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Sample records for hydroponic solution bioavailability

  1. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution. PMID:24838258

  2. Solution Culture Hydroponics: History and Inexpensive Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts dating back to as early as 604-562 BC of the various uses of hydroponics. Throughout the article, diagrams and simple instructions are provided to aid in classroom use of hydroponics. (ZWH)

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Ion-Selective Electrodes for Simultaneous Analysis of Macronutrients in Hydroponic Solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing of macronutrients in hydroponic solution would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed hydroponic systems. Ion-selective microelectrode technology requires an ion-selective membrane or a solid metal material that responds selectively to one analyte in...

  4. Sterilisation of Hydroponic Culture Solution Contaminated by Fungi using an Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Kohji; Satoh, Kohki; Kanayama, Hiroshi; Itoh, Hidenori; Tagashira, Hiroaki; Shimozuma, Mitsuo; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Takasaki, Satoko; Kinoshita, Muneshige

    The hydroponic culture solution contaminated by fungi is sterilised by a DC corona discharge, and the sterilisation characteristics are investigated in this work. A DC streamer corona discharge is generated at atmospheric pressure in air between needle clusters and a water bath containing contaminated solution by fungus such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae or Fusarium sp.. It is found that the fungi are killed by the exposure of the corona discharge, and that the death rates of the fungi chiefly depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. It is also found that the number densities of the fungi decrease exponentially with the energy expenditure of the corona discharge, and that damping coefficients of the fungi densities depend on the concentration of the hydroponic culture solutions. This suggests that the fungi are chiefly inactivated by electroporation.

  5. The effects of nutrient solution sterilization on the growth and yield of hydroponically grown lettuce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Dudzinski, D.; Minners, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of removing bacteria from hydroponic nutrient solution [ultraviolet (UV) radiation and submicronic filter] were evaluated for efficiency and for their effects on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. Both methods were effective in removing bacteria; but, at high intensity, the ultraviolet sterilizer significantly inhibited the production of plants grown in the treated solution. Bacterial removal by lower intensity UV or a submicronic filter seemed to promote plant growth slightly, but showed no consistent, statistically significant effect.

  6. Development of a vinasse nutritive solution for hydroponics.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, José Darcy; Lopes da Silva, André Luís; da Luz Costa, Jefferson; Scheidt, Gessiel Newton; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2013-01-15

    Vinasse is a residue that originates from the distillation of fuel alcohol. However, it contains a relative amount of nutrients. The aim of this work was to develop a nutritive solution using vinasse and to compare it with a commercial solution for the cultivation of lettuce, watercress and rocket. Vinasse obtained from juice must was decanted and filtered, followed by chemical analyses of the nutrients. A nutritive solution composed of 10% vinasse supplemented with nutrients was in agreement with the results of the chemical analyses (a similar amount of Furlani's solution). Experiments were then performed in an NFT (Nutrient film technique) system. The treatments used the vinasse solution and a commercial solution constituted from a Yara Fertilizantes(®) product. The height of the aerial part and the number of leaves of the crops were evaluated at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. In most crops, the results were very similar. The vinasse solution promoted a larger number of leaves in lettuce and the highest aerial part in watercress. For the rocket, there were no significant differences between the two solutions. In conclusion, a nutritive solution was developed using vinasse, and this solution provided suitable growth, which was higher in some cases, for the crops studied herein. This study shows the great potential of this technology as a rational alternative to vinasse disposal. PMID:23201600

  7. Treatment of drainage solution from hydroponic greenhouse production with microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Malin; Carlsson, Anders S; Gustafsson, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated treatment of the drainage solution from greenhouse production with microalgae, through inoculation with Chlorella vulgaris or through growth of the indigenous microalgal community. A significant reduction in nitrogen, between 34.7 and 73.7 mg L(-1), and particularly in phosphorus concentration, between 15.4 and 15.9 mg L(-1), was observed in drainage solution collected from commercial greenhouse production. The large reduction in nutrients was achieved through growth of the indigenous microalgal community i.e., without pre-treatment of the drainage solution or inoculation with the fast growing green microalgae C. vulgaris. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the algal biomass revealed that compared with a standard growth medium for green algae, the drainage solution was inferior for lipid production. Despite the biorefinery concept being less promising, microalgae-based treatment of drainage solution from greenhouse production is still of interest considering the urgent need for phosphorus recycling. PMID:23567708

  8. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO_2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  9. Excess nutrients in hydroponic solutions alter nutrient content of rice, wheat, and potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Mitchell, C. A.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bugbee, B.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Environment has significant effects on the nutrient content of field-grown crop plants. Little is known, however, about compositional changes caused by controlled environments in which plants receive only artificial radiation and soilless, hydroponic culture. This knowledge is essential for developing a safe, nutritious diet in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Three crops that are candidates for inclusion in a CELSS (rice, wheat, and white potato) were grown both in the field and in controlled environments where the hydroponic nutrient solution, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and CO2 level were manipulated to achieve rapid growth rates. Plants were harvested at maturity, separated into discrete parts, and dried prior to analysis. Plant materials were analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate, minerals, and amino-acid composition. The effect of environment on nutrient content varied by crop and plant part. Total N and nonprotein N (NPN) contents of plant biomass generally increased under controlled-environment conditions compared to field conditions, especially for leafy plant parts and roots. Nitrate levels were increased in hydroponically-grown vegetative tissues, but nitrate was excluded from grains and tubers. Mineral content changes in plant tissue included increased phosphorus and decreased levels of certain micronutrient elements under controlled-environment conditions. These findings suggest that cultivar selection, genetic manipulation, and environmental control could be important to obtain highly nutritious biomass in a CELSS.

  10. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  11. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  12. Evidence of association of salmonellae with tomato plants grown hydroponically in inoculated nutrient solution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuan; van Iersel, Marc W; Chen, Jinru; Brackett, Robert E; Beuchat, Larry R

    2002-07-01

    The possibility of uptake of salmonellae by roots of hydroponically grown tomato plants was investigated. Within 1 day of exposure of plant roots to Hoagland nutrient solution containing 4.46 to 4.65 log(10) CFU of salmonellae/ml, the sizes of the pathogen populations were 3.01 CFU/g of hypocotyls and cotyledons and 3.40 log(10) CFU/g of stems for plants with intact root systems (control) and 2.55 log(10) CFU/g of hypocotyls and cotyledons for plants from which portions of the roots had been removed. A population of > or =3.38 log(10) CFU/g of hypocotyls-cotyledons, stems, and leaves of plants grown for 9 days was detected regardless of the root condition. Additional studies need to be done to unequivocally demonstrate that salmonellae can exist as endophytes in tomato plants grown under conditions that simulate commonly used agronomic practices. PMID:12089054

  13. Study of paracetamol 1-g oral solution bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Farre, M; Roset, P N; Abanades, S; Menoyo, E; Alvarez, Y; Rovira, M; Baena, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess paracetamol bioavailability after administering 1 g in oral solution. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected for this open-label study. A total of 15.4 ml of Gelocatil Oral Solution (Laboratorios Gelos, S.L.), corresponding to 1 g of paracetamol, were administered to fasting subjects. Blood samples were collected at 0 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 45 min, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h and 12 h. Paracetamol plasma concentrations were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The study was conducted without deviations from protocol. Pharmacokinetic data from 18 subjects were allowed for estimating fast and high-paracetamol bioavailability: t(max) 20 min (10-45) [median (range)], C(max) 24. 3 mg/l (6.5) [mean (standard deviation)], AUC(0-t) 64.0 mg h/l (16.1) and AUC(0-00) 68.1 mg h/l (17.9). These results are comparable to those described for Gelocatil Oral Solution given at a 650 mg dose and for immediate release Gelocatil 650 mg tablets. Absorption speed was very fast, similar to that described for other oral-solution formulations, which provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. The results of this study show suitable bioavailability for 1 g Gelocatil Oral Solution, with fast-absorption speed that provides an immediate onset of pain and fever relief. PMID:18389096

  14. Uptake and translocation of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene supplied in hydroponics solution to Cucurbita.

    PubMed

    Gent, Martin P N; White, Jason C; Parrish, Zakia D; Isleyen, Mehmet; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2007-12-01

    Field studies show shoots of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) accumulate various hydrophobic contaminants from soil, although many other plants do not, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). To investigate the mechanism for this uptake, we presented p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) to these two species in hydroponics solution. A mixture of DDE bound to Tenax beads stirred with a solution of water passing through a reservoir provided a flowing solution containing DDE at approximately 2 microg/L for many weeks duration. Approximately 90% of the DDE supplied in solution was adsorbed on the roots of both cucumber and zucchini. Less than 10% of the sorbed DDE was released subsequently when clean solution flowed past these contaminated roots for 9 d. The shoots of both species accumulated DDE, but the fraction that moved from the roots to the shoot in zucchini, ranging from 6 to 27% in various trials, was 10-fold greater than that in cucumber, 0.7 to 2%. The gradient in DDE concentration in zucchini tissues was in the order root more more than stem > petiole > leaf blade, indicating the movement was through the xylem in the transpiration stream. Some DDE in leaf blades might have been absorbed from the air, because the concentration in this tissue varied less with time, position in trough, or species, than did DDE in stems and petioles. The remarkable ability of zucchini to translocate DDE could not be attributed to differences in tissue composition, growth rate, distribution of weight among plant parts, or in the leaf area and rate of transpiration of water from leaves. Some other factor enables efficient translocation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the xylem of zucchini. PMID:18020671

  15. Closed-Cycle Nutrient Supply For Hydroponics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls composition and feed rate of nutrient solution and recovers and recycles excess solution. Uses air pressure on bladders to transfer aqueous nutrient solution. Measures and adjusts composition of solution before it goes to hydroponic chamber. Eventually returns excess solution to one of tanks. Designed to operate in microgravity, also adaptable to hydroponic plant-growing systems on Earth.

  16. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants. PMID:25388287

  17. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  18. Hydroponic Gardening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julinor, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    In addition to being an actual source of foodstuffs in inhospitable climates and a potential source of a large portion of the world's food supply, hydroponic gardening is a useful technique in the classroom for illustrating the role of plant life in the world's food chain. (MB)

  19. Electrochemical control of pH in a hydroponic nutrient solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical pH control system described was found to provide a feasible alternative method of controlling nutrient solution pH for CELSS applications. The plants grown in nutrient solution in which the pH was controlled electrochemically showed no adverse effects. Further research into the design of a larger capacity electrode bridge for better control is indicated by the results of this experiment, and is currently under way.

  20. Phytoextraction of cadmium by Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) in hydroponic solution: effects of cadmium speciation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Huang, Lung-Chiu; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chen, Pai-Ye; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2008-06-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remediate heavy metals from contaminated wastewater. However, the interactions of multi-contaminants are not fully clear. This study employed cadmium, Triton X-100 (TX-100), and EDTA to investigate their interactions on phytotoxicity and Cd phytoextraction of Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) in simulated wastewater. The Cd speciation was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model and MINEQL+. Statistic regression was applied to evaluate Cd speciation on Cd uptake in shoots and stems of I. aquatica. Results indicated that the root length was a more sensitive parameter than root weight and shoot weight. Root elongation was affected by Cd in the Cd-EDTA solution and TX-100 in the Cd-TX-100 solution. Both the root length and the root biomass were negatively correlated with the total soluble Cd ions. In contrast, Cd phytoextraction of I. aquatic was correlated with the aqueous Cd ions in the free and complex forms rather than in the chelating form. Additionally, the high Cd bioconcentration factors of I. aquatica (375-2227 l kg(-1) for roots, 45-144 l kg(-1) for shoots) imply that I. aquatica is a potential aquatic plant to remediate Cd-contaminated wastewater. PMID:18471856

  1. Hydroponics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Merran

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes the benefits of using hydroponics in school for investigational work. Lists requirements and includes advice on suitable plant choices. Outlines the various growing systems and growing media and provides suggestions for science investigations using hydroponics. (DDR)

  2. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. PMID:26086811

  3. Labile synthetic cadmium complexes are not bioavailable to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in resin buffered solutions.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, L; Merckx, R; Smolders, E

    2012-11-15

    The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) predicts that cadmium (Cd) uptake by organisms is identical for solutions with the same free Cd(2+) concentration and inorganic composition. Clear exceptions to the FIAM have been shown for Cd uptake by plant roots, periphyton and human cells where labile Cd complexes increase bioavailability and which has been attributed to their role in enhancing Cd diffusion towards the uptake cells. Here, we assessed the role of labile Cd complexes on Cd uptake by algae, for which diffusion limitations should be less pronounced due to their smaller size. Long-term (3 days) Cd uptake by the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was measured in resin buffered solutions with or without synthetic ligands and at three Cd(2+) ion activities (pCd 8.2-5.7). The free Cd(2+) activity was maintained during the test using a metal-selective resin located in the algal bottles. Total dissolved Cd increased up to 35-fold by adding the synthetic ligands at constant Cd(2+) activity. In contrast, Cd uptake by algae increased maximally 2.8 fold with increasing concentration of the synthetic ligands and the availability of the complexes were maximally 5.2% relative to Cd(2+) for NTA and CDTA complexes. It is concluded that labile Cd complexes do not greatly enhance Cd bioavailability to the unicellular algae and calculations suggest that Cd transport from solution to these small cells is not rate limiting. PMID:22903064

  4. Comparative bioavailability study of cefixime administered as tablets or aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Montay, G; Masala, F; Le Roux, Y; Le Liboux, A; Uhlrich, J; Chassard, D; Thebault, J J; Roche, G; Frydman, A

    1991-01-01

    The relative bioavailability of cefixime was studied in 24 healthy male volunteers, with each subject receiving a single 400mg dose of cefixime administered as an aqueous solution, a 400mg tablet and two 200mg tablets, in a randomised crossover sequence. Serum and urine samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Peak cefixime levels were achieved 3 hours after administration of the solution vs 4 hours for the 2 tablet formulations; however, the extent of absorption was only slightly improved with the solution (by 14 and 7% compared with the 1 x 400 and 2 x 200mg tablets, respectively). The 400mg and 2 x 200mg tablets were found to be bioequivalent. The pharmacokinetic profile of the 400mg cefixime tablet (mean maximum plasma concentrations of 4.4 mg/L at 4 hours, area under the concentration-time curve of 34.4 mg/L.h, and apparent terminal elimination half-life of 3.7 hours) supports the clinical evaluation of a 400mg once-daily dosage regimen for cefixime. PMID:1725153

  5. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  6. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  7. Rooting greenwood tip cuttings of several Populus clones hydroponically (hydroponic rooting of Populus cuttings)

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, H.M.; Hansen, E.A.; Tolsted, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Greenwood cuttings of several Populus clones were successfully rooted with a relatively simple hydroponic method. Indolebutyric acid and naphthaleneacetic acid at concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppM applied as a quick dip to the cutting bases, a complete nutrient solution at 20 to 40% of full strength, and a solution temperature between 27 and 30/sup 0/C generally produced the best rooting performance of most clones. Cuttings propagated by the hydroponic procedure rooted faster and generally outgrew those produced by a standard method after being transplanted to pots and grown in the greenhouse.

  8. Hands-On Hydroponics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Jeffrey; Wasserman, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponics is a process in which plants are grown using nutrient-rich water instead of soil. Because this process maximizes the use of water and nutrients--providing only what the plant uses in controlled and easily maintained systems--it is a viable alternative to traditional farming methods. The amount of control in these systems also ensures…

  9. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials. PMID:23487999

  10. Relative bioavailability of diclofenac potassium from softgel capsule versus powder for oral solution and immediate-release tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Bende, Girish; Biswal, Shibadas; Bhad, Prafulla; Chen, Yuming; Salunke, Atish; Winter, Serge; Wagner, Robert; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of diclofenac potassium 50 mg administered as a soft gelatin capsule (softgel capsule), powder for oral solution (oral solution), and tablet was evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy adults. Plasma diclofenac concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by noncompartmental methods. The median time to achieve peak plasma concentrations of diclofenac was 0.5, 0.25, and 0.75 hours with the softgel capsule, oral solution, and tablet formulations, respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf, and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the oral solution formulation were 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and 0.85 (0.76-0.95), respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the tablet formulation were 1.04 (1.00-1.08) and 1.67 (1.43-1.96), respectively. In conclusion, the exposure (AUC) of diclofenac with the new diclofenac potassium softgel capsule formulation was comparable to that of the existing oral solution and tablet formulations. The peak plasma concentration of diclofenac from the new softgel capsule was 67% higher than the existing tablet formulation, whereas it was 15% lower in comparison with the oral solution formulation. PMID:27119581

  11. Oral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Evrard, B; Chiap, P; DeTullio, P; Ghalmi, F; Piel, G; Van Hees, T; Crommen, J; Losson, B; Delattre, L

    2002-12-13

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative bioavailability is obtained with the solution containing the ABZ-HP-beta-CD complex as measured by ABZSO plasma levels. The area under the curve (AUC(0--> proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. PMID:12480310

  12. Degradation of Surfactants in Hydroponic Wheat Root Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monje, Oscar; McCoy, Lashelle; Flanagan, Aisling

    Hygiene water recycling in recirculating hydroponic systems can be enhanced by plant roots by providing a substrate and root exudates for bacterial growth. However, reduced plant growth can occur during batch mode additions of high concentrations of surfactant. An analog hygiene water stream containing surfactants (Steol CS330, Mirataine CB) was added to a hydroponically-grown wheat plant root zone. The plants were grown at 700 mol mol-1 CO2, a photosynthetic photon flux of 300 mol m-2 s-1, and a planting density of 380 plants m-2. Volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficients were determined using the fermentative/dynamic outgassing method to maintain adequate oxygen mass transfer rates in the root zone. This analysis suggested an optimal flow rate of the hydroponic solution of 5 L min-1. The hydroponic system was inoculated with biofilm from a bioreactor and rates of surfactant degradation were measured daily based on reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD decreased from 400 to 100 mg L-1 after 2 days following batch addition of the analog hygiene water to the hydroponic system. Measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration and solution temperature suggest that the root zone was provided adequate aeration to meet both oxygen demands from plant and microbial respiration during the degradation of the surfactant. Results from this study show that hydroponic systems can be used to enhance rates of hygiene water processing.

  13. Water-soluble beta-cyclodextrins in paediatric oral solutions of spironolactone: preclinical evaluation of spironolactone bioavailability from solutions of beta-cyclodextrin derivatives in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, A M; Lennernäs, H; Mannermaa, J P

    1998-06-01

    Water-soluble derivatives of beta-cyclodextrin have been considered for solubilization of spironolactone in the formulation of a safe liquid preparation for premature infants. The oral absorption of spironolactone was studied in rats to evaluate the need to adjust spironolactone dosage in prospective clinical studies. Spironolactone was administered in solutions of sulphobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE7) or dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) and also as spironolactone-containing powder papers (reference preparation). Spironolactone in SBE7 solution was administered intravenously to assess the extent of intestinal absorption from the different formulations. Spironolactone and the metabolites 7alpha-thiospirolactone, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone and canrenone were determined in rat serum after intravenous administration of spironolactone. Half-lives for spironolactone, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone and canrenone were 0.72 +/- 0.17, 1.5 +/- 0.3 and 2.2 +/- 0.3 h, respectively. Although, according to Cmax values, 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone was the major serum metabolite in rats, higher AUC (area under the serum concentration-time curve) values were obtained for canrenone. After oral administration of spironolactone the bioavailabilities evaluated from the AUC values of 7alpha-thiomethylspirolactone were 27.5 +/- 9.3%, 81.3 +/- 28.8% and 82.8 +/- 28.6% for powder papers, DM-beta-CyD and SBE7 solutions, respectively. The oral absorption of spironolactone by rats was better after administration of spironolactone in SBE7 and DM-beta-CyD solutions than after administration as powder papers. Both cyclodextrin formulations enhanced spironolactone bioavailability to a similar extent despite some deacetylation of spironolactone in the presence of SBE7. A reduction of spironolactone dosage would be recommended during clinical studies with premature infants. These results indicate that SBE7 could be a safe and suitable excipient for the solubilization of

  14. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  15. A recirculating hydroponic system for studying peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants were grown hydroponically, using continuously recirculating nutrient solution. Two culture tray designs were tested; one tray design used only nutrient solution, while the other used a sphagnum-filled pod development compartment just beneath the cover and above the nutrient solution. Both trays were fitted with slotted covers to allow developing gynophores to reach the root zone. Peanut seed yields averaged 350 gm-2 dry mass, regardless of tray design, suggesting that substrate is not required for hydroponic peanut production.

  16. Nutrient Management in Recirculating Hydroponic Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing need to recirculate and reuse nutrient solutions in order to reduce environmental and economic costs. However, one of the weakest points in hydroponics is the lack of information on managing the nutrient solution. Many growers and research scientists dump out nutrient solutions and refill at weekly intervals. Other authors have recommended measuring the concentrations of individual nutrients in solution as a key to nutrient control and maintenance. Dumping and replacing solution is unnecessary. Monitoring ions in solution is not always necessary; in fact the rapid depletion of some nutrients often causes people to add toxic amounts of nutrients to the solution. Monitoring ions in solution is interesting, but it is not the key to effective maintenance.

  17. Determination of selenium bioavailability to a benthic bivalve from particulate and solute pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; Johns, C.; Fisher, N.S.; Steinberg, N.A.; Oremland, R.S.; Reinfelder, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Particulate organo-Se was assimilated with 86% efficiency by the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica, when the clam was fed 75Se-labeled diatoms. Absorption efficiencies of participate elemental Se were 22%, when the animals were fed 75Se-labeled sediments in which elemental Se was precipitated by microbial dissimilatory reduction. Precipitation of elemental Se did not eliminate biological availability of the element. Selenite was taken up from solution slowly by M. balthica (mean concentration factor was 712). Concentrations of selenite high enough to influence Se bioaccumulation by M. balthica did not occur in the oxidized water column of San Francisco Bay. However, 98-99% of the Se observed in M. balthica could be explained by ingestion of the concentrations of participate Se found in the bay. The potential for adverse biological effects occurred at much lower concentrations of environmental Se when food web transfer was considered than when predictions of effects were based upon bioassays with solute forms of the element. Selenium clearly requires a protective criterion based upon particulate concentrations or food web transfer. ?? 1992 American Chemical Society.

  18. Automated sensing of hydroponic macronutrients using a computer-controlled system with an array of ion-selective electrodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroponic production systems grow plants without soil, relying on a circulating solution to provide the necessary nutrients. Maintaining an optimum nutrient balance in this solution is important for maximizing crop growth and yield. Particularly in closed hydroponic systems it is important to monit...

  19. Evaluation of Skin Penetration of Diclofenac from a Novel Topical Non Aqueous Solution: A Comparative Bioavailability Study

    PubMed Central

    Nivsarkar, Manish; Patel, Ketan R.; Patel, Dixit D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Different topical formulations of diclofenac have varying skin penetration profile. Recent advances in science and technology has led to the development of many new formulations of drugs for topical drug delivery. One such technological development has led to the innovation of Dynapar QPS, a novel, non-aqueous, quick penetrating solution (QPS) of diclofenac diethylamine. Aim This study was aimed to measure the total exposure from the drug penetrating the skin in healthy human subjects and comparing the relative systemic bioavailability of Dynapar QPS® with diclofenac emulgel. Materials and Methods A 200 mg of diclofenac from either Dynapar QPS® (5 ml) or emulgel (20 g) was applied on back of subject as per the randomisation schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 16 hours post drug application. Plasma concentration of diclofenac was measured by pre-validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters like Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Kel, of diclofenac were determined for both the formulations. Results Mean Cmax after administration of Dynapar QPS® and diclofenac emulgel were 175.93 and 40.04 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax of diclofenac was almost half with QPS compared to emulgel (5.24 hrs versus 9.53 hrs respectively). The mean AUC0–t and AUC0-∞ after administration of Dynapar QPS® was higher as compared to diclofenac emulgel (AUC0–t: 1224.19 versus 289.78 ng.h/ml, respectively; AUC0-∞: 1718.21 versus 513.83 ng.h/ml, respectively). None of the subject experienced any adverse event during the study. Conclusion The results indicate an enhanced penetration and subsequent absorption of diclofenac from Dynapar QPS® as compared to diclofenac emulgel. Higher penetration is likely to translate into better pain relief in patients. PMID:26816910

  20. Bioavailability and generic prescribing.

    PubMed

    Mindel, J S

    1976-01-01

    Although oral drug bioinequivalence has been attributed to a number of causes (excipients, dosage form, variation in dissolution time, and aging) less is known about bioavailability problems of topical medications in ophthalmology. Factors that can alter drug absorption from solutions (pH, partition coefficient, container impurities, contact time, etc.) are noted, and cases in which bioavailability problems should be considered as causes of therapeutic failure are discussed. Various attitudes representing pharmaceutical companies, the federal government, pharmacists, consumers and physicians toward the related problems of bioinequivalence and generic prescribing are examined. Techniques for in vivo and in vitro drug testing and for establishing uniform conditions of drug manufacture and storage can contribute to identification and minimization of bioavailability problems. A rational program based on a combination of such techniques could, ultimately, lead to establishment of the terms "generic equivalency" and "therapeutic equivalency" as synonymous. PMID:13505

  1. Hydroponic Feed With Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, William M.; Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Placing nutrient solution under suction increases growth. Foam plug seals growing stem of plant, making it possible to maintain suction in nutrient liquid around roots. Jar wrapped in black tape to keep out light. Potential use in terrestrial applications in arid climates or in labor-intensive agricultural situations.

  2. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  3. Hydroponics--Studies in Plant Culture With Historical Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Luz Maria

    1981-01-01

    Presents methods for demonstrating and applying scientific principles by growing plants through water culture (hydroponics), including a review of the history of hydroponics, re-creating some early experiments, and setting up a modern hydroponic system. (CS)

  4. A hydroponic design for microgravity and gravity installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, Judith; Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    A hydroponic system is presented that is designed for use in microgravity or gravity experiments. The system uses a sponge-like growing medium installed in tubular modules. The modules contain the plant roots and manage the flow of the nutrient solution. The physical design and materials considerations are discussed, as are modifications of the basic design for use in microgravity or gravity experiments. The major external environmental requirements are also presented.

  5. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  6. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  7. A Simplified Integrated Fish Culture Hydroponics System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emberger, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Investigations that facilitate experimental design, the concept of replication, data analysis, and other aspects of scientific study are described. A list of materials, the recommended plants, and the directions for building the hydroponics unit are included. (KR)

  8. Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.

  9. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures. PMID:27159329

  10. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  11. Wheat response to differences in water and nutritional status between zeoponic and hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, S. L.; Ming, D. W.; Henderson, K. E.; Carrier, C.; Gruener, J. E.; Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. USU-Apogee). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15 to 20 L m-2 d-1 up to Day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences in water status were noted between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT than in hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12 and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4-N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It is probable that NH4-N-induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS.

  12. Wheat Response to Differences In Water and Nutritional Status Between Zeoponic and Hydroponic Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Ming, Douglas W.; Henderson, Keith E.; Carrier, Chris; Gruener, John E.; Barta, Dan J.; Henninger, Don L.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., CV 'USU-Apogee'). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15-20 L per square meters per d up to day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences were noted in water status between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT versus hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12% and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4 -N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT as compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It was likely that NH4-N induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS.

  13. Wheat response to differences in water and nutritional status between zeoponic and hydroponic growth systems.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, S L; Ming, D W; Henderson, K E; Carrier, C; Gruener, J E; Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    2000-01-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for controlled environment life support systems (CELSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in zeoponic substrate and microporous tube irrigation (ZPT) also offer high control of the root environment. This study compared the effect of differences in water and nutrient status of ZPT or hydroponic culture on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. USU-Apogee). In a side-by-side test in a controlled environment, wheat was grown in ZPT and recirculating hydroponics to maturity. Water use by plants grown in both culture systems peaked at 15 to 20 L m-2 d-1 up to Day 40, after which it declined more rapidly for plants grown in ZPT culture due to earlier senescence of leaves. No consistent differences in water status were noted between plants grown in the two culture systems. Although yield was similar, harvest index was 28% lower for plants grown in ZPT than in hydroponic culture. Sterile green tillers made up 12 and 0% of the biomass of plants grown in ZPT and hydroponic culture, respectively. Differences in biomass partitioning were attributed primarily to NH4-N nutrition of plants grown in ZPT compared with NO3-N in hydroponic nutrient solution. It is probable that NH4-N-induced Ca deficiency produced excess tillering and lower harvest index for plants grown in ZPT culture. These results suggest that further refinements in zeoponic substrate would make ZPT culture a viable alternative for achieving high productivity in a CELSS. PMID:11543523

  14. Hydroponic cultivation offers a practical means of producing selenium-enriched garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Yoshida, Jiro; Sasaoka, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    Garlic enriched by selenium (Se) could be an excellent source of dietary Se for cancer chemoprevention. The production of high-Se garlic requires Se-fertilized soil, but such soil may pollute the environment. Hydroponics is a closed system that allows good control over Se fertilization without environmental consequences. We examined the effect of hydroponic cultivation on Se uptake and assimilation in garlic seedlings. Garlic bulbs were grown in the nutrient solution without Se for first 2 wk, and with potassium selenate for an additional week. Sulfate in an ordinary hydroponic solution inhibited the absorption and assimilation of selenate, but when a sulfate-free nutrient was used for Se addition, the garlic seedlings accumulated >1 mg Se, dry weight. Through HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS (HPLC-ICP-MS) analysis, Se-methlyselenocysteine (MeSeCys), gamma-glutamyl-Se-methlyselenocysteine (gamma-GluMeSeCys), selenomethionine, and nonmetabolized selenate were identified in water extracts of the garlic seedlings. The results demonstrate that hydroponic enrichment of Se in garlic seedlings could be a practical means of producing organic Se compounds for nutritional supplements. PMID:16484583

  15. Dieldrin uptake and translocation in plants growing in hydroponic medium.

    PubMed

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Sakai, Mizuki

    2010-01-01

    It has been known that the Cucurbitaceae family takes up a large amount of persistent organic pollutants from soils and that the translocation of those compounds in cucurbits is higher than those in non-cucurbits. To understand the persistent organic pollutant uptake mechanisms of plant species, we compared the dieldrin absorption and transportation potentials of several plants in hydroponic medium. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Moench), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), soybean (Glycine max), komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. peruviridis), white-flowered gourd (Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) were grown in a dieldrin-added hydroponic medium for 10 d, and then the amount of dieldrin in their shoots and roots was measured. All of the roots contained dieldrin, whereas only the cucurbits (white-flowered gourd, cucumber, and zucchini) contained considerable amounts of dieldrin in their shoots. The dieldrin uptake to the roots depended on the concentration of the n-hexane soluble components in the roots, regardless of whether the dieldrin in the roots was translocated to shoots or not. The dieldrin uptake from the solution to the roots was thought to be due to a passive response, such as adsorption on the roots. The translocation of dieldrin from the roots to the shoots was probably through the xylems. The amounts of dieldrin in the shoots per transpiration rates were higher for cucurbits than for non-cucurbits. It seems likely that cucurbits have uptake mechanisms for hydrophobic organic chemicals. PMID:20821429

  16. Monitoring And Controlling Hydroponic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-monitoring and -controlling apparatus maintains slight suction required on nutrient solution in apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375), while overcoming gravity effects on operation of system on Earth. Suction helps to hold solution in tubular membrane.

  17. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    evaluate the adaptation of soybean plants to hydroponics under controlled environment, as well as the plant response to changing cultural parameters, in order to identify the best cultivation protocol for BLSSs. The optimisation of growth conditions in hydroponics has been pursued being aware that environmental factors acting at sub-optimal levels may also increase the sensitivity of plants to space factors. The influence of the following parameters on plant growth and yield was also studied: - the hydroponic system: sole liquid solution (Nutrient Film Technique, NFT) vs solid substrate (rockwool); - the source of nitrogen in the nutrient solution: nitrate fertilizers vs urea; - the root symbiosis with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria: absence or presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; - the influence of microbes in the rhizosphere: inoculation with a mix containing mycorrhizal and trichoderma species, and beneficial bacteria vs a non-inoculated control. All the treatments were evaluated in terms of agronomic traits (e.g. plant size and seed production), physiological traits (gas exchange, nutrient uptake), chemical composition of seeds and their products, and technical parameters such as resource use efficiency and non-edible biomass production (waste).

  18. Temperature and pH effects on plant uptake of benzotriazoles by sunflowers in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sigifredo; Davis, Lawrence C; Erickson, Larry E

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a systematic approach to understanding the effect of environmental variables on plant uptake (phyto-uptake) of organic contaminants. Uptake (and possibly phytotransformation) of xenobiotics is a complex process that may differ from nutrient uptake. A specific group of xenobiotics (benzotriazoles) were studied using sunflowers grown hydroponically with changes of environmental conditions including solution volume, temperature, pH, and mixing. The response of plants to these stimuli was evaluated and compared using physiological changes (biomass production and water uptake) and estimated uptake rates (influx into plants), which define the uptake characteristics for the xenobiotic. Stirring of the hydroponic solution had a significant impact on plant growth and water uptake. Plants were healthier, probably because of a combination of factors such as improved aeration and increase in temperature. Uptake and possibly phytotransformation of benzotriazoles was increased accordingly. Experiments at different temperatures allowed us to estimate an activation energy for the reaction leading to triazole disappearance from the solution. The estimated activation energy was 43 kJ/mol, which indicates that the uptake process is kinetically limited. Culturing plants in triazole-amended hydroponic solutions at different pH values did not strongly affect the biomass production, water uptake, and benzotriazole uptake characteristics. The sunflowers showed an unexpected capacity to buffer the solution pH. PMID:15554474

  19. Search for a plant for phytoremediation--what can we learn from field and hydroponic studies?

    PubMed

    Zabłudowska, E; Kowalska, J; Jedynak, L; Wojas, S; Skłodowska, A; Antosiewicz, D M

    2009-10-01

    The main aim of the study was to evaluate the strategies for coping with arsenic toxicity developed by the mine species (Calamagrostis arundinacea, Fragaria vesca, Stachys sylvatica, and Epilobium parviflorum), and to compare results obtained from plants exposed to arsenic present in contaminated soil (2000-3500 mg/kg dw) and in hydroponic solution (2 microM and 12 microM arsenate). Here we report basic differences in plant responses to arsenic depending on growth conditions (hydroponic/soil) with respect to uptake, root-to-shoot translocation, distribution, and detoxification/speciation. Calamagrostis has the highest level of As-tolerance among the tested species. When grown in soil, it accumulated the highest amount of As in roots and shoots relative to other species, however, when exposed to arsenic in hydroponics, it had lower As concentrations. The efficiency of arsenic root-to-shoot translocation was also different, being less effective in soil-grown Calamagrostis compared with hydroponics. Furthermore, in Calamagrostis exposed to arsenate in liquid medium, As(III) was the predominant arsenic form, in contrast to plants grown in As-contaminated soil, in which As(V) predominated. In addition, comparison of the level of phytochelatins showed that only PC2 was detected in plants from hydroponics, whereas in those from soil, additionally PC3 and PC4 were found. The results show that the basic components of a plant's response to arsenic, including uptake, accumulation as well as detoxification, change depending on the experimental conditions (arsenic in liquid medium or contaminated soil). PMID:19733893

  20. Wheat phytotoxicity from arsenic and cadmium separately and together in solution culture and in a calcareous soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Hu, Q; Khan, S; Wang, Z; Lin, A; Du, X; Zhu, Y

    2007-03-05

    The toxicity effect of two deleterious elements of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) (individually or in combination) on root elongation of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum, L.) were investigated both in hydroponics and in soils freshly spiked with the toxic elements. Median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) and non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) were used to investigate the toxic thresholds and potencies of the two elements. The EC{sub 50} for As was 0.97 {mu}M in hydroponics and 196 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} in soil, and 4.32 {mu}M and 449 mg {center_dot} kg{sup -1} for Cd, respectively. Toxic unit (TU) and additive index (AI) concepts were introduced to determine the combined outcomes, and different behaviors were obtained: synergism in solution culture (EC{sub 50mix} = 0.36 TU{sub mix} and AI: 1.76) and antagonism in soil experiments (EC{sub 50mix} = 1.49 TU{sub mix} and AI: -0.33). Furthermore, the data of soil bioavailable As and Cd can not explain the discrepancy between the results derived from soil and hydroponics experiments.

  1. Bacterial community analysis of Tatsoi cultivated by hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok K; Kim, Hun; Kim, Hyun J; Baker, Christopher A; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-07-01

    Tatsoi (Brassica narinosa) is a popular Asian salad green that is mostly consumed as a source of fresh produce. The purpose of this study was to assess the microbial diversity of Tatsoi cultivated in a hydroponic system and of its ecosystem. Tatsoi leaves, nutrient solution, and perlite/earth samples from a trickle feed system (TFS) and an ebb-and-flow system (EFS) were collected and their microbial communities were analyzed by pyrosequencing analysis. The results showed that most bacteria in the leaves from the TFS contained genus Sporosarcina (99.6%), while Rhizobium (60.4%) was dominant in the leaves from the EFS. Genus Paucibacter (18.21%) and Pelomonas (12.37%) were the most abundant microbiota in the nutrient solution samples of the TFS. In the EFS, the nutrient solution samples contained mostly genus Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter. Potential microbial transfer between the leaves and the ecosystem was observed in the EFS, while samples in the TFS were found to share only one species between the leaves, nutrient solution, and earth. Together, these results show that the bacterial populations in Tatsoi and in its ecosystem are highly diverse based on the cultivation system. PMID:27070460

  2. Selenium addition alters mercury uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Fu, Shi; Ametkhan, Aray; Ouyang, Yun; Ye, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, especially in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), whereas selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in the human diet. This study aimed to ascertain whether addition of Se can produce rice with enriched Se and lowered Hg content when growing in Hg-contaminated paddy fields and, if so, to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Methods Two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa, japonica and indica) were grown in either hydroponic solutions or soil rhizobags with different Se and Hg treatments. Concentrations of total Hg, MeHg and Se were determined in the roots, shoots and brown rice, together with Hg uptake kinetics and Hg bioavailability in the soil. Root anatonmy was also studied. Key Results The high Se treatment (5 μg g–1) significantly increased brown rice yield by 48 % and total Se content by 2·8-fold, and decreased total Hg and MeHg by 47 and 55 %, respectively, compared with the control treatments. The high Se treatment also markedly reduced ‘water-soluble’ Hg and MeHg concentrations in the rhizosphere soil, decreased the uptake capacity of Hg by roots and enhanced the development of apoplastic barriers in the root endodermis. Conclusions Addition of Se to Hg-contaminated soil can help produce brown rice that is simultaneously enriched in Se and contains less total Hg and MeHg. The lowered accumulation of total Hg and MeHg appears to be the result of reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg in the rhizosphere, suppression of uptake of Hg into the root cells and an enhancement of the development of apoplastic barriers in the endodermis of the roots. PMID:24948669

  3. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  4. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grown with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.

  5. Production of deuterated switchgrass by hydroponic cultivation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Evans, Barbara R.; Bali, Garima; Foston, Marcus B.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Shah, Riddhi S.; McGaughey, Joseph; Reeves, David T.; Rempe, Caroline S.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-04-21

    Deuterium enrichment of biological materials can potential enable expanded experimental use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate molecular structural transitions of complex systems such as plant cell walls. Two key advances have been made that facilitate cultivation of switchgrass, an important forage and biofuel crop, for controlled isotopic enrichment: (1) perfusion system with individual chambers and (2) hydroponic growth from tiller cuttings. Plants were grown and maintained for several months with periodic harvest. Photosynthetic activity was monitored by measurement of CO2 in outflow from the growth chambers. Plant morphology and composition appeared normal compared to matched controls grownmore » with H2O. Using this improved method, gram quantities of switchgrass leaves and stems were produced by continuous hydroponic cultivation using growth medium consisting of basal mineral salts in 50% D2O. Deuterium incorporation was confirmed by detection of the O-D and C-D stretching peaks with FTIR and quantified by 1H- and 2H-NMR. Lastly, this capability to produce deuterated lignocellulosic biomass under controlled conditions will enhance investigation of cell wall structure and its deconstruction by neutron scattering and NMR techniques.« less

  6. Integrating bioavailability approaches into waste rock evaluations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranville, James F.; Blumenstein, E. P.; Adams, Michael J.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Wildeman, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of toxic metals in soils affected by mining, industry, agriculture and urbanization, presents problems to human health, the establishment and maintenance of plant and animal habitats, and the rehabilitation of affected areas. A key to managing these problems is predicting the fraction of metal in a given soil that will be biologically labile, and potentially harmful ('bioavailable'). The molecular form of metals and metalloids, particularly the uncomplexed (free) form, controls their bioavailability and toxicity in solution. One computational approach for determining bioavailability, the biotic ligand model (BLM), takes into account not only metal complexation by ligands in solution, but also competitive binding of hardness cations (Ca 2+,Mg 2+,) and metal ions to biological receptor sites. The more direct approach to assess bioavailability is to explicitly measure the response of an organism to a contaminant. A number of microbial enzyme tests have been developed to assess the impact of pollution in a rapid and procedurally simple way. These different approaches in making bioavailability predictions may have value in setting landuse priorities, remediation goals, and habitat reclamation strategies.

  7. Root Zone Respiration on Hydroponically Grown Wheat Plant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soler-Crespo, R. A.; Monje, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Root respiration is a biological phenomenon that controls plant growth and physiological development during a plant's lifespan. This process is dependent on the availability of oxygen in the system where the plant is located. In hydroponic systems, where plants are submerged in a solution containing vital nutrients but no type of soil, the availability of oxygen arises from the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution. This oxygen concentration is dependent on the , gas-liquid interface formed on the upper surface of the liquid, as given by Henry's Law, depending on pressure and temperature conditions. Respiration rates of the plants rise as biomass and root zone increase with age. The respiration rate of Apogee wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was measured as a function of light intensity (catalytic for photosynthesis) and CO2 concentration to determine their effect on respiration rates. To determine their effects on respiration rate and plant growth microbial communities were introduced into the system, by Innoculum. Surfactants were introduced, simulating gray-water usage in space, as another factor to determine their effect on chemical oxygen demand of microbials and on respiration rates of the plants. It is expected to see small effects from changes in CO2 concentration or light levels, and to see root respiration decrease in an exponential manner with plant age and microbial activity.

  8. Arsenic uptake and speciation in Arabidopsis thaliana under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Han, Young-Soo; Seong, Hye Jin; Ahn, Joo Sung; Nam, In-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic (As) uptake and species in Arabidopsis thaliana were evaluated under hydroponic conditions. Plant nutrient solutions were treated with arsenite [As(III)] or arsenate [As(V)], and aqueous As speciation was conducted using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Arabidopsis reduced As(V) to As(III) in the nutrient solution, possibly due to root exudates such as organic acids or the efflux of As(III) from plant roots after in vivo reduction of As(V) to As(III). Arsenic uptake by Arabidopsis was associated with increased levels of Ca and Fe, and decreased levels of K in plant tissues. Arsenic in Arabidopsis mainly occurred as As(III), which was coordinated with oxygen and sulfur based on XANES and EXAFS results. The existence of As(III)O and As(III)S in EXAFS indicates partial biotransformation of As(III)O to a sulfur-coordinated form because of limited amount of glutathione in plants. Further understanding the mechanism of As biotransformation in Arabidopsis may help to develop measures that can mitigate As toxicity via genetic engineering. PMID:27058920

  9. Integrating biological treatment of crop residue into a hydroponic sweetpotato culture.

    PubMed

    Trotman, A A; David, P P; Bonsi, C K; Hill, W A; Mortley, D G; Loretan, P A

    1997-01-01

    Residual biomass from hydroponic culture of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was degraded using natural bacterial soil isolates. Sweetpotato was grown for 120 days in hydroponic culture with a nutrient solution comprised of a ratio of 80% modified half Hoagland solution to 20% filtered effluent from an aerobic starch hydrolysis bioreactor. The phytotoxicity of the effluent was assayed with Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and the ratio selected after a 60-day bioassay using sweetpotato plants propagated vegetatively from cuttings. Controlled environment chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of filtrate from biological treatment of crop residue on growth and storage root production with plants grown in a modified half Hoagland solution. Incorporation of bioreactor effluent, reduced storage root yield of 'Georgia Jet' sweetpotato but the decrease was not statistically significant when compared with yield for plants cultured in a modified half Hoagland solution without filtrate. However, yield of 'TU-82-155' sweetpotato was significantly reduced when grown in a modified half Hoagland solution into which filtered effluent had been incorporated. Total biomass was significantly reduced for both sweetpotato cultivars when grown in bioreactor effluent. The leaf area and dry matter accumulation were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced for both cultivars when grown in solution culture containing 20% filtered effluent. PMID:11542554

  10. Integrating biological treatment of crop residue into a hydroponic sweetpotato culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotman, A. A.; David, P. P.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    Residual biomass from hydroponic culture of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was degraded using natural bacterial soil isolates. Sweetpotato was grown for 120 days in hydroponic culture with a nutrient solution comprised of a ratio of 80% modified half Hoagland solution to 20% filtered effluent from an aerobic starch hydrolysis bioreactor. The phytotoxicity of the effluent was assayed with `Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and the ratio selected after a 60-day bioassay using sweetpotato plants propagated vegetatively from cuttings. Controlled environment chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of filtrate from biological treatment of crop residue on growth and storage root production with plants grown in a modified half Hoagland solution. Incorporation of bioreactor effluent, reduced storage root yield of `Georgia Jet' sweetpotato but the decrease was not statistically significant when compared with yield for plants cultured in a modified half Hoagland solution without filtrate. However, yield of `TU-82-155' sweetpotato was significantly reduced when grown in a modified half Hoagland solution into which filtered effluent had been incorporated. Total biomass was significantly reduced for both sweetpotato cultivars when grown in bioreactor effluent. The leaf area and dry matter accumulation were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced for both cultivars when grown in solution culture containing 20% filtered effluent.

  11. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  12. Human Folate Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Ohrvik, Veronica E.; Witthoft, Cornelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The vitamin folate is recognized as beneficial health-wise in the prevention of neural tube defects, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, poor cognitive performance, and some forms of cancer. However, suboptimal dietary folate intake has been reported in a number of countries. Several national health authorities have therefore introduced mandatory food fortification with synthetic folic acid, which is considered a convenient fortificant, being cost-efficient in production, more stable than natural food folate, and superior in terms of bioavailability and bioefficacy. Other countries have decided against fortification due to the ambiguous role of synthetic folic acid regarding promotion of subclinical cancers and other adverse health effects. This paper reviews recent studies on folate bioavailability after intervention with folate from food. Our conclusions were that limited folate bioavailability data are available for vegetables, fruits, cereal products, and fortified foods, and that it is difficult to evaluate the bioavailability of food folate or whether intervention with food folate improves folate status. We recommend revising the classical approach of using folic acid as a reference dose for estimating the plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of food folate. PMID:22254106

  13. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  14. Controlled environment crop production - Hydroponic vs. lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of controlled environment crop production in a lunar colony is discussed. Findings on the effects of optimal root-zone and aerial environments derived as part of the NASA CELSS project at Utah State are presented. The concept of growing wheat in optimal environment is discussed. It is suggested that genetic engineering might produce the ideal wheat cultivar for CELSS (about 100 mm in height with fewer leaves). The Utah State University hydroponic system is outlined and diagrams of the system and plant container construction are provided. Ratio of plant mass to solution mass, minimum root-zone volume, maintenance, and pH control are discussed. A comparison of liquid hydrophonic systems and lunar regoliths as substrates for plant growth is provided. The physiological processes that are affected by the root-zone environment are discussed including carbon partitioning, nutrient availability, nutrient absorption zones, root-zone oxygen, plant water potential, root-produced hormones, and rhizosphere pH control.

  15. Arsenic Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility, And Speciation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The term bioavailability has many different meanings across various disciplines. Often bioavailability is concerned with human health aspects such as the case of urban children interacting with contaminated soil. The still utilized approach to base risk assessment on total meta...

  16. Response of hydroponically grown head lettuce on residual monomer from polyacrylamide.

    PubMed

    Mroczek, E; Konieczny, P; Kleiber, T; Waśkiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess acrylamide monomer (AMD) uptake by hydroponically grown lettuce. Lettuce was cultivated by applying plant tissue testing in a recycled system by the use of nutrient solutions prepared with two water-soluble flocculants F3 and F4 containing 176 and 763 mg kg(-1) of AMD, respectively. The effects on growth, fresh weight and plant leaf quality were evaluated by comparing these treatments and one control standard nutrient solution typically recommended for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. To assess the nutritional status of lettuce, samples were collected and lyophilised before determination of the selected micro- and macro-element contents. An HPLC with photodiode array detector method was applied to determine AMD in both selected flocculants and dried plant samples. Results show that lettuces cultivated under the conditions described above absorb AMD from nutrient solutions into their leaves. The AMD presence in recycled nutrient solutions has a negative influence on the growth of lettuce, reducing their average fresh weight and average number of leaves. The study confirmed that the problem of AMD mobility and its accumulation risk in plants should to be an important topic with respect to safe polyacrylamide (PAM) handling in the agro food area. PMID:24916210

  17. SLUDGE ORGANICS BIOAVAILABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. vailable data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. ludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical c...

  18. Phytoremediation of lead using Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. in hydroponic solution.

    PubMed

    Bedabati Chanu, Laitonjam; Gupta, Abhik

    2016-08-01

    Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., an aquatic macrophyte, was assessed for its ability to accumulate lead (Pb) by exposing it to graded concentrations of this metal. Accumulation of Pb was the highest in root followed by that in stem and leaf with translocation factor (TF) values of less than unity. On the other hand, all bioconcentration factor (BCF) values in root, stem and leaf were greater than unity. Furthermore, exposure to Pb concentrations over about 20 mg L(-1) induced colour changes in the basal portion of stem which had significantly higher Pb accumulation than that in the unaffected apical part. This resulted in sequestration of excess metal in affected stem tissue, which could take up Pb by the process of caulofiltration or shoot filtration, and served as a secondary reservoir of Pb in addition to the root. The apical parts contained less lead and could regrow roots from nodes and survive when kept in Pb-free medium. The ability of the plant to store Pb in its root and lower part of stem coupled with its ability to propagate by fragmentation through production of adventitious roots and lateral branches from nodes raises the possibility of utilizing Ipomoea aquatica for Pb phytoremediation from liquid effluent. PMID:27186690

  19. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals by plants grown under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Herklotz, Patrick A; Gurung, Prakash; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Kinney, Chad A

    2010-03-01

    Cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) and Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica rapa) were chosen for a proof of concept study to determine the potential uptake and accumulation of human pharmaceuticals by plants. These plants were grown hydroponically under high-pressure sodium lamps in one of two groups including a control and test group exposed to pharmaceuticals. The control plants were irrigated with a recirculating Hoagland's nutrient solution while the test plants were irrigated with a Hoagland's nutrient solution fortified with the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, salbutamol, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim at 232.5 microg L(-1). When plants reached maturity, nine entire plants of each species were separated into components such as roots, leaves, stems, and seedpods where applicable. An analytical method for quantifying pharmaceuticals and personal care products was developed using pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) in positive and negative ion modes using single ion monitoring. The method detection limits ranged from 3.13 ng g(-1) to 29.78 ng g(-1) with recoveries ranging from 66.83% to 113.62% from plant matrices. All four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the roots and leaves of the cabbage. The maximum wet weight concentrations of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the root structure of the cabbage plants at 98.87 ng g(-1) carbamazepine, 114.72 ng g(-1) salbutamol, 138.26 ng g(-1) sulfamethoxazole, and 91.33 ng g(-1) trimethoprim. Carbamazepine and salbutamol were detected in the seedpods of the Wisconsin Fast Plants while all four of the pharmaceuticals were detected in the leaf/stem/root of the Wisconsin Fast Plants. Phloroglucinol staining of root cross-sections was used to verify the existence of an intact endodermis, suggesting that pharmaceuticals found in the leaf and seedpods of the plants were transported symplastically. PMID:20096438

  20. Phytoremediation of imazalil and tebuconazole by four emergent wetland plant species in hydroponic medium.

    PubMed

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Casas, Mònica E; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Bester, Kai; Brix, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from pesticide residues in aquatic environments is of increasing concern. Imazalil and tebuconazole, two commonly used systemic pesticides, are water contaminants that can be removed by constructed wetlands. However, the phytoremediation capability of emergent wetland plants for imazalil and tebuconazole, especially the removal mechanisms involved, is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of both pesticides by four commonly used wetland plants, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus effusus, and aimed to understand the removal mechanisms involved. The plants were individually exposed to an initial concentration of 10 mg/L in hydroponic solution. At the end of the 24-day study period, the tebuconazole removal efficiencies were relatively lower (25%-41%) than those for imazalil (46%-96%) for all plant species studied. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole fit a first-order kinetics model, with the exception of tebuconazole removal in solutions with I. pseudacorus. Changes in the enantiomeric fraction for imazalil and tebuconazole were detected in plant tissue but not in the hydroponic solutions; thus, the translocation and degradation processes were enantioselective in the plants. At the end of the study period, the accumulation of imazalil and tebuconazole in plant tissue was relatively low and constituted 2.8-14.4% of the total spiked pesticide in each vessel. Therefore, the studied plants were able to not only take up the pesticides but also metabolise them. PMID:26841287

  1. Prebiotics and calcium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin

    2003-03-01

    A prebiotic substance has been defined as a non-digestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon. Therefore, compared to probiotics, which introduce exogenous bacteria into the colonic microflora, a prebiotic aims at stimulating the growth of one or a limited number of the potentially health-promoting indigenous micro-organisms, thus modulating the composition of the natural ecosystem. In recent years, increasing attention has been focussed on the possible beneficial effects of prebiotics, such as enhanced resistance to invading pathogens, improved bowel function, anti-colon cancer properties, lipid lowering action, improved calcium bioavailability, amongst others. The objective of this review is to critically assess the available data on the effects of prebiotics on calcium bioavailability, and place it in the context of human physiology and, when possible, explain the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. The review will also try to highlight future areas of research that may help in the evaluation of prebiotics as potential ingredients for functional foods aimed at enhancing calcium bioavailability and protecting against osteoporosis. PMID:12691259

  2. Bioavailability of Cadmium in Inexpensive Jewelry

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer; Guinn, Daphne; Pearson, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the bioavailability of Cd in 86 components of 57 jewelry items found to contain high levels of Cd (> 10,000 ppm) by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), using extractions that simulate mouthing or swallowing of jewelry items. Methods: We screened jewelry for Cd content by XRF. Bioavailability was measured in two ways. Items were placed in saline solution at 37°C for 6 hr to simulate exposures from mouthing of jewelry items. Items were placed in dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 37°C for 6–96 hr, simulating the worst-case scenario of a child swallowing a jewelry item. Damaged pieces of selected samples were also extracted by both methods to determine the effect of breaching the outer plating on bioavailability. Total Cd content of all items was determined by atomic absorption. Results: The 6-hr saline extraction yielded as much as 2,200 µg Cd, and 24-hr dilute HCl extraction yielded a maximum of > 20,000 µg Cd. Leaching of Cd in dilute HCl increased linearly over 6–96 hr, indicating potential for increasing harm the longer an item remains in the stomach. Damage to jewelry by breaching the outer plating generally, but not always, increased Cd release. Bioavailability did not correlate directly with Cd content. Conclusions: These results indicate the potential for dangerous Cd exposures to children who wear, mouth, or accidentally swallow high-Cd jewelry items. PMID:21377949

  3. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  4. Growth of sweetpotato cultured in the newly designed hydroponic system for space farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Wei, X.; Islam, A. F. M. S.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in long-duration space missions for other planets will be highly dependent on amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the space farming system with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and cultivars and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. In this study, we developed a new hydroponic method for producing tuberous roots and fresh edible leaves and stems of sweetpotato. In the first experiment, we examined the effects of water contents in the rooting substrate on growth and tuberous root development of sweetpotato. The rooting substrates made with rockwool slabs were inclined in a culture container and absorbed nutrient solution from the lower end of the slabs by capillary action. Tuberous roots developed on the lower surface of the rockwool slabs. The tuberous roots showed better growth and development at locations farther from the water surface on the rockwool slabs, which had lower water content. In the second experiment, three sweetpotato cultivars were cultured in a hydroponic system for five months from June to November under the sun light in Osaka, Japan as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming system. The cultivars employed were ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’. The hydroponic system mainly consisted of culture containers and rockwool slabs. Dry weights of tuberous roots developed in the aerial space between the rockwool slab and the nutrient solution filled at the bottom of the culture container were 0.34, 0.45 and 0.23 kg/plant and dry weights of the top portion (leaves, petioles and stems) were 0.42, 0.29 and 0.61 kg/plant for ‘Elegant summer’, ‘Kokei-14’ and ‘Beniazuma’, respectively. Young stems and leaves as well as

  5. Biocompatibility of sweetpotato and peanut in a hydroponic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Hill, W. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Hall, R.; Sullen, D.

    1998-01-01

    'Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and TU-82-155 sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were grown in monocultured or intercropped recirculating hydroponic systems in a greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The objective was to determine whether growth and subsequent yield would be affected by intercropping. Treatments were sweetpotato monoculture (SP), peanut monoculture (PN), and sweetpotato and peanut grown in separate NFT channels but sharing a common nutrient solution (SP-PN). Greenhouse conditions ranged from 24 to 33 degrees C, 60% to 90% relative humidity (RH), and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 to 1700 micromoles m-2 s-1. Sweetpotato cuttings (15 cm long) and 14-day-old seedlings of peanuts were planted into growth channels (0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2 m). Plants were spaced 25 cm apart within and 25 cm apart between growing channels. A modified half-Hoagland solution with a 1 N: 2.4 K ratio was used. Solution pH was maintained between 5.5 and 6.0 for treatments involving SP and 6.4 and 6.7 for PN. Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged between 1100 and 1200 microS cm-1. The number of storage roots per sweetpotato plant was similar for both SP and SP-PN. Storage root fresh and dry mass were 29% and 36% greater, respectively, for plants in the SP-PN treatment than for plants in the SP treatment. The percent dry mass of the storage roots, dry mass of fibrous and pencil roots, and the length-to-diameter ratio of storage roots were similar for SP and SP-PN sweetpotato plants. Likewise, foliage fresh and dry mass and harvest index were not significantly influenced by treatment. Total dry mass was 37% greater for PN than for SP-PN peanut plants, and pod dry mass was 82% higher. Mature and total seed dry mass and fibrous root dry mass were significantly greater for PN than for SP-PN plants. Harvest index (HI) was similar for both treatments. Root length tended to be lower for seedlings grown in the nutrient solution from the SP-PN treatment.

  6. Lead phytoremediation potential of Vetiver grass: a hydroponic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachanoor, D. S.; Andra, S. P.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.

    2006-05-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is released into the environment from a variety of sources. Sources of Pb contamination in soils can be divided into three broad categories: industrial activities, such as mining and smelting processes, agricultural activities, such as application of insecticide and municipal sewage sludge, and urban activities, such as use of Pb in gasoline, paints, and other materials. Severe Pb contamination of soils may cause a variety of environmental problems, including loss of vegetation, groundwater contamination and Pb toxicity in plants, animals and humans. The use of plants to remove toxic metals from soils (phytoremediation) is fast emerging as an acceptable strategy for cost-effective and environmentally sound remediation of contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the lead uptake potential and biochemical stress response mechanism in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) upon exposure to Pb in contaminated soils. We investigated the effect of increasing concentrations of Pb on vetiver grass grown in a hydroponic system. Plant response to the addition of phosphate in the presence of Pb was also studied. Biochemical stress response was studied by monitoring the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymes. The results indicated that exposure to Pb in the range of 0 ppm -1200 ppm had no significant negative effects on the growth of vetiver grass. There was no considerable decrease in vetiver biomass, implying the potential of this grass for Pb phytoremediation. The translocation of Pb from the root to the shoot was up to 20%. The SOD activity was in positive correlation with Pb concentrations in the solution, but no such trend was observed with GPx. In systems containing phosphate fertilizer, lead precipitated out immediately, thereby decreasing the soluble concentration of lead, resulting in less availability of Pb to the grass.

  7. [Feasibility of the use of degraded inedible biomass of plants as a nutrient liquid for hydroponic cultivation].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Ai, W D; Hou, W H; Shi, W W

    2001-10-01

    Objective. To demonstrate that the recycled liquid, which originated from lettuce inedible biomass degraded by fixed microorganism (correction of microorgannism) and enzyme, can be used as a nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. Method. After biologically degrading the weighted, oven-dried and milled leaves and roots of lettuce in a biological reactor under aerobic condition, the original effluent and its supplemented effluent were used as nutrients for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. Result. The average dried weight (ADW) of lettuce from the original effluent group was approximately half of that from the control group, and the ADW from supplemented effluent group was about equal to that from the control group; some qualities of the lettuce such as a relatively lower content of NO3- from both the original effluent group and the supplemented effluent one improved, and some of those such as a relatively higher content of NO2- dropped. Conclusion. The biologically-degraded effluent was able to be used as nutrient solution for lettuce hydroponic cultivation, although the effects of the inorganic ion-supplemented effluent were much better; the plants of lettuce from the biologically-degraded effluent were safely edible. PMID:11842852

  8. Sludge organics bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Eiceman, G.E.; Bellin, C.A.; Ryan, J.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Concern over the bioavailability of toxic organics that can occur in municipal sludges threatens routine land application of sludge. Available data, however, show that concentrations of priority organics in normal sludges are low. Sludges applied at agronomic rates yield chemical concentrations in soil-sludge mixtures 50 to 100 fold lower. Plant uptake at these pollutant concentrations (and at much higher concentrations) is minimal. Chemicals are either (1) accumulated at extremely low levels (PCBs), (2) possibly accumulated, but then rapidly metabolized within plants to extremely low levels (DEHP), or (3) likely degraded so rapidly in soil that only minor contamination occurs (PCP and 2,4-DNP).

  9. Hydroponic Growth and the Nondestructive Assay for Dinitrogen Fixation 1

    PubMed Central

    Imsande, John; Ralston, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Hydroponic growth medium must be well buffered if it is to support sustained plant growth. Although 1.0 millimolar phosphate is commonly used as a buffer for hydroponic growth media, at that concentration it is generally toxic to a soybean plant that derives its nitrogen solely from dinitrogen fixation. On the other hand, we show that 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, pKa 6.1, has excellent buffering capacity, and it neither interferes with nor contributes nutritionally to soybean plant growth. Furthermore, it neither impedes nodulation nor the assay of dinitrogen fixation. Hence, soybean plants grown hydroponically on a medium supplemented with 1.0 to 2.0 millimolar 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar phosphate achieve an excellent rate of growth and, in the absence of added fixed nitrogen, attain a very high rate of dinitrogen fixation. Combining the concept of hydroponic growth and the sensitive acetylene reduction technique, we have devised a simple, rapid, reproducible assay procedure whereby the rate of dinitrogen fixation by individual plants can be measured throughout the lifetime of those plants. The rate of dinitrogen fixation as measured by the nondestructive acetylene reduction procedure is shown to be approximately equal to the rate of total plant nitrogen accumulation as measured by Kjeldahl analysis. Because of the simplicity of the procedure, one investigator can readily assay 50 plants individually per day. PMID:16662112

  10. Enhanced solubility and bioavailability of flurbiprofen by cycloamylose.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hyung Hee; Kwon, So Young; Rho, Shin-Joung; Lee, Won Seok; Yang, Ho-Joon; Hah, Jung-Mi; Choi, Han-Gon; Kim, Yong-Ro; Yong, Chul Soon

    2011-03-01

    The effect of cycloamylose on the aqueous solubility of flurbiprofen was investigated. To improve the solubility and bioavailability of flurbiprofen (poor water solubility), a solid dispersion was spray dried with a solution of flurbiprofen and cycloamylose at a weight ratio of 1:1. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were investigated using SEM, DSC, and X-ray diffraction. The dissolution and bioavailability in rats were evaluated compared with a commercial product. Cycloamylose increased solubility of flurbiprofen approximately 12-fold and dissolution of it by 2-fold. Flurbiprofen was present in an unchanged crystalline state, and cycloamylose was a solubilizing agent for flurbiprofen in this solid dispersion. Furthermore, the dispersion gave higher AUC and C(max) values compared with the commercial product, indicating that it improved the oral bioavailability of flurbiprofen in rats. Thus, the solid dispersion may be useful to deliver flurbiprofen with enhanced bioavailability without changes in crystalline structure. PMID:21547670

  11. Micronutrient bioavailability research priorities.

    PubMed

    Casgrain, Amélie; Collings, Rachel; Harvey, Linda J; Boza, Julio J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2010-05-01

    A micronutrient bioavailability workshop, which involved international experts and members of the scientific community and the food industry, with interactive breakout sessions based on synectics principles, was organized by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe Addition of Nutrients to Food Task Force and the European Commission Network of Excellence European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned. After presentations by experts, a series of "challenge statements" was discussed. The aim was to address topical issues, in particular those that linked bioavailability with the derivation of micronutrient requirements and dietary recommendations, to identify gaps in knowledge and to consider research priorities. Several generic research priorities were identified, including improving the quality of dietary surveys/food composition tables, the need for more metabolic studies that use stable isotopes and high-quality longer-term interventions, and the development of multifactorial mathematical models. Among the common recurrent factors identified as important were polymorphisms/genotype, consideration of the whole diet, chemical form of the micronutrient, and the determination of physiologic requirements. The involvement of all participants in the structured discussions ensured a broad overview of current knowledge, state-of-the-art research, and consideration of priorities for future research. PMID:20200267

  12. Yield and gas exchange ability of sweetpotato plants cultured in a hydroponic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Saiful Islam, A. F. M.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food atmospheric O 2 and clean water produced by plants Therefore the space farming systems with scheduling of crop production obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate converting atmospheric CO 2 to O 2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space In this study three sweetpotato varieties were cultured in a newly developed hydroponic system and the yield the photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate were compared on the earth as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming systems The varieties were Elegant summer Koukei 14 and Beniazuma The hydroponic system mainly consisted of water channels and rockwool boards A growing space for roots was made between the rockwool board and nutrient solution in the water channel Storage roots were developed on the lower surface of the rockwool plates Fresh weights of the storage roots were 1 6 1 2 and 0 6 kg plant for Koukei 14 Elegant summer and Beniazuma respectively grown for five months from June to October under the sun light in Osaka Japan Koukei 14 and Elegant summer produced greater total phytomass than Beniazuma There were positive correlations among the total phytomass the net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate Young stems and leaves as well as storage roots of Elegant summer are edible Therefore Elegant-summer

  13. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    PubMed

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  14. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. PMID:26364185

  15. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants. PMID:25475618

  16. Fiber optic spectrophotometry monitoring of plant nutrient deficiency under hydroponic culture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Oi Wah; Boey, William S. L.; Asundi, Anand K.; Chen, Jun-Wei; He, Duo-Min

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, fiber optic spectrophotometry (FOSpectr) was adapted to provide early detection of plant nutrient deficiency by measuring leaf spectral reflectance variation resulting from nutrient stress. Leaf reflectance data were obtained form a local vegetable crop, Brassica chinensis var parachinensis (Bailey), grown in nitrate-nitrogen (N)- and calcium (Ca)- deficient hydroponics nutrient solution. FOSpectr analysis showed significant differences in leaf reflectance within the first four days after subjecting plants to nutrient-deficient media. Recovery of the nutrient-stressed plants could also be detected after transferring them back to complete nutrient solution. In contrast to FOSpectr, plant response to nitrogen and calcium deficiency in terms of reduced growth and tissue elemental levels was slower and less pronounced. Thus, this study demonstrated the feasibility of using FOSpectr methodology as a non-destructive alternative to augment current methods of plant nutrient analysis.

  17. Microbial reporters of metal bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Magrisso, Sagi; Erel, Yigal; Belkin, Shimshon

    2008-01-01

    Summary When attempting to assess the extent and the implications of environmental pollution, it is often essential to quantify not only the total concentration of the studied contaminant but also its bioavailable fraction: higher bioavailability, often correlated with increased mobility, signifies enhanced risk but may also facilitate bioremediation. Genetically engineered microorganisms, tailored to respond by a quantifiable signal to the presence of the target chemical(s), may serve as powerful tools for bioavailability assessment. This review summarizes the current knowledge on such microbial bioreporters designed to assay metal bioavailability. Numerous bacterial metal‐sensor strains have been developed over the past 15 years, displaying very high detection sensitivities for a broad spectrum of environmentally significant metal targets. These constructs are based on the use of a relatively small number of gene promoters as the sensing elements, and an even smaller selection of molecular reporter systems; they comprise a potentially useful panel of tools for simple and cost‐effective determination of the bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment, and for the quantification of the non‐bioavailable fraction of the pollutant. In spite of their inherent advantages, however, these tools have not yet been put to actual use in the evaluation of metal bioavailability in a real environmental remediation scheme. For this to happen, acceptance by regulatory authorities is essential, as is a standardization of assay conditions. PMID:21261850

  18. Use of biologically reclaimed minerals for continuous hydroponic potato production in a CELSS.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W; Yorio, N C; Sager, J C

    1997-01-01

    Plant-derived nutrients were successfully recycled in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) using biological methods. The majority of the essential nutrients were recovered by microbiologically treating the plant biomass in an aerobic bioreactor. Liquid effluent containing the nutrients was then returned to the biomass production component via a recirculating hydroponic system. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were grown on those nutrients in either a batch production mode (same age plants on a nutrient solution) or a staggered production mode (4 different ages of plants on a nutrient solution). The study continued over a period of 418 days, within NASA Breadboard Project's Biomass Production Chamber at the Kennedy Space Center. During this period, four consecutive batch cycles (104-day harvests) and 13 consecutive staggered cycles (26-day harvests) were completed using reclaimed minerals and compared to plants grown with standard nutrient solutions. All nutrient solutions were continually recirculated during the entire 418 day study. In general, tuber yields with reclaimed minerals were within 10% of control solutions. Contaminants, such as sodium and recalcitrant organics tended to increase over time in solutions containing reclaimed minerals, however tuber composition was comparable to tubers grown in the control solutions. PMID:11542555

  19. Use of biologically reclaimed minerals for continuous hydroponic potato production in a CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Plant-derived nutrients were successfully recycled in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) using biological methods. The majority of the essential nutrients were recovered by microbiologically treating the plant biomass in an aerobic bioreactor. Liquid effluent containing the nutrients was then returned to the biomass production component via a recirculating hydroponic system. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Norland plants were grown on those nutrients in either a batch production mode (same age plants on a nutrient solution) or a staggered production mode (4 different ages of plants on a nutrient solution). The study continued over a period of 418 days, within NASA Breadboard Project's Biomass Production Chamber at the Kennedy Space Center. During this period, four consecutive batch cycles (104-day harvests) and 13 consecutive staggered cycles (26-day harvests) were completed using reclaimed minerals and compared to plants grown with standard nutrient solutions. All nutrient solutions were continually recirculated during the entire 418 day study. In general, tuber yields with reclaimed minerals were within 10% of control solutions. Contaminants, such as sodium and recalcitrant organics tended to increase over time in solutions containing reclaimed minerals, however tuber composition was comparable to tubers grown in the control solutions.

  20. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS.

    PubMed

    Hill, W A; Mortley, D G; Mackowiak, C L; Loretan, P A; Tibbitts, T W; Wheeler, R M; Bonsi, C K; Morris, C E

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts -- potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent , fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16 degrees C and 28/22 degrees C (day/night) temperatures have produced highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g m-2 for for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems. PMID:11537058

  1. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Loretan, P. A.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.

    1992-07-01

    Among the crops selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for growth in controlled ecological life support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts - potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops have been produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent and high pressure sodium plus metal halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16°C and 28/22°C (day/night) temperatures have produced highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g m-e for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, have been produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  2. Growing root, tuber and nut crops hydroponically for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Morris, C. E.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Among the crops selected by NASA for growth in controlled ecological life-support systems are four that have subsurface edible parts: potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts. These crops can be produced in open and closed (recirculating), solid media and liquid, hydroponic systems. Fluorescent, fluorescent plus incandescent, and high-pressure sodium-plus-metal-halide lamps have proven to be effective light sources. Continuous light with 16-C and 28/22-C (day/night) temperatures produce highest yields for potato and sweet potato, respectively. Dry weight yields of up to 4685, 2541, 1151 and 207 g/sq m for potatoes, sweet potatoes, sugar beets and peanuts, respectively, are produced in controlled environment hydroponic systems.

  3. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  4. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    SciTech Connect

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  5. Suitability of Gray Water for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Biological and Physical Chemical and Biological Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Harper, Lynn D.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Greene, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    The water present in waste streams from a human habitat must be recycled in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) to limit resupply needs and attain self-sufficiency. Plants play an important role in providing food, regenerating air, and producing purified water via transpiration. However, we have shown that the surfactants present in hygiene waste water have acute toxic effects on plant growth (Bubenheim et al. 1994; Greene et al., 1994). These phytotoxic affects can be mitigated by allowing the microbial population on the root surface to degrade the surfactant, however, a significant suppression (several days) in crop performance is experienced prior to reaching sub-toxic surfactant levels and plant recovery. An effective alternative is to stabilize the microbial population responsible for degradation of the surfactant on an aerobic bioreactor and process the waste water prior to utilization in the hydroponic solution (Wisniewski and Bubenheim, 1993). A sensitive bioassay indicates that the surfactant phytotoxicity is suppressed by more than 90% within 5 hours of introduction of the gray water to the bioreactor; processing for more than 12 hours degrades more than 99% of the phytotoxin. Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is a physical / chemical method for water purification which employees sequential distillation steps to separate water from solids and to volatilize contaminants. The solids from the waste water are concentrated in a brine and the pure product water (70 - 90% of the total waste water volume depending on operating conditions) retains non of the phytotoxic effects. Results of the bioassay were used to guide evaluations of the suitability of recovered gray water following biological and VCD processing for hydroponic lettuce production in controlled environments. Lettuce crops were grown for 28 days with 100% of the input water supplied with recovered water from the biological processor or VCD. When compared with the growth of plants

  6. A Reliable Wireless Control System for Tomato Hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ibayashi, Hirofumi; Kaneda, Yukimasa; Imahara, Jungo; Oishi, Naoki; Kuroda, Masahiro; Mineno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural systems using advanced information and communication (ICT) technology can produce high-quality crops in a stable environment while decreasing the need for manual labor. The system collects a wide variety of environmental data and provides the precise cultivation control needed to produce high value-added crops; however, there are the problems of packet transmission errors in wireless sensor networks or system failure due to having the equipment in a hot and humid environment. In this paper, we propose a reliable wireless control system for hydroponic tomato cultivation using the 400 MHz wireless band and the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The 400 MHz band, which is lower than the 2.4 GHz band, has good obstacle diffraction, and zero-data-loss communication is realized using the guaranteed time-slot method supported by the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. In addition, this system has fault tolerance and a self-healing function to recover from faults such as packet transmission failures due to deterioration of the wireless communication quality. In our basic experiments, the 400 MHz band wireless communication was not affected by the plants' growth, and the packet error rate was less than that of the 2.4 GHz band. In summary, we achieved a real-time hydroponic liquid supply control with no data loss by applying a 400 MHz band WSN to hydroponic tomato cultivation. PMID:27164105

  7. A Reliable Wireless Control System for Tomato Hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Ibayashi, Hirofumi; Kaneda, Yukimasa; Imahara, Jungo; Oishi, Naoki; Kuroda, Masahiro; Mineno, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural systems using advanced information and communication (ICT) technology can produce high-quality crops in a stable environment while decreasing the need for manual labor. The system collects a wide variety of environmental data and provides the precise cultivation control needed to produce high value-added crops; however, there are the problems of packet transmission errors in wireless sensor networks or system failure due to having the equipment in a hot and humid environment. In this paper, we propose a reliable wireless control system for hydroponic tomato cultivation using the 400 MHz wireless band and the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The 400 MHz band, which is lower than the 2.4 GHz band, has good obstacle diffraction, and zero-data-loss communication is realized using the guaranteed time-slot method supported by the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. In addition, this system has fault tolerance and a self-healing function to recover from faults such as packet transmission failures due to deterioration of the wireless communication quality. In our basic experiments, the 400 MHz band wireless communication was not affected by the plants’ growth, and the packet error rate was less than that of the 2.4 GHz band. In summary, we achieved a real-time hydroponic liquid supply control with no data loss by applying a 400 MHz band WSN to hydroponic tomato cultivation. PMID:27164105

  8. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  9. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. D.; Bausch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  10. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments.

    PubMed

    Wright, B D; Bausch, W C; Knott, W M

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed. PMID:11539001

  11. Hartig' net formation of Tricholoma vaccinum-spruce ectomycorrhiza in hydroponic cultures.

    PubMed

    Henke, Catarina; Jung, Elke-Martina; Kothe, Erika

    2015-12-01

    For re-forestation of metal-contaminated land, ectomycorrhizal trees may provide a solution. Hence, the study of the interaction is necessary to allow for comprehensive understanding of the mutually symbiotic features. On a structural level, hyphal mantle and the Hartig' net formed in the root apoplast are essential for plant protection and mycorrhizal functioning. As a model, we used the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum and its host spruce (Picea abies). Using an optimized hydroponic cultivation system, both features could be visualized and lower stress response of the tree was obtained in non-challenged cultivation. Larger spaces in the apoplasts could be shown with high statistical significance. The easy accessibility will allow to address metal stress or molecular responses in both partners. Additionally, the proposed cultivation system will enable for other experimental applications like addressing flooding, biological interactions with helper bacteria, chemical signaling, or other biotic or abiotic challenges relevant in the natural habitat. PMID:25791268

  12. Bioavailability of platinum emitted from automobile exhaust.

    PubMed

    Artelt, S; Kock, H; Nachtigall, D; Heinrich, U

    1998-08-01

    A model substance was used which is similar in respect to platinum content of exhaust particles emitted from a three-way-catalytic converter equipped engine. The bioavailability of platinum from such exhaust particles and the kind of platinum species formed in vivo were assessed. An in vitro solubility test showed a solubility of approximately 10 percent of platinum content of the model substance in physiological sodium chloride solution. Two short-term animal studies (8 days) were performed. In all examined rat tissues and body fluids platinum could be detected. In addition, the contribution of the overall bioavailability caused by swallowing a certain amount of the intratracheally applied platinum was evaluated by oral application. It was very low. An analytical method was developed to determine platinum species. Synthetic samples (matrix with a platinum standard solution) were analysed. In rat bronchoalveolar lavage spiked with a platinum standard solution only low molecular complexed platinum was found whereas in rat blood plasma all platinum was bound to proteins. In ongoing studies, the model substance is being tested in a three month rat inhalation study. PMID:9820662

  13. Recycle of Inorganic Nutrients for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Incineration of Inedible Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams is essential for future implementation and reliance on a regenerative life support system. The major waste streams of concern are from human activities and plant wastes. Carbon, water and inorganics are the primary desired raw materials of interest. The goal of resource recovery is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. Today, reagent grade nutrients are used to make nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture and these solutions are frequently changed during the life cycle or sometimes managed for only one crop life cycle. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration in all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match control, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions are formulated using only ash following-incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with nutrients to establish the same balance as in the control, growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals

  14. Response of graywater recycling systems based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, J. L.; Levine, L. H.; Yorio, N. C.; Hummerick, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), amphoteric (cocamidopropyl betaine, CAPB) and nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactants were added to separate nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic systems containing dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU Apogee) in a series of 21 day trials. Surfactant was added either in a (1). temporally dynamic mode (1-3 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by automatic addition of a 300 ppm surfactant solution to meet plant water demand, or (2). continuous mode (2 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by slow addition (10 mLh(-1)) of a 2000 ppm surfactant solution beginning at 4d after planting. SLES showed rapid primary degradation in both experiments, with no accumulation 24 h after initial addition. CAPB and AE were degraded less rapidly, with 30-50% remaining 24 h after initial addition, but CAPB and AE levels were below detection limit for the remainder of the study. No reductions in vegetative growth of wheat were observed in response to SLES, but biomass was reduced 20-25% with CAPB and AE. Microbial communities associated with both the plant roots and wetted hardware surfaces actively degraded the surfactants, as determined by monitoring surfactant levels following pulse additions at day 20 (with plants) and day 21 (after plant removal). In order to test whether the biofilm communities could ameliorate phytotoxicity by providing a microbial community acclimated for CAPB and AE decay, the continuous exposure systems were planted with wheat seeds after crop removal at day 21. Acclimation resulted in faster primary degradation (>90% within 24h) and reduced phytotoxicity. Overall, the studies indicate that relatively small areas (3-5m(2)) of hydroponic plant systems can process per capita production of mixed surfactants (5-10 g x person(-1)d(-1)) with minimal effects on plant growth.

  15. Response of graywater recycling systems based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Garland, J L; Levine, L H; Yorio, N C; Hummerick, M E

    2004-04-01

    Anionic (sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), amphoteric (cocamidopropyl betaine, CAPB) and nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactants were added to separate nutrient film technique (NFT) hydroponic systems containing dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. USU Apogee) in a series of 21 day trials. Surfactant was added either in a (1). temporally dynamic mode (1-3 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by automatic addition of a 300 ppm surfactant solution to meet plant water demand, or (2). continuous mode (2 g surfactant m(-2) growing area d(-1)) as effected by slow addition (10 mLh(-1)) of a 2000 ppm surfactant solution beginning at 4d after planting. SLES showed rapid primary degradation in both experiments, with no accumulation 24 h after initial addition. CAPB and AE were degraded less rapidly, with 30-50% remaining 24 h after initial addition, but CAPB and AE levels were below detection limit for the remainder of the study. No reductions in vegetative growth of wheat were observed in response to SLES, but biomass was reduced 20-25% with CAPB and AE. Microbial communities associated with both the plant roots and wetted hardware surfaces actively degraded the surfactants, as determined by monitoring surfactant levels following pulse additions at day 20 (with plants) and day 21 (after plant removal). In order to test whether the biofilm communities could ameliorate phytotoxicity by providing a microbial community acclimated for CAPB and AE decay, the continuous exposure systems were planted with wheat seeds after crop removal at day 21. Acclimation resulted in faster primary degradation (>90% within 24h) and reduced phytotoxicity. Overall, the studies indicate that relatively small areas (3-5m(2)) of hydroponic plant systems can process per capita production of mixed surfactants (5-10 g x person(-1)d(-1)) with minimal effects on plant growth. PMID:15087176

  16. Detoxification of phytotoxic compounds by TiO2 photocatalysis in a recycling hydroponic cultivation system of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Sunada, Kayano; Ding, Xin Geng; Utami, Melia Sandya; Kawashima, Yoko; Miyama, Yoko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2008-06-25

    TiO 2 photocatalytic decomposition and detoxification of phytotoxic compounds released by the roots of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated from the viewpoint of conservation-oriented cultivation. The phytotoxically active fraction was extracted either from dried asparagus roots or from the recycled nutrient solution of an asparagus hydroponic cultivation system. We found that the phytotoxic activity gradually decreased in the fraction with TiO 2 powder under irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light at an intensity of 1.0 mW/cm (2). The growth of asparagus plants under actual cultivation conditions was also investigated by comparing asparagus grown in a hydroponic system where recycled waste nutrient solution was photocatalytically treated with solar light and a system with untreated recycled waste nutrient solution. The results showed, as measured by growth indices such as stem length and stem thickness, that asparagus growth in the photocatalytically treated system was superior to the untreated one. Furthermore, the yield of asparagus spears was 1.6-fold greater in the photocatalytically treated system, demonstrating the detoxification effect on the phytotoxic compounds and also the killing effect on pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:18500814

  17. Polymeric microcontainers improve oral bioavailability of furosemide.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line Hagner; Melero, Ana; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Jacobsen, Jette; Garrigues, Teresa; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette; Boisen, Anja

    2016-05-17

    Microcontainers with an inner diameter of 223μm are fabricated using the polymer SU-8, and evaluated in vitro, in situ and in vivo for their application as an advanced oral drug delivery system for the poorly water soluble drug furosemide. An amorphous sodium salt of furosemide (ASSF) is filled into the microcontainers followed by applying a lid using Eudragit L100. It is possible to control the drug release in vitro, and in vitro absorption studies show that the microcontainers are not a hindrance for absorption of ASSF. In situ perfusion studies in rats are performed with ASSF-filled microcontainers coated with Eudragit and compared to a furosemide solution. The absorption rate constant of ASSF confined in microcontainers is found to be significantly different from the solution, and by light microscopy, it is observed that the microcontainers are engulfed by the intestinal mucus. An oral bioavailability study in rats is performed with ASSF confined in microcontainers coated with Eudragit and a control group with ASSF in Eudragit-coated capsules. A relative bioavailability of 220% for the ASSF in microcontainers compared to ASSF in capsules is found. These studies indicate that the microcontainers could serve as a promising oral drug delivery system. PMID:27033999

  18. Nonrecirculating hydroponic systems suitable for uptake studies at very low nutrient concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, V.P.; Kay, L.E. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors describe the mechanical, electronic, hydraulic, and structural design of a nonrecirculating hydroponic system. The system is particularly suited to sutides at very low nutrient concentratons, for which on-line concentration monitoring methods either do not exist or are costly and limited to monitoring relatively few indivitual plants. Solutions are mised automatically to chosen concentrations, which can be set differently for every pump fed from a master supply of deionized water and nutrient concentrates. Pumping rates can be varied over a 50-fold range, up to 400 liters per day, which suffices to maintain a number of large, post-seedling plants in rapid growth at (sub)micromolar levels of N and P. The outflow of each pump is divided among as many as 12 separate root chambers. In each changer one may monitor uptake by individual plant roots or segments thereof, by measuring nutrient depletion in batch samples of solution. The system is constructed from nontoxic materials that do not adsorb nutrient ions; no transient shifts of nitrate and phosphate concentrations are observable at the submicromolar level. Nonrecirculaton of solution limits porblems of pH shifts, microbial contamination, and cumulative imbalances in unmonitored nutrients. They note several disadvantages, principally related to high consumption of deionized water and solutes. The reciprocating pumps can be constructed inexpensively, particularly by the researcher. They also report previously unattainable control of passive temperature rise of chambers exposed to full sunlight, by use of white epoxy paint.

  19. Soybean cultivar selection for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs) - Hydroponic cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradiso, R.; Buonomo, R.; De Micco, V.; Aronne, G.; Palermo, M.; Barbieri, G.; De Pascale, S.

    2012-12-01

    Four soybean cultivars ('Atlantic', 'Cresir', 'Pr91m10' and 'Regir'), selected through a theoretical procedure as suitable for cultivation in BLSS, were evaluated in terms of growth and production. Germination percentage and Mean Germination Time (MGT) were measured. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber equipped with a recirculating hydroponic system (Nutrient Film Technique). Cultivation was performed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h photoperiod, light intensity 350 μmol m-2 s-1, temperature regime 26/20 °C light/dark, relative humidity 65-75%). Fertigation was performed with a standard Hoagland solution, modified for soybean specific requirements, and EC and pH were kept at 2.0 dS m-1 and 5.5 respectively. The percentage of germination was high (from 86.9% in 'Cresir' to 96.8% in 'Regir')and the MGT was similar for all the cultivars (4.3 days). The growing cycle lasted from 114 in 'Cresir' to 133 days on average in the other cultivars. Differences in plant size were recorded, with 'Pr91m10' plants being the shortest (58 vs 106 cm). Cultivars did not differ significantly in seed yield (12 g plant-1) and in non edible biomass (waste), water consumption and biomass conversion efficiency (water, radiation and acid use indexes). 'Pr91m10' showed the highest protein content in the seeds (35.6% vs 33.3% on average in the other cultivars). Results from the cultivation experiment showed good performances of the four cultivars in hydroponics. The overall analysis suggests that 'Pr91m10' could be the best candidate for the cultivation in a BLSS, coupling the small plant size and the good yield with high resource use efficiency and good seed quality.

  20. [Effects of LED spectrum combinations on the absorption of mineral elements of hydroponic lettuce].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Mmanake Beauty, Morewane

    2014-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which spectrum proportion-adjustable LED panels were used as sole light source for plant growth. Absorption and content of eleven mineral elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B and Mo in Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP -AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Single or combined spectrums corresponding to the absorbing peaks of chlorophyll a and b (450, 660 nm) could enhance the absorbing ability of roots especially for mineral elements Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Mo, the single red spectrum had the most significant promoting effect under which contents of those four elements were respectively 7. 8, 4. 2, 4. 0 and 3. 7 times more than that under FL; (2) Absorption of K and B was the highest under FL which was 10. 309 mg g-1 and 32. 6 microg g-1 while the values decreased significantly under single or combined spectrum of red and blue; (3) Plants grown under single blue spectrum had the lowest absorption of Ca and Mg which respectively decreased by 35% and 33% than FL; (4) Lettuce grown under the spectrum combination of 30% blue and 70% red had the highest accumulations of biomass while those grown under 20% blue and 80% red had the highest accumulations of the following seven elements Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The results provided theoretical basis for adjusting nutrient solution formula and selecting light spectrum of hydroponic lettuce. PMID:25095445

  1. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  2. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  3. Beneficial effects of silicon on hydroponically grown corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr) plants.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Stefano; Iacuzzo, Francesco; Tomasi, Nicola; Cortella, Giovanni; Manzocco, Lara; Pinton, Roberto; Römheld, Volker; Mimmo, Tanja; Scampicchio, Matteo; Dalla Costa, Luisa; Cesco, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Soil-less cultivation of horticultural crops represents a fairly recent innovation to traditional agriculture which has several advantages including higher water-use efficiency. When plants are grown with this system, their roots come in contact with nutrients solely via the hydroponic solution. Although its beneficial effects have been widely demonstrated, silicon (Si) is mostly omitted from the composition of nutrient solutions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the beneficial effect of Si addition to hydroponic solution on quali-quantitative aspects of edible production of two cultivars of corn salad (Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.) grown in soil-less floating system. Impacts on shelf life of this food were also studied. Results show that the supply of Si increased the edible yield and the quality level reducing the nitrate concentration in edible tissues. This result might be attributed to changes either in the metabolism (such as the nitrate assimilation process) or to the functionality of root mechanisms involved in the nutrient acquisition from the outer medium. In fact, our results show for the first time the ability of Si to modulate the root activity of nitrate and Fe uptake through, at least in part, a regulation of gene expression levels of the proteins involved in this phenomenon. In addition, the presence of Si decreased the levels of polyphenoloxidase gene expression at harvest and, in post-harvest, slowed down the chlorophyll degradation delaying leaf senescence and thus prolonging the shelf life of these edible tissues. In conclusion, data showed that the addition of Si to the nutrient solution can be a useful tool for improving quali-quantitatively the yield of baby leaf vegetable corn salad as well as its shelf life. Since the amelioration due to the Si has been achieved only with one cultivar, the recommendation of its inclusion in the nutrient solution does not exclude the identification of cultivars suitable for this

  4. Risperidone: effects of formulations on oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, R; Lee, P I; Huang, M L; Woestenborghs, R

    1997-01-01

    The bioavailability of risperidone was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, two-way, crossover study comparing a 1-mg tablet with a 1-mg/ml oral solution. Both formulations were administered as a single 1-mg dose with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Of 26 healthy men who entered the study, 23 completed both treatment periods. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and the active moiety (risperidone plus its active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were determined by radioimmunoassays. For key pharmacokinetic values (Cmax, AUC), the 90% CIs on the relative bioequivalence of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and the active moiety were contained within the equivalence range of 80-120% (80-125% for log-transformed data). The results demonstrate that the 1-mg/ml oral solution and the 1-mg tablet are bioequivalent. PMID:9165565

  5. Stimulating productivity of hydroponic lettuce in controlled environments with triacontanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Triacontanol (1-triacontanol) applied as a foliar spray at 10(-7) M to 4-day-old, hydroponically grown leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings in a controlled environment increased leaf fresh and dry weight 13% to 20% and root fresh and dry weight 13% to 24% 6 days after application, relative to plants sprayed with water. When applied at 8 as well as 4 days after seeding, triacontanol increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and mean relative growth rate 12% to 37%. There was no benefit of repeating application of triacontanol in terms of leaf dry weight gain.

  6. Photosynthetic Response to Long- and Short-Term Changes in Carbon Dioxide in Sweetpotatoes Grown Hydroponically with Enhanced Mineral Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Casey; Terse, Anita; Hileman, Douglas R.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Hill, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas L.(Lam.)] has been selected by NASA as a potential food for long-term space missions. In previous experiments, sweetpotato plants grown hydroponically under elevated levels of CO2 depleted the nitrogen in the nutrient solution between the hi-weekly solution replacements. In this experiment, the effect of enhanced nutrient replenishment on photosynthetic rates of sweetpotato was determined. CO2 response curves were determined for "TU-82-155" and "Georgia-Jet" sweetpotatoes grown hydroponically in growth chambers at three different CO2 concentrations (400, 750, and 1000 micro-mol/mol CO2). Gas exchange measurements were made using infrared gas analysis, an open-flow gas exchange system, and a controlled-climate cuvette. Photosynthetic measurements were made at CO2 concentrations from 50-1000 micro-mol/mol CO2. Net photosynthetic rates showed an increase with increasing measurement CO2 in all nutrient regimes, but the response of photosynthetic rates to the growth CO2 conditions varied among the experiments and between the two varieties. Enhanced mineral nutrition led to increased net photosynthetic rates in "Georgia Jet" plants, but not in "TU-82-155" plants. The results of this study will help to determine the CO2 requirements for growth of sweetpotato on proposed space missions.

  7. BIOSURFACES AND BIOAVAILABILITY: A NANOSCALE OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally, contaminant bioavailability is a key parameter in determining exposure assessment and ultimately risk assessment/risk management. Defining bioavailability requires knowledge of the contaminant spatial/temporal disposition and transportability and the thermodyna...

  8. Incorporating bioavailability into toxicity assessment of Cu-Ni, Cu-Cd, and Ni-Cd mixtures with the extended biotic ligand model and the WHAM-F(tox) approach.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Vijver, Martina G; He, Erkai; Liu, Yang; Wang, Peng; Xia, Bing; Smolders, Erik; Versieren, Liske; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-12-01

    There are only a limited number of studies that have developed appropriate models which incorporate bioavailability to estimate mixture toxicity. Here, we explored the applicability of the extended biotic ligand model (BLM) and the WHAM-F(tox) approach for predicting and interpreting mixture toxicity, with the assumption that interactions between metal ions obey the BLM theory. Seedlings of lettuce Lactuca sativa were exposed to metal mixtures (Cu-Ni, Cu-Cd, and Ni-Cd) contained in hydroponic solutions for 4 days. Inhibition to root elongation was the endpoint used to quantify the toxic response. Assuming that metal ions compete with each other for binding at a single biotic ligand, the extended BLM succeeded in predicting toxicity of three mixtures to lettuce, with more than 82% of toxicity variation explained. There were no significant differences in the values of f(mix50) (i.e., the overall amounts of metal ions bound to the biotic ligand inducing 50% effect) for the three mixture combinations, showing the possibility of extrapolating these values to other binary metal combinations. The WHAM-F(tox) approach showed a similar level of precision in estimating mixture toxicity while requiring fewer parameters than the BLM-f(mix) model. External validation of the WHAM-F(tox) approach using literature data showed its applicability for other species and other mixtures. The WHAM-F(tox) model is suitable for delineating mixture effects where the extended BLM also applies. Therefore, in case of lower data availability, we recommend the lower parameterized WHAM-F(tox) as an effective approach to incorporate bioavailability in quantifying mixture toxicity. PMID:26250821

  9. Effect of water velocity on hydroponic phytoremediation of metals.

    PubMed

    Weiss, P; Westbrook, A; Weiss, J; Gulliver, J; Biesboer, D

    2014-01-01

    The influence of flow velocity on the uptake of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc by hydroponically grown soft stem bulrush (Scirpus validus) was investigated. The roots of the plants were exposed to a continually recycled, nutrient enriched, synthetic stormwater. Plants were divided into groups and the roots of each group exposed to different but constant water velocities. The metal concentrations in the roots and stems were compared after three weeks. Metal accumulation in roots was increased for water velocities between 1.3 and 4.0 cm s(-1). In a second experiment, the roots of all plants were exposed to a single velocity and the root and stem metal concentrations were determined as a function of time. Metal concentrations in the roots approached a constant value after three weeks. After this time, accumulation of metals depends upon root growth. The results suggest that long-term accumulation by the roots of hydroponic Scirpus validus can be increased by increasing water velocity, which implies that floating islands with movement will retain more metals from the water column. PMID:24912210

  10. [Bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Makarova, M N

    2011-01-01

    In the review the modern data about bioavailability and a metabolism of flavonoids is considered. The data about absorption flavonoids in a digestive path, participation of microorganisms in their hydrolysis, pharmacokinetic the data on the basic classes flavonoids: flavanes (flavan-3-ols), anthocyanes, flavones, flavonols and flavanones is cited. PMID:21842747

  11. [Bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Makarova, N M

    2011-01-01

    Published data about bioavailability and metabolism of flavonoids are reviewed. Information concerning the absorption of flavonoids in a digestive path and the participation of microorganisms in their hydrolysis is summarized. Parameters of pharmacokinetics are presented for the main classes of flavonoids, including flavanes (flavan-3-ols), anthocyans, flavones, flavonols, and flavanones. PMID:21870774

  12. Bioavailability of Promethazine during Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the choice anti-motion sickness medication for treating space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. The side effects associated with PMZ include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, and impaired psychomotor performance which could impact crew performance and mission operations. Early anecdotal reports from crewmembers indicate that these central nervous system side effects of PMZ are absent or greatly attenuated in microgravity, potentially due to changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics in microgravity. These changes could also affect the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs in general and PMZ, in particular. In this investigation, we examined bioavailability and associated pharmacokinetics of PMZ in astronauts during and after space flight. Methods. Nine astronauts received, per their preference, PMZ (25 or 50 mg as intramuscular injection, oral tablet, or rectal suppository) on flight day one for the treatment of SMS and subsequently collected saliva samples and completed sleepiness scores for 72 h post dose. Thirty days after the astronauts returned to Earth, they repeated the protocol. Bioavailability and PK parameters were calculated and compared between flight and ground. Results. Maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to reach Cmax (tmax) was longer in flight than on the ground. Area under the curve (AUC), a measure of bioavailability, was lower and biological half-life (t1/2) was longer in flight than on the ground. Conclusion. Results indicate that bioavailability of PMZ is reduced during spaceflight. Number of samples, sampling method, and sampling schedule significantly affected PK parameter estimates.

  13. Drug Bioavailability Data: (Un)Available.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capomacchia, Anthony C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The obtainability of drug bioavailability data from both brand-name and generic-drug manufacturers was studied to document the relative change in availability to pharmacy students of drug bioavailability data between 1978 and 1976 for drugs exhibiting bioavailability problems. The results indicate no major change. (JMD)

  14. Evaluation of the toxicity of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Borisuth, Lalita; Chinrasri, Orawan; Saenthaweesuk, Nattanan; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Thosaikham, Witphon; Sriart, Noppong; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2016-05-01

    Hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprouts (HPSeKS) are studied for their use as an alternative dietary Se supplement for poultry. The study experimented with different levels and sources of Se to determine toxicity and how the toxicity may affect productive performance, Se concentration in egg and tissues, and physiological responses of laying hens. One-hundred and twenty hens, 59 weeks of age, were divided into 5 groups. Each group consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate had 6 birds according to a 2×2+1 Augmented Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The experiment was conducted over a 4 week period, and 5 dietary treatments (T) were used: T1 basal diet, T2 and T3 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from sodium selenite (SS), T4 and T5 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results make clear that Se from HPSeKS, at 5-10mg/kg, did not affect (P>0.05) feed intake and egg production; however, Se bioavailability decreased (P<0.05). Egg, tissue and plasma Se concentrations, and GSH-Px activity in red blood cells increased (P<0.05) compared to those in T1. Final body weight, feed intake, Se bioavailability, concentration of Se in breast muscle and plasma of hens fed Se from SS were lower (P<0.05) than those of hens fed Se from HPSeKS. The findings demonstrate that dietary Se from HPSeKS at 5-10mg/kg is not considered a toxic level for laying hens. The toxicity of Se from HPSeKS was less than the toxicity of Se from SS. PMID:26964695

  15. Recycling of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production following incineration of inedible biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Wignarajah, K.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of resource recovery in a regenerative life support system is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration is all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match the control treatment, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions were formulated using only ash following incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in a suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with reagent grade chemicals to establish the same balance as in the control - growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals but matching the quality of the ash only treatment resulted in similar growth to that of the ash only treatment. The ash product resulting from incineration of inedible biomass appears to be a suitable form for recycle of inorganic nutrients to crop production.

  16. Recycling of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production following incineration of inedible biomass.

    PubMed

    Bubenheim, D L; Wignarajah, K

    1997-01-01

    The goal of resource recovery in a regenerative life support system is maintenance of product quality to sure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration is all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match the control treatment, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions were formulated using only ash following incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in a suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with reagent grade chemicals to establish the same balance as in the control--growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals but matching the quality of the ash only treatment resulted in similar growth to that of the ash only treatment. The ash product resulting from incineration of inedible biomass appears to be a suitable form for recycle of inorganic nutrients to crop production. PMID:11542586

  17. Role of plants in nitrogen and sulfur transformations in floating hydroponic root mats: A comparison of two helophytes.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rania A B; Kuschk, Peter; Wiessner, Arndt; Kappelmeyer, Uwe; Müller, Jochen A; Köser, Heinz

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge about the roles helophytes play in constructed wetlands (CWs) is limited, especially regarding their provision of organic rhizodeposits. Here, transformations of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur were monitored in a CW variety, floating hydroponic root mat (FHRM), treating synthetic wastewater containing low concentration of organic carbon. Two helophytes, Phragmites australis and Juncus effusus, were compared in duplicates. Striking differences were found between the FHRM of the two helophytes. Whereas ammonium was removed in all FHRMs to below detection level, total nitrogen of 1.15 ± 0.4 g m(-2) d(-1) was removed completely only in P. australis systems. The mats with J. effusus displayed effective nitrification but incomplete denitrification as 77% of the removed ammonium-nitrogen accumulated as nitrate. Furthermore, the P. australis treatment units showed on average 3 times higher sulfate-S removal rates (1.1 ± 0.45 g m(-2) d(-1)) than the systems planted with J. effusus (0.37 ± 0.29 g m(-2) d(-1)). Since the influent organic carbon was below the stoichiometric requirement for the observed N and S transformation processes, helophytes' organic rhizodeposits apparently contributed to these transformations, while P. australis provided about 6 times higher bioavailable organic rhizodeposits than J. effusus. PMID:27393940

  18. Bioavailability of the Polyphenols: Status and Controversies

    PubMed Central

    D’Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  19. Bioavailability of the polyphenols: status and controversies.

    PubMed

    D'Archivio, Massimo; Filesi, Carmelina; Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Masella, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The current interest in polyphenols has been driven primarily by epidemiological studies. However, to establish conclusive evidence for the effectiveness of dietary polyphenols in disease prevention, it is useful to better define the bioavailability of the polyphenols, so that their biological activity can be evaluated. The bioavailability appears to differ greatly among the various phenolic compounds, and the most abundant ones in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. In the present review, we focus on the factors influencing the bioavailability of the polyphenols. Moreover, a critical overview on the difficulties and the controversies of the studies on the bioavailability is discussed. PMID:20480022

  20. Salinity Reduction and Biomass Accumulation in Hydroponic Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea).

    PubMed

    de Lacerda, Laís Pessôa; Lange, Liséte Celina; Costa França, Marcel Giovanni; Zonta, Everaldo

    2015-01-01

    In many of the world's semi-arid and arid regions, the increase in demand for good quality water associated with the gradual and irreversible salinisation of the soil and water have raised the development of techniques that facilitate the safe use of brackish and saline waters for agronomic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the salinity reduction of experimental saline solutions through the ions uptake capability of purslane (Portulaca oleracea), as well as its biomass accumulation. The hydroponic system used contained three different nutrient solutions composed of fixed concentrations of macro and micronutrients to which three different concentrations of sodium chloride had been added. Two conditions were tested, clipped and intact plants. It was observed that despite there being a notable removal of magnesium and elevated biomass accumulation, especially in the intact plants, purslane did not present the expected removal quantity of sodium and chloride. We confirmed that in the research conditions of the present study, purslane is a saline-tolerant species but accumulation of sodium and chloride was not shown as previously described in the literature. PMID:25397981

  1. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction. PMID:25397989

  2. Root uptake and translocation of perfluorinated alkyl acids by three hydroponically grown crops.

    PubMed

    Felizeter, Sebastian; McLachlan, Michael S; De Voogt, Pim

    2014-04-16

    Tomato, cabbage, and zucchini plants were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. They were exposed to 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) at four different concentrations via the nutrient solution. At maturity the plants were harvested, and the roots, stems, leaves, twigs (where applicable), and edible parts (tomatoes, cabbage head, zucchinis) were analyzed separately. Uptake and transfer factors were calculated for all plant parts to assess PFAA translocation and distribution within the plants. Root concentration factors were highest for long-chain PFAAs (>C11) in all three plant species, but these chemicals were not found in the edible parts. All other PFAAs were present in all above-ground plant parts, with transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCFs) of 0.05-0.25. These PFAAs are taken up with the transpiration stream and accumulate primarily in the leaves. Although some systematic differences were observed, overall their uptake from nutrient solution to roots and their further distribution within the plants were similar between plant species and among PFAAs. PMID:24646206

  3. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils. PMID:24234763

  4. Comparison of aerobically-treated and untreated crop residue as a source of recycled nutrients in a recirculating hydroponic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the growth of potato plants on nutrients recycled from inedible potato biomass. Plants were grown for 105 days in recirculating, thin-film hydroponic systems containing four separate nutrient solution treatments: 1) modified half-strength Hoagland's (control), 2) liquid effluent from a bioreactor containing inedible potato biomass, 3) filtered (0.2 μm) effluent, and 4) the water soluble fraction of inedible potato biomass (leachate). Approximately 50% of the total nutrient requirement in treatments 2 - 4 were provided (recycled) from the potato biomass. Leachate had an inhibitory effect on leaf conductance, photosynthetic rate, and growth (50% reduction in plant height and 60% reduction in tuber yield). Plants grown on bioreactor effluent (filtered or unfiltered) were similar to the control plants. These results indicated that rapidly degraded, water soluble organic material contained in the inedible biomass, i.e., material in leachate, brought about phytotoxicity in the hydroponic culture of potato. Recalcitrant, water soluble organic material accumulated in all nutrient recycling treatments (650% increase after 105 days), but no increase in rhizosphere microbial numbers was observed.

  5. Influence of two types of organic matter on interaction of CeO2 nanoparticles with plants in hydroponic culture.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Franziska; Schulin, Rainer; Limbach, Ludwig K; Stark, Wendelin; Bürge, Diane; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    An important aspect in risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is to understand their environmental interactions. We used hydroponic plant cultures to study nanoparticle-plant-root interaction and translocation and exposed wheat and pumpkin to suspensions of uncoated CeO2-NP for 8d (primary particle size 17-100 nm, 100 mg L(-1)) in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) and gum arabic (GA) as representatives of different types of natural organic matter. The behavior of CeO2-NPs in the hydroponic solution was monitored regarding agglomeration, sedimentation, particle size distribution, surface charge, amounts of root association, and translocation into shoots. NP-dispersions were stable over 8d in the presence of FA or GA, but with growing plants, changes in pH, particle agglomeration rate, and hydrodynamic diameter were observed. None of the plants exhibited reduced growth or any toxic response during the experiment. We found that CeO2-NPs translocated into pumpkin shoots, whereas this did not occur in wheat plants. The presence of FA and GA affected the amount of CeO2 associated with roots (pure>FA>GA) but did not affect the translocation factor. Additionally, we could confirm via TEM and SEM that CeO2-NPs adhered strongly to root surfaces of both plant species. PMID:23352517

  6. Comparison of aerobically-treated and untreated crop residue as a source of recycled nutrients in a recirculating hydroponic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the growth of potato plants on nutrients recycled from inedible potato biomass. Plants were grown for 105 days in recirculating, thin-film hydroponic systems containing four separate nutrient solution treatments: (1) modified half-strength Hoagland's (control), 2) liquid effluent from a bioreactor containing inedible potato biomass, 3) filtered (0.2 micrometer) effluent, and 4) the water soluble fraction of inedible potato biomass (leachate). Approximately 50% of the total nutrient requirement in treatments 2-4 were provided (recycled) from the potato biomass. Leachate had an inhibitory effect on leaf conductance, photosynthetic rate, and growth (50% reduction in plant height and 60% reduction in tuber yield). Plants grown on bioreactor effluent (filtered or unfiltered) were similar to the control plants. These results indicated that rapidly degraded, water soluble organic material contained in the inedible biomass, i.e., material in leachate, brought about phytotoxicity in the hydroponic culture of potato. Recalcitrant, water soluble organic material accumulated in all nutrient recycling treatments (650% increase after 105 days), but no increase in rhizosphere microbial numbers was observed.

  7. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  8. Influence of nitrogen nutrition management on biomass partitioning and nitrogen use efficiency indices in hydroponically grown potato.

    PubMed

    Goins, Gregory D; Yorio, Neil C; Wheeler, Raymond M

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting controlled environment research with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT)-hydroponic systems as a human life support component during long-duration spaceflight. Standard nutrient solution management approaches include constant pH regulation with nitric acid (HNO3) and daily adjustment of electrical conductivity (EC) equivalent to half-strength modified Hoagland's solution, where nitrate (NO3-) is the sole nitrogen (N) source. Although tuber yields have been excellent with such an approach, N use efficiency indices are expected to be low relative to tuber biomass production. Furthermore, the high amount of N used in NFT-hydroponics, typically results in high inedible biomass, which conflicts with the need to minimize system mass, volume, and expenditure of resources for long-duration missions. More effective strategies of N fertilization need to be developed to more closely match N supply with demand of the crop. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to identify the optimal N management regime and plant N requirement to achieve high yields and to avoid inefficient use of N and excess inedible biomass production. In separate 84-day cropping experiments, three N management protocols were tested. Treatments which decreased NO3(-)-N supply indirectly through lowering nutrient solution EC (Expt. I), or disabling pH control, and/or supplying NH4(+)-N (Expt. III) did not significantly benefit tuber yield, but did influence N use efficiency indices. When supplied with an external 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N for the first 42 days after planting (DAP), lowered to 1.0 mM NO3(-)-N during the final 42 days (Expt. II), plants were able to achieve yields on par with plants which received constant 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N (control). By abruptly decreasing N supply at tuber initiation in Expt. II, less N was taken up and accumulated by plants compared to those which received

  9. Influence of nitrogen nutrition management on biomass partitioning and nitrogen use efficiency indices in hydroponically grown potato

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, Gregory D.; Yorio, Neil C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting controlled environment research with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT)-hydroponic systems as a human life support component during long-duration spaceflight. Standard nutrient solution management approaches include constant pH regulation with nitric acid (HNO3) and daily adjustment of electrical conductivity (EC) equivalent to half-strength modified Hoagland's solution, where nitrate (NO3-) is the sole nitrogen (N) source. Although tuber yields have been excellent with such an approach, N use efficiency indices are expected to be low relative to tuber biomass production. Furthermore, the high amount of N used in NFT-hydroponics, typically results in high inedible biomass, which conflicts with the need to minimize system mass, volume, and expenditure of resources for long-duration missions. More effective strategies of N fertilization need to be developed to more closely match N supply with demand of the crop. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to identify the optimal N management regime and plant N requirement to achieve high yields and to avoid inefficient use of N and excess inedible biomass production. In separate 84-day cropping experiments, three N management protocols were tested. Treatments which decreased NO3(-)-N supply indirectly through lowering nutrient solution EC (Expt. I), or disabling pH control, and/or supplying NH4(+)-N (Expt. III) did not significantly benefit tuber yield, but did influence N use efficiency indices. When supplied with an external 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N for the first 42 days after planting (DAP), lowered to 1.0 mM NO3(-)-N during the final 42 days (Expt. II), plants were able to achieve yields on par with plants which received constant 7.5 mM NO3(-)-N (control). By abruptly decreasing N supply at tuber initiation in Expt. II, less N was taken up and accumulated by plants compared to those which received

  10. Removal of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin by Lupinus angustifolius under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Garcinuño, R M; Fernandez Hernando, P; Camara, C

    2006-07-12

    The metabolism of organic pollutants by plants normally requires contaminant direct uptake by cells. Factors affecting this uptake and the later distribution of chemicals within the plant include the physicochemical properties of the compounds (concentration, structure, solubility, log k(ow), diffusion rate) and the biochemical characteristics of the plant. This paper reports the tolerance, uptake, and effects of the pesticides carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin on Lupinus angustifolius germination and growth as well as contaminant intraplant distribution and possible degradation. Lupine plants were grown in hydroponic culture containing either 1 or 5 mg of the individual pesticides, or combinations of these (1, 5, or 10 mg of each), in 100 mL nutrient and water solutions. Analysis of the remaining solutions 8 days post-germination showed the water solutions to have higher remaining pesticide concentrations than nutrient solutions. Furthermore, in the presence of pesticides, germination was more frequent in the water solutions. After 16 days of growth, the plants were harvested, and their tissues were microwaved digested and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Although only minor quantities of each pesticide were detected in plant tissues, their amount in the roots was higher than in the stems. No accumulation was noted in the cotyledons, and only 2% of linuron was detected in the leaves. Mass recovery at the end of the experiment showed that 57, 53, and 55% of carbaryl, linuron, and permethrin, respectively, were degraded and/or bound in an irreversible manner to plant material. The results suggest that L. angustifolius could be useful for the cleaning/remediation of pesticide-contaminated water. PMID:16819913

  11. A hydroponic method for plant growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. D.

    1985-01-01

    A hydroponic apparatus under development for long-term microgravity plant growth is described. The capillary effect root environment system (CERES) is designed to keep separate the nutrient and air flows, although both must be simultaneously available to the roots. Water at a pressure slightly under air pressure is allowed to seep into a plastic depression covered by a plastic screen and a porous membrane. A root in the air on the membrane outer surface draws the moisture through it. The laboratory model has a wire-based 1.241 mm mesh polyethylene screen and a filter membrane with 0.45 micron pores, small enough to prohibit root hair penetration. The design eliminates the need to seal-off the plant environment. Problems still needing attention include scaling up of the CERES size, controlling biofouling of the membrane, and extending the applications to plants without fibrous root systems.

  12. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  13. Variation characteristics of chlorpyrifos in nonsterile wetland plant hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Qiaohong; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Enrong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2013-01-01

    Six wetland plants were investigated for their effect on the degradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos in nonsterile hydroponic system at constant temperature of 28 degrees C. The results showed that the removal rates of chlorpyrifos in the water of plant systems were 1.26-5.56% higher than that in the control without plants. Scirpus validus and Typha angustifolia were better than other hygrophytes in elimination of chlorpyrifos. The removal rates of the two systems were up to 88%. Plants of acaulescent group had an advantage over caulescent group in removing chlorpyrifos. Phytoaccumulation of chlorpyrifos was observed, and the order of chlorpyrifos concentration in different plant tissues was root > stem > leaf. It was also found that chlorpyrifos and its metabolite TCP decreased rapidly at the initial step of the experiment. PMID:23819296

  14. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, C L; Garland, J L; Sager, J C

    1996-12-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented. PMID:11541570

  15. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  16. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  17. Arsenic bioavailability in soils before and after soil washing: the use of Escherichia coli whole-cell bioreporters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Youngdae; Kang, Yerin; Chae, Yooeun; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, Youngshim; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the quantification of bioavailable arsenic in contaminated soils and evaluation of soil-washing processes in the aspect of bioavailability using a novel bacterial bioreporter developed in present study. The whole-cell bioreporter (WCB) was genetically engineered by fusing the promoter of nik operon from Escherichia coli and green fluorescent protein as a sensing domain and reporter domain. Among eight well-known hazardous heavy metals and metalloid, this system responded specifically to arsenic, thereby inferring association of As(III) with NikR inhibits the repression. Moreover, the response was proportional to the concentration of As(III), thereby it was capable to determine the amount of bioavailable arsenic quantitatively in contaminated soils. The bioavailable portion of arsenic was 5.9 (3.46-10.96) and 0.9 (0.27-1.74) % of total from amended and site soils, respectively, suggesting the bioavailability of arsenic in soils was related to the soil properties and duration of aging. On the other hand, only 1.37 (0.21-2.97) % of total arsenic was extracted into soil solutions and 19.88 (11.86-28.27) % of arsenic in soil solution was bioavailable. This result showed that the soluble arsenic is not all bioavailable and most of bioavailable arsenic in soils is water non-extractable. In addition, the bioavailable arsenic was increased after soil-washing while total amount was decreased, thereby suggesting the soil-washing processes release arsenic associated with soil materials to be bioavailable. Therefore, it would be valuable to have a tool to assess bioavailability and the bioavailability should be taken into consideration for soil remediation plans. PMID:26411448

  18. Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Standiford, H C; Plaisance, K; Forrest, A; Leslie, J; Caldwell, J

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the absolute bioavailability of ciprofloxacin, a new quinoline carboxylic acid, in 12 healthy male volunteers. Doses of 200 mg were given to each of the volunteers in a randomized, crossover manner 1 week apart orally and as a 10-min intravenous infusion. Half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) for the intravenous and oral administration arms were 4.2 +/- 0.77 and 4.11 +/- 0.74 h, respectively. The serum clearance rate averaged 28.5 +/- 4.7 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous administration arm. The renal clearance rate accounted for approximately 60% of the corresponding serum clearance rate and was 16.9 +/- 3.0 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the intravenous arm and 17.0 +/- 2.86 liters/h per 1.73 m2 for the oral administration arm. Absorption was rapid, with peak concentrations in serum occurring at 0.71 +/- 0.15 h. Bioavailability, defined as the ratio of the area under the curve from 0 h to infinity for the oral to the intravenous dose, was 69 +/- 7%. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and reliably bioavailable in these healthy volunteers. Further studies with ciprofloxacin should be undertaken in target patient populations under actual clinical circumstances. PMID:3777908

  19. ANALYSIS OF HYDROPONIC FERTILIZER MATRIXES FOR PERCHLORATE: COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven retail hydroponic nitrate fertilizer products, two liquid and five solid, were comparatively analyzed for the perchlorate anion (ClO4-) by ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection, complexation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (cESI-MS), norma...

  20. How-to-Do-It. Hydroponics and Aquaculture in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    The construction of a hydroponic system for use in the classroom is described. Provided are construction details, a list of materials with approximate cost, a diagram of the setup, and a sample test. Several activities are suggested. (CW)

  1. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  2. Bioavailability of valsartan oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Bende, Girish; Mendonza, Anisha E; Solar-Yohay, Susan; Biswal, Shibadas; Neelakantham, Srikanth; Wagner, Robert; Flarakos, Jimmy; Zhang, Yiming; Jarugula, Venkateswar

    2014-03-01

    The oral bioavailability of valsartan from extemporaneous suspension and solution formulations were evaluated relative to tablet formulation in two separate open-label, randomized crossover studies in healthy adults. In both studies, the plasma concentrations of valsartan after oral administration were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods, and the corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration time-curves (AUC(0-∞) ) of valsartan from the extemporaneous suspension were higher by 1.93- and 1.56-fold, respectively, relative to the tablet formulation (P < .001). The Cmax and AUC(0-∞) of valsartan from the oral solution were higher by 2.21- and 1.74-fold, respectively, relative to the tablet formulation (P < .001). These results indicate that both rate and extent of absorption of valsartan are higher in the two liquid dosage forms (extemporaneous suspension and solution formulations) relative to the solid oral dosage form (tablet formulation). PMID:27128457

  3. [Bioavailability of cadmium associated with oxides in sediment: effects of species of mineral, association form and aging on bioavailability].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Jia, Yong-feng; Liu, Li; Wang, Shu-ying

    2009-10-15

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments is largely controlled by their speciation. Effects of different Cd speciation associated with metal hydroxide on Cd bioavailability were studied. Iron and aluminum hydroxides were chosen as representatives of the oxides commonly present in sediments. In cultivar system, Hoagland solution was used as nutrition supply, and metal hydroxide associated with Cd as the only source of contamination and Phragmites australis was induced to study Cd bioaccumulation. After 13 d cultivation, Cd was uptaken and accumulated in P. australis, with different bioaccumulation from 9.1 to 37.8 mg x kg(-1) in root; and 0 to 10.0 mg x kg(-1) in shoot. Hereinto, the P. australis cultivated in Fe0.5Al0.5(OH)3 medium was found to have accumulated the largest amount of Cd in root, followed by those in Fe(OH)3 and aged Fe0.5Al0.5(OH)3, the lowest root concentration of Cd was observed in the plants cultivated in aged Fe(OH)3. Desorption order of Cd by organic acid was consistent with the Cd accumulation in P. australis. Thus, coprecipitation treatment decreases the bioavailability of Cd; association of aluminum hydroxide with Cd is poor due to its physicochemical property; aging treatment significantly restrict the accumulation of adsorbed Cd; desorption by organic acid verify the discrepancy in bioavailability of different speciation of Cd. PMID:19968130

  4. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  5. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    PubMed Central

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  6. Selection and hydroponic growth of potato cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molders, K.; Quinet, M.; Decat, J.; Secco, B.; Dulière, E.; Pieters, S.; van der Kooij, T.; Lutts, S.; Van Der Straeten, D.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, Ghent University and the Université catholique de Louvain investigated the suitability, growth and development of four potato cultivars in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions with the aim to incorporate such cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Potato plants can fulfill three major functions in an ECLSS in space missions: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of tubers for human nutrition and (c) production of clean water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four cultivars (Annabelle, Bintje, Desiree and Innovator) were selected and grown hydroponically in nutrient film technique (NFT) gullies in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. The plant growth parameters, tuber harvest parameters and results of tuber nutritional analysis of the four cultivars were compared. The four potato cultivars grew well and all produced tubers. The growth period lasted 127 days for all cultivars except for Desiree which needed 145 days. Annabelle (1.45 kg/m2) and Bintje (1.355 kg/m2) were the best performing of the four cultivars. They also produced two times more tubers than Desiree and Innovator. Innovator produced the biggest tubers (20.95 g/tuber) and Desiree the smallest (7.67 g/tuber). The size of Annabelle and Bintje potatoes were intermediate. Bintje plants produced the highest total biomass in term of DW. The highest non-edible biomass was produced by Desiree, which showed both the highest shoot and root DW. The manual length and width measurements were also used to predict the total tuber mass. The energy values of the tubers remained in the range of the 2010 USDA and Souci-Fachmann-Kraut food composition databases. The amount of Ca determined was slightly reduced compared to the USDA value, but close to the Souci-Fachmann-Kraut value. The concentration of Cu, Zn and P were high compared to both databases

  7. Hydroponic screening of black locust families for heavy metal tolerance and accumulation.

    PubMed

    Župunski, Milan; Borišev, Milan; Orlović, Saša; Arsenov, Danijela; Nikolić, Nataša; Pilipović, Andrej; Pajević, Slobodanka

    2016-01-01

    Present work examines phytoextraction potential of four black locust families (half-sibs 54, 56, 115, and 135) grown hydroponically. Plants were treated with 6 ppm of cadmium (Cd), 100 ppm of nickel (Ni), and 40 ppm of lead (Pb) added in Hoagland nutrient solution, accompanying with simultaneously applied all three metals. Responses to metals exposure among families were different, ranging from severe to slight reduction of root and shoot biomass production of treated plants. Calculated tolerance indices are indicating tested families as highly tolerant (Ti > 60). Family 135 had the lowest tolerance index, pointing that it was highly susceptible to applied metals. Comparing photosynthetic activities of tested families it has been noticed that they were highly sensitive to stress induced by heavy metals. Net photosynthetic rate of nickel treated plants was the most affected by applied concentration. Cadmium and nickel concentrations in stems and leaves of black locust families exceeded 100 mg Cd kg(-1) and 1000 mg Ni kg(-1), in both single and multipollution context. On the contrary, accumulation of lead in above ground biomass was highly affected by multipollution treatment. Tf and BCF significantly varied between investigated treatments and families of black locust. Concerning obtained results of heavy metals accumulation and tolerance of black locust families can be concluded that tested families might be a promising tool for phytoextraction purposes, but it takes to be further confirmed in field trials. PMID:26332106

  8. Use of hydroponics culture to assess nutrient supply by treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Adrover, Maria; Moyà, Gabriel; Vadell, Jaume

    2013-09-30

    The use of treated wastewater for irrigation is increasing, especially in those areas where water resources are limited. Treated wastewaters contain nutrients that are useful for plant growth and help to reduce fertilizers needs. Nutrient content of these waters depends on the treatment system. Nutrient supply by a treated wastewater from a conventional treatment plant (CWW) and a lagooned wastewater from the campus of the University of Balearic Islands (LWW) was tested in an experiment in hydroponics conditions. Half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) was used as a control. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings were grown in 4 L containers filled with the three types of water. Four weeks after planting, barley was harvested and root and shoot biomass was measured. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe contents were determined in both tissues and heavy metal concentrations were analysed in shoots. N, P and K concentrations were lower in LWW than in CWW, while HNS had the highest nutrient concentration. Dry weight barley production was reduced in CWW and LWW treatments to 49% and 17%, respectively, comparing to HNS. However, to a lesser extent, reduction was found in shoot and root N content. Treated wastewater increased Na content in shoots and roots of barley and Ca and Cr content in shoots. However, heavy metals content was lower than toxic levels in all the cases. Although treated wastewater is an interesting water resource, additional fertilization is needed to maintain a high productivity in barley seedlings. PMID:23708198

  9. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frick, J.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents.

  10. Stabilization of pH in solid-matrix hydroponic systems.

    PubMed

    Frick, J; Mitchell, C A

    1993-10-01

    2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer or Amberlite DP-1 (cation-exchange resin beads) were used to stabilize substrate pH of passive-wicking, solid-matrix hydroponic systems in which small canopies of Brassica napus L. (CrGC 5-2, genome : ACaacc) were grown to maturity. Two concentrations of MES (5 or 10 mM) were included in Hoagland 1 nutrient solution. Alternatively, resin beads were incorporated into the 2 vermiculite : 1 perlite (v/v) growth medium at 6% or 12% of total substrate volume. Both strategies stabilized pH without toxic side effects on plants. Average seed yield rates for all four pH stabilization treatments (13.3 to 16.9 g m-2 day-1) were about double that of the control (8.2 g m-2 day-1), for which there was no attempt to buffer substrate pH. Both the highest canopy seed yield rate (16.9 g m-2 day-1) and the highest shoot harvest index (19.5%) occurred with the 6% resin bead treatment, even though the 10 mM MES and 12% bead treatments maintained pH within the narrowest limits. The pH stabilization methods tested did not significantly affect seed oil and protein contents. PMID:11537992

  11. Hydroponics Database and Handbook for the Advanced Life Support Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Allen J.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer 1998, I did student assistance to Dr. Daniel J. Barta, chief plant growth expert at Johnson Space Center - NASA. We established the preliminary stages of a hydroponic crop growth database for the Advanced Life Support Systems Integration Test Bed, otherwise referred to as BIO-Plex (Biological Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex). The database summarizes information from published technical papers by plant growth experts, and it includes bibliographical, environmental and harvest information based on plant growth under varying environmental conditions. I collected 84 lettuce entries, 14 soybean, 49 sweet potato, 16 wheat, 237 white potato, and 26 mix crop entries. The list will grow with the publication of new research. This database will be integrated with a search and systems analysis computer program that will cross-reference multiple parameters to determine optimum edible yield under varying parameters. Also, we have made preliminary effort to put together a crop handbook for BIO-Plex plant growth management. It will be a collection of information obtained from experts who provided recommendations on a particular crop's growing conditions. It includes bibliographic, environmental, nutrient solution, potential yield, harvest nutritional, and propagation procedure information. This handbook will stand as the baseline growth conditions for the first set of experiments in the BIO-Plex facility.

  12. Dissolved organic matter kinetically controls mercury bioavailability to bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chiasson-Gould, Sophie A; Blais, Jules M; Poulain, Alexandre J

    2014-03-18

    Predicting the bioavailability of inorganic mercury (Hg) to bacteria that produce the potent bioaccumulative neurotoxin monomethylmercury remains one of the greatest challenges in predicting the environmental fate and transport of Hg. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects mercury methylation due to its influence on cell physiology (as a potential nutrient) and its influence on Hg(II) speciation in solution (as a complexing agent), therefore controlling Hg bioavailability. We assessed the role of DOM on Hg(II) bioavailability to a gram-negative bacterium bioreporter under oxic pseudo- and nonequilibrium conditions, using defined media and field samples spanning a wide range of DOM levels. Our results showed that Hg(II) was considerably more bioavailable under nonequilibrium conditions than when DOM was absent or when Hg(II) and DOM had reached pseudoequilibrium (24 h) prior to cell exposure. Under these enhanced uptake conditions, Hg(II) bioavailability followed a bell shaped curve as DOM concentrations increased, both for defined media and natural water samples, consistent with bioaccumulation results in a companion paper (this issue) observed for amphipods. Experiments also suggest that DOM may not only provide shuttle molecules facilitating Hg uptake, but also alter cell wall properties to facilitate the first steps toward Hg(II) internalization. We propose the existence of a short-lived yet critical time window (<24 h) during which DOM facilitates the entry of newly deposited Hg(II) into aquatic food webs, suggesting that the bulk of mercury incorporation in aquatic food webs would occur within hours following its deposition from the atmosphere. PMID:24524696

  13. Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture.

    PubMed

    Radzki, W; Gutierrez Mañero, F J; Algar, E; Lucas García, J A; García-Villaraco, A; Ramos Solano, B

    2013-09-01

    Iron is one of the essential elements for a proper plant development. Providing plants with an accessible form of iron is crucial when it is scant or unavailable in soils. Chemical chelates are the only current alternative and are highly stable in soils, therefore, posing a threat to drinking water. The aim of this investigation was to quantify siderophores produced by two bacterial strains and to determine if these bacterial siderophores would palliate chlorotic symptoms of iron-starved tomato plants. For this purpose, siderophore production in MM9 medium by two selected bacterial strains was quantified, and the best was used for biological assay. Bacterial culture media free of bacteria (S) and with bacterial cells (BS), both supplemented with Fe were delivered to 12-week-old plants grown under iron starvation in hydroponic conditions; controls with full Hoagland solution, iron-free Hoagland solution and water were also conducted. Treatments were applied twice along the experiment, with a week in between. At harvest, plant yield, chlorophyll content and nutritional status in leaves were measured. Both the bacterial siderophore treatments significantly increased plant yield, chlorophyll and iron content over the positive controls with full Hoagland solution, indicating that siderophores are effective in providing Fe to the plant, either with or without the presence of bacteria. In summary, siderophores from strain Chryseobacterium C138 are effective in supplying Fe to iron-starved tomato plants by the roots, either with or without the presence of bacteria. Based on the amount of siderophores produced, an effective and economically feasible organic Fe chelator could be developed. PMID:23812968

  14. Fractionation mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic wheat: an application for metal accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Huang, Zechun; Xie, Yaning; Chen, Tongbin

    2006-04-15

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were observed through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Middle REE (MREE), light REE (LREE), and heavy REE (HREE) enrichments were found in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, accompanied by the tetrad effect (an effect that can cause a split of REE patterns into four consecutive segments) in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations in wheat were caused by the combined effects of chemical precipitation, cell wall absorption, and solution complexation by organic ligands in the xylem vessels. REE fractionations in wheat, which were derived from the small differences of chemical properties across REE series, may reflect a sensitive internal chemical environment that influences plant accumulation for REEs and their analogues actinide radionuclides. PMID:16683609

  15. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    El-Serehy, Hamed A.; Bahgat, Magdy M.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water. PMID:24955010

  16. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water. PMID:24955010

  17. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions

  18. Bioavailability of xenobiotics in the soil environment.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Arata; Bhula, Raj; Burns, G Richard; Carazo, Elizabeth; Felsot, Allan; Hamilton, Denis; Harris, Caroline; Kim, Yong-Hwa; Kleter, Gijs; Koedel, Werner; Linders, Jan; Peijnenburg, J G M Willie; Sabljic, Aleksandar; Stephenson, R Gerald; Racke, D Kenneth; Rubin, Baruch; Tanaka, Keiji; Unsworth, John; Wauchope, R Donald

    2010-01-01

    It is often presumed that all chemicals in soil are available to microorganisms, plant roots, and soil fauna via dermal exposure. Subsequent bioaccumulation through the food chain may then result in exposure to higher organisms. Using the presumption of total availability, national governments reduce environmental threshold levels of regulated chemicals by increasing guideline safety margins. However, evidence shows that chemical residues in the soil environment are not always bioavailable. Hence, actual chemical exposure levels of biota are much less than concentrations present in soil would suggest. Because "bioavailability" conveys meaning that combines implications of chemical sol persistency, efficacy, and toxicity, insights on the magnitude of a chemicals soil bioavailability is valuable. however, soil bioavailability of chemicals is a complex topic, and is affected by chemical properties, soil properties, species exposed, climate, and interaction processes. In this review, the state-of-art scientific basis for bioavailability is addressed. Key points covered include: definition, factors affecting bioavailability, equations governing key transport and distributive kinetics, and primary methods for estimating bioavailability. Primary transport mechanisms in living organisms, critical to an understanding of bioavailability, also presage the review. Transport of lipophilic chemicals occurs mainly by passive diffusion for all microorganisms, plants, and soil fauna. Therefore, the distribution of a chemical between organisms and soil (bioavailable proportion) follows partition equilibrium theory. However, a chemical's bioavailability does not always follow partition equilibrium theory because of other interactions with soil, such as soil sorption, hysteretic desorption, effects of surfactants in pore water, formation of "bound residue", etc. Bioassays for estimating chemical bioavailability have been introduced with several targeted endpoints: microbial

  19. Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment-a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Cuervo, Diego Paredes; Müller, Jochen A; Wiessner, Arndt; Köser, Heinz; Vymazal, Jan; Kästner, Matthias; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Hydroponic root mats (HRMs) are ecotechnological wastewater treatment systems where aquatic vegetation forms buoyant filters by their dense interwoven roots and rhizomes, sometimes supported by rafts or other floating materials. A preferential hydraulic flow is created in the water zone between the plant root mat and the bottom of the treatment system. When the mat touches the bottom of the water body, such systems can also function as HRM filter; i.e. the hydraulic flow passes directly through the root zone. HRMs have been used for the treatment of various types of polluted water, including domestic wastewater; agricultural effluents; and polluted river, lake, stormwater and groundwater and even acid mine drainage. This article provides an overview on the concept of applying floating HRM and non-floating HRM filters for wastewater treatment. Exemplary performance data are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of this technology are discussed in comparison to those of ponds, free-floating plant and soil-based constructed wetlands. Finally, suggestions are provided on the preferred scope of application of HRMs. PMID:27164889

  20. Effects of silicon and copper on bamboo grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Collin, Blanche; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Keller, Catherine; Panfili, Frédéric; Meunier, Jean-Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Due to its high growth rate and biomass production, bamboo has recently been proven to be useful in wastewater treatment. Bamboo accumulates high silicon (Si) levels in its tissues, which may improve its development and tolerance to metal toxicity. This study investigates the effect of Si supplementation on bamboo growth and copper (Cu) sensitivity. An 8-month hydroponic culture of bamboo Gigantocloa sp. "Malay Dwarf " was performed. The bamboo plants were first submitted to a range of Si supplementation (0-1.5 mM). After 6 months, a potentially toxic Cu concentration of 1.5 μM Cu(2+) was added. Contrary to many studies on other plants, bamboo growth did not depend on Si levels even though it absorbed Si up to 218 mg g(-1) in leaves. The absorption of Cu by bamboo plants was not altered by the Si supplementation; Cu accumulated mainly in roots (131 mg kg(-1)), but was also found in leaves (16.6 mg kg(-1)) and stems (9.8 mg kg(-1)). Copper addition did not induce any toxicity symptoms. The different Cu and Si absorption mechanisms may partially explain why Si did not influence Cu repartition and concentration in bamboo. Given the high biomass and its absorption capacity, bamboo could potentially tolerate and accumulate high Cu concentrations making this plant useful for wastewater treatment. PMID:23608981

  1. A small scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system under Swedish conditions.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Larsdotter, K; Gumaelius, L; la Cour Jansen, J; Dalhammar, G

    2003-01-01

    A treatment plant using conventional biological treatment combined with hydroponics and microalgae is constructed in a greenhouse in the area of Stockholm, Sweden. The treatment plant is built for research purposes and presently treats 0.559 m3 of domestic wastewater from the surrounding area per day. The system uses anoxic pre-denitrification followed by aerobic tanks for nitrification and plant growth. A microalgal step further reduces phosphorus, and a final sand filter polishes the water. During a three week period in July 2002 the treatment capacity of this system was evaluated with respect to removal of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen. 90% COD removal was obtained early in the system. Nitrification and denitrification was well established with total nitrogen reduction of 72%. Phosphorus was removed by 47% in the process. However, higher phosphorus removal values are expected as the microalgal step will be further developed. The results show that acceptable treatment can be achieved using this kind of system. Further optimisation of the system will lead to clean water as well as valuable plants to be harvested from the nutrient rich wastewater. PMID:14753532

  2. Bioavailability and biodistribution of nanodelivered lutein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) to enhance lutein bioavailability. The bioavailability of free lutein and PLGA-NP lutein in rats was assessed by determining plasma pharmacokinetics and deposition in selected tissues. Lutein ...

  3. ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-hydroponics gel electrolytes for zinc-carbon batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, N. H.; Ismail, Y. M. Baba; Mohamad, A. A.

    Absorbency testing is used to determine the percentage of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution absorbed by a hydroponics gel (HPG). It is found that the absorbency of ZnCl 2 or NH 4Cl solution decreases with increasing solution concentration. The conductivity of ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes is dependent on the solution concentration. A mixture of salt solution with HPG yields excellent gel polymer electrolytes with conductivities of 0.026 and 0.104 S cm -1 at 3 M ZnCl 2 and 7 M NH 4Cl, respectively. These gel electrolytes are then used to produce zinc-carbon cells. The fabricated cells give capacities of 8.8 and 10.0 mAh, have an internal resistance of 25.4 and 19.8 Ω, a maximum power density of 12.7 and 12.2 mW cm -2, and a short-circuit current density of 29.1 and 33.9 mA cm -2 for ZnCl 2- and NH 4Cl-HPG electrolytes, respectively.

  4. The Nutraceutical Bioavailability Classification Scheme: Classifying Nutraceuticals According to Factors Limiting their Oral Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Fang; Xiao, Hang

    2015-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of a health-promoting dietary component (nutraceutical) may be limited by various physicochemical and physiological phenomena: liberation from food matrices, solubility in gastrointestinal fluids, interaction with gastrointestinal components, chemical degradation or metabolism, and epithelium cell permeability. Nutraceutical bioavailability can therefore be improved by designing food matrices that control their bioaccessibility (B*), absorption (A*), and transformation (T*) within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This article reviews the major factors influencing the gastrointestinal fate of nutraceuticals, and then uses this information to develop a new scheme to classify the major factors limiting nutraceutical bioavailability: the nutraceutical bioavailability classification scheme (NuBACS). This new scheme is analogous to the biopharmaceutical classification scheme (BCS) used by the pharmaceutical industry to classify drug bioavailability, but it contains additional factors important for understanding nutraceutical bioavailability in foods. The article also highlights potential strategies for increasing the oral bioavailability of nutraceuticals based on their NuBACS designation (B*A*T*). PMID:25705933

  5. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils. PMID:26239443

  6. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-05-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl(2) spiked soils (pH: 4.7-7.4; eCEC: 4.2-41.7 cmol(c)/kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600-6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900-8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb(2+) ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation. PMID:22377902

  7. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of oral theophylline capsules.

    PubMed

    Lesko, L J; Canada, A T; Eastwood, G; Walker, D; Brousseau, D R

    1979-11-01

    The oral bioavailability of liquid-filled theophylline capsules relative to a nonalcoholic aminophylline solution was determined in normal volunteers. In addition, theophylline absorption and elimination kinetics were reexamined. There were no statistically significant differences between the bioavailability of capsules and liquid as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 leads to infinity (p greater than 0.05). The bioavailability parameters of Cmax, tmax, and AUC were determined from actual serum theophylline concentration-time data and from a nonlinear least-squares fit of the serum concentration-time data. Theophylline absorption from the capsules was noticeably faster than from the liquid in most subjects, although the differences in absorption rates were not significantly different (p greater than 0.05). The determined apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and plasma clearance of theophylline were similar to values reported by other investigators. Marked inter- and intraindividual variations in the elimination half-life were noted. PMID:583162

  8. Microemulsion Drug Delivery System: For Bioavailability Enhancement of Ampelopsin

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Sarkar, Brajesh; Dhanwani, Rakesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Ampelopsin, one of the most common flavonoids, reported to possess numerous pharmacological activities and shows poor aqueous solubility. The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate and bioavailability of this drug by developing a novel delivery system that is microemulsion (ME) and to study the effect of microemulsion (ME) on the oral bioavailability of ampelopsin. Capmul MCM-based ME formulation with Cremophor EL as surfactant and Transcutol as cosurfactant was developed for oral delivery of ampelopsin. Optimised ME was evaluated for its transparency, viscosity, percentage assay and so forth. Solubilisation capacity of the ME system was also determined. The prepared ME was compared with the pure drug solution and commercially available tablet for in vitro drug release. The optimised ME formulation containing ampelopsin, Capmul MCM (5.5%), Cremophor EL (25%), Transcutol P (8.5%), and distilled water showed higher in vitro drug release, as compared to plain drug suspension and the suspension of commercially available tablet. These results demonstrate the potential use of ME for improving the bioavailability of poor water soluble compounds, such as ampelopsin. PMID:22830055

  9. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  10. Computer-operated analytical platform for the determination of nutrients in hydroponic systems.

    PubMed

    Rius-Ruiz, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2014-03-15

    Hydroponics is a water, energy, space, and cost efficient system for growing plants in constrained spaces or land exhausted areas. Precise control of hydroponic nutrients is essential for growing healthy plants and producing high yields. In this article we report for the first time on a new computer-operated analytical platform which can be readily used for the determination of essential nutrients in hydroponic growing systems. The liquid-handling system uses inexpensive components (i.e., peristaltic pump and solenoid valves), which are discretely computer-operated to automatically condition, calibrate and clean a multi-probe of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). These ISEs, which are based on carbon nanotubes, offer high portability, robustness and easy maintenance and storage. With this new computer-operated analytical platform we performed automatic measurements of K(+), Ca(2+), NO3(-) and Cl(-) during tomato plants growth in order to assure optimal nutritional uptake and tomato production. PMID:24206690

  11. Understanding Water-Stress Responses in Soybean Using Hydroponics System-A Systems Biology Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shen, Qingxi J; Rushton, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler growing condition like the hydroponics system wherein every input given to the plants can be controlled. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, it is still challenging to address all levels of the genetic machinery whether a gene, protein, metabolite, and promoter. Thus, using a system of reduced complexity like hydroponics can certainly direct us toward the right candidates, if not completely help us to resolve the issue. PMID:26734044

  12. A hydroponic system for growing gnotobiotic vs. sterile plants to study phytoremediation processes.

    PubMed

    Kurzbaum, E; Kirzhner, F; Armon, R

    2014-01-01

    In some phytoremediation studies it is desirable to separate and define the specific contribution of plants and root-colonizing bacteria towards contaminant removal. Separating the influence of plants and associated bacteria is a difficult task for soil root environments. Growing plants hydroponically provides more control over the biological factors in contaminant removal. In this study, a hydroponic system was designed to evaluate the role of sterile plant roots, rhizodeposition, and root-associated bacteria in the removal of a model contaminant, phenol. A strain of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes that grows on phenol was inoculated onto plant roots. The introduced biofilm persisted in the root zone and promoted phenol removal over non-augmented controls. These findings indicate that this hydroponic system can be a valuable tool for phytoremediation studies that investigate the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pollution remediation. PMID:24912223

  13. Understanding Water-Stress Responses in Soybean Using Hydroponics System—A Systems Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Prateek; Rabara, Roel C.; Shulaev, Vladimir; Shen, Qingxi J.; Rushton, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious changes in environmental conditions such as water stress bring physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which results in crop loss. Thus, combating water stress is important for crop improvement to manage the needs of growing population. Utilization of hydroponics system in growing plants is questionable to some researchers, as it does not represent an actual field condition. However, trying to address a complex problem like water stress we have to utilize a simpler growing condition like the hydroponics system wherein every input given to the plants can be controlled. With the advent of high-throughput technologies, it is still challenging to address all levels of the genetic machinery whether a gene, protein, metabolite, and promoter. Thus, using a system of reduced complexity like hydroponics can certainly direct us toward the right candidates, if not completely help us to resolve the issue. PMID:26734044

  14. A corneal perfusion device for estimating ocular bioavailability in vitro.

    PubMed

    Richman, J B; Tang-Liu, D D

    1990-02-01

    An in vitro method for investigating drug penetration across the cornea from acute doses has been developed. The donor (epithelial or tear) side of a corneal chamber similar to those used by Edelhauser and co-workers was modified with a reduced-volume insert so that the donor side volume approximated 6% of the receiver (endothelial or aqueous humor) chamber volume. Fluid was pumped through the anterior chamber to simulate the physiologic tear turnover in vivo. The receiver chamber was bubbled with oxygen:carbon dioxide (95%:5%) to aerate and circulate the fluid. We investigated the in vitro ocular bioavailability of several marketed ophthalmic drug formulations using this model (0.03% flurbiprofen, 0.5% levobunolol, 0.1 and 0.25% fluorometholone, and 1% prednisolone acetate). At 1 min after the dose administration, drug was eluted from the donor chamber at a dose turnover rate of 12%/min. In all experiments, a small percentage of the applied dose penetrated the cornea. Using this chamber device, the ocular bioavailability via corneal absorption ranged between 5 and 16% for solution formulations, whereas the ocular bioavailability for the suspension formulations was less than 0.3%. The major portion of the administered dose was recovered from the donor side effluent. This observation was consistent with findings showing low ocular bioavailability of ophthalmic preparations due to the rapid precorneal washout in vivo. The extent of drug penetrating as its corneal metabolite in the model correlated well to in vitro corneal metabolism rate constants. The new model opens several potentially useful areas of research into ocular absorption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2324964

  15. Hydroponics gel as a new electrolyte gelling agent for alkaline zinc-air cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, R.; Basirun, W. J.; Yahaya, A. H.; Arof, A. K.

    The viability of hydroponics gel as a new alkaline electrolyte gelling agent is investigated. Zinc-air cells are fabricated employing 12 wt.% KOH electrolyte immobilised with hydroponics gel. The cells are discharged at constant currents of 5, 50 and 100 mA. XRD and SEM analysis of the anode plates after discharge show that the failure mode is due to the formation of zinc oxide insulating layers and not due to any side reactions between the gel and the plate or the electrolyte.

  16. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (< 1.0 mM) on nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  17. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation. PMID:26370813

  18. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  19. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    PubMed Central

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  20. Interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients affecting bioavailability: impact on bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2014-12-18

    The aim of the present paper is to illustrate the impact that excipients may have on the bioavailability of drugs and to review existing US-FDA, WHO and EMA regulatory guidelines on this topic. The first examples illustrate that small amounts of sorbitol (7, 50 or 60mg) affect the bioavailability of risperidone, a class I drug, oral solution, in contrast to what is stated in the US-FDA guidance. Another example suggests, in contrast to what is stated in the US-FDA BCS biowaivers guideline, that a small amount of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) (3.64mg) affects the bioavailability of risperidone tablets, although the reference product also includes SLS in an amount within the normal range for that type of dosage form. These factors are considered sufficient to ensure that excipients do not affect bioavailability according to the WHO guideline. The alternative criterion, defined in the WHO guideline and used in the FIP BCS biowaivers monographs, that asserts that excipients present in generic products of the ICH countries do not affect bioavailability if used in normal amounts, is shown to be incorrect with an example of alendronate (a class III drug) tablets, where 4mg of SLS increases bioavailability more than 5-fold, although a generic product in the USA contains SLS. Finally, another example illustrates that a 2mg difference in SLS may affect bioavailability of a generic product of a class II drug, even if SLS is contained in the comparator product, and in all cases its amount was within the normal range. Therefore, waivers of in vivo bioequivalence studies (e.g., BCS biowaivers, waivers of certain dosage forms in solution at the time of administration and variations in the excipient composition) should be assessed more cautiously. PMID:25236823

  1. Bioavailability of heavy metals in soils: definitions and practical implementation--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Rog-Young; Yoon, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Seung; Yang, Jae E; Owens, Gary; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide regulatory frameworks for the assessment and remediation of contaminated soils have moved towards a risk-based approach, taking contaminant bioavailability into consideration. However, there is much debate on the precise definition of bioavailability and on the standardization of methods for the measurement of bioavailability so that it can be reliably applied as a tool for risk assessment. Therefore, in this paper, we reviewed the existing definitions of heavy metal bioavailability in relation to plant uptake (phytoavailability), in order to better understand both the conceptual and operational aspects of bioavailability. The related concepts of specific and non-specific adsorption, as well as complex formation and organic ligand affinity were also intensively discussed to explain the variations of heavy metal solubility and mobility in soils. Further, the most frequently used methods to measure bioavailable metal soil fractions based on both chemical extractions and mechanistic geochemical models were reviewed. For relatively highly mobile metals (Cd, Ni, and Zn), a neutral salt solution such as 0.01 M CaCl2 or 1 M NH4NO3 was recommended, whereas a strong acid or chelating solution such as 0.43 M HNO3 or 0.05 M DTPA was recommended for strongly soil-adsorbed and less mobile metals (Cu, Cr, and Pb). While methods which assessed the free metal ion activity in the pore water such as DGT and DMT or WHAM/Model VI, NICA-Donnan model, and TBLM are advantageous for providing a more direct measure of bioavailability, few of these models have to date been properly validated. PMID:25841357

  2. BIOAVAILABILITY OF HALOACETATES IN HUMAN SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to characterize the absorption, disposition and oral bioavailability of chlorinated and brominated haloacetates in human volunteers after consumption of drinking water containing a natural mixture of these compounds. We hypothesize that accurat...

  3. An experimental set-up to study carbon, water, and nitrate uptake rates by hydroponically grown plants.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, J L; Le Bot, J; Gary, C; Sappe, G; Orlando, P; Brunel, B; Sarrouy, C

    1996-01-01

    The experimental system described allows concomitant hourly measurements of CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by plants grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. Plants are enclosed in an airtight chamber through which air flows at a controlled speed. Carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration rates are determined from respective differences of concentrations of CO2 and water vapor of the air at the system inlet and outlet. This set-up is based on the "open-system" principle with improvements made on existing systems. For instance, propeller anemometers are used to monitor air flow rates in the chamber. From their signal it is possible to continuously adjust air speed to changing environmental conditions and plant activity. The air temperature inside the system therefore never rises above that outside. Water and NO3 uptake rates are calculated at time intervals from changes in the volume and the NO3 concentration of the nutrient solution in contact with the roots. The precise measurement of the volume of solution is achieved using a balance which has a higher precision than any liquid level sensors. Nitrate concentration is determined in the laboratory from aliquots of solution sampled at time intervals. A number of test runs are reported which validate the measurements and confirm undisturbed conditions within the system. Results of typical diurnal changes in CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by fruiting tomato plants are also presented. PMID:11541097

  4. Bioavailability of intramuscularly administered tenoxicam.

    PubMed

    Stebler, T; Guentert, T W

    1993-08-01

    Bioavailability of intramuscularly administered tenoxicam relative to single oral and relative to intravenous doses was determined in two separate randomized crossover studies. Twelve healthy volunteers (12 males, age 20-30 years) received a rapid intravenous injection and a single intramuscular dose and 12 other subjects (11 males, 1 female, age 21-25 years) a single oral and a single intramuscular dose of 20 mg of tenoxicam on two different occasions. The wash-out period between the two consecutive treatments was 4 weeks. Plasma concentrations after dosing were determined by a specific HPLC method. Differences in tenoxicam concentration-time profiles after the different routes of administration were limited to the first 2 h after dosing. Later, plasma concentrations were almost superimposable within and across the two studies. The extent of absorption of intramuscularly administered tenoxicam was complete (mean +/- CV per cent: F(abs) 0.99 +/- 20 per cent) with no difference between the two extravascular administrations (F(rel) 0.95 +/- 10 per cent, intramuscular vs oral). After intramuscular administration tenoxicam was more rapidly absorbed compared to the oral dose (Tmax 0.71 h +/- 80 per cent vs 1.4 h +/- 62 per cent; p > 0.05). Peak concentrations after oral and intramuscular administration (Cmax 2.5 mg l-1 +/- 19 per cent vs 2.7 mg l-1 +/- 14 per cent; p < 0.05) were very similar. PMID:8218966

  5. Biomass accumulation in hydroponically grown sweetpotato in a controlled environment: a preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.; Douglas, D.; David, P.; Mortley, D.; Trotman, A.; Bonsi, C.

    1996-01-01

    In the development of a plant growth model, the assumptions made and the general equations representing an understanding of plant growth are gradually refined as more information is acquired through experimentation. One such experiment that contributed to sweetpotato model development consisted of measuring biomass accumulation of sweetpotato grown in hydroponic culture in a plant growth chamber. Plants were started from fifteen centimeter long 'TU-82-155' sweetpotato vine cuttings spaced 25 cm apart in each of 18 rectangular growing channels (0.15 by 0.15 by 1.2m) in a system designed to use the nutrient film technique (NFT). Each channel contained four plants. The 3.5m by 5.2m plant growth chamber environmental parameters included an 18h photoperiod, 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and a diurnal light/dark temperature of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. The relative humidity was 80 +/- 5% and the CO2 partial pressure was ambient (350 ppm). The nutrient solution contained in 30L reservoirs was a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio and a pH of 6.2. Solution replenishment occurred when the electrical conductivity (EC) level dropped below 1050. Plants were harvested at 15 days after planting (DAP) and weekly thereafter until day 134. By 57 DAP, stems and fibrous roots had acquired 90% of their total dry biomass, while leaves had reached 84% of their maximum dry biomass. Beginning at 64 DAP dry biomass accumulation in the storage roots dominated the increase in dry biomass for the plants. Dry weight of storage roots at 120 DAP was 165 g/plant or 1.1 kg/m2. Resulting growth curves were consistent with the physiological processes occurring in the plant. Results from this study will be incorporated in a plant growth model for use in conjunction with controlled life support systems for long-term manned space missions.

  6. Biomass accumulation in hydroponically grown sweetpotato in a controlled environment: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Douglas, D; David, P; Mortley, D; Trotman, A; Bonsi, C

    1996-12-01

    In the development of a plant growth model, the assumptions made and the general equations representing an understanding of plant growth are gradually refined as more information is acquired through experimentation. One such experiment that contributed to sweetpotato model development consisted of measuring biomass accumulation of sweetpotato grown in hydroponic culture in a plant growth chamber. Plants were started from fifteen centimeter long 'TU-82-155' sweetpotato vine cuttings spaced 25 cm apart in each of 18 rectangular growing channels (0.15 by 0.15 by 1.2m) in a system designed to use the nutrient film technique (NFT). Each channel contained four plants. The 3.5m by 5.2m plant growth chamber environmental parameters included an 18h photoperiod, 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and a diurnal light/dark temperature of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. The relative humidity was 80 +/- 5% and the CO2 partial pressure was ambient (350 ppm). The nutrient solution contained in 30L reservoirs was a modified half Hoagland's solution with a 1:2.4 N:K ratio and a pH of 6.2. Solution replenishment occurred when the electrical conductivity (EC) level dropped below 1050. Plants were harvested at 15 days after planting (DAP) and weekly thereafter until day 134. By 57 DAP, stems and fibrous roots had acquired 90% of their total dry biomass, while leaves had reached 84% of their maximum dry biomass. Beginning at 64 DAP dry biomass accumulation in the storage roots dominated the increase in dry biomass for the plants. Dry weight of storage roots at 120 DAP was 165 g/plant or 1.1 kg/m2. Resulting growth curves were consistent with the physiological processes occurring in the plant. Results from this study will be incorporated in a plant growth model for use in conjunction with controlled life support systems for long-term manned space missions. PMID:11541575

  7. Animal and Environmental Impact on the Presence and Distribution of Salmonella spp. in Hydroponic Tomato Greenhouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 2003 to 2004, we studied the impact of environmental influences on the microbiological quality of a hydroponic tomato farm. The presence of Salmonella was investigated on 906 samples of tomatoes and 714 environmental samples. The farm comprised 14 greenhouses and a technologically advanced pack...

  8. Effects of Phosphorus on Morphology of Hydroponically Grown Scaevola aemula R. Br. "Whirlwind Blue"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The popular hanging basket plant, fan-flower (Scaevola aemula R. Br. ‘Whirlwind Blue’), is cultivated from low phosphorus soils and requires minimal supplemental phosphorus. To accurately evaluate the effects of phosphorus on morphology, fan-flower was grown hydroponically in order to maintain conc...

  9. Proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and hydroponic microgreen production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus) microgreens were produced from seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157: H7 using soil substitute and hydroponic production systems. E. coli populations on the edible and inedible parts of harvested microgreen plants and in growth medium were examined....

  10. EFFECTS OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES ON ATTENUATION OF METALS: BIOAVAILABILITY AND MOBILITY IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humic substances play vastly important roles in metal behavior in a wide variety of environments. They can affect the mobility and bioavailability of metals by binding and sequestration thereby decreasing the mobility of a metal. They can also transport metals into solution or ...

  11. Atorvastatin solid dispersion for bioavailability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin; Fazil, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium is a lipid-lowering agent. It has approximately 15% of bioavailability, remaining amount of drug showed adverse effect which is undesirable for patients. The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility and a dissolution profile of the atorvastatin (AT) calcium. Solid dispersion (SD) is a technique which enhances the solubility and a dissolution profile of poorly soluble drug. Various methods are being used for SDs such as microwave irradiation fusion, kneading, solvent evaporation, fusion, and dropping method. The authors have used here conventional fusion method using PEG 4000 as a hydrophilic carrier. The solubility of pure drug, physical mixture using PEG 4000 (1:3), and SD in phosphate buffer solutions (pH 6.8) was found to be 55.33 ± 0.66, 81.89 ± 2.35, and 93.66 ± 1.35, respectively. Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry study showed the significant peak shift of drug in SD. It indicated that the nature of drug had been changed from crystalline form to amorphous form due to conversion into SD formulation. The dissolution rate was significantly increased when the drug polyethylene glycol 4000 ratio was 1:3. The mean cumulative percentage drugs release from pure drug, physical mixture, marketed tablet, and SD at 1 h was 28.92 ± 1.66%, 55.26 ± 0.95%, 72.16 ± 1.33%, and 91.66 ± 1.65%, respectively. It was concluded that the solubility and dissolution profile of SD of AT calcium showed the enhancement of solubility and dissolution when compared with marketed preparations. PMID:26955607

  12. Atorvastatin solid dispersion for bioavailability enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin; Fazil, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin calcium is a lipid-lowering agent. It has approximately 15% of bioavailability, remaining amount of drug showed adverse effect which is undesirable for patients. The objective of the study was to enhance the solubility and a dissolution profile of the atorvastatin (AT) calcium. Solid dispersion (SD) is a technique which enhances the solubility and a dissolution profile of poorly soluble drug. Various methods are being used for SDs such as microwave irradiation fusion, kneading, solvent evaporation, fusion, and dropping method. The authors have used here conventional fusion method using PEG 4000 as a hydrophilic carrier. The solubility of pure drug, physical mixture using PEG 4000 (1:3), and SD in phosphate buffer solutions (pH 6.8) was found to be 55.33 ± 0.66, 81.89 ± 2.35, and 93.66 ± 1.35, respectively. Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry study showed the significant peak shift of drug in SD. It indicated that the nature of drug had been changed from crystalline form to amorphous form due to conversion into SD formulation. The dissolution rate was significantly increased when the drug polyethylene glycol 4000 ratio was 1:3. The mean cumulative percentage drugs release from pure drug, physical mixture, marketed tablet, and SD at 1 h was 28.92 ± 1.66%, 55.26 ± 0.95%, 72.16 ± 1.33%, and 91.66 ± 1.65%, respectively. It was concluded that the solubility and dissolution profile of SD of AT calcium showed the enhancement of solubility and dissolution when compared with marketed preparations. PMID:26955607

  13. Comparison of partial extraction reagents for assessing potential bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Kinaev, Irina; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-05-15

    Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in sediments is complex because of the number of partial extraction methods available for the assessment and the general lack of certified reference materials. This study evaluates five different extraction methodologies to ascertain the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method. The results are then compared to previously published work to ascertain the most effective partial extraction technique, which was established to dilute (0.75-1M) nitric acid solutions. These results imply that single reagent; weak acid extractions provide a better assessment of potentially bioavailable metals than the chelating agents used in sequential extraction methods. PMID:27036084

  14. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects.

    PubMed

    Brglez Mojzer, Eva; Knez Hrnčič, Maša; Škerget, Mojca; Knez, Željko; Bren, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity. PMID:27409600

  15. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-03-05

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

  16. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Cubadda, Francesco; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg(-1)) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25917693

  17. Study of the microbial dynamics in the root environment of closed, hydroponic cultivation systems for tomato using phospholipid fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Waechter-Kristensen, B; Khalil, S; Sundin, P; Englund, J E; Gertsson, U E; Jensen, P

    1996-12-01

    A more basic understanding of the microbial dynamics of closed, hydroponic cultivation systems is needed. We therefore initiated a study of the microbial community inhabiting the root environment, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, and started to examine whether changes in the microbial population structure would result from the introduction of selected isolates of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Tomato were cultured in deep-flow systems with circulating nutrient solution. Bacteria were sampled from tomato roots at three locations, longitudinally, in the gutters of a control system and in two systems inoculated with PGPR. In the beginning of the gutters the PLFA profiles were similar in all systems, whereas the profiles differed in the gutter ends (following the direction of flow). In the control system, and in a treatment inoculated with two Gram-negative and one Gram-positive PGPR strain, the relative proportion of PLFAs characteristic to Gram-positive bacteria was highest at the end of the gutter. In a treatment inoculated only with a Gram-negative PGPR strain, the relative proportion of PLFAs characteristic of Gram-negative bacteria was highest at the end of the gutter. The results indicate a complex situation with different micro-environments distributed along the root mat. It can also be concluded that PLFA profiles may be useful tools in the study of the microbiology of closed hydroponic plant cultivation systems. PMID:11541571

  18. Quantifying Carbon Bioavailability in Northeast Siberian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, J.; Chandra, S.; Sobczak, W. V.; Spektor, V.; Davydova, A.; Holmes, R. M.; Bulygina, E. B.; Schade, J. D.; Frey, K. E.; Bunn, A. G.; Walter Anthony, K.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.

    2010-12-01

    Soils in Northeast Siberia, particularly carbon-rich yedoma (Pleistocene permafrost) soils, have the potential to release large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane due to permafrost thaw and thermokarst activity. In order to quantify the amount of carbon release potential in these soils, it is important to understand carbon bioavailability for microbial consumption in the permafrost. In this study we measured amounts of bioavailable soil carbon across five locations in the Kolyma River Basin, NE Siberia. At each location, we sampled four horizons (top active layer, bottom active layer, Holocene optimum permafrost, and Pleistocene permafrost) and conducted soil extracts for each sample. Filtered and unfiltered extracts were used in biological oxygen demand experiments to determine the dissolved and particulate bioavailable carbon potential for consumption in the soil. Concentrations of bioavailable carbon were 102-608 mg C/kg dry soil for filtered extracts and 115-703 mg C/kg dry soil for unfiltered extracts. Concentrations of carbon respired per gram of dry soil were roughly equal for both the DOC and POC extracts (P<0.001), suggesting that bioavailable soil carbon is predominately in the dissolved form or the presence of an additional unknown limitation preventing organisms from utilizing carbon in the particulate form. Concentrations of bioavailable carbon were similar across the different sampling locations but differed among horizons. The top active layer (102-703 mg C/kg dry soil), Holocene optimum permafrost (193-481 mg C/kg dry soil), and Pleistocene permafrost (151-589 mg C/kg dry soil) horizons had the highest amounts of bioavailable carbon, and the bottom active layer (115-179 mg C/kg dry soil) horizon had the lowest amounts. For comparison, ice wedges had bioavailable carbon concentrations of 23.0 mg C/L and yedoma runoff from Duvyanni Yar had concentrations of 306 mg C/L. Pleistocene permafrost soils had similar concentrations of bioavailable carbon

  19. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  20. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  1. Role of entrained droplet oil on the bioavailability of petroleum substances in aqueous exposures.

    PubMed

    Redman, A D

    2015-08-15

    Bioavailability of petroleum substances is a complex issue that is affected by substance composition, the physicochemical properties of the individual constituents, and the exposure preparation system. The present study applies mechanistic fate and effects models to characterize the role of droplet oil on dissolved exposure and predicted effects from both neat and weathered crude oils, and refined fuel oils. The main effect from droplet oil is input of additional dissolved hydrocarbons to the exposure system following preparation of the initial stock solution. Toxicity was characterized using toxic units (TU) and shows that replenishment of bioavailable hydrocarbons by droplets in toxicity tests with low droplet content (e.g., <1mg/L) is negligible, consistent with typical exposure conditions following open ocean oil spills. Further, the use of volumetric exposure metrics (e.g., mg/L) introduces considerable variability and the bioavailability-based metrics (e.g., TUs) provide a more consistent basis for understanding oil toxicity data. PMID:26072047

  2. Influence of Dissolved Organic Matter on Tetracycline Bioavailability to an Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zeyou; Zhang, Yingjie; Gao, Yanzheng; Boyd, Stephen A; Zhu, Dongqiang; Li, Hui

    2015-09-15

    Complexation of tetracycline with dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aqueous solution could alter the bioavailability of tetracycline to bacteria, thereby alleviating selective pressure for development of antibiotic resistance. In this study, an Escherichia coli whole-cell bioreporter construct with antibiotic resistance genes coupled to green fluorescence protein was exposed to tetracycline in the presence of DOM derived from humic acids. Complexation between tetracycline and DOM diminished tetracycline bioavailability to E. coli, as indicated by reduced expression of antibiotic resistance genes. Increasing DOM concentration resulted in decreasing bioavailability of tetracycline to the bioreporter. Freely dissolved tetracycline (not complexed with DOM) was identified as the major fraction responsible for the rate and magnitude of antibiotic resistance genes expressed. Furthermore, adsorption of DOM on bacterial cell surfaces inhibited tetracycline diffusion into the bioreporter cells. The magnitude of the inhibition was related to the amount of DOM adsorbed and tetracycline affinity for the DOM. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which the bioavailability of tetracycline antibiotics to bacteria is reduced by DOM present in water. Agricultural lands receiving livestock manures commonly have elevated levels of both DOM and antibiotics; the DOM could suppress the bioavailability of antibiotics, hence reducing selective pressure on bacteria for development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26370618

  3. Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Nonionic Surfactant Vesicles (Niosomes) for Oral Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Kamboj, Sunil; Saini, Vipin; Bala, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Nonionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes) were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an anti-HIV drug. Niosomes were formulated by conventional thin film hydration technique with different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol, and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found spherical in shape, ranging from 2.95 μm to 10.91 μm in size. Vesicles with 1 : 1 : 0.1 ratios of surfactant : cholesterol : dicetyl phosphate with each grade of span were found to have higher entrapment efficiencies, which were further selected for in vitro and in vivo studies. Vesicles formulated with sorbitan monostearate were found to have maximum drug release (99.091%) at the end of 24 hours and followed zero order release kinetics. The results of in vivo study revealed that the niosomes significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of TDF in rats after a dose of 95 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability of niosomes in relation to plane drug solution was found to be 2.58, indicating more than twofold increase in oral bioavailability of TDF. Significant increase in mean residential time (MRT) was also found, reflecting release retarding efficacy of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery for TDF with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles. PMID:24672401

  4. Concentrations and bioavailability of cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and related products.

    PubMed

    Mounicou, S; Szpunar, J; Andrey, D; Blake, C; Lobinski, R

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in cocoa powders and related products (beans, liquor, butter) of different geographical origins. Particular attention was paid to the fractionation of these metals, which was investigated by determining the metal fraction soluble in extractant solutions acting selectively with regard to the different classes of ligands. The targeted classes of Cd and Pb species included: water-soluble compounds, polypeptide and polysaccharide complexes, and compounds soluble in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The bioavailability of Cd and Pb from cocoa powder, liquor and butter was evaluated using a sequential enzymolysis approach. The data obtained as a function of the geographical origin of the samples indicated strong differences not only in terms of the total Cd and Pb concentrations, but also with regard to the bioavailability of these metals. The Cd concentrations in the cocoa powders varied from 94 to 1833 microg kg(-1), of which 10-50% was potentially bioavailable. The bioavailability of Pb was generally below 10% and the concentrations measured in the cocoa powders were in the 11-769 microg kg(-1) range. Virtually all the Cd and most of Pb were found in the cocoa powder after the pressing of the liquor. PMID:12775476

  5. Bioavailability of Polyphenol Liposomes: A Challenge Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mignet, Nathalie; Seguin, Johanne; Chabot, Guy G.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including flavonoids, have long been recognized as a source of important molecules involved in the prevention of several diseases, including cancer. However, because of their poor bioavailability, polyphenols remain difficult to be employed clinically. Over the past few years, a renewed interest has been devoted to the use of liposomes as carriers aimed at increasing the bioavailability and, hence, the therapeutic benefits of polyphenols. In this paper, we review the causes of the poor bioavailability of polyphenols and concentrate on their liposomal formulations, which offer a means of improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The problems linked to their development and their potential therapeutic advantages are reviewed. Future directions for liposomal polyphenol development are suggested. PMID:24300518

  6. Nutrient uptake of ornamental plants exposed to arsenic in hydroponic solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic-based agro-chemicals have contaminated considerable acreage on turf-farms, orchards, and around horticultural production structures. A study was undertaken to evaluate iris (Iris virginica), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Tithonia rotundiflora, Coreopsis lanceolata, Sunflower (Helianthus an...

  7. DELAY OF EXPRESSION OF POWDERY MILDEW ON ZINNIA GROWN HYDROPONICALLY IN HOAGLAND'S SOLUTION FORTIFIED WITH SILICON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum, is one of the most common foliar diseases that occur in greenhouse bedding plant production. Although powdery mildews are somewhat host specific, E. cichoracearum is reported to have a wide host range which includes the commonly grown be...

  8. Bioavailability of gold nanomaterials to plants: importance of particle size and surface coating.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jonathan D; Unrine, Jason M; Rao, William; Wirick, Sue; Bertsch, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    We used the model organisms Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi (tobacco) and Triticum aestivum (wheat) to investigate plant uptake of 10-, 30-, and 50-nm diameter Au manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) coated with either tannate (T-MNMs) or citrate (C-MNMs). Primary particle size, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and electrophoretic mobility measurements, respectively. Plants were exposed to NPs hydroponically for 3 or 7 days for wheat and tobacco, respectively. Volume averaged Au concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Spatial distribution of Au in tissue samples was determined using laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) and scanning X-ray fluorescence microscopy (μXRF). Both C-MNMs and T-MNMs of each size treatment bioaccumulated in tobacco, but no bioaccumulation of MNMs was observed for any treatment in wheat. These results indicate that MNMs of a wide range of size and with different surface chemistries are bioavailable to plants, provide mechanistic information regarding the role of cell wall pores in plant uptake of MNMs, and raise questions about the importance of plant species to MNM bioaccumulation. PMID:22784043

  9. Advances in Computationally Modeling Human Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  10. Advances in computationally modeling human oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Hou, Tingjun

    2015-06-23

    Although significant progress has been made in experimental high throughput screening (HTS) of ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) and pharmacokinetic properties, the ADME and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) in silico modeling is still indispensable in drug discovery as it can guide us to wisely select drug candidates prior to expensive ADME screenings and clinical trials. Compared to other ADME-Tox properties, human oral bioavailability (HOBA) is particularly important but extremely difficult to predict. In this paper, the advances in human oral bioavailability modeling will be reviewed. Moreover, our deep insight on how to construct more accurate and reliable HOBA QSAR and classification models will also discussed. PMID:25582307

  11. Bioavailability of Metal Ions and Evolutionary Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hong Enriquez, Rolando P.; Do, Trang N.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been a long process that began nearly 3.5 × 109 years ago. In their initial moments, evolution was mainly influenced by anaerobic environments; with the rise of O2 and the corresponding change in bioavailability of metal ions, new mechanisms of survival were created. Here we review the relationships between ancient atmospheric conditions, metal ion bioavailability and adaptation of metals homeostasis during early evolution. A general picture linking geochemistry, biochemistry and homeostasis is supported by the reviewed literature and is further illustrated in this report using simple database searches. PMID:25371266

  12. Chemistry, stability and bioavailability of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francioso, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Masci, Alessandra; d'Erme, Maria; Mosca, Luciana

    2014-05-01

    Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenol found in many vegetables. It is well known for its multiple pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects. In vitro evidence of resveratrol efficacy is widespread, however, many concerns regarding its effectiveness in vivo arise from its poor stability in vitro and bioavailability following oral ingestion. This review focuses on the in vitro stability, with special focus on the photochemical stability of resveratrol, and on the therapeutic perspectives of this molecule due to its low bioavailability. PMID:24329932

  13. Bioavailability of Plant-Derived Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Abourashed, Ehab A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products with antioxidant properties have been extensively utilized in the pharmaceutical and food industry and have also been very popular as health-promoting herbal products. This review provides a summary of the literature published around the first decade of the 21st century regarding the oral bioavailability of carotenoids, polyphenols and sulfur compounds as the three major classes of plant-derived antioxidants. The reviewed original research includes more than 40 compounds belonging to the above mentioned classes of natural antioxidants. In addition, related reviews published during the same period have been cited. A brief introduction to general bioavailability-related definitions, procedures and considerations is also included. PMID:26784467

  14. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. Results We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. Conclusions The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes. PMID:24649917

  15. Mouse Assay for Determination of Arsenic Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Accurate assessment of human exposure estimates from arsenic-contaminated soils depends upon estimating arsenic (As) soil bioavailability. Development of bioavailability assays provides data needed for human health risk assessments and supports development and valida...

  16. Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: Do they correlate?

    PubMed Central

    Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Hatley, Oliver J.D.; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. PMID:23988844

  17. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga T; McInturf, Samuel A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G

    2016-01-01

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements. PMID:27500800

  18. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi origining from a zinc/lead mining site - a hydroponics experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Siliang; Wang, Fengping; Ru, Mei; Ni, Wuzhong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to investigate the characteristics of Cd tolerance and accumulation of Elsholtzia argyi natively growing on the soil with high levels of heavy metals in a Zn/Pb mining site. Seedlings of E. argyi grown for 4 weeks and then were treated with 0(CK), 5,10,15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50,100 umM Cd for 21 days. Each treatment had three replications. No visual toxic symptoms on shoots of E. argyi were observed at Cd level < or = 50 muM. The results indicated that the dry biomass of each tissue and the whole plants of the treatments with < or =40 umM cadmium were similar to that of the control, implying that E. argyi was a cadmium tolerant plant. The results also showed that the shoot Cd concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased with the increase in the Cd level in nutrient solution. The shoot Cd concentration of the treatment with 40 umM Cd was as high as 237.9 mg kg(-1), which was higher than 100 mg kg(-1), normally used as the threshold concentration for identifying the Cd hyperaccumulating plant. It could be concluded that E. argyi was a Cd tolerant and accumulating plant species. PMID:24933916

  19. Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on water and acid requirements of soybeans grown in a recirculating hydroponic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Lowery, W.; Sager, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Establishing mass budgets of various crop needs, i.e. water and nutrients, in different environments is essential for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The effects of CO2 (500 and 1000 umol mol (exp -1)) on water and acid use (for pH control) by soybeans in a recirculating hydroponic system were examined. Plants of cvs. McCall and Pixie were grown for 90 days using the nutrient film technique (NFT) and a nitrate based nutrient solution. System acid use for both CO2 levels peaked near 4 weeks during a phase of rapid vegetative growth, but acid use decreased more rapidly under 500 compared to 1000 umol mol (exp GR) CO2. Total system water use by 500 and 1000 umol mol (exp -1) plants was similar, leaving off at 5 weeks and declining as plants senesced (ca. 9 weeks). However, single leaf transpiration rates were consistently lower at 1000 umol mol (exp -1). The data suggest that high CO2 concentrations increase system acid (and nutrient) use because of increased vegetative growth, which in turn negates the benefit of reduced water use (lower transpiration rates) per unit leaf area.

  20. Development and bioavailability assessment of ramipril nanoemulsion formulation.

    PubMed

    Shafiq, Sheikh; Shakeel, Faiyaz; Talegaonkar, Sushma; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khar, Roop K; Ali, Mushir

    2007-05-01

    The objective of our investigation was to design a thermodynamically stable and dilutable nanoemulsion formulation of Ramipril, with minimum surfactant concentration that could improve its solubility, stability and oral bioavailability. Formulations were taken from the o/w nanoemulsion region of phase diagrams, which were subjected to thermodynamic stability and dispersibility tests. The composition of optimized formulation was Sefsol 218 (20% w/w), Tween 80 (18% w/w), Carbitol (18% w/w) and standard buffer solution pH 5 (44% w/w) as oil, surfactant, cosurfactant and aqueous phase, respectively, containing 5 mg of ramipril showing drug release (95%), droplet size (80.9 nm), polydispersity (0.271), viscosity (10.68 cP), and infinite dilution capability. In vitro drug release of the nanoemulsion formulations was highly significant (p<0.01) as compared to marketed capsule formulation and drug suspension. The relative bioavailability of ramipril nanoemulsion to that of conventional capsule form was found to be 229.62% whereas to that of drug suspension was 539.49%. The present study revealed that ramipril nanoemulsion could be used as a liquid formulation for pediatric and geriatric patients and can be formulated as self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) as a unit dosage form. PMID:17127045

  1. Iron bioavailability to phytoplankton: an empirical approach

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Hagar; Shaked, Yeala; Kranzler, Chana; Keren, Nir; Morel, François M M

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton are often limited by iron in aquatic environments. Here we examine Fe bioavailability to phytoplankton by analyzing iron uptake from various Fe substrates by several species of phytoplankton grown under conditions of Fe limitation and comparing the measured uptake rate constants (Fe uptake rate/ substrate concentration). When unchelated iron, Fe′, buffered by an excess of the chelating agent EDTA is used as the Fe substrate, the uptake rate constants of all the eukaryotic phytoplankton species are tightly correlated and proportional to their respective surface areas (S.A.). The same is true when FeDFB is the substrate, but the corresponding uptake constants are one thousand times smaller than for Fe′. The uptake rate constants for the other substrates we examined fall mostly between the values for Fe′ and FeDFB for the same S.A. These two model substrates thus empirically define a bioavailability envelope with Fe′ at the upper and FeDFB at the lower limit of iron bioavailability. This envelope provides a convenient framework to compare the relative bioavailabilities of various Fe substrates to eukaryotic phytoplankton and the Fe uptake abilities of different phytoplankton species. Compared with eukaryotic species, cyanobacteria have similar uptake constants for Fe′ but lower ones for FeDFB. The unique relationship between the uptake rate constants and the S.A. of phytoplankton species suggests that the uptake rate constant of Fe-limited phytoplankton has reached a universal upper limit and provides insight into the underlying uptake mechanism. PMID:25350155

  2. Bioavailability and Bioequivalence in Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shein-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Bioavailability is referred to as the extent and rate to which the active drug ingredient or active moiety from the drug product is absorbed and becomes available at the site of drug action. The relative bioavailability in terms of the rate and extent of drug absorption is considered predictive of clinical outcomes. In 1984, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was authorized to approve generic drug products under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act based on evidence of average bioequivalence in drug absorption through the conduct of bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. This article provides an overview (from an American point of view) of definition of bioavailability and bioequivalence, Fundamental Bioequivalence Assumption, regulatory requirements, and process for bioequivalence assessment of generic drug products. Basic considerations including criteria, study design, power analysis for sample size determination, and the conduct of bioequivalence trial, and statistical methods are provided. Practical issues such as one size-fits-all criterion, drug interchangeability and scaled average criteria for assessment of highly variable drug products are also discussed. PMID:25215170

  3. Enhanced bioavailability of opiates after intratracheal administration

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, J.W.A.; Jones, E.C.; McNulty, M.J.

    1986-03-01

    Several opiate analgesics have low oral bioavailabilities in the dog because of presystemic metabolism. Intratracheal administration may circumvent this first-pass effect. Three anesthetized beagles received 5-mg/kg doses of codeine phosphate intratracheally (i.t.), orally (p.o.) and intravenously (i.v.) in a crossover study. The following drugs were also studied in similar experiments: ethylmorphine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), pholcodine bitartrate (10 mg/kg, hydrocodone bitartrate (4 mg/kg) and morphine sulfate (2.5 mg/kg). Plasma drug concentrations over the 24- to 48-hr periods after drug administrations were determined by radioimmunoassays. I.t. bioavailabilities (codeine (84%), ethylmorphine (100%), and morphine (87%)) of drugs with poor oral availabilities were all markedly higher than the corresponding oral values (14, 26, and 23%, respectively). I.t. bioavailabilities of pholcodine (93%) and hydrocodone (92%), which have good oral availabilities (74 and 79%, respectively), were also enhanced. In all cases, peak plasma concentrations occurred more rapidly after i.t. (0.08-0.17 hr) than after oral (0.5-2 hr) dosing and i.t. disposition often resembled i.v. kinetics. I.t. administration may be a valuable alternative dosing route, providing rapid onset of pharmacological activity for potent drugs with poor oral bioavailability.

  4. BIOAVAILABILITY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Before a chemical can elicit toxicity, the animal must accumulate a dose at a target tissue of sufficient magnitude to produce a response. Bioavailability refers to the degree to which this accumulation occurs relative to the amount of chemical present in the environment, and is ...

  5. 21 CFR 320.38 - Retention of bioavailability samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.38 Retention of bioavailability samples... standard used to conduct an in vivo bioequivalence study comparing the test article to the...

  6. 21 CFR 320.38 - Retention of bioavailability samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products § 320.38 Retention of bioavailability samples... standard used to conduct an in vivo bioequivalence study comparing the test article to the...

  7. Effect of pomegranate pretreatment on the oral bioavailability of buspirone in male albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shravan Kumar, Y.; Adukondalu, D.; Bhargavi Latha, A.; Vamshi Vishnu, Y.; Ramesh, G.; Shiva Kumar, R.; Sarangapani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Many drug substances and variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components are capable of interaction with the CYP enzyme system. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pretreatment on the bioavailability of buspirone in rabbits. Methods White New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.1±0.13 Kg were selected for study. The bioavailability of buspirone after pre-treatment with pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg−1 for seven days) was compared with an oral solution of 10 mg kg−1 of buspirone in distilled water. Animals were allowed free access to food and water, until night prior to dosing and were fasted for 10 hrs. In the first phase oral solution (10 mg kg−1) was administered through feeding tube followed by rinsing with 10 ml of water. In the second phase, the group was pretreated with pomegranate juice for 7 days and study was conducted after 15 days of washout period. Results and conclusion The results showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in the bioavailability of buspirone after pre-treatment with pomegranate juice.This increase in bioavailability might be due to inhibition of CYP3A4. Further studies are required to prove this mechanism in humans. PMID:22615667

  8. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Turner, Michael R.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after sc administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyper-osmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as our animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and, O-Phospho-L-Serine (OPLS) on plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after sc administration. We observed an increase in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, as compared to isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph node in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatic, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05 % in isotonic buffer to 13% in hyper-tonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. Our data suggests that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option to improve sc bioavailability. PMID:25377184

  9. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  10. The sensitivity of an hydroponic lettuce root elongation bioassay to metals, phenol and wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihae; Yoon, Jeong-hyun; Depuydt, Stephen; Oh, Jung-Woo; Jo, Youn-min; Kim, Kyungtae; Brown, Murray T; Han, Taejun

    2016-04-01

    The root elongation bioassay is one of the most straightforward test methods used for environmental monitoring in terms of simplicity, rapidity and economy since it merely requires filter paper, distilled water and Petri dishes. However, filter paper as a support material is known to be problematic as it can reduce the sensitivity of the test. The newly developed hydroponic method reported here differs from the conventional root elongation method (US EPA filter paper method) in that no support material is used and the exposure time is shorter (48 h in this test versus 120 h in the US EPA test). For metals, the hydroponic test method was 3.3 (for Hg) to 57 (for Cu) times more sensitive than the US EPA method with the rank orders of sensitivity, estimated from EC50 values, being Cu≥Cd>Ni≥Zn≥Hg for the former and Hg≥Cu≥Ni≥Cd≥Zn for the latter methods. For phenol, the results did not differ significantly; EC50 values were 124 mg L(-1) and 108-180 mg L(-1) for the hydroponic and filter paper methods, respectively. Lettuce was less sensitive than daphnids to wastewaters, but the root elongation response appears to be wastewater-specific and is especially sensitive for detecting the presence of fluorine. The new hydroponic test thus provides many practical advantages, especially in terms of cost and time-effectiveness requiring only a well plate, a small volume of distilled water and short exposure period; furthermore, no specialist expertise is required. The method is simpler than the conventional EPA technique in not using filter paper which can influence the sensitivity of the test. Additionally, plant seeds have a long shelf-life and require little or no maintenance. PMID:26748376