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1

Ultrasonic hydrometer  

DOEpatents

The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

Swoboda, Carl A. (Naperville, IL)

1984-01-01

2

Ultrasonic hydrometer  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time ''t'' between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance ''d'' between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time ''t'', the sonic velocity ''V'' is calculated with the equation ''V=2d/t''. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/ C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

Swoboda, C.A.

1984-04-17

3

Calibration of hydrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a brief description of the different methods employed in periodic calibration of hydrometers used in most cases to measure the density of liquids in the range between 500 kg m-3 and 2000 kg m-3, particular emphasis is given to the multipoint procedure based on hydrostatic weighing, known as well as Cuckow's method. The features of the calibration apparatus and the procedure used at the INRiM (formerly IMGC-CNR) density laboratory have been considered to assess all relevant contributions involved in the calibration of different kinds of hydrometers. The uncertainty is strongly dependent on the kind of hydrometer; in particular, the results highlight the importance of the density of the reference buoyant liquid, the temperature of calibration and the skill of operator in the reading of the scale in the whole assessment of the uncertainty. It is also interesting to realize that for high-resolution hydrometers (division of 0.1 kg m-3), the uncertainty contribution of the density of the reference liquid is the main source of the total uncertainty, but its importance falls under about 50% for hydrometers with a division of 0.5 kg m-3 and becomes somewhat negligible for hydrometers with a division of 1 kg m-3, for which the reading uncertainty is the predominant part of the total uncertainty. At present the best INRiM result is obtained with commercially available hydrometers having a scale division of 0.1 kg m-3, for which the relative uncertainty is about 12 × 10-6.

Lorefice, Salvatore; Malengo, Andrea

2006-10-01

4

Constructing and Calibrating a Hydrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct and calibrate a simple hydrometer using different salt solutions. They then graph their data and determine the density and salinity of an unknown solution using their hydrometer and graphical analysis.

Meghan Hauptli

2012-04-18

5

Coolant line hydrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein

M. D. Barber; W. G. Kipp

1987-01-01

6

Calibration of hydrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief description of the different methods employed in periodic calibration of hydrometers used in most cases to measure the density of liquids in the range between 500 kg m-3 and 2000 kg m-3, particular emphasis is given to the multipoint procedure based on hydrostatic weighing, known as well as Cuckow's method. The features of the calibration apparatus and

Salvatore Lorefice; Andrea Malengo

2006-01-01

7

Battery hydrometer with analog output  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is disclosed a battery hydrometer for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude related to the specific gravity of a battery electrolyte. The hydrometer includes a source of radiation for providing a detectable beam of radiation and a piston member arranged to be submerged within the electrolyte and to intercept and modulate the beam of radiation in response

Patis

1982-01-01

8

Coolant line hydrometer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

1987-03-17

9

The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

1991-01-01

10

The effect of density gradients on hydrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we studied the effect of non-uniform density of liquid on a hydrometer reading. The effect induced by vertical temperature gradients was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A method for compensating for the effect mathematically was developed and tested with experimental data obtained with the MIKES hydrometer

Martti Heinonen; Sampo Sillanpää

2003-01-01

11

Battery hydrometer with analog output  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a battery hydrometer for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude related to the specific gravity of a battery electrolyte. The hydrometer includes a source of radiation for providing a detectable beam of radiation and a piston member arranged to be submerged within the electrolyte and to intercept and modulate the beam of radiation in response to the specific gravity of the electrolyte. The piston member is suspended within the electrolyte by a spring which exerts a compressive force upon the piston member against which the electrolyte must act. The hydrometer further includes a radiation detector aligned with the radiation source for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude responsive to the modulated beam of radiation.

Patis, B.L.

1982-09-21

12

The effect of density gradients on hydrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we studied the effect of non-uniform density of liquid on a hydrometer reading. The effect induced by vertical temperature gradients was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A method for compensating for the effect mathematically was developed and tested with experimental data obtained with the MIKES hydrometer calibration system. In the tests, the method was found reliable. However, the reliability depends on the available information on the hydrometer dimensions and density gradients.

Heinonen, Martti; Sillanpää, Sampo

2003-05-01

13

Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor

Y J Lee; K H Chang; J C Chon; C Y Oh

2004-01-01

14

Automatic alignment method for calibration of hydrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the calibration of hydrometers. A hydrometer calibration system adopting the new method consists of a vision system, a stepping motor, and software to control the system. The vision system is composed of a CCD camera and a frame grabber, and is used to acquire images. The stepping motor moves the camera, which is attached to the vessel containing a reference liquid, along the hydrometer. The operating program has two main functions: to process images from the camera to find the position of the horizontal plane and to control the stepping motor for the alignment of the horizontal plane with a particular scale-mark. Any system adopting this automatic alignment method is a convenient and precise means of calibrating a hydrometer. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by comparing the calibration results using the automatic alignment method with those obtained using the manual method.

Lee, Y. J.; Chang, K. H.; Chon, J. C.; Oh, C. Y.

2004-04-01

15

Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

Swoboda, C.A.

1982-03-09

16

Floating hydrometer with energy dissipating baffle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a floating hydrometer employable for purposes of obtaining measurements of the presence of suspended solids in a fluid substance contained in a receptacle comprising: a. a probe portion operative as an instrument-bearing housing; b. an elongated tubular element having a hollow interior and at least one open end so as to enable the flow into the hollow

Kownurko

1987-01-01

17

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section...Instruments § 30.23 Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer...

2012-04-01

18

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section...Instruments § 30.23 Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer...

2013-04-01

19

27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30.25 Alcohol... Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of § 30.23...use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

2012-04-01

20

27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30.25 Alcohol... Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of § 30.23...use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

2014-04-01

21

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section...Instruments § 30.23 Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer...

2011-04-01

22

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section...Instruments § 30.23 Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer...

2014-04-01

23

27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section...Instruments § 30.23 Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer...

2010-04-01

24

27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30.25 Alcohol... Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of § 30.23...use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

2013-04-01

25

A Cartesian hydrometer and its application to sedimentation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrometer described is particularly suited to sedimentation analysis. It consists of a Perspex framework covered by a thin rubber diaphragm. Manometer readings obtained are sensitive to 0.000 15 specific gravity units and the hydrometer can be adjusted to cover various ranges. Results for particle size analysis of six soils show better agreement with the standard pipette sampling method than

C L Bascomb; D T Pritchard

1963-01-01

26

STANDARD PROCEDURE IN THE HYDROMETER METHOD FOR PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a widely-used method for particle size analysis of soils, the weight percentages of sand, silt, and clay are calculated from the density of an aqueous soil suspension measured by hydrometer. There are many versions of the procedure, differing in the type of dispersing solution, the volume of the suspension, the time of settling before taking hydrometer readings, or in

John Ashworth; Doug Keyes; Rhonda Kirk; Robert Lessard

2001-01-01

27

Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an

Jesus Aguilera; John D. Wright; Vern E. Bean

2008-01-01

28

SHORT COMMUNICATION: An image processing approach to calibration of hydrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual method adopted for multipoint calibration of glass hydrometers is based on the measurement of the buoyancy by hydrostatic weighing when the hydrometer is plunged in a reference liquid up to the scale mark to be calibrated. An image processing approach is proposed by the authors to align the relevant scale mark with the reference liquid surface level. The

S. Lorefice; A. Malengo

2004-01-01

29

Floating hydrometer with energy dissipating baffle  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a floating hydrometer employable for purposes of obtaining measurements of the presence of suspended solids in a fluid substance contained in a receptacle comprising: a. a probe portion operative as an instrument-bearing housing; b. an elongated tubular element having a hollow interior and at least one open end so as to enable the flow into the hollow interior of the elongated tubular element through the open end; and c. energy dissipating baffle means having a first mode of action and a second mode of action and including a member having a hollow interior.

Kownurko, W.A.

1987-11-24

30

A Low-Cost, Precision Hydrometer for Classroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a low cost hydrometer which can be assembled by students using stock laboratory items with a total retail cost of 17 cents. Includes list of required materials (with supplies) and experimental results on the instrument's accuracy. (JM)

Murphy, Michael D.

1983-01-01

31

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers...spirits, and 200 for absolute alcohol. Because of...

2011-04-01

32

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers...spirits, and 200 for absolute alcohol. Because of...

2010-04-01

33

27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity...

2013-04-01

34

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and...

2014-04-01

35

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers...spirits, and 200 for absolute alcohol. Because of...

2012-04-01

36

27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity...

2014-04-01

37

Establishment of Traceability of Reference Grade Hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (npli)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper discusses the establishment of traceability of reference grade hydrometers at National Physical Laboratory, India (NPLI). The reference grade hydrometers are calibrated and traceable to the primary solid density standard. The calibration has been done according to standard procedure based on Cuckow's Method and the reference grade hydrometers calibrated covers a wide range. The uncertainty of the reference grade hydrometers has been computed and corrections are also calculated for the scale readings, at which observations are taken.

Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Harish; Mandal, Goutam; Das, M. B.; Sharma, D. C.

38

NIST Calibration Services for Hydrometers NIST Special Publication 250-78  

E-print Network

NIST Calibration Services for Hydrometers NIST Special Publication 250-78 John. D. Wright, Vern E, 20899 #12;Hydrometer Calibration Service NIST SP 250-78 Table of Contents Page 1. Description of Service................................................................................11 7. Uncertainty of the NIST Hydrometer Calibration

39

Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

2008-01-01

40

SHORT COMMUNICATION: An image processing approach to calibration of hydrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usual method adopted for multipoint calibration of glass hydrometers is based on the measurement of the buoyancy by hydrostatic weighing when the hydrometer is plunged in a reference liquid up to the scale mark to be calibrated. An image processing approach is proposed by the authors to align the relevant scale mark with the reference liquid surface level. The method uses image analysis with a data processing technique and takes into account the perspective error. For this purpose a CCD camera with a pixel matrix of 604H × 576V and a lens of 16 mm focal length were used. High accuracy in the hydrometer reading was obtained as the resulting reading uncertainty was lower than 0.02 mm, about a fifth of the usual figure with the visual reading made by an operator.

Lorefice, S.; Malengo, A.

2004-06-01

41

27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...30.31. Hydrometers are designated by letter according to range of proof and are provided in ranges and subdivisions of stems as follows: Precision Range Subdivision F 0 to 20 0.2° G 20 to 40 0.2° H 40 to 60 0.2°...

2013-04-01

42

Using a Soil Hydrometer to measure the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents in Pig Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrometer method to indirectly measure the nutrient contents, i.e. total nitrogen Nt, and total phosphorus Pt of pig slurries was examined against both single and multiple slurry sources. The data indicated that the estimation accuracy of the hydrometer method could be greatly improved if separate linear regressions were developed for slurry sources from pigs at different growing stages such

J. Zhu; Z. Zhang; P. M. Ndegwa

2003-01-01

43

Fiber hydrometer based on long period gratings in photonic crystal fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very high-sensitivity fiber hydrometer based on a side-polished long period grating fabricated in photonic crystal fibers is firstly experimentally demonstrated with the sensitivity of specific gravity of 3.02 nm \\/0.01.

Wen-Fung Liu; Ming-Yue Fu; Hao-Jan Sheng; Chih-Ching Tien; Hong-Wei Chen; Chuen-Lin Tien

2008-01-01

44

HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING SYSTEM AT THE INRiM FOR CALIBRATING HYDROMETERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrometers are simple but effective instruments fo r measuring the density of liquids. In this work, we present the new hydrostatic weighing system developed at the INRiM, formerly IMGC - CNR, for the calibration of hydrometers in the range 500 kg.m -3 to 2000 kg.m -3 . The apparatus which uses a method to automatically align specific scale-marks for the

45

Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.  

PubMed

Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

1994-06-01

46

Simplifying the Analysis of Soil Particle Sizes. I. Test of the Sur and Kukal's Modified Hydrometer Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the validity of the Sur and Kukal modified hydrometer method for particle size analysis on eight Ghanaian soils of varying texture. The method assumes that hydrometer readings at any time could be predicted from an exponential equation provided that two important parameters are known: the 4.5-min hydrometer reading (R4.5) and the exponent (B). In a series of

S. G. K. Adiku; G. Osei; T. A. Adjadeh; G. N. Dowuona

2005-01-01

47

Hydrometer in the mantle: dln(Vs)/dln(Vp)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption of water into nominally non-hydrous phases is the probable storage mechanism of hydrogen throughout most of the mantle. Thus the water capacity in the mantle is greatest in the transition zone owing to the large water-solubility of ringwoodite and wadsleyite. However, the actual amount of water that is stored there is highly uncertain. Since water is probably brought down by subduction activity, it’s abundance is probably laterally variable. Thus, a metric that is sensitive to variations of water content are good candidates for hydrometers. Here we evaluate the parameter, dln(Vs)/dln(Vp), as such a parameter. It is useful to detect lateral variations of water if the effects of hydration on the parameter are different than those of temperature or composition. We compare the value of dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to the temperature with that due to the water content as a function of depth for the upper mantle. We have calculated dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to both water and temperature using a density functional theory approach, and available experimental data. Our results indicate that dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to water is distinguishable from dln(Vs)/dln(Vp) due to temperature or variations in iron content, particularly in ringwoodite. The difference increases with depth and making the lower part of the transition zone most identifiable as a water reservoir.

Li, L.; Weidner, D. J.

2010-12-01

48

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...distilled spirits for indications of the hydrometer likely to occur in practice at...

2012-04-01

49

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...distilled spirits for indications of the hydrometer likely to occur in practice at...

2011-04-01

50

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...distilled spirits for indications of the hydrometer likely to occur in practice at...

2010-04-01

51

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...distilled spirits for indications of the hydrometer likely to occur in practice at...

2013-04-01

52

27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100...distilled spirits for indications of the hydrometer likely to occur in practice at...

2014-04-01

53

Alignment of the measurement scale mark during immersion hydrometer calibration using an image processing system.  

PubMed

The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration. PMID:24284770

Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

2013-01-01

54

Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System  

PubMed Central

The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration. PMID:24284770

Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

2013-01-01

55

A magnetic total immersion hydrometer for use in dilute electrolyte solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetically controlled total immersion hydrometer is described. Changes in upthrust due to changes in density of the solution are balanced by adjusting the current in a suitably placed coil. A simple relationship betwezen the coil current and the density increment permits the density of solution as a function of concentration of solute to be investigated to a high degree

V. I. Little; M. A. Raqib

1966-01-01

56

HydroMet: Real-time Forecasting System for Hydrologic Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent devastating floods and severe droughts in North Carolina called attention to the need of a reliable nowcasting and forecasting system for these hydrologic hazards. In response to the demand, HydroMet project was launched by RENCI (Renaissance Computing Institute). On a supercomputer in the institute, we integrated (1) WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) for the mesoscale numerical weather prediction, (2)

L. E. Band; D. Shin; T. Hwang; J. Goodall; M. Reed; M. Rynge; L. Stillwell; K. Galluppi

2007-01-01

57

Settling Characteristics of Nursery Pig Manure and Nutrient Estimation by the Hydrometer Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure

Jun Zhu; Pius M. Ndegwa; Zhijian Zhang

2003-01-01

58

A novel approach for estimating sugar and alcohol concentrations in wines using refractometer and hydrometer.  

PubMed

To estimate true Brix and alcoholic strength of must and wines without distillation, a novel approach using a refractometer and a hydrometer was developed. Initial Brix (I.B.), apparent refractometer Brix (A.R.), and apparent hydrometer Brix (A.H.) of must were measured by refractometer and hydrometer, respectively. Alcohol content (A) was determined with a hydrometer after distillation and true Brix (T.B.) was measured in distilled wines using a refractometer. Strong proportional correlations among A.R., A.H., T.B., and A in sugar solutions containing varying alcohol concentrations were observed in preliminary experiments. Similar proportional relationships among the parameters were also observed in must, which is a far more complex system than the sugar solution. To estimate T.B. and A of must during alcoholic fermentation, a total of 6 planar equations were empirically derived from the relationships among the experimental parameters. The empirical equations were then tested to estimate T.B. and A in 17 wine products, and resulted in good estimations of both quality factors. This novel approach was rapid, easy, and practical for use in routine analyses or for monitoring quality of must during fermentation and final wine products in a winery and/or laboratory. PMID:19323723

Son, H S; Hong, Y S; Park, W M; Yu, M A; Lee, C H

2009-03-01

59

Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.  

PubMed

The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify. PMID:12716054

Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

2003-05-01

60

Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs.  

PubMed

Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.994, respectively. Linear correlations were observed between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.987, respectively). Therefore, it may be inferred that the nutrients in pig manure can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by measuring the liquid manure specific gravity. A rapid testing method for manure nutrient contents (TN and TP) using a soil hydrometer was also evaluated. The results showed that the estimating error increased from +/-10% to +/-30% with the decrease in TN (from 1000 to 100 ppm) and TP (from 700 to 50 ppm) concentrations in the manure. Data also showed that the hydrometer readings had to be taken within 10 s after mixing to avoid reading drift in specific gravity due to the settling of manure solids. PMID:14766157

Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

2004-05-01

61

Measurement of particle size distribution of soil and selected aggregate sizes using the hydrometer method and laser diffractometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil particle size distribution has been traditionally determined by the hydrometer or the sieve-pipette methods, both of them time consuming and requiring a relatively large soil sample. This might be a limitation in situations, such as for instance analysis of suspended sediment, when the sample is small. A possible alternative to these methods are the optical techniques such as laser

G. Guzmán; J. A. Gómez; J. V. Giráldez

2010-01-01

62

Comparison of American Society of Testing Materials and Soil Science Society of America Hydrometer Methods for Particle-Size Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Particle-size analysis (PSA) is widely used in both soil science and geo-engineering. Soil classification schemes are built on PSA values while recent developments in pedotransfer functions rely on PSA to estimate soil hydraulic properties. Because PSA is method dependent, the standardization of experimental procedures is important for the comparison of reported results. A study was conducted to compare the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) hydrometer method (D422) for particle-size analysis with the hydrometer method published by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Tests on soils ranging in texture from sand to a sandy clay loam were conducted at temperatures ranging from 20 C to 30 C. The main difference between methods is the temperature correction, with the ASTM method relying on an empirical correction and the SSSA method using a blank hydrometer reading. Identical texture estimates for all but one sample was observed between methods. Percent fines, silt, and clay demonstrated relatively consistent values between methods. D50 and D30 showed reasonable agreement between methods, with differences of less than 4 percent and 8 percent. For D10 values, the agreement was less satisfactory, with uncertainties of as much as 10 percent. The results suggest that ASTM and SSSA methods can be used interchangeably for textural analysis.

Keller, Jason M.; Gee, Glendon W.

2006-05-31

63

El método del hidrómetro: base teórica para su empleo en la determinación de la distribución del tamaño de partículas de suelo The hydrometer method: theoretical basis for its employment in determining the soil particle-size distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to physically explain the bases supporting the hydrometer method for determining the soil size particle distribution. The equations related to the physical principles of the phenomenon and the principle of working of the hydrometer as such, are explained in details. An analysis of the relationship between these equations and the most well recognized simplifications

Jorge García Coronado; Daniel Núñez Acosta

2007-01-01

64

KEY COMPARISON: EUROMET.M.DK4\\/EUROMET Project 702: Comparison of the calibrations of high-resolution hydrometers for liquid density determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the EUROMET project 702 was to compare the extent of comparability among eleven participating European national metrology institutes (INRIM (IT), OMH (HU), PTB (DE), BEV (AT), IPQ (PT), LNE (FR), MIKES (FI), GUM (PL), SMU (SK), UME (TR) and VNIIM (RU)) in performing calibrations of high-resolution hydrometers for liquid density determination in the range between 600

S. Lorefice; A. Malengo; C. Vámossy; H. Bettin; H. Toth; M. do Céu Ferreira; A. Gosset; T. Madec; M. Heinonen; C. Buchner; E. Lenard; R. Spurny; U. Akcadag; N. Domostroeva

2008-01-01

65

Standard test method for density, relative density (specific gravity), or API gravity of crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products by hydrometer method  

SciTech Connect

This method covers the laboratory determination, using a glass hydrometer, of the density, relative density (specific gravity), of API gravity of crude petroleum, petroleum products, or mixtures of petroleum and nonpetroleum products normally handled as liquids, and having a Reid vapor pressure (Method D 323, or IP 69) of 26 lb or less. Values are measured on a hydrometer at convenient temperatures, reading of density being reduced to 15/sup 0/C, and readings of relative density (specific gravity) and API gravity to 60/sup 0/F, by means of international standard tables. By means of these same tables, values determined in any one of the three systems of measurement are convertible to equivalent values in either of the other two so that measurements may be made in the units of local convenience.

Not Available

1980-01-01

66

Bilateral comparison on the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density between INRIM–Italy and INMETRO–Brazil: SIM.M.DS2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the SIM.M.D-S2 bilateral comparison between INRIM–Italy and INMETRO–Brazil are summarized in this report. The aims of this comparison were to check the stated uncertainty levels and the degrees of equivalence between the two institutes on the calibration of hydrometers for liquid density in the range of 800 kg m?3 to 1000 kg m?3 at 20 C, by

Salvatore Lorefice; Dalni Malta; Paulo Roberto Marteleto

2010-01-01

67

SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Bilateral comparison on the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density between INRIM-Italy and INMETRO-Brazil: SIM.M.DS2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the SIM.M.D-S2 bilateral comparison between INRIM-Italy and INMETRO-Brazil are summarized in this report. The aims of this comparison were to check the stated uncertainty levels and the degrees of equivalence between the two institutes on the calibration of hydrometers for liquid density in the range of 800 kg m-3 to 1000 kg m-3 at 20 ºC, by

Salvatore Lorefice; Dalni Malta; José Julio Pinheiro; Paulo Roberto Marteleto

2010-01-01

68

Measurement of particle size distribution of soil and selected aggregate sizes using the hydrometer method and laser diffractometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil particle size distribution has been traditionally determined by the hydrometer or the sieve-pipette methods, both of them time consuming and requiring a relatively large soil sample. This might be a limitation in situations, such as for instance analysis of suspended sediment, when the sample is small. A possible alternative to these methods are the optical techniques such as laser diffractometry. However the literature indicates that the use of this technique as an alternative to traditional methods is still limited, because the difficulty in replicating the results obtained with the standard methods. In this study we present the percentages of soil grain size determined using laser diffractometry within ranges set between 0.04 - 2000 ?m. A Beckman-Coulter ® LS-230 with a 750 nm laser beam and software version 3.2 in five soils, representative of southern Spain: Alameda, Benacazón, Conchuela, Lanjarón and Pedrera. In three of the studied soils (Alameda, Benacazón and Conchuela) the particle size distribution of each aggregate size class was also determined. Aggregate size classes were obtained by dry sieve analysis using a Retsch AS 200 basic ®. Two hundred grams of air dried soil were sieved during 150 s, at amplitude 2 mm, getting nine different sizes between 2000 ?m and 10 ?m. Analyses were performed by triplicate. The soil sample preparation was also adapted to our conditions. A small amount each soil sample (less than 1 g) was transferred to the fluid module full of running water and disaggregated by ultrasonication at energy level 4 and 80 ml of sodium hexametaphosphate solution during 580 seconds. Two replicates of each sample were performed. Each measurement was made for a 90 second reading at a pump speed of 62. After the laser diffractometry analysis, each soil and its aggregate classes were processed calibrating its own optical model fitting the optical parameters that mainly depends on the color and the shape of the analyzed particle. As a second alternative a unique optical model valid for a broad range of soils developed by the Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science of the University of Arizona (personal communication, already submitted) was tested. The results were compared with the particle size distribution measured in the same soils and aggregate classes using the hydrometer method. Preliminary results indicate a better calibration of the technique using the optical model of the Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science of the University of Arizona, which obtained a good correlations (r2>0.85). This result suggests that with an appropriate calibration of the optical model laser diffractometry might provide a reliable soil particle characterization.

Guzmán, G.; Gómez, J. A.; Giráldez, J. V.

2010-05-01

69

LAZER KIRINIM VE HDROMETRE YÖNTEMLERYLE BELRLENEN KL YÜZDELER¯1¯ NSTATSTKSEL YÖNTEMLERLE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI COMPARISON OF CLAY CONTENT DETERMINED BY LASER DIFFRACTION AND HYDROMETER METHOD USING STATISTICAL METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diffraction method commonly used in many engineering and industrial fields such as ceramic, sand, clay, cement, abrasion, powder metallurgy, food, pharmacology, cosmetics, paint, and sedimentology has been used in geotechnical engineering field in recent years as an alternative of the hydrometer\\/pipette method. In this study, clay content of 72 natural soil samples taken from various locations of Turkey determined

Mustafa ÖZER

70

KEY COMPARISON: Final report of comparison of the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density determination between SIM laboratories: SIM.M.D-K4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This SIM comparison on the calibration of high accuracy hydrometers was carried out within fourteen laboratories in the density range from 600 kg/m3 to 1300 kg/m3 in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence among participant laboratories. This key comparison anticipates the planned key comparison CCM.D-K4, and is intended to be linked with CCM.D-K4 when results are available. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Becerra, Luis Omar

2009-01-01

71

SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Bilateral comparison on the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density between INRIM-Italy and INMETRO-Brazil: SIM.M.D-S2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the SIM.M.D-S2 bilateral comparison between INRIM-Italy and INMETRO-Brazil are summarized in this report. The aims of this comparison were to check the stated uncertainty levels and the degrees of equivalence between the two institutes on the calibration of hydrometers for liquid density in the range of 800 kg m-3 to 1000 kg m-3 at 20 ºC, by means of two transfer standards of excellent metrological characteristics. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Lorefice, Salvatore; Malta, Dalni; Julio Pinheiro, José; Marteleto, Paulo Roberto

2010-01-01

72

KEY COMPARISON: EUROMET.M.D-K4/EUROMET Project 702: Comparison of the calibrations of high-resolution hydrometers for liquid density determinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the EUROMET project 702 was to compare the extent of comparability among eleven participating European national metrology institutes (INRIM (IT), OMH (HU), PTB (DE), BEV (AT), IPQ (PT), LNE (FR), MIKES (FI), GUM (PL), SMU (SK), UME (TR) and VNIIM (RU)) in performing calibrations of high-resolution hydrometers for liquid density determination in the range between 600 kg m-3 and 1300 kg m-3. By means of two groups of four similar transfer standards of excellent metrological characteristics, the participating laboratories were initially divided into two groups (petals) linked by the three density laboratories of INRIM, OMH and PTB. The results of the participating laboratories have been analyzed in this report and a good agreement was found between the results provided by most of the participants. These results allowed also determination of the degrees of equivalence of each NMI participating with the EUROMET_key comparison reference values (EU_KCRV); they will provide a basis for the review of the Calibration Measurement Capabilities (CMC) entries on hydrometer calibration, and they allowed the degree of equivalence between pairs of NMIs to be established. The Istitituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), Italy, formerly IMGC-CNR, coordinated the project. Main text. To reach the main text of this Paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Lorefice, S.; Malengo, A.; Vámossy, C.; Bettin, H.; Toth, H.; do Céu Ferreira, M.; Gosset, A.; Madec, T.; Heinonen, M.; Buchner, C.; Lenard, E.; Spurny, R.; Akcadag, U.; Domostroeva, N.

2008-01-01

73

SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Report of the bilateral comparison of the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density determination between CENAM-Mexico and INRIM-Italy: SIM.M.D-S1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrometers are instruments usually made of glass which are widely used for different levels of precision to measure liquid density and related quantities to control different products and processes. This bilateral comparison on the calibration of hydrometers shows that results reported by CENAM-Mexico and INRIM-Italy are consistent within the claimed uncertainty in the range of 800 kg/m3 to 1200 kg/m3. This bilateral comparison is intended to link the two regional comparisons SIM.M.D-K4 and EURAMET.D-K4. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Becerra, Luis Omar; Lorefice, Salvatore

2009-01-01

74

Hydrometer test for estimation of immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum.  

PubMed

A practical field method for measuring immunoglobulin concentration in bovine colostrum has been developed from the linear relationship between colostral specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Fourteen colostrums were collected within 24 h postpartum from nursed and unnursed cows and were assayed for specific gravity and major colostral constituents. Additionally, 15 colostrums were collected immediately postpartum prior to suckling and assayed for specific gravity and immunoglobulin concentration. Regression analysis provided an equation to estimate colostral immunoglobulin concentration from the specific gravity of fresh whole colostrum. From this, a colostrometer was developed for practical field use. PMID:7400425

Fleenor, W A; Stott, G H

1980-06-01

75

27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... 30.24 Section 30.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific...

2012-04-01

76

Optical-Type Hydrometer for Lead-Acid Batteries and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the most widely used means to know the charged condition of a lead-acid battery, the method to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte is adopted. Here we report in this paper on an optical-type sensor taking advantage of the fact that the sulfuric acid electrolyte has a certain definite refractive index in accordance with its specific gravity and

Yoshiki Nagai; Yasuharu Tomokuni; Tomoki Matsui

1987-01-01

77

A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on

Edward Luke; Pavlos Kollias

2007-01-01

78

A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.  

SciTech Connect

The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

2007-08-06

79

A Model for Hydrometer Growth and Evolution of Raindrop Size Spectra in Cumulus Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively simple model of warm and cold rain microphysics in cumulus cells is developed. The proposed model avoids the large amounts of computation required in a non-parameterized treatment and yet removes some of the restrictions imposed by Kessler's microphysical parameterization. The growth of cloud droplets is bypassed, but evolution of particle size spectra for larger hydrometeors and the effects

Man Kong Yau; Pauline M. Austin

1979-01-01

80

Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of

Jun Zhu; Pius M Ndegwa; Zhijian Zhang

2004-01-01

81

The measurement of channel-flow velocity by a laser Doppler hydrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser Doppler anemometer was used to obtain data on the vertical velocity distribution in an open rectangular channel with dimensions of 56 x 60 x 400 mm at Reynolds numbers of not greater than 1100. The obtained velocity profiles are characterized by boundary layer with negative velocity gradient. The advantages of the laser technique are emphasized, and experimental data

N. K. Shelkovnikov; V. V. Rozanov; M. V. Solntsev; A. A. Zamiatin

1979-01-01

82

Comparison of pretreatments and dispersants on clay determination by the hydrometer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pretreatments and five dispersing treatments in a factorial design were applied to particle size analysis samples from a Rozellville 2Bt horizon and a Rosholt Bt horizon. The sodium citrate ? dithionite pretreatment and calgon, sodium pyrophosphate, and sodium oxalate as dispersing treatments resulted in significantly higher clay concentrations than the other treatments when applied to the Rosholt samples. The

James E. Johnson; James A. Bowles; James A. Knuteson

1985-01-01

83

Particle Size Analysis 1 Department of Sustainable Natural Resources  

E-print Network

measurement of the density of the suspension. SPECIAL APPARATUS · Soil hydrometer (ASTM 152H hydrometer 1. Dimensional features of ASTM 152H hydrometer for the purpose of calculating effective depth HYDROMETER The value of effective depth (L) for each hydrometer (see Figure 1) and the sedimentation cylinder

Norton, Jay B.

84

27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Proprietors shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions...Appropriate TTB officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...requires the use of a specific gravity hydrometer, TTB officers shall use precision...

2010-04-01

85

27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Proprietors shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions...Appropriate TTB officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...requires the use of a specific gravity hydrometer, TTB officers shall use precision...

2013-04-01

86

27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Proprietors shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions...Appropriate TTB officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...requires the use of a specific gravity hydrometer, TTB officers shall use precision...

2012-04-01

87

27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall provide for their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary...or volume. (b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors...Proprietors shall make frequent tests of their hydrometers and thermometers, and, if...

2010-04-01

88

27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Proprietors shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions...Appropriate TTB officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...requires the use of a specific gravity hydrometer, TTB officers shall use precision...

2011-04-01

89

27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Proprietors shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions...Appropriate TTB officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...requires the use of a specific gravity hydrometer, TTB officers shall use precision...

2014-04-01

90

ECE/METR6613 Title: Weather Radar Polarimetry  

E-print Network

signatures of hydrometers and measurement · Rain, snow, hail, melting · clutter, noise ... · moment logic method for hydrometer classification · Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) · DSD retrieval

Zhang, Guifu

91

Research Paper Comparison between grain-size analyses using laser  

E-print Network

laser diffraction method (LDM) and the sieve-hydrometer method (SHM) was carried out for 228 soil methods such as hydrometer or pipette (Gee & Bauder, 1986). Sieving combined with hydrometer method (SHM method (PM) and hydrometer method (HM) - give comparable results (Liu, Odell, Etter, & Thornburn, 1966

Ahmad, Sajjad

92

Using High Frequency Passive Microwave, A-train, and TRMM Data to Evaluate Hydrometer Structure in the NASA GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Validating water vapor and prognostic condensate in global models remains a challenging research task. Model parameterizations are still subject to a large number of tunable parameters; furthermore, accurate and representative in situ observations are very sparse, and satellite observations historically have significant quantitative uncertainties. Progress on improving cloud / hydrometeor fields in models stands to benefit greatly from the growing inventory ofA-Train data sets. ill the present study we are using a variety of complementary satellite retrievals of hydrometeors to examine condensate produced by the emerging NASA Modem Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA, and its associated atmospheric general circulation model GEOS5. Cloud and precipitation are generated by both grid-scale prognostic equations and by the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) diagnostic convective parameterization. The high frequency channels (89 to 183.3 GHz) from AMSU-B and MRS on NOAA polar orbiting satellites are being used to evaluate the climatology and variability of precipitating ice from tropical convective anvils. Vertical hydrometeor structure from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and CloudSat radars are used to develop statistics on vertical hydrometeor structure in order to better interpret the extensive high frequency passive microwave climatology. Cloud liquid and ice water path data retrieved from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS, are used to investigate relationships between upper level cloudiness and tropical deep convective anvils. Together these data are used to evaluate cloud / ice water path, gross aspects of vertical hydrometeor structure, and the relationship between cloud extent and surface precipitation that the MERRA reanalysis must capture.

Robertson, Franklin; Bacmeister, Julio; Bosilovich, Michael; Pittman, Jasna

2007-01-01

93

27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...from the total weight of the liquid and its apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit). The proof...whisky containing added solids Temperature °F 75.0° Hydrometer reading 92.0° Apparent proof 85.5°...

2014-04-01

94

7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be corrected for temperature variations using Table I. (2) A hydrometer specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association,...

2013-01-01

95

27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...The proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or...

2014-04-01

96

27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or...

2012-04-01

97

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2011-04-01

98

27 CFR 19.980 - Gauging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of the spirits shall be determined using a glass cylinder, hydrometer, and thermometer. Proprietors may account for...determine quantity by volume. The proprietor shall ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to...

2010-04-01

99

27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...from the total weight of the liquid and its apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit). The proof...whisky containing added solids Temperature °F 75.0° Hydrometer reading 92.0° Apparent proof 85.5°...

2011-04-01

100

7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be corrected for temperature variations using Table I. (2) A hydrometer specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association,...

2012-01-01

101

27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...from the total weight of the liquid and its apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit). The proof...whisky containing added solids Temperature °F 75.0° Hydrometer reading 92.0° Apparent proof 85.5°...

2012-04-01

102

Characterization of Expansive Soil For Retaining Wall Design  

E-print Network

........................................................................................... 30 3.8 Hydrometer Analysis Test .............................................................................. 31 3.8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 31 3.9 Wet Sieve Analysis... and other tools .............................................................. 30 Figure 3-5: Plastic limit tools ......................................................................................... 31 Figure 3-6: Hydrometer suspended in water...

Sahin, Hakan

2012-02-14

103

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2012-04-01

104

A modified formulation of fractional stratiform condensation rate in the Community Atmospheric Model CAM2  

E-print Network

with the size distribution of cloud condensation nuclei and hydrometers. The first aspect is ideally dealt and aggregated spectral hydrometer information are still needed to parameterize clouds. One of the subgrid scale

Zhang, Minghua

105

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2014-04-01

106

27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from the total weight of the liquid and its apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit). The proof...whisky containing added solids Temperature °F 75.0° Hydrometer reading 92.0° Apparent proof 85.5°...

2010-04-01

107

NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-139 CONVERSION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY TO SALINITY FOR BALLAST  

E-print Network

(page 6): the stated reference temperature for most hydrometers used aboard ships was corrected to 60o F .................................................................................7 2.2 Measuring Specific Gravity with a Hydrometer ­ Importance of Temperature ........7 2

108

CURRICULUM VITAE CLIFFORD F. MASS  

E-print Network

. Submitted to J. Hydromet. Brewer, M., C. Mass, and B. Potter, 2013: The West Coast Thermal Trough: Mesoscale: Extreme Precipitation over the West Coast of North America: Is There a Trend?, J. of Hydromet., 12, 310

Mass, Clifford F.

109

27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or...

2011-04-01

110

Overland flow time of concentration on flat terrains  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................42 3.5 Particle Size Distribution..............................................................................43 3.5.1 Sieve Analysis..................................................................................43 3.5.2 Hydrometer Test................................................................................................50 4.4 Particle Size..................................................................................................50 4.4.1 Sieve Analysis..................................................................................50 4.4.2 Hydrometer...

Chibber, Paramjit

2004-11-15

111

27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or...

2013-04-01

112

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2013-04-01

113

27 CFR 30.64 - Table 4, showing the fractional part of a gallon per pound at each percent and each tenth percent...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from the total weight of the liquid and its apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit). The proof...whisky containing added solids Temperature °F 75.0° Hydrometer reading 92.0° Apparent proof 85.5°...

2013-04-01

114

A potential technique to determine the unsaturated soil shear strength parameter  

E-print Network

.2 Plot for liquid limit determination ...........................................................................43 3.3 Hydrometer analysis ................................................................................................45 4... .....................................................................................44 3.3 Particles size analysis using hydrometer .....................................................................46 3.4 Summary of test results ...............................................................................................47 4...

Kulkarni, Renu Uday

2008-10-10

115

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...where the weight, apparent proof (hydrometer indication corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit...liquid and the uncorrected reading of the hydrometer stem. An application of this would...filled with spirits having an uncorrected hydrometer reading of 113.0°. The full...

2014-04-01

116

GIS Applications in Climate and Meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) GIS applications in climate and meteorology are addressed, including traditional GIS strategies for hydromet database analysis and management, but also emerging techniques which exploit COTS GIS for hydromet data analysis in the GIS operating environment. Specific GIS applications are examined to address precision mapping shortcomings in current hydromet practice. Movement towards GIS in the National Weather Service (NWS)

Scott T. Shipley; Ira A. Graffman; Joseph K. Ingram

117

Lesson Title: Making Artificial Seawater Date: February 1, 2008 Author: Ryan Lenz Topic: Density, salinity, water changes  

E-print Network

, hydrometer). Basic understanding of dissolution, density. Assessment: See section below for possible- 4) Notes Large buckets/tub to contain student's water Extra salt and water Various hydrometers (anything non-toxic and non-reactive) Hydrometer (inexpensive "swing- arm" box type are fine and relatively

118

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...where the weight, apparent proof (hydrometer indication corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit...liquid and the uncorrected reading of the hydrometer stem. An application of this would...filled with spirits having an uncorrected hydrometer reading of 113.0°. The full...

2010-04-01

119

ReproducedfromSoilScienceSocietyofAmericaJournal.PublishedbySoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Critical Evaluation of the Use of Laser Diffraction  

E-print Network

in the hydrometer method is ments a Beckman­Coulter LS-230 apparatus with a 750-nm laser beam simply the inaccuracy in the hydrometer reading (Geethat measures particles in the range of 0.04 to 2000 m was used, and Bauder, 1979 and 40 g for the hydrometer) and their capacity forindex (RI), respectively, gave satisfactory results

Ahmad, Sajjad

120

OIMB GK12 CURRICULUM 3rd Grade 2 short field trips to docks  

E-print Network

-4 Simple hydrometers ! 3-4 Quart size containers ! Salt ! Tap Water ! 3-4 spoons for stirring #12;OIMB GK12 salinity. 3. In the classroom, do an example and practice reading hydrometers. Inexpensive plastic hydrometers are available for use with home aquariums. Have the students mix up different salt solutions

121

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...where the weight, apparent proof (hydrometer indication corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit...liquid and the uncorrected reading of the hydrometer stem. An application of this would...filled with spirits having an uncorrected hydrometer reading of 113.0°. The full...

2013-04-01

122

The Role of Salinity in Hard Clam Aquaculture1 Shirley Baker, Elise Hoover, and Leslie Sturmer2  

E-print Network

accurate, easy to use, and inexpensive. Hydrometer: The density, or specific gravity, of seawater, depends on salinity; as salinity increases, the specific gravity increases. A hydrometer is commonly used in home to their own weight when floating in a liquid (like a ship or iceberg). Therefore, the hydrometer will float

Florida, University of

123

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...where the weight, apparent proof (hydrometer indication corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit...liquid and the uncorrected reading of the hydrometer stem. An application of this would...filled with spirits having an uncorrected hydrometer reading of 113.0°. The full...

2012-04-01

124

27 CFR 30.62 - Table 2, showing wine gallons and proof gallons by weight.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...where the weight, apparent proof (hydrometer indication corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit...liquid and the uncorrected reading of the hydrometer stem. An application of this would...filled with spirits having an uncorrected hydrometer reading of 113.0°. The full...

2011-04-01

125

Tree performance and soil moisture relationships on reclaimed mine sites utilizing three topsoiling regimes  

E-print Network

and weighed in air then again while immersed in water. Bulk density is then calculated from these volumes. Particle size distribution, or the soil texture, was determined by the hydrometer method introduced by Bouyoucos (1927). The hydrometer method... velocity of the fall is directly proportional to the square of the radius of the particle), the hydrometer measurements during the sedimentation of the suspension are used to calculate the percentages of the particle sizes. Soil pH (hydrogen ion...

Bilir, Neslihan Mutia

2012-06-07

126

27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of...wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25,...

2014-04-01

127

27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...milliliters of spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of...true proof determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been...

2014-04-01

128

27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...E of this part. Table 1 provides a method of correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of this table would result in...

2012-04-01

129

27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...E of this part. Table 1 provides a method of correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of this table would result in...

2010-04-01

130

27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...E of this part. Table 1 provides a method of correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of this table would result in...

2014-04-01

131

27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...milliliters of spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of...true proof determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been...

2012-04-01

132

27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...E of this part. Table 1 provides a method of correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of this table would result in...

2013-04-01

133

27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of...wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25,...

2013-04-01

134

27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...E of this part. Table 1 provides a method of correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of this table would result in...

2011-04-01

135

27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...milliliters of spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of...true proof determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been...

2010-04-01

136

27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...milliliters of spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of...true proof determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been...

2013-04-01

137

27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...milliliters of spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of...true proof determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been...

2011-04-01

138

27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of...wine gallons per pound, or (b) Use of a specific gravity hydrometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.25,...

2012-04-01

139

27 CFR 30.42 - Denatured spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...completely denatured spirits, the gallonage of any lot or package may be ascertained by determining its weight and apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and then multiplying the weight of the wine gallons per pound factor...

2010-04-01

140

40 CFR 600.011 - Incorporation by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Practice for Density, Relative Density (Specific Gravity), or API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Liquid Petroleum Products by Hydrometer Method, approved November 1, 2005, IBR approved for §§ 600.113-08(f) and (g), 600.113-12(f) and...

2013-07-01

141

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2010-04-01

142

Influences of short-duration grazing systems and stocking density on sediment production and infiltration rates on the rolling plains of Texas  

E-print Network

matter and aggregate stability. Texture was estimated by the hydrometer method (Bouyoucos 1962), aggregate stability by the wet sieve method (Kemper and Koch 1965) and organic matter by the Walkley-Black method (Walkley and Black 1934). The surface...

Mings, Thomas Scott

2012-06-07

143

27 CFR 30.42 - Denatured spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...completely denatured spirits, the gallonage of any lot or package may be ascertained by determining its weight and apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and then multiplying the weight of the wine gallons per pound factor...

2011-04-01

144

Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses  

SciTech Connect

The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

Graham, R.D.

1984-10-01

145

27 CFR 30.42 - Denatured spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...completely denatured spirits, the gallonage of any lot or package may be ascertained by determining its weight and apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and then multiplying the weight of the wine gallons per pound factor...

2014-04-01

146

27 CFR 30.42 - Denatured spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...completely denatured spirits, the gallonage of any lot or package may be ascertained by determining its weight and apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and then multiplying the weight of the wine gallons per pound factor...

2012-04-01

147

27 CFR 30.42 - Denatured spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...completely denatured spirits, the gallonage of any lot or package may be ascertained by determining its weight and apparent proof (hydrometer indication, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and then multiplying the weight of the wine gallons per pound factor...

2013-04-01

148

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2011-04-01

149

Determination of soil properties for sandy soils and road base at Riverside Campus using laboratory testing and numerical simulation  

E-print Network

and the testing schedule included grain size analysis, hydrometer test, specific gravity, maximum dry density, Atterberg limit, stiffness, direct shear test, triaxial test, and a simple procedure to estimate the maximum and minimum void ratio of the clean sand...

Saez Barrios, Deeyvid O.

2010-07-14

150

Grain Size Distributions and Soil Particle Characteristics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lecture notes focusing on measuring grain size distributions (GSDs) of soils and the two methods used to do this. Provides procedures for Sieve Testing and Hydrometer Testing to find the GSD for particular grain sizes.

2008-06-13

151

Brush types of the Nueces River watershed as related to soil, climatic and geological factors  

E-print Network

. Composite samples of topsoil and subsoil were made at each location and depth and general physi? cal characters recorded. Soil texture was determined by the hydrometer method as described by Bouyoucos (1936), except that "Calgon" (sodium hexa...

Huss, Donald Lee

2013-10-04

152

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2013-04-01

153

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2012-04-01

154

Relationships between chemical forms of soil iron and manganese and their absorption by rice from 34 flooded Gulf Coast soils of Texas  

E-print Network

then brought to volume with water and iron and manganese determined by atomic absorption spec- trophotometry. Soil Analyses Ph sical and Chemical Pro erties Textural analysis was determined on each soil by the hydrometer method as outlined by Day (14...

Phillips, Douglas Patton

2012-06-07

155

27 CFR 30.65 - Table 5, showing the weight per wine gallon (at 60 degrees Fahrenheit) and proof gallon at each...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...also shows the weight per wine gallon (at the prevailing temperature) corresponding to each uncorrected reading of a proof hydrometer. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1358, as amended (26 U.S.C....

2014-04-01

156

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Soil Particle Analysis Procedure  

E-print Network

wastewater treatment system. Color photographs illustrate important processes such as analyzing gravel and determining soil texture. A worksheet details the bouyoucos hydrometer method of measuring soil particle size. There are also helpful data sheets...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-08-18

157

Vertical distribution of sclerotia of Phymatotrichum omnivorum (Shear) Duggar relative to soil chemical and physical properties  

E-print Network

. The electri- cal conductivity of slurries made from the soil samples was measured using a conductivity bridge. The particle size distribution of the soi'l samples was determined by the Bouyoucos hydrometer method. Bulk density was determined... to a 46 cm. sedimentation cylinder. The cylinder was filled with distilled water and agitated. Readings were at 40 sec. and 2 hr. after agitation wi th a Sargent Model 201 Souyoucous scale hydrometer. The readings were recorded and the particle size...

Gerik, James Stephen

2012-06-07

158

The hypothetical role of IAA-oxidase as an abscission controlling system in the cotton cotyledonary explant  

E-print Network

treatment the explants were enclosed in a C 0 collection system depicted in Figure 1. The system basically consisted of three units: the hydrometer or bell jars which contained the explants, the gas washing tubes, and the preabsorbers. The gas washing... of Buchner suction flasks mounted in series prior to the entry of air into the hydrometer or bell jars. Sodium hydroxide (10') was used in the preabsorbers to eliminate the atmospheric CO from the air and to produce a water saturated atmosphere...

Schwertner, Harvey Allen

2012-06-07

159

Soil and water dynamics in a microcatchment system for range improvement in West Texas  

E-print Network

content were determined respectively by the hydrometer method (Bouyoucos, 1962) and the Walkley-Black method (Walkley and Black, 1934). Samples collected from each microcatchment basin at the beginning and end of the study period were contrasted.... Soil samples were collected from just under the litter layer at the surface of each dune and from some of the interspaces. The texture of each soil sample was analyzed using the hydrometer method (Bouyoucos, 1962). Organic 41 matter was analyzed...

Maranz, Steven Jay

2012-06-07

160

Some effects of fertilization and stage of plant succession on five native range grasses planted in Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network

lb Soil texture as analyaed by the Bouyoucoa hydrometer method ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o 17 Soil aggregation aa determined by wet sieve analysis of two 50 gram samples ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . 1) Botanioal composition of the vegetation in the vicinity... and the position of the tost-hole in ths plot, Soil texture was analysed by the Bouyoucos hydrometer method, and soil aggregation was found by the Yoder wet sieve analysis method. Sy all standardsv a poor stand of grasses resulted from all seodings in this pro...

Eaman, Thomas Knox

2012-06-07

161

Study of the effect of rate of sediment transport on the stability of open channels  

E-print Network

soil properties: 1. Grain size distribution curve (a) Sieve analys is (b) Hydrometer analysis 2. Liquid limit 13 14 3 . Plastic limit 4. Plasticity index 5. Specific gravity 6. Void ratio of the bed materials after each hydraulic test... to determine the per cent of finer particles while hydrometer analysis was carried out to prepare the curves in the above ? mentioned figures. In addition, before running the pipette analysis, the organic component of the materials was eliminated whereas...

Rahman, Khandaker Mohammad Abdur

2012-06-07

162

Soils-geomorphology of the Brazos River terraces Brazos County, Texas  

E-print Network

the deposits as alluvial. Particle-size analysis was not made for these two borings. To determine particle size distributions, the hydrometer method was used following methods and standards of Day (1956 and 1965). A 30 gm portion was taken from each sample... ml of 10% sodium hexametaphosphate. Following dispersion, each sample was placed in a motor mixer for three minutes then emptied into a 1000 ml sedimentation cylinder. The cylinder was then filled with dis- tilled water. After stirring, hydrometer...

Nordt, Lee C

2012-06-07

163

Development of statistical wet weather model to evaluate frictional properties at the pavement-tire interface on hot mix asphalt concrete  

E-print Network

Criteria. . . . Compacted Aggregate Resistance (CAR) Test. . . . CHAPTER Page Methylene Blue (MB) Test on P200 Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . Particle Size Analysis of Soils (Hydrometer Analysis for P200 Material) (ASTM D 422 ? 63). Flat... for Limestone Aggregates . . 52 27 MBV Test Results for Gravel Aggregates, . 53 28 MBV Test Results for Igneous Aggregates. 53 29 I lydrometer Test Results tor Limcstonc Ag&grcgatcs . . 30 Hydrometer Test Resulls I'or Gravel Aggregates. . . . . . . 54 55...

Bedi, Harpreet

2012-06-07

164

Effects of soil compaction on root development of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings  

E-print Network

soil layers from each soil horizon were determined using the Bouyoucos hydrometer method (Black 1965). Clay content was measured as the particles remaining in suspension after 40 seconds but not after two hours. Sand content was determined as the dif... moisture content was measured imne- diately prior to application of compaction treatments. Texture Textural analyses were performed for all treatments on both sites using the Bouyoucos hydrometer method. Site I has a sandy loam surface layer (0...

Simmons, Gerry Lynn

2012-06-07

165

Fractionation of suspended aqueous materials using centrifugal elutriation  

E-print Network

4 Hydrometer apparatus 2. 5 The elutriation process 14 2. 6 Various elutriator chambers, viewed looking down on the rotor 2, 7 Sample injection system supplied by Beckman 15 17 3. 1 Elutriator components 22 3. 2 Experimenral sequence... Materials) Testing Manual, under ASTM Test Designation D422. Fractionation of particles smaller than 75ttm relies on the theory of sedimentation. Two commonly employed methods, the Hydrometer and the Pipette methods, utilize the relationship of the fall...

Ginn, Jon Stephen

2012-06-07

166

Double Ended Guillotine Break in a Prismatic Block VHTR Lower Plenum Air Ingress Scenario  

E-print Network

measured by a hydrometer and the viscosity measured by a rheometer to ensure accurate estimates of the flow front velocity. These dimensionless parameters along with the Reynolds number were used to calculate the flow regime. From this scaling analysis... solution is mixed prior to experiment and dye is added. The density and viscosity are measured prior to experiment with a hydrometer and viscometer respectively. The water and brine solution is added to respective tanks filling through the feed lines...

Hartley, Jessica

2012-10-19

167

The exchange rate for tritiated water vapor adsorbed on silica gel  

E-print Network

hydrometer, and various graduated cylinders and assorted glassware. Petri dishes were used for the geometric factors study as alternate sample containers. 18 Procedure The primary part of the research was conducted for three relative humidity conditions... the hydrometer after the adsorption and exchange processes had occurred. This was to confirm the constancy of the atmospheric water concentration for each stage of the experiment. After drying the silica gel, the vials were capped and weighed. Sixteen vials...

Shamblin, Penny Alane

2012-06-07

168

Correlation of stratigraphy with revegetation conditions at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-print Network

and hydrometer analyses. The geochemical parameters ? acidity, potential acidity, salinity, and trace metal concentration in the soil ? are compared with the Railroad Commission of Texas regulation values. The final step, correlating the environments... . Stratigraphy, DETERMINATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION . . 13] 13, ' 15/ 20 Geophysical Logs 20 Caliper Logs . Gamma-Ray Logs Density Logs . Resistivity Logs 20 22' 22, 25' Hydrometer Analyses Core Description Environments of Deposition...

Parisot, Laurence D.

2012-06-07

169

A theoretical and experimental study of a dredge suction inlet, sink flow near a boundary  

E-print Network

~ ncin oil. After the tan. k had been fitted, the room and water temperature were measured and recorded. A !water sample was taken in a large beaker. The specific gravity of the sample was measured with a hydrometer to within 0. 0005. The density... of the water varied from day to day with variations in dissolved solids and gases, suspended solids, and temperature. The range of specific gravities encountered were 0. 9955 to 0. 9980 for water temperatures between 90'F and 72'F. The hydrometer...

Apgar, William Jack

2012-06-07

170

The influence of selected physical factors on the distribution, abundance, and diversity of benthic insects in an artificial pond as affected by fertilization  

E-print Network

map was designed (Figure 4). The texture of the bottom soils as influenced by aggregate size and relative composition was determined by the Bouyoucos (1936) method. It is essentially a mechanical analysis using a hydrometer to determine milligrams... per liter of soil particles in solution. Two samples of soil weighing 44. 0 g each were used in each Bouyoucos test. One was placed in an oven set at 100'C to determine oven dry weight. The other sample was used for hydrometer analysis. The soil...

Clary, Ralph Willis

2012-06-07

171

The effect of void ratio on critical tractive force of cohesive soils  

E-print Network

-39) with the following exceptions: (a) an additional hydrometer reading was made at the end of 30 seconds, and (b) the following sieve num- bers of the U. S. Standard Seive Series were used: numbers 16, 30, 50, 100, and 200 instead of the specified numbers 20, 40, 60.... The aggregate analysis tests were performed in 30 accordance with the hydrometer method used by Smerdon except that the initial readings were taken at the end of 30 and 45 seconds instead of at 15, 30, and 40 seconds. Two samples, cne of 100 grams and one...

Lyle, William Madison

2012-06-07

172

Particle-Size Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Book Chapter describing methods of particle-size analysis for soils. Includes a variety of classification schemes. Standard methods for size distributions using pipet and hydrometer techniques are described. New laser-light scattering and related techniques are discussed. Complete with updated references.

Gee, Glendon W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Or, Dani (Utah State University); J.H. Dane and G.C. Topp

2002-11-01

173

Termite Infestation Associated with Type of Soil in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)  

PubMed Central

Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil. PMID:24575252

Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

2013-01-01

174

40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...108 ASTM D 287-92 (Reapproved 2000), Standard Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method) 94.108 ASTM D 445-01, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids...

2011-07-01

175

40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4) ASTM D287-92 (Reapproved 2000), Standard Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method), IBR approved for § 94.108. (5) ASTM D445-09 (Approved July 1, 2009), Standard Test Method for...

2013-07-01

176

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

2011-04-01

177

21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and the ratio of the Brix hydrometer reading to the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice is not less than 10 to 1. (b) The...

2013-04-01

178

Performance of Geogrid Reinforced Ballast under Dynamic Loading  

E-print Network

with the tests listed in Table 3.1. The grain size distribution of the subgrade soil is shown in Figure 3.7. Table 3.1 ASTM Standards ASTM Standards Lab Tests D422.2703-1 Hydrometer Analysis D2166.14900-1 Unconfined Compression D3080.2626-1 Direct Shear D...

Jowkar, Milad

2011-12-31

179

40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...108 ASTM D 287-92 (Reapproved 2000), Standard Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products (Hydrometer Method) 94.108 ASTM D 445-01, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids...

2010-07-01

180

7 CFR 93.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... The percent by weight concentration of the total soluble solids of the juice or citrus product when tested with a Brix hydrometer calibrated at 20 °C (68 °F) and to which any applicable temperature correction has been made. The Brix or degrees...

2013-01-01

181

7 CFR 93.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... The percent by weight concentration of the total soluble solids of the juice or citrus product when tested with a Brix hydrometer calibrated at 20 °C (68 °F) and to which any applicable temperature correction has been made. The Brix or degrees...

2012-01-01

182

Use of combined radar and radiometer systems in space for precipitation measurement: Some ideas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief survey is given of some fundamental physical concepts of optimal polarization characteristics of a transmission path or scatter ensemble of hydrometers. It is argued that, based on this optimization concept, definite advances in remote atmospheric sensing are to be expected. Basic properties of Kennaugh's optimal polarization theory are identified.

Moore, R. K.

1981-01-01

183

27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...gallon. The proof of spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of §...

2013-04-01

184

27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gallon. The proof of spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of §...

2011-04-01

185

27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gallon. The proof of spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of §...

2010-04-01

186

7 CFR 93.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The percent by weight concentration of the total soluble solids of the juice or citrus product when tested with a Brix hydrometer calibrated at 20 °C (68 °F) and to which any applicable temperature correction has been made. The Brix or degrees...

2011-01-01

187

Effects of hydrometeors on electromagnetic wave propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of electromagnetic (EM) waves by Hydrometers such as rain, snow, clouds, and fog, can cause serious degradation of EM wave systems. This report describes such attenuation of radio waves to X-rays, with primary applications to communications in the microwave and millimeter wave portions of the EM spectrum.

Ebersole, J. F.; Cheng, W. K.; Hallett, J.; Hohlfeld, R. G.

1985-01-01

188

The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil  

E-print Network

the Ruska mercury pump readings. Determination of Oil API Gravity The API gravity of the crude oil used as stock-tank oil in this experiment was determined by using a plain form API hydrometer. The gravity reading was taken at 76 F. O CI I O h O UI...

Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

2012-06-07

189

7 CFR 93.2 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... The percent by weight concentration of the total soluble solids of the juice or citrus product when tested with a Brix hydrometer calibrated at 20 °C (68 °F) and to which any applicable temperature correction has been made. The Brix or degrees...

2014-01-01

190

27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...gallon. The proof of spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of §...

2014-04-01

191

27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gallon. The proof of spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of §...

2012-04-01

192

Termite infestation associated with type of soil in pulau pinang, malaysia (isoptera: rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil. PMID:24575252

Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

2013-12-01

193

An experimental and theoretical study of the dynamics of grounding lines  

E-print Network

accuracy of 5 cm2 s?1, and varied slightly between our experiments owing to changes in temperature. The density of the syrup (? ? 1.439 g cm?3) and the solution (?w ? 1.462 to 1.551 g cm?3) were each measured using a hydrometer to an accuracy of 0.001g cm?3...

Pegler, Samuel S.; Worster, M. Grae

2013-07-01

194

Laser diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and image analysis to evaluate a bimodal Gaussian model for particle size distribution in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shiozawa and Campbell Gaussian bimodal model describes the particle size distribution (PSD) in soils as a weighted sum of two fractions: the primary minerals (sand and silt) and the secondary minerals (clay) fraction, each described by a Gaussian function.This model was developed and tested using traditional sedimentation techniques analysis for PSD such as sieving and hydrometer. Because of the

Linda Pieri; Paola Rossi Pisa

2006-01-01

195

Critical Evaluation of the Use of Laser Diffraction for Particle-Size Distribution Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

and 0.2 for the real part and the imaginary term of the refractive and 40 g for the hydrometer) and their capacity for index (RI), respectively, gave satisfactory results for the optical model calculations. Volume percentage of the clay-size fraction obtained by resolution to subgroups of sizes is limited. In addition, LD was generally lower than mass percentage of the

G. Eshel; G. J. Levy; U. Mingelgrin; M. J. Singer

2004-01-01

196

A micro?pipette method for soil mechanical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of soil texture, particularly the clay (<2 ?m) fraction, is an important measurement in most soil investigations. In this study a modified method for mechanical analysis was evaluated that eliminated the need for bulky laboratory equipment and long settling times associated with standard pipette and hydrometer methods. Termed a “micro?pipette”; method, the modified procedure uses 2 to 4 g

W. P. Miller; D. M. Miller

1987-01-01

197

Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

Robert W Peters

1999-01-01

198

Salinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

199

SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group

1994-05-27

200

A New Inversion-Based Algorithm for Retrieval of Over-Water Rain Rate from SSM/I Multichannel Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses certain aspects of a new inversion based algorithm for the retrieval of rain rate over the open ocean from the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) multichannel imagery. This algorithm takes a more detailed physical approach to the retrieval problem than previously discussed algorithms that perform explicit forward radiative transfer calculations based on detailed model hydrometer profiles and attempt to match the observations to the predicted brightness temperature.

Petty, Grant W.; Stettner, David R.

1994-01-01

201

Permeability, Resistivity and Strength of Fouled Railroad Ballast  

E-print Network

.8 5.5 96.6 3.4 200 0.075 326.24 352.4 26.16 2.0 98.6 1.4 Pan 496.07 512.87 16.8 1.4 100.0 0.0 15 The grain size distribution of the clay used as fouling material was determined by hydrometer analysis in accordance with ASTM D22.2703-1. The grain...

Rahman, A. J.

2013-08-31

202

SUNRAYCE 1995: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

Dephillips, M. P.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

1994-05-01

203

Humidity local measurements in the middle atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a hydrometer, to be applied in stratospheric balloons for humidity measurements, is described. The device is also designed for satellite data validation. Data from the experiment carried out in the Southern Hemisphere, in November and December 1988, is discussed. The measurements between 20 and 70 hPa showed a volume mixture ratio from 3 to 6. The mechanism of the equatorial stratosphere drying is considered.

Ovarlez, J.; Capus, J.; Forichon, M.; Ovarlez, H.

1989-06-01

204

Comparison of 3 Methods to Assess Urine Specific Gravity in Collegiate Wrestlers.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and validity of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips in assessing urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers. DESIGN AND SETTING: We assessed the reliability of refractometry, hydrometry, and reagent strips between 2 trials and among 4 testers. The validity of hydrometry and reagent strips was assessed by comparison with refractometry, the criterion measure for urine specific gravity. SUBJECTS: Twenty-one National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III collegiate wrestlers provided fresh urine samples. MEASUREMENTS: Four testers measured the specific gravity of each urine sample 6 times: twice by refractometry, twice by hydrometry, and twice by reagent strips. RESULTS: Refractometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.998) and among testers; hydrometer measurements were consistent between trials (R =.987) but not among testers; and reagent-strip measurements were not consistent between trials or among testers. Hydrometer (1.018 +/- 0.006) and reagent-strip (1.017 +/- 0.007) measurements were significantly higher than refractometer (1.015 +/- 0.006) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate between refractometry and hydrometry (R =.869) and low between refractometry and reagent strips (R =.573). The hydrometer produced 28% false positives and 2% false negatives, and reagent strips produced 15% false positives and 9% false negatives. CONCLUSIONS: Only the refractometer should be used to determine urine specific gravity in collegiate wrestlers during the weight-certification process. PMID:14737213

Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Drury, Daniel G.

2003-12-01

205

Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.  

PubMed

Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm. PMID:15974265

Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

2005-05-01

206

On-farm quick tests for estimating nitrogen in dairy manure.  

PubMed

Manure nutrient analyses performed rapidly on the farm could be useful for nutrient management programs. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate six quick tests for their accuracy in estimating total manure N or NH4+-N. The quick tests included the hydrometer, electrical conductivity meter and pen, reflectometer, Agros N Meter, and Quantofix-N-Volumeter. The hydrometer was used to estimate total N, while the remaining tests were used to estimate NH4+-N. Samples (107) were collected from dairy farms in five northeastern states. Samples were analyzed for total N and NH4+-N by traditional laboratory methods and using each of the quick tests. Manure compositions ranged from 1.4 to 38.6% dry matter (DM), 0.9 to 9.5 kg/m3 total N, and 0.3 to 4.7 kg/m3 NH4+-N. The estimated concentration of total N or NH4+-N determined by each quick test was regressed against laboratory-determined values. The hydrometer did not estimate total N accurately. The strongest relationship for estimation of NH4+-N was with the Quantofix-N-Volumeter followed by the Agros N Meter, the reflectometer, and the electrical conductivity meter and pen. When the samples were split into high (>12%) and low (< or =12%) DM groups, in all cases the r2 for the regression equation was higher for the low DM group than for the high DM group. The Agros N Meter, the reflectometer, and the conductivity meter and pen did not perform well for the high DM group. These data indicate that several quick tests are viable options for measuring NH4+-N concentrations in dairy slurries and solids. PMID:10984160

Van Kessel, J S; Reeves, J B

2000-08-01

207

New methods of subcooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new methods of sub-cooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers are presented in this paper. The first one- impedance method use a new semiconductor mirror in which the dew point detector, the thermometer and the heaters were integrated all together. The second one an optical method based on a multi-section optical detector is discussed in the report. Experimental results of both methods are shown. New types of dew pont hydrometers of ability to recognized sub-cooled water were proposed.

Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard

2001-08-01

208

Estimation of Microphysical and Radiative Parameters of Precipitating Cloud Systems Using mm-Wavelength Radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote sensing approach is described to retrieve cloud and rainfall parameters within the same precipitating system. This approach is based on mm-wavelength radar signal attenuation effects which are observed in a layer of liquid precipitation containing clouds and rainfall. The parameters of ice clouds in the upper part of startiform precipitating systems are then retrieved using the absolute measurements of radar reflectivity. In case of the ground-based radar location, these measurements are corrected for attenuation in the intervening layer of liquid hydrometers.

Matrosov, Sergey Y.

2009-03-01

209

State of charge sensing means  

SciTech Connect

Electrolyte from a battery cell is circulated by pump, through a container which contains a hydrometer float, and back to the cell. The float has an opaque neck which interrupts light passing from a light source assembly to a light receiving assembly, and the receiving assembly controls slave means, which can be an illuminated sign, as for example a group of visible light emitting diodes, the number of which illuminated indicating the density of the electrolyte. The slave means can alternatively be a volt meter, or a battery charger, the rate of charge of which is controlled by a voltage signal.

Whitford, D.R.

1980-05-13

210

Soil Particle Size Distribution Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to sure the distribution of different sizes of soil particles in each horizon of a soil profile. Using dry, sieved soil from a horizon, students mix the soil with water and a dispersing solution to completely separate the particles from each other. Students shake the mixture to fully suspend the soil in the water. The soil particles are then allowed to settle out of suspension, and the specific gravity and temperature of the suspension are measured using a hydrometer and thermometer. These measurements are taken after 2 minutes and 24 hours.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

211

The measurement of temperature, ozone and water vapour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the importance of knowing temperature and humidity structure in the troposphere for the purpose of weather forecasting, temperature and humidity measurements as a function of pressure have been made for many decades. Recently, studies of the structure of the upper atmosphere have become of general interest. Many methods are employed to make measurements of three important atmospheric parameters. Some of these were developed through the use of the stratospheric research balloon, or high altitude sounding balloon. A sampling of these measurement techniques, such as the frost point hydrometer, an aluminum oxide humidity sensor, cryogenic sampling, ultraviolet fluorescence measurements, solar infrared absorption measurement by spectrometer, and infrared radiometry, are described in detail.

McElroy, T.

1985-06-01

212

Quantification of texture match of the skin graft: function and morphology of the stratum corneum.  

PubMed

In an attempt to analyze the "texture match" of grafted skin, functional and morphological aspects of the stratum corneum were studied using the Skin Surface Hydrometer (IBS Inc.) and the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that hygroscopicity and water holding capacity of the stratum corneum played a crucial role in making the skin surface soft and smooth. Morphologically there were regional differences in the surface pattern and the mean area of corneocytes, suggesting that these differences affect skin texture. It is suggested that the present functional and morphological studies of the stratum corneum can provide a quantitative measure of the "texture match". PMID:3535058

Inoue, K; Matsumoto, K

1986-01-01

213

Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

1993-01-01

214

A Quality Control study of the distribution of NOAA MIRS Cloudy retrievals during Hurricane Sandy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloudy radiance present a difficult challenge to data assimilation (DA) systems, through both the radiative transfer system as well the hydrometers required to resolve the cloud and precipitation. In most DA systems the hydrometers are not control variables due to many limitations. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MIRS) is producing products from the NPP-ATMS satellite where the scene is cloud and precipitation affected. The test case that we present here is the life time of Hurricane and then Superstorm Sandy in October 2012. As a quality control study we shall compare the retrieved water vapor content during the lifetime of Sandy with the first guess and the analysis from the NOAA Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system. The assessment involves the gross error check system against the first guess with different values for the observational error's variance to see if the difference is within three standard deviations. We shall also compare against the final analysis at the relevant cycles to see if the products which have been retrieved through a cloudy radiance are similar, given that the DA system does not assimilate cloudy radiances yet.

Fletcher, S. J.

2013-12-01

215

A simple formula for predicting claw volume of cattle.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to develop a simple method for accurately calculating the volume of bovine claws under field conditions. The digits of 30 slaughterhouse beef cattle were examined and the following four linear measurements taken from each pair of claws: (1) the length of the dorsal surface of the claw (Toe); (2) the length of the coronary band (CorBand); (3) the length of the bearing surface (Base); and (4) the height of the claw at the abaxial groove (AbaxGr). Measurements of claw volume using a simple hydrometer were highly repeatable (r(2)= 0.999) and could be calculated from linear measurements using the formula:Claw Volume (cm(3)) = (17.192 x Base) + (7.467 x AbaxGr) + 45.270 x (CorBand) - 798.5This formula was found to be accurate (r(2)= 0.88) when compared to volume data derived from a hydrometer displacement procedure. The front claws occupied 54% of the total volume compared to 46% for the hind claws. PMID:10558838

Scott, T D; Naylor, J M; Greenough, P R

1999-11-01

216

Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle.  

PubMed

Colostrum samples from 88 Jersey cows were analyzed for concentrations of IgG, IgM, IgA, total solids, specific gravity, and N fractions. Colostrum (50 ml) was sampled from each cow as soon as possible after parturition, and specific gravity was determined immediately using a hydrometer. Samples then were frozen prior to analysis of Ig, fat, and N fractions. Mean concentrations of IgG, IgM, and IgA were 65.8, 2.4, and 1.7 g/L, respectively. Concentration of IgG was lower, and IgA was higher, in colostrum from second lactation cows than from first lactation cows or from cows in third or later lactations; IgM increased linearly as lactation number increased. Total N, protein N, noncasein N, and fat contents also were lower in second lactation cows. Regression of total Ig (grams per liter) on specific gravity was -1172 + 1180 x specific gravity (r2 = .38). Relationship of total Ig to specific gravity differed from colostrum of Holstein cattle and may have been related to differences in fat and noncasein N concentrations. Use of specific gravity hydrometer to estimate Ig concentration using equations derived from Holstein cattle appears to underestimate Ig concentration in colostrum from Jersey cattle. PMID:8120194

Quigley, J D; Martin, K R; Dowlen, H H; Wallis, L B; Lamar, K

1994-01-01

217

Three-dimensional aspects of radiative transfer in remote sensing of precipitation: Application to the 1986 COHMEX storm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several multifrequency techniques for passive microwave estimation of precipitation based on the absorption and scattering properties of hydrometers have been proposed in the literature. In the present study, plane-parallel limitations are overcome by using a model based on the discrete-ordinates method to solve the radiative transfer equation in three-dimensional rectangular domains. This effectively accounts for the complexity and variety of radiation problems encountered in the atmosphere. This investigation presents result for plane-parallel and three-dimensional radiative transfer for a precipitating system, discusses differences between these results, and suggests possible explanations for these differences. Microphysical properties were obtained from the Colorado State University Regional Atmospehric Modeling System and represent a hailstorm observed during the 1986 Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment. These properties are used as input to a three-dimensional radiative transfer model in order to simulate satellite observation of the storm. The model output consists of upwelling brightness temperatures at several of the frequencies on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager. The radiative transfer model accounts for scattering and emission of atmospheric gases and hydrometers in liquid and ice phases. Brightness temperatures obtained from the three-dimensional model of this investigation indicate that horizontal inhomogeneities give rise to brightness temperature fields that can be quite different from fields obtained using plane-parallel radiative transfer theory. These differences are examined for various resolutions of the satellite sensor field of view. In adddition, the issue of boundary conditions for three-dimensional atmospheric radiative transfer is addressed.

Haferman, J. L.; Krajewski, W. F.; Smith, T. F.

1994-01-01

218

Radar volume reflectivity estimation using an array of ground-based rainfall drop size detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall drop size distribution (DSD) measurements made by single disdrometers at isolated ground sites have traditionally been used to estimate the transformation between weather radar reflectivity Z and rainfall rate R. Despite the immense disparity in sampling geometries, the resulting Z-R relation obtained by these single point measurements has historically been important in the study of applied radar meteorology. Simultaneous DSD measurements made at several ground sites within a microscale area may be used to improve the estimate of radar reflectivity in the air volume surrounding the disdrometer array. By applying the equations of motion for non-interacting hydrometers, a volume estimate of Z is obtained from the array of ground based disdrometers by first calculating a 3D drop size distribution. The 3D-DSD model assumes that only gravity and terminal velocity due to atmospheric drag within the sampling volume influence hydrometer dynamics. The sampling volume is characterized by wind velocities, which are input parameters to the 3D-DSD model, composed of vertical and horizontal components. Reflectivity data from four consecutive WSR-88D volume scans, acquired during a thunderstorm near Melbourne, FL on June 1, 1997, are compared to data processed using the 3D-DSD model and data form three ground based disdrometers of a microscale array.

Lane, John; Merceret, Francis; Kasparis, Takis; Roy, D.; Muller, Brad; Jones, W. Linwood

2000-08-01

219

Influence of multiple scattering on CloudSat measurements in snow: A model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of multiple scattering on larger precipitating hydrometers have an influence on measurements of the spaceborne W-band (94 GHz) CloudSat radar. This study presents initial quantitative estimates of these effects in “dry” snow using radiative transfer calculations for appropriate snowfall models. It is shown that these effects become significant (i.e., greater than approximately 1 dB) when snowfall radar reflectivity factors are greater than about 10-15 dBZ. Reflectivity enhancement due to multiple scattering can reach 4-5 dB in heavier stratiform snowfalls. Multiple scattering effects counteract signal attenuation, so the observed CloudSat reflectivity factors in snowfall could be relatively close to the values that would be observed in the case of single scattering and the absence of attenuation.

Matrosov, Sergey Y.; Battaglia, Alessandro

2009-06-01

220

RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

Moore, Richard K.

1991-09-01

221

Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.  

PubMed

An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. PMID:22736986

Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

2012-01-01

222

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: Recommended procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic disperson techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt% more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20-g to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer.

Heller, P. R.; Hayden, R. F.; Gee, G. W.

1984-11-01

223

Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

1991-01-01

224

Evaluation of a colorimetric reagent strip assay for urine specific gravity.  

PubMed

N-Multistix SG provides a convenient colorimetric assay for the determination of the specific gravity (sp. gr.) of freshly voided urine. When compared with results obtained by standard hydrometry, the colorimetric assay sp. gr. was observed to decrease by as much as 0.010 units as urine pH increased from 5 to 7. Moderate levels of proteinuria that did not alter hydrometer readings effectively raised the colorimetric sp. gr. by 0.005-0.010 units. The colorimetric assay was almost completely insensitive to clinically encountered concentrations of glucose and urea but responded appropriately to monovalent salts. The magnitude of these observed discrepancies places serious limitations on the value of the colorimetric sp. gr. measurement. PMID:6846262

Kirschbaum, B B

1983-06-01

225

Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for Highly Supercooled Cirrus Cloud Droplets.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixed-phase hydrometer growth model has been applied to determining the nucleation mode and rate responsible for the glaciation of a highly supercooled liquid cloud studied jointly by ground-based polarization lidar and aircraft in situ probes. The cloud droplets were detected at the base of an orographically induced cirrus cloud at temperatures between 34.3° and 37.3°C. The vertical distribution above cloud base of two independent data quantities, the aircraft-measured water and ice particle concentrations and the lidar linear depolarization ratio, have been compared to model predictions for both the homogeneous and heterogeneous drop-freezing. modes. It is concluded that, although activated ice nuclei may have contributed to the glaciation of the cloud, homogeneous nucleation was the dominant mode. Accordingly, a homogeneous nucleation rate 106 times greater than that predicted by classical theory, but 103 times less than laboratory measurements would suggest is found to be appropriate at the measured cloud temperatures.

Sassen, Kenneth; Dodd, Gregory C.

1988-04-01

226

The structure and phase of cloud tops as observed by polarization lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution observations of the structure of cloud tops have been obtained with polarization lidar operated from a high altitude aircraft. Case studies of measurements acquired from cumuliform cloud systems are presented, two from September 1979 observations in the area of Florida and adjacent waters and a third during the May 1981 CCOPE experiment in southeast Montana. Accurate cloud top height structure and relative density of hydrometers are obtained from the lidar return signal intensity. Correlation between the signal return intensity and active updrafts was noted. Thin cirrus overlying developing turrets was observed in some cases. Typical values of the observed backscatter cross section were 0.1-5 (km/sr) for cumulonimbus tops. The depolarization ratio of the lidar signals was a function of the thermodynamic phase of cloud top areas. An increase of the cloud top depolarization with decreasing temperature was found for temperatures above and below -40 C.

Spinhirne, J. D.; Hansen, M. Z.; Simpson, J.

1983-01-01

227

A statistical technique for determining rainfall over land employing Nimbus-6 ESMR measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At 37 GHz, the frequency at which the Nimbus 6 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR 6) measures upwelling radiance, it was shown theoretically that the atmospheric scattering and the relative independence on electromagnetic polarization of the radiances emerging from hydrometers make it possible to monitor remotely active rainfall over land. In order to verify experimentally these theoretical findings and to develop an algorithm to monitor rainfall over land, the digitized ESMR 6 measurements were examined statistically. Horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperature pairs (TH, TV) from ESMR 6 were sampled for areas of rainfall over land as determined from the rain recording stations and the WSR 57 radar, and areas of wet and dry ground (whose thermodynamic temperatures were greater than 5 C) over the Southeastern United States. These three categories of brightness temperatures were found to be significantly different in the sense that the chances that the mean vectors of any two populations coincided were less than 1 in 100.

Rodgers, E.; Siddalingaiah, H.; Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.

1978-01-01

228

The energy requirements of an aircraft triggered discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corona produced at aircraft surfaces requires an energy input before the corona can develop into a high current discharge and, thus, a possible lightning stroke. This energy must be drawn from the space charge field of the thundercloud and, since this is of low density, the unique propagation characteristics of positive corona streamers may be important. Estimates of the energy made available by the propagation are compared with laboratory measurements of the minimum energy input required to trigger a breakdown. The comparison indicates a minimum streamer range for breakdown of several tens of meters. Also estimated is the energy released as a consequence of streamer-hydrometer interactions; this is shown to be significant so that breakdown could depend upon the precipitation rate within the cloud. Inhibiting streamer production may therefore provide an aircraft with a degree of corona protection.

Bicknell, J. A.; Shelton, R. W.

229

RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

Moore, Richard K.

1991-01-01

230

Electromagnetic model for propagation through clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic propagation through a sparse distribution of lossy dielectric particles in a cloud is investigated. A mathematical model is developed to aid in the interpretation of the interaction data obtained by electromagnetic remote probing of mixed ice crystal and waterdrop clouds. Such clouds can contain many possible crystal forms, most notably thin long cylinder, bullets, and flat plate crystals. Bistatic reflectivity and attenuation are computed for waves of selected polarizations passing through clouds with specified size, shape, and distributions. The proposed formulation is matrix and stochastic in nature, and easily accomodates arbitrary polarization states. It allows complete characterization of medium depolarization effects from hydrometers (e.g., attenuation, isolation, and shape shift). The results obtained are of interest in connection with the study of the effects of clouds on microwave or millimeter-wave communications.

Seker, S. S.

231

Wavelet-based image analysis system for soil texture analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil texture is defined as the relative proportion of clay, silt and sand found in a given soil sample. It is an important physical property of soil that affects such phenomena as plant growth and agricultural fertility. Traditional methods used to determine soil texture are either time consuming (hydrometer), or subjective and experience-demanding (field tactile evaluation). Considering that textural patterns observed at soil surfaces are uniquely associated with soil textures, we propose an innovative approach to soil texture analysis, in which wavelet frames-based features representing texture contents of soil images are extracted and categorized by applying a maximum likelihood criterion. The soil texture analysis system has been tested successfully with an accuracy of 91% in classifying soil samples into one of three general categories of soil textures. In comparison with the common methods, this wavelet-based image analysis approach is convenient, efficient, fast, and objective.

Sun, Yun; Long, Zhiling; Jang, Ping-Rey; Plodinec, M. John

2003-05-01

232

Use of High-Resolution Satellite Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cloud and precipitation statistics simulated by 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model for different environmental conditions, i.e., the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX), CRYSTAL-FACE, and KAWJEX are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) TMI and PR rainfall measurements and as well as cloud observations from the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. It is found that GCE is capable of simulating major convective system development and reproducing total surface rainfall amount as compared with rainfall estimated from the soundings. The model presents large discrepancies in rain spectrum and vertical hydrometer profiles. The discrepancy in the precipitation field is also consistent with the cloud and radiation observations. The study will focus on the effects of large scale forcing and microphysics to the simulated model- observation discrepancies.

Zhou, Y.; Tao, W.; Hou, A. Y.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.

2007-12-01

233

An improved version of the extended velocity-azimuth display analysis of single-Doppler radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended velocity-azimuth display (EVAD) analysis is useful for obtaining vertical profiles of horizontal divergence, vertical air velocity, vertical hydrometer velocity, and hydrometeor terminal fall speed in widespread precipitation. The technique uses a volume of velocity data collected with a single Doppler radar. Several improvements to the previously reported EVAD technique are discussed. They include the weighting of Fourier series coefficients to reflect their estimated error, a correction for heteroscedasticity (the systematic variation of residuals) in the regression analysis, and the weighting of data from different elevation angles to compensate for the finite thickness of the layers in which each analysis is performed. Vertical air velocity is obtained through a variational procedure. Procedures for dealiasing the velocity data and for rejecting outliers from the dataset are summarized. Recommendations for collecting radar data for use in EVAD analysis are made.

Matejka, Thomas; Srivastava, Ramesh C.

1991-08-01

234

Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

1984-11-01

235

An Algorithm to Estimate the Heating Budget from Vertical Hydrometeor Profiles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometer profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a non-hydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algorithm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Lang, Stephen; McCumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Penc, Richard

1990-12-01

236

Volumetric leak detection system for underground storage tanks and the like  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for detecting and measuring leaks from underground tanks having a fill pipe at an upper end thereof and having other pipes connected thereto, and containing a liquid that extends up into the fill pipe. It comprises: a test pipe, a test instrumentation assembly of elements contained in the test pipe, a multiconductor electronic cable assembly with cables connected to the elements of the test instrumentation assembly, a computer-controlled data acquisition unit connected to the cable assembly, a digital computer connected to an controlling the data acquisition unit and having timing means, a memory, and an output, an integral plotter and a printer connected to the output, hydrometer means for measuring the specific gravity of the tank liquid and for passing the measured value to the data acquisition unit, and inclinometer means for measuring the inclination angle of the tank fill pipe and for passing the value of that angle to the data acquisition unit.

Mastandrea, J.R.

1989-07-25

237

Water Body Salinities II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discuss the different salinities of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. For the first test, learners make a hydrometer and use it to measure the density of the liquid samples. In the second test, learners freeze the water samples and examine them at certain time intervals to check degree of freezing, texture of the frozen samples, and other specifics that vary according to the amount of salt in the water. This activity can follow the Water Salinities I activity and/or be used in conjunction with the Estuaries activity, both of which can be found on SMILE.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

238

Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements  

PubMed Central

An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. PMID:22736986

Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

2012-01-01

239

Transhorizon microwave propagation and its relationship with meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement and modeling of X-Band transhorizon propagation is addressed. Propagation of microwaves beyond the horizon can occur by the mechanism of scattering from eddies of atmospheric turbulence or from hydrometers, partial reflection from stable atmospheric layers of feuillets, diffraction, and ducting. The dominant mechanism operating on a link at any given time is dependent upon the weather conditions. From a network of X-Band links across the English Channel (La Manche) examples of propagation due to turbulent scatter, hydrometer scatter, partial reflections and ducting were identified. Models were developed for propagation due to turbulent and hydrometeor scatter and to partial reflections. The method for predicting the signal levels received due to scattering mechanisms is based on the Radar Equation, with the Rayleigh differential scattering cross-section in the case of rain scatter, and a differential scattering cross-section calculated using a Kolmogorov spectrum of eddy sizes in a turbulent atmosphere. The model for propagation by partial reflections is based on the Friis transmission equation together with the Fresnel reflection coefficients of layers with known refractivity profiles. A method for identifying which mechanism is operating over a link at a given time from the meteorological synoptic chart for that time was developed. In this study, ducting was modeled as total reflection, since at X-Band frequencies ray-tracing modeling can be used with negligible loss of accuracy. Turbulent scatter is the dominant mechanism when the link is under the influence of depressions or fronts. The meteorological classification method was applied to 12 months of data, from Jun. 1988 to May 1989. It was found that although most of the synoptic charts are relatively easily classified, discrete categories are not always easily applied to the continuous range of meteorological conditions. Some 5 percent of charts were difficult to classify. Some of these could on occasion have a disproportionately large effect on the overall cumulative distribution prediction.

Spillard, Candida

1990-01-01

240

The Impact of Assimilating Precipitation-affected Radiance on Cloud and Precipitation in Goddard WRF-EDAS Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-frequency TMI and AMSR-E radiances, which are sensitive to precipitation over land, are assimilated into the Goddard Weather Research and Forecasting Model- Ensemble Data Assimilation System (WRF-EDAS) for a few heavy rain events over the continental US. Independent observations from surface rainfall, satellite IR brightness temperatures, as well as ground-radar reflectivity profiles are used to evaluate the impact of assimilating rain-sensitive radiances on cloud and precipitation within WRF-EDAS. The evaluations go beyond comparisons of forecast skills and domain-mean statistics, and focus on studying the cloud and precipitation features in the jointed rainradiance and rain-cloud space, with particular attentions on vertical distributions of height-dependent cloud types and collective effect of cloud hydrometers. Such a methodology is very helpful to understand limitations and sources of errors in rainaffected radiance assimilations. It is found that the assimilation of rain-sensitive radiances can reduce the mismatch between model analyses and observations by reasonably enhancing/reducing convective intensity over areas where the observation indicates precipitation, and suppressing convection over areas where the model forecast indicates rain but the observation does not. It is also noted that instead of generating sufficient low-level warmrain clouds as in observations, the model analysis tends to produce many spurious upperlevel clouds containing small amount of ice water content. This discrepancy is associated with insufficient information in ice-water-sensitive radiances to address the vertical distribution of clouds with small amount of ice water content. Such a problem will likely be mitigated when multi-channel multi-frequency radiances/reflectivity are assimilated over land along with sufficiently accurate surface emissivity information to better constrain the vertical distribution of cloud hydrometers.

Lin, Xin; Zhang, Sara Q.; Zupanski, M.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, J.

2015-01-01

241

Water: from the source to the treatment plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment plant of Europe in Vienna. Lesson 7: Objectives of the session: Water Quality Monitoring: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (chemical analysis) in common with my colleague.

Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

2012-04-01

242

Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures.  

PubMed

Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213gL(-1), in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m(-1)). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP(s)) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP(s)) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP(s) = 0.471 x MRP(s) + 1102 (r2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH < or = 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r2) for the MRP(s) and RQFlex-DP(s) relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. PMID:15701402

Lugo-Ospina, A; Dao, Thanh H; Van Kessel, J A; Reeves, J B

2005-05-01

243

Modeling a tropical rainforest river basin in the Philippines using the distributed hydrologic model MOBIDIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MOdello Bilancio Idrologico DIstributo e Continuo (MOBIDIC), a distributed physics-based hydrologic model that solves both mass and energy balance, was used to investigate a 103 sq. km. mountainous river basin in southern Philippines. The basin is covered by tropical rain forest (TRF) with small patches of upland crop cultivation, and underlain by thin clayey soil over porous volcanic tuff geology. Aside from being the first application of MOBIDIC on a TRF basin, this paper also demonstrates how a sophisticated hydrologic model can be developed using freely- and globally-available remotely-sensed data, plus only minimal field observations and streamflow measurements. Based on simulation of water years 2009-2012, the average annual rainfall of 3,877 mm was partitioned into 22% quick flow, 38% base flow, 37% evapotranspiration, and 3% recharge to the regional groundwater system. The vegetation intercepts about 12% of the total rainfall, and the soil layer is almost always at or above field capacity. Simulations of some scenarios indicate that climate change will have greater impact than loss of vegetative cover, and the impact is more signicant on the low flow than the peak flow regime. Hopefully, these insights will be of use to local decision makers as they improve their systems for water supply, watershed management, and climate change impact mitigation. Maps of the Tamugan River Basin showing the location, topography, river network and hydromet stations Effects of loss of vegetation

Castillo, A. E.

2013-12-01

244

Pattern recognition of the targets with help of polarization properties of the signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed to use the possibility of recognition of the targets on background of the scattering from the surface, weather objects with the help of polarimetric 3-cm radar. It has been investigated such polarization characteristics: the amplitudes of the polarization matrix elements; an anisotropy coefficient; depolarization coefficient; asymmetry coefficient; the energy section was less than 1 dB at ranges up to 15 km and less than 1.5 dB at ranges up to 100 km. During the experiments urban objects and 6 various ships of small displacement having the closest values of the backscattering cross-section were used. The analysis has shown: the factor of the polarization selection for anisotropy objects and weather objects had the values about 0.02-0.08 Isotropy had the values of polarimetric correlation factor for hydrometers about 0.7-0.8, for earth surface about 0.8-0.9, for sea surface - from 0.33 to 0.7. The results of the work of recognition algorithm of a class 'concrete objects', and 'metal objects' are submitted as example in the paper. The result of experiments have shown that the probability of correct recognition of the identified objects was in the limits from 0.93 to 0.97.

Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; de Rivera, Luis N.; Castellanos, Aldo B.; Popov, Anatoly V.

1999-10-01

245

Monitoring the battery status for photovoltaic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic power systems in Korea have been installed in remote islands where it is difficult to connect the utilities. Lead/acid batteries are used as an energy storage device for the stand-alone photovoltaic system. Hence, monitoring the battery status of photovoltaic systems is quite important to extend the total system service life. To monitor the state-of-charge of batteries, we adopted a current interrupt technique to measure the internal resistance of the battery. The internal resistance increases at the end of charge/discharge steps and also with cycles. The specific gravity of the electrolyte was measured in relation to the state-of-charge. A home-made optical hydrometer was utilized for automatic monitoring of the specific gravity. It is shown that the specific gravity and stratification increase with cycle number. One of the photovoltaic systems in a remote island, Ho-do, which has 90 kW peak power was checked for actual operational conditions such as solar generation, load, and battery status.

Kim, Myungsoo; Hwang, Euijin

246

Permeability and compressibility of resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a constant-rate-of strain consolidation test on resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock to determine the compression index (Cc) to be 0.618 and the expansion index (Ce) to be 0.083. We used crushed, homogenized Pliocene and Pleistocene mudrock extracted from cored wells in the Eugene Island block 330 oil field. This powdered material has a liquid limit (LL) of 87, a plastic limit (PL) of 24, and a plasticity index (PI) of 63. The particle size distribution from hydrometer analyses is approximately 65% clay-sized particles (<2 ?m) with the remainder being less than 70 microns in diameter. Resedimented specimens have been used to characterize the geotechnical and geophysical behavior of soils and mudstones independent of the variability of natural samples and without the effects of sampling disturbance. Previous investigations of resedimented offshore Gulf of Mexico sediments (e.g. Mazzei, 2008) have been limited in scope. This is the first test of the homogenized Eugene Island core material. These results will be compared to in situ measurements to determine the controls on consolidation over large stress ranges.

Betts, W. S.; Flemings, P. B.; Schneider, J.

2011-12-01

247

Role of mixed precipitating cloud systems on the typhoon rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L-band wind profiler data are utilized to diagnose the vertical structure of the typhoon precipitating cloud systems in Taiwan. For several typhoons, a pronounced bright band (BB) around 5 km is commonly observed from the observation. Since strong convection within typhoon circulation may disturb and/or disrupt the melting layer, the BB shall not appear persistently. Hence, an understanding of the vertical structure of the BB region is important because it holds extensive hydrometeors information on the type of precipitation and its variability. Wind profiler observational results suggest that the mixture of convective and stratiform (embedded type) clouds are mostly associated with typhoons. In the case of one typhoon, BB is appeared around 5.5 km with embedded precipitation and also BB height of 1 km higher than ordinary showery precipitation. This is evident from the long-term observations of wind profiler and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. The Doppler velocity profiles show hydrometers (ice/snow) at 6 km but liquid below 5 km for typhoons and 4 km for showery precipitation. In the BB region the melting particles accelerations of 5.8 ms-1 km-1 and 3.2 ms-1 km-1 are observed for typhoon and showery precipitation, respectively.

Pan, C. J.; Krishna Reddy, K.; Lai, H. C.; Yang, S. S.

2010-01-01

248

Investigation of a Hydrostatic Weighing Method for a 1 kg Mass Comparator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass comparator for the comparison of 1 kg weights was built according to a hydrostatic weighing principle, where the buoyancy in a liquid serves to compensate the force due to gravity. In accordance with the method known for hydrometers or areometers, the immersion depth of a float is measured as a function of the force due to gravity, using a laser interferometer. The substitution principle can thus be quite simply realized at constant load. An essential advantage of this weighing method compared with the mechanical beam balance results from the frictionless and vibration-resistant bearing of the float in the liquid. For achieving a high accuracy with this technique, two prerequisites were important: the reduction of the influence of temperature by adapting the coefficients of expansion of buoyant body and liquid to each other, and the improvement of the wetting property of the liquid by adding a surfactant. The accuracy was further improved by the use of an electromagnetic feedback control to keep the immersion depth constant. By this method, a relative standard deviation of the weighings of better than 5 × 10-9 could be achieved.

Probst, R.; Kochsiek, M.

1984-01-01

249

Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

Lee, In Young

1993-09-01

250

A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

1987-05-01

251

Inference of precipitation through thermal infrared measurements of soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physics of microwave radiative transfer is well understood so that causal models can be assembled which relate the observed brightness temperatures to assumed distributions of hydrometeors (both liquid and ice), non-precipitating clouds, water vapor oxygen, and surface conditions. Present models assume a Marshall Palmer size distribution of liquid hydrometers from the surface to the freezing level (near the 0 C isotherm) and a variable thickness of frozen hydrometeors above that with various reasonable distribution of the other relevant constituents. The validity of such models is discussed. All uncertainties in the rain rate retrieval algorithms can be expressed in terms of specific model uncertainties which can be addressed through appropriate measurements. Those factors which must be known to achieve umambiguous results can be identified so that rainfall measuring algorithms can be developed and improved. The emissivity of the underlying surface significantly affects the contrast that may be measured between areas covered by rain and those which are dry. Sensing strategies for measuring rain over the ocean and rain over land are reviewed.

Wetzel, P. J.; Atlas, D.

1981-01-01

252

QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

Innis, B.E.

1993-07-21

253

Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to changes in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to (rho(eta))(exp (1/2)), where rho is the liquid density and eta is the viscosity.

Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Rumpf, A. N.

254

Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to hanges in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the Corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to ({rho}{eta}) {sup {1/2}}, where {rho} is the liquid density and {eta} is the viscosity.

Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.; Wessendorf, K.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rumpf, A.N. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-06-01

255

Ice Nucleation in Deep Convection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The processes controlling production of ice crystals in deep, rapidly ascending convective columns are poorly understood due to the difficulties involved with either modeling or in situ sampling of these violent clouds. A large number of ice crystals are no doubt generated when droplets freeze at about -40 C. However, at higher levels, these crystals are likely depleted due to precipitation and detrainment. As the ice surface area decreases, the relative humidity can increase well above ice saturation, resulting in bursts of ice nucleation. We will present simulations of these processes using a large-eddy simulation model with detailed microphysics. Size bins are included for aerosols, liquid droplets, ice crystals, and mixed-phase (ice/liquid) hydrometers. Microphysical processes simulated include droplet activation, freezing, melting, homogeneous freezing of sulfate aerosols, and heterogeneous ice nucleation. We are focusing on the importance of ice nucleation events in the upper part of the cloud at temperatures below -40 C. We will show that the ultimate evolution of the cloud in this region (and the anvil produced by the convection) is sensitive to these ice nucleation events, and hence to the composition of upper tropospheric aerosols that get entrained into the convective column.

Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew; Stevens, David; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

256

Orbit and sampling requirements: TRMM experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) concept originated in 1984. Its overall goal is to produce datasets that can be used in the improvement of general circulation models. A primary objective is a multi-year data stream of monthly averages of rain rate over 500 km boxes over the tropical oceans. Vertical distributions of the hydrometers, related to latent heat profiles, and the diurnal cycle of rainrates are secondary products believed to be accessible. The mission is sponsored jointly by the U.S. and Japan. TRMM is an approved mission with launch set for 1997. There are many retrieval and ground truth issues still being studied for TRMM, but here we concentrate on sampling since it is the single largest term in the error budget. The TRMM orbit plane is inclined by 35 degrees to the equator, which leads to a precession of the visits to a given grid box through the local hours of the day, requiring three to six weeks to complete the diurnal cycle, depending on latitude. For sampling studies we can consider the swath width to be about 700 km.

North, Gerald

1993-01-01

257

Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

2007-04-01

258

Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of sand and dust particles at 11 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements are reported of the refractive index (Delta-n) and loss tangent (tan delta) of dust particles in a laboratory-simulated model of dust storms, carried out at 11 GHz utilizing a confocal microwave open-cavity resonator. Four samples were used namely, sandy, silty, clayey silt, and clayey, for concentrations varying from 10-4 to 4 x 10-3 g/cu cm. The particle-size distribution (PSD) of each sample was measured by seiving along with the hydrometer technique. Dielectric-constant measurements were also conducted at bulk concentrations using the standing-wave technique for the dry samples and as a function of volumetric moisture content for up to 0.5 cu cm/cu cm. The complex dielectric constant of the dust particle material was evaluated by two approaches. In one the data for permittivities obtained over the whole range of measured concentrations were extrapolated to the particle densities of the samples. In the other a mixing formula was utilized for the determination of epsilon(s) from permittivities measured at bulk concentrations.

Al-Rizzo, Hussain M.; Al-Hafid, Hafid T.

1988-03-01

259

Factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with colostral specific gravity in dairy cows, as measured by a commercially available hydrometer (Colostrometer). Colostral specific gravity was measured in 1085 first-milking colostrum samples from 608 dairy cows of four breeds on a single farm during a 5-yr period. Effects of breed, lactation number, and month and year of calving on colostral specific gravity were determined, as were correlations between colostral specific gravity, nonlactating period length, and 305-d yields of milk, protein, and fat. For 75 multiparous Holstein cows, relationships between colostral specific gravity, colostral IgG1, protein, and fat concentrations, and season of calving were determined. Colostral specific gravity values were lower for Brown Swiss and Ayrshire cows than for Jersey and Holstein cows, and lower for cows entering first or second lactation than third or later lactations. Month of calving markedly affected colostral specific gravity values, with highest values occurring in autumn and lowest values in summer. In multiparous Holstein cows, colostral specific gravity was more strongly correlated with colostral protein concentration (r = 0.76) than IgG1 concentration (r = 0.53), and colostral protein concentration varied seasonally (higher in autumn than summer). Our results demonstrate that colostral specific gravity more closely reflects colostral protein concentration than IgG1 concentration and is markedly influenced by month of calving. These results highlight potential limitations of using colostral specific gravity as an indicator of IgG1 concentration. PMID:11352170

Morin, D E; Constable, P D; Maunsell, F P; McCoy, G C

2001-04-01

260

Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of Upward Lightning-Producing Storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) seeks to determine how upward lightning, which originates from the tips of tall objects, is triggered by nearby flash activity. As a component of this study we analyze standard and dual-polarization weather radar data. The Correlation Coefficient (CC) in particular can be used to identify and quantify the melting layer associated with storms that produce upward lightning. It has been proposed that positive charge generation due to aggregate shedding at the melting layer results in a positive charge region just above the cloud base. This positive charge region may serve as a positive potential well favorable for negative leader propagation, which initiate upward positive leaders from tall objects. We characterize the horizontal coverage, thickness and height of the melting layer in addition to cloud base heights when upward lightning occurs to determine trends and possible threshold criteria relating to upward lightning production. Furthermore, we characterize storm type and morphology using relevant schemes as well as precipitation type using the Hydrometer Classification Algorithm (HCA) for upward lightning-producing storms. Ice-phase hydrometeors have been shown to be a significant factor in thunderstorm electrification. Only a small fraction of storms produce upward lightning, so null cases will be examined and compared as well.

Lueck, R.; Helsdon, J. H.; Warner, T.

2013-12-01

261

Development of the millimeter-wave complex, intended for environmental control of nuclear, chemical, and power production facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concerned with the development of the millimeter wave complex, intended for environmental control. To organize a reliable system for control and monitoring of the atmosphere one needs an adequate set of the measurement methods and devices for carrying out the needed measurements. At best, the devices must be capable of the remote sensing of the atmosphere in the continuous mode and should have proper means for communication with the central data acquisition system. The most informative methods for the atmospheric measurements are based on the microwave remote sensing. Particularly, using a 5-millimeter receiver (radiometer) it is possible to measure temperature vs. height dependence up to 1 km with required for temperature and height resolutions. Besides, a 3-millimeter coherent radar can be used for measuring the amount of condensed water (fog, rain, clouds) and smoke. Such hydrometers and other small particles support a dissipation of pollution from the accident to the distant areas. Besides, the radar allows us to measure the speed and direction of wind, which is very important for prediction of the danger for the other areas. So, the microwave complex, consisting of a 5-mm radiometer and a 3-mm coherent radar enables us to obtain needed information about the atmosphere state and to predict situation after the accident took place.

Kosov, A. S.; Vald-Perlov, V. M.; Strukov, I. A.

1997-08-01

262

Numerical Hindcast Experiments for Study Tropical Convections and MJO Events during Year of Tropical Convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant component of intraseasonal variability in the tropic. It interacts and influences a wide range of weather and climate phenomena across different temporal and spatial scales. Despite the important role the MJO plays in the weather and climate system, past multi-model MJO intercomparison studies have shown that current global general circulation models (GCMs) still have considerable shortcomings in representing and forecasting this phenomenon. To improve representation of MJO and tropical convective cloud systems in global model, an Multiscale Modeling Framework (MMF) in which a cloud-resolving model takes the place of the sing-column cumulus parameterization used in convectional GCMs has been successfully developed at NAAS Goddard (Tao et al. 2009). To evaluate and improve the ability of this modeling system in representation and prediction of the MJO, several numerical hindcast experiments of a few selected MJO events during YOTC have been carried out. The ability of the model to simulate the MJO events is examined using diagnostic and skill metrics developed by the CLIVAR MJO Working Group Project as well as comparisons with a high-resolution global mesoscale model simulations, satellite observations, and analysis dataset. Several key variables associated with the MJO are investigated, including precipitation, outgoing longwave radiation, large-scale circulation, surface latent heat flux, low-level moisture convergence, vertical structure of moisture and hydrometers, and vertical diabatic heating profiles to gain insight of cloud processes associated with the MJO events.

Chern, J.; Tao, W.; Shen, B.

2011-12-01

263

The partitioning of ketones between the gas and aqueous phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most ketones are not significantly hydrated; they therefore retain their chromophore and they could be photolytically degraded in solution yielding a variety of products including carboxylic acids, aldehydes and radicals. It is difficult to accurately model the partitioning of ketones between the gas phase and aqueous phase because of the lack suitable estimates of the Henry's Law constants; consequently the fate and environmental effects of ketones cannot be confidently predicted. Here we report the experimental determination of the Henry's Law constants of a series of ketones that has yielded a simple straight line equation to predict the Henry's Law constants of simple aliphatic ketones: log H ? =0.23?? ? + 1.51; where H ? is the effective Henry's Law constant (M atm -1, and ?? ? is the Taft polar substituents constants. The results for 25°C are (M atm -1) CH 3COCH 3, 32; C 6H 5COCH 3, 110; CH 2ClCOCH 3, 59; CH 3COCOCH 3, 74; CF 3COCH 3, 138. Acetophenone appears to have an abnormally high H ?. Most low molecular weight aliphatic ketones are predicted to characterized by H ??30 M atm -1 and therefore they are expected to be found in the aqueous phase at concentrations of ?5 - 0.5 ?M (given a typical gas-phase concentration range of 1-10 ppbv). The expected rate of decomposition of ketones due to photolysis in hydrometers is briefly discussed.

Betterton, Eric A.

264

A flood routing Muskingum type simulation and forecasting model based on level data alone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the use of remote hydrometers for measuring the level in water courses is both economical and widespread, the same cannot be said for cross section and channel profile measurements and, even less, for rating curves at the measuring cross sections, all of which are more often than not incomplete, out of date, and unreliable. The mass of data involved in level measurements alone induces a degree of perplexity in those who try to use them, for example, for flood event simulations or the construction of forecasting models which are not purely statistical. This paper proposes a method which uses recorded level data alone to construct a simulation model and a forecasting model, both of them characterized by an extremely simple structure that can be used on any pocket calculator. These models, referring to a river reach bounded by two measuring sections, furnish the downstream levels, where the upstream levels are known, and the downstream level at time t + ?t*, where the upstream and downstream levels are known at time t, respectively. The numerical applications performed show that while the simulation model is somewhat penalized by the simplifications adopted, giving not consistently satisfactory results on validation, the forecasting model generated good results in all the cases examined and seems reliable.

Franchini, Marco; Lamberti, Paolo

1994-07-01

265

Drop size distribution comparisons between Parsivel and 2-D video disdrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements from a 2-D video disdrometer (2DVD) have been used for drop size distribution (DSD) comparisons with co-located Parsivel measurements in Huntsville, Alabama. The comparisons were made in terms of the mass-weighted mean diameter, Dm, the standard deviation of the mass-spectrum, ?m, and the rainfall rate, R, all based on 1-min DSD from the two instruments. Time series comparisons show close agreement in all three parameters for cases where R was less than 20 mm h-1. In four cases, discrepancies in all three parameters were seen for "heavy" events, with the Parsivel showing higher Dm, ?m and R, when R reached high values (particularly above 30 mm h-1). Possible causes for the discrepancies include the presence of a small percentage of non-fully melted hydrometers, with higher than expected fall velocity and with very different axis ratios as compared with rain, indicating small hail or ice pellets or graupel. We also present here Parsivel-to-Parsivel comparisons as well as comparisons between two 2DVD instruments, namely a low-profile unit and the latest generation, "compact unit" which was installed at the same site in November 2009. The comparisons are included to assess the variability between the same types of instrument. Correlation coefficients and the fractional standard errors are compared.

Thurai, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Tokay, A.; Schultz, C.; Gatlin, P.

2011-05-01

266

Total Lightning and Radar Storm Characteristics Associated with Severe Storms in Central Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of prior studies have examined the association of lightning activity with the occurrence of severe weather and tornadoes, in particular. High flash rates are often observed in tornadic storms (Taylor, 1973; Johnson, 1980; Goodman and Knupp, 1993) but not always. Taylor found that 23% of nontornadic storms and 1% of non-severe storms had sferics rates comparable to the tornadic storms. MacGorman (1993) found that storms with mesocyclones produced more frequent intracloud (IC) lightning than cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. MacGorman (1993) and others suggest that the lightning activity accompanying tomadic storms will be dominated by intracloud lightning-with an increase in intracloud and total flash rates as the updraft increases in depth, size, and velocity. In a recent study, Perez et al. (1998) found that CG flash rates alone are too variable to be a useful predictor of (F4, F5) tornado formation. Studies of non-tomadic storms have also shown that total lightning flash rates track the updraft, with rates increasing as the updraft intensities and decreasing rapidly with cessation of vertical growth or downburst onset (Goodman et al., 1988; Williams et al., 1989). Such relationships result from the development of mixed phase precipitation and increased hydrometer collisions that lead to the efficient separation of charge. Correlations between updraft strength and other variables such as cloud-top height, cloud water mass, and hail size have also been observed.

Goodman, Steven J.; Raghavan, Ravi; Ramachandran, Rahul; Buechler, Dennis; Hodanish, Stephen; Sharp, David; Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark

1998-01-01

267

Millimeter wave radiative transfer studies for precipitation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scattering calculations using the discrete dipole approximation and vector radiative transfer calculations were performed to model multiparameter radar return and passive microwave emission for a simple model of a winter storm. The issue of dendrite riming was addressed by computing scattering properties of thin ice disks with varying bulk density. It was shown that C-band multiparameter radar contains information about particle density and the number concentration of the ice particles. The radiative transfer modeling indicated that polarized multifrequency passive microwave emission may be used to infer some properties of ice hydrometers. Detailed radar modeling and vector radiative transfer modeling is in progress to enhance the understanding of simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements, as in the case of the proposed TRMM field program. A one-dimensional cloud model will be used to simulate the storm structure in detail and study the microphysics, such as size and density. Multifrequency polarized radiometer measurements from the SSMI satellite instrument will be analyzed in relation to dual-frequency and dual-polarization radar measurements.

Vivekanandan, J.; Evans, Frank

1989-01-01

268

Specific gravity of bovine colostrum immunoglobulins as affected by temperature and colostrum components.  

PubMed

The effects of temperature and colostrum components on specific gravity in bovine colostrum were investigated. Thirty-nine first milking colostrum samples were collected from Holstein cows. The samples were assayed for alpha-tocopherol, fat, protein, total solids, and IgG. The concentrations of total solids, total protein, total IgG, and fat in colostrum were 26.6, 12.5, 3.7, and 9.4 g/100 g, respectively. A range of 1.8 to 24.7 micrograms/ml for alpha-tocopherol was measured in the colostrum samples. Specific gravity of the colostrum was measured using a hydrometer in increments of 5 degrees C from 0 to 40 degrees C. Specific gravity explained 76% of the variation in colostral total IgG at a colostrum temperature of 20 degrees C. The regression model was improved only slightly with the addition of protein, fat, and total solids. The model for samples at 20 degrees C was IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 958 x (specific gravity) - 969. Measurement of specific gravity at variable temperatures necessitated inclusion of temperature in the model for estimation of IgG. Inclusion of the other components of colostrum into the model slightly improved the fit. The regression model for samples at variable temperatures was as follows: IgG (milligrams per milliliter) = 853 x (specific gravity) + .4 x temperature (Celsius degrees) - 866. PMID:1460140

Mechor, G D; Gröhn, Y T; McDowell, L R; Van Saun, R J

1992-11-01

269

Rating Curve Estimation from Local Levels and Upstream Discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current technology allows for low cost and easy level measurements while the discharge measurements are still difficult and expensive. Thus, these are rarely performed and usually not in flood conditions because of lack of safety and difficulty in activating the measurement team in due time. As a consequence, long series of levels are frequently available without the corresponding discharge values. However, for the purpose of planning, management of water resources and real time flood forecasting, discharge is needed and it is therefore essential to convert local levels into discharge values by using the appropriate rating curve. Over this last decade, several methods have been proposed to relate local levels at a site of interest to data recorded at a river section located upstream where a rating curve is available. Some of these methods are based on a routing approach which uses the Muskingum model structure in different ways; others are based on the entropy concepts. Lately, fuzzy logic has been applied more and more frequently in the framework of hydraulic and hydrologic problems and this has prompted to the authors to use it for synthesising the rating curves. A comparison between all these strategies is performed, highlighting the difficulties and advantages of each of them, with reference to a long reach of the Po river in Italy, where several hydrometers and the relevant rating curves are available, thus allowing for both a parameterization and validation of the different strategies.

Franchini, M.; Mascellani, G.

2003-04-01

270

Plateau tank apparatus for the study of liquid bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus has been constructed and used to study the equilibrium and dynamical behavior of liquid bridges under reduced effective gravity. Liquid bridges are created and manipulated using six independent computer controlled stepper motors which drive linear motion tables. The bridges are visualized with a high magnification coherent Fourier optical system and in an orthogonal view using incoherent white light. By calibrating a density hydrometer and measuring the interfacial energy between the bridge and bath, reliable Bond numbers as low as 10-4 can be created and held stable for extended periods of time. Dimensional control of the liquid bridges approaches one part in 10-4 for the aspect ratio and volume. The apparatus has been tested by measuring the static stability limits of axisymmetric bridges and comparing the results with previous theoretical predictions. Experimental error for the apparatus is ?Bo/Bo=0.03, ??/?=0.001 and ?V/V =0.001, where Bo is the Bond number, ? is the aspect ratio of the bridge, and V is the dimensionless (relative) volume of the bridge.

Resnick, A.; Alexander, J. I. D.

1997-03-01

271

Analysis of the Water Resources on Baseflow River Basin in Jeju Island, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jeju Island is a volcanic island located at the southernmost of Korea, and is the heaviest raining area in Korea, but due to its hydrological / geological characteristics different from those of inland areas, most streams are of the dry form, and it relies on groundwater for water resources. As for some streams, however, springwater is discharged at a point near the downstream of the final discharge to maintain the flow of the stream; this has been developed as the source for water supply since the past, but the studies on detail observations and analysis are yet inadequate. This study utilizes the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) hydrometer to regularly observe the flow amount of base run-off stream, and the water resources of base discharge basin of Jeju Island were analyzed using the SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) model. The detail water resource analysis study using modeling and site observation with high precision for Jeju Island water resources is expected to become the foundation for efficient usage and security of water resources against future climate changes.

Yang, S.-K.; Jung, W.-Y.; Kang, M.-S.

2012-04-01

272

An evaluation of two millimeter wave propagation models for horizontal atmospheric attenuation at 70-115 GHZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is performed for two millimeter wave propagation models: the LIEBE model, developed at the Institute for Telecommunications, Boulder, CO, under the guidance of Dr. H. Liebe; and the EOSAEL model, developed at the U. S. Army Atmospheric Laboratory at White Sands Missile Range, NM. This evaluation is conducted for horizontal attenuation due to both clear atmosphere and hydrometer effects under typical surface meteorological conditions, and within the frequency range 70-115 GHz. Intercomparisons of model theories and predictions show slight differences for molecular oxygen and fog attenuations, but significant differences for water vapor and rain attenuations. Results indicate that, while the qualitative agreement between either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model predictions, and measurements, for horizontal attenuation due to oxygen, water vapor, fog and rain is certainly satisfactory, there is a definite need for improvement. Overall, no clear preference for either the EOSAEL or LIEBE model for operational use is ascertained. Data comparisons suggest that, for several attenuation types, model preference is dependent on either the frequency or meteorological conditions.

Vogel, Gerard N.

1988-02-01

273

Using High-Resolution Satellite Observations for Evaluation of Cloud and Precipitation Statistics from Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations. Part I: South China Sea Monsoon Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cloud and precipitation statistics simulated by 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) is compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) TMI and PR rainfall measurements and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) single scanner footprint (SSF) radiation and cloud retrievals. It is found that GCE is capable of simulating major convective system development and reproducing total surface rainfall amount as compared with rainfall estimated from the soundings. Mesoscale organization is adequately simulated except when environmental wind shear is very weak. The partitions between convective and stratiform rain are also close to TMI and PR classification. However, the model simulated rain spectrum is quite different from either TMI or PR measurements. The model produces more heavy rains and light rains (less than 0.1 mm/hr) than the observations. The model also produces heavier vertical hydrometer profiles of rain, graupel when compared with TMI retrievals and PR radar reflectivity. Comparing GCE simulated OLR and cloud properties with CERES measurements found that the model has much larger domain averaged OLR due to smaller total cloud fraction and a much skewed distribution of OLR and cloud top than CERES observations, indicating that the model's cloud field is not wide spread, consistent with the model's precipitation activity. These results will be used as guidance for improving the model's microphysics.

Zhou, Y.; Hou, A.; Lau, W. K.; Shie, C.; Tao, W.; Lin, X.; Chou, M.; Olson, W. S.; Grecu, M.

2006-05-01

274

W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

Matrosov, S. Y.

2010-12-01

275

The Polarization Lidar Technique for Cloud Research: A Review and Current Assessment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the polarization lidar field over the past two decades is reviewed, and the current cloud-research capabilities and limitations are evaluated. Relying on fundamental scattering principles governing the interaction of polarized laser light with distinctly shaped hydrometers, this remote-sensing technique has contributed to our knowledge of the composition and structure of a variety of cloud types. For example, polarization lidar is a key component of current climate-research programs to characterize the properties of cirrus clouds, and is an integral part of multiple remote-sensor studies of mixed-phase cloud systems, such as winter mountain storms. Although unambiguous cloud-phase discrimination and the identification of some ice particle types and orientations are demonstrated capabilities, recent theoretical approaches involving ice crystal ray-tracing and cloud microphysical model simulations are, promising to increase the utility of the technique. New results simulating the single and multiple scattering properties of precipitating mixed-phase clouds are given for illustration of such methods.

Sassen, Kenneth

1991-12-01

276

Improving Radar Snowfall Measurements Using a Video Disdrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A video disdrometer has been recently developed at NASA/Wallops Flight Facility in an effort to improve surface precipitation measurements. The recent upgrade of the UND C-band weather radar to dual-polarimetric capabilities along with the development of the UND Glacial Ridge intensive atmospheric observation site has presented a valuable opportunity to attempt to improve radar estimates of snowfall. The video disdrometer, referred to as the Rain Imaging System (RIS), has been deployed at the Glacial Ridge site for most of the 2004-2005 winter season to measure size distributions, precipitation rate, and density estimates of snowfall. The RIS uses CCD grayscale video camera with a zoom lens to observe hydrometers in a sample volume located 2 meters from end of the lens and approximately 1.5 meters away from an independent light source. The design of the RIS may eliminate sampling errors from wind flow around the instrument. The RIS has proven its ability to operate continuously in the adverse conditions often observed in the Northern Plains. The RIS is able to provide crystal habit information, variability of particle size distributions for the lifecycle of the storm, snowfall rates, and estimates of snow density. This information, in conjunction with hand measurements of density and crystal habit, will be used to build a database for comparisons with polarimetric data from the UND radar. This database will serve as the basis for improving snowfall estimates using polarimetric radar observations. Preliminary results from several case studies will be presented.

Newman, A. J.; Kucera, P. A.

2005-05-01

277

An Alternative Representation of the Ice Canopy for Calculating Microwave Brightness Temperatures over a Thunderstorm.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive microwave brightness temperatures (TB's) at 92 and 183 GHz from an aircraft thunderstorm overflight are compared with values calculated from radar-derived hydrometer profiles and a modified proximity sounding. Two methods for modeling particles in the ice canopy are contrasted. The fist is a `traditional' approach employing Marshall Palmer ice spheres. The second, or `alternative,' method partitions 20% of the ice water content into a Marshall Palmer component for graupel and hail, and 80% into a modified gamma spherical particle size distribution function representing ice crystals.Results from the alternative approach are superior to those from the traditional method in the anvil and mature convective core. In the decaying convective region, the traditional approach yields better agreement with observed magnitude. Neither method, however, matches the geometry of the observed TB depression associated with the decaying convective core. This is likely due to the presence of graupel, which is not detected as a special signature in radar reflectivity, but does diminish TB's through scattering. Brightness temperatures at the relatively high microwave frequencies considered are shown to be very sensitive to the ice-particle size distribution.

Muller, Bradley M.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Smith, Eric A.

1993-05-01

278

Retrieval of Thermal and Microphysical Variables in Observed Convective Storms. Part 1: Model Development and Preliminary Testing.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air flow in convective storms, the force that regulate the flow, and the processes that produce hydrometeors of various kinds are all being studied intensively by meteorologists using Doppler radar observations. The research reported here proceeds from the observed motion through accompanying thermodynamic and micro-physical processes to the analysis of hydrometer content and thermal fields in thunderstorms. A three-dimensional numerical kinematic cloud model employing Doppler wind fields is developed and used to diagnose temperature and mixing ratios within a thunderstorm. The microphysical parameterization includes stochastic coalescence effects in warm clouds as well as well- and variable-density dry hail growth.Known fields from a dynamically simulated cloud are used to establish the accuracy of the retrieval scheme. Real data tests indicate good agreement between retrieved and observed radar reflectivities, qualitative dynamic consistency between observed winds and retrieved buoyancies, and the model's ability to partition liquid and solid hydrometeors. A modification of weighting factors in the variational multiple Doppler analysis changes the vertical motion field and improves the verification of retrieved reflectivities. This analysis sensitivity emphasizes the great influence of the input wind field on retrieved thunderstorm variables.

Ziegler, Conrad L.

1985-07-01

279

Interior characteristics at mid-levels of thunderstorms in the southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data characterizing the updraft structures and hydrometers observed in moderate thunderstorms by the armored T-28 aircraft during the 1986 Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) are presented. Updraft regions in the storms were relatively narrow, but usually very turbulent. The vertical winds were generally weak, the peak updraft speeds usually being <5 m s -1; the absolute maximum was 19 m s -1. Cloud liquid-water concentrations measured between the -7.5°C and +5.5°C levels were typically <25% of adiabetic values. Size spectra for the precipitation particles appear truncated, with very high concentrations of particles with sizes between 1 and 5 mm and few larger than 8 mm. hail occured in less than 25% of the penetrations, and particles larger than about 1 cm were very infrequent, despite reflectivities often between 50 and 60 dBz. The large numbers of precipitation-size particles usually found in the updraft regions that appeared to be well-mixed indicate that a coalescence mechanism was active in the COHMEX storms. The depth warm cloud, the generally weak updrafts, and the presence of large cloud droplets all support a coalescence mechanism. Ice processes also must play a role in precipitation development because most COHMEX storms were characterized by extremely deep convection. However, the high conceentrations of growth centers observed at T-28 penetration levels suggest that a natural "beneficial competition" process limits the growth of large particles.

Musil, Dennis J.; Smith, Paul L.

280

Estimation of nutrients and organic matter in Korean swine slurry using multiple regression analysis of physical and chemical properties.  

PubMed

Swine waste land application has increased due to organic fertilization, but excess application in an arable system can cause environmental risk. Therefore, in situ characterizations of such resources are important prior to application. To explore this, 41 swine slurry samples were collected from Korea, and wide differences were observed in the physico-biochemical properties. However, significant (P<0.001) multiple property correlations (R²) were obtained between nutrients with specific gravity (SG), electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS) and pH. The different combinations of hydrometer, EC meter, drying oven and pH meter were found useful to estimate Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Al, Na, N and 5-day biochemical oxygen demands (BOD?) at improved R² values of 0.83, 0.82, 0.77, 0.75, 0.67, 0.47, 0.88 and 0.70, respectively. The results from this study suggest that multiple property regressions can facilitate the prediction of micronutrients and organic matter much better than a single property regression for livestock waste. PMID:21767950

Suresh, Arumuganainar; Choi, Hong Lim

2011-10-01

281

The scavenging of high altitude aerosol by small ice crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been several global models developed for the theoretical investigation of the removal of high altitude aerosol from the atmosphere, following concern about the injection of particulate material by nuclear explosions and volcanic events. These models lack a knowledge of the scavenging efficiencies of the small ice crystals associated with cirus clouds and storm ice anvils. These are the only hydrometers that could remove the injected particles. In the past there have been a number of practical studies into the scavenging efficiencies of large ice crystaks and snowflakes. A comparison of the extrapolated results of these findings and the theoretical models of Martin et al. (1980, Pure appl. Phys.188, 1109-1129, J. atmos. Sci.37, 1628-1638) for the small crystal situation has been made. It was found that in general the extrapolated results gave efficiencies that were significantly higher than the predicted value. This difference was found to be enhanced as the crystal diameter decreased. Experiments used small ice plates grown at ˜-18.5°C in a cloud chamber, which were then permitted to fall through a dense aerosol cloud, to provide the first direct measurements of the scavenging efficiencies of this small crystals under cloud conditions. Initial results are presented for mono-disperse NaCl aerosol particles of size 4-6 ?m.

Andrew Bell, D.; Saunders, Clive P. R.

282

Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)  

SciTech Connect

Data from the Tropical Warm Pool I5 nternational Cloud Experiment (TWPICE) were used to evaluate two suites of high-resolution (4-7 km, convection-resolving) simulations of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a focus on the performance of different cloud microphysics (MP) schemes. The major difference between these two suites of simulations is with and without the reinitializing process. Whenreinitialized every three days, the four cloud MP schemes evaluated can capture the general profiles of cloud fraction, temperature, water vapor, winds, and cloud liquid and ice water content (LWC and IWC, respectively). However, compared with surface measurements of radiative and moisture fluxes and satellite retrieval of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes, disagreements do exist. Large discrepancies with observed LWC and IWC and derived radiative heating profiles can be attributed to both the limitations of the cloud property retrievals and model performance. The simulated precipitation also shows a wide range of uncertainty as compared with observations, which could be caused by the cloud MP schemes, complexity of land-sea configuration, and the high temporal and spatial variability. In general, our result indicates the importance of large-scale initial and lateral boundary conditions in re-producing basic features of cloudiness and its vertical structures. Based on our case study, we find overall the six-hydrometer single-moment MP scheme(WSM6) [Hong and Lim, 2006] in the WRF model si25 mulates the best agree- ment with the TWPICE observational analysis.

Wang, Yi; Long, Charles N.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy; McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, James H.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaodong

2009-11-05

283

Thermodynamic properties of the lithium bromide + diethanolamine + water system  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic properties (solubility, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, and heat capacity) of the lithium bromide + diethanolamine + water system (LiBr/(HOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}NH, mass ratio = 3.5) were measured as a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pumps. Solubility was measured by the visual polythermal method in the temperature range from 281.75 to 338.954 K and vapor pressure by the boiling point method from 329.15 to 401.25 K. Density and viscosity were measured by using a set of hydrometers and five pieces of Ubbelohde-type capillary viscometers in the temperature range from 283.15 to 343.15 K. Heat capacity was measured by using an isoperibol solution calorimeter in the temperature range from 283.15 to 333.15 K. Each measured data set was correlated with a proper equation, and all the correlation results showed good agreement between measured and calculated values.

Park, Y.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-12-31

284

Intraabdominal pressure after full abdominoplasty in obese multiparous patients.  

PubMed

This study measured intraabdominal pressure in morbidly obese and multiparous patients who underwent abdominoplasty with musculoaponeurotic plication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any potential adverse effect on pulmonary function by virtue of pulmonary function tests and measurement of peak airway pressure. The study included 43 multiparous, morbidly obese women (mean body mass index, 35.8 kg/m2) with a mean age (+/- SD) of 38.6 +/- 7 years. All had full abdominoplasty and repair of the musculoaponeurotic system during the period from June of 1999 to May of 2002. Forty-three morbidly obese multiparous patients were seen over a period of 24 months. Their intraabdominal pressure was estimated by measuring the intravesical pressure before and after repair of severe diastases (divarication) of the rectus abdominis muscles with severely flaccid myofascial component before using a hydrometer connected to a Foley catheter both before and after repair. All patients had pulmonary function checked before and 2 months after the repair. The study confirmed that there are minimal changes on the intraabdominal pressure parameters compared with measurement before and after full abdominoplasty with plication of the rectus muscles, with minimal to negligible changes in the intrathoracic pressure. These changes are clinically and statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The study also recommended the safety of full abdominoplasty and repair of the musculoaponeurotic system in multiparous and morbidly obese patients. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found in pulmonary function parameters before and after surgery in patients with a history of bronchial asthma. PMID:15253209

Al-Basti, Habib B; El-Khatib, Hamdy A; Taha, Ahmed; Sattar, Hisham Abdul; Bener, Abdulbari

2004-06-01

285

Quantitative estimation of Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission precipitation radar signals from ground-based polarimetric radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) is the first mission dedicated to measuring rainfall from space using radar. The precipitation radar (PR) is one of several instruments aboard the TRMM satellite that is operating in a nearly circular orbit with nominal altitude of 350 km, inclination of 35°, and period of 91.5 min. The PR is a single-frequency Ku-band instrument that is designed to yield information about the vertical storm structure so as to gain insight into the intensity and distribution of rainfall. Attenuation effects on PR measurements, however, can be significant and as high as 10-15 dB. This can seriously impair the accuracy of rain rate retrieval algorithms derived from PR signal returns. Quantitative estimation of PR attenuation is made along the PR beam via ground-based polarimetric observations to validate attenuation correction procedures used by the PR. The reflectivity (Zh) at horizontal polarization and specific differential phase (Kdp) are found along the beam from S-band ground radar measurements, and theoretical modeling is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k) along the space-Earth path at Ku-band frequency from these measurements. A theoretical k-Kdp relationship is determined for rain when Kdp ? 0.5°/km, and a power law relationship, k = a Zhb, is determined for light rain and other types of hydrometers encountered along the path. After alignment and resolution volume matching is made between ground and PR measurements, the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) is calculated along the PR propagation path by integrating the specific attenuation along the path. The PR reflectivity derived after removing the PIA is also compared against ground radar observations.

Bolen, Steven M.; Chandrasekar, V.

2003-06-01

286

Variations in clay mineralogy and sediment texture of salt marsh soils on the Eastern Shore of Virginia  

SciTech Connect

On the Eastern Shore of VA, relative sea level rise has resulted in encroachment of marsh onto upland areas. The amount and type of sediment determines the morphologic environment of the system: lagoon, mudflat, low marsh, high marsh or upland. This research is part of a study to examine the relationship between marsh soil characteristics and the production of Spartina alterniflora. The productivity of marsh vegetation depends on the import and entrapment of sediments that maintain marsh elevation and control water and nutrient availability. This work focused on distribution patterns of sediment texture and mineralogy. One meter deep cores were taken at marsh sites with 10 cm intervals homogenized for analysis. In order to distinguish potential sediment sources, samples were also taken from upland soil pits on the mainland and dredged one-half mile seaward of the barrier islands. Samples have undergone size analysis with a hydrometer and the clay fraction has been analyzed by XRD. Results from the marsh surface indicate large variations in sediment texture, but only slight differences in clay mineralogy between marshes. Barrier island marshes contain a higher average sand content than mainland marshes because of their closer proximity to barrier island beaches and inputs from overwash deposits. The clay minerals found in all marsh surface deposits are illite and chlorite, indicative of oceanic clays. The clay mineralogy of upland soils (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite mixed-layer clay) differs from marsh surface clays, indicating that recent sediment deposited on the marsh surface is no upland soil but rather material brought in through tidal inlets. The sediment texture and clay mineralogy at different depths varies as a function of the past geomorphic and depositional history of the site. These data will be used to determine the timing of marsh development on flooded upland sites and to determine the pre-Holocene source of inorganic sediment inputs.

Robinson, S.E.; Furman, T. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

1993-03-01

287

Quantifying Sediment Transport in a Premontane Transitional Cloud Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying sediment transport is a difficult task in any watershed, and relatively little direct measurement has occurred in tropical, mountainous watersheds. The Howler Monkey Watershed (2.2 hectares) is located in a premontane transitional cloud forest in San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. In June 2012, a V-notch stream-gaging weir was built in the catchment with a 8 ft by 6 ft by 4 ft concrete stilling basin. Sediment captured by the weir was left untouched for an 11 month time period. To collect the contents of the weir, the stream was rerouted and the weir was drained. The stilling basin contents were systematically sampled, and samples were taken to a lab and characterized using sieve and hydrometer tests. The wet volume of the remaining sediment was obtained, and dry mass was estimated. Particle size distribution of samples were obtained from lab tests, with 96% of sediment trapped by the weir being sand or coarser. The efficiency of the weir as a sediment collector was evaluated by comparing particle fall velocities to residence time of water in the weir under baseflow conditions. Under these assumptions, only two to three percent of the total mass of soil transported in the stream is thought to have been suspended in the water and lost over the V-notch. Data were compared to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), a widely accepted method for predicting soil loss in agricultural watersheds. As expected, application of the USLE to a tropical rainforest was problematic with uncertainty in parameters yielding a soil loss estimate varying by a factor of 50. Continued monitoring of sediment transport should yield data for improved methods of soil loss estimation applicable to tropical mountainous forests.

Waring, E. R.; Brumbelow, J. K.

2013-12-01

288

Balloon borne measurements of aerosol and cloud particles over Japan during PACDEX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the preliminary result of the balloon borne measurements of the aerosol and cloud microphysical properties over Tsukuba (36.1°N, 140.1°E), Japan, on 10 and 22 May 2007. The purpose of the measurement is to study the influence of Asian mineral dust on ice clouds formation in the middle and upper troposphere. The balloon measured the vertical distributions of aerosol number size distribution (0.13 to 3.9 ?m in threshold radius, 8 sizes) by use of the optical particle counter, cloud size (10 ? m to 5 mm in the longest dimension), shape, and number concentration by use of the hydrometer videosonde, humidity by use of SnowWhite hygrometer, and temperature and pressure by use of Meisei RS-01G radiosonde between altitudes of 0 and 16 km. The aerosol size distribution showed bimodal distribution with mode radii of <0.13 ?m (fine mode) and about 0.8 ?m (coarse mode) over the troposphere (0-13.5 km in altitude). The number concentrations ranged from 150 to 1 cm-3 in the fine mode and from 3 to 0.1 cm-3 in the coarse mode. High depolarization ratio (>10%) obtained from the ground-based Raman lidar measurement revealed the presence of nonspherical dust in the coarse mode. Columnar, bullet-like, and irregular ice crystals with 10-400 ?m in size were detected between altitudes of 8 and 13 km on 10 May and 10 and 13 km on 22 May. The maximum crystal concentration was 0.15 cm-3. We discuss the possibility of the formation of the ice cloud from the dust based on the result of the measurements.

Sakai, T.; Orikasa, N.; Nagai, T.; Murakami, M.; Tajiri, T.; Saito, A.; Yamashita, K.

2007-12-01

289

Evaluating The Indirect Effect of Cirrus Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What effect would an increase in nucleating aerosols have on the radiative and cloud properties? What error would be incurred by evaluating the indirect effect by taking an evolved cloud and fixing the integrated water content and vary the number of ice crystals? These questions will be addressed in this work. We will use the UK LES cloud resolving model to perform a sensitivity study for cirrus clouds to the indirect effect, and will evaluate approximate methods in the process. In this work, we will initialize the base (no increase of aerosol) cirrus clouds so that the double moment scheme is constrained to agree with observations through the ef- fective radius. Effective radius is calculated using the local concentration and the ice water content. We then perform a sensitivity experiment to investigate the dependence of the average IWC, effective size, and radiative properties (including heating rates) to variations in the nucleation rate. Conclusions will be draw as to the possible ef- fect of changes in aerosol amounts on cirrus. We will determine how sensitive the cloud and radiative properties are to various aerosol increases. We will also discuss the applicability of the Meyer et al. (1992) nucleation formulae for our simulations. It is important to stress that in this work we only change the nucleation rate for the newly forming cloud. By doing this, we are not fixing the total water content and redistributing the water amongst increased ice crystals. We increase the number of aerosols available to be nucleated and allow the model to evolve the size distributions. In this way, there is competition for the water vapour, the ice particles are evolved dynamically with different fall speeds, the conversion rates to other hydrometers (such as aggregates) are affected, and the heating rates are different due to the different size distributions that evolve. We will look at how the water content, the distribution of water, and the radiative properties are affected by the indirect effect.

Dobbie, S.; Jonas, P. R.

290

Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.  

PubMed

High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease. PMID:12929156

Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

2003-09-01

291

Snowfall Retrivals Using a Video Disdrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A video disdrometer has been recently developed at NASA/Wallops Flight Facility in an effort to improve surface precipitation measurements. One of the goals of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to provide improved satellite-based measurements of snowfall in mid-latitudes. Also, with the planned dual-polarization upgrade of US National Weather Service weather radars, there is potential for significant improvements in radar-based estimates of snowfall. The video disdrometer, referred to as the Rain Imaging System (RIS), was deployed in Eastern North Dakota during the 2003-2004 winter season to measure size distributions, precipitation rate, and density estimates of snowfall. The RIS uses CCD grayscale video camera with a zoom lens to observe hydrometers in a sample volume located 2 meters from end of the lens and approximately 1.5 meters away from an independent light source. The design of the RIS may eliminate sampling errors from wind flow around the instrument. The RIS operated almost continuously in the adverse conditions often observed in the Northern Plains. Preliminary analysis of an extended winter snowstorm has shown encouraging results. The RIS was able to provide crystal habit information, variability of particle size distributions for the lifecycle of the storm, snowfall rates, and estimates of snow density. Comparisons with coincident snow core samples and measurements from the nearby NWS Forecast Office indicate the RIS provides reasonable snowfall measurements. WSR-88D radar observations over the RIS were used to generate a snowfall-reflectivity relationship from the storm. These results along with several other cases will be shown during the presentation.

Newman, A. J.; Kucera, P. A.

2004-12-01

292

Long-Term Radar Observations of the Melting Layer of Precipitation and Their Interpretation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 600 h of vertically pointing X-band radar data and 50 h of UHF boundary layer wind profiler data were processed and analyzed to characterize quantitatively the structure and the causes of the radar signature from melting precipitation. Five classes of vertical profiles of reflectivity in rain were identified, with three of them having precipitation undergoing a transition between the solid and liquid phase. Only one of them, albeit the most common, showed a radar brightband signature.In-depth study of the bright band and its dependence on precipitation intensity reveals that the ratio of the brightband peak reflectivity to the rainfall reflectivity is constant at 8 dB below 0.5 mm h1 and then increases to reach 13 dB at 2.5 mm h1 and 16 dB at 5 mm h1. The equivalent reflectivity factor of snow just above the melting layer is on average 1-2 dB below the reflectivity of rain just below the melting layer, independent of precipitation intensity. The classical brightband explanation accounts for less than half of the observed reflectivity enhancement; the difference could be explained by effects associated with the shape and density of melting snowflakes and, to a smaller extent, by precipitation growth in the melting layer and aggregation in the early stages of the melting followed by breakup in the final stages. The brightband statistics were also significantly different for reflectivities in rain above 2.5 dBZ when observations were made with an X-band radar as opposed to the wind profiler because of the combination of attenuation in the melting layer and the fact that scattering from some of the large hydrometers above and within the melting layer depart from the Rayleigh approximation usually used to compute reflectivity. The bright band is often capped by a thin and faint dark layer, which tends to be more evident at weak precipitation intensifies.

Fabry, Frederic; Zawadzki, Isztar

1995-04-01

293

Inner Core Structure of Hurricane Alicia from Airborne Doppler Radar Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne Doppler radar measurements are used to determine the horizontal winds, vertical air motions, radar reflectivity and hydrometer fallspeeds over much of the inner-core region (within 40 km of the eye) of Hurricane Alicia (1983). The reconstructed flow field is more complete and detailed than any obtained previously. The data show both the primary (azimuthal) and secondary (radial-height) circulations. The primary circulation was characterized by an outward sloping maximum of tangential wind. The secondary circulation was characterized by a deep layer of radial inflow in the lower troposphere and a layer of intense outflow above 10 km altitude. The rising branch of the secondary circulation was located in the eyewall and sloped radially outward. Discrete convective-scale bubbles of more intense upward motion were superimposed on this mean rising current, and convective-scale downdrafts were located throughout and below the core of maximum precipitation in the eyewall.Precipitation particles in the eyewall rainshaft circulated 18-20 km downwind as they fell, consistent with the typical upwind slope with increasing altitude of eyewall precipitation cores Outside the eyewall, the precipitation was predominantly stratiform. A radar bright band was evident at the melting level. Above the melting level, ice particles were advected into the stratiform region from the upper levels of the eyewall and drifted downward through a mesoscale region of ascent. Hypothetical precipitation particle trajectories showed that as these particles fell slowly through the mesoscale updraft toward the melting level, they were carried azimuthally as many as 1 1/2 times around the storm. During this spiraling descent, the particles evidently grew vigorously. The amount of water condensed by the ambient mesoscale ascent exceeded that transported into the stratiform region by the eyewall outflow by a factor of 3. As the particles fell into the lower troposphere, they entered a mesoscale region of subsidence, the top of which coincided with the radar bright band.

Marks, Frank D., Jr.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

1987-05-01

294

Intercomparison of microphysical datasets collected from CAIPEEX observations and WRF simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first phase of ongoing Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) program of Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), intensive cloud microphysical datasets are collected over India during the May through September, 2009. This study is designed to evaluate the forecast skills of existing cloud microphysical parameterization schemes (i.e. single moment/double moments) within the WRF-ARW model (Version 3.1.1) during different intensive observation periods (IOP) over the targeted regions spreading all across India. Basic meteorological and cloud microphysical parameters obtained from the model simulations are validated against the observed data set collected during CAIPEEX program. For this study, we have considered three IOP phases (i.e. May 23-27, June 11-15, July 3-7) carried out over northern, central and western India respectively. This study emphasizes the thrust to understand the mechanism of evolution, intensification and distribution of simulated precipitation forecast upto day four (i.e. 96 hour forecast). Efforts have also been made to carryout few important microphysics sensitivity experiments within the explicit schemes to investigate their respective impact on the formation and distribution of vital cloud parameters (e.g. cloud liquid water, frozen hydrometeors) and model rainfall forecast over the IOP regions. The characteristic features of liquid and frozen hydrometers in the pre-monsoon and monsoon regimes are examined from model forecast as well as from CAIPEEX observation data set for different IOPs. The model is integrated in a triply nested fashion with an innermost nest explicitly resolved at a horizontal resolution of 4km.In this presentation preliminary results from aforementioned research initiatives will be introduced.

Pattnaik, S.; Goswami, B.; Kulkarni, J.

2009-12-01

295

Dry skin (xerosis) in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis: the role of decreased sweating of the eccrine sweat gland.  

PubMed

The aetiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of dry skin in uraemia are still unclear, but the hydration status of stratum corneum clearly influences the appearance of skin. The xerotic skin texture is often referred to as 'dry skin' and has been suggested as a cause of uraemic pruritus. To understand the aetiology of dry skin in uraemia we measured the status of skin surface hydration of uraemic patients with the corneometer and skin surface hydrometer, the functional capacity and the urea concentration of stratum corneum and the response of eccrine sweat gland to sudorific agent (0.05% pilocarpine HCL) in 18 age-matched haemodialysis patients and 10 healthy volunteers. We also performed the water sorption-desorption test to uraemic and control subjects after application of urea in various concentrations. Uraemic patient's skin showed decreased water content compared to control subjects. However, we found no correlation between dry skin and pruritus. Although the urea concentration of the horny layer in uraemic patients was elevated compared to control subjects (28.2 microgram/cm2 vs 5.04 micrograms/cm2, P < 0.05), its moisturizing effect to relieve pruritus is questionable because its artificial application revealed no improvement of the functional capacity of horny layer in concentration 5 times higher than the physiological concentration. Uraemic patients showed decreased sweating response to sudorific agent. In conclusion, the functional abnormalities of eccrine sweat glands may be account for dry skin in uraemic patients at least in part, but there is no correlation between xerosis and pruritus. PMID:8808224

Park, T H; Park, C H; Ha, S K; Lee, S H; Song, K S; Lee, H Y; Han, D S

1995-12-01

296

Cloud Ice: A Climate Model Challenge With Signs and Expectations of Progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate models (GCMs), including those assessed in the IPCC AR4, exhibit considerable disagreement in the amount of cloud ice - both in terms of the annual global mean as well as their spatial variability. Global measurements of cloud ice have been difficult due to the challenges involved in remotely sensing ice water content (IWC) and its vertical profile - including complications associated with multi-level clouds, mixed-phases and multiple hydrometer types, the uncertainty in classifying ice particle size and shape for remote retrievals, and the relatively small time and space scales associated with deep convection. Together, these measurement difficulties make it a challenge to characterize and understand the mechanisms of ice cloud formation and dissipation. Fortunately, there are new observational resources recently established that can be expected to lead to considerable reduction in the observational uncertainties of cloud ice, and in turn improve the fidelity of model representations. Specifically, these include the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite, and the CloudSat and Calipso satellite missions, all of which fly in formation in what is referred to as the A-Train. Based on radar and limb-sounding techniques, these new satellite measurements provide a considerable leap forward in terms of the information gathered regarding upper-tropospheric cloud IWC as well as other macrophysical and microphysical properties. In this presentation, we describe the current state of GCM representations of cloud ice and their associated uncertainties, the nature of the new observational resources for constraining cloud ice values in GCMs, the challenges in making model-data comparisons with these data resources, and prospects for near-term improvements in model representations.

Li, F.; Waliser, D.; Bacmeister, J.; Chern, J.; Del Genio, T.; Jiang, J.; Kharitondov, M.; Liou, K.; Meng, H.; Minnis, P.; Rossow, B.; Stephens, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Tao, W.; Vane, D.; Woods, C.; Tompkins, A.; Wu, D.

2007-12-01

297

A physically based algorithm for non-blackbody correction of the cloud top temperature for the convective clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud top temperature is a key parameter to retrieval in the remote sensing of convective clouds. Passive remote sensing cannot directly measure the temperature at the cloud tops. Here we explore a synergistic way of estimating cloud top temperature by making use of the simultaneous passive and active remote sensing of clouds (in this case, CloudSat and MODIS). Weighting function of the MODIS 11?m band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis into a radiation transfer model. Among 19,699 tropical deep convective clouds observed by the CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL, where the weighting function attains its maximum) is at optical depth 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.33. Furthermore, the vertical gradient of CloudSat radar reflectivity, an indicator of the fuzziness of convective cloud top, is linearly proportional to, d_{CTH-EEL}, the distance between the EEL of 11?m channel and cloud top height (CTH) determined by the CloudSat when d_{CTH-EEL}<0.6km. Beyond 0.6km, the distance has little sensitivity to the vertical gradient of CloudSat radar reflectivity. Based on these findings, we derive a formula between the fuzziness in the cloud top region, which is measurable by CloudSat, and the MODIS 11?m brightness temperature assuming that the difference between effective emission temperature and the 11?m brightness temperature is proportional to the cloud top fuzziness. This formula is verified using the simulated deep convective cloud profiles by the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model. We further discuss the application of this formula in estimating cloud top buoyancy as well as the error characteristics of the radiative calculation within such deep-convective clouds.

Wang, C.; Luo, Z. J.; Chen, X.; Zeng, X.; Tao, W.; Huang, X.

2012-12-01

298

Glacier Mass Balance measurements in Bhutan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term glacier measurements are scarce in the Himalayas, partly due to lack of resources as well as inaccessibility of most of the glaciers. There are over 600 glaciers in Bhutan in the Eastern Himalayas, but no long-term measurements. However, such studies are an important component of hydrological modelling, and especially relevant to the proposed expansion of hydropower resources in this area. Glaciological studies are also critical to understanding the risk of jøkulhlaups or GLOFS (glacier lake outburst floods) from glaciers in this region. Glacier mass balance measurements have been initiated on a glacier in the Chamkhar Chu region in central Bhutan by the Department of Hydro-Met Services in co-operation with the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. Chamkhar Chu is the site of two proposed hydropower plants that will each generate over 700 MW, although the present and future hydrological regimes in this basin, and especially the contribution from glaciers, are not well-understood at present. There are about 94 glaciers in the Chamkhar Chhu basin and total glacier area is about 75 sq. km. The glaciers are relatively accessible for the Himalayas, most of them can be reached after only 4-5 days walk from the nearest road. One of the largest, Thana glacier, has been chosen as a mass balance glacier and measurements were initiated in 2013. The glacier area is almost 5 sq. km. and the elevation range is 500 m (5071 m a.s.l. to 5725 m a.s.l.) making it suitable as a benchmark glacier. Preliminary measurements on a smaller, nearby glacier that was visited in 2012 and 2013 showed 1 m of firn loss (about 0.6 m w.eq.) over 12 months.

Jackson, Miriam; Tenzin, Sangay; Tashi, Tshering

2014-05-01

299

Cone penetrometer deployed in situ video microscope for characterizing sub-surface soil properties  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report on the development and field testing of an in situ video microscope that has been integrated with a cone penetrometer probe in order to provide a real-time method for characterizing subsurface soil properties. The video microscope system consists of a miniature CCD color camera system coupled with an appropriate magnification and focusing optics to provide a field of view with a coverage of approximately 20 mm. The camera/optic system is mounted in a cone penetrometer probe so that the camera views the soil that is in contact with a sapphire window mounted on the side of the probe. The soil outside the window is illuminated by diffuse light provided through the window by an optical fiber illumination system connected to a white light source at the surface. The video signal from the camera is returned to the surface where it can be displayed in real-time on a video monitor, recorded on a video cassette recorder (VCR), and/or captured digitally with a frame grabber installed in a microcomputer system. In its highest resolution configuration, the in situ camera system has demonstrated a capability to resolve particle sizes as small as 10 {mu}m. By using other lens systems to increase the magnification factor, smaller particles could be resolved, however, the field of view would be reduced. Initial field tests have demonstrated the ability of the camera system to provide real-time qualitative characterization of soil particle sizes. In situ video images also reveal information on porosity of the soil matrix and the presence of water in the saturated zone. Current efforts are focused on the development of automated imaging processing techniques as a means of extracting quantitative information on soil particle size distributions. Data will be presented that compares data derived from digital images with conventional sieve/hydrometer analyses.

Lieberman, S.H.; Knowles, D.S. [Naval Command, San Diego, CA (United States); Kertesz, J. [San Diego State Univ. Foundation, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31

300

Development and Application of a Streamflow Disaggregation Tool in Natural Waterways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple streamflow disaggregation method/tool has been developed to disaggregate streamflow from monthly to daily time steps. This disaggregation method is simple, site specific, data driven, flexible and adaptive at any regions and by any organizations that are looking for less intensive and less time consuming method of streamflow disaggregation from monthly to daily scale. The application of this methodology has been demonstrated through its application at both regulated and unregulated rivers located in Idaho. The flow indexes, which are developed with respect to historical data at the Source Station (SS), are applied to monthly streamflow at target station (TSS) while performing disaggregation. The selection of SS is based on minimum error criteria which is calculated for each 3-month seasonal flow volume for each year. An additional cubic spline interpolation is applied for unregulated cases to smoothen sudden high/low flows during month to month transition. The performance of this method to synthesize daily streamflow while preserving historical daily streamflow at both regulated and unregulated cases is evaluated based on different metrics such as statistical parameters, total runoff volume, peak runoff e.t.c.. The availability of finer scale (daily or shorter) hydrologic data can be utilized by water engineers in water resources management including reservoir operation, water quality and ecological modeling. This tool has been incorporated into the "PISCES" software program developed by the Bureau of Reclamation Pacific NorthWest Region (at http://www.usbr.gov/pn/hydromet/pisces) and this tool can also be directly assessed through http://water.cals.uidaho.edu/products/UIDisagg/ .

Acharya, A.; Ryu, J.

2013-12-01

301

Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks including overcoming unrealistically precise information demands. While monitoring systems design and operation should be guided by the standards and requirements of management, those who provide information to the system (e.g. hydromet services) should also derive benefits. Drawing on identified information needs to support climate risk management (in drought, water resources and other areas) we outline principles of effective monitoring and develop preliminary strategic guidance for information systems being developed through the GEO, GCOS and Global and national frameworks for climate services. The efficacy of such services are improved by a problem-solving orientation, participatory planning, extension management and improvements in the use and value of existing data to legitimize new investments.

Pulwarty, R. S.

2012-12-01

302

Principles and practical implementation for high resolution multi-sensor QPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (MPE) is a principle and a practical concept and is becoming a well-known term in the scientific circles of hydrology and atmospheric science. The main challenge in QPE is that precipitation is a highly variable quantity with extensive spatial and temporal variability at multiple scales. There are MPE products produced from satellites, radars, models and ground sensors. There are MPE products at global scale (Heinemann et al. 2002), continental scale (Seo et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2011) and regional scale (Kitzmiller et al. 2011). Lots of the MPE products are used to alleviate the problems of one type of sensor by another. Some multi-sensor products are used to move across scales. This paper looks at a comprehensive view of the "concept of multi sensor precipitation estimate", from different perspectives. This paper delineates the MPE problem into three categories namely, a) Scale based MPE, b) MPE for accuracy enhancement and coverage and c) Integrative across scales. For example, by introducing dual polarization radar data to the MPE system, QPE can be improved significantly. In last decade, dual polarization radars are becoming an important tool for QPE in operational networks. Dual polarization radars offer an advantage to interpret more accurate physical models by providing information of the size, shape, phase and orientation of hydrometers (Bringi and Chandrasekar 2001). In addition, these systems have the ability to provide measurements that are immune to absolute radar calibration and partial beam blockage as well as help in data quality enhancement. By integrating these characteristics of dual polarization radar, QPE performance can be improved in comparison of single polarization radar based QPE (Cifelli and Chandrasekar 2010). Dual-polarization techniques have been applied to S and C band radar systems for several decades and higher frequency system such as X band are now widely available to the radar community. One solution to the dilemma of precipitation variability across scales can be to supplement existing long-range radar networks with short-range higher frequency systems (X band). The smaller X band systems provide more portability and higher data resolution, and networks of these systems may be a cost-effective option for improved rainfall estimation for radar networks with large separation distances (McLaughlin et al. 2009). This paper will describe the principles of the MPE concept and implementation issues of within the context of the classification described above.

Chandra, C. V.; Lim, S.; Cifelli, R.

2011-12-01

303

Analysis of Fluvial Bed Sediments Along the Apalachicola River, Florida through Field Reconnaissance Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River competence is an important parameter in understanding sediment transport in fluvial systems. Competence is defined as the measure of a stream's ability to transport a certain maximum grain size of sediment. Studies have shown that bed sediment particle size in rivers and streams tends to vary spatially along the direction of stream flow. Over a river section several reaches long, variability of sediment particle sizes can be seen, often becoming finer downstream. This phenomenon is attributed to mechanisms such as local control of stream gradient, coarse tributary sediment supply or particle breakdown. Average particle size may also be smaller in tributary sections of rivers due to river morphology. The relationship between river mean velocity and particle size that can be transported has also been explored. The Hjulstrom curve classifies this relationship by relating particle size to velocity, dividing the regions of sedimentation, transportation, and erosion. The curve can also be used to find values such as the critical erosion velocity (the velocity required to transport particles of various sizes in suspension) and settling velocity (the velocity at which particles of a given size become too heavy to be transported and fall out of suspension, consequently causing deposition). The purpose of this research is to explore the principles of river competence through field reconnaissance collection and laboratory analysis of fluvial sediment core samples along the Apalachicola River, FL and its distributaries. Sediment core samples were collected in the wetlands and estuarine regions of the Apalachicola River. Sieve and hydrometer analyses were performed to determine the spatial distribution of particle sizes along the river. An existing high resolution hydrodynamic model of the study domain was used to simulate tides and generate river velocities. The Hjulstrom curve and the generated river velocities were used to define whether sediment was being transported, eroded or deposited at the different locations in the river and its distributaries. Parameters such as critical erosion velocity and settling velocity were also calculated to describe sediment transport along the channel. This research provides a better understanding of the fluvial geomorphic system, particularly sediment transport in channels. It also provides excellent validation data for future sediment transport studies in similar fluvial study domains.

Passeri, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Daranpob, A.; Smar, D. E.

2011-12-01

304

On the measure of large woody debris in an alpine catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The management of large woody debris (LWD) in Alpine torrents is a complex and ambiguous task. On one side the presence of LWD contributes to in-channel and floodplain morphological processes and plays an important role in landscape ecology and biodiversity. On the other side LWD increases considerably flood hazards when some river cross-sections result critical for the human interface (e.g. culverts, bridges, artificial channels). Only few studies provide quantitative data of LWD volumes in Alpine torrents. Research is needed both at basin scale processes (LWD recruiting from hillslopes) and at channel scale processes (feeding from river bank, storage/transport/deposition of LWD along the river bed). Our study proposes an integrate field survey methodology to assess the overall LWD amount which can be entrained by a flood. This knowledge is mandatory for the scientific research, for the implementation of LWD transport models, and for a complete hazard management in mountain basins. The study site is the high-relief basin of the Cordevole torrent (Belluno Province, Central Alps, Italy) whose outlet is located at the Saviner village (basin area of 109 square kilometers). In the November 1966 an extreme flood event occurred and some torrent reaches were heavily congested by LWD enhancing the overall damages due to long-duration overflows. Currently, the LWD recruitment seems to be strictly correlated with bank erosion and hillslope instability and the conditions of forest stand suggest LWD hazard is still high. Previous studies on sub-catchments of the Cordevole torrent have also shown an inverse relation between the drainage area and the LWD storage in the river-bed. Present contribution analyzes and quantifies the presence of LWD in the main valley channel of the Cordevole basin. A new sampling methodology was applied to integrate surveys of riparian vegetation and LWD storage. Data inventory confirms the previous relationship between LWD volumes and drainage area and indicates the floating as primary origin of LWD presence in the river bed. The total amount of LWD at the basin outlet resulted 1300 cubic meters corresponding to about 12 cubic meters per square kilometer of drainage area. Additional data about in-channel dynamics and threshold discharges to move LWD are in progress. These will be obtained through an innovative monitoring approach based on active transponders (RFID, Radio Frequency Identification). 70 transponder have been inserted in selected LWD samples and 70 transponders will be inserted in standardized artificial LWD to carry out experiments during the snowmelt season. A fixed antenna is located at the outlet section on a check-dam together with a video-camera and a hydrometer. The overall arrangement of the LWD monitoring system under test is then presented.

D'Agostino, V.; Bertoldi, G.; Rigon, E.

2012-04-01

305

An Observationally-Based Evaluation of Cloud Ice and Liquid Water in CMIP3 and CMIP5 GCMs and Contemporary Reanalyses Using Contemporary Satellite Data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representing clouds and cloud climate feedbacks in global climate models (GCMs) remains a pressing challenge to reduce and quantify uncertainties associated with climate change projection. Vertical structures of clouds simulated by present-day models have not been extensively examined using vertically-resolved cloud hydrometers such as cloud ice water (CIW) content and cloud liquid water (CLW) content. The gap in available observations for cloud mass was clearly evident from the wide disparity in the CIW path [Waliser et al., 2009] and CLW path [Li et al., 2008;2011] values exhibited in the CMIP3 GCMs. We present an observationally-based evaluation of the CIW and CLW of present-day GCMs, notably 20th century CMIP5 simulations, and compare these results to the CMIP3 and two recent reanalyses (ECMWF and MERRA). We use three different CloudSat+CALIPSO CIW products as well as three different observation CLW products, CloudSat, MODIS and AMSRE and their combined product for CLW with methods to remove the contribution from the convective core ice mass and/or precipitating cloud hydrometeors with variable sizes and falling speeds so that a robust observational estimate with uncertainty can be obtained for model evaluations. Note, considering the CloudSat's limitations of CLW retrievals due to contamination from the precipitation and from radar clutter near the surface, an alternative CLW is synergistically constructed using MODIS CLW and CloudSat CLW. The results show that for annual mean CIW path, there are factors of 2-10 in the differences between observations and models for a majority of the GCMs and for a number of regions. Based on a number of metrics, the ensemble behavior of CMIP5 has improved considerably relative to CMIP3 (~ 50%), although neither the CMIP5 ensemble mean nor any individual model performs particularly well, and there are still a number of models that exhibit very large biases despite the availability of relevant observations. For CLW, most of the CMIP3/CMIP5 annual mean CLW path values are overestimated by factors of 2-10 compared to observations globally. For the vertical structure of CIW/CLW content, significant systematic biases are found with many models biased significantly. Based on the Taylor diagram, the ensemble performance of CMIP5 CLW path simulation shows little or no improvement relative to CMIP3. The implications of these results on model representations of the earth radiation balance are discussed, along with caveats and uncertainties associated with the observational estimates, model and observation representations of the precipitating and cloudy ice components, relevant physical processes and parameterizations.

Li, J. F.; Waliser, D. E.; Chen, W.; Deng, M.; Lebsock, M. D.; Stephens, G. L.; Guan, B.; Christensen, M.; Teixeira, J.

2013-12-01

306

Precipitation from the GPM Microwave Imager and Constellation Radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors are fundamentally underconstrained requiring either implicit or explicit a-priori information to constrain solutions. The radiometer algorithm designed for the GPM core and constellation satellites makes this a-priori information explicit in the form of a database of possible rain structures from the GPM core satellite and a Bayesian retrieval scheme. The a-priori database will eventually come from the GPM core satellite's combined radar/radiometer retrieval algorithm. That product is physically constrained to ensure radiometric consistency between the radars and radiometers and is thus ideally suited to create the a-priori databases for all radiometers in the GPM constellation. Until a robust product exists, however, the a-priori databases are being generated from the combination of existing sources over land and oceans. Over oceans, the Day-1 GPM radiometer algorithm uses the TRMM PR/TMI physically derived hydrometer profiles that are available from the tropics through sea surface temperatures of approximately 285K. For colder sea surface temperatures, the existing profiles are used with lower hydrometeor layers removed to correspond to colder conditions. While not ideal, the results appear to be reasonable placeholders until the full GPM database can be constructed. It is more difficult to construct physically consistent profiles over land due to ambiguities in surface emissivities as well as details of the ice scattering that dominates brightness temperature signatures over land. Over land, the a-priori databases have therefore been constructed by matching satellite overpasses to surface radar data derived from the WSR-88 network over the continental United States through the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ) initiative. Databases are generated as a function of land type (4 categories of increasing vegetation cover as well as 4 categories of increasing snow depth), land surface temperature and total precipitable water. One year of coincident observations, generating 20 and 80 million database entries, depending upon the sensor, are used in the retrieval algorithm. The remaining areas such as sea ice and high latitude coastal zones are filled with a combination of CloudSat and AMSR-E plus MHS observations together with a model to create the equivalent databases for other radiometers in the constellation. The most noteworthy result from the Day-1 algorithm is the quality of the land products when compared to existing products. Unlike previous versions of land algorithms that depended upon complex screening routines to decide if pixels were precipitating or not, the current scheme is free of conditional rain statements and appears to produce rain rate with much greater fidelity than previous schemes. There results will be shown.

Kummerow, Christian; Randel, David; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kulie, Mark; Wang, Nai-Yu

2014-05-01

307

Deep convection in the tropical area: Hector a case study using TRMM data and high resolution model simulation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropics are one of the most important regions for the exchange and transport of water vapor and chemical species from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere; changes in emissions of chemicals at the ground or how quickly they are carried aloft could cause the chemistry of the stratosphere to change and as a consequence the net radiative balance. The tropical storms are one of the main devices for this type of interaction. In Australia, the tropical thunderstorms have different possible sources; in particular the development of equatorial events is related to convergence zones typical of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). One of the deepest convective systems of the globe is the tropical thunderstorm Hector that develops almost daily in the Tiwi Islands, near Darwin city (tropical northern Australia), during the pre-monsoon period and break monsoon. The thunderstorm Hector has been observed to reach to altitudes of 20 km and thus potentially in the lower stratosphere, so it represents one of processes for exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Hector is the topics of numerous campaigns because of difficulties in its predictability: during the SCOUT-O3 project (Stratosphere-Climate Links with emphasis on the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere), a campaign was held on Tiwi Islands to the purposes of improving the understanding of the interaction between convection and the tropical tropopause layer. In the framework of this UE project a study of Hector tropical thunderstorm is performed to the aim of evaluating the vertical transport. The triggering factor together with the microphysical structure of this deep tropical cyclone has been investigated using MM5V3 and the new model WRF with data from the TRMM Precipitation Radar and from TRMM Microwave Imager. A comparison between the hydrometers retrieved by the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and the one detected by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has been carried out. The model results confirm previous studies concerning Hector classification (type A or type B), and the associated vertical velocities. On the other hand the comparison with TRMM data allows for assessing a good agreement for both the amount and the vertical distribution of hydrometeors between model and observations. Eventually, the goodness of the vertical distribution of the hydrometeors would support the hypothesis of a correct estimation of Hector updrafts.

Gentile, Sabrina; Ferretti, Rossella; Silvio Marzano, Frank

2010-05-01

308

Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinary specific gravity after taking no fluids for 12 h overnight should be 1.025 or more, so that the second urine in the morning is a useful sample for screening purposes. Many preservation procedures affect specific gravity measurements. The concentration of solids (or water) in urine can be measured by weighing, hydrometer, refractometry, surface tension, osmolality, a reagent strip, or oscillations of a capillary tube. These measurements are interrelated, not identical. Urinary density measurement is useful to assess the disorders of water balance and to discriminate between prerenal azotemia and acute tubular necrosis. The water balance regulates the serum sodium concentration, therefore disorders are revealed by hypo- and hypernatremia. The disturbances are due to renal and nonrenal diseases, mainly liver, cardiovascular, intestinal, endocrine, and iatrogenic. Fluid management is an important topic of intensive care medicine. Moreover, the usefulness of specific gravity measurement of urine lies in interpreting other findings of urinalysis, both chemical and microscopical. PMID:3077030

Pradella, M; Dorizzi, R M; Rigolin, F

1988-01-01

309

Investigating the Influence of Clay Mineralogy on Stream Bank Erodibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil scientists concerned with erosion of agricultural fields and geotechnical engineers concerned with the mechanical behavior of soils under different conditions have both examined the role of clay mineralogy in controlling soil/sediment properties. Fluvial geomorphologists studying stream channel erosion and stability have focused more on the effects of particle-size distribution, vegetation and rooting. The clay mineralogy of bed and bank sediment has the potential to influence cohesiveness and erodibility, however. The goal of this study is to determine the influence of clay mineralogy on the erodibility of natural stream bank sediment, utilizing techniques drawn from pedology and soil mechanics. Bank samples were collected from eleven sites in small watersheds in central and western Virginia. To obtain sediment containing a range of different clay minerals, watersheds with different types of bedrock were chosen for sampling. Rock types included mafic to felsic metamorphic and igneous rocks, shale, sandstone, and limestone. Where stream bank materials were clearly stratified, different layers were sampled separately. X-ray diffraction of the clay-fraction of the sediment indicates the presence of kaolinite, illite, vermiculite, and mixed-layer clay minerals in various abundances in the different samples. Clay content is 9-46%, as determined by the hydrometer method, and textures range from silty clay and silt loam to clay loam and sandy loam. Organic mater contents range from 1-5% by the loss-on-ignition method. Bulk density of intact sediment samples averages 1.5 g/cc. Liquid limits range from 23-41 with one sample having a value of 65; plasticity indices range from 15-22. While these tests predict that the samples would show a range of mechanical behaviors, the channel morphology at the sampling sites was not strikingly different, all having steep cut banks eroded primarily by scour with no evidence of mass movement and most having a width/depth ratio around 4.5. The ASTM pinhole test for identifying dispersive clay soils is being adapted to measure erodibility of intact and remolded sediment samples in the laboratory to look for more subtle differences in behavior under erosive conditions. Factors such as the extent and method of sample compaction are being taken into account in order to standardize the method.

Ambers, R. K.; Stine, M. B.

2005-12-01

310

Interactions of Radiation and Convection in Simulated Tropical Cloud Clusters.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional cumulus ensemble model is used to study the interactions of radiation and convection in tropical squall cloud clusters. The model includes cloud-scale and mesoscale dynamics, an improved bulk ice microphysics parameterization, and an advanced interactive radiative transfer scheme. The life cycle of a tropical squall line is simulated over a 12-h period using thermodynamic and kinematic initial conditions as well as large-scale advective forcing typical of a GATE Phase III squall cluster environment. The focus is on the interaction and feedback between longwave (or IR) radiation and cloud processes.It will be shown that clew-sky IR cooling enhances convection and, hence, surface precipitation. Simulation results reveal an increase of surface precipitation by 15% (1.7 mm) over a 12-b period due to this clear-sky cooling. With fully interactive IR radiative heating, direct destabilization of clouds via IR radiative top cooling and base warming generates more turbulence and contributes to the longevity and extent of the upper-tropospheric stratiform (anvil) clouds associated with deep convection. The greater extent of anvil clouds decreases the outgoing IR flux at the top of the atmosphere by as much as 20 W m2.With fully interactive IR radiative heating, the anvil cirrus reduces the IR cooling of the troposphere with respect to the clear-sky values. This cloud IR radiative forcing has a negative feedback on tropical deep convection, which will be referred to as `anvil cloud IR radiative feedback.' This feedback decreases surface precipitation by 10% (1.3 mm). It will also be shown that IR radiative processes modify the hydrometer profiles by affecting convection. On changing the cloud particle size distributions prescribed in radiation calculations, it is further demonstrated that the size distributions significantly influence the convective activity through their effects on the cloud IR radiative forcing.The impact of clear-air IR cooling and cloud radiative forcing on deep convection is further examined by using the cloud-work function, which is a generalized number of the moist convective instability in die large-scale environment. The clear-air IR cooling tends to increase the cloud-work function, but the cloud IR radiative forcing tends to reduce it, especially for the deposit clouds.

Fu, Qiang; Krueger, Steven K.; Liou, K. N.

1995-05-01

311

A search for model parsimony in a real time flood forecasting system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As regards the hydrological simulation of flood events, a physically based distributed approach is the most appealing one, especially in those areas where the spatial variability of the soil hydraulic properties as well as of the meteorological forcing cannot be left apart, such as in mountainous regions. On the other hand, dealing with real time flood forecasting systems, less detailed models requiring a minor number of parameters may be more convenient, reducing both the computational costs and the calibration uncertainty. In fact in this case a precise quantification of the entire hydrograph pattern is not necessary, while the expected output of a real time flood forecasting system is just an estimate of the peak discharge, the time to peak and in some cases the flood volume. In this perspective a parsimonious model has to be found in order to increase the efficiency of the system. A suitable case study was identified in the northern Apennines: the Taro river is a right tributary to the Po river and drains about 2000 km2 of mountains, hills and floodplain, equally distributed . The hydrometeorological monitoring of this medium sized watershed is managed by ARPA Emilia Romagna through a dense network of uptodate gauges (about 30 rain gauges and 10 hydrometers). Detailed maps of the surface elevation, land use and soil texture characteristics are also available. Five flood events were recorded by the new monitoring network in the years 2003-2007: during these events the peak discharge was higher than 1000 m3/s, which is actually quite a high value when compared to the mean discharge rate of about 30 m3/s. The rainfall spatial patterns of such storms were analyzed in previous works by means of geostatistical tools and a typical semivariogram was defined, with the aim of establishing a typical storm structure leading to flood events in the Taro river. The available information was implemented into a distributed flood event model with a spatial resolution of 90m; then the hydrologic detail was reduced by progressively assuming a uniform rainfall field and constant soil properties. A semi-distributed model, obtained by subdividing the catchment into three sub-catchment, and a lumped model were also applied to simulate the selected flood events. Errors were quantified in terms of the peak discharge ratio, the flood volume and the time to peak by comparing the simulated hydrographs to the observed ones.

Grossi, G.; Balistrocchi, M.

2009-04-01

312

A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

Goodfellow, Bradley W.

2012-12-01

313

Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no significant relationship with topographic indices. When the catchment average soil moisture is low, the variance of soil moisture increases with the average. When the average is high, the variance remains relatively constant. Little of the variation in soil moisture is explained by topographic indices when the catchment is either very wet or dry; however, when the average soil moisture takes on intermediate values, cos(aspect) is consistently the best predictor among the terrain indices considered.

Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.

2008-12-01

314

Noninvasive measuring methods for the investigation of irritant patch test reactions. A study of patients with hand eczema, atopic dermatitis and controls.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the susceptibility of clinically normal skin to a standard irritant trauma under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions. Evaluation of skin responses to patch tests with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) was used for assessment of skin susceptibility. The following noninvasive measuring methods were used for evaluation of the skin before and after exposure to irritants: measurement of transepidermal water loss by an evaporimeter, measurement of electrical conductance by a hydrometer, measurement of skin blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry, measurement of skin colour by a colorimeter and measurement of skin thickness by ultrasound A-scan. The studies were carried out on healthy volunteers and patients with eczema. In the first studies the standard irritant patch test for assessment of skin susceptibility was characterized and validated. SLS was chosen among other irritants because of its ability to penetrate and impair the skin barrier. The implications of use of different qualities of SLS was investigated. The applied noninvasive measuring methods were evaluated, and for quantification of SLS-induced skin damage measurement of TEWL was found to be the most sensitive method. Application of the standard test on clinically normal skin under varying physiological and patophysiological conditions lead to the following main results: Seasonal variation in skin susceptibility to SLS was found, with increased susceptibility in winter, when the hydration state of the stratum corneum was also found to be decreased. A variation in skin reactivity to SLS during the menstrual cycle was demonstrated, with an increased skin response at day 1 as compared to days 9-11 in the menstrual cycle. The presence of active eczema distant from the test site increased skin susceptibility to SLS, indicating a generalized hyperreactivity of the skin. Taking these sources of variation into account healthy volunteers and patients with hand eczema and atopic dermatits were studied and compared. In healthy volunteers increased baseline TEWL and increased light reflection from the skin, interpreted as "fair" skin, was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to SLS. Hand eczema patients were found to have fairer and thinner skin than matched controls. Increased susceptibility to SLS was found only in patients with acute eczema. Patients with atopic dermatitis had increased baseline TEWL as well as increased skin susceptibility as compared to controls. Skin susceptibility is thus influenced by individual- as well as environment-related factors. Knowledge of determinants of skin susceptibility may be useful for the identification of high-risk subjects for development of irritant contact dermatitis, and may help to prevent the formation of the disease. PMID:1636360

Agner, T

1992-01-01

315

Coastal Hazard due to Tropical Cyclones in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mexican coast is hit every year by at least 3 cyclones and it is affected for nearly 59 hours a year on average; this induces undesirable consequences, such as coastal erosion and flooding. To evaluate the hazard to which the coastal zone is exposes, a historical characterization of atmospheric conditions (surface winds and pressure conditions of the storms), waves (wave heights and their associated wave periods) and flooding levels due to tropical storms for more than 60 years is presented. The atmospheric and wave conditions were evaluated using a modification of the original parametric Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model by Bretschneider (1990) and Holland (1980) as presented by Silva, et al. (2002). The flooding levels caused by hurricanes were estimated using a two-dimensional, vertically averaged finite volume model to evaluate the storm surge, Posada et al. (2008). The cyclone model was compared to the data series of 29 cyclones recorded by buoys of the National Data Buoy Center-NOAA and some data recorded in shallow waters near Cancun, Mexico and the flooding model was compared with observed data from Cancun, Mexico; both models gave good results. For the extreme analyses of wind, wave heights and maximum flooding levels on the Mexican coasts, maps of the scale and location parameters used in the Weibull cumulative distribution function and numerical results for different return periods are provided. The historical occurrence of tropical storms is also revised as some studies indicate that the average intensity of tropical cyclones is increasing; no definite trends pointing to an increase in storm frequency or intensity were found. What was in fact found is that although there are more cyclones in the Pacific Ocean and these persist longer, the intensity of the cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean is greater affecting. In any case, the strong necessity of avoiding storm induced coastal damage (erosion and flooding) is reflected in numerous works, such as this one, which aim to better manage the coastal area and reduce its vulnerability to hurricanes. References Bretschneider, C.L., 1990. Tropical Cyclones. Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Gulf Publishing Co., Vol. 1, 249-370. Holland, G.L., 1980. An analytical model of wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1212-1218. Posada, G., Silva, R. & de Brye, S. 2008. Three dimensional hydrodynamic model with multiquadtree meshes. American Journal of Environmental Sciences. 4(3): 209-222. Silva, R., Govaere, G., Salles, P., Bautista, G. & Díaz, G. 2002. Oceanographic vulnerability to hurricanes on the Mexican coast. International Conference on Coastal Engineering, pp. 39-51.

Silva-Casarin, R.; Mendoza-Baldwin, E.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante-MAncera, E.; Ruíz-Rentería, F.

2013-05-01

316

Development of a database-driven system for simulating water temperature in the lower Yakima River main stem, Washington, for various climate scenarios  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model for simulating daily maximum and mean water temperatures was developed by linking two existing models: one developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and one developed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The study area included the lower Yakima River main stem between the Roza Dam and West Richland, Washington. To automate execution of the labor-intensive models, a database-driven model automation program was developed to decrease operation costs, to reduce user error, and to provide the capability to perform simulations quickly for multiple management and climate change scenarios. Microsoft© SQL Server 2008 R2 Integration Services packages were developed to (1) integrate climate, flow, and stream geometry data from diverse sources (such as weather stations, a hydrologic model, and field measurements) into a single relational database; (2) programmatically generate heavily formatted model input files; (3) iteratively run water temperature simulations; (4) process simulation results for export to other models; and (5) create a database-driven infrastructure that facilitated experimentation with a variety of scenarios, node permutations, weather data, and hydrologic conditions while minimizing costs of running the model with various model configurations. As a proof-of-concept exercise, water temperatures were simulated for a "Current Conditions" scenario, where local weather data from 1980 through 2005 were used as input, and for "Plus 1" and "Plus 2" climate warming scenarios, where the average annual air temperatures used in the Current Conditions scenario were increased by 1degree Celsius (°C) and by 2°C, respectively. Average monthly mean daily water temperatures simulated for the Current Conditions scenario were compared to measured values at the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet gage at Kiona, Washington, for 2002-05. Differences ranged between 1.9° and 1.1°C for February, March, May, and June, and were less than 0.8°C for the remaining months of the year. The difference between current conditions and measured monthly values for the two warmest months (July and August) were 0.5°C and 0.2°C, respectively. The model predicted that water temperature generally becomes less sensitive to air temperature increases as the distance from the mouth of the river decreases. As a consequence, the difference between climate warming scenarios also decreased. The pattern of decreasing sensitivity is most pronounced from August to October. Interactive graphing tools were developed to explore the relative sensitivity of average monthly and mean daily water temperature to increases in air temperature for model output locations along the lower Yakima River main stem.

Voss, Frank; Maule, Alec

2013-01-01

317

BOOK REVIEW: Practical Density Measurement and Hydrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density determinations are very important not only for science and production but also in everyday life, since very often a product is sold by mass but the content of the package is measured by volume (or vice versa) so that the density is needed to convert the values. In production processes the density serves as a measure of mixing ratios and other properties. In science, the determination of Avogadro's constant using silicon single crystals and the potential replacement of the kilogram prototype boost density determination to an extremely low relative uncertainty of 10-7 or less. The book by S V Gupta explains in detail the foundations of any density measurement, namely the volume determination of solid artefacts in terms of the SI base unit of length and the density of water and mercury. Both the history and the actual state of science are reported. For practical density measurements, these chapters contain very useful formulae and tables. Water is treated in detail since it is most widely used as a standard not only for density determination but also to gravimetrically calibrate the capacity of volumetric glassware. Two thirds of the book are devoted to the practical density measurement of solids and liquids, mainly using classical instruments like pycnometers and hydrometers. Methods using free flotation of samples in a liquid without suspension are especially useful for small samples. Also, density determinations of powders and granular or porous samples are explained. Unfortunately, modern density meters of the oscillation type are dealt with in only a few pages. The book is clearly written and easy to understand. It contains a lot of evaluations of formulae that for practical measurements are represented in detailed tables. Methods and measurement procedures are described in detail, including also the calculation of uncertainty. Listings of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are very helpful. S V Gupta has written a book that will be a great help for scientists, students and practitioners. The book fills a gap since there is no modern book that describes density measurements and hydrometry in such detail. Horst Bettin

Gupta, S. V.

2003-01-01

318

Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [?New insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and F. Terribile. 1999. Interpretation of the spa- tial variability of soil hydraulic properties using a land system analysis. In Modelling of Transport Processes in Soils, J. Feyen and K. Wiyo, eds., p. 491-500, Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.]. A soil-landscape map was set-up and undis- turbed soil cores, spaced 50 m apart, were regularly collected from the uppermost soil horizons along transects located at the two sides of the river. All cores were subjected to laboratory measurements to determine bulk density, particle-size distribution, or- ganic carbon content, and unsaturated soil hydraulic characteristics. Other field exper- iment have been performed through a non-invasive method of monitoring the spatial 1 and temporal variations of soil water content by using soil resistivity data from elec- trical resistivity tomography and relating the soil resistivity to soil water content. The presence of two pluviometers and a hydrometer permits the evaluation of watershed inflows and outflows at different timescale. 2

Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

319

Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple-stage batch extraction, the soil was successfully treated passing both the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and EPA Total Extractable Metal Limit. The final residual Pb concentration was about 300 mg/kg, with a corresponding TCLP of 1.5 mg/l. Removal of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions for Cu and Zn was achieved during the first extraction stage, whereas it required two extraction stages for the same fractions for Pb. Removal of Pb, Cu, and Zn present as exchangeable, carbonates, and reducible oxides occurred between the fourth- and fifth-stage extractions. The overall removal of copper, lead, and zinc from the multiple-stage washing were 98.9%, 98.9%, and 97.2%, respectively. The concentration and operating conditions for the soil washing extractions were not necessarily optimized. If the conditions had been optimized and using a more representative Pb concentration (approximately 12000 mg/kg), it is likely that the TCLP and residual heavy metal soil concentrations could be achieved within two to three extractions. The results indicate that the J-Field contaminated soils can be successfully treated using a soil washing technique. PMID:10379036

Peters, R W

1999-04-23

320

Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project  

SciTech Connect

To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) cone penetrometer test (CPT) truck at ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 to collect inferred lithology data for the vadose zone. Results from this study are used to make recommendations for future modeling efforts involving the ECP plots. The conceptual model of the ECP hydrogeology differs from the conceptual model of the current ELLWF disposal area in that for the ECP plots, the topography (ground surface) is generally lower in elevation; The Upland and top of Tobacco Road lithostratigraphic units are missing (eroded); The water table occurs lower in elevation (i.e., it occurs in lower stratigraphic units); and the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) often occurs within the vadose zone (rather than in the saturated zone). Due to the difference in the hydrogeology between the current ELLWF location and the ECP plots, different vadose zone properties are recommended for the ECP plots versus the properties recommended by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current disposal units. Results from this study do not invalidate or conflict with the current PA's use of the Upper and Lower Vadose Zone properties as described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current ELLWF disposal units. The following modeling recommendations are made for future modeling of the ECP plots where vadose zone properties are required: (1) If a single vadose zone property is preferred, the properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the Upper Vadose Zone encompass the general physical properties of the combined sands and clays in the ECP vadose zone sediments despite the differences in hydrostratigraphic units. (2) If a dual zone system is preferred, a combination of the Lower Zone properties and the Clay properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) are appropriate for modeling the physical properties of the ECP vadose zone. The Clay properties would be assigned to the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) and any other significant clay layers, while the Lower Zone properties would be assigned for the remainder of the vadose zone. No immediate updates or changes are recommended for

Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

2011-04-29

321

Investigation of wintertime cold-air pools and aerosol layers in the Salt Lake Valley using a lidar ceilometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the utility of lidar ceilometers, a type of aerosol lidar, in improving the understanding of meteorology and air quality in persistent wintertime stable boundary layers, or cold-air pools, that form in urbanized valley and basin topography. This thesis reviews the scientific literature to survey the present knowledge of persistent cold-air pools, the operating principles of lidar ceilometers, and their demonstrated utility in meteorological investigations. Lidar ceilometer data from the Persistent Cold-Air Pool Study (PCAPS) are then used with meteorological and air quality data from other in situ and remote sensing equipment to investigate cold-air pools that formed in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during the winter of 2010-2011. The lidar ceilometer is shown to accurately measure aerosol layer depth and aerosol loading, when compared to visual observations. A linear relationship is found between low-level lidar backscatter and surface particulate measurements. Convective boundary layer lidar analysis techniques applied to cold-air pool ceilometer profiles can detect useful layer characteristics. Fine-scale waves are observed and analyzed within the aerosol layer, with emphasis on Kelvin-Helmholz waves. Ceilometer aerosol backscatter profiles are analyzed to quantify and describe mixing processes in persistent cold-air pools. Overlays of other remote and in-situ observations are combined with ceilometer particle backscatter to describe specific events during PCAPS. This analysis describes the relationship between the aerosol layer and the valley inversion as well as interactions with large-scale meteorology. The ceilometer observations of hydrometers are used to quantify cloudiness and precipitation during the project, observing that 50% of hours when a PCAP was present had clouds or precipitation below 5 km above ground level (AGL). Then, combining an objective technique for determining hourly aerosol layer depths and correcting this subjectively during periods with low clouds or precipitation, a time series of aerosol depths was obtained. The mean depth of the surface-based aerosol layer during PCAP events was 1861 m MSL with a standard deviation of 135 m. The aerosol layer depth, given the approximate 1300 m altitude of the valley floor, is thus about 550 m, about 46% of the basin depth. The aerosol layer is present during much of the winter and is removed only during strong or prolonged precipitation periods or when surface winds are strong. Nocturnal fogs that formed near the end of high-stability PCAP episodes had a limited effect on aerosol layer depth. Aerosol layer depth was relatively invariant during the winter and during the persistent cold-air pools, while PM10 concentrations at the valley floor varied with bulk atmospheric stability associated primarily with passage of large-scale high- and low-pressure weather systems. PM10 concentrations also increased with cold-air pool duration. Mean aerosol loading in the surface-based aerosol layer, as determined from ceilometer backscatter coefficients, showed weaker variations than those of surface PM10 concentrations, suggesting that ineffective vertical mixing and aerosol layering are present in the cold-air pools. This is supported by higher time-resolution backscatter data, and it distinguishes the persistent cold-air pools from well-mixed convective boundary layers where ground-based air pollution concentrations are closely related to time-dependent convective boundary layer/aerosol depths. These results are discussed along with recommendations for future explorations of the ceilometer and cold-air pool topics.

Young, Joseph Swyler

322

Radar Observations of Convective Systems from a High-Altitude Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflectivity data collected by the precipitation radar on board the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, orbiting at 350 km altitude, are compared to reflectivity data collected nearly simultaneously by a doppler radar aboard the NASA ER-2 flying at 19-20 km altitude, i.e. above even the deepest convection. The TRMM precipitation radar is a scanning device with a ground swath width of 215 km, and has a resolution of about a4.4 km in the horizontal and 250 m in the vertical (125 m in the core swath 48 km wide). The TRMM radar has a wavelength of 217 cm (13.8 GHz) and the Nadir mirror echo below the surface is used to correct reflectivity for loss by attenuation. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) has two antennas, one pointing to the nadir, 34 degrees forward. The forward pointing beam receives both the normal and the cross-polarized echos, so the linear polarization ratio field can be monitored. EDOP has a wavelength of 3.12 cm (9.6 GHz), a vertical resolution of 37.5 m and a horizontal along-track resolution of about 100 m. The 2-D along track airflow field can be synthesized from the radial velocities of both beams, if a reflectivity-based hydrometer fall speed relation can be assumed. It is primarily the superb vertical resolution that distinguishes EDOP from other ground-based or airborne radars. Two experiments were conducted during 1998 into validate TRMM reflectivity data over convection and convectively-generated stratiform precipitation regions. The Teflun-A (TEXAS-Florida Underflight) experiment, was conducted in April and May and focused on mesoscale convective systems mainly in southeast Texas. TEFLUN-B was conducted in August-September in central Florida, in coordination with CAMEX-3 (Convection and Moisture Experiment). The latter was focused on hurricanes, especially during landfall, whereas TEFLUN-B concentrated on central; Florida convection, which is largely driven and organized by surface heating and ensuing sea breeze circulations. Both TEFLUN-A and B were amply supported by surface data, in particular a dense raingauge network, a polarization radar, wind profilers, a mobile radiosonde system, a cloud physics aircraft penetrating the overflown storms, and a network of 10 cm Doppler radars(WSR-88D). This presentation will show some preliminary comparisons between TRMM, EDOP, and WSR-88D reflectivity fields in the case of an MCS, a hurricane, and less organized convection in central Florida. A validation of TRMM reflectivity is important, because TRMM's primary objective is to estimate the rainfall climatology with 35 degrees of the equator. Rainfall is estimated from the radar reflectivity, as well from TRMM's Microwave Imager, which measures at 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, and 85.5 GHz over a broader swath (78 km). While the experiments lasted about three months the cumulative period of near simultaneous observations of storms by ground-based, airborne and space borne radars is only about an hour long. Therefore the comparison is case-study-based, not climatological. We will highlight fundamental differences in the typical reflectivity profiles in stratiform regions of MCS's, Florida convection and hurricanes and will explain why Z-R relationships based on ground-based radar data for convective systems over land should be different from those for hurricanes. These catastrophically intense rainfall from hurricane Georges in Hispaniola and from Mitch in Honduras highlights the importance of accurate Z-R relationships, It will be shown that a Z-R relationship that uses the entire reflectivity profile (rather than just a 1 level) works much better in a variety of cases, making an adjustment of the constants for different precipitation system categories redundant.

Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.

1999-01-01

323

a Nonhydrostatic Modeling Analysis of AN Intense Midlatitude Squall Line.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonhydrostatic modeling shows that the convective cells of a squall line, which occurred over Kansas and Oklahoma on 10-11 June 1985, behaves as gravity waves. In the simulation, the gust front generates a continuous low -level updraft. Updraft cells periodically break away from the gust-front updraft and move at their associated gravity -wave phase speeds. Linear theory shows that waves are trapped in the troposphere because of the strong decrease of Scorer parameter with height. Linear theory predicts the gravity-wave amplitudes, quadrature relations, and the gravity-wave periods. The stronger front-to-rear propagation mode dominates in the mature stage of the storm. The decrease of Scorer parameter with height encountered by the rearward propagating waves is a product of the storm circulation. The drop-off in Scorer parameter with height is a manifestation of the shear between ascending front-to-rear and descending rear-to-front flows of the squall-line system. The squall line produces an environment conducive to trapping rearward propagating gravity waves generated at the gust front. Numerical experiments show that the rear inflow and related aspects of storm structure are sensitive to hydrometer types, ice-phase microphysics, and the midlevel environmental humidity. Ice-phase microphysics is important for the model to produce realistic air motions and precipitation in the stratiform region. With the occurrence of heavy hailstones, there is no enhanced rear-to-front flow at the back edge of the storm. Evaporation is the most important latent cooling process determining the structure and strength of the descending rear inflow and the mesoscale downdraft. Latent cooling by melting snow enhances the strength of the rear -to-front flow at the back edge of storm and the intensity of mesoscale downdraft. Mesoscale downdraft is initiated above the rm 0^circC level by sublimational cooling. With the environmental midlevel moisture reduced by half, mesoscale downdrafts are stronger, but the rear-to-front flow at the back edge of the system is much weaker. The descending rear inflow is thus partly a dynamical response to the latent cooling processes in the trailing stratiform part of the squall line. The momentum budget of the squall line is investigated. The intense pressure gradient associated with the mesolow in the convective region produces the ascending front-to-rear flow. Over a 300-km-wide large-scale area in which the storm is embedded, momentum balance is determined mainly by the airflows in precipitation regions (both convective and stratiform). Pressure-gradient force together with the vertical flux convergence by standing eddies determine most of the large-scale momentum tendency. The contribution from convective region dominates at low levels, both convective and stratiform regions contribute significantly to net momentum tendency at midlevels, and the contribution from stratiform region is essential at upper levels.

Yang, Ming-Jen

1995-01-01

324

COSMO-SkyMed measurements in precipitation over the sea: analysis of Louisiana summer thunderstorms by simultaneous weather radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radar signatures of rain cells are investigated using X-band synthetic aperture radar (X-SAR) images acquired from COSMO-SkyMed constellation over oceans off the coast of Louisiana in summer 2010 provided by ASI archive. COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) monitoring of Deepwater Horizon oil spill provided a big amount of data during the period April-September 2010 and in July-August when several thunderstorms occurred in that area. In X-SAR images, radar signatures of rain cells over the sea usually consist of irregularly shaped bright and dark patches. These signatures originate from 1) the scattering and attenuation of radiation by hydrometers in the rain cells and 2) the modification of the sea roughness induced by the impact of raindrops and by wind gusts associated with rain cell. However, the interpretation of precipitation signatures in X-SAR images is not completely straightforward, especially over sea. Coincident measurements from ground based radars and an electromagnetic (EM) model predicting radar returns from the sea surface corrugated by rainfall are used to support the analysis. A dataset consisting of 4 CSK images has been collected over Gulf of Mexico while a WSR-88D NEXRAD S-band Doppler radar (KLIX) located in New Orleans was scanning the nearby portion of ocean. Terrestrial measurements have been used to reconstruct the component of X-SAR returns due to precipitation by modifying the known technique applied on measurements over land (Fritz et al. 2010, Baldini et al. 2011). Results confirm that the attenuation signature in X-SAR images collected over land, particularly pronounced in the presence of heavy precipitation cells, can be related to the S-band radar reflectivity integrated along the same path. The Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) of land is considered to vary usually up to a few dBs in case of rain but with strong dependency on the specific type and conditions of land cover. While the NRCS of sea surface in clear weather condition can be considered as constant, in case of rain, at X-SAR incidence angles, it exhibits a dependence to precipitation event due the combined effects of corrugation due to the impinging raindrops and to the surface wind. Therefore, when retrieving of X-SAR NRCS in precipitation over the sea, this effect must be accounted for and can be quantified based on the precipitation event using a simple NRCS surface model. In this work, an EM model based on Bahar's Full Wave Model is used for evaluating such NRCS depending on polarization, frequency and incidence angle for different values of wind velocity and the root mean square height of the corrugation induced by rainfall. The reconstruction of X-SAR returns in precipitation is finally obtained by joint utilization of volume reflectivity and attenuation estimated from KLIX and the sea NRCS model.

Roberto, N.; Baldini, L.; Gorgucci, E.; Facheris, L.; Chandrasekar, V.

2012-04-01

325

Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SUMMARY The aim of this work was to determine the properties of organic soils modified by man, muddy and fluvial process. Peat horizons were analyzed and classified by types - and species of peat. Three profiles of shallow peat and peaty gley soils identified. Investigation showed that organic soil developed on a sandy weathered sandstone base according to oligotrophic type of sites. Organic horizons were mixed with sand and separated by sandy layers. Those soils were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). The throphism of organic soil in this object resulted from both natural factors and anthropo-pedogenesis. key words: peat deposit, organic soils, soil properties, muddy process, sandy layers INTRODUCTION The areas of Stolowe Mountains National Park were influenced by forestry management. Many peatlands in the Park area were drained for forestry before World War II. Several amelioration attempts were undertaken as early as in the nineteenth century. The system of forest roads were built on drained areas. The Kragle Mokradlo Peatland is located in the Skalniak plateau. The object is cut by a melioration ditch. This ditch has been recently blocked to rewet the objects. Several forest roads pass in the close neighbourhood of investigated areas. In a border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatlands, we can observe artificial spruce habitat. Investigated object represents shallow peat soil developed on sandy basement. The early investigations showed that peaty soils were also covered by sandstone - related deposits, several dozen centimeter thick (BOGACZ 2000). Those layers was developed from sandstone weathered material transported by wind and water. The aim of presented works was to determine the stage of evolution of organic soils on the base on their morphological, physical and chemical properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peat soils in different locations (3 profiles, 18 samples) were selected for examination. Peat samples were collected from study areas using a 6.0 cm diameter Instorfu peat auger (HORAWSKI 1987). Soil horizons were determined on the basis of colour, degree of organic matter decomposition and the quality of vegetation remains. Cores were taken to the depth where underlying mineral material was encountered. The cores ware sectioned to subsamples at intervals at major stratigrafic breaks. Some physical, chemical properties and botanical composition of peat were determined in this material. Differentiation in botanical composition of peat was analyzed by the microscopic method and subsequently classified according to the Polish standards (Oznaczanie gatunku...1977). Peat humification degree was measured using two methods: SPEC method and half syringe method (LYNN at all. 1974). Ash content was estimated by combusting the material in a muffle furnace at 500oC for 4 hours. The texture of mineral horizons was determined using the Bouyoucos hydrometer method (GEE AND BOUNDER 1986). The specific gravity (W) and bulk density (Z) of organic soils were calculated using the following formula's (ZAWADZKI 1970): W=0.11A+1.451, (1.451) represents the specific gravity of humus, Z =0.004A+0.0913, A is a ash content and constant (0.0913) represents the bulk density of humus. The following chemical properties of organic soil horizons were analyzed: content of total carbon and nitrogen, acidity in H2O and 1mol dm-3 KCl and CECe in CH3COONH4 at pH 7. Base saturation (BS) of soil sorption complex was calculated. The soils were classified to reference groups in WRB Classification System (WRB 2006). RESULTS AND DISSCUSION Based on the cores, -the soils in the border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland area were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). Soils represented ombrogenic type of hydrological conditions. In that site, an ombrogenic type of hydrological input is the predominant mechanism of soil evolution. Soil examined in this study have developed in oligotrophic type of site. Organic soils developed on sandy weathered sandstones. The depth of organic horizons

Bogacz, A.; Roszkowicz, M.

2009-04-01

326

FOREWORD: Special issue on density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue on density was undertaken to provide readers with an overview of the present state of the density standards for solids, liquids and gases, as well as the technologies developed for measuring density. This issue also includes topics on the refractive index of gases and on techniques used for calibrating hydrometers so that almost all areas concerned with density standards are covered in four review articles and seven original articles, most of which describe current research being conducted at national metrology institutes (NMIs). A review article was invited from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum to highlight research on the magnetic suspension densimeters. In metrology, the determinations of the volume of a weight and the density of air are of primary importance in establishing a mass standard because the effect of the buoyancy force of air acting on the weight must be known accurately to determine the mass of the weight. A density standard has therefore been developed at many NMIs with a close relation to the mass standard. Hydrostatic weighing is widely used to measure the volume of a solid. The most conventional hydrostatic weighing method uses water as a primary density standard for measuring the volume of a solid. A brief history of the determination of the density of water is therefore given in a review article, as well as a recommended value for the density of water with a specified isotopic abundance. The most modern technique for hydrostatic weighing uses a solid density standard instead of water. For this purpose, optical interferometers for measuring the diameters of silicon spheres have been developed to convert the length standard into the volume standard with a small uncertainty. A review article is therefore dedicated to describing the state-of-the-art optical interferometers developed for silicon spheres. Relative combined standard uncertainties of several parts in 108 have been achieved today for measuring the volume and density of silicon spheres. These technologies are currently being used not only for establishing a solid density standard, but also for determining the Avogadro constant by the x-ray crystal density method, where the density, molar mass and lattice constant of a silicon crystal are measured based on the definition of the SI units. Considering that much of the present research on the Avogadro constant has been undertaken to replace the present definition of the kilogram with a new definition based on a number of atoms, it is satisfying to note that the most accurate density standard may contribute to a new definition of the kilogram. Differential density measurements by hydrostatic weighing and by the pressure of flotation method developed for measuring the density differences between silicon crystals and solids are given in a review article and three original articles, where combined standard uncertainties of a few parts in 108 have been achieved in measuring relative density differences. These technologies are being used not only for the determination of the Avogadro constant, but also for evaluating defects in silicon crystals used in the semiconductor industry. Another important liquid used in the density standard is mercury because the pressured standard determined from mercury column barometers, the molar gas constant determined from an acoustic resonator, and the Josephson constant determined from a mercury voltmeter are all dependent on the density of mercury. A review article is therefore dedicated to an overview of the history, recommended value and recent progress in the measurement of the density of mercury. This special issue also features the technologies developed for measuring the thermodynamic properties of fluids. New instruments with a magnetic suspension balance have substantially improved the uncertainty in measuring the density of fluids at elevated pressures and temperatures. Two review articles and an original article are therefore dedicated to describing the history, principle and recent progress in magnetic suspension densimeters. When the diamagn

Fujii, Kenichi

2004-04-01