soil properties. A semi-distributed model, obtained by subdividing the catchment into three sub-catchment, and a lumped model were also applied to simulate the selected flood events. Errors were quantified in terms of the peak discharge ratio, the flood volume and the time to peak by comparing the simulated hydrographs to the observed ones.

Grossi, G.; Balistrocchi, M.

2009-04-01

55

Development of a database-driven system for simulating water temperature in the lower Yakima River main stem, Washington, for various climate scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model for simulating daily maximum and mean water temperatures was developed by linking two existing models: one developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and one developed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The study area included the lower Yakima River main stem between the Roza Dam and West Richland, Washington. To automate execution of the labor-intensive models, a database-driven model automation program was developed to decrease operation costs, to reduce user error, and to provide the capability to perform simulations quickly for multiple management and climate change scenarios. Microsoft SQL Server 2008 R2 Integration Services packages were developed to (1) integrate climate, flow, and stream geometry data from diverse sources (such as weather stations, a hydrologic model, and field measurements) into a single relational database; (2) programmatically generate heavily formatted model input files; (3) iteratively run water temperature simulations; (4) process simulation results for export to other models; and (5) create a database-driven infrastructure that facilitated experimentation with a variety of scenarios, node permutations, weather data, and hydrologic conditions while minimizing costs of running the model with various model configurations. As a proof-of-concept exercise, water temperatures were simulated for a "Current Conditions" scenario, where local weather data from 1980 through 2005 were used as input, and for "Plus 1" and "Plus 2" climate warming scenarios, where the average annual air temperatures used in the Current Conditions scenario were increased by 1degree Celsius (C) and by 2C, respectively. Average monthly mean daily water temperatures simulated for the Current Conditions scenario were compared to measured values at the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet gage at Kiona, Washington, for 2002-05. Differences ranged between 1.9 and 1.1C for February, March, May, and June, and were less than 0.8C for the remaining months of the year. The difference between current conditions and measured monthly values for the two warmest months (July and August) were 0.5C and 0.2C, respectively. The model predicted that water temperature generally becomes less sensitive to air temperature increases as the distance from the mouth of the river decreases. As a consequence, the difference between climate warming scenarios also decreased. The pattern of decreasing sensitivity is most pronounced from August to October. Interactive graphing tools were developed to explore the relative sensitivity of average monthly and mean daily water temperature to increases in air temperature for model output locations along the lower Yakima River main stem.

Voss, Frank; Maule, Alec

2013-01-01

56

Deep convection in the tropical area: Hector a case study using TRMM data and high resolution model simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropics are one of the most important regions for the exchange and transport of water vapor and chemical species from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere; changes in emissions of chemicals at the ground or how quickly they are carried aloft could cause the chemistry of the stratosphere to change and as a consequence the net radiative balance. The tropical storms are one of the main devices for this type of interaction. In Australia, the tropical thunderstorms have different possible sources; in particular the development of equatorial events is related to convergence zones typical of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). One of the deepest convective systems of the globe is the tropical thunderstorm Hector that develops almost daily in the Tiwi Islands, near Darwin city (tropical northern Australia), during the pre-monsoon period and break monsoon. The thunderstorm Hector has been observed to reach to altitudes of 20 km and thus potentially in the lower stratosphere, so it represents one of processes for exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Hector is the topics of numerous campaigns because of difficulties in its predictability: during the SCOUT-O3 project (Stratosphere-Climate Links with emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere), a campaign was held on Tiwi Islands to the purposes of improving the understanding of the interaction between convection and the tropical tropopause layer. In the framework of this UE project a study of Hector tropical thunderstorm is performed to the aim of evaluating the vertical transport. The triggering factor together with the microphysical structure of this deep tropical cyclone has been investigated using MM5V3 and the new model WRF with data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and from TRMM Microwave Imager. A comparison between the hydrometers retrieved by the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and the one detected by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has been carried out. The model results confirm previous studies concerning Hector classification (type A or type B), and the associated vertical velocities. On the other hand the comparison with TRMM data allows for assessing a good agreement for both the amount and the vertical distribution of hydrometeors between model and observations. Eventually, the goodness of the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors would support the hypothesis of a correct estimation of Hector updrafts.

Gentile, Sabrina; Ferretti, Rossella; Silvio Marzano, Frank

2010-05-01