Sample records for hydrometers

  1. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, Carl A. (Naperville, IL)

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  2. Constructing and Calibrating a Hydrometer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meghan Hauptli

    2012-04-18

    Students construct and calibrate a simple hydrometer using different salt solutions. They then graph their data and determine the density and salinity of an unknown solution using their hydrometer and graphical analysis.

  3. The Great Hydrometer Construction Contest!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, James Randy; Padilla, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between specific gravity, salinity, and density in brine solutions is investigated. Students construct hydrometers to reinforce concepts learned in oceanography. Background information, salt requirements for the unknowns, directions, and reproducible worksheets are included. (KR)

  4. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

  5. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

  6. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

  7. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

  8. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Hydrometers and thermometers. 30.22 Section 30.22 Alcohol...Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used...for gauging spirits. Hydrometers and thermometers shall be used and the true...

  9. 27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

  10. 27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

  11. 27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

  12. 27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

  13. 27 CFR 30.24 - Specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific gravity hydrometers. 30.24 Section 30.24... Gauging Instruments § 30.24 Specific gravity hydrometers. (a) The specific gravity hydrometers furnished by proprietors...

  14. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  15. 27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30... § 30.25 Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of...handling, and use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

  16. 27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30... § 30.25 Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of...handling, and use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

  17. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

  18. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

  19. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

  20. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

  1. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23...Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer and thermometer readings. In order to...

  2. 27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. 30.25 Section 30... § 30.25 Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers. The provisions of...handling, and use of precision grade specific gravity hydrometers. Specific gravity...

  3. STANDARD PROCEDURE IN THE HYDROMETER METHOD FOR PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ashworth; Doug Keyes; Rhonda Kirk; Robert Lessard

    2001-01-01

    In a widely-used method for particle size analysis of soils, the weight percentages of sand, silt, and clay are calculated from the density of an aqueous soil suspension measured by hydrometer. There are many versions of the procedure, differing in the type of dispersing solution, the volume of the suspension, the time of settling before taking hydrometer readings, or in

  4. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

  5. 27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...by the applicable correction factor in Table 7. Example: The specific gravity hydrometer reading is 1.1525, the thermometer reading is 68 degrees Fahrenheit, and the true proof of the spirits is 115 degrees. The correct specific gravity...

  6. 27 CFR 30.25 - Use of precision specific gravity hydrometers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...by the applicable correction factor in Table 7. Example: The specific gravity hydrometer reading is 1.1525, the thermometer reading is 68 degrees Fahrenheit, and the true proof of the spirits is 115 degrees. The correct specific gravity...

  7. 27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...hydrometer likely to occur in practice at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...

  8. 27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...hydrometer likely to occur in practice at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...

  9. 27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...any indication of the hydrometer at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees Fahrenheit...hydrometer likely to occur in practice at temperatures between zero and 100 degrees...

  10. Alignment of the Measurement Scale Mark during Immersion Hydrometer Calibration Using an Image Processing System

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Perez, Luis Manuel; Pedraza-Ortega, Jesus Carlos; Ramos-Arreguin, Juan Manuel; Arriaga, Saul Tovar; Fernandez, Marco Antonio Aceves; Becerra, Luis Omar; Hurtado, Efren Gorrostieta; Vargas-Soto, Jose Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The present work presents an improved method to align the measurement scale mark in an immersion hydrometer calibration system of CENAM, the National Metrology Institute (NMI) of Mexico, The proposed method uses a vision system to align the scale mark of the hydrometer to the surface of the liquid where it is immersed by implementing image processing algorithms. This approach reduces the variability in the apparent mass determination during the hydrostatic weighing in the calibration process, therefore decreasing the relative uncertainty of calibration. PMID:24284770

  11. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Bilateral comparison on the calibrations of hydrometers for liquid density between INRIM-Italy and INMETRO-Brazil: SIM.M.D-S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorefice, Salvatore; Malta, Dalni; Julio Pinheiro, José; Marteleto, Paulo Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The results of the SIM.M.D-S2 bilateral comparison between INRIM-Italy and INMETRO-Brazil are summarized in this report. The aims of this comparison were to check the stated uncertainty levels and the degrees of equivalence between the two institutes on the calibration of hydrometers for liquid density in the range of 800 kg m-3 to 1000 kg m-3 at 20 ºC, by means of two transfer standards of excellent metrological characteristics. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  12. A High Resolution Hydrometer Phase Classifier Based on Analysis of Cloud Radar Doppler Spectra.

    SciTech Connect

    Luke,E.; Kollias, P.

    2007-08-06

    The lifecycle and radiative properties of clouds are highly sensitive to the phase of their hydrometeors (i.e., liquid or ice). Knowledge of cloud phase is essential for specifying the optical properties of clouds, or else, large errors can be introduced in the calculation of the cloud radiative fluxes. Current parameterizations of cloud water partition in liquid and ice based on temperature are characterized by large uncertainty (Curry et al., 1996; Hobbs and Rangno, 1998; Intriery et al., 2002). This is particularly important in high geographical latitudes and temperature ranges where both liquid droplets and ice crystal phases can exist (mixed-phase cloud). The mixture of phases has a large effect on cloud radiative properties, and the parameterization of mixed-phase clouds has a large impact on climate simulations (e.g., Gregory and Morris, 1996). Furthermore, the presence of both ice and liquid affects the macroscopic properties of clouds, including their propensity to precipitate. Despite their importance, mixed-phase clouds are severely understudied compared to the arguably simpler single-phase clouds. In-situ measurements in mixed-phase clouds are hindered due to aircraft icing, difficulties distinguishing hydrometeor phase, and discrepancies in methods for deriving physical quantities (Wendisch et al. 1996, Lawson et al. 2001). Satellite-based retrievals of cloud phase in high latitudes are often hindered by the highly reflecting ice-covered ground and persistent temperature inversions. From the ground, the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud properties has been the subject of extensive research over the past 20 years using polarization lidars (e.g., Sassen et al. 1990), dual radar wavelengths (e.g., Gosset and Sauvageot 1992; Sekelsky and McIntosh, 1996), and recently radar Doppler spectra (Shupe et al. 2004). Millimeter-wavelength radars have substantially improved our ability to observe non-precipitating clouds (Kollias et al., 2007) due to their excellent sensitivity that enables the detection of thin cloud layers and their ability to penetrate several non-precipitating cloud layers. However, in mixed-phase clouds conditions, the observed Doppler moments are dominated by the highly reflecting ice crystals and thus can not be used to identify the cloud phase. This limits our ability to identify the spatial distribution of cloud phase and our ability to identify the conditions under which mixed-phase clouds form.

  13. 27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions or graduations...officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...verify the accuracy of hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors. (Sec....

  14. 27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions or graduations...officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...verify the accuracy of hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors. (Sec....

  15. 27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary equipment to...b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors to gauge spirits...frequent tests of their hydrometers and thermometers, and, if they appear to be...

  16. 27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions or graduations...officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...verify the accuracy of hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors. (Sec....

  17. 27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions or graduations...officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...verify the accuracy of hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors. (Sec....

  18. 27 CFR 30.21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...shall use only accurate hydrometers and thermometers that show subdivisions or graduations...officers shall use only hydrometers and thermometers furnished by the Government...verify the accuracy of hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors. (Sec....

  19. 27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...the same horizontal line, in the body of the table, in the “Temperature” column corresponding to the reading of the thermometer is the corrected reading or “true percent of proof.” The table is computed for tenths of a percent. Example....

  20. 27 CFR 30.61 - Table 1, showing the true percent of proof spirit for any indication of the hydrometer at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the same horizontal line, in the body of the table, in the “Temperature” column corresponding to the reading of the thermometer is the corrected reading or “true percent of proof.” The table is computed for tenths of a percent. Example....

  1. 27 CFR 19.980 - Gauging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...shall be determined using a glass cylinder, hydrometer, and thermometer. Proprietors may account for fuel alcohol in wine...by volume. The proprietor shall ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof,...

  2. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  3. 27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or weight are...

  4. 27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or weight are...

  5. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  6. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  7. 27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or weight are...

  8. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  9. 27 CFR 19.709 - Gauging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...proprietor must determine the proof of spirits by using a glass cylinder, hydrometer and thermometer; (2) The proprietor must ensure that hydrometers, thermometers, and other equipment used to determine proof, volume, or weight are...

  10. 27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 except...determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been distilled in a small...

  11. 27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 except...determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been distilled in a small...

  12. 27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 except...determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been distilled in a small...

  13. 27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 except...determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been distilled in a small...

  14. 27 CFR 30.31 - Determination of proof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...spirits shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 except...determined as follows: (1) By the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer after the spirits have been distilled in a small...

  15. Determination of soil properties for sandy soils and road base at Riverside Campus using laboratory testing and numerical simulation

    E-print Network

    Saez Barrios, Deeyvid O.

    2010-07-14

    and the testing schedule included grain size analysis, hydrometer test, specific gravity, maximum dry density, Atterberg limit, stiffness, direct shear test, triaxial test, and a simple procedure to estimate the maximum and minimum void ratio of the clean sand...

  16. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association, Crystal Square-3, Suite 903, 1735 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. The pulp...

  17. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association, Crystal Square-3, Suite 903, 1735 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. The pulp...

  18. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association, Crystal Square-3, Suite 903, 1735 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. The pulp...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association, Crystal Square-3, Suite 903, 1735 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. The pulp...

  20. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...specifically designed for determining the specific gravity of potatoes. 3 3 The hydrometer is available from the Potato Chip/Snack Food Association, Crystal Square-3, Suite 903, 1735 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202. The pulp...

  1. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...solids in excess of 600 milligrams per 100 milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23, to determine the apparent proof of the spirits (if specific...

  2. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...solids in excess of 600 milligrams per 100 milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23, to determine the apparent proof of the spirits (if specific...

  3. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...solids in excess of 600 milligrams per 100 milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23, to determine the apparent proof of the spirits (if specific...

  4. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...solids in excess of 600 milligrams per 100 milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23, to determine the apparent proof of the spirits (if specific...

  5. 27 CFR 30.41 - Bulk spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...solids in excess of 600 milligrams per 100 milliliters shall be ascertained by: (a) Use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer, in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23, to determine the apparent proof of the spirits (if specific...

  6. Grain Size Distributions and Soil Particle Characteristics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lecture notes focusing on measuring grain size distributions (GSDs) of soils and the two methods used to do this. Provides procedures for Sieve Testing and Hydrometer Testing to find the GSD for particular grain sizes.

  7. Procedure for Reclaiming Heavy Liquids Below are the steps we use to reclaim MEI and LST after using it to separate

    E-print Network

    Hemming, Sidney R

    to place reclaimed MEI in; hydrometer for testing density of reclaimed MEI; waste container for the acetone must take place inside the fume hood, and you must wear long gloves. MEI is toxic and therefore should in the narrow tip of the funnel above the stopcock). Then stop the flow. Pour the clean MEI into the appropriate

  8. DATE: NVLAP LAB CODE: CALIBRATION LABORATORIES APPLICATION (REV. 2013-05-24) PAGE 1 OF 12

    E-print Network

    Hydrometers 20/M08 Mass Determination 20/M09 Ultrasonic Reference Block 20/M10 Ultrasonic Transducer 20/M1104 Current Transformers 20/E05 DC Resistance and Current 20/E06 DC Voltage 20/E07 High Voltage Power/Energy 20/E13 Magnetics 20/E14 Mixed Dividers 20/E15 Phase Meters 20/E16 Power

  9. Termite infestation associated with type of soil in pulau pinang, malaysia (isoptera: rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Majid, Abdul Hafiz Ab; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-12-01

    Nine soil samples from nine buildings infested with Coptotermes gestroi in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, were tested for the type of soil texture. The soil texture analysis procedures used the hydrometer method. Four of nine buildings (44%) yielded loamy sand-type soil, whereas five of nine buildings (56%) contained sandy loam-type soil. PMID:24575252

  10. EVALUATION OF QUICK TESTS FOR DISSOLVED PHOSPHORUS DETERMINATION IN DAIRY MANURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a hand-held reflectometer, hydrometers, and measurements of electrical conductivity (EC) and manure total solids (TS) concentrations for determining dissolved phosphorus (DP) in dairy manure suspensions, and to compare the estimated DP c...

  11. 27 CFR 30.32 - Determination of proof obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...addition of distilled water. The proof of the restored distillate is then determined by use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 to the nearest 0.1 degree of proof. The difference between the proof...

  12. 27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of § 30.31, the proprietor...

  13. 27 CFR 30.71 - Optional method for determination of proof for spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...spirits containing solids of 400 milligrams or less per 100 milliliters shall be determined by the use of a hydrometer and a thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23. However, notwithstanding the provisions of § 30.31, the proprietor...

  14. 27 CFR 30.32 - Determination of proof obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...addition of distilled water. The proof of the restored distillate is then determined by use of a precision hydrometer and thermometer in accordance with the provisions of § 30.23 to the nearest 0.1 degree of proof. The difference between the proof...

  15. Salinity Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to measure the salinity of the water at your hydrology site. Students use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the water sample, and use a thermometer to measure the temperature. With these two values, students will use tables to determine the salinity.

  16. The Polarization Lidar Technique for Cloud Research: A Review and Current Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Sassen

    1991-01-01

    The development of the polarization lidar field over the past two decades is reviewed, and the current cloud-research capabilities and limitations are evaluated. Relying on fundamental scattering principles governing the interaction of polarized laser light with distinctly shaped hydrometers, this remote-sensing technique has contributed to our knowledge of the composition and structure of a variety of cloud types. For example,

  17. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Hydrometer Method) 94.108 ASTM D 445-01, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity) 94.108 ASTM D 613-01, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of...

  18. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Hydrometer Method) § 92.113 ASTM D 445-94, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity) § 92.113 ASTM D 613-95, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of...

  19. 40 CFR 92.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Hydrometer Method) § 92.113 ASTM D 445-94, Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity) § 92.113 ASTM D 613-95, Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of...

  20. 7 CFR 1767.27 - Operation and maintenance expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...shall be so kept as to show separately for each company from which stem is purchased, the point of delivery, the quantity, the...acid, gloves, hydrometers, thermometers, soda, automatic cell fillers, and acid proof shoes shall be included in this...

  1. 7 CFR 1767.27 - Operation and maintenance expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...shall be so kept as to show separately for each company from which stem is purchased, the point of delivery, the quantity, the...acid, gloves, hydrometers, thermometers, soda, automatic cell fillers, and acid proof shoes shall be included in this...

  2. 7 CFR 1767.27 - Operation and maintenance expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...shall be so kept as to show separately for each company from which stem is purchased, the point of delivery, the quantity, the...acid, gloves, hydrometers, thermometers, soda, automatic cell fillers, and acid proof shoes shall be included in this...

  3. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W Peters

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

  4. SUNRAYCE 95: Working safely with lead-acid batteries and photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group

    1994-05-27

    This document is a power system and battery safety handbook for participants in the SUNRAYCE 95 solar powered electric vehicle program. The topics of the handbook include batteries, photovoltaic modules, safety equipment needed for working with sulfuric acid electrolyte and batteries, battery transport, accident response, battery recharging and ventilation, electrical risks on-board vehicle, external electrical risks, electrical risk management strategies, and general maintenance including troubleshooting, hydrometer check and voltmeter check.

  5. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND GEOMORPHIC EVOLUTION OF PLAYA-LUNETTE SYSTEMS ON THE CENTRAL HIGH PLAINS OF KANSAS

    E-print Network

    Bowen, Mark William

    2011-03-23

    -lunette systems including depth to Ogallala Formation. Vertical exaggeration = 40x. Figure 7. Comparison of particle size analysis results for 30 PLS samples analyzed using a Malvern Mastersizer laser defractometer and ASTM hydrometer methods. Figure 8...: March 23, 2011 iii ABSTRACT Mark W. Bowen, Ph.D. Department of Geography, May 2011 University of Kansas Geographically and hydrologically isolated, ephemeral playa wetlands are ubiquitous features of the High Plains. Lunettes are dune...

  6. A New Inversion-Based Algorithm for Retrieval of Over-Water Rain Rate from SSM/I Multichannel Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, Grant W.; Stettner, David R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses certain aspects of a new inversion based algorithm for the retrieval of rain rate over the open ocean from the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) multichannel imagery. This algorithm takes a more detailed physical approach to the retrieval problem than previously discussed algorithms that perform explicit forward radiative transfer calculations based on detailed model hydrometer profiles and attempt to match the observations to the predicted brightness temperature.

  7. Hydrometallurgical recovery of non-ferrous metals from secondary sources

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, J. [Jean Goldschmidt International SA, Brussels (Belgium); [Hydrometal SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of fine oxidized particles of non-ferrous metals usually cannot be carried out by pyrometallurgical methods. Hydrometallurgy provides an alternative technology to reintroduce the resulting products as secondary raw materials into the industrial cycle, thereby saving resources and energy while keeping the environment a little cleaner. The paper summarizes the methods employed by Hydrometal to achieve these objectives and stigmatizes the latest counterproductive international regulations which create ever more obstacles to environmentally sound recycling.

  8. Comparison of cloud boundaries measured with 8.6 mm radar and 10.6 micrometer lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uttal, Taneil; Intrieri, Janet M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most basic cloud properties is location; the height of cloud base and the height of cloud top. The glossary of meteorology defines cloud base (top) as follows: 'For a given cloud or cloud layer, that lowest (highest) level in the atmosphere at which the air contains a perceptible quantity of cloud particles.' Our studies show that for a 8.66 mm radar, and a 10.6 micrometer lidar, the level at which cloud hydrometers become 'perceptible' can vary significantly as a function of the different wavelengths, powers, beamwidths and sampling rates of the two remote sensors.

  9. Fractionation of suspended aqueous materials using centrifugal elutriation

    E-print Network

    Ginn, Jon Stephen

    1990-01-01

    of aquatic materials is depicted in Figure 3. 1. For each of the experiments described above, a sample suspension containing a minimum of 2x10s (minimum number suggested by Beckman 1989 for JE-5 40ml chamber) total number of particles was loaded... 4 Hydrometer apparatus 2. 5 The elutriation process 14 2. 6 Various elutriator chambers, viewed looking down on the rotor 2, 7 Sample injection system supplied by Beckman 15 17 3. 1 Elutriator components 22 3. 2 Experimenral sequence...

  10. Soil Particle Size Distribution Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to sure the distribution of different sizes of soil particles in each horizon of a soil profile. Using dry, sieved soil from a horizon, students mix the soil with water and a dispersing solution to completely separate the particles from each other. Students shake the mixture to fully suspend the soil in the water. The soil particles are then allowed to settle out of suspension, and the specific gravity and temperature of the suspension are measured using a hydrometer and thermometer. These measurements are taken after 2 minutes and 24 hours.

  11. Effects of mineral fillers in slurry seal mixtures

    E-print Network

    Harper, William Joe

    1964-01-01

    . 57 3. 03 2. 74 The particle sine distribution for the filler passing the No. 200 sieve was determined by a hydrometer analysis. It will be noted that the fly U. S. STANUARD SIEVE NUNSERS 30 50 100 200 90 80 70 g 60 g 50 40 g 30 20 AS... and limestone dust are well within the specifications. Portland cement and limestone dust are cmmsonly used in field mixtures as mineral fillers, and it is believed that fly ash can also be used affeotively where it is locally availabla. Tha cement and lime...

  12. The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

    2004-07-01

    The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

  13. A statistical technique for determining rainfall over land employing Nimbus-6 ESMR measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E.; Siddalingaiah, H.; Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    At 37 GHz, the frequency at which the Nimbus 6 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR 6) measures upwelling radiance, it was shown theoretically that the atmospheric scattering and the relative independence on electromagnetic polarization of the radiances emerging from hydrometers make it possible to monitor remotely active rainfall over land. In order to verify experimentally these theoretical findings and to develop an algorithm to monitor rainfall over land, the digitized ESMR 6 measurements were examined statistically. Horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperature pairs (TH, TV) from ESMR 6 were sampled for areas of rainfall over land as determined from the rain recording stations and the WSR 57 radar, and areas of wet and dry ground (whose thermodynamic temperatures were greater than 5 C) over the Southeastern United States. These three categories of brightness temperatures were found to be significantly different in the sense that the chances that the mean vectors of any two populations coincided were less than 1 in 100.

  14. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  15. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. PMID:22736986

  16. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    PubMed

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings. PMID:22736986

  17. The partitioning of ketones between the gas and aqueous phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betterton, Eric A.

    Most ketones are not significantly hydrated; they therefore retain their chromophore and they could be photolytically degraded in solution yielding a variety of products including carboxylic acids, aldehydes and radicals. It is difficult to accurately model the partitioning of ketones between the gas phase and aqueous phase because of the lack suitable estimates of the Henry's Law constants; consequently the fate and environmental effects of ketones cannot be confidently predicted. Here we report the experimental determination of the Henry's Law constants of a series of ketones that has yielded a simple straight line equation to predict the Henry's Law constants of simple aliphatic ketones: log H ? =0.23?? ? + 1.51; where H ? is the effective Henry's Law constant (M atm -1, and ?? ? is the Taft polar substituents constants. The results for 25°C are (M atm -1) CH 3COCH 3, 32; C 6H 5COCH 3, 110; CH 2ClCOCH 3, 59; CH 3COCOCH 3, 74; CF 3COCH 3, 138. Acetophenone appears to have an abnormally high H ?. Most low molecular weight aliphatic ketones are predicted to characterized by H ??30 M atm -1 and therefore they are expected to be found in the aqueous phase at concentrations of ?5 - 0.5 ?M (given a typical gas-phase concentration range of 1-10 ppbv). The expected rate of decomposition of ketones due to photolysis in hydrometers is briefly discussed.

  18. QA/QC requirements for physical properties sampling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, B.E.

    1993-07-21

    This report presents results of an assessment of the available information concerning US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements and guidance applicable to sampling, handling, and analyzing physical parameter samples at Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation sites. Geotechnical testing laboratories measure the following physical properties of soil and sediment samples collected during CERCLA remedial investigations (RI) at the Hanford Site: moisture content, grain size by sieve, grain size by hydrometer, specific gravity, bulk density/porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and permeability of rocks by flowing air. Geotechnical testing laboratories also measure the following chemical parameters of soil and sediment samples collected during Hanford Site CERCLA RI: calcium carbonate and saturated column leach testing. Physical parameter data are used for (1) characterization of vadose and saturated zone geology and hydrogeology, (2) selection of monitoring well screen sizes, (3) to support modeling and analysis of the vadose and saturated zones, and (4) for engineering design. The objectives of this report are to determine the QA/QC levels accepted in the EPA Region 10 for the sampling, handling, and analysis of soil samples for physical parameters during CERCLA RI.

  19. Total Lightning and Radar Storm Characteristics Associated with Severe Storms in Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Raghavan, Ravi; Ramachandran, Rahul; Buechler, Dennis; Hodanish, Stephen; Sharp, David; Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark

    1998-01-01

    A number of prior studies have examined the association of lightning activity with the occurrence of severe weather and tornadoes, in particular. High flash rates are often observed in tornadic storms (Taylor, 1973; Johnson, 1980; Goodman and Knupp, 1993) but not always. Taylor found that 23% of nontornadic storms and 1% of non-severe storms had sferics rates comparable to the tornadic storms. MacGorman (1993) found that storms with mesocyclones produced more frequent intracloud (IC) lightning than cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. MacGorman (1993) and others suggest that the lightning activity accompanying tomadic storms will be dominated by intracloud lightning-with an increase in intracloud and total flash rates as the updraft increases in depth, size, and velocity. In a recent study, Perez et al. (1998) found that CG flash rates alone are too variable to be a useful predictor of (F4, F5) tornado formation. Studies of non-tomadic storms have also shown that total lightning flash rates track the updraft, with rates increasing as the updraft intensities and decreasing rapidly with cessation of vertical growth or downburst onset (Goodman et al., 1988; Williams et al., 1989). Such relationships result from the development of mixed phase precipitation and increased hydrometer collisions that lead to the efficient separation of charge. Correlations between updraft strength and other variables such as cloud-top height, cloud water mass, and hail size have also been observed.

  20. Adsorption coefficients for TNT on soil and clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Rosángela; Pabón, Julissa; Pérez, Omarie; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Mina, Nairmen

    2007-04-01

    To understand the fate and transport mechanisms of TNT from buried landmines is it essential to determine the adsorption process of TNT on soil and clay minerals. In this research, soil samples from horizons Ap and A from Jobos Series at Isabela, Puerto Rico were studied. The clay fractions were separated from the other soil components by centrifugation. Using the hydrometer method the particle size distribution for the soil horizons was obtained. Physical and chemical characterization studies such as cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area, percent of organic matter and pH were performed for the soil and clay samples. A complete mineralogical characterization of clay fractions using X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the presence of kaolinite, goethite, hematite, gibbsite and quartz. In order to obtain adsorption coefficients (K d values) for the TNT-soil and TNT-clay interactions high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. The adsorption process for TNT-soil was described by the Langmuir model. A higher adsorption was observed in the Ap horizon. The Freundlich model described the adsorption process for TNT-clay interactions. The affinity and relative adsorption capacity of the clay for TNT were higher in the A horizon. These results suggest that adsorption by soil organic matter predominates over adsorption on clay minerals when significant soil organic matter content is present. It was found that, properties like cation exchange capacity and surface area are important factors in the adsorption of clayey soils.

  1. Interior characteristics at mid-levels of thunderstorms in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Dennis J.; Smith, Paul L.

    Data characterizing the updraft structures and hydrometers observed in moderate thunderstorms by the armored T-28 aircraft during the 1986 Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX) are presented. Updraft regions in the storms were relatively narrow, but usually very turbulent. The vertical winds were generally weak, the peak updraft speeds usually being <5 m s -1; the absolute maximum was 19 m s -1. Cloud liquid-water concentrations measured between the -7.5°C and +5.5°C levels were typically <25% of adiabetic values. Size spectra for the precipitation particles appear truncated, with very high concentrations of particles with sizes between 1 and 5 mm and few larger than 8 mm. hail occured in less than 25% of the penetrations, and particles larger than about 1 cm were very infrequent, despite reflectivities often between 50 and 60 dBz. The large numbers of precipitation-size particles usually found in the updraft regions that appeared to be well-mixed indicate that a coalescence mechanism was active in the COHMEX storms. The depth warm cloud, the generally weak updrafts, and the presence of large cloud droplets all support a coalescence mechanism. Ice processes also must play a role in precipitation development because most COHMEX storms were characterized by extremely deep convection. However, the high conceentrations of growth centers observed at T-28 penetration levels suggest that a natural "beneficial competition" process limits the growth of large particles.

  2. Development of the millimeter-wave complex, intended for environmental control of nuclear, chemical, and power production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosov, A. S.; Vald-Perlov, V. M.; Strukov, I. A.

    1997-08-01

    The paper is concerned with the development of the millimeter wave complex, intended for environmental control. To organize a reliable system for control and monitoring of the atmosphere one needs an adequate set of the measurement methods and devices for carrying out the needed measurements. At best, the devices must be capable of the remote sensing of the atmosphere in the continuous mode and should have proper means for communication with the central data acquisition system. The most informative methods for the atmospheric measurements are based on the microwave remote sensing. Particularly, using a 5-millimeter receiver (radiometer) it is possible to measure temperature vs. height dependence up to 1 km with required for temperature and height resolutions. Besides, a 3-millimeter coherent radar can be used for measuring the amount of condensed water (fog, rain, clouds) and smoke. Such hydrometers and other small particles support a dissipation of pollution from the accident to the distant areas. Besides, the radar allows us to measure the speed and direction of wind, which is very important for prediction of the danger for the other areas. So, the microwave complex, consisting of a 5-mm radiometer and a 3-mm coherent radar enables us to obtain needed information about the atmosphere state and to predict situation after the accident took place.

  3. Orbit and sampling requirements: TRMM experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) concept originated in 1984. Its overall goal is to produce datasets that can be used in the improvement of general circulation models. A primary objective is a multi-year data stream of monthly averages of rain rate over 500 km boxes over the tropical oceans. Vertical distributions of the hydrometers, related to latent heat profiles, and the diurnal cycle of rainrates are secondary products believed to be accessible. The mission is sponsored jointly by the U.S. and Japan. TRMM is an approved mission with launch set for 1997. There are many retrieval and ground truth issues still being studied for TRMM, but here we concentrate on sampling since it is the single largest term in the error budget. The TRMM orbit plane is inclined by 35 degrees to the equator, which leads to a precession of the visits to a given grid box through the local hours of the day, requiring three to six weeks to complete the diurnal cycle, depending on latitude. For sampling studies we can consider the swath width to be about 700 km.

  4. Evaluating regional cloud-permitting simulations of the WRF model for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE, Darwin 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; Long, Charles N.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy; McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, James H.; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaodong

    2009-11-05

    Data from the Tropical Warm Pool I5 nternational Cloud Experiment (TWPICE) were used to evaluate two suites of high-resolution (4-7 km, convection-resolving) simulations of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a focus on the performance of different cloud microphysics (MP) schemes. The major difference between these two suites of simulations is with and without the reinitializing process. Whenreinitialized every three days, the four cloud MP schemes evaluated can capture the general profiles of cloud fraction, temperature, water vapor, winds, and cloud liquid and ice water content (LWC and IWC, respectively). However, compared with surface measurements of radiative and moisture fluxes and satellite retrieval of top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes, disagreements do exist. Large discrepancies with observed LWC and IWC and derived radiative heating profiles can be attributed to both the limitations of the cloud property retrievals and model performance. The simulated precipitation also shows a wide range of uncertainty as compared with observations, which could be caused by the cloud MP schemes, complexity of land-sea configuration, and the high temporal and spatial variability. In general, our result indicates the importance of large-scale initial and lateral boundary conditions in re-producing basic features of cloudiness and its vertical structures. Based on our case study, we find overall the six-hydrometer single-moment MP scheme(WSM6) [Hong and Lim, 2006] in the WRF model si25 mulates the best agree- ment with the TWPICE observational analysis.

  5. Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of Upward Lightning-Producing Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, R.; Helsdon, J. H.; Warner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upward Lightning Triggering Study (UPLIGHTS) seeks to determine how upward lightning, which originates from the tips of tall objects, is triggered by nearby flash activity. As a component of this study we analyze standard and dual-polarization weather radar data. The Correlation Coefficient (CC) in particular can be used to identify and quantify the melting layer associated with storms that produce upward lightning. It has been proposed that positive charge generation due to aggregate shedding at the melting layer results in a positive charge region just above the cloud base. This positive charge region may serve as a positive potential well favorable for negative leader propagation, which initiate upward positive leaders from tall objects. We characterize the horizontal coverage, thickness and height of the melting layer in addition to cloud base heights when upward lightning occurs to determine trends and possible threshold criteria relating to upward lightning production. Furthermore, we characterize storm type and morphology using relevant schemes as well as precipitation type using the Hydrometer Classification Algorithm (HCA) for upward lightning-producing storms. Ice-phase hydrometeors have been shown to be a significant factor in thunderstorm electrification. Only a small fraction of storms produce upward lightning, so null cases will be examined and compared as well.

  6. Modeling Water Temperature in the Yakima River, Washington, from Roza Diversion Dam to Prosser Dam, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.; Curran, Christopher A.; Mastin, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic water-temperature model was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use by the Bureau of Reclamation for studying the effect of potential water management decisions on water temperature in the Yakima River between Roza and Prosser, Washington. Flow and water temperature data for model input were obtained from the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet database and from measurements collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field trips in autumn 2005. Shading data for the model were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in autumn 2006. The model was calibrated with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2005, and tested with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2006. Sensitivity analysis results showed that for the parameters tested, daily maximum water temperature was most sensitive to changes in air temperature and solar radiation. Root mean squared error for the five sites used for model calibration ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 degrees Celsius (?C) and mean error ranged from ?1.3 to 1.6?C. The root mean squared error for the five sites used for testing simulation ranged from 1.6 to 2.2?C and mean error ranged from 0.1 to 1.3?C. The accuracy of the stream temperatures estimated by the model is limited by four errors (model error, data error, parameter error, and user error).

  7. Modeling a tropical rainforest river basin in the Philippines using the distributed hydrologic model MOBIDIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The MOdello Bilancio Idrologico DIstributo e Continuo (MOBIDIC), a distributed physics-based hydrologic model that solves both mass and energy balance, was used to investigate a 103 sq. km. mountainous river basin in southern Philippines. The basin is covered by tropical rain forest (TRF) with small patches of upland crop cultivation, and underlain by thin clayey soil over porous volcanic tuff geology. Aside from being the first application of MOBIDIC on a TRF basin, this paper also demonstrates how a sophisticated hydrologic model can be developed using freely- and globally-available remotely-sensed data, plus only minimal field observations and streamflow measurements. Based on simulation of water years 2009-2012, the average annual rainfall of 3,877 mm was partitioned into 22% quick flow, 38% base flow, 37% evapotranspiration, and 3% recharge to the regional groundwater system. The vegetation intercepts about 12% of the total rainfall, and the soil layer is almost always at or above field capacity. Simulations of some scenarios indicate that climate change will have greater impact than loss of vegetative cover, and the impact is more signicant on the low flow than the peak flow regime. Hopefully, these insights will be of use to local decision makers as they improve their systems for water supply, watershed management, and climate change impact mitigation. Maps of the Tamugan River Basin showing the location, topography, river network and hydromet stations Effects of loss of vegetation

  8. Permeability and compressibility of resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, W. S.; Flemings, P. B.; Schneider, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use a constant-rate-of strain consolidation test on resedimented Gulf of Mexico mudrock to determine the compression index (Cc) to be 0.618 and the expansion index (Ce) to be 0.083. We used crushed, homogenized Pliocene and Pleistocene mudrock extracted from cored wells in the Eugene Island block 330 oil field. This powdered material has a liquid limit (LL) of 87, a plastic limit (PL) of 24, and a plasticity index (PI) of 63. The particle size distribution from hydrometer analyses is approximately 65% clay-sized particles (<2 ?m) with the remainder being less than 70 microns in diameter. Resedimented specimens have been used to characterize the geotechnical and geophysical behavior of soils and mudstones independent of the variability of natural samples and without the effects of sampling disturbance. Previous investigations of resedimented offshore Gulf of Mexico sediments (e.g. Mazzei, 2008) have been limited in scope. This is the first test of the homogenized Eugene Island core material. These results will be compared to in situ measurements to determine the controls on consolidation over large stress ranges.

  9. Quantifying Sediment Transport in a Premontane Transitional Cloud Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waring, E. R.; Brumbelow, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying sediment transport is a difficult task in any watershed, and relatively little direct measurement has occurred in tropical, mountainous watersheds. The Howler Monkey Watershed (2.2 hectares) is located in a premontane transitional cloud forest in San Isidro de Peñas Blancas, Costa Rica. In June 2012, a V-notch stream-gaging weir was built in the catchment with a 8 ft by 6 ft by 4 ft concrete stilling basin. Sediment captured by the weir was left untouched for an 11 month time period. To collect the contents of the weir, the stream was rerouted and the weir was drained. The stilling basin contents were systematically sampled, and samples were taken to a lab and characterized using sieve and hydrometer tests. The wet volume of the remaining sediment was obtained, and dry mass was estimated. Particle size distribution of samples were obtained from lab tests, with 96% of sediment trapped by the weir being sand or coarser. The efficiency of the weir as a sediment collector was evaluated by comparing particle fall velocities to residence time of water in the weir under baseflow conditions. Under these assumptions, only two to three percent of the total mass of soil transported in the stream is thought to have been suspended in the water and lost over the V-notch. Data were compared to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), a widely accepted method for predicting soil loss in agricultural watersheds. As expected, application of the USLE to a tropical rainforest was problematic with uncertainty in parameters yielding a soil loss estimate varying by a factor of 50. Continued monitoring of sediment transport should yield data for improved methods of soil loss estimation applicable to tropical mountainous forests.

  10. Glacier Mass Balance measurements in Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Miriam; Tenzin, Sangay; Tashi, Tshering

    2014-05-01

    Long-term glacier measurements are scarce in the Himalayas, partly due to lack of resources as well as inaccessibility of most of the glaciers. There are over 600 glaciers in Bhutan in the Eastern Himalayas, but no long-term measurements. However, such studies are an important component of hydrological modelling, and especially relevant to the proposed expansion of hydropower resources in this area. Glaciological studies are also critical to understanding the risk of jøkulhlaups or GLOFS (glacier lake outburst floods) from glaciers in this region. Glacier mass balance measurements have been initiated on a glacier in the Chamkhar Chu region in central Bhutan by the Department of Hydro-Met Services in co-operation with the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. Chamkhar Chu is the site of two proposed hydropower plants that will each generate over 700 MW, although the present and future hydrological regimes in this basin, and especially the contribution from glaciers, are not well-understood at present. There are about 94 glaciers in the Chamkhar Chhu basin and total glacier area is about 75 sq. km. The glaciers are relatively accessible for the Himalayas, most of them can be reached after only 4-5 days walk from the nearest road. One of the largest, Thana glacier, has been chosen as a mass balance glacier and measurements were initiated in 2013. The glacier area is almost 5 sq. km. and the elevation range is 500 m (5071 m a.s.l. to 5725 m a.s.l.) making it suitable as a benchmark glacier. Preliminary measurements on a smaller, nearby glacier that was visited in 2012 and 2013 showed 1 m of firn loss (about 0.6 m w.eq.) over 12 months.

  11. Development of a database-driven system for simulating water temperature in the lower Yakima River main stem, Washington, for various climate scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank; Maule, Alec

    2013-01-01

    A model for simulating daily maximum and mean water temperatures was developed by linking two existing models: one developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and one developed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The study area included the lower Yakima River main stem between the Roza Dam and West Richland, Washington. To automate execution of the labor-intensive models, a database-driven model automation program was developed to decrease operation costs, to reduce user error, and to provide the capability to perform simulations quickly for multiple management and climate change scenarios. Microsoft© SQL Server 2008 R2 Integration Services packages were developed to (1) integrate climate, flow, and stream geometry data from diverse sources (such as weather stations, a hydrologic model, and field measurements) into a single relational database; (2) programmatically generate heavily formatted model input files; (3) iteratively run water temperature simulations; (4) process simulation results for export to other models; and (5) create a database-driven infrastructure that facilitated experimentation with a variety of scenarios, node permutations, weather data, and hydrologic conditions while minimizing costs of running the model with various model configurations. As a proof-of-concept exercise, water temperatures were simulated for a "Current Conditions" scenario, where local weather data from 1980 through 2005 were used as input, and for "Plus 1" and "Plus 2" climate warming scenarios, where the average annual air temperatures used in the Current Conditions scenario were increased by 1degree Celsius (°C) and by 2°C, respectively. Average monthly mean daily water temperatures simulated for the Current Conditions scenario were compared to measured values at the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet gage at Kiona, Washington, for 2002-05. Differences ranged between 1.9° and 1.1°C for February, March, May, and June, and were less than 0.8°C for the remaining months of the year. The difference between current conditions and measured monthly values for the two warmest months (July and August) were 0.5°C and 0.2°C, respectively. The model predicted that water temperature generally becomes less sensitive to air temperature increases as the distance from the mouth of the river decreases. As a consequence, the difference between climate warming scenarios also decreased. The pattern of decreasing sensitivity is most pronounced from August to October. Interactive graphing tools were developed to explore the relative sensitivity of average monthly and mean daily water temperature to increases in air temperature for model output locations along the lower Yakima River main stem.

  12. Climate related natural hazards management in the vulnerable regions of Uzbekistan - experiences in the frame of projects Climate Risk Management in Uzbekistan (CRM-Uz) and Water in Central Asia (CAWa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkushkin, Alexander; Gafurov, Abror; Agaltseva, Natalya; Pak, Alexander; Mannig, Birgit; Paeth, Heiko; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Increased frequency of natural hazards under conditions of observed climate change in Uzbekistan has become challenging concern and shows the need to develop more effective climate risk mechanisms towards improving the security of society and sustainable development. In the framework of presented study, the importance of drought monitoring and methodologies for early warning for such purposes in Uzbekistan are demonstrated. For the conditions of Uzbekistan, droughts are most dangerous climate related natural phenomenon. Therefore, the CRM-Uz Project on Climate Risk Management was established with focus on reducing climate risks, strengthening adaptive capacity for stimulating the development of early warning mechanisms, as well as to build up the basis for long-term investments. This serves to increase resilience to climate impacts in the country. In the frame of the CRM-Uz Project, Drought Early Warning System (DEWS), has been developed and implemented in one of the southern provinces of Uzbekistan (Kashkadarya). The main task of DEWS is to provide population with information on the possibility of upcoming drought season in advance. DEWS is used for the assessment, monitoring, prevention, early warning and decision making in this region. Such early warning system provides the required information to undertake appropriate measures against drought and to mitigate its adverse effects to society. It is clear that during years with expected drought the hydrological forecasts become much more important. Complex mathematical model which simulates of run-off formation as a basis of DEWS provides the seasonal hydrological forecasts that are used to inform all concerned sectors, especially the agricultural sector on water availability during the vegetation period. In the frame of cooperation with German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) within the CAWa Project, the DEWS was extended through implementation of MODSNOW - the operational tool for snow cover monitoring at the Drought Monitoring Centre at UzHydromet. The upgrade of the DEWS withMODSNOW strengthens DEWS's capacity in terms of improvement the hydrological forecasting. Moreover, based on climate scenarios provided within the CAWa project by the University of Würzburg, the regional hydrological model AISHF was used to asses medium and long term water availability in the Kashkadarya River which indicates a reduction of water resources in the selected basin in the future.

  13. Rip current monitoring using GPS buoy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, DongSeob; Kim, InHo; Kang, DongSoo

    2014-05-01

    The occurrence of rip current in the Haeundae beach, which is one of the most famous beaches in South Korea, has been threatening beach-goers security in summer season annually. Many coastal scientists have been investigating rip currents by using field observations and measurements, laboratory measurements and wave tank experiments, and computer and numerical modeling. Rip current velocity is intermittent and may rapidly increase within minutes due to larger incoming wave groups or nearshore circulation instabilities. It is important to understand that changes in rip current velocity occur in response to changes in incoming wave height and period as well as changes in water level. GPS buoys have been used to acquire sea level change data, atmospheric parameters and other oceanic variables in sea for the purposes of vertical datum determination, tide correction, radar altimeter calibration, ocean environment and marine pollution monitoring. Therefore, we adopted GPS buoy system for an experiment which is to investigate rip current velocity; it is sporadic and may quickly upsurge within minutes due to larger arriving wave groups or nearshore flow uncertainties. In this study, for high accurate positioning of buy equipment, a Satellite Based Argumentation System DGPS data logger was deployed to investigate within floating object, and it can be acquired three-dimensional coordinate or geodetic position of buoy with continuous NMEA-0183 protocol during 24 hours. The wave height measured by in-situ hydrometer in a cross-shore array clearly increased before and after occurrence of rip current, and wave period also was lengthened around an event. These results show that wave height and period correlate reasonably well with long-shore current interaction in the Haeundae beach. Additionally, current meter data and GPS buoy data showed that rip current velocities, about 0.2 m/s, may become dangerously strong under specific conditions. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(2010-0024670)

  14. Intraseasonal versus interannual measures of land-atmosphere coupling strength in a global climate model: GLACE-1 versus GLACE-CMIP5 experiments in ACCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ruth; Pitman, Andy; Hirsch, Annette; Srbinovsky, Jhan; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    Land-atmosphere coupling measures how strongly atmospheric processes are influenced by the anomalies in the land surface state, for example soil moisture. Koster et al. (2006) presented a model intercomparison study-the Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE-1)-where this coupling strength was quantified for boreal summer and global "hot spots" were identified. This study focused on one boreal summer season and intraseasonal timescale. Seneviratne et al. (2006) investigated land-climate coupling in climate change conditions, using a very similar measure to estimate coupling strength but focused on temperature in Europe on the interannual timescale. Seneviratne et al. (2006) also defined additional soil moisture-temperature coupling parameters which can be calculated from any multiyear model run without additional experiments. We use the Australian Community and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS1.3b) to conduct the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. This experiment uses prescribed soil moisture experiments over the CMIP5 period to investigate effects of changes in soil moisture content and soil moisture-climate coupling for future climate projections (Seneviratne et al., 2013). It focuses on two experiments: one where soil moisture is prescribed by the climatology from 1971-2000 from the control simulation with interactive soil moisture; and one where soil moisture is prescribed by the transient climatology (running means over 30-year periods). In addition, we run the GLACE-1 experiment (Koster et al., 2006) with ACCESS1.3b. We run four ensembles of three-monthly model runs, two ensembles for one summer season per hemisphere. For both hemispheres we calculate one ensemble where soil moisture is calculated interactively and one where soil moisture is prescribed every timestep. Hence, we decouple the land from the atmosphere in the latter model runs. We compare the different coupling measures and investigate ACCESS's coupling strength. We find similar regions of strong coupling for precipitation and temperature in ACCESS compared to the original GLACE-1 experiments. In addition, we find regions of strong coupling for austral summer in tropical regions. This signal is particularly strong for daily maximum temperatures. Koster, R. D., et al. (2006). GLACE: The Global Land-Atmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview. J. Hydromet., 7(4), 590-610. doi:10.1175/JHM510.1 Seneviratne, S. I., et al. (2006). Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443(7108), 205-209. doi:10.1038/nature05095 Seneviratne, S. I., et al. (2013). Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. GRL, 40(19), 5212-5217. doi:10.1002/grl.50956

  15. Observations to support adaptation: Principles, scales and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    As has been long noted, a comprehensive, coordinated observing system is the backbone of any Earth information system. Demands are increasingly placed on earth observation and prediction systems and attendant services to address the needs of economically and environmentally vulnerable sectors and investments, including energy, water, human health, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, biodiversity, and national security. Climate services include building capacity to interpret information and recognize standards and limitations of data in the promotion of social and economic development in a changing climate. This includes improving the understanding of climate in the context of a variety of temporal and spatial scales (including the influence of decadal scale forcings and land surface feedbacks on seasonal forecast reliability). Climate data and information are central for developing decision options that are sensitive to climate-related uncertainties and the design of flexible adaptation pathways. Ideally monitoring should be action oriented to support climate risk assessment and adaptation including informing robust decision making to multiple risks over the long term. Based on the experience of global observations programs and empirical research we outline- Challenges in developing effective monitoring and climate information systems to support adaptation. The types of observations of critical importance needed for sector planning to enhance food, water and energy security, and to improve early warning for disaster risk reduction Observations needed for ecosystem-based adaptation including the identification of thresholds, maintenance of biological diversity and land degradation The benefits and limits of linking regional model output to local observations including analogs and verification for adaptation planning To support these goals a robust systems of integrated observations are needed to characterize the uncertainty surrounding emergent risks including overcoming unrealistically precise information demands. While monitoring systems design and operation should be guided by the standards and requirements of management, those who provide information to the system (e.g. hydromet services) should also derive benefits. Drawing on identified information needs to support climate risk management (in drought, water resources and other areas) we outline principles of effective monitoring and develop preliminary strategic guidance for information systems being developed through the GEO, GCOS and Global and national frameworks for climate services. The efficacy of such services are improved by a problem-solving orientation, participatory planning, extension management and improvements in the use and value of existing data to legitimize new investments.

  16. Principles and practical implementation for high resolution multi-sensor QPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, C. V.; Lim, S.; Cifelli, R.

    2011-12-01

    The multi-sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (MPE) is a principle and a practical concept and is becoming a well-known term in the scientific circles of hydrology and atmospheric science. The main challenge in QPE is that precipitation is a highly variable quantity with extensive spatial and temporal variability at multiple scales. There are MPE products produced from satellites, radars, models and ground sensors. There are MPE products at global scale (Heinemann et al. 2002), continental scale (Seo et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2011) and regional scale (Kitzmiller et al. 2011). Lots of the MPE products are used to alleviate the problems of one type of sensor by another. Some multi-sensor products are used to move across scales. This paper looks at a comprehensive view of the "concept of multi sensor precipitation estimate", from different perspectives. This paper delineates the MPE problem into three categories namely, a) Scale based MPE, b) MPE for accuracy enhancement and coverage and c) Integrative across scales. For example, by introducing dual polarization radar data to the MPE system, QPE can be improved significantly. In last decade, dual polarization radars are becoming an important tool for QPE in operational networks. Dual polarization radars offer an advantage to interpret more accurate physical models by providing information of the size, shape, phase and orientation of hydrometers (Bringi and Chandrasekar 2001). In addition, these systems have the ability to provide measurements that are immune to absolute radar calibration and partial beam blockage as well as help in data quality enhancement. By integrating these characteristics of dual polarization radar, QPE performance can be improved in comparison of single polarization radar based QPE (Cifelli and Chandrasekar 2010). Dual-polarization techniques have been applied to S and C band radar systems for several decades and higher frequency system such as X band are now widely available to the radar community. One solution to the dilemma of precipitation variability across scales can be to supplement existing long-range radar networks with short-range higher frequency systems (X band). The smaller X band systems provide more portability and higher data resolution, and networks of these systems may be a cost-effective option for improved rainfall estimation for radar networks with large separation distances (McLaughlin et al. 2009). This paper will describe the principles of the MPE concept and implementation issues of within the context of the classification described above.

  17. The first one year measurements at the Monte Portella (Italy) climate high altitude station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Di Carlo, Piero; D'Altorio, Alfonso; Busilacchio, Marcella; Biancofiore, Fabio; Giammaria, Franco; Del Grande, Francesco; Bonasoni, Paolo; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    With the purpose of contributing in providing information about atmospheric composition baseline variability in the Mediterranean basin, an atmospheric station has been installed at a high mountain site in Central Italy (Monte Portella, 2401 m a.s.l.), on July 20th 2012. Monte Portella is not far from the Corno Grande (the highest peak of the Italian Appennines, 2912 m a.s.l.) and the Calderone, the southernmost glacier in Europe. This remote site is very interesting for the analysis of the atmospheric processes occurring in the free troposphere of the Mediterranean Basin since local emissions are not in its proximity; moreover, Cristofanelli et al. (2013) found that during the July 2009 the air masses reaching the site originate mainly from the Mediterranean basin, but also from the Continental Europe and from the Northern Italy and that different origins of the air masses impact differently on the ozone budget. This station is part of the SHARE (Station at High Altitude for Environmental Research) Project. The instrumentation until now available includes: a meteorological station (VAISALA Hydromet for measurements of Temperature, Pressure, Relative Humidity, Wind speed and direction, Solar Radiation and precipitation), ozone monitor (2B technologies, model 205), NO monitor (2B technologies, model 410), aerosol size distribution (OPC monitor multichannel, FAI instruments. In our study we will show the results of the first one year of continuous measurements collected. In particular, we will study the ozone trend as a function of meteorological parameter and, in detail, of the wind direction. We will show also the PM1 and PM10 annual trends individuating events of pollution transport in free troposphere and analyzing their dependence on different air masses origins. These analyses represent the first hints about atmospheric composition variability at high altitude in the central Italy. Reference Cristofanelli, P., Di Carlo, P., D'Altorio, A., Dari Salisburgo, C., Tuccella, P., Biancofiore, F., Stocchi, P., Verza, G.P., Landi, T.C., Marinoni, A., Calzolari, F., Duchi, R., and Bonasoni, P., Analysis of summer Ozone observations at a high mountain site in central Italy, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0630-1, 2013.

  18. Precipitation from the GPM Microwave Imager and Constellation Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Randel, David; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Kulie, Mark; Wang, Nai-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation retrievals from microwave sensors are fundamentally underconstrained requiring either implicit or explicit a-priori information to constrain solutions. The radiometer algorithm designed for the GPM core and constellation satellites makes this a-priori information explicit in the form of a database of possible rain structures from the GPM core satellite and a Bayesian retrieval scheme. The a-priori database will eventually come from the GPM core satellite's combined radar/radiometer retrieval algorithm. That product is physically constrained to ensure radiometric consistency between the radars and radiometers and is thus ideally suited to create the a-priori databases for all radiometers in the GPM constellation. Until a robust product exists, however, the a-priori databases are being generated from the combination of existing sources over land and oceans. Over oceans, the Day-1 GPM radiometer algorithm uses the TRMM PR/TMI physically derived hydrometer profiles that are available from the tropics through sea surface temperatures of approximately 285K. For colder sea surface temperatures, the existing profiles are used with lower hydrometeor layers removed to correspond to colder conditions. While not ideal, the results appear to be reasonable placeholders until the full GPM database can be constructed. It is more difficult to construct physically consistent profiles over land due to ambiguities in surface emissivities as well as details of the ice scattering that dominates brightness temperature signatures over land. Over land, the a-priori databases have therefore been constructed by matching satellite overpasses to surface radar data derived from the WSR-88 network over the continental United States through the National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE (NMQ) initiative. Databases are generated as a function of land type (4 categories of increasing vegetation cover as well as 4 categories of increasing snow depth), land surface temperature and total precipitable water. One year of coincident observations, generating 20 and 80 million database entries, depending upon the sensor, are used in the retrieval algorithm. The remaining areas such as sea ice and high latitude coastal zones are filled with a combination of CloudSat and AMSR-E plus MHS observations together with a model to create the equivalent databases for other radiometers in the constellation. The most noteworthy result from the Day-1 algorithm is the quality of the land products when compared to existing products. Unlike previous versions of land algorithms that depended upon complex screening routines to decide if pixels were precipitating or not, the current scheme is free of conditional rain statements and appears to produce rain rate with much greater fidelity than previous schemes. There results will be shown.

  19. A granulometry and secondary mineral fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes and its application to blockfield origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfellow, Bradley W.

    2012-12-01

    A review of published literature was undertaken to determine if there was a fingerprint of chemical weathering in regoliths subjected to periglacial conditions during their formation. If present, this fingerprint would be applied to the question of when blockfields in periglacial landscapes were initiated. These blocky diamicts are usually considered to represent remnants of regoliths that were chemically weathered under a warm, Neogene climate and therefore indicate surfaces that have undergone only a few metres to a few 10s of metres of erosion during the Quaternary. Based on a comparison of clay and silt abundances and secondary mineral assemblages from blockfields, other regoliths in periglacial settings, and regoliths from non-periglacial settings, a fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes was identified. A mobile regolith origin under, at least seasonal, periglacial conditions is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 across a sample batch. This contrasts with a mobile regolith origin under non-periglacial conditions, which is indicated where clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) - 6 across a sample batch with clay(%) ? 0.5*silt(%) + 8 in at least one sample. A range of secondary minerals, which frequently includes interstratified minerals and indicates high local variability in leaching conditions, is also commonly present in regoliths exposed to periglacial conditions during their formation. Clay/silt ratios display a threshold response to temperature, related to the freezing point of water, but there is little response to precipitation or regolith residence time. Lithology controls clay and silt abundances, which increase from felsic, through intermediate, to mafic compositions, but does not control clay/silt ratios. Use of a sedigraph or Coulter Counter to determine regolith granulometry systematically indicates lower clay abundances and intra-site variability than use of a pipette or hydrometer. In contrast to clay/silt ratios, secondary mineral assemblages vary according to regolith residence time, temperature, and/or precipitation. A microsystems model is invoked as a conceptual framework in which to interpret the concurrent formation of the observed secondary mineral ranges. According to the fingerprint of chemical weathering in periglacial landscapes, there is generally no evidence of blockfield origins under warm Neogene climates. Nearly all blockfields appear to be a product of Quaternary physical and chemical weathering. A more dominant role for periglacial processes in further bevelling elevated, low relief, non-glacial surface remnants in otherwise glacially eroded landscapes is therefore indicated.

  20. Coastal Hazard due to Tropical Cyclones in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Casarin, R.; Mendoza-Baldwin, E.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Ruiz, G.; Escalante-MAncera, E.; Ruíz-Rentería, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexican coast is hit every year by at least 3 cyclones and it is affected for nearly 59 hours a year on average; this induces undesirable consequences, such as coastal erosion and flooding. To evaluate the hazard to which the coastal zone is exposes, a historical characterization of atmospheric conditions (surface winds and pressure conditions of the storms), waves (wave heights and their associated wave periods) and flooding levels due to tropical storms for more than 60 years is presented. The atmospheric and wave conditions were evaluated using a modification of the original parametric Hydromet-Rankin Vortex Model by Bretschneider (1990) and Holland (1980) as presented by Silva, et al. (2002). The flooding levels caused by hurricanes were estimated using a two-dimensional, vertically averaged finite volume model to evaluate the storm surge, Posada et al. (2008). The cyclone model was compared to the data series of 29 cyclones recorded by buoys of the National Data Buoy Center-NOAA and some data recorded in shallow waters near Cancun, Mexico and the flooding model was compared with observed data from Cancun, Mexico; both models gave good results. For the extreme analyses of wind, wave heights and maximum flooding levels on the Mexican coasts, maps of the scale and location parameters used in the Weibull cumulative distribution function and numerical results for different return periods are provided. The historical occurrence of tropical storms is also revised as some studies indicate that the average intensity of tropical cyclones is increasing; no definite trends pointing to an increase in storm frequency or intensity were found. What was in fact found is that although there are more cyclones in the Pacific Ocean and these persist longer, the intensity of the cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean is greater affecting. In any case, the strong necessity of avoiding storm induced coastal damage (erosion and flooding) is reflected in numerous works, such as this one, which aim to better manage the coastal area and reduce its vulnerability to hurricanes. References Bretschneider, C.L., 1990. Tropical Cyclones. Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering, Gulf Publishing Co., Vol. 1, 249-370. Holland, G.L., 1980. An analytical model of wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes. Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1212-1218. Posada, G., Silva, R. & de Brye, S. 2008. Three dimensional hydrodynamic model with multiquadtree meshes. American Journal of Environmental Sciences. 4(3): 209-222. Silva, R., Govaere, G., Salles, P., Bautista, G. & Díaz, G. 2002. Oceanographic vulnerability to hurricanes on the Mexican coast. International Conference on Coastal Engineering, pp. 39-51.

  1. Sediment Properties: E-Area Completion Project

    SciTech Connect

    Millings, M.; Bagwell, L.; Amidon, M.; Dixon, K.

    2011-04-29

    To accommodate a future need for additional waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site, the Solid Waste Management Division (SWMD) designated nine additional plots for development (Kasraii 2007; SRS 2010); these plots are collectively known as the E Area Completion Project (ECP). Subsurface samples were collected from ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 (Figure 1) for chemical and physical property analyses to support Performance Assessment (PA) and Special Analyses (SA) modeling. This document summarizes the sampling and analysis scheme and the resultant data, and provides interpretations of the data particularly in reference to existing soil property data. Analytical data in this document include: gamma log, cone penetrometer log, grain size (sieve and hydrometer), water retention, saturated hydraulic conductivity (falling head permeameter), porosity, dry bulk density, total organic carbon, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence data. SRNL provided technical and safety oversight for the fieldwork, which included completion of eight soil borings, four geophysical logs, and the collection of 522 feet of core and 33 Shelby tubes from ECP plots 6, 7, 8, and 9. Boart Longyear provided sonic drilling and logging services. Two soil borings were completed at each location. The first set of boreholes extended into (but did not fully penetrate) the Warley Hill Formation. These boreholes were continuously cored, then geophysically (gamma ray) logged. The recovered core was split, photographed, and described; one half of the core was archived at SRS's Core Lab facilities, and the remaining half was consumed as necessary for testing at SRS and off-site labs. Core descriptions and geophysical data were used to calculate target elevations for Shelby tube samples, which were obtained from the second set of boreholes. Shelby tubes were shipped to MACTEC Engineering and Consulting Inc. (MACTEC) in Atlanta for physical property testing. SRNL deployed their Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) cone penetrometer test (CPT) truck at ECP plots 6, 7, 8 and 9 to collect inferred lithology data for the vadose zone. Results from this study are used to make recommendations for future modeling efforts involving the ECP plots. The conceptual model of the ECP hydrogeology differs from the conceptual model of the current ELLWF disposal area in that for the ECP plots, the topography (ground surface) is generally lower in elevation; The Upland and top of Tobacco Road lithostratigraphic units are missing (eroded); The water table occurs lower in elevation (i.e., it occurs in lower stratigraphic units); and the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) often occurs within the vadose zone (rather than in the saturated zone). Due to the difference in the hydrogeology between the current ELLWF location and the ECP plots, different vadose zone properties are recommended for the ECP plots versus the properties recommended by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current disposal units. Results from this study do not invalidate or conflict with the current PA's use of the Upper and Lower Vadose Zone properties as described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the current ELLWF disposal units. The following modeling recommendations are made for future modeling of the ECP plots where vadose zone properties are required: (1) If a single vadose zone property is preferred, the properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) for the Upper Vadose Zone encompass the general physical properties of the combined sands and clays in the ECP vadose zone sediments despite the differences in hydrostratigraphic units. (2) If a dual zone system is preferred, a combination of the Lower Zone properties and the Clay properties described by Phifer et al. (2006) are appropriate for modeling the physical properties of the ECP vadose zone. The Clay properties would be assigned to the Tan Clay Confining Zone (TCCZ) and any other significant clay layers, while the Lower Zone properties would be assigned for the remainder of the vadose zone. No immediate updates or changes are recommended for

  2. Influence of forest management on the changes of organic soil properties in border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland (Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, A.; Roszkowicz, M.

    2009-04-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to determine the properties of organic soils modified by man, muddy and fluvial process. Peat horizons were analyzed and classified by types - and species of peat. Three profiles of shallow peat and peaty gley soils identified. Investigation showed that organic soil developed on a sandy weathered sandstone base according to oligotrophic type of sites. Organic horizons were mixed with sand and separated by sandy layers. Those soils were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). The throphism of organic soil in this object resulted from both natural factors and anthropo-pedogenesis. key words: peat deposit, organic soils, soil properties, muddy process, sandy layers INTRODUCTION The areas of Stolowe Mountains National Park were influenced by forestry management. Many peatlands in the Park area were drained for forestry before World War II. Several amelioration attempts were undertaken as early as in the nineteenth century. The system of forest roads were built on drained areas. The Kragle Mokradlo Peatland is located in the Skalniak plateau. The object is cut by a melioration ditch. This ditch has been recently blocked to rewet the objects. Several forest roads pass in the close neighbourhood of investigated areas. In a border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatlands, we can observe artificial spruce habitat. Investigated object represents shallow peat soil developed on sandy basement. The early investigations showed that peaty soils were also covered by sandstone - related deposits, several dozen centimeter thick (BOGACZ 2000). Those layers was developed from sandstone weathered material transported by wind and water. The aim of presented works was to determine the stage of evolution of organic soils on the base on their morphological, physical and chemical properties. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peat soils in different locations (3 profiles, 18 samples) were selected for examination. Peat samples were collected from study areas using a 6.0 cm diameter Instorfu peat auger (HORAWSKI 1987). Soil horizons were determined on the basis of colour, degree of organic matter decomposition and the quality of vegetation remains. Cores were taken to the depth where underlying mineral material was encountered. The cores ware sectioned to subsamples at intervals at major stratigrafic breaks. Some physical, chemical properties and botanical composition of peat were determined in this material. Differentiation in botanical composition of peat was analyzed by the microscopic method and subsequently classified according to the Polish standards (Oznaczanie gatunku...1977). Peat humification degree was measured using two methods: SPEC method and half syringe method (LYNN at all. 1974). Ash content was estimated by combusting the material in a muffle furnace at 500oC for 4 hours. The texture of mineral horizons was determined using the Bouyoucos hydrometer method (GEE AND BOUNDER 1986). The specific gravity (W) and bulk density (Z) of organic soils were calculated using the following formula's (ZAWADZKI 1970): W=0.11A+1.451, (1.451) represents the specific gravity of humus, Z =0.004A+0.0913, A is a ash content and constant (0.0913) represents the bulk density of humus. The following chemical properties of organic soil horizons were analyzed: content of total carbon and nitrogen, acidity in H2O and 1mol dm-3 KCl and CECe in CH3COONH4 at pH 7. Base saturation (BS) of soil sorption complex was calculated. The soils were classified to reference groups in WRB Classification System (WRB 2006). RESULTS AND DISSCUSION Based on the cores, -the soils in the border part of Kragle Mokradlo Peatland area were classified as Sapric Histosols Dystric or Sapric Gleysols Histic (WRB 2006). Soils represented ombrogenic type of hydrological conditions. In that site, an ombrogenic type of hydrological input is the predominant mechanism of soil evolution. Soil examined in this study have developed in oligotrophic type of site. Organic soils developed on sandy weathered sandstones. The depth of organic horizons

  3. A new chemistry option in WRF/Chem v. 3.4 for the simulation of direct and indirect aerosol effects using VBS: evaluation against IMPACT-EUCAARI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccella, P.; Curci, G.; Grell, G. A.; Visconti, G.; Crumeroylle, S.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Mensah, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    A parameterization for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production based on the volatility basis set (VBS) approach has been coupled with microphysics and radiative scheme in WRF/Chem model. The new chemistry option called "RACM/MADE/VBS" was evaluated on a cloud resolving scale against ground-based and aircraft measurements collected during the IMPACT-EUCAARI campaign, and complemented with satellite data from MODIS. The day-to-day variability and the diurnal cycle of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the surface is captured by the model. Surface aerosol mass of sulphate (SO4), nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), and organic matter (OM) is simulated with a correlation larger than 0.55. WRF/Chem captures the vertical profile of the aerosol mass in both the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free troposphere (FT) as a function of the synoptic condition, but the model does not capture the full range of the measured concentrations. Predicted OM concentration is at the lower end of the observed mass. The bias may be attributable to the missing aqueous chemistry processes of organic compounds, the uncertainties in meteorological fields, the assumption on the deposition velocity of condensable organic vapours, and the uncertainties in the anthropogenic emissions of primary organic carbon. Aerosol particle number concentration (condensation nuclei, CN) is overestimated by a factor 1.4 and 1.7 within PBL and FT, respectively. Model bias is most likely attributable to the uncertainties of primary particle emissions (mostly in the PBL) and to the nucleation rate. The overestimation of simulated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is more contained with respect to that of CN. The CCN efficiency, which is a measure of the ability of aerosol particles to nucleate cloud droplets, is underestimated by a factor of 1.5 and 3.8 in the PBL and FT, respectively. The comparison with MODIS data shows that the model overestimates the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). The domain averages (for one day) are 0.38 ± 0.12 and 0.42 ± 0.10 for MODIS and WRF/Chem data, respectively. Cloud water path (CWP) is overestimated on average by a factor of 1.7, whereas modelled cloud optical thickness (COT) agrees with observations within 10%. In a sensitivity test where the SOA was not included, simulated CWP is reduced by 40%, and its distribution function shifts toward lower values with respect to the reference run with SOA. The sensitivity test exhibits also 10% more optically thin clouds (COT < 40) and an average COT roughly halved. Moreover, the run with SOA shows convective clouds with an enhanced content of liquid and frozen hydrometers, and stronger updrafts and downdrafts. Considering that the previous version of WRF/Chem coupled with a modal aerosol module predicted very low SOA content (SORGAM mechanism) the new proposed option may lead to a better characterization of aerosol-cloud feedbacks.

  4. Radar Observations of Convective Systems from a High-Altitude Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    Reflectivity data collected by the precipitation radar on board the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, orbiting at 350 km altitude, are compared to reflectivity data collected nearly simultaneously by a doppler radar aboard the NASA ER-2 flying at 19-20 km altitude, i.e. above even the deepest convection. The TRMM precipitation radar is a scanning device with a ground swath width of 215 km, and has a resolution of about a4.4 km in the horizontal and 250 m in the vertical (125 m in the core swath 48 km wide). The TRMM radar has a wavelength of 217 cm (13.8 GHz) and the Nadir mirror echo below the surface is used to correct reflectivity for loss by attenuation. The ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) has two antennas, one pointing to the nadir, 34 degrees forward. The forward pointing beam receives both the normal and the cross-polarized echos, so the linear polarization ratio field can be monitored. EDOP has a wavelength of 3.12 cm (9.6 GHz), a vertical resolution of 37.5 m and a horizontal along-track resolution of about 100 m. The 2-D along track airflow field can be synthesized from the radial velocities of both beams, if a reflectivity-based hydrometer fall speed relation can be assumed. It is primarily the superb vertical resolution that distinguishes EDOP from other ground-based or airborne radars. Two experiments were conducted during 1998 into validate TRMM reflectivity data over convection and convectively-generated stratiform precipitation regions. The Teflun-A (TEXAS-Florida Underflight) experiment, was conducted in April and May and focused on mesoscale convective systems mainly in southeast Texas. TEFLUN-B was conducted in August-September in central Florida, in coordination with CAMEX-3 (Convection and Moisture Experiment). The latter was focused on hurricanes, especially during landfall, whereas TEFLUN-B concentrated on central; Florida convection, which is largely driven and organized by surface heating and ensuing sea breeze circulations. Both TEFLUN-A and B were amply supported by surface data, in particular a dense raingauge network, a polarization radar, wind profilers, a mobile radiosonde system, a cloud physics aircraft penetrating the overflown storms, and a network of 10 cm Doppler radars(WSR-88D). This presentation will show some preliminary comparisons between TRMM, EDOP, and WSR-88D reflectivity fields in the case of an MCS, a hurricane, and less organized convection in central Florida. A validation of TRMM reflectivity is important, because TRMM's primary objective is to estimate the rainfall climatology with 35 degrees of the equator. Rainfall is estimated from the radar reflectivity, as well from TRMM's Microwave Imager, which measures at 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, and 85.5 GHz over a broader swath (78 km). While the experiments lasted about three months the cumulative period of near simultaneous observations of storms by ground-based, airborne and space borne radars is only about an hour long. Therefore the comparison is case-study-based, not climatological. We will highlight fundamental differences in the typical reflectivity profiles in stratiform regions of MCS's, Florida convection and hurricanes and will explain why Z-R relationships based on ground-based radar data for convective systems over land should be different from those for hurricanes. These catastrophically intense rainfall from hurricane Georges in Hispaniola and from Mitch in Honduras highlights the importance of accurate Z-R relationships, It will be shown that a Z-R relationship that uses the entire reflectivity profile (rather than just a 1 level) works much better in a variety of cases, making an adjustment of the constants for different precipitation system categories redundant.