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Sample records for hydrophobic grid membrane

  1. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  2. Novel Campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Harris, Kathleen; Riche, Edward; Campbell, Stephanie; Jarvie, Anne; Popa, Maria; Deckert, Anne; Reid-Smith, Richard; Rahn, Kris

    2007-02-01

    Culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. A simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in Rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) on semisolid medium (SSM). SSM contains no antibiotics, and the HGMF physically separates Campylobacter from the enrichment broth, allowing isolation based on differential motility. The HGMF-SSM method was compared to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Food Safety Procedures Manual (FSPM-10) method (Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Fresh Pork, Beef Veal, Poultry and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products), which includes the use of selective antibiotics. During the initial study, after enrichment the HGMF-SSM method yielded pure cultures of campylobacters after 16 to 18 h (overnight) compared with 48 h for the FSPM-10 method. Ninety-four turkey samples collected at local retail stores and 38 frozen pig fecal samples were processed by both methods. Thirty-five samples (26.5%) were positive by the HGMF-SSM method; 24 (18.2%) of these positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni and 11 (8.3%) contained Campylobacter coli. With the FSPM-10 method, 25 samples (18.9%) were positive: 21 (15.9%) with C. jejuni and 4 (3%) with C. coli. For a subsequent field study, only the HGMF-SSM method was used to isolate Campylobacter from 1,200 chicken samples and 454 turkey samples sold at retail. Analysis of five subisolates from various samples indicated that only one type of Campylobacter was recovered by the HGMF-SSM method, as ascertained by MICs for 10 antimicrobials, sequencing of the short variable region of the flaA gene, and fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism. The absence of antibiotics in the SSM may explain the higher

  3. Application of a DNA Hybridization–Hydrophobic-Grid Membrane Filter Method for Detection and Isolation of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Todd, E. C. D.; Szabo, R. A.; MacKenzie, J. M.; Martin, A.; Rahn, K.; Gyles, C.; Gao, A.; Alves, D.; Yee, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains were isolated from food and animal fecal samples by using PCR to screen for the presence of VTEC after broth enrichment and then filtering VTEC-positive cultures through hydrophobic-grid membrane filters (HGMFs) which were incubated on MacConkey agar. The filters were probed with a digoxigenin-labeled PCR product generated by amplification of a conserved verotoxin gene sequence. Replication of the growth on filters allowed probe-positive colonies to be picked. When ground beef samples were inoculated with VTEC strains, 100% of the strains were recovered, and the detection limit was 0.1 CFU per g. Similar results were obtained with seven types of artificially contaminated vegetables. A survey of 32 packages of vegetables and 23 samples of apple cider obtained at the retail level did not reveal the presence of VTEC. However, the intestinal fecal contents of a moose, 1 of 35 wild mammals and birds examined, contained E. coli O157:H7. The DNA hybridization-HGMF method was also used in a prevalence survey of 327 raw and 744 ready-to-eat products; VTEC strains were recovered from 4.9% of the raw products and 0.7% of the ready-to-eat products. No serotype O157:H7 strains were detected. This method is particularly suited for surveys in which low numbers of VTEC-positive samples are expected and isolates are required. PMID:10543785

  4. Rapid detection and differentiation of Alicyclobacillus species in fruit juice using hydrophobic grid membranes and attenuated total reflectance infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Yousef, Ahmed E; de Lamo Castellvi, Silvia; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2009-11-25

    Pasteurized juices may undergo spoilage during normal shelf life due to Alicyclobacillus spp. Metabolic byproducts during germination of these thermoacidiophilic, endospore-forming bacteria impart off-flavors. The objective was to develop a simple, rapid, and sensitive approach for differentiation of Alicyclobacillus spp. by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) microspectroscopy after isolation onto hydrophobic grid membrane (HGM) filters. Dilutions of four different species of Alicyclobacillus were filtered onto HGM, incubated on orange serum agar (50 degrees C, 36-48 h), and dried under vacuum. Spectra were collected using ATR-IR microspectroscopy and analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results indicated that soft independent modeling of class analogy models exhibited clusters that permitted classification at species and strain levels. The methodology was validated by correctly predicting Alicyclobacillus (100%) in blind tests. The proposed procedure permits chemically based classification of intact microbial cells. Implementation provides the juice industry with a rapid screening procedure to detect and monitor Alicyclobacillus that threatens the quality of pasteurized juices. PMID:19860470

  5. Two-day hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for yeast and mold enumeration in foods using YM-11 agar: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1996-01-01

    Twenty laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a 2-day hydrophobic grid membrane filter method using YM-11 agar for enumeration of yeast and mold in foods. Six naturally contaminated food products were included in the study: garlic powder, raw ground beef, walnuts, flour/meal, orange juice, and yogurt. The test method produced significantly higher results than the 5-day pour plate reference method for orange juice and significantly lower, though numerically similar, results for walnuts and yogurt. Differences between the test and reference methods were not significant for garlic powder, raw ground beef, or flour/meal. Repeatability and reproducibility were similar for both the test and reference methods in all cases. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for enumeration of yeast and mold in foods has been adopted by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8823916

  6. Direct 24-hour presumptive enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in foods using hydrophobic grid membrane filter followed by serological confirmation: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen laboratories took part in a collaborative study to validate a method for enumerating Escherichia coli O157:H7. The method is based on use of a hydrophobic grid membrane filter and consists of 24 h presumptive enumeration on SD-39 Agar and serological confirmation to yield a confirmed E. coli O157:H7 count. Six food products were analyzed: pasteurized apple cider, pasteurized 2% milk, cottage cheese, cooked ground pork, raw ground beef, and frozen whole egg. The test method produced significantly higher confirmed count results than did the reference method for milk, pork, and beef. Test method results were numerically higher than but statistically equivalent to reference method results for cheese, cider, and egg. The test method produced lower repeatability and reproducibility values than did the reference method for most food/inoculation level combinations and values very similar to those of the reference method for the remaining combinations. Overall, 94% of presumptive positive isolates from the test method were confirmed serologically as E coli O157:H7, and 98% of these were also biochemically typical of E. coli O157:H7 (completed test). Corresponding rates for the reference method were 69 and 98%, respectively. On the basis of the results of this collaborative study and the precollaborative study that preceded it, it is recommended that this method be adopted official first action for enumeration of E. coli O157:H7 in meats, poultry, dairy foods, infant formula, liquid eggs, mayonnaise, and apple cider. PMID:9549075

  7. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  8. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J.; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein–protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes. PMID:25635869

  9. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J.; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein-protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes.

  10. Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices shaping membrane protein folding

    PubMed Central

    De Marothy, Minttu T; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cells have developed an incredible machinery to facilitate the insertion of membrane proteins into the membrane. While we have a fairly good understanding of the mechanism and determinants of membrane integration, more data is needed to understand the insertion of membrane proteins with more complex insertion and folding pathways. This review will focus on marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices and their influence on membrane protein folding. These weakly hydrophobic transmembrane segments are by themselves not recognized by the translocon and therefore rely on local sequence context for membrane integration. How can such segments reside within the membrane? We will discuss this in the light of features found in the protein itself as well as the environment it resides in. Several characteristics in proteins have been described to influence the insertion of marginally hydrophobic helices. Additionally, the influence of biological membranes is significant. To begin with, the actual cost for having polar groups within the membrane may not be as high as expected; the presence of proteins in the membrane as well as characteristics of some amino acids may enable a transmembrane helix to harbor a charged residue. The lipid environment has also been shown to directly influence the topology as well as membrane boundaries of transmembrane helices—implying a dynamic relationship between membrane proteins and their environment. PMID:25970811

  11. Dehydration processes using membranes with hydrophobic coating

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer

    2013-07-30

    Processes for removing water from organic compounds, especially polar compounds such as alcohols. The processes include a membrane-based dehydration step, using a membrane that has a dioxole-based polymer selective layer or the like and a hydrophilic selective layer, and can operate even when the stream to be treated has a high water content, such as 10 wt % or more. The processes are particularly useful for dehydrating ethanol.

  12. Highly efficient hydrophobic titania ceramic membranes for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Joanna; Cerneaux, Sophie; Koter, Stanisław; Kujawski, Wojciech

    2014-08-27

    Hydrophobic titania ceramic membranes (300 kD) were prepared by grafting of C6F13C2H4Si(OC2H5)3 and C12F25C2H4Si(OC2H5)3 molecules and thus applied in membrane distillation (MD) process of NaCl solutions. Grafting efficiency and hydrophobicity were evaluated by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and liquid entry pressure measurement of water. Desalination of NaCl solutions was performed using the modified hydrophobic membranes in air gap MD (AGMD) and direct contact MD (DCMD) processes in various operating conditions. High values of NaCl retention coefficient (>99%) were reached. The permeate fluxes were in the range 231-3692 g·h(-1)·m(-2), depending on applied experimental conditions. AGMD mode appeared to be more efficient showing higher fluxes and selectivity in desalination. Overall mass transfer coefficients (K) for membranes tested in AGMD were constant over the investigated temperature range. However, K values in DCMD increased at elevated temperature. The hydrophobic layer was also stable after 4 years of exposure to open air. PMID:25084346

  13. The Hydrophobic Insertion Mechanism of Membrane Curvature Generation by Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Campelo, Felix; McMahon, Harvey T.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    A wide spectrum of intracellular processes is dependent on the ability of cells to dynamically regulate membrane shape. Membrane bending by proteins is necessary for the generation of intracellular transport carriers and for the maintenance of otherwise intrinsically unstable regions of high membrane curvature in cell organelles. Understanding the mechanisms by which proteins curve membranes is therefore of primary importance. Here we suggest, for the first time to our knowledge, a quantitative mechanism of lipid membrane bending by hydrophobic or amphipathic rodlike inclusions which simulate amphipathic α-helices—structures shown to sculpt membranes. Considering the lipid monolayer matrix as an anisotropic elastic material, we compute the intramembrane stresses and strains generated by the embedded inclusions, determine the resulting membrane shapes, and the accumulated elastic energy. We characterize the ability of an inclusion to bend membranes by an effective spontaneous curvature, and show that shallow rodlike inclusions are more effective in membrane shaping than are lipids having a high propensity for curvature. Our computations provide experimentally testable predictions on the protein amounts needed to generate intracellular membrane shapes for various insertion depths and membrane thicknesses. We also predict that the ability of N-BAR domains to produce membrane tubules in vivo can be ascribed solely to insertion of their amphipathic helices. PMID:18515373

  14. Nonisothermal water transport through hydrophobic membranes in a stirred cell

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez-Gonzalez, M.I.; Martinez, L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper studies the transport of pure water through microporous hydrophobic membranes in a stirred cell when bathed by two phases at different temperatures. The dependence of the phenomena on the stirring rate and on the average temperature has been investigated. The influence of these operating conditions on the mass transfer rate is discussed while keeping in mind the theories of mass and heat transfer within the membrane and adjoining liquids. The concept of temperature polarization is introduced in the transport equations, and it is shown to be important in the interpretation of our experimental results.

  15. Why Hydrophilic Water can Permeate Hydrophobic Interior of Lipid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Baofu; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Water molecules as well as some small molecules have long been found to be able to diffuse across lipid membranes. Such permeation is of significant biological and biotechnological importance. For instance, the permeation of water across lipid membrane plays a important role in regulating ionic concentrations inside of cells. Such water permeation without the assistance of proteins embedded in membranes has been found to be a energetically unfavorable process. We, for the first time, explicitly depict the driving force for such an energetically unfavorable process. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate water diffusion in both liquid-crystalline and ordered gel phases of membranes containing zwitterionic DPPC or anionic DLPS lipid. The membrane conformation is calculated to have a critical role in water permeation, regardless of the type of lipid. The fluctuations in the potential energy are found to have a significant, if not the exclusive, role in the transportation of water across lipid membranes. Our results are also informative for the diffusion of small molecules of CO2, O2 and drug molecules, the absence of diffusion of ions, and the diffusion of water into the hydrophobic pores of carbon nanotubes. The authors acknowledge the support from the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR & E) under Award No. FA9550-10-1-0167.

  16. Tunable Surface Hydrophobicity and Fluid Transport through Nanoporous Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Joseph H. J.

    There are more than three billion people across the globe that struggle to obtain clean drinkable water. One of the most promising avenues for generating potable water is through reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Both solutions require a semipermeable membrane that prohibits passage of unwanted solute particles but allows passage of the solvent. Atomically thin two-dimensional membranes based on porous graphene show great promise as semipermeable materials, but modeling fluid flow on length scales between the microscopic (nanometer and smaller) and macroscopic (micron and larger) regimes presents formidable challenges. This thesis explores both equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects of this problem and develops new methodology for simulating systems away from thermal equilibrium. First, we hypothesize that there is a wetting penalty for water as it tries to breach a sheet of graphene that should be naturally hydrophobic. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the hydrophobicity depends sensitively on the degree of electrical doping, offering an opportunity to tune the hydrophobic effect of graphene using small amounts of doping. The wetting contact angle, a measure of hydrophobicity, changes dramatically with the voltage applied to single layer graphene. We find that the sensitivity of the hydrophobic effect to voltage depends not on hydrogen bonding motifs at the interface between graphene and water, but instead on a phenomenon known as electrowetting. The theory of electrowetting predicts that the difference in surface tensions that defines the contact angle is quartic in the voltage, rather than quadratic, as it would be in bilayer graphene or in a two-dimensional metal. To explore the nonequilibrium aspects of fluid passage through atomically thin membranes, we developed a molecular dynamics methodology for simulating fluid flow at constant flux based on Gauss's principle of least constraint. This method develops microscopic

  17. Interactions of a hydrophobically modified polycation with zwitterionic lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Kepczynski, Mariusz; Jamróz, Dorota; Wytrwal, Magdalena; Bednar, Jan; Rzad, Ewa; Nowakowska, Maria

    2012-01-10

    The interactions between synthetic polycations and phospholipid bilayers play an important role in some biophysical applications such as gene delivery or antibacterial usage. Despite extensive investigation into the nature of these interactions, their physical and molecular bases remain poorly understood. In this Article, we present the results of our studies on the impact of a hydrophobically modified strong polycation on the properties of a zwitterionic bilayer used as a model of the mammalian cellular membrane. The study was carried out using a set of complementary experimental methods and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. A new polycation, poly(allyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-hexylammonium chloride) (polymer 3), was synthesized, and its interactions with liposomes composed of 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were examined using dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Our results have shown that polymer 3 can efficiently associate with and insert into the POPC membrane. However, it does not change its lamellar structure, as was demonstrated by cryo-TEM. The influence of polymer 3 on the membrane functionality was studied by leakage experiments applying a fluorescence dye (calcein) encapsulated in the phospholipid vesicles. The MD simulations of model systems reveal that polymer 3 promotes formation of hydrophilic pores in the membrane, thus increasing considerably its permeability. PMID:22085465

  18. Oxygen-Permeable, Hydrophobic Membranes of Silanized alpha-Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Membranes made of silanized alumina have been prepared and tested as prototypes of derivatized ceramic membranes that are both highly permeable to oxygen and hydrophobic. Improved oxygen-permeable, hydrophobic membranes would be attractive for use in several technological disciplines, including supporting high-temperature aqueousphase oxidation in industrial production of chemicals, oxygenation of aqueous streams for bioreactors, and oxygenation of blood during open-heart surgery and in cases of extreme pulmonary dysfunction. In comparison with organic polymeric oxygen-permeable membranes now commercially available, the derivatized ceramic membranes are more chemically robust, are capable of withstanding higher temperatures, and exhibit higher oxygen-diffusion coefficients.

  19. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianbin; Tang, Bo; Wu, Jinbo; Li, Renyuan; Wang, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto a porous stainless-steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water-air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for enhanced evaporation. PMID:26184454

  20. Stop-and-move of a marginally hydrophobic segment translocating across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yukiko; Yamagishi, Marifu; Imai, Kenta; Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-09-01

    Many membrane proteins are cotranslationally integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via the protein-conducting channel, the so-called translocon. The hydrophobic transmembrane segment of the translocating nascent polypeptide chain stops at the translocon and then moves laterally into the membrane. Partitioning of the hydrophobic segment into the membrane is the primary determinant for membrane insertion. Here, we examined the behavior of a marginally hydrophobic segment at the translocon and found that its stop-translocation was greatly affected by the C-terminally attached ribosomes. The marginally hydrophobic segment first stops at the membrane and then moves into the lumen as long as the nascent chain is attached to translating ribosomes. When it is released from the ribosome by the termination codon, the marginally hydrophobic segment does not move. Puromycin or RNase treatment also suppressed movement. The movement was reversibly inhibited by high-salt conditions and irreversibly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. There is an unstable state prior to the stable membrane insertion of the transmembrane segment. This characteristic state is maintained by the synthesizing ribosome. PMID:23747484

  1. Sticking polydisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Michael; Degen, Patrick; Brenner, Thorsten; Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Struth, Bernd; Tolan, Metin; Rehage, Heinz

    2010-10-19

    The formation of a layer of hydrophobic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles stabilized by lauric acid is analyzed by in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements. The data analysis shows that the nanoparticles partially disperse their hydrophobic coating. Consequently, a Langmuir layer was formed by lauric acid molecules that can be compressed into an untilted condensed phase. A majority of the nanoparticles are attached to the Langmuir film integrating lauric acid residue on their surface into the Langmuir film. Hence, the particles at the liquid-gas interface can be identified as so-called Janus beads, which are amphiphilic solids having two sides with different functionality. PMID:20873726

  2. The membrane dipole potential in a total membrane potential model. Applications to hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, R F; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    The total potential energy profile for hydrophobic ion interactions with lipid bilayers can be written as the sum of four terms: the electrical Born, image and dipole contributions, and a neutral energy term. We introduce a specific model for the membrane dipole potential, treating it as a two-dimensional array of point dipoles located near each membrane-water interface. Together with specific theoretical models for the other energy terms, a total potential profile is developed that successfully describes the complete set of thermodynamic parameters for binding and translocation for the two hydrophobic ion structural analogues, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) and tetraphenylboron (TPB-). A reasonable fit to the data is possible if the dipole potential energy has a magnitude of 5.5 + 0.5 kcal/mol (240 + 20 mV), positive inside, and if the neutral energy contribution for TPP+ and TPB- is -7.0 + 1.0 kcal/mol. These results may also have important implications for small ion interactions with membranes and the energetics of charged groups in membrane proteins. PMID:3955184

  3. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang; Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-12-14

    Proton conduction along protein-bound "water wires" is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded ("dangling") O-H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments. PMID:25494795

  4. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Steffen; Gerwert, Klaus; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang

    2014-12-14

    Proton conduction along protein-bound “water wires” is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded (“dangling”) O–H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments.

  5. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang; Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Proton conduction along protein-bound "water wires" is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded ("dangling") O-H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments.

  6. Polydimethysiloxane Modified Silica Nanochannel Membrane for Hydrophobicity-Based Molecular Filtration and Detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xingyu; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Qian; Yan, Fei; Hua, Xin; Su, Bin

    2016-08-01

    We report in this work the fabrication of ultrathin silica nanochannel membranes inhomogeneously modified by polydimethysiloxane (PDMS), designated as PDMS-SNM, for hydrophobicity-based molecular filtration and detection. The modification was accomplished by spatially selective evaporation of hydrophobic PDMS oligomers onto the top surface of the membrane and orifice of silica nanochannels. Thanks to this hydrophobic ultrathin layer and beneath ultrasmall channels (2-3 nm in diameter), only small hydrophobic molecules are able to transport through the PDMS-SNM, whereas hydrophilic and large ones are remarkably inhibited. We first employed this PDMS-SNM as the molecular sieving matrix for selective electrochemical detection of hydrophobic organophosphates (OPs) in milk samples without pretreatment. The PDMS-SNM modified electrode displayed an excellent analytical performance and antifouling/anti-interference ability. We also prepared the free-standing PDMS-SNM consisting of perforated channels, which could filtrate molecules based on their hydrophobicity with an excellent selectivity. As demonstrated, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and dopamine could be separated with a selectivity coefficient as high as 335. Moreover, because of the inhomogeneous nanochannel structure and ultrasmall thickness, a remarkably high flux of hydrophobic molecules across the PDMS-SNM was obtained, which was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that reported previously. PMID:27414252

  7. Temporal changes in extracellular polymeric substances on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Matar, Gerald; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-05-15

    Membrane surface hydrophilic modification has always been considered to mitigating biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Four hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membranes (pore sizes ∼0.1 μm) differing only in hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface characteristics were operated at a permeate flux of 10 L/m(2) h in the same lab-scale MBR fed with synthetic wastewater. In addition, identical membrane modules without permeate production (0 L/m(2) h) were operated in the same lab-scale MBR. Membrane modules were autopsied after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation, and total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) accumulated on the membranes were extracted and characterized in detail using several analytical tools, including conventional colorimetric tests (Lowry and Dubois), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (FEEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The transmembrane pressure (TMP) quickly stabilized with higher values for the hydrophobic membranes than hydrophilic ones. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) membrane had the highest negatively charged membrane surface, accumulated the least amount of foulants and displayed the lowest TMP. The same type of organic foulants developed with time on the four membranes and the composition of biopolymers shifted from protein dominance at early stages of filtration (day 1) towards polysaccharides dominance during later stages of MBR filtration. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of LC-OCD data showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the sampling event (time) regardless of the membrane surface chemistry (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) or operating mode (with or without permeate flux). These results suggest that EPS composition may not be the dominant parameter for evaluating membrane performance and possibly other parameters such as biofilm thickness, porosity, compactness and structure should be

  8. Effect of cholesterol on distribution of stable, hydrophobic perchlorotriphenylmethyl triethylester radical incorporated in lecithin liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Keizo; Okazaki, Shoko; Kansui, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorotriphenylmethyl triethylester radical (PTM-TE) is a hydrophobic, stable radical giving a narrow singlet ESR signal with a small satellite signal for (13)C in organic solvents. In order to use PTM-TE as a label of liposomal membranes, its manner of incorporation into liposomal membranes was studied. Two components, broad and narrow signals, were observed on the ESR spectrum of PTM-TE incorporated into liposomal membranes composed of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (egg-PC). The broad signal was increased by the presence of cholesterol in the membranes. The spectral anisotropy of the broad signal was very small as analyzed with oriented planar multilamellar membranes. The narrow signal increased with an increase in temperature in the absence of cholesterol, whereas only a small increase in the signal was observed in the presence of cholesterol. The g-value and line width of the narrow signal were very close to those of PTM-TE in mineral oil, whose viscosity is close to the microviscosity in the hydrophobic region of egg-PC membranes. On the other hand, the g-value and line width of the broad signal were close to those of solid PTM-TE. These observations indicate that the broad signal observed in liposomes originates from PTM-TE clusters in the membranes. The clusters were dissolved in egg-PC membranes at a PTM-TE/egg-PC molar ratio of less than 0.017. However, the clusters were hardly dissolved in the presence of cholesterol. PMID:21532201

  9. Water Diffusion Dependence on Amphiphilic Block Design in (Amphiphilic-Hydrophobic) Diblock Copolymer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dorenbos, Gert

    2016-06-30

    Polyelectrolyte membranes (PEMs) are applied in polyelectrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). The proton conductive pathways within PEMs are provided by nanometer-sized water containing pores. Large-scale application of PEFC requires the production of low-cost membranes with high proton conductivity and therefore good connected pore networks. Pore network formation within four alternative model diblock (hydrophobic_amphiphilic) copolymers in the presence of water is studied by dissipative particle dynamics. Each hydrophobic block contains 50 consecutively connected hydrophobic (A) fragments, and amphiphilic blocks contain 40 hydrophobic A beads and 10 hydrophilic C beads. For one amphiphilic block the C beads are distributed uniformly along the backbone. For the other architectures C beads are located at the end of the side chains attached at regular intervals along the backbone. Water diffusion through the pores is modeled by Monte Carlo tracer diffusion through mapped morphologies. Diffusion is highest for the grafted architectures and increases with increase of length of the side chains. A consistent picture emerges in which diffusion strongly increases with the value of ⟨Nbond⟩ within the amphiphilic block, where ⟨Nbond⟩ is the average number of bonds between hydrophobic A beads and the nearest C bead. PMID:27266679

  10. Polar interactions trump hydrophobicity in stabilizing the self-inserting membrane protein Mistic.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Jana; Fiedler, Sebastian; Gimpl, Katharina; Keller, Sandro

    2014-10-01

    Canonical integral membrane proteins are attached to lipid bilayers through hydrophobic transmembrane helices, whose topogenesis requires sophisticated insertion machineries. By contrast, membrane proteins that, for evolutionary or functional reasons, cannot rely on these machineries need to resort to driving forces other than hydrophobicity. A striking example is the self-inserting Bacillus subtilis protein Mistic, which is involved in biofilm formation and has found application as a fusion tag supporting the recombinant production and bilayer insertion of other membrane proteins. Although this unusual protein contains numerous polar and charged residues and lacks characteristic membrane-interaction motifs, it is tightly bound to membranes in vivo and membrane-mimetic systems in vitro. Therefore, we set out to quantify the contributions from polar and nonpolar interactions to the coupled folding and insertion of Mistic. To this end, we defined conditions under which the protein can be unfolded completely and reversibly from various detergent micelles by urea in a two-state equilibrium and where the unfolded state is independent of the detergent used for solubilizing the folded state. This enabled equilibrium unfolding experiments previously used for soluble and β-barrel membrane proteins, revealing that polar interactions with ionic and zwitterionic headgroups and, presumably, the interfacial dipole potential stabilize the protein much more efficiently than nonpolar interactions with the micelle core. These findings unveil the forces that allow a protein to tightly interact with a membrane-mimetic environment without major hydrophobic contributions and rationalize the differential suitability of detergents for the extraction and solubilization of Mistic-tagged membrane proteins. PMID:25177765

  11. Hydrophobic asymmetric ultrafiltration PVDF membranes: an alternative separator for VFB with excellent stability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenping; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Yun; Vankelecom, Ivo

    2013-02-14

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes were investigated for the first time in vanadium redox flow battery (VFB) applications. Surprisingly, PVDF ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophobic pore walls and relatively large pore sizes of several tens of nanometers proved able to separate vanadium ions and protons efficiently, thus being suitable as a VFB separator. The ion selectivity of this new type of VFB membrane could be tuned readily by controlling the membrane morphology via changes in the composition of the membrane casting solution, and the casting thickness. The results showed that the PVDF membranes offered good performances and excellent stability in VFB applications, where it could, performance-wise, truly substitute Nafion in VFB applications, but at a much lower cost. PMID:23223708

  12. Hydrophobic allergens from the bottom fraction membrane of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mengumpun, Kesajee; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Hamilton, Robert G; Sangsupawanich, Pasuree; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun

    2008-01-01

    Several proteins of rubber latex have been recognized as allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity in humans. In this study, a bottom fraction membrane (BFM) protein preparation from Hevea brasiliensis trees grown in southern Thailand was used to detect specific IgE in four groups of serum samples. The first group included 170 samples of latex glove factory workers (LGWs); group 2 consisted of the sera of 35 health care workers (HCWs) who were repeatedly exposed to powdered latex gloves; groups 3 and 4 were 31 positive and 22 negative sera, respectively, obtained from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA, tested for IgE to latex allergen. It was found that 56/170 (33%), 5/35 (14%), 11/31 (35.5%) and 1/22 (4.5%) samples of the LGWs, HCWs, CAP+ and CAP- groups had significant IgE to the BFM proteins, respectively. However, of all subjects only one subject of group 1 had experienced allergic morbidity consisting of eczema, conjunctivitis and asthma. The IgE of this subject bound to a 55 kDa component in the rubber latex BFM preparation. Thus, this protein may be regarded as a novel, although minor, latex allergen. Further investigation is needed to characterize the component and to pinpoint its allergenic role. PMID:19054931

  13. How To Functionalize Ceramics by Perfluoroalkylsilanes for Membrane Separation Process? Properties and Application of Hydrophobized Ceramic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Joanna; Cerneaux, Sophie; Kujawski, Wojciech; Bryjak, Marek; Kujawski, Jan

    2016-03-23

    The combination of microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and goniometric (static and dynamic measurements) techniques, and surface characterization (surface free energy determination, critical surface tension, liquid entry pressure, hydraulic permeability) was implemented to discuss the influence of perfluoroalkylsilanes structure and grafting time on the physicochemistry of the created hydrophobic surfaces on the titania ceramic membranes of 5 kD and 300 kD. The impact of molecular structure of perfluoroalkylsilanes modifiers (possessing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms in the fluorinated part of the alkyl chain) and the time of the functionalization process in the range of 5 to 35 h was studied. Based on the scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it was found that the localization of grafting molecules depends on the membrane pore size (5 kD or 300 kD). In the case of 5 kD titania membranes, modifiers are attached mainly on the surface and only partially inside the membrane pores, whereas, for 300 kD membranes, the perfluoroalkylsilanes molecules are present within the whole porous structure of the membranes. The application of 4 various types of PFAS molecules enabled for interesting observations and remarks. It was explained how to obtain ceramic membrane surfaces with controlled material (contact angle, roughness, contact angle hysteresis) and separation properties. Highly hydrophobic surfaces with low values of contact angle hysteresis and low roughness were obtained. These surfaces possessed also low values of critical surface tension, which means that surfaces are highly resistant to wetting. This finding is crucial in membrane applicability in separation processes. The obtained and characterized hydrophobic membranes were subsequently applied in air-gap membrane distillation processes. All membranes were very efficient in MD processes, showing good transport and selective properties (∼99% of Na

  14. Toward a Molecular Understanding of the Mechanism of Cryopreservation by Polyampholytes: Cell Membrane Interactions and Hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Robin; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Nagashima, Toshio; Matsumura, Kazuaki

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreservation enables long-term preservation of cells at ultralow temperatures. Current cryoprotective agents (CPAs) have several limitations, making it imperative to develop CPAs with advanced properties. Previously, we developed a novel synthetic polyampholyte-based CPA, copolymer of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and methacrylic acid(MAA) (poly(MAA-DMAEMA)), which showed excellent efficiency and biocompatibility. Introduction of hydrophobicity increased its efficiency significantly. Herein, we investigated the activity of other polyampholytes. We prepared two zwitterionic polymers, poly(sulfobetaine) (SPB) and poly(carboxymethyl betaine) (CMB), and compared their efficiency with poly(MAA-DMAEMA). Poly-SPB showed only intermediate property and poly-CMB showed no cryoprotective property. These data suggested that the polymer structure strongly influences cryoprotection, providing an impetus to elucidate the molecular mechanism of cryopreservation. We investigated the mechanism by studying the interaction of polymers with cell membrane, which allowed us to identify the interactions responsible for imparting different properties. Results unambiguously demonstrated that polyampholytes cryopreserve cells by strongly interacting with cell membrane, with hydrophobicity increasing the affinity for membrane interaction, which enables it to protect the membrane from various freezing-induced damages. Additionally, cryoprotective polymers, especially their hydrophobic derivatives, inhibit the recrystallization of ice, thus averting cell death. Hence, our results provide an important insight into the complex mechanism of cryopreservation, which might facilitate the rational design of polymeric CPAs with improved efficiency. PMID:27077533

  15. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol-lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Jelinek, Raz

    2009-01-01

    Summary Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways, downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol, that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG-lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a “molecular rod”, namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Application of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques reveals that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG-lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit displayed at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG-lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of PKC translocation from cytosol to membranes induced by the molecular-rod DAG-lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side-residues of DAG-lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions and in that fashion may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands. PMID:19961537

  16. Comparison between the behavior of different hydrophobic peptides allowing membrane anchoring of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lhor, Mustapha; Bernier, Sarah; Horchani, Habib; Bussières, Sylvain; Cantin, Line; Desbat, Bernard; Salesse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Membrane binding of proteins such as short chain dehydrogenases reductases or tail-anchored proteins relies on their N- and/or C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane segment. In this review, we propose guidelines to characterize such hydrophobic peptide segments using spectroscopic and biophysical measurements. The secondary structure content of the C-terminal peptides of retinol dehydrogenase 8, RGS9-1 anchor protein, lecithin retinol acyl transferase, and of the N-terminal peptide of retinol dehydrogenase 11 has been deduced by prediction tools from their primary sequence as well as by using infrared or circular dichroism analyses. Depending on the solvent and the solubilization method, significant structural differences were observed, often involving α-helices. The helical structure of these peptides was found to be consistent with their presumed membrane binding. Langmuir monolayers have been used as membrane models to study lipid-peptide interactions. The values of maximum insertion pressure obtained for all peptides using a monolayer of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine (DOPE) are larger than the estimated lateral pressure of membranes, thus suggesting that they bind membranes. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the structure and orientation of these peptides in the absence and in the presence of a DOPE monolayer. This lipid induced an increase or a decrease in the organization of the peptide secondary structure. Further measurements are necessary using other lipids to better understand the membrane interactions of these peptides. PMID:24560216

  17. Comparison between the behavior of different hydrophobic peptides allowing membrane anchoring of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lhor, Mustapha; Bernier, Sarah C; Horchani, Habib; Bussières, Sylvain; Cantin, Line; Desbat, Bernard; Salesse, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Membrane binding of proteins such as short chain dehydrogenase reductases or tail-anchored proteins relies on their N- and/or C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane segment. In this review, we propose guidelines to characterize such hydrophobic peptide segments using spectroscopic and biophysical measurements. The secondary structure content of the C-terminal peptides of retinol dehydrogenase 8, RGS9-1 anchor protein, lecithin retinol acyl transferase, and of the N-terminal peptide of retinol dehydrogenase 11 has been deduced by prediction tools from their primary sequence as well as by using infrared or circular dichroism analyses. Depending on the solvent and the solubilization method, significant structural differences were observed, often involving α-helices. The helical structure of these peptides was found to be consistent with their presumed membrane binding. Langmuir monolayers have been used as membrane models to study lipid-peptide interactions. The values of maximum insertion pressure obtained for all peptides using a monolayer of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine (DOPE) are larger than the estimated lateral pressure of membranes, thus suggesting that they bind membranes. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the structure and orientation of these peptides in the absence and in the presence of a DOPE monolayer. This lipid induced an increase or a decrease in the organization of the peptide secondary structure. Further measurements are necessary using other lipids to better understand the membrane interactions of these peptides. PMID:24560216

  18. Affinity Labeling of Highly Hydrophobic Integral Membrane Proteins for Proteome-Wide Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goshe, Michael B.; Blonder, Josip; Smith, Richard D.

    2003-03-01

    The ability to identify and quantify integral membrane proteins is an analytical challenge for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The use of surfactants to solubilize and derivatize these proteins can suppress peptide ionization and interfere with chromatographic separations during microcapillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. To circumvent the use of surfactants and increase proteome coverage, an affinity labeling method has been developed to target highly hydrophobic integral membrane proteins using organic-assisted extraction and solubilization followed by cysteinyl-specific labeling using biotinylation reagents. As demonstrated on the membrane subproteome of Deinococcus radiodurans, specific and quantitative labeling of integral membrane proteins was achieved using a 60% methanol-aqueous buffer system and (+)-biotinyl-iodoacetamidyl-3,6-dioxaoctanediamine as the cysteinyl-alkylating reagent. From a total of 220 unique Cys-labeled peptides, 89 proteins were identified of which 40 were integral membrane proteins containing from 1 to 9 mapped transmembrane domains with a maximum positive GRAVY of 1.08. The protocol described can be used with other stable isotope labeling reagents (e.g. ICAT) to enable comparative measurements to be made on differentially expressed hydrophobic membrane proteins from various organisms (e.g. pathogenic bacteria) and cell types and provide a viable method for comparative proteome-wide analyses.

  19. Hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes. Thermodynamic analysis of tetraphenylphosphonium binding to vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, R F; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties for the interaction of the hydrophobic ion tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) with egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles were studied in detail by equilibrium dialysis and spin label techniques. A partition coefficient of beta = 4.2 + 0.4 x 10(-6) cm (K congruent to 100) was determined. Electrostatic saturation sets in at approximately 600 microM (about one absorbed TPP+ molecule per 100 lipids), and is not screened by salt. The temperature dependence of binding was determined, which reveals that the binding is entropy-driven with a positive (repulsive) enthalpy of binding, a result to be compared with hydrophobic anions in which the binding enthalpy is negative. The membrane dipole potential may be responsible for this binding difference. Activity coefficients are determined and shown to be significantly different from those of most common salts, an important result that should be considered in all hydrophobic ion studies. Comparison of the TPP+ results with those of its anionic structural analogue, tetraphenylboron (TPB-), permits a general analysis of hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes. A theoretical model consistent with the entire set of data is developed in an accompanying article. PMID:3006814

  20. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  1. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  2. Roles of Interleaflet Coupling and Hydrophobic Mismatch in Lipid Membrane Phase-Separation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Philip W; Williamson, John J; Sansom, Mark S P; Olmsted, Peter D

    2016-09-14

    Characterizing the nanoscale dynamic organization within lipid bilayer membranes is central to our understanding of cell membranes at a molecular level. We investigate phase separation and communication across leaflets in ternary lipid bilayers, including saturated lipids with between 12 and 20 carbons per tail. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations reveal a novel two-step kinetics due to hydrophobic mismatch, in which the initial response of the apposed leaflets upon quenching is to increase local asymmetry (antiregistration), followed by dominance of symmetry (registration) as the bilayer equilibrates. Antiregistration can become thermodynamically preferred if domain size is restricted below ∼20 nm, with implications for the symmetry of rafts and nanoclusters in cell membranes, which have similar reported sizes. We relate our findings to theory derived from a semimicroscopic model in which the leaflets experience a "direct" area-dependent coupling, and an "indirect" coupling that arises from hydrophobic mismatch and is most important at domain boundaries. Registered phases differ in composition from antiregistered phases, consistent with a direct coupling between the leaflets. Increased hydrophobic mismatch purifies the phases, suggesting that it contributes to the molecule-level lipid immiscibility. Our results demonstrate an interplay of competing interleaflet couplings that affect phase compositions and kinetics, and lead to a length scale that can influence lateral and transverse bilayer organization within cells. PMID:27574865

  3. Probabilistic aspects of polymorph selection by heterogeneous nucleation on microporous hydrophobic membrane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, Efrem; Di Profio, Gianluca; Drioli, Enrico

    2008-12-01

    In this work, probabilistic aspects related to the heterogeneous nucleation on microporous hydrophobic surfaces, i.e. polymeric membranes, have been theoretically investigated to understand the ability of this innovative crystallization technique to promote the formation of different polymorphs. The theoretical results, which clarify the effects of physicochemical properties of membranes (i.e. porosity, contact angle between supersaturated solution, and polymeric substrate) on the nucleation process of polymorphs, have been used to discuss the experimentally observed selective crystallization of forms I and II of paracetamol.

  4. Side Chain Hydrophobicity Modulates Therapeutic Activity and Membrane Selectivity of Antimicrobial Peptide Mastoparan-X

    PubMed Central

    Gjetting, Torben; Andresen, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new anti-infective compounds is stagnating and multi-resistant bacteria continue to emerge, threatening to end the “antibiotic era”. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lipo-peptides such as daptomycin offer themselves as a new potential class of antibiotics; however, further optimization is needed if AMPs are to find broad use as antibiotics. In the present work, eight analogues of mastoparan-X (MPX) were investigated, having side chain modifications in position 1, 8 and 14 to modulate peptide hydrophobicity. The self-association properties of the peptides were characterized, and the peptide-membrane interactions in model membranes were compared with the bactericidal and haemolytic properties. Alanine substitution at position 1 and 14 resulted in higher target selectivity (red blood cells versus bacteria), but also decreased bactericidal potency. For these analogues, the gain in target selectivity correlated to biophysical parameters showing an increased effective charge and reduction in the partitioning coefficient for membrane insertion. Introduction of an unnatural amino acid, with an octyl side chain by amino acid substitution, at positions 1, 8 and 14 resulted in increased bactericidal potency at the expense of radically reduced membrane target selectivity. Overall, optimized membrane selectivity or bactericidal potency was achieved by changes in side chain hydrophobicity of MPX. However, enhanced potency was achieved at the expense of selectivity and vice versa in all cases. PMID:24621994

  5. Hydrophobic Variations of N-Oxide Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Manipulation: Importance of Non-hydrocarbon Groups in the Hydrophobic Portion

    PubMed Central

    Aiman, Sadaf; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces several N-oxide amphiphiles evaluated for a large membrane protein assembly. Among these N-oxide amphiphiles, cholate-based agents (CAO and CAO-1) displayed the most favorable behaviors for membrane protein stabilization. This result raises the possibility that the identity and number of non-hydrocarbon groups present in the hydrophobic region plays a critical role in determining detergent properties. PMID:24347070

  6. Lateral Diffusion of Membrane Proteins: Consequences of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Lipid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Ria; Krasnikov, Victor V.; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins in model membranes. The trimeric glutamate transporter (GltT) and the monomeric lactose transporter (LacY) were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of unsaturated phosphocholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (14–22 carbon atoms) and various ratios of DOPE/DOPG/DOPC lipids. The lateral mobility of the proteins and of a fluorescent lipid analog was determined as a function of the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer (h) and lipid composition, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of LacY decreased with increasing thickness of the bilayer, in accordance with the continuum hydrodynamic model of Saffman-Delbrück. For GltT, the mobility had its maximum at diC18:1 PC, which is close to the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer in vivo. The lateral mobility decreased linearly with the concentration of DOPE but was not affected by the fraction of anionic lipids from DOPG. The addition of DOPG and DOPE did not affect the activity of GltT. We conclude that the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer is a major determinant of molecule diffusion in membranes, but protein-specific properties may lead to deviations from the Saffman-Delbrück model. PMID:20816060

  7. Mitochondria-targeted penetrating cations as carriers of hydrophobic anions through lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Sumbatyan, Natalia V; Tashlitsky, Vadim N; Korshunova, Galina A; Antonenko, Yuri N; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2010-09-01

    High negative electric potential inside mitochondria provides a driving force for mitochondria-targeted delivery of cargo molecules linked to hydrophobic penetrating cations. This principle is utilized in construction of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (MTA) carrying quinone moieties which produce a number of health benefitting effects by protecting cells and organisms from oxidative stress. Here, a series of penetrating cations including MTA were shown to induce the release of the liposome-entrapped carboxyfluorescein anion (CF), but not of glucose or ATP. The ability to induce the leakage of CF from liposomes strongly depended on the number of carbon atoms in alkyl chain (n) of alkyltriphenylphosphonium and alkylrhodamine derivatives. In particular, the leakage of CF was maximal at n about 10-12 and substantially decreased at n=16. Organic anions (palmitate, oleate, laurylsulfate) competed with CF for the penetrating cation-induced efflux. The reduced activity of alkylrhodamines with n=16 or n=18 as compared to that with n=12 was ascribed to a lower rate of partitioning of the former into liposomal membranes, because electrical current relaxation studies on planar bilayer lipid membranes showed rather close translocation rate constants for alkylrhodamines with n=18 and n=12. Changes in the alkylrhodamine absorption spectra upon anion addition confirmed direct interaction between alkylrhodamines and the anion. Thus, mitochondria-targeted penetrating cations can serve as carriers of hydrophobic anions across bilayer lipid membranes. PMID:20510172

  8. Influence of fluorocarbon flat-membrane hydrophobicity on carbon dioxide recovery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-Hsia; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Chang, Hao-Wei; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2009-06-01

    The influence of hydrophobicity in flat-plate porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and expended polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes on CO(2) recovery using aqueous solutions of piperazine (PZ) and alkanolamine is examined. Experiments were conducted at various gas flow rates, liquid flow rates, and absorbent concentrations. The CO(2) absorption flux increased with increasing gas flow rates and absorbent concentrations. When using 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) or AMP+PZ aqueous solution as absorbent, this process was dominantly governed by gas film layer diffusion and membrane diffusion. The diffusion resistance of the membrane phase was only important when using N-methyldiethanolamine as the sole absorbent. The water contact angle increased initially with increasing plasma working power and reached at steady state value of 155 degrees beyond 100 W. The elemental fluorine-to-carbon ratio (F/C) and water contact angle of the PVDF membrane increased with increasing treatment time and reached a plateau after 5min of CH(4) plasma (100 W). Increases in the CO(2) absorption fluxes of 7% and 17% were observed for plasma-treated PVDF membranes in comparison to non-treated PVDF and PTFE, respectively, when using 1M AMP as absorbent. The membrane mass transfer coefficient, k(m), for plasma-treated PVDF membranes increased from 2.1 x 10(-4) to 2.5 x 10(-4)ms(-1). Membrane durability was greatly improved by CF(4) plasma treatment (100 W/5 min) and comparable to that of PTFE membranes. PMID:19289246

  9. Tuning surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of hydrocarbon proton exchange membranes (PEMs).

    PubMed

    He, Chenfeng; Mighri, Frej; Guiver, Michael D; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-03-15

    The effect of annealing on the surface hydrophilicity of various representative classes of hydrocarbon-based proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is investigated. In all cases, a more hydrophilic membrane surface develops after annealing at elevated temperatures. The annealing time also had some influence, but in different ways depending on the class of PEM. Longer annealing times resulted in more hydrophilic membrane surfaces for copolymerized sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK-HQ), while the opposite behavior occurred in sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (Ph-SPEEK), sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (Ph-m-SPEEKK) and sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether nitrile) (SPAEEN-B). Increased surface hydrophilicity upon annealing results from ionic cluster decomposition, according to the "Eisenberg-Hird-Moore model" (EHM). The increased surface hydrophilicity is supported by contact angle (CA) measurements, and the cluster decomposition is auxiliarily supported by probing the level of atomic sulfur (sulfonic acid) within different surface depths using angle-dependent XPS as well as ATR-FTIR. Membrane acidification leads to more hydrophilic surfaces by elimination of the hydrogen bonding that occurs between strongly-bound residual solvent (dimethylacetamide, DMAc) and PEM sulfonic acid groups. The study of physicochemical tuning of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of PEMs by annealing and acidification provides insights for improving membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication in fuel cell (FC). PMID:26722798

  10. Inhibition of Sendai virus fusion with phospholipid vesicles and human erythrocyte membranes by hydrophobic peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, D.R.; Flanagan, T.D.; Young, J.E.; Yeagle, P.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Hydrophobic di- and tripeptides which are capable of inhibiting enveloped virus infection of cells are also capable of inhibiting at least three different types of membrane fusion events. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of N-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-methyl DOPE), containing encapsulated 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and/or p-xylene bis(pyridinium bromide) (DPX), were formed by extrusion. Vesicle fusion and leakage were then monitored with the ANTS/DPX fluorescence assay. Sendai virus fusion with lipid vesicles and Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes were measured by following the relief of fluorescence quenching of virus labeled with octadecylrhodamine B chloride (R18). This study found that the effectiveness of the peptides carbobenzoxy-L-Phe-L-Phe (Z-L-Phe-L-Phe), Z-L-Phe, Z-D-Phe, and Z-Gly-L-Phe-L-Phe in inhibiting N-methyl DOPE LUV fusion or fusion of virus with N-methyl DOPE LUV also paralleled their reported ability to block viral infectivity. Furthermore, Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly and Z-Gly-L-Phe inhibited Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes with the same relative potency with which they inhibited vesicle-vesicle and virus-vesicle fusion. The evidence suggests a mechanism by which these peptides exert their inhibition of plaque formation by enveloped viruses. This class of inhibitors apparently acts by inhibiting fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane, thereby preventing viral infection. The physical pathway by which these peptides inhibit membrane fusion was investigated. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of proposed intermediates in the pathway for membrane fusion in LUV revealed that the potent fusion inhibitor Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly selectively altered the structure (or dynamics) of the hypothesized fusion intermediates and that the poor inhibitor Z-Gly-L-Phe did not.

  11. A molecular model for lipid-protein interaction in membranes: the role of hydrophobic mismatch.

    PubMed Central

    Fattal, D R; Ben-Shaul, A

    1993-01-01

    The interaction free energy between a hydrophobic, transmembrane, protein and the surrounding lipid environment is calculated based on a microscopic model for lipid organization. The protein is treated as a rigid hydrophobic solute of thickness dP, embedded in a lipid bilayer of unperturbed thickness doL. The lipid chains in the immediate vicinity of the protein are assumed to adjust their length to that of the protein (e.g., they are stretched when dP > doL) in order to bridge over the lipid-protein hydrophobic mismatch (dP-doL). The bilayer's hydrophobic thickness is assumed to decay exponentially to its asymptotic, unperturbed, value. The lipid deformation free energy is represented as a sum of chain (hydrophobic core) and interfacial (head-group region) contributions. The chain contribution is calculated using a detailed molecular theory of chain packing statistics, which allows the calculation of conformational properties and thermodynamic functions (in a mean-field approximation) of the lipid tails. The tails are treated as single chain amphiphiles, modeled using the rotational isometric state scheme. The interfacial free energy is represented by a phenomenological expression, accounting for the opposing effects of head-group repulsions and hydrocarbon-water surface tension. The lipid deformation free energy delta F is calculated as a function of dP-doL. Most calculations are for C14 amphiphiles which, in the absence of a protein, pack at an average area per head-group ao approximately equal to 32 A2 (doL approximately 24.5 A), corresponding to the fluid state of the membrane. When dP = doL, delta F > 0 and is due entirely to the loss of conformational entropy experienced by the chains around the protein. When dP > doL, the interaction free energy is further increased due to the enhanced stretching of the tails. When dP < doL, chain flexibility (entropy) increases, but this contribution to delta F is overcounted by the increase in the interfacial free energy

  12. Lateral diffusion in model membranes is independent of the size of the hydrophobic region of molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Balcom, B J; Petersen, N O

    1993-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the probe size and shape dependence of lateral diffusion in model dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes. Linear hydrophobic polymers, which differ in length by an order of magnitude, were used to explore the effect on the lateral diffusion coefficient of hydrodynamic restrictions in the bilayer interior. The polymers employed are isoprenoid alcohols--citronellol, solanesol, and dolichol. Tracer lateral diffusion coefficients were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Despite the large difference in lengths, the nitrobenzoxadiazole labelled alcohols all diffuse at the rate of lipid self-diffusion (5.0 x 10(-12) m2 s-1, 29 degrees C) in the liquid crystal phase. Companion measurements in isotropic polymer solution, in gel phase lipid membranes and with nonpolar fluorescent polyaromatic hydrocarbons, show a marked dependence of the lateral diffusion coefficient on the probe molecule size. Our results in the liquid crystal phase are in accord with free area theory which asserts that lateral diffusion in the membrane is restricted by the surface-free area. Probe molecules which are significantly longer than the host phospholipid, seven times longer in the case of dolichol, are still restricted in their lateral motion by the surface properties of the bilayer in the liquid crystal phase. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that the nitrobenzoxadiazole label does not reside at the aqueous interface, although it must reside in close proximity according to the diffusion measurements. PMID:8218892

  13. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  14. Effect of non-solvent additives on the morphology, pore structure, and direct contact membrane distillation performance of PVDF-CTFE hydrophobic membranes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Libing; Wu, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Four common types of additives for polymer membrane preparation including organic macromolecule and micromolecule additives, inorganic salts and acids, and the strong non-solvent H2O were used to prepare poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PVDF-CTFE) hydrophobic flat-sheet membranes. Membrane properties including morphology, porosity, hydrophobicity, pore size and pore distribution were investigated, and the permeability was evaluated via direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) of 3.5g/L NaCl solution in a DCMD configuration. Both inorganic and organic micromolecule additives were found to slightly influence membrane hydrophobicity. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), organic acids, LiCl, MgCl2, and LiCl/H2O mixtures were proved to be effective additives to PVDF-CTFE membranes due to their pore-controlling effects and the capacity to improve the properties and performance of the resultant membranes. The occurrence of a pre-gelation process showed that when organic and inorganic micromolecules were added to PVDF-CTFE solution, the resultant membranes presented a high interconnectivity structure. The membrane prepared with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed a nonporous surface and symmetrical cross-section. When H2O and LiCl/H2O mixtures were also used as additives, they were beneficial for solid-liquid demixing, especially when LiCl/H2O mixed additives were used. The membrane prepared with 5% LiCl+2% H2O achieved a flux of 24.53kg/(m(2)·hr) with 99.98% salt rejection. This study is expected to offer a reference not only for PVDF-CTFE membrane preparation but also for other polymer membranes. PMID:27372116

  15. Deciphering the role of charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity for cytotoxic activities and membrane interactions of bile acid based facial amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish; Singh, Ashima; Kundu, Somanath; Bansal, Sandhya; Bajaj, Avinash

    2013-08-01

    We synthesized four cationic bile acid based facial amphiphiles featuring trimethyl ammonium head groups. We evaluated the role of these amphiphiles for cytotoxic activities against colon cancer cells and their membrane interactions by varying charge, hydration and hydrophobicity. The singly charged cationic Lithocholic acid based amphiphile (LCA-TMA1) is most cytotoxic, whereas the triply charged cationic Cholic acid based amphiphile (CA-TMA3) is least cytotoxic. Light microscopy and Annexin-FITC assay revealed that these facial amphiphiles caused late apoptosis. In addition, we studied the interactions of these amphiphiles with model membrane systems by Prodan-based hydration, DPH-based anisotropy, and differential scanning calorimetry. LCA-TMA1 is most hydrophobic with a hard charge causing efficient dehydration and maximum perturbations of membranes thereby facilitating translocation and high cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In contrast, the highly hydrated and multiple charged CA-TMA3 caused least membrane perturbations leading to low translocation and less cytotoxicity. As expected, Chenodeoxycholic acid and Deoxycholic acid based amphiphiles (CDCA-TMA2, DCA-TMA2) featuring two charged head groups showed intermediate behavior. Thus, we deciphered that charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity of these amphiphiles govern membrane interactions, translocation, and resulting cytoxicity against colon cancer cells. PMID:23590996

  16. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (l-lactide) membranes obtained by CF₄microwave plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF₄ microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF₄ plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF₄ plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreased from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF₄ plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.

  17. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (l-lactide) membranes obtained by CF₄microwave plasma treatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF₄ microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF₄ plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF₄ plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreasedmore » from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF₄ plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.« less

  18. Continuously Infusing Hyperpolarized 129Xe into Flowing Aqueous Solutions Using Hydrophobic Gas Exchange Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Möller, Harald E.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2009-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe yields high signal intensities in magnetic resonance (MR) and, through its large chemical shift range of ∼300 ppm, provides detailed information about the local chemical environment. To exploit these properties in aqueous solutions and living tissues requires the development of methods for efficiently dissolving HP 129Xe over an extended time period. To this end, we have used commercially available gas exchange modules to continuously infuse concentrated HP 129Xe into flowing liquids, including rat whole blood, for periods as long as one hour, and have demonstrated the feasibility of dissolved-phase MR imaging with sub-millimeter resolution within minutes. These modules, which exchange gases using hydrophobic microporous polymer membranes, are compatible with a variety of liquids and are suitable for infusing HP 129Xe into the bloodstream in vivo. Additionally, we have developed a detailed mathematical model of the infused HP 129Xe signal dynamics that should be useful in designing improved infusion systems that yield even higher dissolved HP 129Xe signal intensities. PMID:19702286

  19. Purification of the c-erbB2/neu membrane-spanning segment: a hydrophobic challenge.

    PubMed

    Goetz, M; Rusconi, F; Belghazi, M; Schmitter, J M; Dufourc, E J

    2000-01-14

    High quality purification of membrane-spanning peptides and proteins remains a challenging problem. In this work we describe a tailored chromatographic purification of a synthetic 35-residue peptide corresponding to the transmembrane region of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-erb2/neu. Composed to over 70% by the amino acids alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine, this peptide presents a very hydrophobic character. Product isolation from the complex peptide mixture, obtained after acid cleavage of the resin matrix used during the solid-phase synthesis, represents a difficult task. We propose a three step strategy based on gel permeation and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, using aprotic polar solvent mixtures. The challenge consisted in obtaining a sufficient amount of an extremely pure sample, in order to allow structural analysis by NMR spectroscopy. Keeping trace of the synthetic peptide throughout the different purification steps was assured by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry, and the final product purity was checked by coupled liquid chromatography-ESI TOF mass spectrometry. PMID:10681041

  20. Effects of hydrophobicity of diffusion layer on the electroreduction of biomass derivatives in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Gaohong; Ge, Feilong; Xiao, Wu; Benziger, Jay; Wu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the hydrophobicity design of a diffusion layer based on the volatility of hydrogenation reactants in aqueous solutions is reported. The hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer greatly influences the hydrogenation performance of two model biomass derivatives, namely, butanone and maleic acid, in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors operated at atmospheric pressure. Hydrophobic carbon paper repels aqueous solutions, but highly volatile butanone can permeate in vapor form and achieve a high hydrogenation rate, whereas, for nonvolatile maleic acid, great mass transfer resistance prevents hydrogenation. With a hydrophilic stainless-steel welded mesh diffusion layer, aqueous solutions of both butanone and maleic acid permeate in liquid form. Hydrogenation of maleic acid reaches a similar level as that of butanone. The maximum reaction rate is 340 nmol cm(-2)  s(-1) for both hydrogenation systems and the current efficiency reaches 70 %. These results are better than those reported in the literature. PMID:25319718

  1. Peripheral myelin of Xenopus laevis: role of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in membrane compaction.

    PubMed

    Luo, XiaoYang; Cerullo, Jana; Dawli, Tamara; Priest, Christina; Haddadin, Zaid; Kim, Angela; Inouye, Hideyo; Suffoletto, Brian P; Avila, Robin L; Lees, Jonathan P B; Sharma, Deepak; Xie, Bo; Costello, Catherine E; Kirschner, Daniel A

    2008-04-01

    P0 glycoprotein is the major structural protein of peripheral nerve myelin where it is thought to modulate inter-membrane adhesion at both the extracellular apposition, which is labile upon changes in pH and ionic strength, and the cytoplasmic apposition, which is resistant to such changes. Most studies on P0 have focused on structure-function correlates in higher vertebrates. Here, we focused on its role in the structure and interactions of frog (Xenopus laevis) myelin, where it exists primarily in a dimeric form. As part of our study, we deduced the full sequence of X. laevis P0 (xP0) from its cDNA. The xP0 sequence was found to be similar to P0 sequences of higher vertebrates, suggesting that a common mechanism of PNS myelin compaction via P0 interaction might have emerged through evolution. As previously reported for mouse PNS myelin, a similar change of extracellular apposition in frog PNS myelin as a function of pH and ionic strength was observed, which can be explained by a conformational change of P0 due to protonation-deprotonation of His52 at P0's putative adhesive interface. On the other hand, the cytoplasmic apposition in frog PNS myelin, like that in the mouse, remained unchanged at different pH and ionic strength. The contribution of hydrophobic interactions to stabilizing the cytoplasmic apposition was tested by incubating sciatic nerves with detergents. Dramatic expansion at the cytoplasmic apposition was observed for both frog and mouse, indicating a common hydrophobic nature at this apposition. Urea also expanded the cytoplasmic apposition of frog myelin likely owing to denaturation of P0. Removal of the fatty acids that attached to the single Cys residue in the cytoplasmic domain of P0 did not change PNS myelin structure of either frog or mouse, suggesting that the P0-attached fatty acyl chain does not play a significant role in PNS myelin compaction and stability. These results help clarify the present understanding of P0's adhesion role and the

  2. Membrane Partitioning of the Pore-Forming Domain of Colicin A. Role of the Hydrophobic Helical Hairpin

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Ivan L.; Arnulphi, Cristina; Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Alonso-Mariño, Marián; Goñi, Félix M.; Viguera, Ana R.

    2013-01-01

    The colicins are bacteriocins that target Escherichia coli and kill bacterial cells through different mechanisms. Colicin A forms ion channels in the inner membranes of nonimmune bacteria. This activity resides exclusively in its C-terminal fragment (residues 387–592). The soluble free form of this domain is a 10 α-helix bundle. The hydrophobic helical hairpin, H8–H9, is buried inside the structure and shielded by eight amphipathic surface helices. The interaction of the C-terminal colicin A domain and several chimeric variants with lipidic vesicles was examined here by isothermal titration calorimetry. In the mutant constructions, natural sequences of the hydrophobic helices H8 and H9 were either removed or substituted by polyalanine or polyleucine. All the constructions fully associated with DOPG liposomes including the mutant that lacked helices H8 and H9, indicating that amphipathic rather than hydrophobic helices were the major determinants of the exothermic binding reactions. Alanine is not specially favored in the lipid-bound form; the chimeric construct with polyalanine produced lower enthalpy gain. On the other hand, the large negative heat capacities associated with partitioning, a characteristic feature of the hydrophobic effect, were found to be dependent on the sequence hydrophobicity of helices H8 and H9. PMID:24047995

  3. [Effect of relative molecular mass distribution and hydrophilicity/ hydrophobicity of NOM on membrane fouling in MF-combined process].

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Liu; Lin, Jie; Xu, Guang-Hong; Dong, Bing-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the reversible and irreversible foulants in a submerged microfiltration (MF) with pretreatments (coagulation/powdered activated carbon (PAC)/potassium permanganate) in a pilot scale treatment of water from Taihu Lake. The study focused on the effect of relative molecular mass (M(r)) distribution and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity on membrane fouling using high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with UV and TOC detectors and three dimension fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM). HPSEC analyses showed that pretreatments could almost completely remove the macro molecules (M(r) > 10 x 10(3)), but only eliminate part of medium (10 x 10(3)) > M(r) > 1 x 10(3)) and micro molecules (M(r) < 1 x 10(3)). A majority of medium and micro molecules were found in chemical cleaning solutions, indicating that medium and micro molecules were the main foulants that contributed to irreversible membrane fouling. In addition, it was also found that the content of strong hydrophobic acids (SHA) and neutral hydrophilic (Neut) fractions in chemical solutions were far higher than that of weakly hydrophobic acids (WHA) and charged hydrophilic (Char), which suggested that both organic fractions were responsible for irreversible fouling. 3DEEM fluorescence demonstrated that aromatic proteins and soluble microbial products were the main contributors to irreversible membrane fouling. PMID:23487934

  4. Dissection of SNARE-driven membrane fusion and neuroexocytosis by wedging small hydrophobic molecules into the SNARE zipper

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoosoo; Shin, Jae Yoon; Oh, Jung-Mi; Jung, Chang Hwa; Hwang, Yunha; Kim, Sehyun; Kim, Jun-Seob; Yoon, Kee-Jung; Ryu, Ji-Young; Shin, Jaeil; Hwang, Jae Sung; Yoon, Tae-Young; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal SNARE proteins mediate neurotransmitter release at the synapse by facilitating the fusion of vesicles to the presynaptic plasma membrane. Cognate v-SNAREs and t-SNAREs from the vesicle and the plasma membrane, respectively, zip up and bring about the apposition of two membranes attached at the C-terminal ends. Here, we demonstrate that SNARE zippering can be modulated in the midways by wedging with small hydrophobic molecules. Myricetin, which intercalated into the hydrophobic inner core near the middle of the SNARE complex, stopped SNARE zippering in motion and accumulated the trans-complex, where the N-terminal region of v-SNARE VAMP2 is in the coiled coil with the frayed C-terminal region. Delphinidin and cyanidin inhibited N-terminal nucleation of SNARE zippering. Neuronal SNARE complex in PC12 cells showed the same pattern of vulnerability to small hydrophobic molecules. We propose that the half-zipped trans-SNARE complex is a crucial intermediate waiting for a calcium trigger that leads to fusion pore opening. PMID:21135223

  5. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-06-25

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. It is thought that this interaction is membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, includingmore » membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. Moreover, these gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.« less

  6. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-06-25

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. It is thought that this interaction is membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. Moreover, these gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.

  7. Localization of Membrane-Associated Proteins in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Use of Hydrophobic Membrane Probes and Cross-Linking Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Zakowski, Jack J.; Wagner, Robert R.

    1980-01-01

    The location of membrane-associated proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus was investigated by using two monofunctional and three bifunctional probes that differ in the degree to which they partition into membranes and in their specific group reactivity. Two hydrophobic aryl azide probes, [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide and [3H]pyrenesulfonylazide, readily partitioned into virion membrane and, when activated to nitrenes by UV irradiation, formed stable covalent adducts to membrane constituents. Both of these monofunctional probes labeled the glyco-protein G and matrix M proteins, but [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide also labeled the nucleocapsid N protein and an unidentified low-molecular-weight component. Protein labeling of intact virions was unaffected by the presence of cytochrome c or glutathione, but disruption of membrane by sodium dodecyl sulfate greatly enhanced the labeling of all viral proteins except G. Labeling of G protein was essentially restricted to the membrane-embedded, thermolysin-resistant tail fragment. Three bifunctional reagents, tartryl diazide, dimethylsuberimidate, and 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide, were tested for their capacity to cross-link proteins to membrane phospholipids of virions grown in the presence of [3H]palmitate. Only G and M proteins of intact virions were labeled with 3H-phospholipid by these cross-linkers; the reactions were not affected by cytochrome c but were abolished by disruption of virus with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Dimethylsuberimidate, which reacts with free amino groups, cross-linked 3H-phospholipid to both G and M protein. In contrast, the hydrophilic tartryl diazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the M protein, whereas the hydrophobic 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the intrinsic G protein. These data support the hypothesis that the G protein traverses the virion membrane and that the M protein is membrane associated but does not penetrate very deeply, if at all. PMID:6255216

  8. Role of amphipathicity and hydrophobicity in the balance between hemolysis and peptide-membrane interactions of three related antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Axel; Martínez, Melina; Noguera, Martín E; Augusto, Marcelo T; Disalvo, Anibal; Santos, Nuno C; Semorile, Liliana; Maffía, Paulo C

    2016-05-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) represent important self defense molecules in many organisms, including humans. These peptides have a broad spectrum of activities, killing or neutralizing many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The emergence of multidrug resistant microbes has stimulated research on the development of alternative antibiotics. In the search for new antibiotics, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) offer a viable alternative to conventional antibiotics, as they physically disrupt the bacterial membranes, leading to lysis of microbial membranes and eventually cell death. In particular, the group of linear α-helical cationic peptides has attracted increasing interest from clinical as well as basic research during the last decade. In this work, we studied the biophysical and microbiological characteristics of three new designed CAMPs. We modified a previously studied CAMP sequence, in order to increase or diminish the hydrophobic face, changing the position of two lysines or replacing three leucines, respectively. These mutations modified the hydrophobic moment of the resulting peptides and allowed us to study the importance of this parameter in the membrane interactions of the peptides. The structural properties of the peptides were also correlated with their membrane-disruptive abilities, antimicrobial activities and hemolysis of human red blood cells. PMID:26896660

  9. Synthesis and characterization of partially fluorinated hydrophobic-hydrophilic multiblock copolymers containing sulfonate groups for proton exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanxiang; Roy, Abhishek; Badami, Anand S.; Hill, Melinda; Yang, Juan; Dunn, Stuart; McGrath, James E.

    A new hydrophobic-hydrophilic multiblock copolymer has been successfully synthesized based on the careful coupling of a fluorine terminated poly(arylene ether ketone) (6FK) hydrophobic oligomer and a phenoxide terminated disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) hydrophilic oligomer. 19F and 1H NMR spectra were used to characterize the oligomers' molecular weights and multiblock copolymer's structure. The comparison of the multiblock copolymer 13C NMR spectrum with that of the random copolymer showed that the transetherification side reaction was minimized in this synthesis. The morphologies of membranes were investigated by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), which showed that the multiblock membrane acidified by the high temperature method has sharp phase separation. Membrane properties like protonic conductivity, water uptake, and self-diffusion coefficient of water as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH) were characterized for the multiblock copolymer and compared with ketone type random copolymers at similar ion exchange capacity value and Nafion ® controls. The multiblock copolymers are promising candidates for proton exchange membranes especially for applications at high temperatures and low relative humidity.

  10. Morphology-properties relationship of gas plasma treated hydrophobic meso-porous membranes and their improved performance for desalination by membrane distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumée, Ludovic F.; Alglave, Hortense; Chaffraix, Thomas; Lin, Bao; Magniez, Kevin; Schütz, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    The impact on performance of the surface energy and roughness of membrane materials used for direct contact membrane distillation are critical but yet poorly investigated parameters. The capacity to alter the wettability of highly hydrophobic materials such as poly(tetra-fluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) by gas plasma treatments is reported in this paper. An equally important contribution from this investigation arises from illustrating how vaporized material from the treated sample participates after a short while in the composition of the plasma and fundamentally changes the result of surface chemistry processes. The water contact angle across the hydrophobic membranes is generally controlled by varying the plasma gas conditions, such as the plasma power, chamber pressure and irradiation duration. Changes to surface porosity and roughness of the bulk material as well as the surface chemistry, through specific and partial de-fluorination of the surface were detected and systematically studied by Fourier transform infra-red analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the rupture of fibrils, formed during membrane processing by thermal-stretching, led to the formation of a denser surface composed of nodules similar to these naturally acting as bridging points across the membrane material between fibrils. This structural change has a profound and impart a permanent effect on the permeation across the modified membranes, which was found to be enhanced by up to 10% for long plasma exposures while the selectivity of the membranes was found to remain unaffected by the treatment at a level higher than 99.99%. This is the first time that an investigation demonstrates how the permeation characteristics of these membranes is directly related to data from spectral, morphological and surface charge analyses, which provide new insights on the impact of plasma treatments on both, the surface charge and roughness, of PTFE porous materials.

  11. The Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Forms an Eight-Stranded beta-Barrel with a Hydrophobic Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Hong,H.; Patel, D.; Tamm, L.; van den Berg, B.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli OmpW belongs to a family of small outer membrane (OM) proteins that are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Their functions are unknown, but recent data suggest that they may be involved in the protection of bacteria against various forms of environmental stress. In order to gain insight into the function of these proteins we have determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli OmpW to 2.7 Angstroms resolution. The structure shows that OmpW forms an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a long and narrow hydrophobic channel that contains a bound LDAO detergent molecule. Single channel conductance experiments show that OmpW functions as an ion channel in planar lipid bilayers. The channel activity can be blocked by the addition of LDAO. Taken together, the data suggest that members of the OmpW family could be involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules across the bacterial OM.

  12. Effects of exposure time on variations in the structure and hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes prepared via vapor-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yuelian; Fan, Hongwei; Dong, Yajun; Song, Yanna; Han, Hua

    2012-08-01

    The present investigation revealed how the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes, which were prepared via a vapor-induced phase separation (VIPS) method, were affected by the exposure time. The mass variation of the cast film was recorded. Membrane morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal behaviors of membranes were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) was employed to analyze the crystalline structures of the overall membranes and the surface layers. The results showed that different membrane morphologies and hydrophobicities could be obtained by changing the exposure time. A long exposure time facilitated the crystallization process, resulting in the formation of a porous skin and particle morphology, which increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. A short exposure time favored the formation of a digitate macrovoid and dense skin resulting from liquid-liquid phase separation in the immersion process, which reduced surface hydrophobicity. The water permeate flux in vacuum membrane distillation was greatly affected by the membrane porosity and surface hydrophobicity.

  13. Method of making a membrane having hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces for adhering cells or antibodies by using atomic oxygen or hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portion of an organic polymer article such as a membrane is made hydrophilic by exposing a hydrophobic surface of the article to a depth of about 50 to about 5000 angstroms to atomic oxygen or hydroxyl radicals at a temperature below 100C., preferably below 40 C, to form a hydrophilic uniform surface layer of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups. The atomic oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are generated by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, and the surface is outside of a plasma produced by the discharge. A membrane having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces can be used in an immunoassay by adhering antibodies to the hydrophobic surface. In another embodiment, the membrane is used in cell culturing where cells adhere to the hydrophilic surface. Prior to adhering cells, the hydrophilic surface may be grafted with a compatibilizing compound. A plurality of hydrophilic regions bounded by adjacent hydrophobic regions can be produced such that a maximum of one cell per each hydrophilic region adheres.

  14. The bacteriocin AS-48 requires dimer dissociation followed by hydrophobic interactions with the membrane for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Rubén; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Albert, Armando; Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Barrena, María José

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism underlining the antibacterial activity of the bacteriocin AS-48 is not known, and two different and opposite alternatives have been proposed. Available data suggested that the interaction of positively charged amino acids of AS-48 with the membrane would produce membrane destabilization and disruption. Alternatively, it has been proposed that AS-48 activity could rely on the effective insertion of the bacteriocin into the membrane. The biological and structural properties of the AS-48G13K/L40K double mutant were investigated to shed light on this subject. Compared with the wild type, the mutant protein suffered an important reduction in the antibacterial activity. Biochemical and structural studies of AS-48G13K/L40K mutant suggest the basis of its decreased antimicrobial activity. Lipid cosedimentation assays showed that the membrane affinity of AS-48G13K/L40K is 12-fold lower than that observed for the wild type. L40K mutation is responsible for this reduced membrane affinity and thus, hydrophobic interactions are involved in membrane association. Furthermore, the high-resolution crystal structure of AS-48G13K/L40K, together with the study of its dimeric character in solution showed that G13K stabilizes the inactive water-soluble dimer, which displays a reduced dipole moment. Our data suggest that the cumulative effect of these three affected properties reduces AS-48 activity, and point out that the bactericidal effect is achieved by the electrostatically driven approach of the inactive water-soluble dimer towards the membrane, followed by the dissociation and insertion of the protein into the lipid bilayer. PMID:25816760

  15. Pervaporative removal of organics from water using hydrophobic membranes. Binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Results of pervaporation experiments are presented for the separation of several polar and nonpolar organic solvents from their aqueous solutions. Three membranes were evaluated: a polydimethylsiloxane (PERVAP-1060) membrane, a PDMS ZSM-5 zeolite filled (PERVAP-1070) membrane, and a poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBAX-4033) membrane. The effect of feed composition on flux and selectivity was also investigated. Performance parameters of a given membrane depended both on the kind of the organic solvent and the feed composition. The PERVAP-1070 membrane exhibited the highest selectivity with a separation factor over 900 in contact with a water-butyl acetate mixture. Polar solvents like methanol were also preferentially separated from aqueous solutions, but the separation factors were close to those obtained from liquid-vapor equilibria data. Permeate fluxes of organics increased with increasing feed concentration. Synergetic effects between water and organics fluxes were also observed.

  16. Electrostatic Localization of RNA to Protocell Membranes by Cationic Hydrophobic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Neha P; Tobé, Sylvia; Hill, Ian T; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative interactions between RNA and vesicle membranes on the prebiotic earth may have led to the emergence of primitive cells. The membrane surface offers a potential platform for the catalysis of reactions involving RNA, but this scenario relies upon the existence of a simple mechanism by which RNA could become associated with protocell membranes. Here, we show that electrostatic interactions provided by short, basic, amphipathic peptides can be harnessed to drive RNA binding to both zwitterionic phospholipid and anionic fatty acid membranes. We show that the association of cationic molecules with phospholipid vesicles can enhance the local positive charge on a membrane and attract RNA polynucleotides. This phenomenon can be reproduced with amphipathic peptides as short as three amino acids. Finally, we show that peptides can cross bilayer membranes to localize encapsulated RNA. This mechanism of polynucleotide confinement could have been important for primitive cellular evolution. PMID:26223820

  17. Electrostatic Localization of RNA to Protocell Membranes by Cationic Hydrophobic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Neha P; Tobé, Sylvia; Hill, Ian T; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-09-28

    Cooperative interactions between RNA and vesicle membranes on the prebiotic earth may have led to the emergence of primitive cells. The membrane surface offers a potential platform for the catalysis of reactions involving RNA, but this scenario relies upon the existence of a simple mechanism by which RNA could become associated with protocell membranes. Here, we show that electrostatic interactions provided by short, basic, amphipathic peptides can be harnessed to drive RNA binding to both zwitterionic phospholipid and anionic fatty acid membranes. We show that the association of cationic molecules with phospholipid vesicles can enhance the local positive charge on a membrane and attract RNA polynucleotides. This phenomenon can be reproduced with amphipathic peptides as short as three amino acids. Finally, we show that peptides can cross bilayer membranes to localize encapsulated RNA. This mechanism of polynucleotide confinement could have been important for primitive cellular evolution. PMID:26223820

  18. Label-free proteomic analysis of the hydrophobic membrane protein complement in articular chondrocytes: a technique for identification of membrane biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Csaba; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liddell, Susan; Smith, Julia R.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: There is insufficient knowledge about the chondrocyte membranome and its molecular composition. Objective: To develop a Triton X-114 based separation technique using nanoLC-MS/MS combined with shotgun proteomics to identify chondrocyte membrane proteins. Materials and methods: Articular chondrocytes from equine metacarpophalangeal joints were separated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions; trypsin-digested proteins were analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Results: A total of 315 proteins were identified. The phase extraction method yielded a high proportion of membrane proteins (56%) including CD276, S100-A6 and three VDAC isoforms. Discussion: Defining the chondrocyte membranome is likely to reveal new biomarker targets for conventional and biological drug discovery. PMID:26864288

  19. Renaturation of Recombinant Treponema pallidum Rare Outer Membrane Protein 1 into a Trimeric, Hydrophobic, and Porin-Active Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei H.; Blanco, David R.; Exner, Maurice M.; Shang, Ellen S.; Champion, Cheryl I.; Phillips, Martin L.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    We have previously observed that while native Treponema pallidum rare outer membrane protein 1 (Tromp1) is hydrophobic and has porin activity, recombinant forms of Tromp1 do not possess these properties. In this study we show that these properties are determined by conformation and can be replicated by proper renaturation of recombinant Tromp1. Native Tromp1, but not the 47-kDa lipoprotein, extracted from whole organisms by using Triton X-114, was found to lose hydrophobicity after treatment in 8 M urea, indicating that Tromp1’s hydrophobicity is conformation dependent. Native Tromp1 was purified from 0.1% Triton X-100 extracts of whole organisms by fast-performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) and shown to have porin activity in planar lipid bilayers. Cross-linking studies of purified native Tromp1 with an 11 Å cross-linking agent showed oligomeric forms consistent with dimers and trimers. For renaturation studies of recombinant Tromp1 (rTromp1), a 31,109-Da signal-less construct was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by FPLC. FPLC-purified rTromp1 was denatured in 8 M urea and then renatured in the presence of 0.5% Zwittergent 3,14 during dialysis to remove the urea. Renatured rTromp1 was passed through a Sephacryl S-300 gel exclusion column previously calibrated with known molecular weight standards. While all nonrenatured rTromp1 eluted from the column at approximately the position of the carbonic anhydrase protein standard (29 kDa), all renatured rTromp1 eluted at the position of the phosphorylase b protein standard (97 kDa), suggesting a trimeric conformation. Trimerization was confirmed by using an 11 Å cross-linking agent which showed both dimers and trimers similar to that of native Tromp1. Triton X-114 phase separations showed that all of renatured rTromp1, but none of nonrenatured rTromp1, phase separated exclusively into the hydrophobic detergent phase, similar to native Tromp1. Circular dichroism of nonrenatured and renatured rTromp1

  20. Selective permeabilization of lipid membranes by photodynamic action via formation of hydrophobic defects or pre-pores.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Elena A; Kuzevanov, Alexey V; Pashkovskaya, Alina A; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2011-09-01

    To gain insight into mechanisms of photodynamic modification of biological membranes, we studied an impact of visible light in combination with a photosensitizer on translocation of various substances across artificial (vesicular and planar) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). Along with induction of carboxyfluorescein leakage from liposomes, pronounced stimulation of lipid flip-flop between the two monolayers was found after photosensitization, both processes being prevented by the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide. On the contrary, no enhancement of potassium chloride efflux from liposomes was detected by conductometry under these conditions. Illumination of planar BLMs in the presence of a photosensitizer led to a marked increase in membrane permeability to amphiphilic 2-n-octylmalonic acid, but practically no change in the permeability to ammonia, which agreed with selective character of the photosensitized leakage of fluorescent dyes from liposomes (Pashkovskaya et al., Langmuir, 2010). Thus, the effect on transbilayer movement of molecules elicited by the photodynamic treatment substantially depended on the kind of translocated species, in particular, on their lipophilicity. Based on similarity with results of previous electroporation studies, we hypothesized about photodynamic induction of "pre-pores" or "hydrophobic defects" permeable to amphiphilic compounds and less permeable to hydrophilic substances and inorganic ions. PMID:21663731

  1. Imidazolium-containing, hydrophobic-ionic-hydrophilic ABC triblock copolymers: synthesis, ordered phase-separation, and supported membrane fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenauer, EF; Nguyen, PT; Newell, BS; Bailey, TS; Nobleb, RD; Gin, DL

    2013-01-01

    Novel ABC triblock copolymers containing hydrophobic, imidazolium ionic liquid (IL)-based ionic, and non-charged hydrophilic blocks were synthesized by direct sequential, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of three chemically immiscible norborene monomers. The resulting ABC triblock copolymers were found by small-angle X-ray scattering to phase-separate into different nanostructures in their pure melt states, depending on their block sequence and compositions. Supported composite membranes of these triblock copolymers were successfully fabricated with defect-free, <= 20 microns thick top coatings. Preliminary CO2/light gas transport studies demonstrated the potential of this new type of IL-based block copolymer material for gas separation applications.

  2. Factors affecting alcohol-water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite-silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of ZSM-5 zeolite particles dispersed in silicone rubber exhibited ethanol-water pervaporation permselectivities up to 5 times that of silicone rubber alone and 3 times higher than simple vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). A number of conditi...

  3. Carrier-mediated extraction of bipyridilium herbicides across the hydrophobic liquid membrane.

    PubMed

    Mulugeta, Mesay; Megersa, Negussie

    2004-09-01

    Supported liquid membrane (SLM) method for preconcentration and enrichment of the two bipyridilium herbicides, namely diquat and paraquat, from environmental water samples has been developed. The permanently charged cationic herbicides were extracted from a flowing aqueous solution to a stagnant acidic acceptor solution across a liquid membrane containing 40% (v/v) di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid dissolved in di-n-hexyl ether. The mass transfer of analytes is driven by the counter-coupled transport of hydrogen ions from the acceptor to the donor phase. The efficiency of the extraction process depends on the donor solution pH, the amount of the mobile carrier added to the liquid membrane and the concentration of the counter ion in the acceptor solution. The applicability of the method for extraction of these quaternary ammonium herbicides from environmental waters was also investigated by spiking analyte sample solutions in river water. With 24h sample enrichment concentrations of diquat and paraquat down to ca. 10ng/L could be detected in environmental waters. PMID:18969573

  4. MECHANISM AND HYDROPHOBIC FORCES DRIVING MEMBRANE PROTEIN INSERTION OF SUBUNIT II OF CYTOCHROME BO OXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Nil; Dalbey, Ross E.; Yuan, Jijun

    2009-01-01

    Subunit II (CyoA) of cytochrome bo oxidase, which spans the inner membrane twice in bacteria, has several unusual features in membrane biogenesis. It is synthesized with an amino-terminal signal peptide. In addition, distinct pathways are used to insert the two ends of the protein. The amino-terminal domain is inserted by the YidC pathway whereas the large carboxyl-terminal domain is translocated by the SecYEG pathway. Insertion of the protein is also pmf-independent. In this study we examined the topogenic requirements and mechanism of insertion of CyoA in bacteria. We find that both the signal peptide and the first membrane spanning region are required for insertion of the amino-terminal periplasmic loop. The pmf-independence of insertion of the first periplasmic loop is due to the loop’s neutral net charge. We observe also that the introduction of negatively charged residues into the periplasmic loop makes insertion pmf dependent, whereas the addition of positively charged residues prevents insertion unless the pmf is abolished. Insertion of the carboxyl-terminal domain in the full-length CyoA occurs by a sequential mechanism even when the CyoA amino and carboxyl-terminal domains are swapped with other domains. However, when a long spacer peptide is added to increase the distance between the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal domains, insertion no longer occurs by a sequential mechanism. PMID:18155041

  5. Mycoplasma gallisepticum inactivated by targeting the hydrophobic domain of the membrane preserves surface lipoproteins and induces a strong immune response.

    PubMed

    Atalla, Hazem; Lysnyansky, Inna; Raviv, Yossef; Rottem, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach for inactivation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum using the hydrophobic photoinduced alkylating probe 1, 5-iodonaphthylazide (INA) is described. Treatment of washed M. gallisepticum mid-exponential culture (0.2 mg cell protein /mL) with INA followed by irradiation with far-ultraviolet light (310-380 nm) completely abolished viability. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the majority of the inactivated M. gallisepticum were comparable in size to intact cells, but that part of the INA-treated M. gallisepticum preparation also contained low density cells and membrane vesicles. Confocal microscopy revealed that untreated M. gallisepticum cells were internalized by chicken red blood cells (c-RBCs), whereas the INA-inactivated cells remained attached to the outer surface of the c-RBCs. INA treatment of M. gallisepticum resulted in a complete inactivation of F0F1 -ATPase and of the L-arginine uptake system, but the cytoplasmatic soluble NADH2 dehydrogenase was only partially affected. Western blot analysis of the lipoprotein fraction showed that the INA-treated M. gallisepticum retained their lipoproteins. Following subcutaneous injection of M. gallisepticum INA-bacterin, 100% and 68.8% of chickens were positive by the rapid serum agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively, 2 weeks post-injection. These data suggest that the photoinducible alkylating agent INA inactivates M. gallisepticum but preserves its surface lipoproteins and thus has the potential to be used as a general approach for the inactivation of mycoplasmas for vaccine development. PMID:25781939

  6. Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inactivated by Targeting the Hydrophobic Domain of the Membrane Preserves Surface Lipoproteins and Induces a Strong Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Atalla, Hazem; Lysnyansky, Inna; Raviv, Yossef; Rottem, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach for inactivation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum using the hydrophobic photoinduced alkylating probe 1, 5-iodonaphthylazide (INA) is described. Treatment of washed M. gallisepticum mid-exponential culture (0.2 mg cell protein /mL) with INA followed by irradiation with far-ultraviolet light (310–380 nm) completely abolished viability. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the majority of the inactivated M. gallisepticum were comparable in size to intact cells, but that part of the INA-treated M. gallisepticum preparation also contained low density cells and membrane vesicles. Confocal microscopy revealed that untreated M. gallisepticum cells were internalized by chicken red blood cells (c-RBCs), whereas the INA-inactivated cells remained attached to the outer surface of the c-RBCs. INA treatment of M. gallisepticum resulted in a complete inactivation of F0F1 –ATPase and of the L-arginine uptake system, but the cytoplasmatic soluble NADH2 dehydrogenase was only partially affected. Western blot analysis of the lipoprotein fraction showed that the INA-treated M. gallisepticum retained their lipoproteins. Following subcutaneous injection of M. gallisepticum INA-bacterin, 100% and 68.8% of chickens were positive by the rapid serum agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively, 2 weeks post-injection. These data suggest that the photoinducible alkylating agent INA inactivates M. gallisepticum but preserves its surface lipoproteins and thus has the potential to be used as a general approach for the inactivation of mycoplasmas for vaccine development. PMID:25781939

  7. A hydrophobic filter confers the cation selectivity of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii plasma-membrane Na+/H+ antiporter.

    PubMed

    Kinclova-Zimmermannova, Olga; Falson, Pierre; Cmunt, Denis; Sychrova, Hana

    2015-04-24

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters may recognize all alkali-metal cations as substrates but may transport them selectively. Plasma-membrane Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Sod2-22 antiporter exports Na(+) and Li(+), but not K(+). The molecular basis of this selectivity is unknown. We combined protein structure modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, phenotype analysis and cation efflux measurements to localize and characterize the cation selectivity region. A three-dimensional model of the ZrSod2-22 transmembrane domain was generated based on the X-ray structure of the Escherichia coli NhaA antiporter and primary sequence alignments with homologous yeast antiporters. The model suggested a close proximity of Thr141, Ala179 and Val375 from transmembrane segments 4, 5 and 11, respectively, forming a hydrophobic hole in the putative cation pathway's core. A series of mutagenesis experiments verified the model and showed that structural modifications of the hole resulted in altered cation selectivity and transport activity. The triple ZrSod2-22 mutant T141S-A179T-V375I gained K(+) transport capacity. The point mutation A179T restricted the antiporter substrate specificity to Li(+) and reduced its transport activity, while serine at this position preserved the native cation selectivity. The negative effect of the A179T mutation can be eliminated by introducing a second mutation, T141S or T141A, in the preceding transmembrane domain. Our experimental results confirm that the three residues found through modeling play a central role in the determination of cation selectivity and transport activity in Z. rouxii Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and that the cation selectivity can be modulated by repositioning a single local methyl group. PMID:25701798

  8. Effects of hydrophobic agent content in macro-porous substrates on the fracture behavior of the gas diffusion layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanwi; Jeong, Byeong-Heon; Hong, Bo Ki; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Although the adhesion between the macro-porous substrate (MPS) and micro-porous layer (MPL) of a gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a critical factor that affects the reliability and durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, systematic studies quantifying the interfacial fracture energy of GDL have not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study, the interfacial fracture energy of GDLs with different contents of hydrophobic agents in the MPS is quantitatively measured. GDL samples with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% of hydrophobic agent content are tested using double cantilever beam fracture mechanics tests. It is observed that the interfacial fracture energy of the GDLs increases as the content of hydrophobic agent increases, due to more favorable interactions between the hydrophobic agents of the MPL and MPS. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope analyses are performed on the bare and delaminated surfaces in order to investigate the mechanism of the interfacial fracture energy increase of the GDLs.

  9. The Crystal Structure of OprG from Pseudomonas aeruginosa a Potential Channel for Transport of Hydrophobic Molecules across the Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    D Touw; D Patel; b van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides a barrier to the passage of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the cell. The OM has embedded proteins that serve important functions in signal transduction and in the transport of molecules into the periplasm. The OmpW family of OM proteins, of which P. aeruginosa OprG is a member, is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. The biological functions of OprG and other OmpW family members are still unclear. The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides a barrier to the passage of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the cell. The OM has embedded proteins that serve important functions in signal transduction and in the transport of molecules into the periplasm. The OmpW family of OM proteins, of which P. aeruginosa OprG is a member, is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. The biological functions of OprG and other OmpW family members are still unclear. The crystal structure, together with recent biochemical data, suggests that OprG and other OmpW family members form channels that mediate the diffusion of small hydrophobic molecules across the OM by a lateral diffusion mechanism similar to that of E. coli FadL.

  10. Picosecond fiber laser microfabrication of THz wire-grid polarizers on polymer membrane substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Tim D.; Fast, Dylan; Kozlov, Vladimir G.

    2012-03-01

    Ultrafast picosecond lasers provide the gentle cold ablation required to selectively remove a 400 nm metal film from an unsupported ultra-thin polymer membrane without damaging the membrane substrate. Selected areas of the metal film are completely removed in an ablative lift-off process enabled by a single laser pulse. No damage to the polymer membrane is observed even for samples with the metal completely removed over a 50x50 mm area of the membrane. The 400 nm thick metal films can be patterned into arbitrary forms with feature sizes as small as 10 micrometers, and even submicron features are realistically possible with a modification to the processing system. The skin depth of aluminium in the THz regime is significantly shorter than the 400 nm metal thickness, so thicker metal films that are significantly more difficult to machine are not beneficial. As an example, thin-film wire grid polarizers for the THz regime are demonstrated. The thin-film polarizers are much easier and faster to fabricate than polarizers made by winding free-standing wires around a frame and their performance is very comparable. The thin-film polarizers also have the added benefit of a significantly higher potential for functionality deeper in to the THz spectrum due to their capacity for smaller feature sizes. More intricate patterns, such as meshes, can also be made to create THz bandpass filters. This method can be extended to cold ablation processing of multilayer films fabricated on thin polymer substrates for applications such as plastic electronics, displays and solar cells.

  11. Evolution with time of hydrophobicity and microrelief of a cation-exchange membrane surface and its impact on overlimiting mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Pismenskaya, Natalia D; Nikonenko, Victor V; Melnik, Nadezhda A; Shevtsova, Kseniya A; Belova, Elena I; Pourcelly, Gérald; Cot, Didier; Dammak, Lasâad; Larchet, Christian

    2012-02-23

    Surface properties were measured together with electrochemical characteristics of a CMX (Neosepta, Tokuyama Corp.) cation-exchange membrane. Relative hydrophobicity was controlled by the contact angle; XPS and SEM were used for characterizing chemical composition and microrelief of the surface, respectively. Voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, and mass transfer rate measurements were made as well. A "fresh" membrane and samples after 10, 25, 100, and 150 h of operation in an electrodialysis cell at an overlimiting current equal to 3 theoretical limiting currents, in a 0.02 M NaCl solution, were characterized. Some electrochemical properties were also measured for a Neosepta cation-exchange membrane, aged 2 years, in an industrial food process. It was found that the hydrophobicity of the CMX membrane has increased after the first 10 h of operation; more and more cavities of the dimension of the order of 1 μm have appeared with time testifying electrochemical erosion of the surface. The limiting current density (i(lim)) and the overlimiting transfer rate through the CMX membrane increased with time of its operation under overlimiting current. In the case of new CMX, i(lim) was very close to the theoretical value i(lim)(theor) calculated by the Lévêque equation. After 10 h of operation, i(lim) increased by 5%, and after 25, 100, and 150 h, the increase was by 30%, 70%, and 100%, respectively. Similarly, the mass transfer rate was found to increase up to 5 times (when desalting 0.005 M NaCl under 3 V) in comparison with the theoretical value. The ensemble of data was explained by the hypothesis that the passage of intensive current produces erosion of the ion-exchange polymer forming a continuous phase in CMX. This erosion results in exposure at the surface of the other constituent of CMX: small (about 100 nm) particles of relatively hydrophobic polyvinylchloride. Increasing surface hydrophobicity facilitates the slip of electroconvective vortexes along the surface

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of the evolution of hydrophobic defects in one monolayer of a phosphatidylcholine bilayer: relevance for membrane fusion mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Tieleman, D Peter; Bentz, Joe

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of the phospholipid bilayer underlies the permeability barrier function of the biological membrane. Tears or defects that expose water to the acyl chains are spontaneously healed by lipid lateral diffusion. However, mechanical barriers, e.g., protein aggregates held in place, could sustain hydrophobic defects. Such defects have been postulated to occur in processes such as membrane fusion. This gives rise to a new question in bilayer structure: What do the lipids do in the absence of lipid lateral diffusion to minimize the free energy of a hydrophobic defect? As a first step to understand this rather fundamental question about bilayer structure, we performed molecular dynamic simulations of up to 10 ns of a planar bilayer from which lipids have been deleted randomly from one monolayer. In one set of simulations, approximately one-half of the lipids in the defect monolayer were restrained to form a mechanical barrier. In the second set, lipids were free to diffuse around. The question was simply whether the defects caused by removing a lipid would aggregate together, forming a large hydrophobic cavity, or whether the membrane would adjust in another way. When there are no mechanical barriers, the lipids in the defect monolayer simply spread out and thin with little effect on the other intact monolayer. In the presence of a mechanical barrier, the behavior of the lipids depends on the size of the defect. When 3 of 64 lipids are removed, the remaining lipids adjust the lower one-half of their chains, but the headgroup structure changes little and the intact monolayer is unaffected. When 6 to 12 lipids are removed, the defect monolayer thins, lipid disorder increases, and lipids from the intact monolayer move toward the defect monolayer. Whereas this is a highly simplified model of a fusion site, this engagement of the intact monolayer into the fusion defect is strikingly consistent with recent results for influenza hemagglutinin mediated

  13. A bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating surface hydrophobicity and membrane damage of Escherichia coli cells treated with pulsed electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatments, a non-thermal process have been reported to injure and inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, the effect of this treatment on bacterial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity has not been investigated. Apple juice (AJ, pH 3.8) purchased from a wholesale ...

  14. Photolabeling of membrane-bound Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with the hydrophobic probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.J.; Cohen, J.B.

    1988-11-29

    The hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 3-trifluoromethyl-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine ((/sup 125/I)TID) was used to label acetylcholine receptor rich membranes purified from Torpedo californica electric organ. All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) were found to incorporate label, with the ..gamma..-subunit incorporating approximately 4 times as much as each of the other subunits. Carbamylcholine, an agonist, and histrionicotoxin, a noncompetitive antagonist, both strongly inhibited labeling of all AChR subunits in a specific and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the competitive antagonist ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin and the noncompetitive antagonist phencyclidine had only modest effect on (/sup 125/I)TID labeling of the AChR. The regions of the AChR ..cap alpha..-subunit that incorporate (/sup 125/)TID were mapped by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protest digestion. The carbamylcholine-sensitive site of labeling was localized to a 20-kDa V8 cleavage fragment that begins at Ser-173 and is of sufficient length to contain the three hydrophobic regions M1, M2, and M3. A 10-kDa fragment beginning at Asn-339 and containing the hydrophobic region M4 also incorporated (/sup 125/I)TID but in a carbamylcholine-insensitive manner. Two further cleavage fragments, which together span about one-third of the ..cap alpha..-subunit amino terminus, incorporated no detectable (/sup 125/I)TID. The mapping results place constraints on suggested models of AChR subunit topology.

  15. From dioxin to dioxin congeners: understanding the differences in hydrophobic aggregation in water and absorption into lipid membranes by means of atomistic simulations.

    PubMed

    Casalegno, Mosé; Raos, Guido; Sello, Guido

    2016-06-29

    Translocation of small molecules through a cell membrane barrier is a fundamental step to explain the response of cells to foreign molecules. Investigating the mechanisms through which this complex process takes place is especially important in the study of the adverse effects of toxicants. In this work, we start from the results of a previous simulation study of the mechanism of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) absorption into a model membrane, and extend it to four structural congeners of dioxin. The new molecules have been chosen taking into consideration the structural features that characterize dioxin: aromaticity, planarity, the presence of chlorine and oxygen atoms, and hydrophobicity. Our results for the absorption mechanism confirm our expectations based on the chemical structures, but also reveal some interesting differences in single-molecules and especially in cooperative actions underlying cluster absorption. The analysis of key parameters, such as free energies of transfer and translocation times, supports the idea that dioxin, more than its congeners investigated here, likely accumulates in cell membranes. PMID:27314876

  16. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1)

    PubMed Central

    Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, HN; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins—namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27445648

  17. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1).

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, Umashankar; Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, H N; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins-namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27445648

  18. Effect of bioavailability on the fate of hydrophobic organic compounds and metal in treatment of young landfill leachate by membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, M; Droguia, P; Brar, S K; Buelna, G; Dubé, R

    2016-10-01

    Complex dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in landfill leachate provides reliable media for adsorption of highly hydrophobic contaminants, such as Di 2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). In this research, the feasibility of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) for treatment of landfill leachate (LFL) was determined. Later, the operating conditions were optimized for removal of DEHP, COD, NH4(+) and PO4(3-), and finally the effect of bioavailability was examined by introduction of different concentrations of humic acid into the influent. The result revealed that presence of complex agglomerated organic compounds increased the removal efficiency of DEHP and COD, even though DEHP biodegradation rate in sludge dramatically decreased (from 58.8% to 12.8%). MBR retention of different metals in the absence and in the presence of recalcitrant DOM was also studied. Like DEHP, ternary interaction between metals, DOM, and sludge play a pivotal role in their removal efficiency and their concentration in sludge. PMID:27448320

  19. SCREENING BIOAVAILABLE HYDROPHOBIC TOXICANTS IN SURFACE WATERS WITH SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES: ROLE OF INHERENT OLEIC ACID IN TOXICITY EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed for 4 weeks in two rivers in Lithuania, The SPMD dialysates were tested in the Microtox assay and, surprisingly, the sample from the relatively clean (U) over bar la River exhibited three times more toxicity than the sample fro...

  20. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  1. Subunit interactions in ABC transporters: a conserved sequence in hydrophobic membrane proteins of periplasmic permeases defines an important site of interaction with the ATPase subunits.

    PubMed

    Mourez, M; Hofnung, M; Dassa, E

    1997-06-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane proteins of bacterial binding protein-dependent transporters belong to the superfamily of ABC transporters. The hydrophobic proteins display a conserved, at least 20 amino acid EAA---G---------I-LP region exposed in the cytosol, the EAA region. We mutagenized the EAA regions of MalF and MalG proteins of the Escherichia coli maltose transport system. Substitutions at the same positions in MalF and MalG have different phenotypes, indicating that EAA regions do not act symmetrically. Mutations in malG or malF that slightly affect or do not affect transport, determine a completely defective phenotype when present together. This suggests that EAA regions of MalF and MalG may interact during transport. Maltose-negative mutants fall into two categories with respect to the cellular localization of the MalK ATPase: in the first, MalK is membrane-bound, as in wild-type strains, while in the second, it is cytosolic, as in strains deleted in the malF and malG genes. From maltose-negative mutants of the two categories, we isolated suppressor mutations within malK that restore transport. They map mainly in the putative helical domain of MalK, suggesting that EAA regions may constitute a recognition site for the ABC ATPase helical domain. PMID:9214624

  2. Physical origin for the nonlinear sorption of very hydrophobic organic chemicals in a membrane-like polymer film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ze-Yu; Zhao, Ya-Ying; Tao, Fu-Ming; Ran, Yong; Mai, Bi-Xian; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2007-11-01

    Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is often assumed to be linearly associated with the octanol-water partition coefficient K(ow) for hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs). However, a large amount of data has suggested that the correlation between the logBCF and logK(ow) is curvilinear for HOCs. Similar curvilinear relationship has also been noticed for sorption of HOCs into poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS), a polymer with cross-linked interior structures. So far no satisfactory explanation has been given to account for the deviation. In this study, we acquired additional experimental data to show that the curvilinear relationship between the log-based PDMS-coated fiber-water partition coefficient (logK(f)) and logK(ow) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was indeed a reflection of the sorption process occurring in PDMS film other than experimental defects. The physical origin of the nonlinearity was pinpointed based on the theory of phase partitioning for HOCs. The linear relationship is observed if the solute molecule is considerably smaller than the size of a monomer unit of PDMS in that the Gibbs free energy required for cavity formation in PDMS is comparable to that in octanol. Higher free energy of cavity formation is needed to create sufficient free volume if the PCB molecular size is comparable to or larger than the monomer unit of PDMS. On the other hand, the free energy of cavity formation in octanol remains almost constant when this occurs, resulting in the observed curvilinear relationship. The proposed model adequately explains the observed data, as well as sheds lights into the physical origin of the steric interactions of large molecular size solute with the PDMS polymer network. PMID:17624407

  3. Fast isolation of hydrophobic organic environmental contaminants from exposed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) prior to GC analysis.

    PubMed

    Setková, Lucie; Hajslová, Jana; Bergqvist, Per-Anders; Kocourek, Vladimír; Kazda, Radek; Suchan, Petr

    2005-10-28

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) represent a passive sampling technology that is becoming widely used for monitoring of surface waters pollution. While "classic" procedures employ dialysis to recover target compounds from exposed SPMDs, in the present study analytes were isolated from cut membrane together with sequestering medium (triolein) using hexane as an extraction solvent. This approach allowed us to reduce the time needed for accomplishment of isolation step from 48 h to only 1 h. Automated gel permeation chromatography (GPC) clean-up is employed in the following step to separate triolein from analytes fraction. Musk compounds (MCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and several other persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the respective fraction by GC method employing selective detectors (MSD, ECD). As shown in a series of analyses of SPMDs deployed in various aquatic ecosystems, high recoveries and good repeatability of results together with a possibility to obtain the information on the pollution of sampling site at the day of sample arrival to laboratory make this newly implemented procedure an interesting alternative to time consuming dialysis. PMID:16199223

  4. Enhancing water retention and low-humidity proton conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) composite membrane enabled by the polymer-microcapsules with controllable hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangwei; Li, Yifan; Li, Zongyu; Nie, Lingli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Xinlin; Zhao, Yuning; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-02-01

    Four kinds of polymer microcapsules (PMCs) with different hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity are synthesized via distillation-precipitation polymerization (polymer microcapsules form by self-crosslinking of monomers/crosslinkers in this process) and incorporated into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix to prepare composite membranes. To improve the water retention of the PMCs, the hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity of the PMCs is manipulated by regulating the proportion of hydrophilic ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and hydrophobic divinylbenzene (DVB) crosslinkers in the synthesis formula. The hydrophilicity of the PMCs decreases with increasing the content of polyDVB in the PMCs. The four kinds of PMCs exhibit different water retention properties. The PMCs with appropriate hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance (EGDMA: DVB = 1:1) possess the best water retention properties. Incorporation of PMCs into SPEEK matrix enhances the water-retention properties, and consequently increases proton conductivity to 0.0132 S cm-1 under 20% relative humidity, about thirteen times higher than that of the SPEEK control membrane. Moreover, the incorporation of PMCs reduces the activation energy for proton conduction and the methanol permeability of the membranes. This study may be helpful to rational design of excellent water-retention materials.

  5. Ultra-hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate supported hollow-fiber membrane liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction of chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-01-01

    An ultra-hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([HMIM][FAP]) was immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber for liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (HF-LLLME) of chlorophenols (CPs) (4-chloro-3-methylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The analytes were first extracted from 10 ml of water sample into the ionic liquid membrane, and then were extracted back into 5 μl of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in the hollow fiber channel. After extraction, the acceptor solution was directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatographic system for analysis. Extraction parameters such as extraction time, salt concentration in the sample, the pH of the sample and acceptor phase, and stirring rate during extraction were investigated. The relative standard deviations of the analytes varied from 4 to 6%. Limits of detection of <0.5 ng/ml were obtained for the three analytes. The squared regression coefficients relating to the calibration curve were ≥0.9941. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of CPs in canal water. PMID:25476289

  6. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a fundamental property that is responsible for numerous physical and biophysical aspects of molecular interactions in water. Peculiar behavior is expected for water in the vicinity of hydrophobic structures, such as nanopores. Indeed, hydrophobic nanopores can be found in two distinct states, dry and wet, even though the latter is thermodynamically unstable. Transitions between these two states are kinetically hindered in long pores but can be much faster in shorter pores. As it is demonstrated for the first time in this paper, these transitions can be induced by applying a voltage across a membrane with a single hydrophobic nanopore. Such voltage-induced gating in single nanopores can be realized in a reversible manner through electrowetting of inner walls of the nanopores. The resulting I-V curves of such artificial hydrophobic nanopores mimic biological voltage-gated channels.

  7. Mutation of the Highly Conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein to Phe Causes the Formation of a Hydrophobic Patch, Enhances Membrane Association, and Polyubiquitination of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag. PMID:25279819

  8. 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) localizes to endoplasmic reticulum not peroxisomes, and NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic property determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Seki, Midori; Yasui, Akina; Murasaki, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Masashi; Yamashita, Yukari; Sakaguchi, Masao; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2009-01-15

    70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein related protein (P70R/ABCD4) is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein subfamily D. ABC subfamily D proteins are also known as peroxisomal ABC proteins. Therefore, P70R is thought to be a peroxisomal membrane protein. However, the subcellular localization of P70R is not extensively investigated. In this study, we transiently expressed P70R in fusion with HA (P70R-HA) in CHO cells and examined subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Surprisingly, P70R-HA was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), not to peroxisomes. To examine the ER-targeting property of P70R, we expressed various NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs of P70R. Among the NH{sub 2}-terminal deletion constructs, mutant proteins starting with hydrophobic transmembrane segment (TMS) were localized to ER, but the ones containing the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic cytosolic domain were not. ABC subfamily D proteins destined for peroxisomes have NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic region adjacent to TMS1. However, only P70R lacks the region and is translated with NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic TMS1. Furthermore, attachment of the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophilic domain to the NH{sub 2}-terminus of P70R excluded P70R from the ER-targeting pathway. These data suggest that P70R resides in the ER but not the peroxisomal membranes, and the hydrophobic property of NH{sub 2}-terminal region determines the subcellular localization of ABC subfamily D proteins.

  9. The Hydrophobic Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huque, Entazul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

  10. HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER SEPARATION: EFFECT OF ZEOLITE AND SILICONE COMPONENT SELECTION ON PERVAPORATION PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-silica ZSM 5 zeolites were incorporated into poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) polymers to form mixed matrix membranes for ethanol removal from water via pervaporation. Membrane formulation and preparation parameters were varied to determine the effect on pervaporation perform...

  11. A simple method to prepare modified polyethersulfone membrane with improved hydrophilic surface by one-pot: The effect of hydrophobic segment length and molecular weight of copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ran, Fen; Li, Jie; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lingren; Nie, Shengqiang; Song, Haiming; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-04-01

    A simple method to prepare modified polyethersulfone (PES) membrane by one-pot is provided, and the method includes three steps: polymerization of vinyl pyrrolidone (VP), copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and blending with PES. The effect of the PMMA segment length and molecular weight of the copolymer (PVP-b-PMMA-b-PVP, as an additive) on the structures and properties of the modified membranes was investigated. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests indicated that with the increase of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) segment length in the chains of the copolymers and with the increase of the molecular weight of the copolymers, the APTTs of the modified membranes increased to some extent, since less of the additives were lost during liquid-liquid phase separation process. Therefore, the copolymer was designed and prepared with appropriate ratio of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) to MMA and with appropriate molecular weight for better membrane performance. When the copolymer was blended in the membrane, the water permeance, protein anti-fouling property and sieving coefficients for PEG-12000 increased obviously. The simple, credible and feasible method had the potential to be used for the modification of membranes with improved blood compatibility, ultrafiltration and antifouling properties of biomaterials and for practical production. PMID:24582224

  12. Hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Limin; Birks, T A; Loh, W H

    2011-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate hydrophobic photonic crystal fibers (PCFs). A chemical surface treatment for making PCFs hydrophobic is introduced. This repels water from the holes of PCFs, so that their optical properties remain unchanged even when they are immersed in water. The combination of a hollow core and a water-repellent inner surface of the hydrophobic PCF provides an ultracompact dissolved-gas sensor element, which is demonstrated for the sensing of dissolved ammonia gas. PMID:22139276

  13. Membrane filtration of food suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images PMID:760637

  14. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Branson, Eric D.; Shah, Pratik B.; Singh, Seema; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  15. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  16. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    PubMed

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance. PMID:26913499

  17. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Labuschagne, B.C.J.; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T.; Markuszewski, R.

    1988-12-31

    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  18. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  19. Electrokinetic instability near charge-selective hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelistov, V. S.; Demekhin, E. A.; Ganchenko, G. S.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the texture of a hydrophobic surface on the electro-osmotic slip of the second kind and the electrokinetic instability near charge selective surfaces (permselective membranes, electrodes, or systems of microchannels and nanochannels) is investigated theoretically using a simple model based on the Rubinstein-Zaltzman approach. A simple formula is derived to evaluate the decrease in the instability threshold due to hydrophobicity. The study is complemented by numerical investigations both of linear and nonlinear instabilities near a hydrophobic membrane surface. Theory predicts a significant enhancement of the ion flux to the surface and shows a good qualitative agreement with the available experimental data.

  20. Electrohydrodynamics Near Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maduar, S. R.; Belyaev, A. V.; Lobaskin, V.; Vinogradova, O. I.

    2015-03-01

    We show that an electro-osmotic flow near the slippery hydrophobic surface depends strongly on the mobility of surface charges, which are balanced by counterions of the electrostatic diffuse layer. For a hydrophobic surface with immobile charges, the fluid transport is considerably amplified by the existence of a hydrodynamic slippage. In contrast, near the hydrophobic surface with mobile adsorbed charges, it is also controlled by an additional electric force, which increases the shear stress at the slipping interface. To account for this, we formulate electrohydrodynamic boundary conditions at the slipping interface, which should be applied to quantify electro-osmotic flows instead of hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Our theoretical predictions are fully supported by dissipative particle dynamics simulations with explicit charges. These results lead to a new interpretation of zeta potential of hydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  2. Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane-associate proteins: glycoprotein (G), fusion (F), and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins. Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain para...

  3. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  4. Transmembrane Passage of Hydrophobic Compounds Through a Protein Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, E.; Patel, D; Lepore, D; Indic, M; van den Berg, B

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable3. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the {beta}-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  5. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  6. Mitigated membrane fouling of anammox membrane bioreactor by microbiological immobilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong; Miyoshi, Taro; Matsuyama, Hideto; Ni, Jinren

    2016-02-01

    In this study, membrane fouling behavior of anammox MBR with or without carriers made by magnetic porous carbon microspheres was investigated. The results show that Trans Membrane Pressure was an order of magnitude lower after 50days due to use of carriers, which did not directly contact with membrane surface. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis indicates that abundance of anammox bacteria formed biofilm on membrane surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with amino acids contents analysis for membrane surface deposition show that metabolite released by anammox bacteria contains more hydrophobic groups than hydrophilic, which was considered as important reason for its abundant existence on hydrophobic membrane surface. Microbiological immobilization not only reduces biological membrane fouling, but also mitigates organic fouling including organic matter containing COO, hydrophobic groups (CH3, CH2 and CH etc), as well as inorganic deposition. Our finding provides an effective method for mitigating MBR membrane fouling in anammox process. PMID:26687491

  7. Positive charges of translocating polypeptide chain retrieve an upstream marginal hydrophobic segment from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to the translocon.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Fumiko; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2010-06-15

    Positively charged amino acid residues are well recognized topology determinants of membrane proteins. They contribute to the stop-translocation of a polypeptide translocating through the translocon and to determine the orientation of signal sequences penetrating the membrane. Here we analyzed the function of these positively charged residues during stop-translocation in vitro. Surprisingly, the positive charges facilitated membrane spanning of a marginally hydrophobic segment, even when separated from the hydrophobic segment by 70 residues. In this case, the hydrophobic segment was exposed to the lumen, and then the downstream positive charges triggered the segment to slide back into the membrane. The marginally hydrophobic segment spanned the membrane, but maintained access to the water environment. The positive charges not only fix the hydrophobic segment in the membrane at its flanking position, but also have a much more dynamic action than previously realized. PMID:20427573

  8. Grid Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pointwise Inc.'s, Gridgen Software is a system for the generation of 3D (three dimensional) multiple block, structured grids. Gridgen is a visually-oriented, graphics-based interactive code used to decompose a 3D domain into blocks, distribute grid points on curves, initialize and refine grid points on surfaces and initialize volume grid points. Gridgen is available to U.S. citizens and American-owned companies by license.

  9. Effect of amino acid substitution in the hydrophobic face of amphiphilic peptides on membrane curvature and perturbation: N-terminal helix derived from adenovirus internal protein VI as a model.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Tomo; Pujals, Sílvia; Hirose, Hisaaki; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-11-01

    The N-terminal amphipathic helical segment of adenovirus internal protein VI (AdVpVI) plays a critical role in viral infection. Here, we report that the peptide segment corresponding to AdVpVI (positions 33-55) can induce positive membrane curvature together with membrane perturbation. The enhanced perturbation ability of the peptide was observed for membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids. Based on the liposome leakage assay, substitution of leucine at position 40 to other aliphatic (isoleucine) and aromatic (phenylalanine and tryptophan) residues yielded a similar degree of membrane perturbation by the peptides, which was considerably diminished by the substitution to glutamine. Further studies using the wild-type AdVpVI (33-55) (WT) and phenylalanine-substituted peptides (L40F) demonstrated that both peptides have positive membrane-curvature-inducing ability. These peptides showed higher binding affinity to 50-nm large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) than to 200-nm LUVs. However, no enhanced perturbation by these peptides was observed for 50-nm LUVs compared to 200-nm LUVs, suggesting that both the original membrane curvature and the additional strain due to peptide insertion affect the membrane perturbation ability of these peptides. In the case of L40F, this peptide rather had a lower membrane perturbation ability for 50-nm LUVs than for 200-nm LUVs, which can be attributed to possible shallower binding of L40F on membranes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 430-439, 2016. PMID:27271816

  10. Investigation on hydrophobic films from a hydrophobic powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liqun; Hao, Guofang; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yizhi

    2012-11-01

    A hydrophobic powder was prepared based mainly on an organosiloxane and a corrosion inhibitor with the addition of a reaction promoter. Structure and thermal stability of the hydrophobic powder were characterized by FTIR and TG/DSC, respectively. Hydrophobic property and corrosion resistance of the hydrophobic film formed on phosphatized steel by immersion in 3 wt% NaCl aqueous solution were evaluated together with the electrochemical behavior. Results showed that the skeleton of the hydrophobic powder was composed mainly of sbnd Sisbnd Osbnd Sisbnd which comprises longer and more hydrophobic groups of sbnd Sisbnd R compared with the conventional BH-102 water-repellent agent. A thin hydrophobic film with a thickness of 15-20 μm was formed on surface of the phosphatized steel after immersion in the solution of 5 g/L of the hydrophobic powder in ethanol for 5 min. The hydrophobic film exhibited excellent stability at a temperature below 135 °C. Water contact angle on the film is about 117-132° and it was until 30 h later when a corrosion spot occurred on the film covered on steel which revealed better water-repellent and corrosion resistant properties compared to that of the BH-102.

  11. Hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bonded network in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Je-Luen; Wingreen, Ned; Tang, Chao; Car, Roberto

    2004-03-01

    Hydrophobicity is the main driving force behind numerous important biological processes at molecular level, including protein folding and the formation of biological membranes. Yet few experimental probes can measure the local water structure around a hydrophobic solute, and our understanding of the detailed structure of hydrophobic hydration has to rely on molecular dynamics simulation. As a model system, several groups studied two methane molecules in liquid water and obtained the potential of mean force using Lennard-Jones potential and various water models. However, hydrophobic effect critically depends on the description of hydrogen-bonded network, and classical simulations may not be sufficient to descirbe the forming and breaking of hydrogen bonds. In this work, we apply ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study this model system. Besides the potential of mean force between 2 methanes in water, the role of the local water structure will be highlighted.

  12. MAGNETIC GRID

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1960-08-01

    An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

  13. Binding of cationic peptides (KX)4K to DPPG bilayers. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X drives formation of membrane bound β-sheets: A DSC and FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, André; Blume, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    The binding of cationic peptides of the sequence (KX)4K to lipid vesicles of negatively charged dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature dependent Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X was changed from G (glycine) over A (alanine), Abu (α-aminobutyric acid), V (valine) to L (leucine). The binding of the peptides caused an increase of the phase transition temperature (Tm) of DPPG by up to 20°C. The shift depended on the charge ratio and on the hydrophobicity of the amino acid X. Unexpectedly, the upward shift of Tm increased with increasing hydrophobicity of X. FT-IR spectroscopy showed a shift of the CH2 stretching vibrations of DPPG to lower frequency, particularly for bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase, indicating an ordering of the hydrocarbon chains when the peptides were bound. Changes in the lipid C=O vibrational band indicated a dehydration of the lipid headgroup region after peptide binding. (KG)4K was bound in an unordered structure at all temperatures. All other peptides formed intermolecular antiparallel β-sheets, when bound to gel phase DPPG. However, for (KA)4K and (KAbu)4K, the β-sheets converted into an unordered structure above Tm. In contrast, the β-sheet structures of (KV)4K and (KL)4K remained stable even at 80°C when bound to the liquid-crystalline phase of DPPG. Strong aggregation of DPPG vesicles occurred after peptide binding. For the aggregates, we suggest a structure, where aggregated single β-sheets are sandwiched between opposing DPPG bilayers with a dehydrated interfacial region. PMID:26903220

  14. The Grid

    SciTech Connect

    White, Vicky

    2003-05-21

    By now almost everyone has heard of 'The Grid', or 'Grid Computing' as it should more properly be described. There are frequent articles in both the popular and scientific press talking about 'The Grid' or about some specific Grid project. Run II Experiments, US-CMS, BTeV, the Sloane Digital Sky Survey and the Lattice QCD folks are all incorporating aspects of Grid Computing in their plans, and the Fermilab Computing Division is supporting and encouraging these efforts. Why are we doing this and what does it have to do with running a physics experiment or getting scientific results? I will explore some of these questions and try to give an overview, not so much of the technical aspects of Grid Computing, rather of what the phenomenon means for our field.

  15. Temperature dependence of amino acid hydrophobicities

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Richard; Lewis, Charles A.; Yuan, Yang; Carter, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrophobicities of the 20 common amino acids are reflected in their tendencies to appear in interior positions in globular proteins and in deeply buried positions of membrane proteins. To determine whether these relationships might also have been valid in the warm surroundings where life may have originated, we examined the effect of temperature on the hydrophobicities of the amino acids as measured by the equilibrium constants for transfer of their side-chains from neutral solution to cyclohexane (Kw>c). The hydrophobicities of most amino acids were found to increase with increasing temperature. Because that effect is more pronounced for the more polar amino acids, the numerical range of Kw>c values decreases with increasing temperature. There are also modest changes in the ordering of the more polar amino acids. However, those changes are such that they would have tended to minimize the otherwise disruptive effects of a changing thermal environment on the evolution of protein structure. Earlier, the genetic code was found to be organized in such a way that—with a single exception (threonine)—the side-chain dichotomy polar/nonpolar matches the nucleic acid base dichotomy purine/pyrimidine at the second position of each coding triplet at 25 °C. That dichotomy is preserved at 100 °C. The accessible surface areas of amino acid side-chains in folded proteins are moderately correlated with hydrophobicity, but when free energies of vapor-to-cyclohexane transfer (corresponding to size) are taken into consideration, a closer relationship becomes apparent. PMID:26034278

  16. Fibonacci Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

  17. Effect of Substrate and Cell Surface Hydrophobicity on Phosphate Utilization in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lemke, M. J.; Churchill, P. F.; Wetzel, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    We measured the rates of utilization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic phosphate compounds in gram-negative bacteria with different surface hydrophobicities, isolated from wetland habitats. Three hydrophobic and two hydrophilic bacterial species were selected for study by measuring cell adherence to hydrocarbons. The bacteria were grown under phosphorus-limited conditions with P(infi), hydrophilic (beta)-glycerophosphate, or hydrophobic phosphatidic acid as the phosphate source. Hydrophilic bacteria grew most rapidly on P(infi), followed by (beta)-glycerophosphate. Phosphatidic acid did not support growth or did so at a much later time (40 h) than did the other phosphate treatments. Although all hydrophobic species grew well on these substrates, the rate of growth of two Acinetobacter baumannii isolates on phosphatidic acid exceeded the rate of growth on phosphate or (beta)-glycerophosphate. A membrane phospholipid and lipopolysaccharide were used as a source of phosphorus by hydrophobic species, whereas hydrophilic species could not use the membrane phospholipids and used lipopolysaccharide to a lesser extent. Besides hydrophobic interaction between cells and substrate, phosphatase activity, which was cell bound in hydrophilic species but 30 to 50% unbound in hydrophobic species, affected cell growth. Dialyzed culture supernatant containing phosphatase from hydrophobic species increased the phosphate availability to hydrophilic species. Additionally, cellular extracts from a hydrophilic species, when added to hydrophilic cells, permitted growth on hydrophobic phosphate sources. Naturally occurring amphiphilic humic acids affected the utilization of P(infi) and (beta)-glycerophosphate in bacteria with hydrophilic surfaces but did not affect hydrophobic bacteria. Our results indicate that hydrophobic phosphate sources can be used by bacteria isolated from aquatic environments as the sole phosphorus source for growth. This utilization, in part, appears to be related to

  18. Air agglomeration of hydrophobic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The agglomeration of hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension was accomplished by introducing small amounts of air into the suspension while it was agitated vigorously. The extent of aggregation was proportional both to the air to solids ratio and to the hydrophobicity of the solids. For a given air/solids ratio, the extent of aggregation of different materials increased in the following order: graphite, gilsonite, coal coated with heptane, and Teflon. The structure of agglomerates produced from coarse Teflon particles differed noticeably from the structure of bubble-particle aggregates produced from smaller, less hydrophobic particles.

  19. Discrepant membrane fouling of partial nitrification and anammox membrane bioreactor operated at the same nitrogen loading rate.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhao; Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong; Miyoshi, Taro; Matsuyama, Hideo; Ni, Jinren

    2016-08-01

    In this study, two times more serious membrane fouling was found in anammox membrane bioreactor, compared to partial nitrification membrane bioreactor (PN-MBR) operated at the same nitrogen loading rate. By protein, polysaccharide, amino acids and functional groups analysis, it was found that the discrepancy in membrane fouling was virtually due to the difference in microbial products of nitrifiers and anammox bacteria. Protein and polysaccharide were main foulants on membrane surface; meanwhile theirs content and ratio in the EPS, supernatant and membrane surface were significantly different in PN-MBR and anammox-MBR. The anammox metabolism products contained much more hydrophobic organics, hydrophobic amino acids, and hydrophobic functional groups than nitrifiers. A mass of anammox bacteria as well as hydrophobic metabolism products deposited on the hydrophobic membrane surface and formed serious fouling. In further, hydrophilic modification is more urgently needed to mitigate membrane fouling when running anammox-MBR, than PN-MBR. PMID:27209455

  20. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  1. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  2. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  3. The true hydrophobicity of microsomal cytochrome P-450 in the rat: size dependence of the free energy of binding of a series of hydrocarbon substrates from the aqueous phase to the enzyme and to the membrane as derived from spectral binding data

    SciTech Connect

    Backes, W.L.; Hogaboom, M.; Canady, W.J.

    1982-04-25

    The associations of some hydrophobic substrates with cytochrome P-450 and with the microsomal membrane were studied. A series of aromatic hydrocarbons of increasing molecular size were used as a probe of the type I site of cytochrome P-450. The size dependence of the free energy (..delta..G/sup 0/) of binding was compared with the size dependence of transfer of the same compounds between the bulk solvent octanol and water. Similar size dependences were observed for the partition process (-0.68 kcal/mol/methylene group) and the binding of hydrocarbons to the type I binding site of cytochrome P-450 in both phenobarbital treated (-0.77 kcal/mol/methylene group) and untreated (-0.63 kcal/mol/methylene group) male rats. This is in contrast to earlier studies which did not take the dependence of the apparent binding constant upon enzyme concentration into account. Microsomal partitioning of the hydrocarbon substrates was quite different from the partitioning of those substrates between water and octanol. The size dependence of microsomal partitioning was found to be -0.27 kcal/mol/methylene group and -0.29 kcal/mol/methylene group in microsomes from untreated and phenobarbital-treated rats, respectively, indicating that the distribution of a substrate between water and a bulk organic solvent such as octanol is not a suitable model for an hepatic microsomal membrane, but that in certain ways it is an adequate model for enzyme-substrate complex formation. (JMT)

  4. Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  5. Hydrophobic peptide auxotrophy in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Brãnes, L V; Somers, J M; Kay, W W

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a pleiotropic membrane mutant of Salmonella typhimurium with modified lipopolysaccharide composition was found to be strictly dependent on the peptone component of complex media. Nutritional Shiftdown into minimal media allowed growth for three to four generations. Of 20 commercial peptones, only enzymatic digests supported growth to varying degrees. Neither trace cations, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, glutathione, polyamines, carbodimides, nor synthetic peptides stimulated growth; however, cells still metabolized carbohydrates, and amino acid transport systems were shown to be functional. A tryptic digest of casein was fractionated into four electrophoretically different peptide fractions of 1,000 to 1,200 molecular weight which supported growth to varying degrees. The best of these was further fractionated to two highly hydrophopic peptides. N-terminal modifications eliminated biological activity. Fluorescein-conjugated goat antibody to rabbit immunoglobulin G was used as a probe to detect antipeptide antibody-peptide complexes on membrane preparations. Cells grown on peptone distributed the peptide into both inner and outer membranes. The peptide could be removed with chaotropic agents, and cells had to be pregrown in peptone-containing media to bind the hydrophobic peptide. The gene (hyp) responsible for peptide auxotrophy was mapped at 44 to 45 units by conjugation. Images PMID:7024254

  6. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  7. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  8. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  9. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  10. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, James E.; Park, Ho Bum; Freeman, Benny D.

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  11. Lipid-Rhodopsin Hydrophobic Mismatch Alters Rhodopsin Helical Content

    SciTech Connect

    Soubias,O.; Niu, S.; Mitchell, D.; Gawrisch, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of photoactivated rhodopsin to achieve the enzymatically active metarhodopsin II conformation is exquisitely sensitive to bilayer hydrophobic thickness. The sensitivity of rhodopsin to the lipid matrix has been explained by the hydrophobic matching theory, which predicts that lipid bilayers adjust elastically to the hydrophobic length of transmembrane helices. Here, we examined if bilayer thickness adjusts to the length of the protein or if the protein alters its conformation to adapt to the bilayer. Purified bovine rhodopsin was reconstituted into a series of mono-unsaturated phosphatidylcholines with 14-20 carbons per hydrocarbon chain. Changes of hydrocarbon chain length were measured by 2H NMR, and protein helical content was quantified by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and conventional circular dichroism. Experiments were conducted on dark-adapted rhodopsin, the photo-intermediates metarhodopsin I/II/III, and opsin. Changes of bilayer thickness upon rhodopsin incorporation and photoactivation were mostly absent. In contrast, the helical content of rhodopsin increased with membrane hydrophobic thickness. Helical content did not change measurably upon photoactivation. The increases of bilayer thickness and helicity of rhodopsin are accompanied by higher metarhodopsin II/metarhodopsin I ratios, faster rates of metarhodopsin II formation, an increase of tryptophan fluorescence, and higher temperatures of rhodopsin denaturation. The data suggest a surprising adaptability of this G protein-coupled membrane receptor to properties of the lipid matrix.

  12. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  13. Water-Mediated Hydrophobic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-05-27

    Hydrophobic interactions are driven by the combined influence of the direct attraction between oily solutes and an additional water-mediated interaction whose magnitude (and sign) depends sensitively on both solute size and attraction. The resulting delicate balance can lead to a slightly repulsive water-mediated interaction that drives oily molecules apart rather than pushing them together and thus opposes their direct (van der Waals) attraction for each other. As a consequence, competing solute size-dependent crossovers weaken hydrophobic interactions sufficiently that they are only expected to significantly exceed random thermal energy fluctuations for processes that bury more than ∼1 nm(2) of water-exposed area. PMID:27215821

  14. Water-Mediated Hydrophobic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2016-05-01

    Hydrophobic interactions are driven by the combined influence of the direct attraction between oily solutes and an additional water-mediated interaction whose magnitude (and sign) depends sensitively on both solute size and attraction. The resulting delicate balance can lead to a slightly repulsive water-mediated interaction that drives oily molecules apart rather than pushing them together and thus opposes their direct (van der Waals) attraction for each other. As a consequence, competing solute size-dependent crossovers weaken hydrophobic interactions sufficiently that they are only expected to significantly exceed random thermal energy fluctuations for processes that bury more than ˜1 nm2 of water-exposed area.

  15. Graphene can wreak havoc with cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Dallavalle, Marco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Bottoni, Andrea; Melle-Franco, Manuel; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-02-25

    Molecular dynamics--coarse grained to the level of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions--shows that small hydrophobic graphene sheets pierce through the phospholipid membrane and navigate the double layer, intermediate size sheets pierce the membrane only if a suitable geometric orientation is met, and larger sheets lie mainly flat on the top of the bilayer where they wreak havoc with the membrane and create a patch of upturned phospholipids. The effect arises in order to maximize the interaction between hydrophobic moieties and is quantitatively explained in terms of flip-flops by the analysis of the simulations. Possible severe biological consequences are discussed. PMID:25648559

  16. Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrod, Oliver; Lankau, Timm

    2007-01-01

    A basic introduction to concept of a solvation shell around an apolar solute as well as its detection is presented. The hydrophobic solvation of toluene is found to be a good teaching example which connects macroscopic, phenomenological thermodynamic results with an atomistic point of view.

  17. Theoretical models regarding factors influencing switching regimes and the hydrological and erosional significance of hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Rory; Urbanek, Emilia; Ferreira, Carla; Shakesby, Richard; Bento, Celia; Ferreira, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The influence which soil hydrophobicity may have on hillslope hydrology and erosion in any location will depend on the proportion of storm events in which it is spatially contiguous. This in turn is dependent upon (a) the speed and three-dimensional pattern with which it disappears in wet weather and (b) the speed, three-dimensional pattern and degree of re-establishment of hydrophobicity in dry weather following hydrophilic or partially hydrophilic episodes. This paper draws upon results of laboratory and field investigations of changes through time in hydrophobicity, as well as recent advances in knowledge of switching mechanisms, to develop theory relating to hydrophobicity, its three-dimensional temporal dynamics and controls and its influence on overland flow and slopewash. Particular attention is given to modelling temporal change following fire. Use is made of key findings from (1) a field study of changes over a 4.2-year period January 2009 to March 2013 in hydrophobicity at two 10 m x 10 m grids (270 points, surface and 5 cm depth) on heather moorland in Central Portugal, where one grid was burned by an experimental fire in February 2009 and the other was an immediately adjacent unburned control; (2) a laboratory study of three-dimensional change in hydrophobicity with wetting (by an 8 mm simulated rainfall) and at different stages in an 80-hour drying phase of three different but initially equally hydrophobic soils, each of which comprising variants with and without artificial vertical routeways (simulated roots or linear cracks) and with or without drainage impedance at 2.5 cm depth. A series of theoretical models are presented addressing 1) factors and mechanisms influencing post-fire temporal change in hydrophobicity and (2) factors and mechanisms controlling the significance and temporal dynamics of hydrophobicity influence on overland flow and erosion (i) in unburned terrain and (ii) following fire. The field evidence from Portugal suggests a three

  18. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (i) Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica: Not less than 99.0 percent silicon dioxide after ignition... dichlorodimethylsilane. (ii) Precipated hydrophobic silica: Not less than 94.0 percent silicon dioxide after...

  19. Vapor transport through short hydrophobic nanopores for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Rahman, Faizur; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-11-01

    We propose a concept for desalination of water by reverse osmosis (RO) using a vapor-trapping membrane composed of short hydrophobic nanopores and separates the salt water (feed) and the fresh water (permeate) on each side. The feed water is vaporized by applied pressure and the water vapor condenses on the permeate side accompanied by recovery of latent heat. A probabilistic model based on rarified gas conditions predicted 3-5 times larger mass flux by the proposed membrane than conventional RO membranes at temperatures in the range of 30-50C. To realize the short hydrophobic nanopores, gold was deposited at the entrance of alumina pores followed by SAM formation. The fraction of leaking pores was confirmed to be less than 0.2% using a calcium ion indicator (Fluo-4). Finally, a microfluidic flow cell was fabricated for characterizing the transport properties of the membranes. The authors would like to thank the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, for funding the research reported in this paper through the Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy at MIT and KFUPM.

  20. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  1. Intrinsic Hydrophobicity of Rammed Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holub, M.; Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Grul, R.

    2015-11-01

    Rammed earth is well known for its vapour diffusion properties, its ability to regulate humidity within the built environment. Rammed earth is also an aesthetically iconic material such as marble or granite and therefore is preferably left exposed. However exposed rammed earth is often coated with silane/siloxane water repellents or the structure is modified architecturally (large roof overhangs) to accommodate for the hydrophilic nature of the material. This paper sets out to find out optimal hydrophobicity for rammed earth based on natural composite fibres and surface coating without adversely affecting the vapour diffusivity of the material. The material is not required to be waterproof, but should resist at least driving rain. In order to evaluate different approaches to increase hydrophobicity of rammed earth surface, peat fibres and four types of repellents were used.

  2. Dissecting hydrophobic hydration and association.

    PubMed

    Remsing, Richard C; Weeks, John D

    2013-12-12

    We use appropriately defined short-ranged reference models of liquid water to clarify the different roles local hydrogen bonding, van der Waals attractions, and long-ranged electrostatic interactions play in the solvation and association of apolar solutes in water. While local hydrogen bonding interactions dominate hydrophobic effects involving small solutes, longer-ranged electrostatic and dispersion interactions are found to be increasingly important in the description of interfacial structure around large solutes. The hydrogen bond network sets the solute length scale at which a crossover in solvation behavior between these small and large length scale regimes is observed. Unbalanced long-ranged forces acting on interfacial water molecules are also important in hydrophobic association, illustrated here by analysis of the association of model methane and buckminsterfullerene solutes. PMID:23944226

  3. Hydrophobicity of curved microstructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, A. H.; King, W. P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents measurements and models for how the macroscopic curvature of microstructured polymers affects hydrophobicity. Flexible polymer substrates were fabricated with arrays of regular microstructures. The interaction of liquid drops with these surfaces was analyzed for flat substrates and substrates flexed into either positive or negative cylindrical shapes. Liquid droplet static contact angle and dynamic slide angle were measured for a range of surfaces. An increase in substrate curvature corresponded with decreased slide angle for liquid droplets suspended on the surface asperities. This phenomenon is investigated in terms of solid-liquid contact line and the periodicity of surface microstructures. We present a model that can be used to understand the observed phenomena and to design microstructure geometries for hydrophobicity.

  4. Composite Membrane with Underwater-Oleophobic Surface for Anti-Oil-Fouling Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhangxin; Hou, Deyin; Lin, Shihong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we fabricated a composite membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a commercial hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with a nanocomposite coating comprising silica nanoparticles, chitosan hydrogel and fluoro-polymer. The composite membrane exhibits asymmetric wettability, with the modified surface being in-air hydrophilic and underwater oleophobic, and the unmodified surface remaining hydrophobic. By comparing the performance of the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in direct contact MD experiments using a saline emulsion with 1000 ppm crude oil (in water), we showed that the fabricated composite membrane was significantly more resistant to oil fouling compared to the pristine hydrophobic PVDF membrane. Force spectroscopy was conducted for the interaction between an oil droplet and the membrane surface using a force tensiometer. The difference between the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in their interaction with an oil droplet served to explain the difference in the fouling propensities between these two membranes observed in MD experiments. The results from this study suggest that underwater oleophobic coating can effectively mitigate oil fouling in MD operations, and that the fabricated composite membrane with asymmetric wettability can enable MD to desalinate hypersaline wastewater with high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants. PMID:26958985

  5. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOEpatents

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  6. Polydiacetylene Liposomal Aequorin Bioluminescent Device for Detection of Hydrophobic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ryoko; Takegami, Shigehiko; Konishi, Atsuko; Horikawa, Hikari; Yonezawa, Sayumi; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a polydiacetylene liposomal aequorin bioluminescent device (PLABD) that functioned through control of the membrane transport of Ca(2+) ions was developed for detecting hydrophobic compounds. In the PLABD, aequorin was encapsulated in an internal water phase and a calcium ionophore (CI) was contained in a hydrophobic region. Membrane transport of Ca(2+) ions across the CI was suppressed by polymerization between diacetylene molecules. On addition of an analyte, the membrane transport of Ca(2+) ions across the CI increased, and Ca(2+) ions from the external water phase could diffuse into the internal water phase via the CI, which resulted in bioluminescence of the aequorin. Lidocaine, procaine, and procainamide were used as model compounds to test the validity of the detection mechanism of the PLABD. When each analyte was added to a suspension of the PLABD, bioluminescence from the aequorin in the PLABD was observed, and the level of this bioluminescence increased with increasing analyte concentration. There was a linear relationship between the logarithm of the analyte concentration and the bioluminescence for all analytes as follows: R = 0.89 from 10 nmol L(-1) to 10 mmol L(-1) for lidocaine, R = 0.66 from 10 nmol L(-1) to 100 μmol L(-1) for procaine, and R = 0.74 from 100 nmol L(-1) to 100 μmol L(-1) for procainamide. Compared to the traditional colorimetric method using polydiacetylene liposome, the PLABD was superior for both the sensitivity and dynamic range. Thus, PLABD is a valid, simple, and sensitive signal generator for detection of hydrophobic compounds that interact with PLABD membranes. PMID:27146598

  7. Hydrophobic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophobic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates a hydrophobic substance with a core substance, such as dye, corrosion indicator, corrosion inhibitor, and/or healing agent, dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophobic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophobic-phase droplets, e.g., containing the core substance and shell-forming compound, dispersed in a hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  8. Improved detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods by a membrane filter method.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Malik, N

    1979-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on filtration of homogenates through membrane filters, and particularly hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (HGMF), offer definite improvements in the enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms in foods. Whereas the counted specimen in pour plates may not usually be greater than 0.1 g, up to 1.0 g of ground beef, green beans, potato, cod, strawberries, or grapes could be filtered and counted on HGMF. Greatly improved limit of detection, reduced interference by noncoliforms, and complete removal of growth inhibitors such as polyphenols were demonstrated for HGMF, using violet red bile and mFC agars. In addition, counting on HGMF eliminated a false-positive reaction caused by sucrose in ice cream. Images PMID:394679

  9. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approaches continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.

  10. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approachesmore » continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.« less

  11. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  12. The Hydrophobic Effect Contributes to the Closed State of a Simplified Ion Channel through a Conserved Hydrophobic Patch at the Pore-Helix Crossing

    PubMed Central

    Yonkunas, Michael; Kurnikova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ion selectivity-filter structures are strikingly similar throughout the large family of K++ channels and other p-loop-like receptors (i.e., glutamate receptors). At the same time, the triggers for opening these channels, or gating, are diverse. Two questions that remain unanswered regarding these channels are: (1) what force(s) stabilize the closed non-conducting channel-pore conformation? And (2) what is the free energy associated with transitioning from a closed (non-conducting) to an open (conducting) channel-pore conformation? The effects of charge and hydrophobicity on the conformational states of a model tetrameric biological ion channel are shown utilizing the amino acid sequence from the K+ channel KcsA as the model “channel”. Its widely conserved hydrophobic bundle crossing located adjacent to the lipid head-groups at the intracellular side of the membrane was calculated to have a 5 kcal/mol free energy difference between modeled open and closed conformations. Simulated mutants of amino acids within the hydrophobic region significantly contribute to the size of this difference. Specifically for KcsA, these residues are part of the pH sensor important for channel gating and our results are in agreement with published electrophysiology data. Our simulations support the idea that the hydrophobic effect contributes significantly to the stability of the closed conformation in tetrameric ion channels with a hydrophobic bundle crossing positioned in proximity to the lipid head groups of the biological membrane. PMID:26640439

  13. Novel African Trypanocidal Agents: Membrane Rigidifying Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, John M.; Scelsi, Chris; Hartel, Andreas; Jones, Nicola G.; Engstler, Markus; Capewell, Paul; MacLeod, Annette; Hajduk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The bloodstream developmental forms of pathogenic African trypanosomes are uniquely susceptible to killing by small hydrophobic peptides. Trypanocidal activity is conferred by peptide hydrophobicity and charge distribution and results from increased rigidity of the plasma membrane. Structural analysis of lipid-associated peptide suggests a mechanism of phospholipid clamping in which an internal hydrophobic bulge anchors the peptide in the membrane and positively charged moieties at the termini coordinate phosphates of the polar lipid headgroups. This mechanism reveals a necessary phenotype in bloodstream form African trypanosomes, high membrane fluidity, and we suggest that targeting the plasma membrane lipid bilayer as a whole may be a novel strategy for the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Additionally, the peptides we have described may be valuable tools for probing the biosynthetic machinery responsible for the unique composition and characteristics of African trypanosome plasma membranes. PMID:22970207

  14. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  15. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2004-10-19

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  16. Micelle Structure and Hydrophobic Hydration.

    PubMed

    Long, Joshua A; Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2015-08-26

    Despite the ubiquity and utility of micelles self-assembled from aqueous surfactants, longstanding questions remain regarding their surface structure and interior hydration. Here we combine Raman spectroscopy with multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR) to probe the hydrophobic hydration of surfactants with various aliphatic chain lengths, and either anionic (carboxylate) or cationic (trimethylammonium) head groups, both below and above the critical micelle concentration. Our results reveal significant penetration of water into micelle interiors, well beyond the first few carbons adjacent to the headgroup. Moreover, the vibrational C-D frequency shifts of solubilized deuterated n-hexane confirm that it resides in a dry, oil-like environment (while the localization of solubilized benzene is sensitive to headgroup charge). Our findings imply that the hydrophobic core of a micelle is surrounded by a highly corrugated surface containing hydrated non-polar cavities whose depth increases with increasing surfactant chain length, thus bearing a greater resemblance to soluble proteins than previously recognized. PMID:26222042

  17. Relationship between hydrophobicity parameters and the strength and selectivity of phytotoxicity of sulfosuccinic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Oros, G; Cserháti, T; Forgács, E; Vrbanová, A

    1999-09-01

    The strength and selectivity of the phytotoxicity of 11 sulfosuccinic acid ester surfactants were determined on the leaves of Tradescantia bicolor, and the data were evaluated by multivariate mathematical-statistical methods. Spectral mapping technique combined with stepwise regression analysis indicated that both the strength and the selectivity of the effect depend significantly on the specific hydrophobic surface area of the anionic surfactants determined in the presence of ions. The significant relationship between this hydrophobicity parameter and phytotoxic activity suggests the involvement of apolar (hydrophobic) forces in the plant-surfactant interaction. It was assumed that the apolar alkyl chains of the surfactants may insert in the hydrophobic part of the phospholipid bilayers causing membrane disorder and malfunction. PMID:10703744

  18. Behavior of aqueous solutions in hydrophobic confinement studied using molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit

    Biological processes, such as formation of cell membranes, vesicles and folding of protein molecules, entail formation of a predominantly hydrophobic interior devoid of water. These processes occur in crowded aqueous environments comprising of amino acids, carbohydrates, ionic species, protein molecules, etc. Kinetics of these processes involve drying of hydrophobic pockets. Previous studies reveal that the kinetics of evaporation of water in hydrophobic confinement significantly slow down as the confinement gap increases. Presumably, the constituents of aqueous environment in biological systems modulate the kinetics of evaporation of confined water. In this work, we employ forward flux sampling in molecular dynamics simulations to study the role of solutes at different concentrations in modulating the kinetics and mechanism of evaporation of water under hydrophobic confinement. The results of these simulations will be useful for understanding optimum conditions for protein folding and other biological self-assembly processes.

  19. Stability of proteins inside a hydrophobic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that enclosing a protein in an athermal cavity stabilizes the protein against reversible unfolding by virtue of eliminating many open chain conformations. Examples of such confined spaces include pores in chromatographic columns, Anfinsen's cage in Chaperonins, interiors of Ribosomes or regions of steric occlusion inside cells. However, the situation is more complex inside a hydrophobic cavity. The protein has a tendency to adsorb on the surface of the hydrophobic cavity, but at the same time it loses conformational entropy because of confinement. We study this system using a simple Hydrophobic Polar (HP) lattice protein model. Canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at different temperatures and surface hydrophobicity show that proteins are stabilized at low and moderate hydrophobicity upon adsorption. The range of surface hydrophobicity over which a protein is stable increases with a decrease in radius of the cavity.

  20. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces. PMID:26753786

  1. Nurbs and grid generation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.; Farin, G.; Hamann, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a basic overview of NURBS and their application to numerical grid generation. Curve/surface smoothing, accelerated grid generation, and the use of NURBS in a practical grid generation system are discussed.

  2. Importance of hydrophobic traps for proton diffusion in lyotropic liquid crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McDaniel, Jesse G.; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-03-04

    The diffusion of protons in self-assembled systems is potentially important for the design of efficient proton exchange membranes. In this work, we study proton dynamics in a low-water content, lamellar phase of an sodium-carboxylate gemini surfactant/water system using computer simulations. The hopping of protons via the Grotthuss mechanism is explicity allowed through the multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method. We find that the hydronium ion is trapped on the hydrophobic side of the surfactant-water interface, and proton diffusion then proceeds by hopping between surface sites. The importance of hydrophobic traps is surprising, because one would expect the hydronium ions tomore » be trapped at the charged head-groups. Finally, the physics illustrated in this system should be relevant to the proton dynamics in other amphiphilic membrane systems, whenever there exists exposed hydrophobic surface regions.« less

  3. Importance of hydrophobic traps for proton diffusion in lyotropic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jesse G; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-03-01

    The diffusion of protons in self-assembled systems is potentially important for the design of efficient proton exchange membranes. In this work, we study proton dynamics in a low-water content, lamellar phase of a sodium-carboxylate gemini surfactant/water system using computer simulations. The hopping of protons via the Grotthuss mechanism is explicitly allowed through the multi-state empirical valence bond method. We find that the hydronium ion is trapped on the hydrophobic side of the surfactant-water interface, and proton diffusion then proceeds by hopping between surface sites. The importance of hydrophobic traps is surprising because one would expect the hydronium ions to be trapped at the charged headgroups. The physics illustrated in this system should be relevant to the proton dynamics in other amphiphilic membrane systems, whenever there exist exposed hydrophobic surface regions. PMID:26957174

  4. Importance of hydrophobic traps for proton diffusion in lyotropic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Jesse G.; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-03-01

    The diffusion of protons in self-assembled systems is potentially important for the design of efficient proton exchange membranes. In this work, we study proton dynamics in a low-water content, lamellar phase of a sodium-carboxylate gemini surfactant/water system using computer simulations. The hopping of protons via the Grotthuss mechanism is explicitly allowed through the multi-state empirical valence bond method. We find that the hydronium ion is trapped on the hydrophobic side of the surfactant-water interface, and proton diffusion then proceeds by hopping between surface sites. The importance of hydrophobic traps is surprising because one would expect the hydronium ions to be trapped at the charged headgroups. The physics illustrated in this system should be relevant to the proton dynamics in other amphiphilic membrane systems, whenever there exist exposed hydrophobic surface regions.

  5. Site-directed analysis on protein hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2014-07-01

    Hydrophobicity of a protein is considered to be one of the major intrinsic factors dictating the protein aggregation propensity. Understanding how protein hydrophobicity is determined is, therefore, of central importance in preventing protein aggregation diseases and in the biotechnological production of human therapeutics. Traditionally, protein hydrophobicity is estimated based on hydrophobicity scales determined for individual free amino acids, assuming that those scales are unaltered when amino acids are embedded in a protein. Here, we investigate how the hydrophobicity of constituent amino acid residues depends on the protein context. To this end, we analyze the hydration free energy-free energy change on hydration quantifying the hydrophobicity-of the wild-type and 21 mutants of amyloid-beta protein associated with Alzheimer's disease by performing molecular dynamics simulations and integral-equation calculations. From detailed analysis of mutation effects on the protein hydrophobicity, we elucidate how the protein global factor such as the total charge as well as underlying protein conformations influence the hydrophobicity of amino acid residues. Our results provide a unique insight into the protein hydrophobicity for rationalizing and predicting the protein aggregation propensity on mutation, and open a new avenue to design aggregation-resistant proteins as biotherapeutics. PMID:24817476

  6. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-04-23

    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.

  7. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  8. Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size among the different viruses. Hu...

  9. Enhancement of hydrophobic chromophore fluorescence by adsorption to nanospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Elizabeth; Carr, Aaron; Krishnan, Rajagopal; Nordlund, Thomas M.

    2003-11-01

    Optical properties of hydrophobic molecules are usually studied in solvents of low dielectric constant. However, biologically or medically important molecules often exist in a mixed hydrophobic/ aqueous environment, e.g., in emulsions or membranes. In order to study optical processes occurring in oily sunscreen agents, octyl salicylate and octyl methoxycinnamate, in a model aqueous/hydrophobic environment, we dispersed the agents in suspensions of polystyrene nanospheres, ranging in diameter from 30 to 1500 nm. The spheres had sulfate functional groups and a low negative charge on the surface. Adsorption of salicylate resulted in a fluorescence intensity enhancement of 6 +/- 0.5 compared to a solution in methanol. The enhancement was independent of sphere diameter. Cinnamate had a much lower enhancement, about 1.5. The enhancement correlates with fluorescence yield vs. dielectric constant in organic solvents: the adsorbed chromophore acts as if it were surrounded by a material of dielectric constant less than 2, in spite of the presence of neighboring water molecules.

  10. Polydopamine meets porous membrane: A versatile platform for facile preparation of membrane adsorbers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-05-27

    Polydopamine, as an intermediate layer coated on PES membrane, was applied to fabricate various membrane adsorbers. Anion-exchange, hydrophobic interaction and affinity membrane adsorbers prepared by this facile method exhibited a high selectivity in fractionation of IgG (immunoglobulin)/HSA (human serum albumin) mixture. The anion-exchange membrane adsorber containing polyethylenimine (PEI) improved the HSA purity from 17.7% to 96.7%; The hydrophobic interaction membrane adsorber with Dodecyl mercaptan (DDM) as ligand obtained an IgG purity of 94.6%; Histidine attached affinity membrane chromatography achieved nearly a 100% purity of IgG. The present work indicated that the polydopamine layer not only activated membrane surface to attach various adsorptive ligands under the mild condition, but also reduced non-specific adsorption. Due to the versatile conjunction function, this facile mussel-inspired coating is also promising for the preparation of diverse membrane adsorbers. PMID:27131962

  11. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  12. Exploring Hydrophobic Binding Surfaces Using Comfa and Flexible Hydrophobic Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Sanchez, Rosa. I.; Bhuveneswaran, Chidambaram; Compadre, Cesar M.

    2011-06-01

    Cysteine proteinases are a very important group of enzymes involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including cancer metastasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In this investigation we used 3D-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (3D-QSAR) techniques to model the binding of a variety of substrates to two cysteine proteinases, papain, and cathepsin B. The analysis was performed using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). The molecules were constructed using standard bond angles and lengths, minimized and aligned. Charges were calculated using the PM3 method in MOPAC. The CoMFA models derived for the binding of the studied substrates to the two proteinases were compared with the expected results from the experimental X-ray crystal structures of the same proteinases. The results showed the value of CoMFA modeling of flexible hydrophobic ligands to analyze ligand binding to protein receptors, and could also serve as the basis to design specific inhibitors of cysteine proteinases with potential therapeutic value.

  13. Membrane Bending by Protein Crowding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne

    2014-03-01

    From endosomes and synaptic vesicles to the cristae of the mitochondria and the annulus of the nuclear pore, highly curved membranes are fundamental to the structure and physiology of living cells. The established view is that specific families of proteins are able to bend membranes by binding to them. For example, inherently curved proteins are thought to impose their structure on the membrane surface, while membrane-binding proteins with hydrophobic motifs are thought to insert into the membrane like wedges, driving curvature. However, computational models have recently revealed that these mechanisms would require specialized membrane-bending proteins to occupy nearly 100% of a curved membrane surface, an improbable physiological situation given the immense density and diversity of membrane-bound proteins, and the low expression levels of these specialized proteins within curved regions of the membrane. How then does curvature arise within the complex and crowded environment of cellular membranes? Our recent work using proteins involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as engineered protein-lipid interactions, has suggested a new hypothesis - that lateral pressure generated by collisions between membrane-bound proteins can drive membrane bending. Specifically, by correlating membrane bending with quantitative optical measurements of protein density on synthetic membrane surfaces and simple physical models of collisions among membrane-bound proteins, we have demonstrated that protein-protein steric interactions can drive membrane curvature. These findings suggest that a simple imbalance in the concentration of membrane-bound proteins across a membrane surface can drive a membrane to bend, providing an efficient mechanism by which essentially any protein can contribute to shaping membranes.

  14. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  15. Dynamics of Wetting of Ultra Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Karim, Alireza; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Controlling the surface wettability of hydrophobic and super hydrophobic surfaces has extensive industrial applications ranging from coating, painting and printing technology and waterproof clothing to efficiency increase in power and water plants. This requires enhancing the knowledge about the dynamics of wetting on these hydrophobic surfaces. We have done experimental investigation on the dynamics of wetting on hydrophobic surfaces by looking deeply in to the dependency of the dynamic contact angles both advancing and receding on the velocity of the three-phase boundary (Solid/Liquid/Gas interface) using the Wilhelmy plate method with different ultra-hydrophobic surfaces. Several fluids with different surface tension and viscosity are used to study the effect of physical properties of liquids on the governing laws.

  16. Spatial services grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Li, Qi; Cheng, Jicheng

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the concept, key technologies and main application of Spatial Services Grid. The technologies of Grid computing and Webservice is playing a revolutionary role in studying the spatial information services. The concept of the SSG (Spatial Services Grid) is put forward based on the SIG (Spatial Information Grid) and OGSA (open grid service architecture). Firstly, the grid computing is reviewed and the key technologies of SIG and their main applications are reviewed. Secondly, the grid computing and three kinds of SIG (in broad sense)--SDG (spatial data grid), SIG (spatial information grid) and SSG (spatial services grid) and their relationships are proposed. Thirdly, the key technologies of the SSG (spatial services grid) is put forward. Finally, three representative applications of SSG (spatial services grid) are discussed. The first application is urban location based services gird, which is a typical spatial services grid and can be constructed on OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture) and digital city platform. The second application is region sustainable development grid which is the key to the urban development. The third application is Region disaster and emergency management services grid.

  17. Sensitivity of prestin-based membrane motor to membrane thickness.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Izumi, Chisako; Iwasa, Kuni H

    2010-06-16

    Prestin is the membrane protein in outer hair cells that harnesses electrical energy by changing its membrane area in response to changes in the membrane potential. To examine the effect of membrane thickness on this protein, phosphatidylcholine (PC) with various acyl-chain lengths were incorporated into the plasma membrane by using gamma-cyclodextrin. Incorporation of short chain PCs increased the linear capacitance and positively shifted the voltage dependence of prestin, up to 120 mV, in cultured cells. PCs with long acyl chains had the opposite effects. Because the linear capacitance is inversely related to the membrane thickness, these voltage shifts are attributable to membrane thickness. The corresponding voltage shifts of electromotility were observed in outer hair cells. These results demonstrate that electromotility is extremely sensitive to the thickness of the plasma membrane, presumably involving hydrophobic mismatch. These observations indicate that the extended state of the motor molecule, which is associated with the elongation of outer hair cells, has a conformation with a shorter hydrophobic height in the lipid bilayer. PMID:20550895

  18. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue-penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste) and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste-disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  19. Quantification of hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, G.; Nasholm, N.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    Colloids play an important role in a wide variety of disciplines, including water and wastewater treatment, subsurface transport of metals and organic contaminants, migration of fines in oil reservoirs, biocolloid (virus and bacteria) transport in subsurface, and are integral to laboratory transport studies. Although the role of hydrophobicity in adhesion and transport of colloids, particularly bacteria, is well known; there is scarcity of literature regarding hydrophobicity measurement of non-bacterial colloids and other micron-sized particles. Here we detail an experimental approach based on differential partitioning of colloids between two liquid phases (hydrocarbon and buffer) as a measure of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids. This assay, known as Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons or MATH, is frequently used in microbiology and bacteriology for quantifying the hydrophobicity of microbes. Monodispersed colloids and particles, with sizes ranging from 1 micron to 33 micron, were used for the experiments. A range of hydrophobicity values were observed for different particles. The hydrophobicity results are also verified against water contact angle measurements of these particles. This liquid-liquid partitioning assay is quick, easy-to-perform and requires minimal instrumentation. Estimation of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids would lead to a better understanding of their adhesion to different surfaces and subsequent transport in porous media.

  20. Hybrid Grid Generation Using NW Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Oliveira, Joseph S.; Trease, Lynn L.; Trease, Harold E.; B.K. Soni, J. Hauser, J.F. Thompson, P.R. Eiseman

    2000-09-01

    We describe the development and use of a hybrid n-dimensional grid generation system called NWGRID. The Applied Mathematics Group at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing this tool to support the Laboratory's computational science efforts in chemistry, biology, engineering and environmental (subsurface and atmospheric) modeling. NWGRID is the grid generation system, which is designed for multi-scale, multi-material, multi-physics, time-dependent, 3-D, hybrid grids that are either statically adapted or evolved in time. NWGRID'S capabilities include static and dynamic grids, hybrid grids, managing colliding surfaces, and grid optimization[using reconnections, smoothing, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithms]. NWGRID'S data structure can manage an arbitrary number of grid objects, each with an arbitrary number of grid attributes. NWGRID uses surface geometry to build volumes by using combinations of Boolean operators and order relations. Point distributions can be input, generated using either ray shooting techniques or defined point-by-point. Connectivity matrices are then generated automatically for all variations of hybrid grids.

  1. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyer, Matthew B.; Gibb, Bruce C.

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state of the art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the hydrophobic effect. To highlight this, we present a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities such as idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins.

  2. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2007-05-01

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  3. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Matthew B; Gibb, Bruce C

    2016-05-27

    This review focuses on papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state of the art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the hydrophobic effect. To highlight this, we present a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities such as idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins. PMID:27215816

  4. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  5. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  6. The Combined Effect of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Bilayer Local Bending on the Regulation of Mechanosensitive Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Bavi, Omid; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Naghdabadi, Reza; Jamali, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic mismatch between the lipid bilayer and integral membrane proteins has well-defined effect on mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Also, membrane local bending is suggested to modulate MS channel activity. Although a number of studies have already shown the significance of each individual factor, the combined effect of these physical factors on MS channel activity have not been investigated. Here using finite element simulation, we study the combined effect of hydrophobic mismatch and local bending on the archetypal mechanosensitive channel MscL. First we show how the local curvature direction impacts on MS channel modulation. In the case of MscL, we show inward (cytoplasmic) bending can more effectively gate the channel compared to outward bending. Then we indicate that in response to a specific local curvature, MscL inserted in a bilayer with the same hydrophobic length is more expanded in the constriction pore region compared to when there is a protein-lipid hydrophobic mismatch. Interestingly in the presence of a negative mismatch (thicker lipids), MscL constriction pore is more expanded than in the presence of positive mismatch (thinner lipids) in response to an identical membrane curvature. These results were confirmed by a parametric energetic calculation provided for MscL gating. These findings have several biophysical consequences for understanding the function of MS channels in response to two major physical stimuli in mechanobiology, namely hydrophobic mismatch and local membrane curvature. PMID:26958847

  7. The Combined Effect of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Bilayer Local Bending on the Regulation of Mechanosensitive Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Bavi, Omid; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Naghdabadi, Reza; Jamali, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic mismatch between the lipid bilayer and integral membrane proteins has well-defined effect on mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Also, membrane local bending is suggested to modulate MS channel activity. Although a number of studies have already shown the significance of each individual factor, the combined effect of these physical factors on MS channel activity have not been investigated. Here using finite element simulation, we study the combined effect of hydrophobic mismatch and local bending on the archetypal mechanosensitive channel MscL. First we show how the local curvature direction impacts on MS channel modulation. In the case of MscL, we show inward (cytoplasmic) bending can more effectively gate the channel compared to outward bending. Then we indicate that in response to a specific local curvature, MscL inserted in a bilayer with the same hydrophobic length is more expanded in the constriction pore region compared to when there is a protein-lipid hydrophobic mismatch. Interestingly in the presence of a negative mismatch (thicker lipids), MscL constriction pore is more expanded than in the presence of positive mismatch (thinner lipids) in response to an identical membrane curvature. These results were confirmed by a parametric energetic calculation provided for MscL gating. These findings have several biophysical consequences for understanding the function of MS channels in response to two major physical stimuli in mechanobiology, namely hydrophobic mismatch and local membrane curvature. PMID:26958847

  8. Terminal residue hydrophobicity modulates transmembrane helix-helix interactions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Derek P; Deber, Charles M

    2014-06-17

    Central to the formation of tertiary structure in membrane protein folding is the presence of amino acid sequence motifs (such as "small-XXX-small" segments) in the TM segments that promote interaction-compatible surfaces through which the TM α-helices interact. Here, we sought to elucidate additional factors that may work in tandem to dictate the ultimate interaction fate of TM-embedded segments. In this context, we used proteolipid protein (PLP), the major protein from central nervous system myelin for which mutant-dependent non-native oligomerization has been implicated in neurological disorders, to explore the specific effects of TM boundary residues (the membrane entry and exit points), keying on the secondary structure and self-association of peptides corresponding to the PLP TM2 α-helix (wild-type sequence ⁶⁶AFQYVIYGTASFFFLYGALLLAEGF⁹⁰). Using gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and Förster resonance energy transfer in the membrane-mimetic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), we found that mutation of F90 to residues such as A, I, L, or V maintains the onset of TM2-TM2 dimerization, whereas mutation to E, G, Q, N, S, or T abrogates dimer formation. We attribute this sensitivity to changes in local hydrophobicity, viz., a decrease in hydrophobicity reduces local lipid-peptide interactions, which in turn disrupts peptide α-helicity and hence the effectiveness of an incipient interaction-compatible surface. Our results show that the secondary structure and oligomeric state of PLP TM2 Lys-tagged peptides are significantly modulated by the specific nature of their C-terminal boundary residue, thus providing insight as to how point mutations, particularly where they produce disease states, can compromise the folding process. PMID:24857611

  9. A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

  10. Hydrophobic character of pretreated coal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, R.; Ye, Y.; Miller, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Increased hydrophobicity and hence the flotability of coals of different rank has been observed for CO/sub 2/ pretreatment and/or controlled thermal pretreatment. DRIFT- and ATR-FTIR and XPS techniques have been used to determine the surface chemical characteristics in order to evaluate coal hydrophobicity. These results agree very well with those determined by traditional methods. The enhanced hydrophobicity of CO/sub 2/-treated coal is attributed to the high specific affinity of coal for CO/sub 2/ which results in the displacement of pore water and hydration water by CO/sub 2/ and on pressure release leads to nanobubble formation at the coal surface in aqueous suspension. Increased hydrophobicity of lignite by thermal treatment arises from the removal of pore water, hydration water and some organic OH functional groups as well as the diffusion of volatile matter to the surface and the reorientation of surface functional groups.

  11. SORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC POLLUTANTS ON NATURAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of hydrophobic compounds (aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons) spanning a concentration range in water solubility from 500 parts per trillion (ppt) to 1800 parts per million (ppm) on local (North Georgia) pond and river sediments was investigated. The ...

  12. Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic superparamagnetic gel.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Kaminski, M. D.; Guan, Y.; Chen, H.; Liu, H.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago; Pritzker School of Medicine; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the preparation and analysis of a highly concentrated hydrophobic oleic acid-coated magnetite gel. By contrast to conventional techniques to prepare magnetic fluids, herein the oleic acid was introduced as a reactant during the initial crystallization phase of magnetite that was obtained by the co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts by addition of ammonium hydroxide. The resulting gelatinous hydrophobic magnetite was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic properties, crystal structure, and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. This magnetic gel exhibited superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization of 46.0 emu/g at room temperature and could be well dispersed both in polar and nonpolar carrier liquids. This protocol produced highly concentrated hydrophobic magnetic gel for biopolymer encapsulations.

  13. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Mahler, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum , we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion. Supported by NSF CBET Award 1067598.

  14. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Foltz, Benjamin; Mahler, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum, we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion.

  15. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  16. Enhanced Permeation of a Hydrophobic Fluid through Particles with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Patterned Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renliang; Xu, Yousheng; Wen, Binghai; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    The wetting properties of solid surfaces are significant in oil/gas and liquid displacement processes. It is difficult for hydrophobic fluids to permeate channels filled with hydrophilic particles and an aqueous phase, and this is thought to be the primary cause of low yields in low permeability reservoir operations. Using three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations, we show that particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterned surfaces can greatly improve hydrophobic fluid permeation. Specifically, a hydrophobic fluid can easily access micro-channels in the hydrophobic regions, which extend rapidly even to the hydrophilic regions and accelerate hydrophobic fluid escape. This work enriches understanding of multiphase flow in porous media at the pore scale and fracture conductivity and is expected to have great significance in the exploitation of low permeability reservoirs and shale gas. PMID:25033709

  17. Enhanced permeation of a hydrophobic fluid through particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renliang; Xu, Yousheng; Wen, Binghai; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    The wetting properties of solid surfaces are significant in oil/gas and liquid displacement processes. It is difficult for hydrophobic fluids to permeate channels filled with hydrophilic particles and an aqueous phase, and this is thought to be the primary cause of low yields in low permeability reservoir operations. Using three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations, we show that particles with hydrophobic and hydrophilic patterned surfaces can greatly improve hydrophobic fluid permeation. Specifically, a hydrophobic fluid can easily access micro-channels in the hydrophobic regions, which extend rapidly even to the hydrophilic regions and accelerate hydrophobic fluid escape. This work enriches understanding of multiphase flow in porous media at the pore scale and fracture conductivity and is expected to have great significance in the exploitation of low permeability reservoirs and shale gas. PMID:25033709

  18. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  19. Tracking Membrane Protein Association in Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Reffay, Myriam; Gambin, Yann; Benabdelhak, Houssain; Phan, Gilles; Taulier, Nicolas; Ducruix, Arnaud; Hodges, Robert S.; Urbach, Wladimir

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins are essential in the exchange processes of cells. In spite of great breakthrough in soluble proteins studies, membrane proteins structures, functions and interactions are still a challenge because of the difficulties related to their hydrophobic properties. Most of the experiments are performed with detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. However widely used micellar systems are far from the biological two-dimensions membrane. The development of new biomimetic membrane systems is fundamental to tackle this issue. We present an original approach that combines the Fluorescence Recovery After fringe Pattern Photobleaching technique and the use of a versatile sponge phase that makes it possible to extract crucial informations about interactions between membrane proteins embedded in the bilayers of a sponge phase. The clear advantage lies in the ability to adjust at will the spacing between two adjacent bilayers. When the membranes are far apart, the only possible interactions occur laterally between proteins embedded within the same bilayer, whereas when membranes get closer to each other, interactions between proteins embedded in facing membranes may occur as well. After validating our approach on the streptavidin-biotinylated peptide complex, we study the interactions between two membrane proteins, MexA and OprM, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa efflux pump. The mode of interaction, the size of the protein complex and its potential stoichiometry are determined. In particular, we demonstrate that: MexA is effectively embedded in the bilayer; MexA and OprM do not interact laterally but can form a complex if they are embedded in opposite bilayers; the population of bound proteins is at its maximum for bilayers separated by a distance of about 200 Å, which is the periplasmic thickness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also show that the MexA-OprM association is enhanced when the position and orientation of the protein is restricted by the bilayers. We

  20. Membrane interaction of retroviral Gag proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Robert A.; Vogt, Volker M.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of an infectious retroviral particle relies on multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. The three domains of Gag common to all retroviruses – MA, CA, and NC – provide the signals for membrane binding, assembly, and viral RNA packaging, respectively. These signals do not function independently of one another. For example, Gag multimerization enhances membrane binding and is more efficient when NC is interacting with RNA. MA binding to the plasma membrane is governed by several principles, including electrostatics, recognition of specific lipid head groups, hydrophobic interactions, and membrane order. HIV-1 uses many of these principles while Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) appears to use fewer. This review describes the principles that govern Gag interactions with membranes, focusing on RSV and HIV-1 Gag. The review also defines lipid and membrane behavior, and discusses the complexities in determining how lipid and membrane behavior impact Gag membrane binding. PMID:24808894

  1. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:27486044

  2. Contribution of Amphipathicity and Hydrophobicity to the Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of β-Hairpin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have acquired extensive resistance mechanisms to protect themselves against antibiotic action. Today the bacterial membrane has become one of the “final frontiers” in the search for new compounds acting on novel targets to address the threat of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and XDR bacterial pathogens. β-Hairpin antimicrobial peptides are amphipathic, membrane-binding antibiotics that exhibit a broad range of activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens. However, most members of the class also possess adverse cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity that preclude their development as candidate antimicrobials. We examined peptide hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and structure to better dissect and understand the correlation between antimicrobial activity and toxicity, membrane binding, and membrane permeability. The hydrophobicity, pI, net charge at physiological pH, and amphipathic moment for the β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides tachyplesin-1, polyphemusin-1, protegrin-1, gomesin, arenicin-3, and thanatin were determined and correlated with key antimicrobial activity and toxicity data. These included antimicrobial activity against five key bacterial pathogens and two fungi, cytotoxicity against human cell lines, and hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Observed antimicrobial activity trends correlated with compound amphipathicity and, to a lesser extent, with overall hydrophobicity. Antimicrobial activity increased with amphipathicity, but unfortunately so did toxicity. Of note, tachyplesin-1 was found to be 8-fold more amphipathic than gomesin. These analyses identify tachyplesin-1 as a promising scaffold for rational design and synthetic optimization toward an antibiotic candidate. PMID:27331141

  3. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  4. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  5. IPG Power Grid Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.

  6. Microtechnologies for membrane protein studies

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Despite the rapid and enormous progress in biotechnologies, the biochemical analysis of membrane proteins is still a difficult task. The presence of the large hydrophobic region buried in the lipid bilayer membrane (transmembrane domain) makes it difficult to analyze membrane proteins in standard assays developed for water-soluble proteins. To handle membrane proteins, the lipid bilayer membrane may be used as a platform to sustain their functionalities. Relatively slow progress in developing micro total analysis systems (μTAS) for membrane protein analysis directly reflects the difficulty of handling lipid membranes, which is a common problem in bulk measurement technologies. Nonetheless, researchers are continuing to develop efficient and sensitive analytical microsystems for the study of membrane proteins. Here, we review the latest developments, which enable detection of events caused by membrane proteins, such as ion channel current, membrane transport, and receptor/ligand interaction, by utilizing microfabricated structures. High-throughput and highly sensitive detection systems for membrane proteins are now becoming a realistic goal. Although most of these systems are still in the early stages of development, we believe this field will become one of the most important applications of μTAS for pharmaceutical and clinical screenings as well as for basic biochemical research. PMID:18335213

  7. Chimera Grid Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  8. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  9. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.; Erlejman, Alejandra G.; Verstraeten, Sandra V.; Keen, Carl L.; Fraga, César G.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a) the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b) the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants), thus protecting the structure and function of membranes. PMID:15712595

  10. Contribution of Hydrophobic Interactions to Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R.; Shirley, Bret A.; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compare our results with previous studies and reach the following conclusions. 1. Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mole per –CH2– group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mol per –CH2– group). 2. Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kcal/mol): Phe 18 (3.9), Met 13 (3.1), Phe 7 (2.9), Phe 11 (2.7), and Leu 21 (2.7). 3. Based on Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔGtr values from water to cyclohexane. 5. For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60 ± 4% and hydrogen bonds 40 ± 4% to protein stability. 6. Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominately by hydrophobic interactions. PMID:21377472

  11. Contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability.

    PubMed

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Shirley, Bret A; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2011-05-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compared our results with those of previous studies and reached the following conclusions: (1) Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6±0.3 kcal/mol per -CH(2)- group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6±0.3 kcal/mol per -CH(2)- group). (2) Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kilocalories per mole) Phe18 (3.9), Met13 (3.1), Phe7 (2.9), Phe11 (2.7), and Leu21 (2.7). (3) Based on the Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a -CH(2)- group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1±0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. (4) The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔG(tr) values from water to cyclohexane. (5) For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60±4% and hydrogen bonds contribute 40±4% to protein stability. (6) Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominantly by hydrophobic interactions. PMID:21377472

  12. Atomistic Hydrodynamics and the Dynamical Hydrophobic Effect in Porous Graphene.

    PubMed

    Strong, Steven E; Eaves, Joel D

    2016-05-19

    Mirroring their role in electrical and optical physics, two-dimensional crystals are emerging as novel platforms for fluid separations and water desalination, which are hydrodynamic processes that occur in nanoscale environments. For numerical simulation to play a predictive and descriptive role, one must have theoretically sound methods that span orders of magnitude in physical scales, from the atomistic motions of particles inside the channels to the large-scale hydrodynamic gradients that drive transport. Here, we use constraint dynamics to derive a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method for simulating steady-state mass flow of a fluid moving through the nanoscopic spaces of a porous solid. After validating our method on a model system, we use it to study the hydrophobic effect of water moving through pores of electrically doped single-layer graphene. The trend in permeability that we calculate does not follow the hydrophobicity of the membrane but is instead governed by a crossover between two competing molecular transport mechanisms. PMID:27139634

  13. Membrane Curvature Sensing by Amphipathic Helices

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Jao, Christine C.; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Pedersen, Søren L.; Jensen, Knud J.; Langen, Ralf; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Preferential binding of proteins on curved membranes (membrane curvature sensing) is increasingly emerging as a general mechanism whereby cells may effect protein localization and trafficking. Here we use a novel single liposome fluorescence microscopy assay to examine a common sensing motif, the amphipathic helix (AH), and provide quantitative measures describing and distinguishing membrane binding and sensing behavior. By studying two AH-containing proteins, α-synuclein and annexin B12, as well as a range of AH peptide mutants, we reveal that both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces of the helix greatly influence binding and sensing. Although increased hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with the membrane both lead to greater densities of bound protein, the former yields membrane curvature-sensitive binding, whereas the latter is not curvature-dependent. However, the relative contributions of both components determine the sensing of AHs. In contrast, charge density in the lipid membrane seems important primarily in attracting AHs to the membrane but does not significantly influence sensing. These observations were made possible by the ability of our assay to distinguish within our samples liposomes with and without bound protein as well as the density of bound protein. Our findings suggest that the description of membrane curvature-sensing requires consideration of several factors such as short and long range electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and the volume and structure of inserted hydrophobic residues. PMID:21953452

  14. Multipass Membrane Protein Structure Prediction Using Rosetta

    PubMed Central

    Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Schonbrun, Jack; Baker, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the adaptation of the Rosetta de novo structure prediction method for prediction of helical transmembrane protein structures. The membrane environment is modeled by embedding the protein chain into a model membrane represented by parallel planes defining hydrophobic, interface, and polar membrane layers for each energy evaluation. The optimal embedding is determined by maximizing the exposure of surface hydrophobic residues within the membrane and minimizing hydrophobic exposure outside of the membrane. Protein conformations are built up using the Rosetta fragment assembly method and evaluated using a new membrane-specific version of the Rosetta low-resolution energy function in which residue–residue and residue–environment interactions are functions of the membrane layer in addition to amino acid identity, distance, and density. We find that lower energy and more native-like structures are achieved by sequential addition of helices to a growing chain, which may mimic some aspects of helical protein biogenesis after translocation, rather than folding the whole chain simultaneously as in the Rosetta soluble protein prediction method. In tests on 12 membrane proteins for which the structure is known, between 51 and 145 residues were predicted with root-mean-square deviation <4Å from the native structure. PMID:16372357

  15. Hydrophobic Blocks Facilitate Lipid Compatibility and Translocon Recognition of Transmembrane Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity

  16. Hemifusion of giant unilamellar vesicles with planar hydrophobic surfaces: a fluorescence microscopy study†

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Goh Haw; Tan, Cheemeng; Deserno, Markus; Lanni, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle adhesion and fusion to interfaces are frequently used for the construction of biomimetic surfaces in biosensors and drug delivery. Ubiquitous in cell biology, vesicle fusion involves the transformation of two separate membranes into one contiguous lipid bilayer. In distinction, the deposition of vesicle membranes to hydrophobic surfaces requires the transformation of a lipidic bilayer into a monomolecular layer – a topologically distinct process termed hemifusion. Here, we used hydrophobically terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on solid surfaces to track the hemifusion of fluorescently labeled giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) at the single vesicle level with video time resolution (≈53 ms). We observed that a dilute monolayer, consisting of lipid extracted from the outer GUV leaflet, spreads outward across the hydrophobic surface from the vesicle adhesion site. Subsequently, bilayer hemifusion occurs by vesicle rupture near the hydrophobic surface, followed by spreading of lipid in a dense monolayer. GUV lipids thus transfer to the SAM surface in two concentric zones: an outer hemifusion zone comprises lipids drawn from the outer GUV leaflet and an inner hemifusion zone comprises lipids from both the inner and outer GUV leaflets and grows at a rate of ≈1000 µm2 s−1 (dA/dt = 970 ± 430 µm2 s−1 in n = 22 independent experiments). This growth rate is quantitatively consistent with the assumption that the spreading of the monolayer is entirely driven by the difference in surface energies of the hydrophobic and the lipid-covered SAM surfaces, which is dissipated by friction of the spreading monolayer on the SAM. Lipid transfer between the inner and outer GUV leaflets occurs via a hemifusion pore that forms early in the process near the membrane contact site. This pore also permits expulsion of water from the GUV interior as the vesicle contracts onto the contact site. PMID:25383087

  17. Hydrophobic blocks facilitate lipid compatibility and translocon recognition of transmembrane protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Stone, Tracy A; Schiller, Nina; von Heijne, Gunnar; Deber, Charles M

    2015-02-24

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity in

  18. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  19. FermiGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.

  20. Hydrophobic actuation of a DNA origami bilayer structure.

    PubMed

    List, Jonathan; Weber, Michael; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2014-04-14

    Amphiphilic compounds have a strong tendency to form aggregates in aqueous solutions. It is shown that such aggregation can be utilized to fold cholesterol-modified, single-layered DNA origami structures into sandwich-like bilayer structures, which hide the cholesterol modifications in their interior. The DNA bilayer structures unfold after addition of the surfactant Tween 80, and also in the presence of lipid bilayer membranes, with opening kinetics well described by stretched exponentials. It is also demonstrated that by combination with an appropriate lock and key mechanism, hydrophobic actuation of DNA sandwiches can be made conditional on the presence of an additional molecular input such as a specific DNA sequence. PMID:24616083

  1. Hydrophobic surface patches on LolA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are essential for lipoprotein binding.

    PubMed

    Remans, Kim; Pauwels, Kris; van Ulsen, Peter; Buts, Lieven; Cornelis, Pierre; Tommassen, Jan; Savvides, Savvas N; Decanniere, Klaas; Van Gelder, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Many lipoproteins reside in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, and their biogenesis is dependent on the Lol (localization of lipoproteins) system. The periplasmic chaperone LolA accepts OM-destined lipoproteins that are released from the inner membrane by the LolCDE complex and transfers them to the OM receptor LolB. The exact nature of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is still unknown. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli LolA features an open beta-barrel covered by alpha helices that together constitute a hydrophobic cavity, which would allow the binding of one acyl chain. However, OM lipoproteins contain three acyl chains, and the stoichiometry of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is 1:1. Here we present the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LolA that projects clear hydrophobic surface patches. Since these patches are large enough to accommodate acyl chains, their role in lipoprotein binding was investigated. Several LolA mutant proteins were created, and their functionality was assessed by studying their capacity to release lipoproteins produced in sphaeroplasts. Interruption of the largest hydrophobic patch completely destroyed the lipoprotein-releasing capacity of LolA, while interruption of smaller patches apparently reduced efficiency. Thus, the results show a new lipoprotein transport model that places (some of) the acyl chains on the hydrophobic surface patches. PMID:20620146

  2. Membrane Based Thermal Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of the feasibility of using a membrane device as a water boiler for thermal control is reported. The membrane device permits water vapor to escape to the vacuum of space but prevents the loss of liquid water. The vaporization of the water provides cooling to the water loop. This type of cooling device would have application for various types of short duration cooling needs where expenditure of water is allowed and a low pressure source is available such as in space or on a planet's surface. A variety of membrane samples, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, were purchased to test for this thermal control application. An initial screening test determined if the membrane could pose a sufficient barrier to maintain water against vacuum. Further testing compared the heat transfer performance of those membranes that passed the screening test.

  3. Amphipathicity Determines Different Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Lysine- or Arginine-Rich Cationic Hydrophobic Peptides in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Cao, Rui; Wang, Sha; Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao

    2016-06-01

    Cationic amphipathic peptides (CAPs) are known to be able to cause membrane destabilization and induce cell death, yet how the hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and lysine (K)/arginine (R) composition synergistically affect the peptide activity remains incompletely understood. Here, we designed a panel of peptides based on the well-known anticancer peptide KLA. Increasing hydrophobicity enhanced the cytotoxicities of both the K- and R-rich peptides. Peptides with an intact amphipathic helical interface can cause instant cell death through a membrane lysis mechanism. Interestingly, rearranging the residue positions to minimize amphipathicity caused a great decrease of cytotoxicity to the K-rich peptides but not to the R-rich peptides. The amphipathicity-minimized R-rich peptide 6 (RL2) (RLLRLLRLRRLLRL-NH2) penetrated the cell membrane and induced caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death. We found that the modulation of hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and K/R residues leads to distinct mechanisms of action of cationic hydrophobic peptides. Amphipathicity-reduced, arginine-rich cationic hydrophobic peptides (CHPs) may represent a new class of peptide therapeutics. PMID:27195657

  4. Twenty-four-hour direct presumptive enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in food and environmental samples using the ISO-GRID method with LM-137 agar.

    PubMed

    Entis, P; Lerner, I

    2000-03-01

    A new culture medium, LM-137 agar, was developed for use with the ISO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter system for direct presumptive enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in 24 h. The method was validated against three-replicate, three-dilution most probable number procedures based on enrichment methods specified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The study encompassed meats, dairy products, egg, produce, seafood, and environmental samples. The ISO-GRID filter method produced significantly higher recovery of L. monocytogenes from fermented sausage, hot dogs, pasteurized and raw milk, raw shrimp, and environmental swab samples (P < 0.05). The reference methods yielded significantly higher counts from frozen raw pork and cole slaw (P < 0.05). Confirmation rates of presumptive positive isolates from the filter method ranged from a low of 92% (frozen raw pork) to 100% (most other products). Neither the recovery efficiency nor the confirmation rate were affected by the presence of competing aerobic flora. PMID:10716565

  5. Cross-over of hydrophobic effects observed in amphiphilic aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ningdong; Nordlund, Dennis; Huang, Congcong; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Acremann, Yves; Nilsson, Anders

    2010-03-01

    The hydrophobic effect is important in nature and responsible for phenomena in many fields. Changes in structure and dynamics of water induced by apolar groups are believed to play a key role in protein folding, ligand binding and formation of biological membranes. The length scale dependence of hydrophobic and associated crossover length has been discussed intensively, but has not been observed directly by experimental techniques sensitive to the microscopic structure. Here we report experimental evidences for the cross over behavior of hydrophobic effects in amphiphilic aqueous solutions based on x-ray adsorption and small angle x-ray scattering data. Tetraalkyl ammonium (CnH2n+1)4N^+ (TAA) cations show hydrophobic effects on the structure of water other than ionic effects. For cations with shorter side hydrocarbon chains, hydrophobic hydration enhances the hydrogen bonds (HBs) in liquid water and separates the solute with solvents; whereas for cations with longer chains (˜ 5 A) we find that the HBs are weakened and the solutes and solvent are attracted to each other. The temperature dependence of the crossover length is also investigated.

  6. In Silico Partitioning and Transmembrane Insertion of Hydrophobic Peptides Under Equilibrium Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Smith, Jeremy C.; White, Stephen H.; Ulmschneider, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Nascent transmembrane (TM) polypeptide segments are recognized and inserted into the lipid bilayer by the cellular translocon machinery. The recognition rules, described by a biological hydrophobicity scale, correlate strongly with physical hydrophobicity scales that describe the free energy of insertion of TM helices from water. However, the exact relationship between the physical and biological scales is unknown, because solubility problems limit our ability to measure experimentally the direct partitioning of hydrophobic peptides across lipid membranes. Here we use microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which monomeric poly-leucine segments of different lengths are allowed to partition spontaneously into and out of lipid bilayers. This approach directly reveals all states populated at equilibrium. For the hydrophobic peptides studied here, only surface bound and transmembrane inserted helices are found. The free energy of insertion is directly obtained from the relative occupancy of these states. A water soluble state was not observed, consistent with the general insolubility of hydrophobic peptides. The approach further allows determination of the partitioning pathways and kinetics. Surprisingly, the transfer free energy appears to be independent of temperature, which implies that surface-to-bilayer peptide insertion is a zero-entropy process. We find that the partitioning free energy of the polyleucine segments correlates strongly with values from translocon experiments, but reveals a systematic shift favouring shorter peptides, suggesting that translocon-to-bilayer partitioning is not equivalent, but related to spontaneous surface-to-bilayer partitioning. PMID:21861483

  7. Thickness-Dependent Hydrophobicity of Epitaxial Graphene.

    PubMed

    Munz, Martin; Giusca, Cristina E; Myers-Ward, Rachael L; Gaskill, D Kurt; Kazakova, Olga

    2015-08-25

    This article addresses the much debated question whether the degree of hydrophobicity of single-layer graphene (1LG) is different from that of double-layer graphene (2LG). Knowledge of the water affinity of graphene and its spatial variations is critically important as it can affect the graphene properties as well as the performance of graphene devices exposed to humidity. By employing chemical force microscopy with a probe rendered hydrophobic by functionalization with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), the adhesion force between the probe and epitaxial graphene on SiC has been measured in deionized water. Owing to the hydrophobic attraction, a larger adhesion force was measured on 2LG Bernal-stacked domains of graphene surfaces, thus showing that 2LG is more hydrophobic than 1LG. Identification of 1LG and 2LG domains was achieved through Kelvin probe force microscopy and Raman spectral mapping. Approximate values of the adhesion force per OTS molecule have been calculated through contact area analysis. Furthermore, the contrast of friction force images measured in contact mode was reversed to the 1LG/2LG adhesion contrast, and its origin was discussed in terms of the likely water depletion over hydrophobic domains as well as deformation in the contact area between the atomic force microscope tip and 1LG. PMID:26218503

  8. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  9. Grid quality improvement by a grid adaptation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.; Choo, Y. K.

    1991-01-01

    A grid adaptation technique is presented which improves grid quality. The method begins with an assessment of grid quality by defining an appropriate grid quality measure. Then, undesirable grid properties are eliminated by a grid-quality-adaptive grid generation procedure. The same concept has been used for geometry-adaptive and solution-adaptive grid generation. The difference lies in the definition of the grid control sources; here, they are extracted from the distribution of a particular grid property. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the versatility and effectiveness of the method.

  10. Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

  11. Water desalination using carbon-nanotube-enhanced membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Gethard, Ken; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced membrane distillation is presented for water desalination. It is demonstrated that the immobilization of the CNTs in the pores of a hydrophobic membrane favorably alters the water-membrane interactions to promote vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores. For a salt concentration of 34 000 mg L(-1) and at 80 °C, the nanotube incorporation led to 1.85 and 15 times increase in flux and salt reduction, respectively. PMID:21188976

  12. Temperature polarization coefficients in membrane distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Diez, L.; Vazquez-Gonzalez, M.I.; Florido-Diaz, F.J.

    1998-04-01

    Membrane distillation is a membrane process in which two liquid phases at different temperatures are separated by a microporous hydrophobic membrane. The membrane plays the role of a physical support for the vapor-liquid interface. The aim of this paper is to study pure water transport by membrane distillation through a PTFE flat membrane. The dependence of the phenomenon on average temperature and recirculation rate at the membrane sides is investigated. The influence of these operating conditions on water transport is discussed by taking into account mass and heat transfer within the membrane and the adjoining liquid phases. The concept of temperature polarization is introduced into the transport equations and shown to be important in the interpretation of the experimental results.

  13. Electrically Conductive Porous Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrically conductive membrane that can be configured to be used in fuel cell systems to act as a hydrophilic water separator internal to the fuel cell, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a water separator used with water vapor fed electrolysis cells, or as a capillary structure in a thin head pipe evaporator, or as a hydrophobic gas diffusion layer covering the fuel cell electrode surface in a fuel cell.

  14. Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more

  15. Magnetic hydrophobic nanocomposites: Silica aerogel/maghemite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza Zélis, P.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Socolovsky, L. M.; Leyva, A. G.; Sánchez, F. H.

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic hydrophobic aerogels (MHA) in the form of nanocomposites of silica and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) were prepared by one step sol-gel procedure followed by supercritical solvent extraction. Silica alcogels were obtained from TEOS, MTMS, methanol and H2O, and Fe(III) nitrate as magnetic precursor. The hydrophobic property was achieved using the methytrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as co-precursor for surface modification. The so produced nanocomposite aerogels are monolithic, hydrophobic and magnetic. The interconnected porous structure hosts ∼6 nm size γ-Fe2O3 particles, has a mean pore diameter of 5 nm, and a specific surface area (SSA) of 698 m²/g. Medium range structure of MHA is determined by SAXS, which displays the typical fractal power law behavior with primary particle radius of ∼1 nm. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticle ensembles hosted in them are studied by means of dc-magnetometry.

  16. Robust Microcompartments with Hydrophobically Gated Shells.

    PubMed

    Sander, Jonathan S; Steinacher, Mathias; Loiseau, Eve; Demirörs, Ahmet F; Zanini, Michele; Isa, Lucio; Studart, André R

    2015-06-30

    We report on robust synthetic microcompartments with hydrophobically gated shells that can reversibly swell and contract multiple times upon external stimuli. The gating mechanism relies on a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition of a polymer layer that is grafted on inorganic colloidosomes using atom-transfer radical polymerization. As a result of such a transition, the initially tight hydrophobic shell becomes permeable to the diffusion of hydrophilic solutes across the microcompartment walls. Surprisingly, the microcompartments are strong enough to retain their spherical shape during several swelling and contraction cycles. This provides a powerful alternative platform for the creation of synthetic microreactors and protocells that interact with the surrounding media through a simple gating mechanism and are sufficiently robust for further engineering of increasingly complex compartmentalized structures. PMID:26061672

  17. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  18. Supported membrane nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Anrather, Dorothea; Smetazko, Michaela; Saba, Miriam; Alguel, Yilmaz; Schalkhammer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Supported membrane nanodevices are based on natural or artificial ion channels embedded in a lipid membrane deposited on a chip wafer. Membrane conductance is modulated by biorecognitive events, with the use of intrinsic binding sites of the ion channel or via artificial sites fused to the channel protein. Artificial ion gates are constructed by coupling a specific ligand for the analyte near the channel entrance or a site important to triggering channel conformation. The binding event leads to the closure of the ion channel or induces a conformational change of the channel, reducing the ion flux. The signal transduced from the device is the decrease in the ion flux-induced electron current at a silver-silver chloride electrode at ultimate single-molecule sensitivity. Among the natural ion channels, gramicidin A, a transport antibiotic, was found to be most suitable, and thus was used by AMBRI, Australia, to set up prototypes of membrane biochips, using self-association of the dimer. Covalent dimerization-based devices, developed by the Vienna group, make use of the down-regulation of the permanently open membrane-spanning bisgramicidine ion channel. The reactive group at the C-terminus, a hydroxy group, allows precise coupling of the analyte-binding moiety in gramicidin as well as bisgramicidin. The device is set up with bilayer membranes deposited on apertures of a hydrophobic frame structure produced via microlithography, facing an aqueous or hydro-gel micro-environment on both sides, constructing black lipid membranes or patch-clamp devices "on chip." The setup of the device needs gel membrane supports that allow membrane formation and contribute to the stability of the bilayer by exposure of functional groups that promote electrostatic interaction and formation of hydrogen bridges and enable the introduction of covalent spacers and anchors. Photo-cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyacrylamide, electropolymerized polydiaminobenzene and coated agarose, as

  19. Hydrophobic Coupling of Lipid Bilayer Energetics to Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Goforth, Robyn L.; Chi, Aung K.; Greathouse, Denise V.; Providence, Lyndon L.; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrophobic coupling between membrane-spanning proteins and the lipid bilayer core causes the bilayer thickness to vary locally as proteins and other “defects” are embedded in the bilayer. These bilayer deformations incur an energetic cost that, in principle, could couple membrane proteins to each other, causing them to associate in the plane of the membrane and thereby coupling them functionally. We demonstrate the existence of such bilayer-mediated coupling at the single-molecule level using single-barreled as well as double-barreled gramicidin channels in which two gramicidin subunits are covalently linked by a water-soluble, flexible linker. When a covalently attached pair of gramicidin subunits associates with a second attached pair to form a double-barreled channel, the lifetime of both channels in the assembly increases from hundreds of milliseconds to a hundred seconds—and the conductance of each channel in the side-by-side pair is almost 10% higher than the conductance of the corresponding single-barreled channels. The double-barreled channels are stabilized some 100,000-fold relative to their single-barreled counterparts. This stabilization arises from: first, the local increase in monomer concentration around a single-barreled channel formed by two covalently linked gramicidins, which increases the rate of double-barreled channel formation; and second, from the increased lifetime of the double-barreled channels. The latter result suggests that the two barrels of the construct associate laterally. The underlying cause for this lateral association most likely is the bilayer deformation energy associated with channel formation. More generally, the results suggest that the mechanical properties of the host bilayer may cause the kinetics of membrane protein conformational transitions to depend on the conformational states of the neighboring proteins. PMID:12719487

  20. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity properties in the mediation of in vitro adhesion by the rabbit enteric pathogen Escherichia coli strain RDEC-1.

    PubMed Central

    Drumm, B; Neumann, A W; Policova, Z; Sherman, P M

    1989-01-01

    The role of hydrophobicity in the attachment of enteropathogens to gastrointestinal mucosa is controversial. In vitro binding of Escherichia coli RDEC-1 to rabbit intestine is dependent on the expression of pili. We examined in vitro adherence of piliated RDEC-1 after altering either the hydrophobicity of the organisms, the hydrophobicity of the substrate for attachment, or the surface tension of the suspending liquid. Hydrophobicity of RDEC-1 was determined using four complementary methods. In each assay piliated RDEC-1 demonstrated relatively more hydrophobic properties compared with both organisms grown to suppress pilus expression and a mutant that cannot express mannose-resistant pili. When piliated RDEC-1 were pretreated with tetramethyl urea to disrupt hydrophobic bonds surface hydrophobicity decreased. Concurrently, bacterial adherence to rabbit ileal microvillus membranes, mucus and mucin was reduced. Binding of piliated organisms to hydrophobic surfaces was significantly higher compared to both nonpiliated bacteria and the adherence of piliated RDEC-1 to relatively hydrophilic surfaces. Addition of propanol reduced the surface tension of the suspending liquid, and decreased adhesion of piliated RDEC-1 to polystyrene by 80%. Conversely, adherence of piliated organisms to a hydrophilic surface increased 12-fold after lowering the surface tension of the suspending liquid. We conclude that hydrophobic properties have a role in mediating in vitro adherence of this E. coli enteric pathogen. Images PMID:2572606

  1. Solar cell grid patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasui, R. K.; Berman, P. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A grid pattern is described for a solar cell of the type which includes a semiconductive layer doped to a first polarity and a top counter-doped layer. The grid pattern comprises a plurality of concentric conductive grids of selected geometric shapes which are centered about the center of the exposed active surface of the counter-doped layer. Connected to the grids is one or more conductors which extend to the cell's periphery. For the pattern area, the grids and conductors are arranged in the pattern to minimize the maximum distance which any injected majority carriers have to travel to reach any of the grids or conductors. The pattern has a multiaxes symmetry with respect to the cell center to minimize the maximum temperature differentials between points on the cell surface and to provide a more uniform temperature distribution across the cell face.

  2. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kielian, Margaret . E-mail: kielian@aecom.yu.edu

    2006-01-05

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of the class II fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Inhibition of the fusion protein refolding reaction confirms its importance in fusion and suggests new antiviral strategies for these medically important viruses.

  3. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  4. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  5. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  6. Surface topography dependence of biomolecular hydrophobic hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuen-Kit; Rossky, Peter J.

    1998-04-01

    Many biomolecules are characterized by surfaces containing extended nonpolar regions, and the aggregation and subsequent removal of such surfaces from water is believed to play a critical role in the biomolecular assembly in cells. A better understanding of the hydrophobic hydration of biomolecules may therefore yield new insights into intracellular assembly. Conventional views hold that the hydration shell of small hydrophobic solutes is clathrate-like, characterized by local cage-like hydrogen-bonding structures and a distinct loss in entropy. The hydration of extended nonpolar planar surfaces, however, appears to involve structures that are orientationally inverted relative to clathrate-like hydration shells,, with unsatisfied hydrogen bonds that are directed towards the hydrophobic surface. Here we present computer simulations of the interaction between the polypeptide melittin and water that demonstrate that the two different hydration structures also exist near a biomolecular surface. We find that the two structures are distinguished by a substantial difference in the water-water interaction enthalpy, and that their relative contributions depend strongly on the surface topography of the melittin molecule: clathrate-like structures dominate near convex surface patches, whereas the hydration shell near flat surfaces fluctuates between clathrate-like and less-ordered or inverted structures. The strong influence of surface topography on the structure and free energy of hydrophobic hydration is likely to hold in general, and will be particularly important for the many biomolecules whose surfaces contain convex patches, deep or shallow concave grooves and roughly planar areas.

  7. COSOLVENCY AND SOPRTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) by two soils was measured from mixed solvents containing water plus completely miscible organic solvents (CMOSs) and partially miscible organic solvents (PMOSs). The utility of the log-linear cosolvency model for predicting HOC sor...

  8. Energy Conversion over Super-hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhai, Shengjie

    2015-11-01

    The streaming potential generated by a pressure-driven flow over a charged slip-stick surface with an arbitrary double layer thickness is both theoretically and experimentally studied. To understand the impact of the slip, the streaming potential is compared against that over a homogenously charged smooth surface. Our results indicate that the streaming potential over a super-hydrophobic surface only can be enhanced under certain conditions. In addition, the Onsager relation which directly relates the magnitude of electro-osmotic effect to that of the streaming current effect has been explicitly proved to be valid for thin and thick double layers and homogeneously charged super-hydrophobic surfaces. Comparisons between the streaming current and electro-osmotic mobility for an arbitrary electric double layer thickness under various conditions indicate that the Onsager relation seems applicable for arbitrary weakly charged super-hydrophobic surfaces though there is no general proof. Knowledge of the streaming potential over a slip-stick surface can provide guidance for designing novel and efficient microfluidic energy-conversion devices using super-hydrophobic surfaces. The work was supported by the NSF Grant No. ECCS-1509866.

  9. Electrostatics of Deformable Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyov, Igor; Bekker, Borislava; Allen, Toby W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It was recently demonstrated that significant local deformations of biological membranes take place due to the fields of charged peptides and ions, challenging the standard model of membrane electrostatics. The ability of ions to retain their immediate hydration environment, combined with the lack of sensitivity of permeability to ion type or even ion pairs, led us to question the extent to which hydration energetics and electrostatics control membrane ion permeation. Using the arginine analog methyl-guanidinium as a test case, we find that although hydrocarbon electronic polarizability causes dramatic changes in ion solvation free energy, as well as a significant change (∼0.4 V) in the membrane dipole potential, little change in membrane permeation energetics occurs. We attribute this to compensation of solvation terms from polar and polarizable nonpolar components within the membrane, and explain why the dipole potential is not fully sensed in terms of the locally deformed bilayer interface. Our descriptions provide a deeper understanding of the translocation process and allow predictions for poly-ions, ion pairs, charged lipids, and lipid flip-flop. We also report simulations of large hydrophobic-ion-like membrane defects and the ionophore valinomycin, which exhibit little membrane deformation, as well as hydrophilic defects and the ion channel gramicidin A, to provide parallels to membranes deformed by unassisted ion permeation. PMID:20550903

  10. The Use of Liprotides To Stabilize and Transport Hydrophobic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jannik N; Pedersen, Jan S; Otzen, Daniel E

    2015-08-11

    Recently, it has been shown that different complexes consisting of protein and fatty acids, which we call liprotides, have common functional and structural features. Liprotides can transfer their fatty acid content to membranes, highlighting the potential to incorporate other small molecules and help transfer them to membranes. In this study, this potential was explored with regard to the poorly water-soluble vitamin E compound α-tocopherol (Toc). Uptake into liprotides increased Toc solubility and chemical stability. The liprotide-Toc complexes retained the characteristic liprotide structure with a core of fatty acid surrounded by protein. Toc and fatty acid could be transferred to artificial vesicles upon being incorporated into the liprotide complex. Extending this work, we found that free tryptophan and the vitamin A precursor retinaldehyde could also be incorporated in the liprotides; however, other small molecules failed to be taken up, and we conclude that successful incorporation requires a hydrophobic terminal moiety that can be accommodated within the micelle interior of the liprotides. Nevertheless, our work suggests that liprotides are able to stabilize and transport a number of otherwise insoluble small molecules with significant potential health benefits. PMID:26158206

  11. Neisseria gonorrhoeae cell envelope: permeability to hydrophobic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Lysko, P G; Morse, S A

    1981-01-01

    Isogenic variants of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Neisseria gonorrhoeae were examined for differences in the inhibition of oxygen uptake by steroid hormones. Mutants designated as env, which possessed cell envelope mutations allowing phenotypic suppression of low-level antibiotic resistance, were more sensitive to steroid hormone inhibition of oxygen uptake than the wild-type parental strains. Possession of an mtr locus, which confers nonspecific resistance to multiple antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, was also associated with an increase in resistance to steroid hormone inhibition of oxygen uptake. The penA2 locus, which confers an eightfold increase in resistance to penicillin, was not responsible for the increased resistance to steroid hormones. Phospholipids in the outer membrane of intact env-2 cells were susceptible to digestion by phospholipase C, indicating exposure of phospholipid head groups on the outer surface. Cells of a wild-type and mtr-2 strain were not susceptible to phospholipase C digestion unless they were pretreated with mixed exoglycosidases. This pretreatment also increased the sensitivity of mtr-2 cells to progesterone inhibition of O2 uptake. These data suggest that the permeability of the gonococcus to hydrophobic antibiotic and steroid molecules is mediated by the degree of phospholipid exposure on the outer membrane. PMID:6780535

  12. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  13. Charges in the hydrophobic interior of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Daniel G.; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Cannon, Brian R.; Velu, Priya D.; García-Moreno E., Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Charges are inherently incompatible with hydrophobic environments. Presumably for this reason, ionizable residues are usually excluded from the hydrophobic interior of proteins and are found instead at the surface, where they can interact with bulk water. Paradoxically, ionizable groups buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins play essential roles, especially in biological energy transduction. To examine the unusual properties of internal ionizable groups we measured the pKa of glutamic acid residues at 25 internal positions in a stable form of staphylococcal nuclease. Two of 25 Glu residues titrated with normal pKa near 4.5; the other 23 titrated with elevated pKa values ranging from 5.2–9.4, with an average value of 7.7. Trp fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism were used to monitor the effects of internal charges on conformation. These data demonstrate that although charges buried in proteins are indeed destabilizing, charged side chains can be buried readily in the hydrophobic core of stable proteins without the need for specialized structural adaptations to stabilize them, and without inducing any major conformational reorganization. The apparent dielectric effect experienced by the internal charges is considerably higher than the low dielectric constants of hydrophobic matter used to represent the protein interior in electrostatic continuum models of proteins. The high thermodynamic stability required for proteins to withstand the presence of buried charges suggests a pathway for the evolution of enzymes, and it underscores the need to mind thermodynamic stability in any strategy for engineering novel or altered enzymatic active sites in proteins. PMID:20798341

  14. Pathways to dewetting in hydrophobic confinement

    PubMed Central

    Remsing, Richard C.; Xi, Erte; Vembanur, Srivathsan; Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G.; Garde, Shekhar; Patel, Amish J.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid water can become metastable with respect to its vapor in hydrophobic confinement. The resulting dewetting transitions are often impeded by large kinetic barriers. According to macroscopic theory, such barriers arise from the free energy required to nucleate a critical vapor tube that spans the region between two hydrophobic surfaces—tubes with smaller radii collapse, whereas larger ones grow to dry the entire confined region. Using extensive molecular simulations of water between two nanoscopic hydrophobic surfaces, in conjunction with advanced sampling techniques, here we show that for intersurface separations that thermodynamically favor dewetting, the barrier to dewetting does not correspond to the formation of a (classical) critical vapor tube. Instead, it corresponds to an abrupt transition from an isolated cavity adjacent to one of the confining surfaces to a gap-spanning vapor tube that is already larger than the critical vapor tube anticipated by macroscopic theory. Correspondingly, the barrier to dewetting is also smaller than the classical expectation. We show that the peculiar nature of water density fluctuations adjacent to extended hydrophobic surfaces—namely, the enhanced likelihood of observing low-density fluctuations relative to Gaussian statistics—facilitates this nonclassical behavior. By stabilizing isolated cavities relative to vapor tubes, enhanced water density fluctuations thus stabilize novel pathways, which circumvent the classical barriers and offer diminished resistance to dewetting. Our results thus suggest a key role for fluctuations in speeding up the kinetics of numerous phenomena ranging from Cassie–Wenzel transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces, to hydrophobically driven biomolecular folding and assembly. PMID:26100866

  15. Charges in the hydrophobic interior of proteins.

    PubMed

    Isom, Daniel G; Castañeda, Carlos A; Cannon, Brian R; Velu, Priya D; García-Moreno E, Bertrand

    2010-09-14

    Charges are inherently incompatible with hydrophobic environments. Presumably for this reason, ionizable residues are usually excluded from the hydrophobic interior of proteins and are found instead at the surface, where they can interact with bulk water. Paradoxically, ionizable groups buried in the hydrophobic interior of proteins play essential roles, especially in biological energy transduction. To examine the unusual properties of internal ionizable groups we measured the pK(a) of glutamic acid residues at 25 internal positions in a stable form of staphylococcal nuclease. Two of 25 Glu residues titrated with normal pK(a) near 4.5; the other 23 titrated with elevated pK(a) values ranging from 5.2-9.4, with an average value of 7.7. Trp fluorescence and far-UV circular dichroism were used to monitor the effects of internal charges on conformation. These data demonstrate that although charges buried in proteins are indeed destabilizing, charged side chains can be buried readily in the hydrophobic core of stable proteins without the need for specialized structural adaptations to stabilize them, and without inducing any major conformational reorganization. The apparent dielectric effect experienced by the internal charges is considerably higher than the low dielectric constants of hydrophobic matter used to represent the protein interior in electrostatic continuum models of proteins. The high thermodynamic stability required for proteins to withstand the presence of buried charges suggests a pathway for the evolution of enzymes, and it underscores the need to mind thermodynamic stability in any strategy for engineering novel or altered enzymatic active sites in proteins. PMID:20798341

  16. Effect of surface hydrophobicity on the function of the immobilized biomineralization protein Mms6

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xunpei; Zhang, Honghu; Nayak, Srikanth; Parada, German; Anderegg, James; Feng, Shuren; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Akinc, Mufit; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2015-08-13

    Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetic nanocrystals with uniform shapes and sizes in nature, which has inspired in vitro synthesis of uniformly sized magnetite nanocrystals under mild conditions. Mms6, a biomineralization protein from magnetotactic bacteria with a hydrophobic N-terminal domain and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain, can promote formation of magnetite nanocrystals in vitro with well-defined shape and size in gels under mild conditions. Here we investigate the role of surface hydrophobicity on the ability of Mms6 to template magnetite nanoparticle formation on surfaces. Our results confirmed that Mms6 can form a protein network structure on a monolayer of hydrophobic octadecanethiol (ODT)-coated gold surfaces and facilitate magnetite nanocrystal formation with uniform sizes close to those seen in nature, in contrast to its behavior on more hydrophilic surfaces. We propose that this hydrophobicity effect might be due to the amphiphilic nature of the Mms6 protein and its tendency to incorporate the hydrophobic N-terminal domain into the hydrophobic lipid bilayer environment of the magnetosome membrane, exposing the hydrophilic C-terminal domain that promotes biomineralization. Supporting this hypothesis, the larger and well-formed magnetite nanoparticles were found to be preferentially located on ODT surfaces covered with Mms6 as compared to control samples, as characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy studies. A C-terminal domain mutant of this protein did not form the same network structure as wild-type Mms6, suggesting that the network structure is important for the magnetite nanocrystal formation. This article provides valuable insights into the role of surface hydrophilicity on the action of the biomineralization protein Mms6 to synthesize magnetic nanocrystals and provides a facile route to controlling bioinspired nanocrystal synthesis in vitro.

  17. Effect of surface hydrophobicity on the function of the immobilized biomineralization protein Mms6

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Xunpei; Zhang, Honghu; Nayak, Srikanth; Parada, German; Anderegg, James; Feng, Shuren; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Akinc, Mufit; Mallapragada, Surya K.

    2015-08-13

    Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetic nanocrystals with uniform shapes and sizes in nature, which has inspired in vitro synthesis of uniformly sized magnetite nanocrystals under mild conditions. Mms6, a biomineralization protein from magnetotactic bacteria with a hydrophobic N-terminal domain and a hydrophilic C-terminal domain, can promote formation of magnetite nanocrystals in vitro with well-defined shape and size in gels under mild conditions. Here we investigate the role of surface hydrophobicity on the ability of Mms6 to template magnetite nanoparticle formation on surfaces. Our results confirmed that Mms6 can form a protein network structure on a monolayer of hydrophobic octadecanethiol (ODT)-coated goldmore » surfaces and facilitate magnetite nanocrystal formation with uniform sizes close to those seen in nature, in contrast to its behavior on more hydrophilic surfaces. We propose that this hydrophobicity effect might be due to the amphiphilic nature of the Mms6 protein and its tendency to incorporate the hydrophobic N-terminal domain into the hydrophobic lipid bilayer environment of the magnetosome membrane, exposing the hydrophilic C-terminal domain that promotes biomineralization. Supporting this hypothesis, the larger and well-formed magnetite nanoparticles were found to be preferentially located on ODT surfaces covered with Mms6 as compared to control samples, as characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy studies. A C-terminal domain mutant of this protein did not form the same network structure as wild-type Mms6, suggesting that the network structure is important for the magnetite nanocrystal formation. This article provides valuable insights into the role of surface hydrophilicity on the action of the biomineralization protein Mms6 to synthesize magnetic nanocrystals and provides a facile route to controlling bioinspired nanocrystal synthesis in vitro.« less

  18. Influences of acid-base property of membrane on interfacial interactions related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Leihong; Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Meijia; Lin, Hongjun; Zhou, Xiaoling; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Mei, Rongwu; Hong, Huachang

    2016-08-01

    Failure of membrane hydrophobicity in predicting membrane fouling requires a more reliable indicator. In this study, influences of membrane acid base (AB) property on interfacial interactions in two different interaction scenarios in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were studied according to thermodynamic approaches. It was found that both the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and foulant samples in the MBR had relatively high electron donor (γ(-)) component and low electron acceptor (γ(+)) component. For both of interaction scenarios, AB interaction was the major component of the total interaction. The results showed that, the total interaction monotonically decreased with membrane γ(-), while was marginally affected by membrane γ(+), suggesting that γ(-) could act as a reliable indicator for membrane fouling prediction. This study suggested that membrane modification for fouling mitigation should orient to improving membrane surface γ(-) component rather than hydrophilicity. PMID:27155263

  19. Efficient Targeting of Fatty-Acid Modified Oligonucleotides to Live Cell Membranes through Stepwise Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lipid modifications provide efficient targeting of oligonucleotides to live cell membranes in a range of applications. Targeting efficiency is a function of the rate of lipid DNA insertion into the cell surface and its persistence over time. Here we show that increasing lipid hydrophobicity increases membrane persistence, but decreases the rate of membrane insertion due to the formation of nonproductive aggregates in solution. To ameliorate this effect, we split the net hydrophobicity of the membrane anchor between two complementary oligonucleotides. When prehybridized in solution, doubly anchored molecules also aggregate due to their elevated hydrophobicity. However, when added sequentially to cells, aggregation does not occur so membrane insertion is efficient. Hybridization between the two strands locks the complexes at the cell surface by increasing net hydrophobicity, increasing their total concentration and lifetime, and dramatically improving their utility in a variety of biomedical applications. PMID:25325667

  20. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS OF PERVAPORATION THROUGH ZEOLITE MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolite membranes are well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation because of their molecular-sized pores and their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organics [1]. Because of ...

  1. The Use ofa Hydrophobic Binding Peptide Modified Lipid Nanocarrier Improving Tumor Distribution and Antitumor Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Yang, Xiucong; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gao, Shanyun; He, Bing; Mei, Bong; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    In addition to showing the specific interaction between a generalized ligand and its receptor and the electrostatic effect between positive cell-penetrating peptides and negative cell membranes, our last study demonstrated the hydrophobic interactivity between a hydrophobic binding peptide (HBP) and biomembranes to be favorable in drug delivery. To yield more evidence for this new strategy and to find more effective HBPs, here we designed and established a novel nanomedicine associated with cyclosporin A (CsA) because this peptide is electrically neutral, highly hydrophobic, very stable in vivo and safe at the given dose. First, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between the CsA molecules and the lipid membrane. The lactate dehydrogenase release assay proved that CsA exhibited low toxicity to cell membranes. These facts encouraged us to explore the potential application of CsA as an HBP to actualize intracellular delivery of nanomedicines for tumor therapy. When conjugated to lipid nanocarriers, CsA significantly enhanced their binding with cells and,. consequently, increased the internalization of recoded nanomedicines into cells. The in vivo experiments further showed that the CsA-associated nanocarriers could achieve better delivery to tumor tissues and improve the tumor therapy of doxorubicin (DOX) compared to the nonmodified control; these findings were identical to the observations-in cell studies. In conclusion, CsA, a readily obtainable molecule with favorable characteristics, is indeed a good candidate for an HBP, and this study provides solid, novel evidence for the use of HBP-based nanocarriers as effective antitumor drug delivery systems. PMID:27319213

  2. Geometric grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

  3. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  4. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  5. Rejection of pharmaceuticals by forward osmosis membranes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue; Shan, Junhong; Wang, Can; Wei, Jing; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2012-08-15

    Rejection of four pharmaceutical compounds, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, by forward osmosis (FO) membranes was investigated in this study. For the first time, the rejection efficiency of the pharmaceutical compounds was compared between commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) based membranes and thin film composite (TFC) polyamide based membranes. The rejection behavior was related to membrane interfacial properties, physicochemical characteristics of the pharmaceutical molecules and feed solution pH. TFC polyamide membranes exhibited excellent overall performance, with high water flux, excellent pH stability and great rejection of all pharmaceuticals investigated (>94%). For commercial CTA based FO membranes, hydrophobic interaction between the compounds and membranes exhibited strong influence on their rejection under acidic conditions. The pharmaceuticals rejection was well correlated to their hydrophobicity (log D). Under alkaline conditions, both electrostatic repulsion and size exclusion contributed to the removal of deprotonated molecules. The pharmaceuticals rejection by CTA-HW membrane at pH 8 followed the order: diclofenac (99%)>carbamazepine (95%)>ibuprofen (93%) ≈ naproxen (93%). These results can be important for FO membrane synthesis, modification and their application in water purification. PMID:22640821

  6. Data Grid Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Reagan W.; Studham, Ronald S.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Watson, Chip; Stockinger, Heinz; Kunszt, Peter; Charlie Catlett and Ian Foster

    2002-02-27

    Data grids link distributed, heterogeneous storage resources into a coherent data management system. From a user perspective, the data grid provides a uniform name space across the underlying storage systems, while supporting retrieval and storage of files. In the high energy physics community, at least six data grids have been implemented for the storage and distribution of experimental data. Data grids are also being used to support projects as diverse as digital libraries (National Library of Medicine Visible Embryo project), federation of multiple astronomy sky surveys (NSF National Virtual Observatory project), and integration of distributed data sets (Long Term Ecological Reserve). Data grids also form the core interoperability mechanisms for creating persistent archives, in which data collections are migrated to new technologies over time. The ability to provide a uniform name space across multiple administration domains is becoming a critical component of national-scale, collaborative projects.

  7. The SIM astronmetric grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is fundamentally a one-dimensional instrument with a 15-degree field-of-regard. Mission objectives require a global reference grid of thousands of well-understood stars with positions known to 4 microarcseconds which will be used to establish the instrument baseline vector during scientific observations. This accuracy will be achieved by frequently observing a set of stars throughout the mission and performing a global fit of the observations to determine position, proper motion and parallax for each star. Each star will be observed approximately 200 times with about 6.5 stars per single instrument field on the sky. We describe the nature of the reference grid, the candidate objects, and the results of simulations demonstrating grid performance, including estimates of the grid robustness when including effects such as instrument drift and possible contamination of the grid star sample by undetected binaries.

  8. Noncompetitive, Voltage-Dependent NMDA Receptor Antagonism by Hydrophobic Anions

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, Andrew J.; Chisari, Mariangela; Yu, Andrew; Shu, Hong-Jin; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists are dissociative anesthetics, drugs of abuse, and are of therapeutic interest in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric disease. Many well-known NMDAR antagonists are positively charged, voltage-dependent channel blockers. We recently showed that the hydrophobic anion dipicrylamine (DPA) negatively regulates GABAA receptor function by a mechanism indistinguishable from that of sulfated neurosteroids. Because sulfated neurosteroids also modulate NMDARs, here we examined the effects of DPA on NMDAR function. In rat hippocampal neurons DPA inhibited currents gated by 300 µM NMDA with an IC50 of 2.3 µM. Neither onset nor offset of antagonism exhibited dependence on channel activation but exhibited a noncompetitive profile. DPA antagonism was independent of NMDAR subunit composition and was similar at extrasynaptic and total receptor populations. Surprisingly, similar to cationic channel blockers but unlike sulfated neurosteroids, DPA antagonism was voltage dependent. Onset and offset of DPA antagonism were nearly 10-fold faster than DPA-induced increases in membrane capacitance, suggesting that membrane interactions do not directly explain antagonism. Furthermore, voltage dependence did not derive from association of DPA with a site on NMDARs directly accessible to the outer membrane leaflet, assessed by DPA translocation experiments. Consistent with the expected lack of channel block, DPA antagonism did not interact with permeant ions. Therefore, we speculate that voltage dependence may arise from interactions of DPA with the inherent voltage dependence of channel gating. Overall, we conclude that DPA noncompetitively inhibits NMDA-induced current by a novel voltage-dependent mechanism and represents a new class of anionic NMDAR antagonists. PMID:23144238

  9. Preparation of a silica-based high-performance hydrophobic interaction chromatography stationary phase for protein separation and renaturation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yicong; Qu, Qian; Li, Weimin; Yuan, Jie; Ren, Yi; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    In this work, based on the structural characteristics of bio-membrane molecules, a novel type of high-performance hydrophobic interaction chromatography stationary phase was prepared using cholesterol as a ligand. Investigating the separation performance of this stationary phase, the effect of pH and salt concentration of the mobile phase on the retention time, the absorption capacity, and the hydrophobic ability revealed that this stationary phase had a high loading capacity and moderate hydrophobic interactions compared with four different hydrophobic interaction chromatography stationary phase ligands. Five types of standard proteins could be baseline separated with a great selection for protein separation. When 3.0 M urea was added to the mobile phase, it could be refolded with simultaneous purification of denatured lysozyme by one-step chromatography. The mass recovery of lysozyme reached 89.5%, and the active recovery was 96.8%. Compared with traditional hydrophobic interaction chromatography, this new stationary phase has a good hydrophobic ability and a significant refolding efficiency. PMID:27159821

  10. ENHANCED CORE HYDROPHOBICITY, FUNCTIONALIZATION AND CELL PENETRATION OF POLYBASIC NANOMATRICES

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Omar Z.; Kim, Timothy; Dietz, Stephen R.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE In this work a novel pH-responsive nanoscale polymer network was investigated for potential applications in nanomedicine. These consisted of a polybasic core surface stabilized with poly(ethylene glycol) grafts. The ability to control swelling properties via changes in core hydrophobicity and crosslinking density was assessed. The nanomatrices were also evaluated in vitro as nanocarriers for targeted intracellular delivery of macromolecules. METHODS Photo-emulsion polymerization was used to synthesize poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylateco-t-butyl methacrylate-g-poly(ethylene glycol)] (PDBP) nanomatrices. These were characterized using NMR, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, electron microscopy. The cytocompatibility and cellular uptake of nanomatrices was measured using the NIH/3T3 and A549 cell lines. RESULTS PDBP nanomatrices had a dry diameter of 40-60 nm and a hydrodynamic diameter of 70-90 nm in the collapsed state. Maximum volume swelling ratios from 10-23 were obtained depending on crosslinking density. Controlling the hydrophobicity of the networks allowed for control over the critical swelling pH without a significant loss in maximal volume swelling. The effect of PDBP nanomatrices on cell viability and cell membrane integrity depended on crosslinking density. Cell uptake and cytosolic delivery of FITC-albumin was enhanced from clathrin-targeting nanocarriers. The uptake resulted in nuclear localization of the dye in a cell type dependent fashion. CONCLUSIONS The results of this work indicate that PDBP nanomatrices have tunable swelling properties. The networks were cytocompatible and proved to be suitable agents for intracellular delivery. PMID:18751960

  11. Liquid-vapor oscillations of water in hydrophobic nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckstein, Oliver; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2003-06-01

    Water plays a key role in biological membrane transport. In ion channels and water-conducting pores (aquaporins), one-dimensional confinement in conjunction with strong surface effects changes the physical behavior of water. In molecular dynamics simulations of water in short (0.8 nm) hydrophobic pores the water density in the pore fluctuates on a nanosecond time scale. In long simulations (460 ns in total) at pore radii ranging from 0.35 to 1.0 nm we quantify the kinetics of oscillations between a liquid-filled and a vapor-filled pore. This behavior can be explained as capillary evaporation alternating with capillary condensation, driven by pressure fluctuations in the water outside the pore. The free-energy difference between the two states depends linearly on the radius. The free-energy landscape shows how a metastable liquid state gradually develops with increasing radius. For radii > 0.55 nm it becomes the globally stable state and the vapor state vanishes. One-dimensional confinement affects the dynamic behavior of the water molecules and increases the self diffusion by a factor of 2-3 compared with bulk water. Permeabilities for the narrow pores are of the same order of magnitude as for biological water pores. Water flow is not continuous but occurs in bursts. Our results suggest that simulations aimed at collective phenomena such as hydrophobic effects may require simulation times >50 ns. For water in confined geometries, it is not possible to extrapolate from bulk or short time behavior to longer time scales.

  12. Membrane curvature at a glance.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Harvey T; Boucrot, Emmanuel

    2015-03-15

    Membrane curvature is an important parameter in defining the morphology of cells, organelles and local membrane subdomains. Transport intermediates have simpler shapes, being either spheres or tubules. The generation and maintenance of curvature is of central importance for maintaining trafficking and cellular functions. It is possible that local shapes in complex membranes could help to define local subregions. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we summarize how generating, sensing and maintaining high local membrane curvature is an active process that is mediated and controlled by specialized proteins using general mechanisms: (i) changes in lipid composition and asymmetry, (ii) partitioning of shaped transmembrane domains of integral membrane proteins or protein or domain crowding, (iii) reversible insertion of hydrophobic protein motifs, (iv) nanoscopic scaffolding by oligomerized hydrophilic protein domains and, finally, (v) macroscopic scaffolding by the cytoskeleton with forces generated by polymerization and by molecular motors. We also summarize some of the discoveries about the functions of membrane curvature, where in addition to providing cell or organelle shape, local curvature can affect processes like membrane scission and fusion as well as protein concentration and enzyme activation on membranes. PMID:25774051

  13. Optimization Of A Computational Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    In improved method of generation of computational grid, grid-generation process decoupled from definition of geometry. Not necessary to redefine boundary. Instead, continuous boundaries in physical domain specified, and then grid points in computational domain mapped onto continuous boundaries.

  14. Curvature Dependence of Hydrophobic Hydration Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, R. Gregor; Heyden, Matthias; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the solute curvature dependence of water dynamics in the vicinity of hydrophobic spherical solutes using molecular dynamics simulations. For both the lateral and perpendicular diffusivity, as well as for H-bond kinetics of water in the first hydration shell, we find a nonmonotonic solute-size dependence, exhibiting extrema close to the well-known structural crossover length scale for hydrophobic hydration. Additionally, we find an apparent anomalous diffusion for water moving parallel to the surface of small solutes, which, however, can be explained by topology effects. Our findings regarding the intimate connection between solute curvature and water dynamics has implications for our understanding of hydration dynamics at heterogeneous biomolecular surfaces.

  15. Dewetting-induced collapse of hydrophobic particles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, X.; Margulis, C. J.; Berne, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    A molecular dynamics study of the depletion of water (drying) around a single and between two hydrophobic nanoscale oblate plates in explicit water as a function of the distance of separation between them, their size, and the strength of the attraction between the plates and the water molecules is presented. A simple macroscopic thermodynamic model based on Young's law successfully predicts drying between the stacked plates and accounts for the free-energy barriers to this drying. However, because drying around a single plate is not macroscopic, a molecular theory is required to describe it. The data are consistent with the rate-determining step in the hydrophobic collapse of the two plates being a large-scale drying fluctuation, characterized by a free-energy barrier that grows with particle size. PMID:14507993

  16. Bacterial Interaction with Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedri, Laura; Itier, Sophie; Schraft, Heidi; Hawton, Margaret

    2004-03-01

    Bacterial adhesion is believed to be governed by physical-chemical laws in the initial stages of attachment. We calculate the free energy of adhesion for a Pseudomonas putida bacterium interacting with either mercaptoundecanol or dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers using the Young-Dupré equation and experimentally measured contact angles. We then compare our model with preliminary biological studies involving the analysis of real-time laser scanning confocal microscopy images of bacteria attaching to hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates.

  17. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  18. DNA Hairpin Stabilization on a Hydrophobic Surface

    PubMed Central

    Kastantin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    DNA hybridization in the vicinity of surfaces is a fundamental process for self-assembled nanoarrays, nanocrystal superlattices, and biosensors. It is widely recognized that solid surfaces alter molecular forces governing hybridization relative to bulk solution, and these effects can either favor or disfavor the hybridized state depending on the specific sequence and surface. Results presented here provide new insights into the dynamics of DNA hairpin-coil conformational transitions in the vicinity of hydrophilic oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) and hydrophobic trimethylsilane (TMS) surfaces. Single-molecule methods are used to observe the forward and reverse hybridization hairpin-coil transition of adsorbed species while simultaneously measuring molecular surface diffusion in order to gain insight into surface interactions with individual DNA bases. At least 35,000 individual molecular trajectories are observed on each type of surface. We find that unfolding slows and the folding rate increases on TMS relative to OEG despite stronger attractions between TMS and unpaired nucleobases. These rate differences lead to nearly complete hairpin formation on hydrophobic TMS and significant unfolding on hydrophilic OEG, resulting in the surprising conclusion that hydrophobic surface coatings are preferable for nanotechnology applications that rely on DNA hybridization near surfaces. PMID:23184340

  19. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Haruka; Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Nakai, Yusuke; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Saito, Takeshi; Maniwa, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature Twd ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter Dc ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > Dc) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at Twd upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below Twd freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < Dc) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  20. Nonflammable, Hydrophobic Aerogel Composites for Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redouane, Begag

    2005-01-01

    Aerogel composites that are both nonflammable and hydrophobic have been developed for use as lightweight thermal- insulation materials for cryogenic systems. Aerogels are well known in the industry for their effectiveness as thermal insulators under cryogenic conditions, but the treatments used heretofore to render them hydrophobic also make them flammable. Nonflammability would make it safer to use aerogel insulation, especially in oxygen-rich environments and on cryogenic systems that contain liquid oxygen. A composite of this type is a silica aerogel reinforced with fibers. In comparison with unreinforced aerogels, the aerogel composite is about ten times as stiff and strong, better able to withstand handling, and more amenable to machining to required shapes. The composite can be made hydrophobic and nonflammable by appropriate design of a sol-gel process used to synthesize the aerogel component. In addition to very low thermal conductivity needed for insulation, aerogel composites of this type have been found to exhibit high resistance to moisture and nonflammability in oxygen-rich atmospheres: Samples floating on water for months gained no weight and showed no signs of deterioration. Samples were found to be nonflammable, even in pure oxygen at atmospheric pressure [14.7 psia (0.10 MPa)

  1. Effect of hydrophobic environments on the hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point of water.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Elena G; Corradini, Dario; Mazza, Marco G; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Gallo, Paola; Franzese, Giancarlo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The complex behavior of liquid water, along with its anomalies and their crucial role in the existence of life, continue to attract the attention of researchers. The anomalous behavior of water is more pronounced at subfreezing temperatures and numerous theoretical and experimental studies are directed towards developing a coherent thermodynamic and dynamic framework for understanding supercooled water. The existence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the deep supercooled region has been related to the anomalous behavior of water. However, the experimental study of supercooled water at very low temperatures is hampered by the homogeneous nucleation of the crystal. Recently, water confined in nanoscopic structures or in solutions has attracted interest because nucleation can be delayed. These systems have a tremendous relevance also for current biological advances; e.g., supercooled water is often confined in cell membranes and acts as a solvent for biological molecules. In particular, considerable attention has been recently devoted to understanding hydrophobic interactions or the behavior of water in the presence of apolar interfaces due to their fundamental role in self-assembly of micelles, membrane formation and protein folding. This article reviews and compares two very recent computational works aimed at elucidating the changes in the thermodynamic behavior in the supercooled region and the liquid-liquid critical point phenomenon for water in contact with hydrophobic environments. The results are also compared to previous reports for water in hydrophobic environments. PMID:23277673

  2. The DESY Grid Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, A.; Gellrich, A.; Kemp, Y.; Leffhalm, K.; Ozerov, D.; Wegner, P.

    2012-12-01

    DESY is one of the world-wide leading centers for research with particle accelerators, synchrotron light and astroparticles. DESY participates in LHC as a Tier-2 center, supports on-going analyzes of HERA data, is a leading partner for ILC, and runs the National Analysis Facility (NAF) for LHC and ILC in the framework of the Helmholtz Alliance, Physics at the Terascale. For the research with synchrotron light major new facilities are operated and built (FLASH, PETRA-III, and XFEL). DESY furthermore acts as Data-Tier1 centre for the Neutrino detector IceCube. Established within the EGI-project DESY operates a grid infrastructure which supports a number of virtual Organizations (VO), incl. ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb. Furthermore, DESY hosts some of HEP and non-HEP VOs, such as the HERA experiments and ILC as well as photon science communities. The support of the new astroparticle physics VOs IceCube and CTA is currently set up. As the global structure of the grid offers huge resources which are perfect for batch-like computing, DESY has set up the National Analysis Facility (NAF) which complements the grid to allow German HEP users for efficient data analysis. The grid infrastructure and the NAF use the same physics data which is distributed via the grid. We call the conjunction of grid and NAF the DESY Grid Centre. In the contribution to CHEP2012 we will in depth discuss the conceptional and operational aspects of our multi-VO and multi-community Grid Centre and present the system setup. We will in particular focus on the interplay of Grid and NAF and present experiences of the operations.

  3. Membrane species mobility under in-lipid-membrane forced convection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu-Kai; Huang, Ling-Ting; Chao, Ling

    2016-08-17

    Processing and managing cell membrane proteins for characterization while maintaining their intact structure is challenging. Hydrodynamic flow has been used to transport membrane species in supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) where the hydrophobic cores of the membrane species can be protected during processing. However, the forced convection mechanism of species embedded in lipid bilayers is still unclear. Developing a controlled SLB platform with a practical model to predict the membrane species mobility in the platform under in-lipid-membrane forced convection is imperative to ensure the practical applicability of SLBs in processing and managing membrane species with various geometrical properties. The mobility of membrane species is affected by the driving force from the aqueous environment in addition to the frictions from the lipid bilayer, in which both lipid leaflets may exhibit different speeds relative to that of the moving species. In this study, we developed a model, based on the applied driving force and the possible frictional resistances that the membrane species encounter, to predict how the mobility under in-lipid-membrane forced convection is influenced by the sizes of the species' hydrophilic portion in the aqueous environment and the hydrophobic portion embedded in the membrane. In addition, we used a microfluidic device for controlling the flow to arrange the lipid membrane and the tested membrane species in the desirable locations in order to obtain a SLB platform which can provide clear mobility responses of the species without disturbance from the species dispersion effect. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental observations, with the sliding friction coefficient between the upper leaflet and the hydrophilic portion of the species as the only regressed parameter. The result suggests that not only the lateral drag frictions from the lipid layers but also the sliding frictions between the species and the lipid layer planes

  4. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:17254294

  5. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content

  6. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  7. Grid Computing Education Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  8. Space Development Grid Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.

  9. Membrane Protein Insertion at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2014-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins of the cell surface and most intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells are assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum. Two highly conserved and parallel pathways mediate membrane protein targeting to and insertion into this organelle. The classical cotranslational pathway, utilized by most membrane proteins, involves targeting by the signal recognition particle followed by insertion via the Sec61 translocon. A more specialized posttranslational pathway, employed by many tail-anchored membrane proteins, is composed of entirely different factors centered around a cytosolic ATPase termed TRC40 or Get3. Both of these pathways overcome the same biophysical challenges of ferrying hydrophobic cargo through an aqueous milieu, selectively delivering it to one among several intracellular membranes and asymmetrically integrating its transmembrane domain(s) into the lipid bilayer. Here, we review the conceptual and mechanistic themes underlying these core membrane protein insertion pathways, the complexities that challenge our understanding, and future directions to over-come these obstacles. PMID:21801011

  10. Membrane proteins: always an insoluble problem?

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Andrea E

    2016-06-15

    Membrane proteins play crucial roles in cellular processes and are often important pharmacological drug targets. The hydrophobic properties of these proteins make full structural and functional characterization challenging because of the need to use detergents or other solubilizing agents when extracting them from their native lipid membranes. To aid membrane protein research, new methodologies are required to allow these proteins to be expressed and purified cheaply, easily, in high yield and to provide water soluble proteins for subsequent study. This mini review focuses on the relatively new area of water soluble membrane proteins and in particular two innovative approaches: the redesign of membrane proteins to yield water soluble variants and how adding solubilizing fusion proteins can help to overcome these challenges. This review also looks at naturally occurring membrane proteins, which are able to exist as stable, functional, water soluble assemblies with no alteration to their native sequence. PMID:27284043

  11. Membrane proteins: always an insoluble problem?

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Andrea E.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins play crucial roles in cellular processes and are often important pharmacological drug targets. The hydrophobic properties of these proteins make full structural and functional characterization challenging because of the need to use detergents or other solubilizing agents when extracting them from their native lipid membranes. To aid membrane protein research, new methodologies are required to allow these proteins to be expressed and purified cheaply, easily, in high yield and to provide water soluble proteins for subsequent study. This mini review focuses on the relatively new area of water soluble membrane proteins and in particular two innovative approaches: the redesign of membrane proteins to yield water soluble variants and how adding solubilizing fusion proteins can help to overcome these challenges. This review also looks at naturally occurring membrane proteins, which are able to exist as stable, functional, water soluble assemblies with no alteration to their native sequence. PMID:27284043

  12. IDL Grid Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Costa, A.

    2008-08-01

    Image Data Language is a software for data analysis, visualization and cross-platform application development. The potentiality of IDL is well-known in the academic scientific world, especially in the astronomical environment where thousands of procedures are developed by using IDL. The typical use of IDL is the interactive mode but it is also possible to run IDL programs that do not require any interaction with the user, submitting them in batch or background modality. Through the interactive mode the user immediately receives images or other data produced in the running phase of the program; in batch or background mode, the user will have to wait for the end of the program, sometime for many hours or days to obtain images or data that IDL produced as output: in fact in Grid environment it is possible to access to or retrieve data only after completion of the program. The work that we present gives flexibility to IDL procedures submitted to the Grid computer infrastructure. For this purpose we have developed an IDL Grid Web Portal to allow the user to access the Grid and to submit IDL programs granting a full job control and the access to images and data generated during the running phase, without waiting for their completion. We have used the PHP technology and we have given the same level of security that Grid normally offers to its users. In this way, when the user notices that the intermediate program results are not those expected, he can stop the job, change the parameters to better satisfy the computational algorithm and resubmit the program, without consuming the CPU time and other Grid resources. The IDL Grid Web Portal allows you to obtain IDL generated images, graphics and data tables by using a normal browser. All conversations from the user and the Grid resources occur via Web, as well as authentication phases. The IDL user has not to change the program source much because the Portal will automatically introduce the appropriate modification before

  13. Implementing Production Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

  14. Random array grid collimator

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-08-22

    A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.

  15. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  16. Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

  17. Exploring Hypersonic, Unstructured-Grid Issues through Structured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Kleb, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Pure-tetrahedral unstructured grids have been shown to produce asymmetric heat transfer rates for symmetric problems. Meanwhile, two-dimensional structured grids produce symmetric solutions and as documented here, introducing a spanwise degree of freedom to these structured grids also yields symmetric solutions. The effects of grid skewness and other perturbations of structured-grids are investigated to uncover possible mechanisms behind the unstructured-grid solution asymmetries. By using controlled experiments around a known, good solution, the effects of particular grid pathologies are uncovered. These structured-grid experiments reveal that similar solution degradation occurs as for unstructured grids, especially for heat transfer rates. Non-smooth grids within the boundary layer is also shown to produce large local errors in heat flux but do not affect surface pressures.

  18. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  19. A new procedure for the hydrophobization of cellulose fibre using laccase and a hydrophobic phenolic compound.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ubasart, Jordi; Colom, Josep F; Vila, Carlos; Gómez Hernández, Nuria; Blanca Roncero, M; Vidal, Teresa

    2012-05-01

    A new biotechnological procedure using laccase in combination with a hydrophobic phenolic compound (lauryl gallate) for the hydrophobization of cellulose fibres and internal sizing of paper was developed. Cellulose fibres from hardwood kraft pulp were incubated with laccase (Lac), in combination with lauryl gallate (LG). The Lac-LG treatment resulted in the internal sizing of paper, and also in significantly reduced water penetration in the handsheets and wettability of the paper surface. Paper was found not to be effectively rendered hydrophobic by LG alone. SEM images of the fibre network revealed the presence of the sizing agent: a product of the reaction between laccase and lauryl gallate. Binding of lauryl gallate to cellulose fibres was suggested by the increase in kappa number of the pulp and further confirmed by IR spectroscopy. PMID:22440576

  20. Oriented single directional insertion of nanochannel of bacteriophage SPP1 DNA packaging motor into lipid bilayer via polar hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Ji, Zhouxiang; Wang, Shaoying; Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2016-10-01

    Insertion of biological nanopore into artificial membrane is of fundamental importance in nanotechnology. Many applications require control and knowledge of channel orientation. In this work, the insertion orientation of the bacteriophage SPP1 and phi29 DNA packaging motors into lipid membranes was investigated. Single molecule electrophysiological assays and Ni-NTA-nanogold binding assays revealed that both SPP1 and phi29 motor channels exhibited a one-way traffic property for TAT peptide translocation from N- to C-termini of the protein channels. SPP1 motor channels preferentially inserts into liposomes with their C-terminal wider region facing inward. Changing the hydrophobicity of the N- or C-termini of phi29 connector alters the insertion orientation, suggesting that the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the termini of the protein channel governs the orientation of the insertion into lipid membrane. It is proposed that the specificity in motor channel orientation is a result of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction at the air/water interface when the protein channels are incorporating into liposome membranes. PMID:27529454

  1. Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.

  2. GRIDS: Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: The 12 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s GRIDS Project, short for “Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage,” are developing storage technologies that can store renewable energy for use at any location on the grid at an investment cost less than $100 per kilowatt hour. Flexible, large-scale storage would create a stronger and more robust electric grid by enabling renewables to contribute to reliable power generation.

  3. Reference installation for the German grid initiative D-Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, W.; Dulov, O.; Garcia, A.; Jejkal, T.; Jrad, F.; Marten, H.; Mol, X.; Nilsen, D.; Schneider, O.

    2010-04-01

    The D-Grid reference installation is a test platform for the German grid initiative. The main task is to create the grid prototype for software and hardware components needed in the D-Grid community. For each grid-related task field different alternative middleware is included. With respect to changing demands from the community, new versions of the reference installation are released every six months.

  4. Arc Length Based Grid Distribution For Surface and Volume Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Techniques are presented for distributing grid points on parametric surfaces and in volumes according to a specified distribution of arc length. Interpolation techniques are introduced which permit a given distribution of grid points on the edges of a three-dimensional grid block to be propagated through the surface and volume grids. Examples demonstrate how these methods can be used to improve the quality of grids generated by transfinite interpolation.

  5. ADSORPTION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION MEASUREMENTS WITH MIXTURES OF ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass fermentation produces ethanol and other renewable biofuels. Pervaporation using hydrophobic membranes is potentially a cost-effective means of removing biofuels from fermentation broths for small- to medium-scale applications. Silicalite-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...

  6. Membrane-Protein Interactions in a Generic Coarse-Grained Model for Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    West, Beate; Brown, Frank L.H.; Schmid, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We study membrane-protein interactions and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions by Monte Carlo simulations of a generic coarse-grained model for lipid bilayers with cylindrical hydrophobic inclusions. The strength of the hydrophobic force and the hydrophobic thickness of the proteins are systematically varied. The results are compared with analytical predictions of two popular analytical theories: The Landau-de Gennes theory and the elastic theory. The elastic theory provides an excellent description of the fluctuation spectra of pure membranes and successfully reproduces the deformation profiles of membranes around single proteins. However, its prediction for the potential of mean force between proteins is not compatible with the simulation data for large distances. The simulations show that the lipid-mediated interactions are governed by five competing factors: direct interactions; lipid-induced depletion interactions; lipid bridging; lipid packing; and a smooth long-range contribution. The mechanisms leading to hydrophobic mismatch interactions are critically analyzed. PMID:18835907

  7. Unstructured Grids on NURBS Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1993-01-01

    A simple and efficient computational method is presented for unstructured surface grid generation. This method is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid projection. The projection technique is based on a Newton-Raphson method. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids. In this paper, the implementation for unstructured grid is discussed.

  8. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  9. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  10. Lipid-membrane modified electrodes to study quinone oxidoreductases

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Sophie A.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Quinone oxidoreductases are a class of membrane enzymes that catalyse the oxidation or reduction of membrane-bound quinols/quinones. The conversion of quinone/quinol by these enzymes is difficult to study due to the hydrophobic nature of the enzymes and their substrates. We describe some biochemical properties of quinones and quinone oxidoreductases and then look in more detail at two model membranes that can be used to study quinone oxidoreductases in a native-like membrane environment with their native lipophylic quinone substrates. The results obtained with these model membranes are compared to classical enzyme assays that use water-soluble quinone analogues. PMID:19614580

  11. Hydrophobic pocket targeting probes for enteroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martikainen, Mari; Salorinne, Kirsi; Lahtinen, Tanja; Malola, Sami; Permi, Perttu; Häkkinen, Hannu; Marjomäki, Varpu

    2015-10-01

    Visualization and tracking of viruses without compromising their functionality is crucial in order to understand virus targeting to cells and tissues, and to understand the subsequent subcellular steps leading to virus uncoating and replication. Enteroviruses are important human pathogens causing a vast number of acute infections, and are also suggested to contribute to the development of chronic diseases like type I diabetes. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to target site-specifically the hydrophobic pocket of enteroviruses. A probe, a derivative of Pleconaril, was developed and conjugated to various labels that enabled the visualization of enteroviruses under light and electron microscopes. The probe mildly stabilized the virus particle by increasing the melting temperature by 1-3 degrees, and caused a delay in the uncoating of the virus in the cellular endosomes, but could not however inhibit the receptor binding, cellular entry or infectivity of the virus. The hydrophobic pocket binding moiety of the probe was shown to bind to echovirus 1 particle by STD and tr-NOESY NMR methods. Furthermore, binding to echovirus 1 and Coxsackievirus A9, and to a lesser extent to Coxsackie virus B3 was verified by using a gold nanocluster labeled probe by TEM analysis. Molecular modelling suggested that the probe fits the hydrophobic pockets of EV1 and CVA9, but not of CVB3 as expected, correlating well with the variations in the infectivity and stability of the virus particles. EV1 conjugated to the fluorescent dye labeled probe was efficiently internalized into the cells. The virus-fluorescent probe conjugate accumulated in the cytoplasmic endosomes and caused infection starting from 6 hours onwards. Remarkably, before and during the time of replication, the fluorescent probe was seen to leak from the virus-positive endosomes and thus separate from the capsid proteins that were left in the endosomes. These results suggest that, like the physiological hydrophobic content

  12. Highly Hydrophobic Coatings from Waterborne Latexes.

    PubMed

    López, Ana B; de la Cal, José C; Asua, José M

    2016-08-01

    This work reports on the formation of highly hydrophobic coatings from waterborne latexes able to form films at ambient temperature. The contact angle of film forming copolymers of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and perfluorodecyl acrylate (PFDA) was limited to 114° because flat surfaces were obtained. Attempts to increase the roughness of the film using blends of film-forming latexes with the latex of PFDA homopolymer (which is not film forming) were not successful under regular casting conditions because the PFDA particles accumulated at the film-substrate interface. Film formation engineering allowed modifying the morphology of the film obtaining a contact angle of 137°. PMID:27400332

  13. Determining drug release rates of hydrophobic compounds from nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Bukari, Abdallah A; Dawoud, Mohammed; Bunjes, Heike; Rinaldi, Carlos; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-07-28

    Obtaining meaningful drug release profiles for drug formulations is essential prior to in vivo testing and for ensuring consistent quality. The release kinetics of hydrophobic drugs from nanocarriers (NCs) are not well understood because the standard protocols for maintaining sink conditions and sampling are not valid owing to mass transfer and solubility limitations. In this work, a new in vitroassay protocol based on 'lipid sinks' and magnetic separation produces release conditions that mimic the concentrations of lipid membranes and lipoproteins in vivo, facilitates separation, and thus allows determination of intrinsic release rates of drugs from NCs. The assay protocol is validated by (i) determining the magnetic separation efficiency, (ii) demonstrating that sink condition requirements are met, and (iii) accounting for drug by completing a mass balance. NCs of itraconazole and cyclosporine A (CsA) were prepared and the drug release profiles were determined. This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. These data have led to the finding that stabilizing block copolymer layers have a retarding effect on drug release from NCs, reducing the rate of CsA release fourfold compared with the nanoparticle without a polymer coating.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298440

  14. Nasal Absorption of Insulin: Enhancement by Hydrophobic Bile Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. S.; Moses, A. C.; Silver, R. D.; Flier, J. S.; Carey, M. C.

    1985-11-01

    We demonstrate that therapeutically useful amounts of insulin are absorbed by the nasal mucosa of human beings when administered as a nasal spray with the common bile salts. By employing a series of bile salts with subtle differences in the number, position, and orientation of their nuclear hydroxyl functions and alterations in side chain conjugation, we show that adjuvant potency for nasal insulin absorption correlates positively with increasing hydrophobicity of the bile salts' steroid nucleus. As inferred from studies employing various concentrations of unconjugated deoxycholate and a constant dose of insulin, insulin absorption begins at the aqueous critical micellar concentration of the bile salt and becomes maximal when micelle formation is well established. These and other data are consistent with the complementary hypotheses that bile salts act as absorption adjuvants by (i) producing high juxtamembrane concentrations of insulin monomers via solubilization in mixed bile salt micelles and (ii) forming reverse micelles within nasal membranes, through which insulin monomers can diffuse through polar channels from the nares into the blood stream.

  15. Hydrophobic polyoxins are resistant to intracellular degradation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Naider, F; Kundu, B; Becker, J M

    1986-01-01

    Two novel polyoxins, N-epsilon-(octanoyl)-lysyl-uracil polyoxin C (Oct-Lys-UPOC) and N-gamma-(octyl)-glutaminyluracil polyoxin C (Oct-Gln-UPOC), were synthesized by reacting uracil polyoxin C with the appropriate amino acid p-nitrophenyl ester. Oct-Lys-UPOC and Oct-Gln-UPOC were strong inhibitors (Kis = 1.7 X 10(-6)M) of chitin synthetase from Candida albicans membrane preparations. In a permeabilized-cell assay, Oct-Gln-UPOC had a 10-fold-lower inhibitory activity toward chitin synthetase than did the Oct-Lys-UPOC analog. Both compounds were resistant to hydrolysis by a cell extract of C. albicans H317; however, Oct-Gln-UPOC was hydrolyzed with a half-life of 23 min by a permeabilized-cell preparation. Oct-Lys-UPOC was resistant to hydrolysis by permeabilized cells. Oct-Gln-UPOC and Oct-Lys-UPOC did not compete with the transport of peptides or uridine into the cell. At concentrations up to 2 mM these two new polyoxins were ineffective in the inhibition of cell growth or reduction of cell viability, but they induced aberrant morphologies in C. albicans at a concentration of 0.25 mM. These data suggest that polyoxins containing hydrophobic amino acids retain strong chitin synthetase inhibitory activity and are resistant to cellular hydrolysis. They provide the first example of effective synthetic chitin synthetase inhibitors which are stable inside C. albicans. PMID:3524423

  16. A Survey of Membrane Proteins in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Dung, Nguyen Tien; Van Chi, Phan

    2012-01-01

    Serum and membrane proteins are two of the most attractive targets for proteomic analysis. Previous membrane protein studies tend to focus on tissue sample, while membrane protein studies in serum are still limited. In this study, an analysis of membrane proteins in normal human serum was carried out. Nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) and bioinformatics tools were used to identify membrane proteins. Two hundred and seventeen membrane proteins were detected in the human serum, of which 129 membrane proteins have at least one transmembrane domain (TMD). Further characterizations of identified membrane proteins including their subcellular distributions, molecular weights, post translational modifications, transmembrane domains and average of hydrophobicity, were also implemented. Our results showed the potential of membrane proteins in serum for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. PMID:25288886

  17. Correlation of charge, hydrophobicity, and structure with antimicrobial activity of S1 and MIRIAM peptides.

    PubMed

    Leptihn, Sebastian; Har, Jia Yi; Wohland, Thorsten; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2010-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are key elements of the innate immune system. Many of them interact with membranes of bacteria leading to perturbation of the lipid bilayer and eventually to inactivation of the pathogen. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has necessitated innovations of new and more powerful classes of antimicrobials. Here we present the in-depth study of an antimicrobial peptide, MIRIAM, derived from Sushi1 (S1), a well-characterized peptide from the horseshoe crab. MIRIAM interacts strongly with negatively charged lipids, forming an α-helical structure. MIRIAM was found to neutralize LPS and kill Gram-negative bacteria with high efficiency, while not releasing LPS. The promising therapeutic potential of MIRIAM is shown by hemolytic assays, which demonstrate that eukaryotic membranes are unaffected at bactericidal concentrations. Nanoparticle-conjugated MIRIAM used in single-molecule fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments showed that MIRIAM targets bacterial membranes to kill bacteria similarly to parental S1. Furthermore, fragments derived from MIRIAM and S1 provided insights on their molecular mechanisms of action, in particular, the relationships of functional motifs comprised by charge, hydrophobicity, and structure within each peptide. We conclude that the combination of charge, hydrophobicity, and length of the peptide is important. A close interaction of amino acids in a single molecule in a carefully balanced ensemble of sequence position and secondary structure is crucial. PMID:20873868

  18. GridLAB-D/SG

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-08-30

    GridLAB-D is a new power system simulation tool that provides valuable information to users who design and operate electric power transmission and distribution systems, and to utilities that wish to take advantage of the latest smart grid technology. This special release of GridLAB-D was developed to study the proposed Smart Grid technology that is used by Battelle Memorial Institute in the AEP gridSMART demonstration project in Northeast Columbus, Ohio.

  19. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  20. Differences in activity of actinoporins are related with the hydrophobicity of their N-terminus.

    PubMed

    Ros, Uris; Rodríguez-Vera, Wendy; Pedrera, Lohans; Valiente, Pedro A; Cabezas, Sheila; Lanio, María E; García-Sáez, Ana J; Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Actinoporins are pore-forming toxins (PFT) produced by sea anemones with molecular mass around 20 kDa and high affinity for sphingomyelin. The most studied atinoporins are sticholysins I and II (StI/StII) from Stichodactyla helianthus, equinatoxin II (EqtII) from Actinia equina, and fragaceatoxin C (FraC) from Actinia fragacea. Their N-terminal sequences encompassing residues 1-30 seem to be the best candidates for pore formation. This segment comprises an amphipathic α-helix preceded by a more or less hydrophobic segment, depending on the toxin, of around 10 amino acid residues. Although it is clear that the N-terminal is the most variable sequence in this protein family, the role of their hydrophobic segment in not fully understood. Here we show a comparison of StI, StII, EqtII, and FraC activities with that of their respective N-terminal synthetic peptides. The hemolytic and permeabilizing activity of the peptides reproduce qualitatively the behavior of their respective parental proteins and are particularly related to the hydrophobicity of the corresponding 1-10 segment. Furthermore, the dendrogram analysis of actinoporins' N-terminal sequence allows relating differences in alignment with differences in activity among the four toxins. We have also evaluated the penetration depth of the N-terminal segment of StI and StII by using Trp-containing peptide-analogs. Our data suggest that the N-terminus of StII is more deeply buried into the hydrophobic core of the bilayer than that of StI. We hypothesize that the highest activity of StII could be ascribed to a larger hydrophobic continuum, an uninterrupted sequence of non-charged mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues, of its N-terminus promoting a highest ability to partially insert in the membrane core. Moreover, as we show for four related peptides that a higher hydrophobicity contributes to increase the activity, we reinforce the notion that this property must be taken into account to design new potent

  1. Membrane tension and membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michael M; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2015-08-01

    Diverse cell biological processes that involve shaping and remodeling of cell membranes are regulated by membrane lateral tension. Here we focus on the role of tension in driving membrane fusion. We discuss the physics of membrane tension, forces that can generate the tension in plasma membrane of a cell, and the hypothesis that tension powers expansion of membrane fusion pores in late stages of cell-to-cell and exocytotic fusion. We propose that fusion pore expansion can require unusually large membrane tensions or, alternatively, low line tensions of the pore resulting from accumulation in the pore rim of membrane-bending proteins. Increase of the inter-membrane distance facilitates the reaction. PMID:26282924

  2. An Approach for Dynamic Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John W.; Liou, Meng-Sing; Hindman, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is presented for the generation of two-dimensional, structured, dynamic grids. The grid motion may be due to the motion of the boundaries of the computational domain or to the adaptation of the grid to the transient, physical solution. A time-dependent grid is computed through the time integration of the grid speeds which are computed from a system of grid speed equations. The grid speed equations are derived from the time-differentiation of the grid equations so as to ensure that the dynamic grid maintains the desired qualities of the static grid. The grid equations are the Euler-Lagrange equations derived from a variational statement for the grid. The dynamic grid method is demonstrated for a model problem involving boundary motion, an inviscid flow in a converging-diverging nozzle during startup, and a viscous flow over a flat plate with an impinging shock wave. It is shown that the approach is more accurate for transient flows than an approach in which the grid speeds are computed using a finite difference with respect to time of the grid. However, the approach requires significantly more computational effort.

  3. Complex Volume Grid Generation Through the Use of Grid Reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of surface and volume grid generation techniques which reuse existing surface and volume grids. These methods use combinations of data manipulations to reduce grid generation time, improve grid characteristics, and increase the capabilities of existing domain discretization software. The manipulation techniques utilize physical and computational domains to produce basis function on which to operate and modify grid character and smooth grids using Trans-Finite Interpolation, a vector interpolation method and parametric re-mapping technique. With these new techniques, inviscid grids can be converted to viscous grids, multiple zone grid adaption can be performed to improve CFD solver efficiency, and topological changes to improve modeling of flow fields can be done simply and quickly. Examples of these capabilities are illustrated as applied to various configurations.

  4. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  5. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. The technical work program was initiated on July 1, 1992. Force-distance curves were generated for DDOA Br-coated mica surfaces in water and used to calculate hydrophobicity constants and decay lengths for this system; and a new device for the measurement of water contact angles, similar to the Wilhelmy plate balance, has been built 225 kg samples of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhom No. 3 seam coals were obtained; a static mixer test facility for the study of coagula growth was set up and was undergoing shakedown tests at the end of the quarter; a bench-scale lamella thickener was being constructed; and preliminary coagula/ mineral separation tests were being conducted in a bench-scale continuous drum filter.

  6. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA[sup [minus

  7. The Dewetting Transition and The Hydrophobic Effect.

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Niharendu; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2007-03-27

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A molecular-level description of the behavior of water in hydrophobic spaces is presented in terms of the coupled effects of solute size and atomic solute-solvent interactions. For model solutes with surface areas near those of protein contacts, we identify three different regions of solute-water interaction to be associated with three distinctly different structural characteristics of water in the intersolute region: dry, oscillating, and wet. A first orderlike phase transition is confirmed from the wet to dry state bridged by a narrow region with liquid-vapor oscillations in the intersolute region as the strength of the solute-water attractive dispersion interaction decreases. We demonstrate that the recent idea that cavitation in the intersolute region of nanoscopic solutes is preceded by the formation of a vapor layer around an individual solute is not the general case. The appearance of density waves pulled up around and outside of a nanoscopic plate occurs at lower interaction strengths than are required to obtain a wet state between such plates. We further show that chemically reasonable estimates of the interaction strength lead to a microscopically wet state and a hydrophobic interaction characterized by traps and barriers to association and not by vacuum induced collapse.

  8. Membrane tethering

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems. PMID:25343031

  9. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1999-01-01

    An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

  10. Gated ion transport through dense carbon nanotube membranes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Funke, Hans H; Falconer, John L; Noble, Richard D

    2010-06-23

    Gated ion diffusion is found widely in hydrophobic biological nanopores, upon changes in ligand binding, temperature, transmembrane voltage, and mechanical stress. Because water is the main media for ion diffusion in these hydrophobic biological pores, ion diffusion behavior through these nanochannels is expected to be influenced significantly when water wettability in hydrophobic biological nanopores is sensitive and changes upon small external changes. Here, we report for the first time that ion diffusion through highly hydrophobic nanopores (approximately 3 nm) showed a gated behavior due to change of water wettability on hydrophobic surface upon small temperature change or ultrasound. Dense carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes with both 3-nm CNTs and 3-nm interstitial pores were prepared by a solvent evaporation process and used as a model system to investigate ion diffusion behavior. Ion diffusion through these membranes exhibited a gated behavior. The ion flux was turned on and off, apparently because the water wettability of CNTs changed. At 298 K, ion diffusion through dense CNT membranes stopped after a few hours, but it dramatically increased when the temperature was increased 20 K or the membrane was subjected to ultrasound. Likewise, water adsorption on dense CNT membranes increased dramatically at a water activity of 0.53 when the temperature increased from 293 to 306 K, indicating capillary condensation. Water adsorption isotherms of dense CNT membranes suggest that the adsorbed water forms a discontinuous phase at 293 K, but it probably forms a continuous layer, probably in the interstitial CNT regions, at higher temperatures. When the ion diffusion channel was opened by a temperature increase or ultrasound, ions diffused through the CNT membranes at a rate similar to bulk diffusion in water. This finding may have implications for using CNT membrane for desalination and water treatment. PMID:20504021

  11. Membrane association of sucrose synthase: changes during the graviresponse and possible control by protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, J. L.; Huber, S. C.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) plays an important role in sucrose degradation and occurs both as a soluble and as a membrane-associated enzyme in higher plants. We show that membrane association can vary in vivo in response to gravistimulation, apparently involving SuSy dephosphorylation, and is a reversible process in vitro. Phosphorylation of SuSy has little effect on its activity but decreases its surface hydrophobicity as reported with the fluorescent probe bis-ANS. We postulate that phosphorylation of SuSy (and perhaps other membrane proteins) is involved in the release of the membrane-bound enzyme in part as a result of decreased surface hydrophobicity.

  12. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  13. The Computing Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, P.

    2009-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, High Energy Physics research institutions like CERN and INFN pioneered several projects aimed at exploiting the synergy among computing power, storage and network resources, and creating an infrastructure of distributed computing on a worldwide scale. In the year 2000, after the Monarch project [ http://monarc.web.cern.ch/MONARC/], DataGrid started [ http://eu-datagrid.web.cern.ch/eu-datagrid/] aimed at providing High Energy Physics with the computing power needed for the LHC enterprise. This program evolved into the EU DataGrid project, that implemented the first actual prototype of a Grid middleware running on a testbed environment. The next step consisted in the application to the LHC experiments, with the LCG project [ http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG/], in turn followed by the EGEE [ http://www.eu-egee.org/] and EGEE II programs.

  14. Interactive surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Raymond Ching-Chung; Pierce, Lawrence E.; Yip, David

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a surface grid generation tool called S3D. It is the result of integrating a robust and widely applicable interpolation technique with the latest in workstation technology. Employing the use of a highly efficient and user-friendly graphical interface, S3D permits real-time interactive analyses of surface geometry data and facilitates the construction of surface grids for a wide range of applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The design objectives are for S3D to be stand-alone and easy to use so that CFD analysts can take a hands-on approach toward most if not all of their surface grid generation needs. Representative examples of S3D applications are presented in describing the various elements involved in the process.

  15. Canine distemper virus envelope protein interactions modulated by hydrophobic residues in the fusion protein globular head.

    PubMed

    Avila, Mislay; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Alves, Lisa; Ader-Ebert, Nadine; Bringolf, Fanny; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plemper, Richard K; Plattet, Philippe

    2015-01-15

    Membrane fusion for morbillivirus cell entry relies on critical interactions between the viral fusion (F) and attachment (H) envelope glycoproteins. Through extensive mutagenesis of an F cavity recently proposed to contribute to F's interaction with the H protein, we identified two neighboring hydrophobic residues responsible for severe F-to-H binding and fusion-triggering deficiencies when they were mutated in combination. Since both residues reside on one side of the F cavity, the data suggest that H binds the F globular head domain sideways. PMID:25355896

  16. Fusion protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5: nucleotide sequence of mRNA predicts a highly hydrophobic glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, R G; Harris, T J; Lamb, R A

    1984-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA coding for the fusion glycoprotein (F) of the paramyxovirus, simian virus 5, has been obtained. There is a single large open reading frame on the mRNA that encodes a protein of 529 amino acids with a molecular weight of 56,531. The proteolytic cleavage/activation site of F, to yield F2 and F1, contains five arginine residues. Six potential glycosylation sites were identified in the protein, two on F2 and four on F1. The deduced amino acid sequence indicates that F is extensively hydrophobic over the length of the polypeptide chain. Three regions are very hydrophobic and could interact directly with membranes: these are the NH2-terminal putative signal peptide, the COOH-terminal putative membrane anchorage domain, and the NH2-terminal region of F1. Images PMID:6093114

  17. Contacts Between Alcohols in Water Are Random Rather than Hydrophobic.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor; van der Post, Sietse T; Bakker, Huib J

    2015-02-19

    Given the importance of water-mediated hydrophobic interactions in a wide range of biological and synthetic self-assembly processes, it is remarkable that both the sign and the magnitude of the hydrophobic interactions between simple amphiphiles, such as alcohols, remain unresolved. To address this question, we have performed Raman hydration-shell vibrational spectroscopy and polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared experiments, as well as random mixing and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that there are no more hydrophobic contacts in aqueous solutions of alcohols ranging from methanol to tertiary butyl alcohol than in random mixtures of the same concentration. This implies that the interaction between small hydrophobic groups is weaker than thermal energy fluctuations. Thus, the corresponding water-mediated hydrophobic interaction must be repulsive, with a magnitude sufficient to negate the attractive direct van der Waals interaction between the hydrophobic groups. PMID:26262487

  18. Statistical Analyses of Hydrophobic Interactions: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Lawrence R; Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Rempe, Susan B

    2016-07-14

    This review focuses on the striking recent progress in solving for hydrophobic interactions between small inert molecules. We discuss several new understandings. First, the inverse temperature phenomenology of hydrophobic interactions, i.e., strengthening of hydrophobic bonds with increasing temperature, is decisively exhibited by hydrophobic interactions between atomic-scale hard sphere solutes in water. Second, inclusion of attractive interactions associated with atomic-size hydrophobic reference cases leads to substantial, nontrivial corrections to reference results for purely repulsive solutes. Hydrophobic bonds are weakened by adding solute dispersion forces to treatment of reference cases. The classic statistical mechanical theory for those corrections is not accurate in this application, but molecular quasi-chemical theory shows promise. Finally, because of the masking roles of excluded volume and attractive interactions, comparisons that do not discriminate the different possibilities face an interpretive danger. PMID:27258151

  19. GridPV Toolbox

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feedermore » on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.« less

  20. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  1. Conductive hydrophobic hybrid textiles modified with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, D.; Brzeziński, S.; Makowski, T.; Fortuniak, W.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of modifying and testing modern hybrid polyester-cotton woven fabrics with deposited multi-wall carbon nanotubes and imparted hydrophobicity. The effect of the carbon nanotubes deposited on these fabrics on their conductive properties and hydrophobicity has been assessed. The electro-conductive and hydrophobic composite fabrics obtained in this way, being light, elastic and resistant to mechanical effects, make it possible to be widely used in various industrial fields.

  2. Anisotropic Membrane Curvature Sensing by Amphipathic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi; Elías-Wolff, Federico; Lindén, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Many proteins and peptides have an intrinsic capacity to sense and induce membrane curvature, and play crucial roles for organizing and remodeling cell membranes. However, the molecular driving forces behind these processes are not well understood. Here, we describe an approach to study curvature sensing by simulating the interactions of single molecules with a buckled lipid bilayer. We analyze three amphipathic antimicrobial peptides, a class of membrane-associated molecules that specifically target and destabilize bacterial membranes, and find qualitatively different sensing characteristics that would be difficult to resolve with other methods. Our findings provide evidence for direction-dependent curvature sensing mechanisms in amphipathic peptides and challenge existing theories of hydrophobic insertion. The buckling approach is generally applicable to a wide range of curvature-sensing molecules, and our results provide strong motivation to develop new experimental methods to track position and orientation of membrane proteins. PMID:26745422

  3. Combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through surface nanoengineering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-04-08

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  4. Combined Hydrophobicity and Mechanical Durability through Surface Nanoengineering

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability. PMID:25851026

  5. Modulation of hydrophobic interactions by proximally immobilized ions.

    PubMed

    Ma, C Derek; Wang, Chenxuan; Acevedo-Vélez, Claribel; Gellman, Samuel H; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2015-01-15

    The structure of water near non-polar molecular fragments or surfaces mediates the hydrophobic interactions that underlie a broad range of interfacial, colloidal and biophysical phenomena. Substantial progress over the past decade has improved our understanding of hydrophobic interactions in simple model systems, but most biologically and technologically relevant structures contain non-polar domains in close proximity to polar and charged functional groups. Theories and simulations exploring such nanometre-scale chemical heterogeneity find it can have an important effect, but the influence of this heterogeneity on hydrophobic interactions has not been tested experimentally. Here we report chemical force microscopy measurements on alkyl-functionalized surfaces that reveal a dramatic change in the surfaces' hydrophobic interaction strengths on co-immobilization of amine or guanidine groups. Protonation of amine groups doubles the strength of hydrophobic interactions, and guanidinium groups eliminate measurable hydrophobic interactions in all pH ranges investigated. We see these divergent effects of proximally immobilized cations also in single-molecule measurements on conformationally stable β-peptides with non-polar subunits located one nanometre from either amine- or guanidine-bearing subunits. Our results demonstrate the importance of nanometre-scale chemical heterogeneity, with hydrophobicity not an intrinsic property of any given non-polar domain but strongly modulated by functional groups located as far away as one nanometre. The judicious placing of charged groups near hydrophobic domains thus provides a strategy for tuning hydrophobic driving forces to optimize molecular recognition or self-assembly processes. PMID:25592540

  6. Modulation of hydrophobic interactions by proximally immobilized ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. Derek; Wang, Chenxuan; Acevedo-Vélez, Claribel; Gellman, Samuel H.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of water near non-polar molecular fragments or surfaces mediates the hydrophobic interactions that underlie a broad range of interfacial, colloidal and biophysical phenomena. Substantial progress over the past decade has improved our understanding of hydrophobic interactions in simple model systems, but most biologically and technologically relevant structures contain non-polar domains in close proximity to polar and charged functional groups. Theories and simulations exploring such nanometre-scale chemical heterogeneity find it can have an important effect, but the influence of this heterogeneity on hydrophobic interactions has not been tested experimentally. Here we report chemical force microscopy measurements on alkyl-functionalized surfaces that reveal a dramatic change in the surfaces' hydrophobic interaction strengths on co-immobilization of amine or guanidine groups. Protonation of amine groups doubles the strength of hydrophobic interactions, and guanidinium groups eliminate measurable hydrophobic interactions in all pH ranges investigated. We see these divergent effects of proximally immobilized cations also in single-molecule measurements on conformationally stable β-peptides with non-polar subunits located one nanometre from either amine- or guanidine-bearing subunits. Our results demonstrate the importance of nanometre-scale chemical heterogeneity, with hydrophobicity not an intrinsic property of any given non-polar domain but strongly modulated by functional groups located as far away as one nanometre. The judicious placing of charged groups near hydrophobic domains thus provides a strategy for tuning hydrophobic driving forces to optimize molecular recognition or self-assembly processes.

  7. Combined Hydrophobicity and Mechanical Durability through Surface Nanoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  8. How the antimicrobial peptides destroy bacteria cell membrane: Translocations vs. membrane buckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Fang, Weihai

    2012-02-01

    In this study, coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation with implementation of electrostatic interactions is developed in constant pressure and surface tension ensemble to elucidate how the antimicrobial peptide molecules affect bilayer cell membrane structure and kill bacteria. We find that peptides with different chemical-physical properties exhibit different membrane obstructing mechanisms. Peptide molecules can destroy vital functions of the affected bacteria by translocating across their membranes via worm-holes, or by associating with membrane lipids to form hydrophilic cores trapped inside the hydrophobic domain of the membranes. In the latter scenario, the affected membranes are strongly corrugated (buckled) in accord with very recent experimental observations [G. E. Fantner et al., Nat. Nanotech., 5 (2010), pp. 280-285].

  9. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  10. Distributed Accounting on the Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; Hacker, Thomas J.; McGinnis, Laura F.; Athey, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    By the late 1990s, the Internet was adequately equipped to move vast amounts of data between HPC (High Performance Computing) systems, and efforts were initiated to link together the national infrastructure of high performance computational and data storage resources together into a general computational utility 'grid', analogous to the national electrical power grid infrastructure. The purpose of the Computational grid is to provide dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to computational resources for the computing community in the form of a computing utility. This paper presents a fully distributed view of Grid usage accounting and a methodology for allocating Grid computational resources for use on a Grid computing system.

  11. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David

    2011-12-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  12. Signal Recognition Particle and SecA Cooperate during Export of Secretory Proteins with Highly Hydrophobic Signal Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yufan; Ueda, Takuya; Müller, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The Sec translocon of bacterial plasma membranes mediates the linear translocation of secretory proteins as well as the lateral integration of membrane proteins. Integration of many membrane proteins occurs co-translationally via the signal recognition particle (SRP)-dependent targeting of ribosome-associated nascent chains to the Sec translocon. In contrast, translocation of classical secretory proteins across the Sec translocon is a post-translational event requiring no SRP but the motor protein SecA. Secretory proteins were, however, reported to utilize SRP in addition to SecA, if the hydrophobicity of their signal sequences exceeds a certain threshold value. Here we have analyzed transport of this subgroup of secretory proteins across the Sec translocon employing an entirely defined in vitro system. We thus found SecA to be both necessary and sufficient for translocation of secretory proteins with hydrophobic signal sequences, whereas SRP and its receptor improved translocation efficiency. This SRP-mediated boost of translocation is likely due to the early capture of the hydrophobic signal sequence by SRP as revealed by site-specific photo cross-linking of ribosome nascent chain complexes. PMID:24717922

  13. On the Hydrophobicity of Nitrogen Dioxide: Could there be a “lens” effect for NO2 reaction kinetics?

    PubMed Central

    Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Postlethwait, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    Solvent “lens” effects for the reaction kinetics of NO2 can be evaluated on the basis of published Henry’s law constants for nitrogen dioxide in various solvents. Water-to-organic solvent partition coefficients were derived from Henry’s law constants and used to assess the tendencies of NO2 toward fleeing the aqueous environments and concentrating in biological hydrophobic media. It is concluded, based only on the estimated aqueous medium-to-cell membrane partition coefficient for NO2, that such tendencies will be relatively small, and that they may account for an acceleration of chemical reactions in biological hydrophobic media with reaction kinetics that are first order on NO2 by a factor of approximately 3 ± 1. Thus, kinetic effects due to mass action will be relatively small but it is also important to recognize that because NO2 will tend to dissolve in cell membranes, reactions with cell membrane components will not be hindered by lack of physical solubility at these loci. In comparison to other gases, nitrogen dioxide is less hydrophobic than NO, O2 and N2. PMID:19540354

  14. ON-COLUMN ENRICHMENT OF HYDROPHOBIC CYP450 PROTEINS IN HPLC FRACTIONATION OF MOUSE MICROSOMES PRIOR TO PROTEIN DIGESTION AND NANOSPRAY-LC/MSMS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    Membrane proteins play crucial role in many cellular processes and are promising candidates for biomarker discovery but are under-represented in the field of proteomics due to their hydrophobic nature. Although standard reversed-phase LC methods often exhibit ...

  15. Changing from computing grid to knowledge grid in life-science grid.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Veera; Konar, Amit; Datta, Ayan; Choudhury, Anamika Roy

    2009-09-01

    Grid computing has a great potential to become a standard cyber infrastructure for life sciences that often require high-performance computing and large data handling, which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Grid computer applies the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time. It is useful to scientific problems that require a great number of computer processing cycles or access to a large amount of data.As biologists,we are constantly discovering millions of genes and genome features, which are assembled in a library and distributed on computers around the world.This means that new, innovative methods must be developed that exploit the re-sources available for extensive calculations - for example grid computing.This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing a "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. By extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:19579217

  16. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  17. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  18. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  19. Efficient grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seki, Rycichi

    1989-01-01

    Because the governing equations in fluid dynamics contain partial differentials and are too difficult in most cases to solve analytically, these differentials are generally replaced by finite difference terms. These terms contain terms in the solution at nearby states. This procedure discretizes the field into a finite number of states. These states, when plotted, form a grid, or mesh, of points. It is at these states, or field points, that the solution is found. The optimum choice of states, the x, y, z coordinate values, minimizes error and computational time. But the process of finding these states is made more difficult by complex boundaries, and by the need to control step size differences between the states, that is, the need to control the spacing of field points. One solution technique uses a different set of state variables, which define a different coordinate system, to generate the grid more easily. A new method, developed by Dr. Joseph Steger, combines elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations into a mapping function between the physical and computational coordinate systems. This system of equations offers more control than either equation provides alone. The Steger algorithm was modified in order to allow bodies with stronger concavities to be used, offering the possibility of generating a single grid about multiple bodies. Work was also done on identifying areas where grid breakdown occurs.

  20. Dynamics of Water Trapped between Hydrophobic Solutes.

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Niharendu; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2005-03-15

    We describe the model dynamical behavior of the solvent between two nanoscopic hydrophobic solutes. The dynamics of the vicinal water in various sized traps is found to be significantly different from bulk behavior. We consider the dynamics at normal temperature and pressure at three intersolute distances corresponding to the three solvent separated minima in the free energy profile between the solutes with attractions. These three states correspond to one, two, and three intervening layers of water molecules. Results are obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation at constant temperature and pressure (NPT) ensemble. Translational diffusion of water molecules trapped between the two solutes has been analyzed from the velocity correlation function as well as from the mean square displacement of the water molecules. The rotational behavior has been analyzed through the reorientational dynamics of the dipole moment vector of the water molecule by calculating both first and second rank dipole-dipole correlation functions. Both the translational and reorientational mobilities of water are found to be much slower at the smaller separation and increases as the separation between solutes becomes larger. The occupation time distribution functions calculated from the trajectories also show that the relaxation is much slower for the smallest intersolute separation as compared to other wider separations. The sublinear trend in mean square displacement and the stretched exponential decay of the relaxation of dipolar correlation and occupation distribution function indicate that the dynamical behavior of water in the confined region between two large hydrophobic solutes departs from usual Brownian behavior. This behavior is reminiscent of the behavior of water in the vicinity of protein surface clefts or trapped between two domains of a protein.

  1. S-layer-supported lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, B; Sleytr, U B

    2000-09-01

    Many prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria) are covered by a regularly ordered surface layer (S-layer) as the outermost cell wall component. S-layers are built up of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membrane developed during evolution. Pores in S-layers are of regular size and morphology, and functional groups on the protein lattice are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations. Due to the high degree of structural regularity S-layers represent unique systems for studying the structure, morphogenesis, and function of layered supramolecular assemblies. Isolated S-layer subunits of numerous organisms are able to assemble into monomolecular arrays either in suspension, at air/water interfaces, on planar mono- and bilayer lipid films, on liposomes and on solid supports (e.g. silicon wafers). Detailed studies on composite S-layer/lipid structures have been performed with Langmuir films, freestanding bilayer lipid membranes, solid supported lipid membranes, and liposomes. Lipid molecules in planar films and liposomes interact via their head groups with defined domains on the S-layer lattice. Electrostatic interactions are the most prevalent forces. The hydrophobic chains of the lipid monolayers are almost unaffected by the attachment of the S-layer and no impact on the hydrophobic thickness of the membranes has been observed. Upon crystallization of a coherent S-layer lattice on planar and vesicular lipid membranes, an increase in molecular order is observed, which is reflected in a decrease of the membrane tension and an enhanced mobility of probe molecules within an S-layer-supported bilayer. Thus, the terminology 'semifluid membrane' has been introduced for describing S-layer-supported lipid membranes. The most important feature of composite S-layer/lipid membranes is an enhanced stability in comparison to unsupported membranes. PMID:11143799

  2. Hydrophobic matching between melittin and phosphocholine lipid bilayers having different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, William; Qian, Shuo

    2014-03-01

    The lipid bilayer of the cellular membrane is more than a simple medium that houses proteins with specific function. Instead, it is an elastic medium that plays an active role in the function of the membrane and that both drives the function of membrane proteins and alters its properties in response to their presence. The conceptual simplicity of membrane active peptides makes them attractive model systems for studying membrane-protein interactions. Melittin, a 27 amino acid cationic peptide having a helix-hinge-helix motif, is one of the most extensively studied examples. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of melittin associated with lipid bilayer vesicles having different hydrocarbon thicknesses showed that the bilayer thickness stretches to match the thickness of the peptide in a manner consistent with a rigid, extended melittin having its helical axis oriented parallel to the bilayer normal. This behavior is surprising considering the helix-hinge-helix motif of the peptide and in contrast to studies indicating that transmembrane helices tilt with respect to the bilayer normal to accommodate differences in hydrophobic thicknesses. Possible sources of the discrepancy will be discussed and explored. This research at SNS and HFIR of ORNL was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (ERKP291).

  3. Nanocrack-regulated self-humidifying membranes.

    PubMed

    Park, Chi Hoon; Lee, So Young; Hwang, Doo Sung; Shin, Dong Won; Cho, Doo Hee; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Lee, Mokwon; Kim, Deok-Soo; Doherty, Cara M; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Guiver, Michael D; Lee, Young Moo

    2016-04-28

    The regulation of water content in polymeric membranes is important in a number of applications, such as reverse electrodialysis and proton-exchange fuel-cell membranes. External thermal and water management systems add both mass and size to systems, and so intrinsic mechanisms of retaining water and maintaining ionic transport in such membranes are particularly important for applications where small system size is important. For example, in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, where water retention in the membrane is crucial for efficient transport of hydrated ions, by operating the cells at higher temperatures without external humidification, the membrane is self-humidified with water generated by electrochemical reactions. Here we report an alternative solution that does not rely on external regulation of water supply or high temperatures. Water content in hydrocarbon polymer membranes is regulated through nanometre-scale cracks ('nanocracks') in a hydrophobic surface coating. These cracks work as nanoscale valves to retard water desorption and to maintain ion conductivity in the membrane on dehumidification. Hydrocarbon fuel-cell membranes with surface nanocrack coatings operated at intermediate temperatures show improved electrochemical performance, and coated reverse-electrodialysis membranes show enhanced ionic selectivity with low bulk resistance. PMID:27121841

  4. Nanocrack-regulated self-humidifying membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chi Hoon; Lee, So Young; Hwang, Doo Sung; Shin, Dong Won; Cho, Doo Hee; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Lee, Mokwon; Kim, Deok-Soo; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Hill, Anita J.; Guiver, Michael D.; Lee, Young Moo

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of water content in polymeric membranes is important in a number of applications, such as reverse electrodialysis and proton-exchange fuel-cell membranes. External thermal and water management systems add both mass and size to systems, and so intrinsic mechanisms of retaining water and maintaining ionic transport in such membranes are particularly important for applications where small system size is important. For example, in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, where water retention in the membrane is crucial for efficient transport of hydrated ions, by operating the cells at higher temperatures without external humidification, the membrane is self-humidified with water generated by electrochemical reactions. Here we report an alternative solution that does not rely on external regulation of water supply or high temperatures. Water content in hydrocarbon polymer membranes is regulated through nanometre-scale cracks (‘nanocracks’) in a hydrophobic surface coating. These cracks work as nanoscale valves to retard water desorption and to maintain ion conductivity in the membrane on dehumidification. Hydrocarbon fuel-cell membranes with surface nanocrack coatings operated at intermediate temperatures show improved electrochemical performance, and coated reverse-electrodialysis membranes show enhanced ionic selectivity with low bulk resistance.

  5. A Model of Protein Association Based on Their Hydrophobic and Electric Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mozo-Villarías, Angel; Cedano, Juan; Querol, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The propensity of many proteins to oligomerize and associate to form complex structures from their constituent monomers, is analyzed in terms of their hydrophobic (H), and electric pseudo-dipole (D) moment vectors. In both cases these vectors are defined as the product of the distance between their positive and negative centroids, times the total hydrophobicity or total positive charge of the protein. Changes in the magnitudes and directions of H and D are studied as monomers associate to form larger complexes. We use these descriptors to study similarities and differences in two groups of associations: a) open associations such as polymers with an undefined number of monomers (i.e. actin polymerization, amyloid and HIV capsid assemblies); b) closed symmetrical associations of finite size, like spherical virus capsids and protein cages. The tendency of the hydrophobic moments of the monomers in an association is to align in parallel arrangements following a pattern similar to those of phospholipids in a membrane. Conversely, electric dipole moments of monomers tend to align in antiparallel associations. The final conformation of a given assembly is a fine-tuned combination of these forces, limited by steric constraints. This determines whether the association will be open (indetermined number of monomers) or closed (fixed number of monomers). Any kinetic, binding or molecular peculiarities that characterize a protein assembly, comply with the vector rules laid down in this paper. These findings are also independent of protein size and shape. PMID:25329830

  6. Facile Phase Transfer and Surface Biofunctionalization of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles Using Janus DNA Tetrahedron Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Hong, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Shu-Xian; Liang, Hong; Wang, Li-Ping; Huang, Guoming; Chen, Xian; Yang, Huang-Hao; Shangguan, Dihua; Tan, Weihong

    2015-09-01

    Hydrophobic nanoparticles have shown substantial potential for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. However, their use is hindered by complex phase transfer and inefficient surface modification. This paper reports a facile and universal strategy for phase transfer and surface biofunctionalization of hydrophobic nanomaterials using aptamer-pendant DNA tetrahedron nanostructures (Apt-tet). The Janus DNA tetrahedron nanostructures are constructed by three carboxyl group modified DNA strands and one aptamer sequence. The pendant linear sequence is an aptamer, in this case AS1411, known to specifically bind nucleolin, typically overexpressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells. The incorporation of the aptamers adds targeting ability and also enhances intracellular uptake. Phase-transfer efficiency using Apt-tet is much higher than that achieved using single-stranded DNA. In addition, the DNA tetrahedron nanostructures can be programmed to permit the incorporation of other functional nucleic acids, such as DNAzymes, siRNA, or antisense DNA, allowing, in turn, the construction of promising theranostic nanoagents for bioanalysis and biomedical applications. Given these unique features, we believe that our strategy of surface modification and functionalization may become a new paradigm in phase-transfer-agent design and further expand biomedical applications of hydrophobic nanomaterials. PMID:26302208

  7. Hydrophobic Gating of Ion Permeation in Magnesium Channel CorA

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Pomorski, Pawel; Pai, Emil F.; Pomès, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels catalyze ionic permeation across membranes via water-filled pores. To understand how changes in intracellular magnesium concentration regulate the influx of Mg2+ into cells, we examine early events in the relaxation of Mg2+ channel CorA toward its open state using massively-repeated molecular dynamics simulations conducted either with or without regulatory ions. The pore of CorA contains a 2-nm-long hydrophobic bottleneck which remained dehydrated in most simulations. However, rapid hydration or “wetting” events concurrent with small-amplitude fluctuations in pore diameter occurred spontaneously and reversibly. In the absence of regulatory ions, wetting transitions are more likely and include a wet state that is significantly more stable and more hydrated. The free energy profile for Mg2+ permeation presents a barrier whose magnitude is anticorrelated to pore diameter and the extent of hydrophobic hydration. These findings support an allosteric mechanism whereby wetting of a hydrophobic gate couples changes in intracellular magnesium concentration to the onset of ionic conduction. PMID:26181442

  8. Hydrophobic Gating of Ion Permeation in Magnesium Channel CorA.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Chakrabarti, Nilmadhab; Pomorski, Pawel; Pai, Emil F; Pomès, Régis

    2015-07-01

    Ion channels catalyze ionic permeation across membranes via water-filled pores. To understand how changes in intracellular magnesium concentration regulate the influx of Mg2+ into cells, we examine early events in the relaxation of Mg2+ channel CorA toward its open state using massively-repeated molecular dynamics simulations conducted either with or without regulatory ions. The pore of CorA contains a 2-nm-long hydrophobic bottleneck which remained dehydrated in most simulations. However, rapid hydration or "wetting" events concurrent with small-amplitude fluctuations in pore diameter occurred spontaneously and reversibly. In the absence of regulatory ions, wetting transitions are more likely and include a wet state that is significantly more stable and more hydrated. The free energy profile for Mg2+ permeation presents a barrier whose magnitude is anticorrelated to pore diameter and the extent of hydrophobic hydration. These findings support an allosteric mechanism whereby wetting of a hydrophobic gate couples changes in intracellular magnesium concentration to the onset of ionic conduction. PMID:26181442

  9. A model of protein association based on their hydrophobic and electric interactions.

    PubMed

    Mozo-Villarías, Angel; Cedano, Juan; Querol, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The propensity of many proteins to oligomerize and associate to form complex structures from their constituent monomers, is analyzed in terms of their hydrophobic (H), and electric pseudo-dipole (D) moment vectors. In both cases these vectors are defined as the product of the distance between their positive and negative centroids, times the total hydrophobicity or total positive charge of the protein. Changes in the magnitudes and directions of H and D are studied as monomers associate to form larger complexes. We use these descriptors to study similarities and differences in two groups of associations: a) open associations such as polymers with an undefined number of monomers (i.e. actin polymerization, amyloid and HIV capsid assemblies); b) closed symmetrical associations of finite size, like spherical virus capsids and protein cages. The tendency of the hydrophobic moments of the monomers in an association is to align in parallel arrangements following a pattern similar to those of phospholipids in a membrane. Conversely, electric dipole moments of monomers tend to align in antiparallel associations. The final conformation of a given assembly is a fine-tuned combination of these forces, limited by steric constraints. This determines whether the association will be open (indetermined number of monomers) or closed (fixed number of monomers). Any kinetic, binding or molecular peculiarities that characterize a protein assembly, comply with the vector rules laid down in this paper. These findings are also independent of protein size and shape. PMID:25329830

  10. Nanoscale imaging and hydrophobicity mapping of the antimicrobial effect of copper on bacterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhou; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2016-09-01

    Copper has a long historical role in the arena of materials with antimicrobial properties. Various forms of copper ranging from surfaces to impregnation in textiles and particles, have attracted considerable interest owing to their versatility, potency, chemical stability, and low cost. However, the effects and mechanisms of their antimicrobial action is still unclear. In this study, the effect of copper particles on Escherichia coli was studied at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Time-lapse AFM images at the single cell level show the morphological changes on live E. coli during antimicrobial treatment, in which for the first time, this process was followed in situ on the same cell over time. AFM-based hydrophobicity mapping further showed that incubating cells with Cu decreased the surface hydrophobicity with an increase of incubation time. Specifically, we are able to visualize both morphology and physico-chemical nature of the bacterial cell surface change in response to copper treatment, leading to the membrane damage and cytoplasm leakage. Overall, the time-lapse AFM imaging combined with hydrophobicity mapping approach presented here provides spatio-temporal insight into the antimicrobial mechanisms of copper at the single cell level, and can be applied to design of better metallic antimicrobial materials as well as investigate different microorganisms. PMID:27258941

  11. Grid generation research at OSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the last two years, effort was concentrated on: (1) surface modeling; (2) surface grid generation; and (3) 3-D flow space grid generation. The surface modeling shares the same objectives as the surface modeling in computer aided design (CAD), so software available in CAD can in principle be used for solid modeling. Unfortunately, however, the CAD software cannot be easily used in practice for grid generation purposes, because they are not designed to provide appropriate data base for grid generation. Therefore, we started developing a generalized surface modeling software from scratch, that provides the data base for the surface grid generation. Generating surface grid is an important step in generating a 3-D space for flow space. To generate a surface grid on a given surface representation, we developed a unique algorithm that works on any non-smooth surfaces. Once the surface grid is generated, a 3-D space can be generated. For this purpose, we also developed a new algorithm, which is a hybrid of the hyperbolic and the elliptic grid generation methods. With this hybrid method, orthogonality of the grid near the solid boundary can be easily achieved without introducing empirical fudge factors. Work to develop 2-D and 3-D grids for turbomachinery blade geometries was performed, and as an extension of this research we are planning to develop an adaptive grid procedure with an interactive grid environment.

  12. Effects of Antimicrobial Peptide Revealed by Simulations: Translocation, Pore Formation, Membrane Corrugation and Euler Buckling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Licui; Jia, Nana; Gao, Lianghui; Fang, Weihai; Golubovic, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effects of the peripheral and transmembrane antimicrobial peptides on the lipid bilayer membrane by using the coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations. We study peptide/lipid membrane complexes by considering peptides with various structure, hydrophobicity and peptide/lipid interaction strength. The role of lipid/water interaction is also discussed. We discuss a rich variety of membrane morphological changes induced by peptides, such as pore formation, membrane corrugation and Euler buckling. PMID:23579956

  13. Cryomicroscopy provides structural snapshots of influenza virus membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Calder, Lesley J; Rosenthal, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    The lipid-enveloped influenza virus enters host cells during infection by binding cell-surface receptors and, after receptor-mediated endocytosis, fusing with the membrane of the endosome and delivering the viral genome and transcription machinery into the host cell. These events are mediated by the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein. At the low pH of the endosome, an irreversible conformational change in the HA, including the exposure of the hydrophobic fusion peptide, activates membrane fusion. Here we used electron cryomicroscopy and cryotomography to image the fusion of influenza virus with target membranes at low pH. We visualized structural intermediates of HA and their interactions with membranes during the course of membrane fusion as well as ultrastructural changes in the virus that accompany membrane fusion. Our observations are relevant to a wide range of protein-mediated membrane-fusion processes and demonstrate how dynamic membrane events may be studied by cryomicroscopy. PMID:27501535

  14. Morphology and Water Uptake in Block Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Wong, David; Yakovlev, Sergey; Beers, Keith; Balsara, Nitash

    2014-03-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) consisting of proton-conducting hydrophilic channels and a mechanically-strong hydrophobic matrix are attractive due to their wide clean energy applications. In an effort to understand the fundamentals of proton transport in PEMs, we fabricated a series of non-porous and mesoporous sulfonated poly(styrene-b-ethylene-b-styrene) (S-SES) copolymer membranes. We examine the effects of porosity and humidity level on the morphology of S-SES membranes. The relationship between morphology and water uptake of the membranes at different humidity levels are established. We show that by controlling the porosity of the membranes, we are able to optimize the water uptake of the membranes at desired humidity levels to maximize proton conductivity. Furthermore, we show the in situ morphology change of the membranes from fully hydrated state to dry state in a drying experiment. Morphology and water content of the membranes as a function of time are examined.

  15. The Art of Grid Fields: Geometry of Neuronal Time

    PubMed Central

    Shilnikov, Andrey L.; Maurer, Andrew Porter

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex has both elucidated our understanding of spatial representations in the brain, and germinated a large number of theoretical models regarding the mechanisms of these cells’ striking spatial firing characteristics. These models cross multiple neurobiological levels that include intrinsic membrane resonance, dendritic integration, after hyperpolarization characteristics and attractor dynamics. Despite the breadth of the models, to our knowledge, parallels can be drawn between grid fields and other temporal dynamics observed in nature, much of which was described by Art Winfree and colleagues long before the initial description of grid fields. Using theoretical and mathematical investigations of oscillators, in a wide array of mediums far from the neurobiology of grid cells, Art Winfree has provided a substantial amount of research with significant and profound similarities. These theories provide specific inferences into the biological mechanisms and extraordinary resemblances across phenomenon. Therefore, this manuscript provides a novel interpretation on the phenomenon of grid fields, from the perspective of coupled oscillators, postulating that grid fields are the spatial representation of phase resetting curves in the brain. In contrast to prior models of gird cells, the current manuscript provides a sketch by which a small network of neurons, each with oscillatory components can operate to form grid cells, perhaps providing a unique hybrid between the competing attractor neural network and oscillatory interference models. The intention of this new interpretation of the data is to encourage novel testable hypotheses. PMID:27013981

  16. The Art of Grid Fields: Geometry of Neuronal Time.

    PubMed

    Shilnikov, Andrey L; Maurer, Andrew Porter

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex has both elucidated our understanding of spatial representations in the brain, and germinated a large number of theoretical models regarding the mechanisms of these cells' striking spatial firing characteristics. These models cross multiple neurobiological levels that include intrinsic membrane resonance, dendritic integration, after hyperpolarization characteristics and attractor dynamics. Despite the breadth of the models, to our knowledge, parallels can be drawn between grid fields and other temporal dynamics observed in nature, much of which was described by Art Winfree and colleagues long before the initial description of grid fields. Using theoretical and mathematical investigations of oscillators, in a wide array of mediums far from the neurobiology of grid cells, Art Winfree has provided a substantial amount of research with significant and profound similarities. These theories provide specific inferences into the biological mechanisms and extraordinary resemblances across phenomenon. Therefore, this manuscript provides a novel interpretation on the phenomenon of grid fields, from the perspective of coupled oscillators, postulating that grid fields are the spatial representation of phase resetting curves in the brain. In contrast to prior models of gird cells, the current manuscript provides a sketch by which a small network of neurons, each with oscillatory components can operate to form grid cells, perhaps providing a unique hybrid between the competing attractor neural network and oscillatory interference models. The intention of this new interpretation of the data is to encourage novel testable hypotheses. PMID:27013981

  17. Membrane Fission Is Promoted by Insertion of Amphipathic Helices and Is Restricted by Crescent BAR Domains

    PubMed Central

    Boucrot, Emmanuel; Pick, Adi; Çamdere, Gamze; Liska, Nicole; Evergren, Emma; McMahon, Harvey T.; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Shallow hydrophobic insertions and crescent-shaped BAR scaffolds promote membrane curvature. Here, we investigate membrane fission by shallow hydrophobic insertions quantitatively and mechanistically. We provide evidence that membrane insertion of the ENTH domain of epsin leads to liposome vesiculation, and that epsin is required for clathrin-coated vesicle budding in cells. We also show that BAR-domain scaffolds from endophilin, amphiphysin, GRAF, and β2-centaurin limit membrane fission driven by hydrophobic insertions. A quantitative assay for vesiculation reveals an antagonistic relationship between amphipathic helices and scaffolds of N-BAR domains in fission. The extent of vesiculation by these proteins and vesicle size depend on the number and length of amphipathic helices per BAR domain, in accord with theoretical considerations. This fission mechanism gives a new framework for understanding membrane scission in the absence of mechanoenzymes such as dynamin and suggests how Arf and Sar proteins work in vesicle scission. PMID:22464325

  18. Phase transitions in hydrophobe/phospholipid mixtures: hints at connections between pheromones and anaesthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Borsacchi, Silvia; Geppi, Marco; Macchi, Sara; Ninham, Barry W; Fratini, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Moira; Baglioni, Piero; Lo Nostro, Pierandrea

    2016-06-01

    The phase behavior of a mixture of a typical insect pheromone (olean) and a phospholipid (DOPC)/water dispersion is extensively explored through SAXS, NMR and DSC experiments. The results mimic those obtained with anaesthetics in phospholipid/water systems. They also mimic the behavior and microstructure of ternary mixtures of a membrane mimetic, bilayer-forming double chained surfactants, oils and water. Taken together with recent models for conduction of the nervous impulse, all hint at lipid involvement and the underlying unity in mechanisms of pheromone, anaesthetic and hydrophobic drugs, where a local phase change in the lipid membrane architecture may be at least partly involved in the transmission of the signal. PMID:27210443

  19. Alpha-helical hydrophobic polypeptides form proton-selective channels in lipid bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, A. E.; Deamer, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Proton translocation is important in membrane-mediated processes such as ATP-dependent proton pumps, ATP synthesis, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome oxidase function. The fundamental mechanism, however, is poorly understood. To test the theoretical possibility that bundles of hydrophobic alpha-helices could provide a low energy pathway for ion translocation through the lipid bilayer, polyamino acids were incorporated into extruded liposomes and planar lipid membranes, and proton translocation was measured. Liposomes with incorporated long-chain poly-L-alanine or poly-L-leucine were found to have proton permeability coefficients 5 to 7 times greater than control liposomes, whereas short-chain polyamino acids had relatively little effect. Potassium permeability was not increased markedly by any of the polyamino acids tested. Analytical thin layer chromatography measurements of lipid content and a fluorescamine assay for amino acids showed that there were approximately 135 polyleucine or 65 polyalanine molecules associated with each liposome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that a major fraction of the long-chain hydrophobic peptides existed in an alpha-helical conformation. Single-channel recording in both 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 M KCl was also used to determine whether proton-conducting channels formed in planar lipid membranes (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine, 1:1). Poly-L-leucine and poly-L-alanine in HCl caused a 10- to 30-fold increase in frequency of conductive events compared to that seen in KCl or by the other polyamino acids in either solution. This finding correlates well with the liposome observations in which these two polyamino acids caused the largest increase in membrane proton permeability but had little effect on potassium permeability. Poly-L-leucine was considerably more conductive than poly-L-alanine due primarily to larger event amplitudes and, to a lesser extent, a higher event frequency. Poly-L-leucine caused two

  20. pH-Responsive Hydrogels with Dispersed Hydrophobic Nanoparticles for the Delivery of Hydrophobic Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Schoener, Cody A.; Hutson, Heather N.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the delivery of hydrophobic therapeutic agents, a new class of polymer carriers was synthesized. These carriers are composed of two components: (i) a pH-responsive hydrogel composed of methacrylic acid grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) tethers, P(MAA-g-EG), and (ii) hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles. Before the P(MAA-g-EG) hydrogel was crosslinked, PMMA nanoparticles were added to the solution and upon exposure to UV light they were photoencapsulated throughout the P(MAA-g-EG) hydrogel structure. The pH-responsive behavior of P(MAA-g-EG) is capable of triggered release of a loaded therapeutic agent, such as a low molecular weight drug or protein, when it passes from the stomach (low pH) to upper small intestine (neutral pH). The introduction of PMMA nanoparticles into the hydrogel structure affected the swelling behavior, therapeutic agent loading efficiency, and solute release profiles. In equilibrium swelling conditions the swelling ratio of nanoparticle-containing hydrogels decreased with increasing nanoparticle content. Loading efficiencies of the model therapeutic agent fluorescein ranged from 38 – 51 % and increased with increasing hydrophobic content. Release studies from neat P(MAA-g-EG) and the ensuing P(MAA-g-EG) hydrogels containing nanoparticles indicated that the transition from low pH (2.0) to neutral pH (7.0) triggered fluorescein release. Maximum fluorescein release depended on the structure and hydrophobicity of the carriers used in these studies. PMID:23087546

  1. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  2. Effects of Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors on Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Dubinin, Mikhail V; Astashev, Maxim E; Penkov, Nikita V; Gudkov, Sergey V; Dyachenko, Igor A; Samartsev, Victor N; Belosludtsev, Konstantin N

    2016-06-01

    The work examines the effect of inhibitors of cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipases A2 on bilayer lipid membranes. It was established that trifluoroperazine (TFP) and, to a lesser extent, arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3) were able to permeabilize artificial lipid membranes (BLM and liposomes). It was shown that AACOCF3 lowered the temperature of phase transition of DMPC liposomes, inducing disordering of the hydrophobic region of lipid bilayer. TFP disordered membranes both in the hydrophobic region and in the region of hydrophilic heads, this being accompanied by changes in the membrane permeability: appearance of a channel-like BLM activity and leakage of sulforhodamine B from liposomes. In contrast to AACOCF3 and TFP, PACOCF3 increased membrane orderliness in the hydrophobic region (heightened the temperature of phase transition of DMPC liposomes) and in the region of lipid heads. The effectiveness of AACOCF3 and PACOCF3 as inductors of BLM and liposome permeabilization was considerably lower comparatively to TFP. As revealed by dynamic light scattering, incorporation of TFP, AACOCF3 and PACOCF3 into the membrane of liposomes resulted in the increase of the average size of particles in the suspension, presumably due to their aggregation or fusion. The paper discusses possible mechanisms of the influence of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on bilayer lipid membranes. PMID:26762382

  3. Membrane Processes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  4. Membrane Processes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  5. A grid spacing control technique for algebraic grid generation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which controls the spacing of grid points in algebraically defined coordinate transformations is described. The technique is based on the generation of control functions which map a uniformly distributed computational grid onto parametric variables defining the physical grid. The control functions are smoothed cubic splines. Sets of control points are input for each coordinate directions to outline the control functions. Smoothed cubic spline functions are then generated to approximate the input data. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where control inputs and grid displays are nearly instantaneous. The technique is illustrated with the two-boundary grid generation algorithm.

  6. Intermolecular Vibrations of Hydrophobic Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael Roy Casselman

    Hydrophobic amino acids interact with their chemical environment through a combination of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, dipole, induced dipole, and dispersion forces. These interactions all have their own characteristic energy scale and distance dependence. The low-frequency (0.1-5 THz, 5-150 cm-1) vibrational modes of amino acids in the solid state are a direct indicator of the interactions between the molecules, which include interactions between an amino acid functional group and its surroundings. This information is central to understanding the dynamics and morphology of proteins. The alpha-carbon is a chiral center for all of the hydrophobic amino acids, meaning that they exist in two forms, traditionally referred to as L- and D-enantiomers. This nomenclature indicates which direction the molecule rotates plane-polarized visible light (levorotory and dextrorotory). Chiral a-amino acids in proteins are exclusively the L-variety In the solid state, the crystal lattice of the pure L-enantiomer is the mirror image of the D-enantiomer crystal lattice. These solids are energetically identical. Enantiomers also have identical spectroscopic properties except when the measurement is polarization sensitive. A mixture of equal amounts D- and L-amino acid enantiomers can crystallize into a racemic (DL-) structure that is different from that of the pure enantiomers. Whether a solution of both enantiomers will crystallize into a racemic form or spontaneously resolve into a mixture of separate D- and L-crystals largely depends on the interactions between molecules available in the various possible configurations. This is an active area of research. Low-frequency vibrations with intermolecular character are very sensitive to changes in lattice geometry, and consequently the vibrational spectra of racemic crystals are usually quite distinct from the spectra of the crystals of the corresponding pure enantiomers in the far-infrared (far-IR). THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

  7. Tuning the hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and ion exchange properties of mesoporous TiO2.

    PubMed

    Taffa, Derejehailu; Kathiresan, Murugavel; Walder, Lorenz

    2009-05-01

    Alkyl phosphonic acids (Pho-C(n)-R) of different chain length (6, 10, and 14 carbons) bearing neutral, positive, and negatively charged head groups (R = -H, R(-) = sulfonate, R(+) = pyridinium) were prepared and anchored to the inner walls of randomly sintered mesoporous TiO(2) thin films. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements show that a monolayer coverage was achieved. The monolayer crystallinity is lower as compared to alkyl thiols on gold, but it increases with the length of the carbon chain. The neutral phosphonic acid modifier makes the TiO(2) highly hydrophobic and suppresses electrochemistry in aqueous media, and the alkyl phosphonic acids with charged head groups render the TiO(2) film as an ion exchanger with a phase separated hydrophilic and hydrophobic portion. Different charged guest molecules were incorporated on top or into the supported membranes. The host-guest interactions were found to be electrostatic, hydrophobic, or both. Highly charged electroactive metal complexes ([Fe(CN)(6)](4-), [IrCl(6)](2-)) and purpose-synthesized organic electrochromophores (dialkylated viologens with variable chain length, C(1)-V(+2)-C(n), C(n)-V(+2)-C(n), n = 6, 10, and 14) were used as molecular guests, and the assemblies were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and FT-IR. Using the preconcentration phenomenon, [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) concentration as low as 200 nM can be detected on a Pho-C(14)-R(+) modified TiO(2) electrode by conventional cyclic voltammetry. The new surface modification technique simplifies the molecular requirements for functional surface modifiers considerably. Using a limited set of organic anchors with orthogonal coordination properties and adjustable hydrophobicity, a broad range of electrochromophores, redox active wiring compounds, or sensitizers can be adsorbed onto TiO(2). PMID:19334720

  8. Developing a general interaction potential for hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Stephen H; Røyne, Anja; Kristiansen, Kai; Rapp, Michael V; Das, Saurabh; Gebbie, Matthew A; Lee, Dong Woog; Stock, Philipp; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2015-02-24

    We review direct force measurements on a broad class of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. These measurements have enabled the development of a general interaction potential per unit area, W(D) = -2γ(i)Hy exp(-D/D(H)) in terms of a nondimensional Hydra parameter, Hy, that applies to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between extended surfaces. This potential allows one to quantitatively account for additional attractions and repulsions not included in the well-known combination of electrostatic double layer and van der Waals theories, the so-called Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The interaction energy is exponentially decaying with decay length D(H) ≈ 0.3-2 nm for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, with the exact value of D(H) depending on the precise system and conditions. The pre-exponential factor depends on the interfacial tension, γ(i), of the interacting surfaces and Hy. For Hy > 0, the interaction potential describes interactions between partially hydrophobic surfaces, with the maximum hydrophobic interaction (i.e., two fully hydrophobic surfaces) corresponding to Hy = 1. Hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic monolayer surfaces measured with the surface forces apparatus (SFA) are shown to be well described by the proposed interaction potential. The potential becomes repulsive for Hy < 0, corresponding to partially hydrophilic (hydrated) interfaces. Hydrated surfaces such as mica, silica, and lipid bilayers are discussed and reviewed in the context of the values of Hy appropriate for each system. PMID:25072835

  9. Hydroglyphics: Demonstration of Selective Wetting on Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Philseok; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna; Sleeper, Raymond S.

    2013-01-01

    A visual demonstration of the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces has been developed. It involves placing a shadow mask on an optically clear hydrophobic plastic dish, corona treating the surface with a modified Tesla coil, removing the shadow mask, and visualizing the otherwise invisible message or pattern by applying water,…

  10. Spectral methods on arbitrary grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David

    1995-01-01

    Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.

  11. Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.

  12. Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.

  13. Multicomponent membranes

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  14. The effect of heterogeneity and surface roughness on soil hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallin, I.; Bryant, R.; Doerr, S. H.; Douglas, P.

    2010-05-01

    Soil water repellency, or hydrophobicity, can develop under both natural and anthropogenic conditions. Forest fires, vegetation decomposition, microbial activity and oil spills can all promote hydrophobic behaviour in surrounding soils. Hydrophobicity can stabilize soil organic matter pools and decrease evapotranspiration, but there are many negative impacts of hydrophobicity as well: increased erosion of topsoil, an increasingly scarce resource; increased runoff, which can lead to flooding; and decreased infiltration, which directly affects plant health. The degree of hydrophobicity expressed by soil can vary greatly within a small area, depending partly on the type and severity of the disturbance as well as on temporal factors such as water content and microbial activity. To date, many laboratory investigations into soil hydrophobicity have focused on smooth particle surfaces. As a result, our understanding of how hydrophobicity develops on rough surfaces of macro, micro and nano-particulates is limited; we are unable to predict with certainty how these soil particles will behave on contact with water. Surface chemistry is the main consideration when predicting hydrophobic behaviour of smooth solids, but for particles with rough surfaces, hydrophobicity is believed to develop as a combination of surface chemistry and topography. Topography may reflect both the arrangement (aggregation) of soil particles and the distribution of materials adsorbed on particulate surfaces. Patch-wise or complete coverage of rough soil particles by hydrophobic material may result in solid/water contact angles ≥150° , at which point the soil may be classified as super-hydrophobic. Here we present a critical review of the research to date on the effects of heterogeneity and surface roughness on soil hydrophobicity in which we discuss recent advances, current trends, and future research areas. References: Callies, M., Y. Chen, F. Marty, A. Pépin and D. Quéré. 2005. Microfabricated

  15. Fabrication of bioinspired composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity for direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-06-01

    The practical application of membrane distillation (MD) for water purification is hindered by the absence of desirable membranes that can fulfill the special requirements of the MD process. Compared to the membranes fabricated by other methods, nanofiber membranes produced by electrospinning are of great interest due to their high porosity, low tortuosity, large surface pore size, and high surface hydrophobicity. However, the stable performance of the nanofiber membranes in the MD process is still unsatisfactory. Inspired by the unique structure of the lotus leaf, this study aimed to develop a strategy to construct superhydrophobic composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity and high porosity suitable for use in MD. The newly developed membrane consists of a superhydrophobic silica-PVDF composite selective skin formed on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous nanofiber scaffold via electrospinning. This fabrication method could be easily scaled up due to its simple preparation procedures. The effects of silica diameter and concentration on membrane contact angle, sliding angle, and MD performance were investigated thoroughly. For the first time, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) tests demonstrate that the newly developed membranes are able to present stable high performance over 50 h of testing time, and the superhydrophobic selective layer exhibits excellent durability in ultrasonic treatment and a continuous DCMD test. It is believed that this novel design strategy has great potential for MD membrane fabrication. PMID:24797803

  16. Electroporation enhances antimicrobial photodynamic therapy mediated by the hydrophobic photosensitizer, hypericin, Electroporation enhances antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Wanessa de Cássia Martins Antunes; Lee, Alexander N; Perussi, Janice Rodrigues; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective transport of photosensitizers (PS) across the membrane and the intracellular accumulation of PS are the most crucial elements in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). However, due to the morphological complexity of Gram-negative bacteria the penetration of PS is limited, especially hydrophobic PS. Electroporation (EP) could increase the effectiveness of aPDT, by promoting the formation of transient pores that enhance the permeability of the bacterial membrane to PS. In this study we evaluated the combination of aPDT mediated by the hydrophobic PS, hypericin and EP (aPDT/EP) against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. These bacteria were exposed to light (590 nm) in the presence of hypericin (4µM), following electroporation. The results showed that aPDT/EP inactivated 3.67 logs more E. coli and 2.65 logs more S. aureus than aPDT alone. Based on these results we suggest that EP can potentiate the aPDT effect. PMID:24284122

  17. Challenges and solutions for biofiltration of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; He, Huijun; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Yu, Guanlong

    2016-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the environment highly probably result in ecological and health risks. Many biotechnologies for waste gases containing hydrophobic VOCs have been developed in recent years. However, these biological processes usually exhibit poor removal performances for hydrophobic VOCs due to the low bioavailability. This review presents an overview of enhanced removal of hydrophobic VOCs in biofilters. Mechanisms and problems relevant to the biological removal of hydrophobic VOCs are reviewed, and then solutions including the addition of surfactants, application of fungal biocatalysts, biofiltration with pretreatment, innovative bioreactors and utilization of hydrophilic compounds are discussed in detail. Future research needs are also proposed. This review provides new insights into hydrophobic VOC removal by biofiltration. PMID:27374790

  18. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  19. Temporin-SHf, a New Type of Phe-rich and Hydrophobic Ultrashort Antimicrobial Peptide*

    PubMed Central

    Abbassi, Feten; Lequin, Olivier; Piesse, Christophe; Goasdoué, Nicole; Foulon, Thierry; Nicolas, Pierre; Ladram, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Because issues of cost and bioavailability have hampered the development of gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides to combat infectious diseases, short linear peptides with high microbial cell selectivity have been recently considered as antibiotic substitutes. A new type of short antimicrobial peptide, designated temporin-SHf, was isolated and cloned from the skin of the frog Pelophylax saharica. Temporin-SHf has a highly hydrophobic sequence (FFFLSRIFa) and possesses the highest percentage of Phe residues of any known peptide or protein. Moreover, it is the smallest natural linear antimicrobial peptide found to date, with only eight residues. Despite its small size and hydrophobicity, temporin-SHf has broad-spectrum microbicidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts, with no hemolytic activity. CD and NMR spectroscopy combined with restrained molecular dynamics calculations showed that the peptide adopts a well defined non-amphipathic α-helical structure from residue 3 to 8, when bound to zwitterionic dodecyl phosphocholine or anionic SDS micelles. Relaxation enhancement caused by paramagnetic probes showed that the peptide adopts nearly parallel orientations to the micelle surface and that the helical structure is stabilized by a compact hydrophobic core on one face that penetrates into the micelle interior. Differential scanning calorimetry on multilamellar vesicles combined with membrane permeabilization assays on bacterial cells indicated that temporin-SHf disrupts the acyl chain packing of anionic lipid bilayers, thereby triggering local cracks and microbial membrane disintegration through a detergent-like effect probably via the carpet mechanism. The short length, compositional simplicity, and broad-spectrum activity of temporin-SHf make it an attractive candidate to develop new antibiotic agents. PMID:20308076

  20. Blending and Morphology Control To Turn Hydrophobic SEBS Electrospun Mats Superhydrophilic.

    PubMed

    Kurusu, Rafael S; Demarquette, Nicole R

    2015-05-19

    Thermoplastic elastomer SEBS, a triblock copolymer composed of styrene (S) and ethylene-co-butylene (EB) blocks, can be dissolved and processed by electrospinning to produce flexible nonwoven mats that can be interesting for applications like filtration or separation membranes. Controlling surface properties such as hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity is critical to achieving a desired performance. In this study, hydrophobic electrospun SEBS mats were obtained, following which an amphiphilic molecule (Pluronic F127) was solution-blended with SEBS prior to electrospinning, in a bid to produce a hydrophilic membrane. The result was a fast-spreading superhydrophilic mat with thinner fibers that preserved the flexibility of the SEBS. The morphologies of nonwoven mats, flat films (prepared by dip-coating using identical solutions) and of the surface of individual fibers were characterized using different microscopy techniques (optical, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy). Chemical analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a large F127 concentration in the outermost surface layer. In addition, an analysis of dip-coated flat films revealed that for 20 wt % of F127, there was a change in the blend morphology from dispersed F127-rich regions in the SEBS matrix to an interconnected phase homogeneously distributed across the film that resembled grain boundaries of micellar crystals. Our results indicated that this morphology change at 20 wt % of F127 also occurred to some extent in the electrospun fibers and this, combined with the large surface area of the mats, led to a drastic reduction in the contact angle and fast water absorption, turning hydrophobic electrospun mats superhydrophilic. PMID:25913789

  1. How Membrane-Active Peptides Get into Lipid Membranes.

    PubMed

    Sani, Marc-Antoine; Separovic, Frances

    2016-06-21

    The structure-function relationship for a family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from the skin of Australian tree frogs is discussed and compared with that of peptide toxins from bee and Australian scorpion venoms. Although these membrane-active peptides induce a similar cellular fate by disrupting the lipid bilayer integrity, their lytic activity is achieved via different modes of action, which are investigated in relation to amino acid sequence, secondary structure, and membrane lipid composition. In order to better understand what structural features govern the interaction between peptides and lipid membranes, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which translocate through the membrane without compromising its integrity, are also discussed. AMPs possess membrane lytic activities that are naturally designed to target the cellular membrane of pathogens or competitors. They are extremely diverse in amino acid composition and often show specificity against a particular strain of microbe. Since our antibiotic arsenal is declining precariously in the face of the rise in multiantibiotic resistance, AMPs increasingly are seen as a promising alternative. In an effort to understand their molecular mechanism, biophysical studies of a myriad of AMPs have been reported, yet no unifying mechanism has emerged, rendering difficult the rational design of drug leads. Similarly, a wide variety of cytotoxic peptides are found in venoms, the best known being melittin, yet again, predicting their activity based on a particular amino acid composition or secondary structure remains elusive. A common feature of these membrane-active peptides is their preference for the lipid environment. Indeed, they are mainly unstructured in solution and, in the presence of lipid membranes, quickly adsorb onto the surface, change their secondary structure, eventually insert into the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, and finally disrupt the bilayer integrity. These steps define the molecular

  2. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  3. Gridded electron reversal ionizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A gridded electron reversal ionizer forms a three dimensional cloud of zero or near-zero energy electrons in a cavity within a filament structure surrounding a central electrode having holes through which the sample gas, at reduced pressure, enters an elongated reversal volume. The resultant negative ion stream is applied to a mass analyzer. The reduced electron and ion space-charge limitations of this configuration enhances detection sensitivity for material to be detected by electron attachment, such as narcotic and explosive vapors. Positive ions may be generated by generating electrons having a higher energy, sufficient to ionize the target gas and pulsing the grid negative to stop the electron flow and pulsing the extraction aperture positive to draw out the positive ions.

  4. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes. PMID:26754440

  5. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes. PMID:26754440

  6. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.

  7. CARBOXYLIC ACID EFFECTS ON ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES USING PERVAPORATION THROUGH MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most bioethanol is produced by fermenting sugars released from biomass and using distillation to recover the ethanol. Recovering ethanol from the fermentation broths using pervaporation through hydrophobic membranes is potentially economically competitive with distillation for s...

  8. 76 FR 1153 - Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlantic Grid Operations A LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations B LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations C LLC, Atlantic Grid Operations D LLC and Atlantic Grid Operations E LLC; Notice of... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, and Order No. 679,\\1\\ Atlantic Grid Operations...

  9. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  10. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  11. Grid generation for turbomachinery problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhoff, J.; Reddy, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a computer code to generate numerical grids for complex internal flow systems such as the fluid flow inside the space shuttle main engine is outlined. The blending technique for generating a grid for stator-rotor combination at a particular radial section is examined. The computer programs which generate these grids are listed in the Appendices. These codes are capable of generating grids at different cross sections and thus providng three dimensional stator-rotor grids for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine.

  12. Tuning the resistance of polycarbonate membranes by plasma-induced graft surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Lukas; Hegemann, Dirk; de Courten, Damien; Wolf, Martin; Rossi, René M.; Meier, Wolfgang P.; Scherer, Lukas J.

    2013-03-01

    To tune the permeability resistance of porous polycarbonate (PC) membranes for caffeine, their surfaces were plasma modified with different monomers in a grafting from process. These coatings provided characteristic surface hydrophilicities. It was found that membranes with more hydrophilic surfaces have lower resistances to let caffeine pass through than membranes with hydrophobic surfaces. Additionally, it was possible to post-modify a poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (AEMA) coated PC membrane with octanoic acid (Oct) under mild conditions. This post modification allowed transforming a slightly hydrophilic PC-AEMA membrane with a moderate permeability resistance into a hydrophobic PC-AEMA-Oct membrane with a high permeability resistance. Overall, it was possible to tune the PC membrane resistance for caffeine in a range from 5100 up to 15,100 s/cm.

  13. Prospects for using membrane distallation for reprocessing liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dytnerskii, Y.I.; Karlin, Y.V.; Kropotov, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    Membrane distillation is a promising method for deep desalinization and for removal of impurities of different nature from water. The crux of the method is as follows. The initial (hot) solution, heated up to 30-70{degrees}C, is fed into one side of a hydrophobic microporous membrane. A less heated (cold) distillate moves along the other. Since the membrane is hydrophobic and the pores are small ({approximately}1 {mu}m and less), the liquid phase does not penetrate into the pores in accordance with Kelvin`s law. The vapor evaporating from the surface of the hot solution (the evaporation surface in this case are solution meniscuses forming at the entrance into a pore) penetrates into the pores of the membrane, diffuses through the air layer in the pore, and condenses on the surface of the menisci of cold liquid. In the process rarefaction is produced in the pores, and this accelerates evaporation and therefore increases its efficiency.

  14. Targeting of the hydrophobic metabolome by pathogens.

    PubMed

    Helms, J Bernd; Kaloyanova, Dora V; Strating, Jeroen R P; van Hellemond, Jaap J; van der Schaar, Hilde M; Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Brouwers, Jos F

    2015-05-01

    The hydrophobic molecules of the metabolome - also named the lipidome - constitute a major part of the entire metabolome. Novel technologies show the existence of a staggering number of individual lipid species, the biological functions of which are, with the exception of only a few lipid species, unknown. Much can be learned from pathogens that have evolved to take advantage of the complexity of the lipidome to escape the immune system of the host organism and to allow their survival and replication. Different types of pathogens target different lipids as shown in interaction maps, allowing visualization of differences between different types of pathogens. Bacterial and viral pathogens target predominantly structural and signaling lipids to alter the cellular phenotype of the host cell. Fungal and parasitic pathogens have complex lipidomes themselves and target predominantly the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the host cell lipidome, resulting in the generation of eicosanoids by either the host cell or the pathogen. Thus, whereas viruses and bacteria induce predominantly alterations in lipid metabolites at the host cell level, eukaryotic pathogens focus on interference with lipid metabolites affecting systemic inflammatory reactions that are part of the immune system. A better understanding of the interplay between host-pathogen interactions will not only help elucidate the fundamental role of lipid species in cellular physiology, but will also aid in the generation of novel therapeutic drugs. PMID:25754025

  15. Vaults engineered for hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Daniel C; Toso, Daniel B; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Zhou, Z Hong; Rome, Leonard H

    2011-05-23

    The vault nanoparticle is one of the largest known ribonucleoprotein complexes in the sub-100 nm range. Highly conserved and almost ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes, vaults form a large nanocapsule with a barrel-shaped morphology surrounding a large hollow interior. These properties make vaults an ideal candidate for development into a drug delivery vehicle. In this study, the first example of using vaults towards this goal is reported. Recombinant vaults are engineered to encapsulate the highly insoluble and toxic hydrophobic compound all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) using a vault-binding lipoprotein complex that forms a lipid bilayer nanodisk. These recombinant vaults offer protection to the encapsulated ATRA from external elements. Furthermore, a cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) reconstruction shows the vault-binding lipoprotein complex sequestered within the vault lumen. Finally, these ATRA-loaded vaults show enhanced cytotoxicity against the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The ability to package therapeutic compounds into the vault is an important achievement toward their development into a viable and versatile platform for drug delivery. PMID:21506266

  16. Size selective hydrophobic adsorbent for organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Hickey, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an adsorbent formed by the pyrolysis of a hydrophobic silica with a pore size greater than 5 .ANG., such as SILICALITE.TM., with a molecular sieving polymer precursor such as polyfurfuryl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene chloride, phenol-formaldehyde resin, polyvinylidene difluoride and mixtures thereof. Polyfurfuryl alcohol is the most preferred. The adsorbent produced by the pyrolysis has a silicon to carbon mole ratio of between about 10:1 and 1:3, and preferably about 2:1 to 1:2, most preferably 1:1. The pyrolysis is performed as a ramped temperature program between about 100.degree. and 800.degree. C., and preferably between about 100.degree. and 600.degree. C. The present invention also relates to a method for selectively adsorbing organic molecules having a molecular size (mean molecular diameter) of between about 3 and 6 .ANG. comprising contacting a vapor containing the small organic molecules to be adsorbed with the adsorbent composition of the present invention.

  17. Why can hydrogen sulfide permeate cell membranes?

    PubMed

    Riahi, Saleh; Rowley, Christopher N

    2014-10-29

    The high membrane permeability of H2S was studied using polarizable molecular dynamics simulations of a DPPC lipid bilayer. The solubility-diffusion model predicts permeability coefficients of H2S and H2O that are in good agreement with experiment. The computed diffusion coefficient profile shows H2S to diffuse at a lower rate than H2O, but the barrier for H2S permeation on the Gibbs energy profile is negligible. The hydrophobicity of H2S allows it to partition into the paraffinic interior of the membrane readily. PMID:25323018

  18. Capillary origami and superhydrophobic membrane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldi, N. R.; Ouali, F. F.; Morris, R. H.; McHale, G.; Newton, M. I.

    2013-05-01

    Capillary origami uses surface tension to fold and shape solid films and membranes into three-dimensional structures. It uses the fact that solid surfaces, no matter how hydrophobic, will tend to adhere to and wrap around the surface of a liquid. In this work, we report that a superhydrophobic coating can be created, which can completely suppress wrapping as a contacting water droplet evaporates. We also show that using a wetting azeotropic solution of allyl alcohol, which penetrates the surface features, can enhance liquid adhesion and create more powerful Capillary Origami. These findings create the possibility of selectively shaping membrane substrates.

  19. 3D Structured Grid Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

  20. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  1. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  2. GridTool: A surface modeling and grid generation tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1995-01-01

    GridTool is designed around the concept that the surface grids are generated on a set of bi-linear patches. This type of grid generation is quite easy to implement, and it avoids the problems associated with complex CAD surface representations and associated surface parameterizations. However, the resulting surface grids are close to but not on the original CAD surfaces. This problem can be alleviated by projecting the resulting surface grids onto the original CAD surfaces. GridTool is designed primary for unstructured grid generation systems. Currently, GridTool supports VGRID and FELISA systems, and it can be easily extended to support other unstructured grid generation systems. The data in GridTool is stored parametrically so that once the problem is set up, one can modify the surfaces and the entire set of points, curves and patches will be updated automatically. This is very useful in a multidisciplinary design and optimization process. GridTool is written entirely in ANSI 'C', the interface is based on the FORMS library, and the graphics is based on the GL library. The code has been tested successfully on IRIS workstations running IRIX4.0 and above. The memory is allocated dynamically, therefore, memory size will depend on the complexity of geometry/grid. GridTool data structure is based on a link-list structure which allows the required memory to expand and contract dynamically according to the user's data size and action. Data structure contains several types of objects such as points, curves, patches, sources and surfaces. At any given time, there is always an active object which is drawn in magenta, or in their highlighted colors as defined by the resource file which will be discussed later.

  3. Structural adaptations of proteins to different biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Pogozheva, Irina D.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Mosberg, Henry I.; Lomize, Andrei L.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into adaptations of proteins to their membranes, intrinsic hydrophobic thicknesses, distributions of different chemical groups and profiles of hydrogen-bonding capacities (α and β) and the dipolarity/polarizability parameter (π*) were calculated for lipid-facing surfaces of 460 integral α-helical, β-barrel and peripheral proteins from eight types of biomembranes. For comparison, polarity profiles were also calculated for ten artificial lipid bilayers that have been previously studied by neutron and X-ray scattering. Estimated hydrophobic thicknesses are 30-31 Å for proteins from endoplasmic reticulum, thylakoid, and various bacterial plasma membranes, but differ for proteins from outer bacterial, inner mitochondrial and eukaryotic plasma membranes (23.9, 28.6 and 33.5 Å, respectively). Protein and lipid polarity parameters abruptly change in the lipid carbonyl zone that matches the calculated hydrophobic boundaries. Maxima of positively charged protein groups correspond to the location of lipid phosphates at 20-22 Å distances from the membrane center. Locations of Tyr atoms coincide with hydrophobic boundaries, while distributions maxima of Trp rings are shifted by 3-4 Å toward the membrane center. Distributions of Trp atoms indicate the presence of two 5-8 Å-wide midpolar regions with intermediate π* values within the hydrocarbon core, whose size and symmetry depend on the lipid composition of membrane leaflets. Midpolar regions are especially asymmetric in outer bacterial membranes and cell membranes of mesophilic but not hyperthermophilic archaebacteria, indicating the larger width of the central nonpolar region in the later case. In artificial lipid bilayers, midpolar regions are observed up to the level of acyl chain double bonds. PMID:23811361

  4. Outer Membrane Permeability and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Delcour, Anne H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary To date most antibiotics are targeted at intracellular processes, and must be able to penetrate the bacterial cell envelope. In particular, the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria provides a formidable barrier that must be overcome. There are essentially two pathways that antibiotics can take through the outer membrane: a lipid-mediated pathway for hydrophobic antibiotics, and general diffusion porins for hydrophilic antibiotics. The lipid and protein compositions of the outer membrane have a strong impact on the sensitivity of bacteria to many types of antibiotics, and drug resistance involving modifications of these macromolecules is common. This review will describe the molecular mechanisms for permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane, and the strategies that bacteria have deployed to resist antibiotics by modifications of these pathways. PMID:19100346

  5. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  6. Characterization of water formation mechanisms on hydrophobic radome materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.C.; Wienhold, P.D.; Nicholas, A.A.; Garner, P.N.

    1994-03-01

    The degree of hydrophobicity and contact angle of water on different radome coating materials was measured. The ability of these hydrophobic materials to bond to a radome substrate was also observed. The materials tested were; Raydell M-26-OS, Raydell M-15-OS, RA 7947, RA 7943, Teflon/Tedlar and Vellox-140. Each material was bonded to G-10 fiberglass panels and evaluated under conditions simulating dew formation, driving rain, freezing rain. Raydell M-26-OS had a relatively high contact angle, demonstrated excellent boding to a radome material, and had fair hydrophobic properties. RA 7947 and RA 7943 had relatively high contact angles, demonstrated poor and fair bonding, respectively, to a radome material, and exhibited good hydrophobic properties. The Teflon/Tedlar material had a low contact angle, demonstrated good bonding to a radome material, but showed fair to poor hydrophobic properties. The Vellox-140 and Raydell M-15-OS had relatively high to high contact angles, demonstrated excellent and possibly excellent bonding, respectively, to a radome material, and showed good to excellent, respectively, hydrophobic properties. These results were consistent whether the test temperature was 22{degrees}C (72{degrees}F) or -13{degrees}C (8{degrees}F) and whether the water was in the form of a mist or a concentrated stream. Long term tests and the effects of salt spray and dirt and the hydrophobic materials were not examined. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  8. Interaction of the Intermembrane Space Domain of Tim23 Protein with Mitochondrial Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Rakhi; Munari, Francesca; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Tim23 mediates protein translocation into mitochondria. Although inserted into the inner membrane, the dynamic association of its intermembrane space (IMS) domain with the outer membrane promotes protein import. However, little is known about the molecular basis of this interaction. Here, we demonstrate that the IMS domain of Tim23 tightly associates with both inner and outer mitochondrial membrane-like membranes through a hydrophobic anchor at its N terminus. The structure of membrane-bound Tim23IMS is highly dynamic, allowing recognition of both the incoming presequence and other translocase components at the translocation contact. Cardiolipin enhances Tim23 membrane attachment, suggesting that cardiolipin can influence preprotein import. PMID:25349212

  9. Poisoning of mixed matrix membranes by fermentation components in pervaporation of ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pervaporation is an alternative to distillation for recovering ethanol produced by fermentation of grains and biomass. Ethanol-selective mixed matrix membranes of the hydrophobic zeolite ZSM-5 in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have superior performance compared to pure PDMS membranes in pervaporation o...

  10. Removal and recovery of ammonia from liquid manure using gas-permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the use of gas-permeable membranes as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia from liquid manures and other concentrated effluents. The process includes the passage of gaseous ammonia through a microporous hydrophobic membrane and capture and concentration with cir...

  11. SORPTION, DIFFUSION AND PERMEATION OF 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE THROUGH ADSORBENT-FILLED POLYMERIC MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addition of hydrophobic adsorbents such as activated carbon into polymeric membranes increased the sorption capacity for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and the trichloroethane permeability of the membranes used in the pervaporation mode. ater permeability also increased for all filled mem...

  12. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  13. Recovery of ammonia from poultry litter using flat gas permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of flat gas-permeable membranes was investigated as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia (NH3) in poultry houses. This process includes the passage of gaseous NH3 through a microporous hydrophobic membrane, capture with a circulating dilute acid on the other side of the...

  14. Seawater Pervaporation through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Krishna M; Qiao, Zhiwei; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    An atomistic simulation study is reported for seawater pervaporation through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes including ZIF-8, -93, -95, -97, and -100. Salt rejection in the five ZIFs is predicted to be 100%. With the largest aperture, ZIF-100 possesses the highest water permeability of 5 × 10(-4) kg m/(m(2) h bar), which is substantially higher compared to commercial reverse osmosis membranes, as well as zeolite and graphene oxide pervaporation membranes. In ZIF-8, -93, -95, and -97 with similar aperture size, water flux is governed by framework hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity; in hydrophobic ZIF-8 and -95, water flux is higher than in hydrophilic ZIF-93 and -97. Furthermore, water molecules in ZIF-93 move slowly and remain in the membrane for a long time but undergo to-and-fro motion in ZIF-100. The lifetime of hydrogen bonds in ZIF-93 is found to be longer than in ZIF-100. This simulation study quantitatively elucidates the dynamic and structural properties of water in ZIF membranes, identifies the key governing factors (aperture size and framework hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity), and suggests that ZIF-100 is an intriguing membrane for seawater pervaporation. PMID:27195441

  15. Self-organization of hydrophobic soil and granular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHale, Glen; Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; Newton, Michael I.; Pyatt, F. Brian; Doerr, Stefan H.

    2007-01-01

    Soil can become extremely water repellent following forest fires or oil spillages, thus preventing penetration of water and increasing runoff and soil erosion. Here the authors show that evaporation of a droplet from the surface of a hydrophobic granular material can be an active process, lifting, self-coating, and selectively concentrating small solid grains. Droplet evaporation leads to the formation of temporary liquid marbles and, as droplet volume reduces, particles of different wettabilities compete for water-air interfacial surface area. This can result in a sorting effect with self-organization of a mixed hydrophobic-hydrophilic aggregate into a hydrophobic shell surrounding a hydrophilic core.

  16. Hydrophobic Ambivalence: Teetering on the Edge of Randomness.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2015-05-01

    Processes ranging from oil-water phase separation to the formation of solid clathrate hydrates send mixed messages regarding whether oil molecules hate or love to be surrounded by water. Recent experimental and theoretical results help decipher these mixed messages by illuminating the conditions under which the stability of a hydrophobic contact is expected to exceed thermal energy fluctuations - thus facilitating hydrophobic self-assembly and the emergence of structure from randomness. Important open questions remain regarding the dependence of hydrophobic interactions on molecular size and temperature, as well as the balance of direct and water-mediated interactions. PMID:26263336

  17. A C-terminal Membrane Anchor Affects the Interactions of Prion Proteins with Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nam K.; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrPC into pathogenic PrPSc. Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23–231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90–231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105–125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions. PMID:25217642

  18. Role for Chlamydial Inclusion Membrane Proteins in Inclusion Membrane Structure and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mital, Jeffrey; Miller, Natalie J.; Dorward, David W.; Dooley, Cheryl A.; Hackstadt, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The chlamydial inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted effector proteins. These inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) are exposed to the cytosol and share a common structural feature of a long, bi-lobed hydrophobic domain but little or no primary amino acid sequence similarity. Based upon secondary structural predictions, over 50 putative inclusion membrane proteins have been identified in Chlamydia trachomatis. Only a limited number of biological functions have been defined and these are not shared between chlamydial species. Here we have ectopically expressed several C. trachomatis Incs in HeLa cells and find that they induce the formation of morphologically distinct membranous vesicular compartments. Formation of these vesicles requires the bi-lobed hydrophobic domain as a minimum. No markers for various cellular organelles were observed in association with these vesicles. Lipid probes were incorporated by the Inc-induced vesicles although the lipids incorporated were dependent upon the specific Inc expressed. Co-expression of Inc pairs indicated that some colocalized in the same vesicle, others partially overlapped, and others did not associate at all. Overall, it appears that Incs may have an intrinsic ability to induce membrane formation and that individual Incs can induce membranous structures with unique properties. PMID:23696825

  19. Flow simulation on generalized grids

    SciTech Connect

    Koomullil, R.P.; Soni, B.K.; Huang, Chi Ti

    1996-12-31

    A hybrid grid generation methodology and flow simulation on grids having an arbitrary number of sided polygons is presented. A hyperbolic type marching scheme is used for generating structured grids near the solid boundaries. A local elliptic solver is utilized for smoothing the grid lines and for avoiding grid line crossing. A new method for trimming the overlaid structured grid is presented. Delaunay triangulation is employed to generate an unstructured grid in the regions away from the body. The structured and unstructured grid regions are integrated together to form a single grid for the flow solver. An edge based data structure is used to store the grid information to ease the handling of general polygons. Integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations makes up the governing equations. A Roe averaged Riemann solver is utilized to evaluate the numerical flux at cell faces. Higher order accuracy is achieved by applying Taylor`s series expansion to the conserved variables, and the gradient is calculated by using Green`s theorem. For the implicit scheme, the sparse matrix resulting from the linearization is solved using GMRES method. The flux Jacobians are calculated numerically or by an approximate analytic method. Results are presented to validate the current methodology.

  20. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Thermal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Luis A.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    For future lunar extravehicular activities (EVA), one method under consideration for rejecting crew and electronics heat involves evaporating water through a hydrophobic, porous Teflon(Registered Trademark) membrane. A Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) prototype using this membrane was successfully tested by Ungar and Thomas (2001) with predicted performance matching test data well. The above referenced work laid the foundation for the design of a compact sheet membrane SWME development unit for use in the Constellation System Spacesuit Element Portable Life Support System (Vogel and et. al., ICES 2008). Major design objectives included minimizing mass, volume, and manufacturing complexity while rejecting a minimum of 810 watts of heat from water flowing through the SWME at 91 kg/hr with an inlet temperature of 291K. The design meeting these objectives consisted of three concentric cylindrical water channels interlaced with four water vapor channels. Two units were manufactured for the purpose of investigating manufacturing techniques and performing thermal testing. The extensive thermal test measured SWME heat rejection as a function of water inlet temperatures, water flow-rates, water absolute pressures, water impurities, and water vapor back-pressures. This paper presents the test results and subsequent analysis, which includes a comparison of SWME heat rejection measurements to pretest predictions. In addition, test measurements were taken such that an analysis of the commercial-off-the-shelf vapor pressure control valve could be performed.

  1. Evolving a polymerase for hydrophobic base analogues.

    PubMed

    Loakes, David; Gallego, José; Pinheiro, Vitor B; Kool, Eric T; Holliger, Philipp

    2009-10-21

    Hydrophobic base analogues (HBAs) have shown great promise for the expansion of the chemical and coding potential of nucleic acids but are generally poor polymerase substrates. While extensive synthetic efforts have yielded examples of HBAs with favorable substrate properties, their discovery has remained challenging. Here we describe a complementary strategy for improving HBA substrate properties by directed evolution of a dedicated polymerase using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) with the archetypal HBA 5-nitroindole (d5NI) and its derivative 5-nitroindole-3-carboxamide (d5NIC) as selection substrates. Starting from a repertoire of chimeric polymerases generated by molecular breeding of DNA polymerase genes from the genus Thermus, we isolated a polymerase (5D4) with a generically enhanced ability to utilize HBAs. The selected polymerase. 5D4 was able to form and extend d5NI and d5NIC (d5NI(C)) self-pairs as well as d5NI(C) heteropairs with all four bases with efficiencies approaching, or exceeding, those of the cognate Watson-Crick pairs, despite significant distortions caused by the intercalation of the d5NI(C) heterocycles into the opposing strand base stack, as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Unlike Taq polymerase, 5D4 was also able to extend HBA pairs such as Pyrene: varphi (abasic site), d5NI: varphi, and isocarbostyril (ICS): 7-azaindole (7AI), allowed bypass of a chemically diverse spectrum of HBAs, and enabled PCR amplification with primers comprising multiple d5NI(C)-substitutions, while maintaining high levels of catalytic activity and fidelity. The selected polymerase 5D4 promises to expand the range of nucleobase analogues amenable to replication and should find numerous applications, including the synthesis and replication of nucleic acid polymers with expanded chemical and functional diversity. PMID:19778048

  2. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins strongly induce negative curvature.

    PubMed

    Chavarha, Mariya; Loney, Ryan W; Rananavare, Shankar B; Hall, Stephen B

    2015-07-01

    The hydrophobic surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C greatly accelerate the adsorption of vesicles containing the surfactant lipids to form a film that lowers the surface tension of the air/water interface in the lungs. Pulmonary surfactant enters the interface by a process analogous to the fusion of two vesicles. As with fusion, several factors affect adsorption according to how they alter the curvature of lipid leaflets, suggesting that adsorption proceeds via a rate-limiting structure with negative curvature, in which the hydrophilic face of the phospholipid leaflets is concave. In the studies reported here, we tested whether the surfactant proteins might promote adsorption by inducing lipids to adopt a more negative curvature, closer to the configuration of the hypothetical intermediate. Our experiments used x-ray diffraction to determine how the proteins in their physiological ratio affect the radius of cylindrical monolayers in the negatively curved, inverse hexagonal phase. With binary mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), the proteins produced a dose-related effect on curvature that depended on the phospholipid composition. With DOPE alone, the proteins produced no change. With an increasing mol fraction of DOPC, the response to the proteins increased, reaching a maximum 50% reduction in cylindrical radius at 5% (w/w) protein. This change represented a doubling of curvature at the outer cylindrical surface. The change in spontaneous curvature, defined at approximately the level of the glycerol group, would be greater. Analysis of the results in terms of a Langmuir model for binding to a surface suggests that the effect of the lipids is consistent with a change in the maximum binding capacity. Our findings show that surfactant proteins can promote negative curvature, and support the possibility that they facilitate adsorption by that mechanism. PMID:26153706

  3. Solubility Enhanced Oxidation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. B.; Eberle, D. E.; Ball, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation technique considered to be effective at overcoming some of the limitations of conventional subsurface treatment processes for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC, SVOC). ISCO reactions occur predominately in the aqueous phase and as a result, contaminant availability is a major limiting factor, i.e. contaminants with higher aqueous solubility's are typically more accessible for oxidation than more hydrophobic, sorbed compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of contaminated waters and sediments. Specifically, this study examined the potential of using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a modified cyclic sugar, and a blend of oxidants commercially known as OxyZone® (U.S. patent No. 7,667,087) for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Laboratory scale batch experiments confirmed prior studies that HPCD increases the aqueous concentration of these contaminants, making a greater mass of contaminant available for subsequent oxidation. When exposed to the same amount of oxidant, the mass of PAH destroyed increased linearly with increasing HPCD concentration. Relative to PAH saturated solutions without HPCD, 11 times more PAH mass was destroyed when a PAH saturated 15 g/L HPCD solution was treated with the same mass of oxidant. Destruction of the aqueous phase contaminants followed first order exponential decay kinetics in both deionized water and HPCD solutions. However, the destruction of complexed PAH was slower than for uncomplexed PAH. The cause of this is likely due to the preferential destruction of the HPCD molecule by the oxidant, followed by the subsequent oxidation of the PAH. The destruction of the cyclodextrin was minimized by modifying the oxidant formulation. Overall, these findings establish the potential of utilizing HPCD and OxyZone® as an integrated desorption

  4. Ion-specific aggregation of hydrophobic particles.

    PubMed

    López-León, Teresa; Ortega-Vinuesa, Juan Luis; Bastos-González, Delfina

    2012-06-18

    This work shows that colloidal stability and aggregation kinetics of hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) nanospheres are extremely sensitive to the nature of the salt used to coagulate them. Three PS latices and four aggregating electrolytes, which all share the same cation (Na(+)) but have various anions located at different positions in the classical Hofmeister series depending on their kosmotropic or chaotropic character, are used. The present study focuses on analyzing different aggregating parameters, such as critical coagulation concentrations (CCC), cluster size distributions (CSD), initial kinetic constants K(11), and fractal dimensions of the aggregates d(f). While aggregation induced by SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) behaved according to the predictions of the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, important discrepancies are found with NO(3)(-), which become dramatic when using SCN(-). These discrepancies among the anions were far more significant when they acted as counterions rather than as co-ions. While SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-) trigger fast diffusion-limited aggregation, SCN(-) gives rise to a stationary cluster size distribution in a few aggregation times when working with cationic PS particles. Clear differences are found among all analyzed parameters (CCC, CSD, K(11), and d(f)), and the experimental findings show that particles aggregate in potential wells whose depth is controlled by the chaotropic character of the anion. This paper presents new experimental evidence that may help to understand the microscopic origin of Hofmeister effects, as the observations are consistent with appealing theoretical models developed in the last few years. PMID:22556130

  5. Evaluating the Information Power Grid using the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaartm Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) are a collection of synthetic distributed applications designed to rate the performance and functionality of computational grids. We compare several implementations of the NGB to determine programmability and efficiency of NASA's Information Power Grid (IPG), whose services are mostly based on the Globus Toolkit. We report on the overheads involved in porting existing NGB reference implementations to the IPG. No changes were made to the component tasks of the NGB can still be improved.

  6. Interactions between nano-TiO2 and the oral cavity: impact of nanomaterial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Teubl, Birgit J; Schimpel, Christa; Leitinger, Gerd; Bauer, Bettina; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are available in a variety of oral applications, such as food additives and cosmetic products. Thus, questions about their potential impact on the oro-gastrointestinal route rise. The oral cavity represents the first portal of entry and is known to rapidly interact with nanoparticles. Surface charge and size contribute actively to the particle-cell interactions, but the influence of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity has never been shown before. This study addresses the biological impact of hydrophilic (NM 103, rutile, 20 nm) and hydrophobic (NM 104, rutile, 20 nm) TiO2 particles within the buccal mucosa. Particle characterization was addressed with dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction. Despite a high agglomeration tendency, 10% of the particles/agglomerates were present in the nanosized range and penetrated into the mucosa, independent of the surface properties. However, significant differences were observed in intracellular particle localization. NM 104 particles were found freely distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas their hydrophobic counterparts were engulfed in vesicular structures. Although cell viability/membrane integrity was not affected negatively, screening assays demonstrated that NM 104 particles showed a higher potential to decrease the physiological mitochondrial membrane potential than NM 103, resulting in a pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:25590824

  7. Adventures in Computational Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sometimes one supercomputer is not enough. Or your local supercomputers are busy, or not configured for your job. Or you don't have any supercomputers. You might be trying to simulate worldwide weather changes in real time, requiring more compute power than you could get from any one machine. Or you might be collecting microbiological samples on an island, and need to examine them with a special microscope located on the other side of the continent. These are the times when you need a computational grid.

  8. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    SciTech Connect

    and Drayton Munster, Miroslav Stoyanov

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library that provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.

  9. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library thatmore » provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.« less

  10. The Volume Grid Manipulator (VGM): A Grid Reusability Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a manual describing how to use the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) software. The code is specifically designed to alter or manipulate existing surface and volume structured grids to improve grid quality through the reduction of grid line skewness, removal of negative volumes, and adaption of surface and volume grids to flow field gradients. The software uses a command language to perform all manipulations thereby offering the capability of executing multiple manipulations on a single grid during an execution of the code. The command language can be input to the VGM code by a UNIX style redirected file, or interactively while the code is executing. The manual consists of 14 sections. The first is an introduction to grid manipulation; where it is most applicable and where the strengths of such software can be utilized. The next two sections describe the memory management and the manipulation command language. The following 8 sections describe simple and complex manipulations that can be used in conjunction with one another to smooth, adapt, and reuse existing grids for various computations. These are accompanied by a tutorial section that describes how to use the commands and manipulations to solve actual grid generation problems. The last two sections are a command reference guide and trouble shooting sections to aid in the use of the code as well as describe problems associated with generated scripts for manipulation control.

  11. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  12. Immunologic trapping in supported liquid membrane extraction

    PubMed

    Thordarson; Jonsson; Emneus

    2000-11-01

    To obtain a high degree of selectivity in sample preparation, supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction was combined with immunologic recognition. The SLM employs a hydrophobic polymer for supporting the immobilization of an organic solvent, thus forming a nonporous membrane. Said membrane separates the aqueous sample on one side (donor) from a receiving aqueous phase on the other (acceptor). The extraction involves the partitioning of neutral compounds between the sample solution, continuously pumped alongside the membrane, and the membrane. From the membrane, reextraction takes place into a second aqueous phase containing antibodies specific for the target compound(s). Hence, there is a formation of an antibody-antigen complex at the heart of the sample preparation (ImmunoSLM). When the immunocomplex forms, the antigen can no longer redissolve in the organic membrane, thus being trapped in the acceptor. Consequently, the concentration gradient of free antigen over the membrane is ideally unaffected, this being the driving force for the process. With a surplus of antibody, the concentration of analyte in the receiving phase will easily exceed the initial sample concentration. In this work, the so formed immunocomplex was quantified on-line, using a fluorescein flow immunoassay in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) setup. The outlined ImmunoSLM-SIA scheme was successfully applied for the extraction of 4-nitrophenol from spiked water solutions as well as from a spiked wastewater sample, indicating that the immunoextraction can be suitable when dealing with difficult matrixes. PMID:11080876

  13. Bolaamphiphiles Promote Phospholipid Translocation Across Vesicle Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Christopher C.; DiVittorio, Kristy M.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2008-01-01

    A series of membrane-spanning bolaamphiphiles (molecules with two hydrophilic end-groups connected by a hydrophobic linker) were prepared by a modular synthetic method and evaluated for their abilities to affect the dynamics of a surrounding bilayer membrane. The goal was to determine if the bolaamphiphiles promote the translocation of phospholipids across vesicle membranes. The bolaamphiphiles were incorporated at low levels (up to 5 mol%) in vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). Inward translocation assays were performed using fluorescent, NBD-labeled phospholipid probes with phosphocholine (PC) or phosphoglycerol (PG) head-groups. The membrane-spanning bolaamphiphiles promote the translocation of both phospholipid probes in the order PG > PC, while shorter bolaamphiphiles (structures that must adopt a U-shape and keep both end-groups in the same leaflet of the membrane), and regular amphiphiles with one hydrophilic end-group, are inactive. These results are an exception to the rule-of-thumb that membrane-spanning bolaamphiphiles are inherently membrane stabilizing molecules that inhibit all types of membrane transport. PMID:16834395

  14. Opening and closing of the hydrophobic cavity of LolA coupled to lipoprotein binding and release.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Yuki; Takeda, Kazuki; Watanabe, Shoji; Yokota, Naoko; Miki, Kunio; Tokuda, Hajime

    2008-09-12

    Outer membrane-specific lipoproteins of Escherichia coli are released from the inner membrane through the action of Lol-CDE, which leads to the formation of a complex between the lipoprotein and LolA, a periplasmic chaperone. LolA then transfers lipoproteins to LolB, a receptor in the outer membrane. The structures of LolA and LolB are very similar, having an incomplete beta-barrel covered with an alpha-helical lid forming a hydrophobic cavity inside. The cavity of LolA, but not that of LolB, is closed and thus inaccessible to the bulk solvent. Previous studies suggested that Arg at position 43 of LolA is critical for maintaining this closed structure. We show here, through a crystallographic study, that the cavity of the LolA(R43L) mutant, in which Leu replaces Arg-43, is indeed open to the external milieu. We then found that the binding of a fluorescence probe distinguishes the open/close state of the cavity. Furthermore, it was revealed that the hydrophobic cavity of LolA opens upon the binding of lipoproteins. Such a liganded LolA was found to be inactive in the release of lipoproteins from the inner membrane. On the other hand, the liganded LolA became fully functional when lipoproteins were removed from LolA by detergent treatment or transferred to LolB. Free LolA thus formed was inaccessible to a fluorescence probe. These results, taken together, reveal the LolA cycle, in which the hydrophobic cavity undergoes opening and closing upon the binding and release of lipoproteins, respectively. PMID:18617521

  15. Polyurethane membranes for surgical gown applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukpabi, Pauline Ozoemena

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently issued a directive requiring all employers to supply personnel protective equipment to employees who are at risk of exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. For the healthcare worker, a wide variety of surgical gowns is available commercially but there are concerns over their barrier effectiveness and/or wearer comfort. To successfully create a barrier fabric which combines resistance to fluid penetration with comfort, a complete understanding of the relationship between membrane structure and functional properties is required. In this study, we investigated the surface properties of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in polyurethane membranes intended for use in surgical gowns. The polyurethane membranes were grafted with side chains of varying lengths, polyethylene glycol (PEG) being used for the hydrophilic modifications and perfluoroalkyl compounds (a monofunctional acid and a difunctional amino alcohol) for the hydrophobic modifications. The hydrophilic treatment was intended to improve the comfort properties of monolithic membranes without adversely affecting their barrier properties. The hydrophobic treatment, on the other hand, was intended to improve the fluid repellency and hence barrier properties of microporous membranes without adversely affecting their comfort properties. Reflection infrared spectroscopy showed that fluorine was successfully grafted onto the polyurethane backbone during the hydrophobic modification, but was not sensitive enough to detect PEG grafting in leached polyethylene glycol-treated polyurethanes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the perfluoroalkylated polyurethanes contained up to 40% fluorine on their surfaces and the PEG-treated polyurethanes showed an increase in their C-O content over the unmodified polyurethane. Scanning electron microscopy not only showed that perfluoroalkylation yielded polyurethane membranes with very

  16. Surface hydrophobization by electrostatic deposition of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylates) and their complexes with surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gîfu, Ioana Cătălina; Maxim, Monica Elisabeta; Iovescu, Alina; Simion, Elena Livia; Aricov, Ludmila; Anastasescu, Mihai; Munteanu, Cornel; Anghel, Dan-Florin

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the hydrophobic effect of poly(electrolyte) multilayer films when they are alkyl-grafted and complexed or not with surfactants. For this purpose, sodium hydrophobically modified poly(acrylates) (PACnNa, n = 10, 18) or their anionic complexes with alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (CxTAB, x = 10, 12, 14, 18), and the cationic poly(diallyldimethyldiammonium chloride) (PDDAMAC) are assembled by layer-by-layer deposition on a glass substrate. Contact angle (CA) measurements reveal that films constructed with PACnNa-CxTAB/PDADMAC are superior water repellants than those of PACnNa/PDADMAC. For example, the highest CA is obtained for the PAC18Na-C18TAB/PDADMAC. Moreover, it has been observed that the CA increases with the alkyl chain length of PACnNa and of surfactant. The film roughness and thickness have the same trend as wettability. Thinner and less coarse films are obtained by NaCl addition, as witnessed by SEM and AFM.

  17. Deuterium isotope effects on hydrophobic interactions: the importance of dispersion interactions in the hydrophobic phase.

    PubMed

    Turowski, Maciej; Yamakawa, Naoki; Meller, Jaroslaw; Kimata, Kazuhiro; Ikegami, Tohru; Hosoya, Ken; Tanaka, Nobuo; Thornton, Edward R

    2003-11-12

    Hydrogen/deuterium isotope effects on hydrophobic binding were examined by means of reversed-phase chromatographic separation of protiated and deuterated isotopologue pairs for a set of 10 nonpolar and low-polarity compounds with 10 stationary phases having alkyl and aryl groups bonded to the silica surface. It was found that protiated compounds bind to nonpolar moieties attached to silica more strongly than deuterated ones, demonstrating that the CH/CD bonds of the solutes are weakened or have less restricted motions when bound in the stationary phase compared with the aqueous solvent (mobile phase). The interactions responsible for binding have been further characterized by studies of the effects of changes in mobile phase composition, temperature dependence of binding, and QSRR (quantitative structure-chromatographic retention relationship) analysis, demonstrating the importance of enthalpic effects in binding and differentiation between the isotopologues. To explain our results showing the active role of the hydrophobic (stationary) phase we propose a plausible model that includes specific contributions from aromatic edge-to-face attractive interactions and attractive interactions of aliphatic groups with the pi clouds of aromatic groups present as the solute or in the stationary phase. PMID:14599224

  18. Biogenesis and Membrane Targeting of Lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Narita, Shin-Ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins, which are anchored to membranes through triacyl chains attached to the amino-terminal cysteine. They are involved in various functions localized in cell envelope. Escherichia coli possesses more than 90 species of lipoproteins, most of which are localized in the outer membrane, with others being in the inner membrane. All lipoproteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm with an N-terminal signal peptide, translocated across the inner membrane by the Sec translocon to the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane, and converted to mature lipoproteins through sequential reactions catalyzed by three lipoprotein-processing enzymes: Lgt, LspA, and Lnt. The sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane requires a system comprising five Lol proteins. An ATP-binding cassette transporter, LolCDE, initiates the sorting by mediating the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane. Formation of the LolA-lipoprotein complex is coupled to this LolCDE-dependent release reaction. LolA accommodates the amino-terminal acyl chain of lipoproteins in its hydrophobic cavity, thereby generating a hydrophilic complex that can traverse the periplasmic space by diffusion. Lipoproteins are then transferred to LolB on the outer membrane and anchored to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane by the action of LolB. In contrast, since LolCDE does not recognize lipoproteins possessing Asp at position +2, these lipoproteins remain anchored to the inner membrane. Genes for Lol proteins are widely conserved among gram-negative bacteria, and Lol-mediated outer membrane targeting of lipoproteins is considered to be the general lipoprotein localization mechanism. PMID:26443779

  19. Membrane Thinning and Thickening Induced by Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Grage, Stephan L; Afonin, Sergii; Kara, Sezgin; Buth, Gernot; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Membrane thinning has been discussed as a fundamental mechanism by which antimicrobial peptides can perturb cellular membranes. To understand which factors play a role in this process, we compared several amphipathic peptides with different structures, sizes and functions in their influence on the lipid bilayer thickness. PGLa and magainin 2 from X. laevis were studied as typical representatives of antimicrobial cationic amphipathic α-helices. A 1:1 mixture of these peptides, which is known to possess synergistically enhanced activity, allowed us to evaluate whether and how this synergistic interaction correlates with changes in membrane thickness. Other systems investigated here include the α-helical stress-response peptide TisB from E. coli (which forms membrane-spanning dimers), as well as gramicidin S from A. migulanus (a natural antibiotic), and BP100 (designer-made antimicrobial and cell penetrating peptide). The latter two are very short, with a circular β-pleated and a compact α-helical structure, respectively. Solid-state (2)H-NMR and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) on oriented phospholipid bilayers were used as complementary techniques to access the hydrophobic thickness as well as the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance including the water layer in between. This way, we found that magainin 2, gramicidin S, and BP100 induced membrane thinning, as expected for amphiphilic peptides residing in the polar/apolar interface of the bilayer. PGLa, on the other hand, decreased the hydrophobic thickness only at very high peptide:lipid ratios, and did not change the bilayer-bilayer repeat distance. TisB even caused an increase in the hydrophobic thickness and repeat distance. When reconstituted as a mixture, PGLa and magainin 2 showed a moderate thinning effect which was less than that of magainin 2 alone, hence their synergistically enhanced activity does not seem to correlate with a modulation of membrane thickness. Overall, the absence of

  20. A grid quality manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ning; Eiseman, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    A grid quality manipulation system is described. The elements of the system are the measures by which quality is assessed, the computer graphic display of those measures, and the local grid manipulation to provide a response to the viewed quality indication. The display is an overlaid composite where the region is first covered with colors to reflect the values of the quality indicator, the grid is then placed on top of those colors, and finally a control net is placed on top of everything. The net represents the grid in terms of the control point form of algebraic grid generation. As a control point is moved, both the grid and the colored quality measures also move. This is a real time dynamic action so that the consequences of the manipulation are continuously seen.

  1. Prepares Overset Grids for Processing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-04-22

    Many large and complex computational problems require multiple, structured, generically overlapped (overset) grids to obtain numerical solutions in a timely manner. BREAKUP significantly reduces required compute times by preparing overset grids for processing on massively parallel computers. BREAKUP subdivides the original grids for use on a user-specified number of parallel processors. Grid-to-grid and intragrid communications are maintained in the parallel environment via connectivity tables generated by BREAKUP. The subgrids are formed to be statically loadmore » balanced and to incur a minimum of communication between the subgrids. When the output of BREAKUP is submitted to an appropriately modified flow solver, subgrid solutions will be updated simultaneously. This contrasts to the much less efficient solution method of updating each original grid sequentially as done in the past.« less

  2. Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect

    J Mecinovic; P Snyder; K Mirica; S Bai; E Mack; R Kwant; D Moustakas; A Heroux; G Whitesides

    2011-12-31

    The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-CONHCH{sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub n}CX{sub 3}, n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and

  3. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-10-15

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  4. LDCM Grid Prototype (LGP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Beth; Lubelczyk, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The LGP successfully demonstrated that grid technology could be used to create a collaboration among research scientists, their science development machines, and distributed data to create a science production system in a nationally distributed environment. Grid technology provides a low cost and effective method of enabling production of science products by the science community. To demonstrate this, the LGP partnered with NASA GSFC scientists and used their existing science algorithms to generate virtual Landsat-like data products using distributed data resources. LGP created 48 output composite scenes with 4 input scenes each for a total of 192 scienes processed in parallel. The demonstration took 12 hours, which beat the requirement by almost 50 percent, well within the LDCM requirement to process 250 scenes per day. The LGP project also showed the successful use of workflow tools to automate the processing. Investing in this technology has led to funding for a ROSES ACCESS proposal. The proposal intends to enable an expert science user to produce products from a number of similar distributed instrument data sets using the Land Cover Change Community-based Processing and Analysis System (LC-ComPS) Toolbox. The LC-ComPS Toolbox is a collection of science algorithms that enable the generation of data with ground resolution on the order of Landsat-class instruments.

  5. Grid-Enabled Measures

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  6. Grid Task Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2007-01-01

    IPG Execution Service is a framework that reliably executes complex jobs on a computational grid, and is part of the IPG service architecture designed to support location-independent computing. The new grid service enables users to describe the platform on which they need a job to run, which allows the service to locate the desired platform, configure it for the required application, and execute the job. After a job is submitted, users can monitor it through periodic notifications, or through queries. Each job consists of a set of tasks that performs actions such as executing applications and managing data. Each task is executed based on a starting condition that is an expression of the states of other tasks. This formulation allows tasks to be executed in parallel, and also allows a user to specify tasks to execute when other tasks succeed, fail, or are canceled. The two core components of the Execution Service are the Task Database, which stores tasks that have been submitted for execution, and the Task Manager, which executes tasks in the proper order, based on the user-specified starting conditions, and avoids overloading local and remote resources while executing tasks.

  7. Water's hydrogen bonds in the hydrophobic effect: a simple model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huafeng; Dill, Ken A

    2005-12-15

    We propose a simple analytical model to account for water's hydrogen bonds in the hydrophobic effect. It is based on computing a mean-field partition function for a water molecule in the first solvation shell around a solute molecule. The model treats the orientational restrictions from hydrogen bonding, and utilizes quantities that can be obtained from bulk water simulations. We illustrate the principles in a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model. Our model gives good predictions for the heat capacity of hydrophobic solvation, reproduces the solvation energies and entropies at different temperatures with only one fitting parameter, and accounts for the solute size dependence of the hydrophobic effect. Our model supports the view that water's hydrogen bonding propensity determines the temperature dependence of the hydrophobic effect. It explains the puzzling experimental observation that dissolving a nonpolar solute in hot water has positive entropy. PMID:16375338

  8. BIOSORPTION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY MIXED MICROBIAL POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recognition of the need to estimate biosorption for natural microbial populations, the variability of partition coefficients for two hydrophobic pollutants to natural populations from a variety of aquatic systems was investigated. Biosorption partition coefficients for pyrene ...

  9. Hydrophobic composition based on mixed-molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlenko, Nikolay; Debelova, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yuriy; Volokitin, Gennadiy; Zavyalova, Elena; Lapova, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of compositions based on low and high molecular weight polyethylene so as to synthesize a hydrophobic composition for moisture protection of timber. X-ray phase analysis and measurements of the tear-off force of hydrophobic coating needed to apply to the timber surface and the limiting wetting angle are carried out to detect the hydrophobic, adhesive, electrophysical, and physicochemical properties of compositions. Kinetic dependencies are given for moisture absorption of timber specimens. It is shown that the preliminary formation of the texture by the surface patterning or its treatment with low-temperature plasma with the following protective coating results in the improvement of hydrophobic properties of the suggested compositions. These compositions can be used in the capacity of water repellents to protect building materials from moisture including restoration works.

  10. SEQUESTRATION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS BY GEOSORBENTS. (R822626)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical interactions of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with soils and sediments (geosorbents) may result in strong binding and slow subsequent release rates that significantly affect remediation rates and endpoints. The underlying physical and chemical phenomena ...

  11. Macromolecular Brushes as Stabilizers of Hydrophobic Solute Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hanying; Raciti, David; Wang, Chao; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita

    2016-06-01

    Macromolecular brushes bearing poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(d,l-lactide) side chains were used to stabilize hydrophobic solute nanoparticles formed by a rapid change in solvent quality. Unlike linear diblock copolymers with the same hydrophilic and hydrophobic block chemistries, the brush copolymer enabled the formation of ellipsoidal β-carotene nanoparticles, which in cosolvent mixtures developed into rod-like structures, resulting from a combination of Ostwald ripening and particle aggregation. The stabilizing ability of the copolymer was highly dependent on the mobility of the hydrophobic component, influenced by its molecular weight. As shown here, asymmetric amphiphilic macromolecular brushes of this type may be used as hydrophobic drug stabilizers and potentially assist the shape control of nonspherical aggregate morphologies. PMID:27035279

  12. Hydrophobicity – Shake Flasks, Protein Folding and Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrophobic interactions are some of the most important interactions in nature. They are the primary driving force in a number of phenomena. This is mostly an entropic effect and can account for a number of biophysical events such as protein-protein or protein-ligand binding that are of immense importance in drug design. The earliest studies on this phenomenon can be dated back to the end of the 19th century when Meyer and Overton independently correlated the hydrophobic nature of gases to their anesthetic potency. Since then, significant progress has been made in this realm of science. This review briefly traces the history of hydrophobicity research along with the theoretical estimation of partition coefficients. Finally, the application of hydrophobicity estimation methods in the field of drug design and protein folding is discussed. PMID:19929828

  13. Gastric mucosal barrier: hydrophobicity of stretched stomach lining.

    PubMed

    Hills, B A; Lichtenberger, L M

    1985-06-01

    Surface hydrophobicity of the luminal lining of the canine stomach has been studied as a very convenient means of following the adsorbed monolayer of surfactant believed to provide the gastric mucosal barrier. Hydrophobicity has been measured as the contact angle (theta) produced when a drop of saline is placed upon the surface. theta was found to decrease from 82 to 62 degrees upon 50% linear extension of samples of oxyntic mucosa from 10 dogs. When the phospholipid believed to cause the hydrophobicity was absorbed to glass slides, the contact angle was found to decrease with lower surface concentration. Thinning or "crazing" of the absorbed surfactant monolayer imparting the very hydrophobic nature of the luminal lining is discussed as a possible reason why ulcers tend to form at the crests of the folds, i.e., at points where the surface has been stretched and the monolayer disrupted. PMID:4003546

  14. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  15. Membranous nephropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels (most often statins) may be recommended. A low-salt diet may ... of membranous nephropathy Your symptoms get worse or don't go away You develop new symptoms You have ...

  16. On unstructured grids and solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals and the state-of-the-art technology for unstructured grids and solvers are highlighted. Algorithms and techniques pertinent to mesh generation are discussed. It is shown that grid generation and grid manipulation schemes rely on fast multidimensional searching. Flow solution techniques for the Euler equations, which can be derived from the integral form of the equations are discussed. Sample calculations are also provided.

  17. Calcium ion on membrane fouling reduction and bioflocculation promotion in membrane bioreactor at high salt shock.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Fan, Xue; Wang, Bin; Song, Lianfa

    2016-01-01

    Fouling propensity of activated sludge in membrane bioreactor (MBR) is closely related to the disturbance of a salt shock. In this work, the characteristics of membrane fouling and bioflocculation were compared in two laboratory-scale MBRs (one with calcium addition, MBR-Ca, the other without, MBR-C) with a transient salt shock. Particle size distributions, zeta potential, relative hydrophobicity, modified fouling index, the content of polysaccharides, proteins and calcium ions in different layers of sludge were monitored prior to, during and after the salt shock. Comparison with MBR-C showed that the recovery time and fouling rate of MBR-Ca were reduced by 50% and 34%, respectively. Remarkable variations of sludge properties in terms of bioflocculation, such as larger particle sizes, higher relative hydrophobicity and zeta potential, lower polysaccharides in supernatant, higher proteins/polysaccharides ratio in slime and loose bound extracellular polymeric substances, were observed in MBR-Ca after the salt shock. PMID:26524252

  18. Effects of Hydrophobic Surface Nanobubbles on the Flow in Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hui; Liu, Chao

    It has been demonstrated that there are nanobubbles on hydrophobic surface. Molecular dynamics simulation was adopted to investigate the impacts of the hydrophobic surface nanobubbles on fluid flow in nanochannel. A method for calculating the velocity of nanobubbles is presented. The results show that the bubbles on two plates enhance the velocity slip and disturb the flow. The behavior is attributed to the attractive force between nanobubbles.

  19. Flotation of marine microalgae: effect of algal hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sourabh; Li, Yan; Wang, Liguang; Schenk, Peer M

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to understand the underlying reasons for the poor flotation response of marine microalgae. The flotation performance and hydrophobicity of a freshwater microalga (Chlorella sp. BR2) were compared to those of a marine microalga (Tetraselmis sp. M8) at different salinities in the presence of a cationic collector, tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide. It was found that microalgal hydrophobicity played a more important role than salinity in determining the flotation performance. PMID:22858117

  20. Highly hydrophobic and oleophilic foam for selective absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Changhong

    2009-12-01

    In this article, both highly hydrophobic and oleophilic foam were fabricated by coating inner surface of polyurethane (PU) foam with a super-hydrophobic film. The contact angle of the foam is large as 152.2° for water, and 0° for kerosene. The foam can absorb kerosene selectively from kerosene-water mixture and be regenerated easily. The foam may be used to reclaim oil from polluted natural water area resulted from shipwreck or leakage.