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1

Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages this program, which explores and develops technology to improve current hydropower resources. Although hydroelectric generation systems produce far fewer harmful emissions than other options, they can have a detrimental effect to downstream water quality. Fish are very susceptible to injury or death from turbine systems. Several reports from the Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program, addressing these issues and documenting research into possible solutions, are available from this site. One of the most interesting projects of the program is the Sensor Fish. This device is used "to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes."

2002-01-01

2

21st century advanced hydropower turbine system  

SciTech Connect

While hydropower turbine manufacturers have incrementally improved turbine technology to increase efficiency, the basic design concepts haven`t changed for decades. These late 19th and early 20th century designs did not consider environmental effects, since little was known about environmental effects of hydropower at the time. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the hydropower industry recognize that hydropower plants have an effect on the environment and there is a great need to bring turbine designs into the 21st century. DOE has issued a request for proposals (RFP) that requested proposers to discard conventional thinking, search out innovative solutions, and to visualize innovative turbines designed from a new perspective. This perspective would look at the {open_quotes}turbine system{close_quotes} (intake to tailrace) which will balance environmental, technical, and economic considerations. This paper describes the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program.

Brookshier, P.A.; Flynn, J.V.; Loose, R.R.

1995-11-01

3

Small-Scale Hydropower Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers several aspects of small-scale hydropower systems. The topics covered are: head and flow; waterwheels; impulse and reaction turbines; feasibility and practicality; environmental impact; and economics. 24 refs., 5 figs. (ERA citation 14:...

1988-01-01

4

Optimality with hydropower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies an electricity producer's long-term optimality in the case of a multireservoir hydropower system. The model solves the optimal production process and trading strategy of electricity and weather derivatives by maximizing the utility from production and terminal water reservoir level. The optimal trading strategy hedges the rainfall and electricity price uncertainties.

Jussi Keppo

2002-01-01

5

Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

2012-11-01

6

A study of a turbine-generator system for low-head hydropower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is outlined for determining the optimum operating conditions of a turbine-generator unit installed across a low-head irrigation structure for electrical power generation. For a given regulator's characteristic, the unit's rated power and design parameters are determined such that its cost-benefit ratio is minimum. The economical feasibility of the microhydro plant is studied by comparing its life-time cost to

R. R. Mankbadi; S. Mikhail

1985-01-01

7

A study of a turbine-generator system for low-head hydropower  

SciTech Connect

A method is outlined for determining the optimum operating conditions of a turbine-generator unit installed across a low-head irrigation structure for electrical power generation. For a given regulator's characteristic, the unit's rated power and design parameters are determined such that its cost-benefit ratio is minimum. The economical feasibility of the microhydro plant is studied by comparing its life-time cost to its lifetime benefit. The benefit is determined by the cost of the corresponding energy generated through a dieseldriven generator set. The microhydro plant was found to be economically feasible over a wide range of inflation and interest rates.

Mankbadi, R.R.; Mikhail, S.

1985-03-01

8

Hydropower plant models: water supply system, turbine and governor. Model validation: on site tests and grid fault simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several tests were conducted at Futaleufú hydropower plant to improve plant related models because studies carried out in the past did not predict the power plant behaviour during grid faults. New models were used to reproduce Futaleufú power plant behaviour during a grid fault happened on December 14, 2006.

J. Agüero; B. Barbieri; R. Bianchi; J. Mastronardi; R. Molina

9

Study of hydraulic transients in hydropower plants through simulation of nonlinear model of penstock and hydraulic turbine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of hydraulic transients in hydropower plants specifically in hydraulic turbine units, with penstock, spiral case and draft tube-is necessary due to power and frequency oscillations which normally occur in generator units, mainly during load rejections. In turn, this causes large pressure and subpressure oscillations in turbine hydraulic systems and must be evaluated to avoid mechanical failures. In this context,

N. Barbieri; A. H. M. Santos

1999-01-01

10

Fish behavior in relation to modeling fish passage through hydropower turbines: A review  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated the literature on fish behavior as it relates to passage of fish near or through hydropower turbines. The goal was to foster compatibility of engineered systems with the normal behavior patterns of fish species and life stages such that entrainment into turbines and injury in passage are minimized. We focused on aspects of fish behavior that could be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of fish trajectories through turbine systems. Downstream-migrating salmon smolts are generally surface oriented and follow flow. Smolts orient to the ceilings of turbine intakes but are horizontally distributed more evenly, except as affected by intake-specific turbulence and vortices. Smolts often enter intakes oriented head-upstream. Non-salmonids are entrained episodically, suggesting accidental capture of schools (often of juveniles or in cold water) and little behavioral control during turbine passage. Models of fish trajectories should not assume neutral buoyancy throughout the time a fish passes through a turbine, largely because of pressure effects on swim bladders. Fish use their lateral line system to sense obstacles and change their orientation, but this sensory-response system may not be effective in the rapid passage times of turbine systems. A Effects of pre-existing stress levels on fish performance in turbine passage are not well known but may be important. There are practical limits of observation and measurement of fish and flows in the proximity of turbine runners that may inhibit development of information germane to developing a more fish-friendly turbine. We provide recommendations for CFD modelers of fish passage and for additional research. 20 refs., 2 figs.

Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Whitney, R.R.

1997-06-01

11

EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally- Enhanced Hydropower Turbines: Technical Papers  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI-DOE Conference on Environmentally-Enhanced Hydropower Turbines was a component of a larger project. The goal of the overall project was to conduct the final developmental engineering required to advance the commercialization of the Alden turbine. As part of this effort, the conference provided a venue to disseminate information on the status of the Alden turbine technology as well as the status of other advanced turbines and research on environmentally-friendly hydropower turbines. The conference was also a product of a federal Memorandum of Understanding among DOE, USBR, and USACE to share technical information on hydropower. The conference was held in Washington, DC on May 19 and 20, 2011 and welcomed over 100 attendees. The Conference Organizing Committee included the federal agencies with a vested interest in hydropower in the U.S. The Committee collaboratively assembled this conference, including topics from each facet of the environmentally-friendly conventional hydropower research community. The conference was successful in illustrating the readiness of environmentally-enhanced hydropower technologies. Furthermore, the topics presented illustrated the need for additional deployment and field testing of these technologies in an effort to promote the growth of environmentally sustainable hydropower in the U.S. and around the world

None

2011-12-01

12

Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the recent and planned R&D activities across the U.S. related to survival of fish entrained in hydroelectric turbines. In this report, we have considered studies that are intended to develop new information that can be used to mitigate turbine-passage mortality. This review focuses on the effects on fish of physical or operational modifications to turbines, comparisons to survival in other downstream passage routes (e.g., bypass systems and spillways), and applications of new modeling, experimental, and technological approaches to develop a greater understanding of the stresses associated with turbine passage. In addition, the emphasis is on biological studies, as opposed to the engineering studies (e.g., turbine index testing) that re often carried out in support of fish passage mitigation efforts.

Rinehart, Bennie Nelson; Cada, G. F.

2000-04-01

13

Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoli?je HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

2012-11-01

14

Control models for hydropower system analysis and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, several new models for hydropower systems analysis and operation have been developed and tested. More specifically, the new models are designed to address the following issues: (1) Determination of the dependable power capacity for a system of hydropower facilities, (2) Determination of the firm energy for a system of hydropower facilities, with or without dependable capacity commitments,

A. P. Georgakakos; H. Yao; Y. Yu

1995-01-01

15

Control models for hydropower system analysis and operation  

SciTech Connect

In this work, several new models for hydropower systems analysis and operation have been developed and tested. More specifically, the new models are designed to address the following issues: (1) Determination of the dependable power capacity for a system of hydropower facilities, (2) Determination of the firm energy for a system of hydropower facilities, with or without dependable capacity commitments, and (3) optimization of the hydroelectric energy value. (The value of energy is measured by the savings in thermal plant fuel consumption). The models of the first two categories have a time discretization of one day, while those of the third are hourly. All models share a common structure consisting of a turbine load allocation module and a reservoir control module. In addition to a detailed representation of the hydroelectric facilities, this control model structure is also able to model most aspects of water management. The models are applied to the Lanier-Allatoona-Carters reservoir system on the Chattahoochee and Coosa River Basins in the southeastern U.S.

Georgakakos, A.P.; Yao, H.; Yu, Y.

1995-03-01

16

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The

A. Tilmant; Q. Goor; D. Pinte

2009-01-01

17

Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource  

SciTech Connect

This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

none,

2011-04-01

18

Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operations of hydropower systems were analyzed with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept outlined.

Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W. W. G.

1976-01-01

19

Optimal design of axial hydro turbine for micro hydropower plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our country we have enormous low head potation flows in agricultures and aquacultures with almost fix flow rates that can be used as micro hydro power plants for producing energy. But the main problem is the high capital price per kW. Therefore there is needed to design a simple machine with a good runner for covering the various potential flows. In this paper an axial hydro turbine has designed for some low heads micro potential flow with flow rates ranged from 50 lit/sec to 150 lit/sec and heads ranged from 1 m to 5 m. The initial runner designed using classical methods and then the runner geometry has been optimized by evolutionary optimization algorithms. The final design has been simulated by a commercial flow solver in a various blade positions. The results showed a wide range characteristic curve with a wide range high efficiency.

Derakhshan, S.; Kasaeian, N.

2012-11-01

20

Modeling and control of variable-speed micro-hydropower plant based on Axial-flow turbine and permanent magnet synchronous generator (MHPP-PMSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a grid connected variable-speed micro hydropower plant, based on a micro Axial-flow turbine (semi-Kaplan) coupled to permanent magnet synchronous generator (MHPP-PMSG); Two back-to-back Voltage Source Inverters are interfacing the generator. The main idea is to show the feasibility and interest of variable speed operation of the considered system. The scope of the presented work is similar to

Lakhdar Belhadji; Seddik Bacha; Daniel Roye

2011-01-01

21

Modeling Multi-Reservoir Hydropower Systems in the Sierra Nevada with Environmental Requirements and Climate Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydropower systems and other river regulation often harm instream ecosystems, partly by altering the natural flow and temperature regimes that ecosystems have historically depended on. These effects are compounded at regional scales. As hydropower and ecosystems are increasingly valued globally due to growing values for clean energy and native species as well as and new threats from climate warming, it is important to understand how climate warming might affect these systems, to identify tradeoffs between different water uses for different climate conditions, and to identify promising water management solutions. This research uses traditional simulation and optimization to explore these issues in California's upper west slope Sierra Nevada mountains. The Sierra Nevada provides most of the water for California's vast water supply system, supporting high-elevation hydropower generation, ecosystems, recreation, and some local municipal and agricultural water supply along the way. However, regional climate warming is expected to reduce snowmelt and shift runoff to earlier in the year, affecting all water uses. This dissertation begins by reviewing important literature related to the broader motivations of this study, including river regulation, freshwater conservation, and climate change. It then describes three substantial studies. First, a weekly time step water resources management model spanning the Feather River watershed in the north to the Kern River watershed in the south is developed. The model, which uses the Water Evaluation And Planning System (WEAP), includes reservoirs, run-of-river hydropower, variable head hydropower, water supply demand, and instream flow requirements. The model is applied with a runoff dataset that considers regional air temperature increases of 0, 2, 4 and 6 °C to represent historical, near-term, mid-term and far-term (end-of-century) warming. Most major hydropower turbine flows are simulated well. Reservoir storage is also generally well simulated, mostly limited by the accuracy of inflow hydrology. System-wide hydropower generation is reduced by 9% with 6 °C warming. Most reductions in hydropower generation occur in the highly productive watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada. The central Sierra Nevada sees less reduction in annual runoff and can adapt better to changes in runoff timing. Generation in southern watersheds is expected to decrease. System-wide, reservoirs adapt to capture earlier runoff, but mostly decrease in mean reservoir storage with warming due to decreasing annual runoff. Second, a multi-reservoir optimization model is developed using linear programming that considers the minimum instream flows (MIFs) and weekly down ramp rates (DRRs) in the Upper Yuba River in the northern Sierra Nevada. Weekly DRR constraints are used to mimic spring snowmelt flows, which are particularly important for downstream ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada but are currently missing due to the influence of dams. Trade-offs between MIFs, DRRs and hydropower are explored with air temperature warming (+0, 2, 4 and 6 °C). Under base case operations, mean annual hydropower generation increases slightly with 2 °C warming and decreases slightly with 6 °C warming. With 6 °C warming, the most ecologically beneficial MIF and DRR reduce hydropower generation 5.5% compared to base case operations and a historical climate, which has important implications for re-licensing the hydropower project. Finally, reservoir management for downstream temperatures is explored using a linear programming model to optimally release water from a reservoir using selective withdrawal. The objective function is to minimize deviations from desired downstream temperatures, which are specified to mimic the natural temperature regime in the river. One objective of this study was to develop a method that can be readily integrated into a basin-scale multi-reservoir optimization model using a network representation of system features. The second objective was to explore the potential use of reservoirs to maintain an ideal str

Rheinheimer, David Emmanuel

22

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users can increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, such a dynamic allocation process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.

2009-03-01

23

Enhancing water quality in hydropower system operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of impounded waters often degrades over time because of thermal stratification, sediment oxygen demands, and accumulation of pollutants. Consequently, reservoir releases impact water quality in tailwaters, channels, and other downstream water bodies. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Cumberland River below Old Hickory dam result from stratification of upstream reservoirs and seasonally low release rates. Operational changes in upstream hydropower reservoirs may be one method to increase DO levels without substantially impacting existing project purposes. A water quality model of the upper Cumberland basin is integrated into an optimal control algorithm to evaluate water quality improvement opportunities through operational modifications. The integrated water quantity/quality model maximizes hydropower revenues, subject to various flow and headwater operational restrictions for satisfying multiple project purposes, as well as maintenance of water quality targets. Optimal daily reservoir release policies are determined for the summer drawdown period which increase DO concentrations under stratification conditions with minimal impact on hydropower production and other project purposes. Appendixes A-D available with entire article on microfiche. Order by mail from AGU, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $2.50. Document W97-003. Payment must accompany order.

Hayes, Donald F.; Labadie, John W.; Sanders, Thomas G.; Brown, Jackson K.

1998-03-01

24

Agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers: sharing water and benefits in hydropower-irrigation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a methodology to assess agricultural-to-hydropower water transfers in water resources systems where irrigation crop production and hydropower generation are the main economic activities. In many countries, water for crop irrigation is often considered as a static asset: irrigation water is usually allocated by a system of limited annual rights to use a prescribed volume of water, which remains to a large extent independent of the availability of water in the basin. The opportunity cost (forgone benefits) of this static management approach may be important in river basins where large irrigation areas are present in the upstream reaches. Continuously adjusting allocation decisions based on the hydrologic status of the system will lead to the temporary reallocation of some (or all) of the irrigation water downstream to consumptive and/or non-consumptive users. Such a dynamic allocation process will increase the social benefits if the sum of the downstream productivities exceeds those of the upstream farmers whose entitlements are curtailed. However, this process will be socially acceptable if upstream farmers are compensated for increasing the availability of water downstream. This paper also presents a methodology to derive the individual contribution of downstream non-consumptive users, i.e. hydropower plants, to the financial compensation of upstream farmers. This dynamic management approach is illustrated with a cascade of multipurpose reservoirs in the Euphrates river basin. The analysis of simulation results reveals that, on average, the annual benefits obtained with the dynamic allocation process are 6% higher that those derived from a static allocation.

Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.

2009-07-01

25

Wind turbine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wind turbine system utilizes a bicycle wheel type turbine having airfoils mounted on various spoke pairs. The vertical yaw axis lies in the horizontal projection of the airfoils to offer better control of the system; for example, automatic stowage in the case of excessive wind is provided since the superstructure of the turbine provides a torque around the vertical

1982-01-01

26

Development of a more fish tolerant turbine runner advanced hydropower turbine project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. Flow characteristics of the new runner were analyzed using two- dimensional and three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models. The basic runner geometry was initially selected using the two-dimensional model. The three-dimensional model was used to investigate the flow characteristics in detail through the entire runner and to refine the design by eliminating potential problem areas at the leading and trailing edges. Results of the analyses indicated that the runner has characteristics which should provide safe fish passage with an overall power efficiency of approximately 90%. The size of the new runner, which is larger than conventional turbine runners with the same design flow and head, will provide engineering, fabrication, and installation.challenges related to the turbine components and the civil works. A small reduction in the overall efficiency would reduce the size of the runner considerably, would simplify the turbine manufacturing operations, and would allow installation of the new turbine at more hydroelectric sites.

Cook, T.C.; Hecker, G.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Holden, MA (United States). Alden Research Lab.; Faulkner, H.B.; Jansen, W. [Northern Research and Engineering Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-01-01

27

Development of a more fish-tolerant turbine runner, advanced hydropower turbine project  

SciTech Connect

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. (ARL) and Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (NREC) conducted a research program to develop a turbine runner which will minimize fish injury and mortality at hydroelectric projects. ARL?NREC have developed a runner shape which minimizes the number of blade leading edges, reduces the pressure versus time and the velocity versus distance gradients within the runner, minimizes or eliminates the clearance between the runner and runner housing, and maximizes the size of the flow passages, all with minimal penalty on turbine efficiency. An existing pump impeller provided the starting point for developing the fish tolerant turbine runner. The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Conceptual design of the new runner began with a re-evaluation of studies which have been previously conducted to identify probable sources of injury to fish passing through hydraulic turbines. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. 86 figs., 5 tabs.

Cook, T.C.; Hecker, G.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Holden, MA (United States). Alden Research Lab.; Faulkner, H.B.; Jansen, W. [Northern Research and Engineering Corp., Woburn, MA (United States)

1997-02-01

28

Water turbine generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water turbine generator system for use in a stream or river, said system having a catch basin formed by an end wall, a plurality of water chutes downstream of the catch basin and in communication with the catch basin by gates and closures and a plurality of turbines and associated generators journalled in the chutes for rotation by water

Brankovics

1982-01-01

29

Analysis of information systems for hydropower operations: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was performed of the operations of hydropower systems, with emphasis on water resource management, to determine how aerospace derived information system technologies can effectively increase energy output. Better utilization of water resources was sought through improved reservoir inflow forecasting based on use of hydrometeorologic information systems with new or improved sensors, satellite data relay systems, and use of advanced scheduling techniques for water release. Specific mechanisms for increased energy output were determined, principally the use of more timely and accurate short term (0-7 days) inflow information to reduce spillage caused by unanticipated dynamic high inflow events. The hydrometeorologic models used in predicting inflows were examined in detail to determine the sensitivity of inflow prediction accuracy to the many variables employed in the models, and the results were used to establish information system requirements. Sensor and data handling system capabilities were reviewed and compared to the requirements, and an improved information system concept was outlined.

Sohn, R. L.; Becker, L.; Estes, J.; Simonett, D.; Yeh, W.

1976-01-01

30

Floating wind turbine system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

31

ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing, combustion, cooling, materials, coatings and casting development. The market potential for the ATS gas turbine in the 2000-2014 timeframe was assessed for combined cycle, simple cycle and integrated gasification combined cycle, for three engine sizes. The total ATS market potential was forecasted to exceed 93 GW. Phase 3 and Phase 3 Extension involved further technology development, component testing and W501ATS engine detail design. The technology development efforts consisted of ultra low NO{sub x} combustion, catalytic combustion, sealing, heat transfer, advanced coating systems, advanced alloys, single crystal casting development and determining the effect of steam on turbine alloys. Included in this phase was full-load testing of the W501G engine at the McIntosh No. 5 site in Lakeland, Florida.

Gregory Gaul

2004-04-21

32

EMTA’s Evaluation of the Elastic Properties for Fiber Polymer Composites Potentially Used in Hydropower Systems  

SciTech Connect

Fiber-reinforced polymer composites can offer important advantages over metals where lightweight, cost-effective manufacturing and high mechanical performance can be achieved. To date, these materials have not been used in hydropower systems. In view of the possibility to tailor their mechanical properties to specific applications, they now have become a subject of research for potential use in hydropower systems. The first step in any structural design that uses composite materials consists of evaluating the basic composite mechanical properties as a function of the as-formed composite microstructure. These basic properties are the elastic stiffness, stress-strain response, and strength. This report describes the evaluation of the elastic stiffness for a series of common discontinuous fiber polymer composites processed by injection molding and compression molding in order to preliminarily estimate whether these composites could be used in hydropower systems for load-carrying components such as turbine blades. To this end, the EMTA (Copyright © Battelle 2010) predictive modeling tool developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been applied to predict the elastic properties of these composites as a function of three key microstructural parameters: fiber volume fraction, fiber orientation distribution, and fiber length distribution. These parameters strongly control the composite mechanical performance and can be tailored to achieve property enhancement. EMTA uses the standard and enhanced Mori-Tanaka type models combined with the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method to predict the thermoelastic properties of the composite based on its microstructure.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Paquette, Joshua

2010-08-01

33

Gas turbine premixing systems  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2013-12-31

34

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01

35

Hydropower Stations. Generating Equipment and Its Installation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first part of the book describes hydropower sets. Fundamental concepts concerning the use of hydraulic energy are explained, as are the general theory of hydraulic turbines, their layout and design, the design of hydropower generators, governors, and ...

A. N. Goncharov

1975-01-01

36

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of turbine intake hydraulics at a hydropower plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District is considering blocking the upper 12.3m of the turbine intakes at The Dalles Dam, Oregon with a J-shaped blocked trashrack (a steel panel in front of the existing trashrack). The objective is to create a forebay flow pattern aiding the downstream migration of juvenile fish. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics

Liaqat A. Khan; Edward A. Wicklein; Mizan Rashid; Laurie L. Ebner; Natalie A. Richards

2004-01-01

37

Turbine blade tip gap reduction system  

DOEpatents

A turbine blade sealing system for reducing a gap between a tip of a turbine blade and a stationary shroud of a turbine engine. The sealing system includes a plurality of flexible seal strips extending from a pressure side of a turbine blade generally orthogonal to the turbine blade. During operation of the turbine engine, the flexible seal strips flex radially outward extending towards the stationary shroud of the turbine engine, thereby reducing the leakage of air past the turbine blades and increasing the efficiency of the turbine engine.

Diakunchak, Ihor S.

2012-09-11

38

Advanced turbine systems program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combin...

C. Wilkes D. W. Mukavetz T. K. Knickerbocker S. A. Ali

1992-01-01

39

Neuro-fuzzy controller of low head hydropower plants using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an attempt of nonlinear, multivariable control of low-head hydropower plants, by using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The new design technique enhances fuzzy controllers with self-learning capability for achieving prescribed control objectives in a near optimal manner. The controller has flexibility for accepting more sensory information, with the main goal to improve the generator unit transients, by adjusting the exciter input, the wicket gate and runner blade positions. The developed ANFIS controller whose control signals are adjusted by using incomplete on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects to generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions, than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low-head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-feedback optimal control and ANFIS based output feedback control are presented. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the robustness of the acquired neuro-fuzzy controller, the controller has been implemented on a complex high-order non-linear hydrogenerator model.

Djukanovic, M.B. [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems] [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems; Calovic, M.S. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Vesovic, B.V. [Inst. Mihajlo Pupin, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Automatic Control] [Inst. Mihajlo Pupin, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Automatic Control; Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-12-01

40

Editorial: Time for green certification for all hydropower?  

SciTech Connect

While accrediting a large hydropower facility is intrinsically more complex and potentially controversial, it is time to review the progress made in understanding the environmental impacts of large hydropower and the development of environmentally friendly hydropower systems. Over the last two decades, many in-field, laboratory, and modeling technologies have been developed or improved to better understand the mechanisms of fish injury and mortality and to identify turbine design and operation alternatives to reduce such impacts. In 2010, representatives of DOE and the US Department of Interior, and USACE signed a memorandum of understanding to work more closely to develop sustainable hydropower. One of their major objectives is to increase hydropower generation using low-impact and environmentally sustainable approaches. Given the recent scientific and technological advances that have decreased the environmental impact of hydropower and the need to aggressively facilitate development of low impact hydropower, we think it is indeed time to initiate a science-based green certification program that includes rigorous criteria for environmental protection but does not exclude hydropower based on size only.

Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

2012-04-10

41

Real-Time Control of a System of Large Hydropower Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a real-time optimal control approach for operating a system of large hydropower reservoirs. The operating objective is to track specified power output targets, subject to a variety of physical constraints. The constraints describe the hydrologic behavior of the tributary watershed and the dynamics of the reservoir system. The decision variables are monthly average releases from each of

Dennis McLaughlin; Horacio L. Velasco

1990-01-01

42

Economic and environmental analysis of micro hydropower system for rural power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the advantages of using renewable energy sources in the architecture of an off-grid hybrid power system in rural areas. The studied system is composed of a diesel generator to which a micro hydropower plant is added. Simulations using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) are performed for given annual values of hydro resources, power demands

K. Kusakana; J. L. Munda; A. A. Jimoh

2008-01-01

43

Turbine nozzle positioning system  

DOEpatents

A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA); Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL)

1996-01-30

44

Turbine nozzle positioning system  

DOEpatents

A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

1996-01-30

45

Climate informed long term seasonal forecasts of hydroenergy inflow for the Brazilian hydropower system  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary Efficient management of water and energy is an important goal of sustainable development for any nation. Streamflow forecasts, have been used in complex optimization models to maximize water use efficiency and electrical energy production. In this paper we develop a statistical model for the long term forecasts of hydroenergy inflow into the Brazilian hydropower system, which consists of more

Carlos H. R. Lima; Upmanu Lall

2010-01-01

46

Turbine nozzle attachment system  

DOEpatents

A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and is attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine. 3 figs.

Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

1995-10-24

47

Turbine nozzle attachment system  

DOEpatents

A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes a pair of legs extending radially outwardly from an outer shroud and a pair of mounting legs extending radially inwardly from an inner shroud. Each of the pair of legs and mounting legs have a pair of holes therein. A plurality of members attached to the gas turbine engine have a plurality of bores therein which axially align with corresponding ones of the pair of holes in the legs. A plurality of pins are positioned within the corresponding holes and bores radially positioning the nozzle guide vane assembly about a central axis of the gas turbine engine.

Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA); Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL)

1995-01-01

48

ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these technologies and the corresponding early adopters are likely to be located.

Sy Ali

2002-03-01

49

Propulsion turbine fuel control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fuel control system. It comprises fuel storage means for accommodating a fuel to be supplied to the turbine engine including a pressurized fuel tank accommodating a quantity of fuel and a gas; fuel pump means adapted to supply fuel from the fuel storage means to the turbine engine; control means interposed between the fuel storage means and the fuel pump means; means for preventing a flow of fuel from the pressurized fuel tank to the fuel pump means until required by the turbine engine; means for at least temporarily providing a pressure pulse to the fuel tank means sufficient to rupture the frangible means to permit fuel flow to the fuel pump means in response to a start-up of the turbine engine.

Reed, W.E.; McArthur, M.J.

1992-05-26

50

Chapter 14: Wind Turbine Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by gravity, stochastic wind disturbances, and gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional turbulent wind inflow field that drives fatigue loading. Wind turbine modeling is also complex and challenging. Accurate models must contain many degrees

2009-01-01

51

A control model for dependable hydropower capacity optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a control model that can be used to determine the dependable power capacity of a hydropower system is presented and tested. The model structure consists of a turbine load allocation module and a reservoir control module and allows for a detailed representation of hydroelectric facilities and various aspects of water management. Although this scheme is developed for

Aris P. Georgakakos; Huaming Yao; Yongqing Yu

1997-01-01

52

Power turbine ventilation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

53

Renewable Energy: Hydropower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to the use of flowing or falling water (hydropower) to perform work, particularly electric power generation. Topics include the history of hydropower development, the invention of turbines and electric generators, and the history of hydroelectric power development in the United States. There is also discussion of the environmental issues associated with the construction of large dams and flooding large tracts of land, as well as some of the physics involved in the transfer of energy from moving water to a mechanical device such as a turbine. The lesson includes an activity in which students use a model turbine and generator and vary the height from which water flows into them to examine how energy output and efficiency varies.

Pratte, John

54

ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH  

SciTech Connect

The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

Unknown

2002-02-01

55

DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)  

SciTech Connect

This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-06-01

56

Chapter 14: Wind Turbine Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by gravity, stochastic wind disturbances, and gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamic behavior of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional turbulent wind inflow field that drives fatigue loading. Wind turbine modeling is also complex and challenging. Accurate models must contain many degrees of freedom (DOF) to capture the most important dynamic effects. The rotation of the rotor adds complexity to the dynamics modeling. Designs of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for these complexities. Algorithms must capture the most important turbine dynamics without being too complex and unwieldy. Off-the-shelf commercial soft ware is seldom adequate for wind turbine dynamics modeling. Instead, specialized dynamic simulation codes are usually required to model all the important nonlinear effects. As illustrated in Figure 14-1, a wind turbine control system consists of sensors, actuators and a system that ties these elements together. A hardware or software system processes input signals from the sensors and generates output signals for actuators. The main goal of the controller is to modify the operating states of the turbine to maintain safe turbine operation, maximize power, mitigate damaging fatigue loads, and detect fault conditions. A supervisory control system starts and stops the machine, yaws the turbine when there is a significant yaw misalignment, detects fault conditions, and performs emergency shut-downs. Other parts of the controller are intended to maximize power and reduce loads during normal turbine operation.

Wright, A. D.

2009-01-01

57

Braking System for Wind Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

1987-01-01

58

Magnus air turbine system  

DOEpatents

A Magnus effect windmill for generating electrical power is disclosed. A large nacelle-hub mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop a support tower carries, in the example disclosed, three elongated barrels arranged in a vertical plane and extending symmetrically radially outwardly from the nacelle. The system provides spin energy to the barrels by internal mechanical coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is interposed between the collector gears and the spin mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor. Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for start-up after which the motor is braked and the spin mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions, the auxiliary motor may be unbraked and excess spin power may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as novel gearing and other power coupling combination apparatus of the invention. A reading of the complete specification is recommended for a full understanding of the principles and features of the disclosed system.

Hanson, Thomas F. (24204 Heritage La., Newhall, CA 91321) [24204 Heritage La., Newhall, CA 91321

1982-01-01

59

Design improvements in air turbine start systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main engine air turbine start system, which typically consists of an air turbine staxter and starter control valve, is a key contributor to aircraft dispatch reliability. Evolving aircraft propulsion systems have resulted in more aggressive operational environments, thus providing the impetus to improve the design of the start systems to enhance their durability and aid in improving both dispatch reliability and system responsiveness.

Farnsworth, G. A.; Plevich, C. W.; Durnal, K.

1992-10-01

60

Water turbine system and method of operation  

DOEpatents

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT)

2011-05-10

61

Water turbine system and method of operation  

DOEpatents

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT) [Montpelier, VT

2009-02-10

62

Wind turbine control system modeling capabilities  

SciTech Connect

At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) National Wind Technology Center the authors are continuing to make progress in their ability to model complete wind turbine systems. An ADAMS{reg_sign} model of the NREL variable speed test bed turbine was developed to determine whether wind turbine control systems could be simulated and to investigate other control strategies for this turbine. Model simulations are compared with data from the operating turbine using the current mode of operation. In general, the simulations show good agreement with test data. Having established confidence in their ability to model the physical machine, the authors evaluated two other control methods. The methods studied are a generalized predictive control method and a bias estimation method. Simulation results using these methods are compared to simulation results of the current mode of operation of the turbine.

Pierce, K.; Fingersh, L.J.

1998-04-01

63

Lightning protection system for a wind turbine  

DOEpatents

In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

Costin, Daniel P. (Chelsea, VT) [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K. (Williston, VT) [Williston, VT

2008-05-27

64

Application of Communication Optimization Strategy Based on Cascade PLC MODBUS in Fire Water System of Hydropower Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

As to the bad real-time problem of traditional communication scheme that is one master station and more slave stations' MODBUS communication in fire water system of hydropower station, in this paper, a connection scheme of a cascade PLC communication was proposed to solve the defects of decreasing transmission speed because of long distance in communication. The communication software of PLC

Feng Lei-hua; Gui Wei-hua; Yang Feng

2009-01-01

65

Multimode control system for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-mode electronic wind turbine control system establishes a reference blade angle for a two-bladed, horizontal axis, variable pitch wind turbine rotor, the blade angle being regulated by a hydraulic pitch change mechanism. The rotor, via appropriate shafts and a gearbox, is coupled to a synchronous generator to produce electrical energy which is fed to a power utility grid. The

K. I. Harner; J. M. Kos; J. P. Patrick

1980-01-01

66

Agricultural vs. Hydropower Tradeoffs in the Operation of the High Aswan Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tradeoff relationship is defined between hydropower and agriculture for the monthly operations of the High Aswan Dam under current water availability conditions. A stochastic dynamic programming model is employed which incorporates the physical constraints (e.g., reservoir storage limits, turbine capacity, allowable reservoir releases, etc.) of the High Aswan Dam system. Variations of monthly reservoir releases for agriculatural purposes are

Katherine Oven-Thompson; Luis Alercon; David H. Marks

1982-01-01

67

Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the “Presidente Benito Juarez”

O. A. Jaramillo; M. A. Borja; J. M. Huacuz

2004-01-01

68

Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

Wenglarz, R.A.

1994-08-01

69

Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

1995-12-31

70

Structural dynamic analysis of wind turbine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an overview of the dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines. The major emphasis of the paper is the review of current analysis methods and the comparison of results with experimental data. The current capabilities for predicting turbine system natural frequencies are discussed and the design implications of frequency placement are reviewed. The prediction of cyclic loads, using the dynamic analysis computer codes, is examined and comparisons are made between the code predictions and field test data. Finally, the dynamic analysis needs for advanced turbine systems are considered.

Thresher, R. W.

1982-05-01

71

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has conducted a study of Next Generation Gas Turbine Systems that embraces the goals of the DOE's High Efficiency Engines and Turbines and Vision 21 programs. The Siemens Westinghouse Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems program was a 24-month study looking at the feasibility of a NGGT for the emerging deregulated distributed generation market. Initial efforts focused on a modular gas turbine using an innovative blend of proven technologies from the Siemens Westinghouse W501 series of gas turbines and new enabling technologies to serve a wide variety of applications. The flexibility to serve both 50-Hz and 60-Hz applications, use a wide range of fuels and be configured for peaking, intermediate and base load duty cycles was the ultimate goal. As the study progressed the emphasis shifted from a flexible gas turbine system of a specific size to a broader gas turbine technology focus. This shift in direction allowed for greater placement of technology among both the existing fleet and new engine designs, regardless of size, and will ultimately provide for greater public benefit. This report describes the study efforts and provides the resultant conclusions and recommendations for future technology development in collaboration with the DOE.

Benjamin C. Wiant; Ihor S. Diakunchak; Dennis A. Horazak; Harry T. Morehead

2003-03-01

72

Development of a multiplane multispeed balancing system for turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype high speed balancing system was developed for assembled gas turbine engine modules. The system permits fully assembled gas turbine modules to be operated and balanced at selected speeds up to full turbine speed. The balancing system is a complete stand-alone system providing all necesary lubrication and support hardware for full speed operation. A variable speed motor provides the drive power. A drive belt and gearbox provide rotational speeds up to 21,000 rpm inside a vacuum chamber. The heart of the system is a dedicated minicomputer with attendant data acquisition, storage and I/O devices. The computer is programmed to be completely interactive with the operator. The system was installed at CCAD and evaluated by testing 20 T55 power turbines and 20 T53 power turbines. Engine test results verified the performance of the high speed balanced turbines.

Martin, M. R.

1984-01-01

73

Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

Diakunchak, Ihor S.

2013-06-25

74

Post-Hydropower System Delayed Mortality of Transported Snake River Stream-Type Chinook Salmon: Unraveling the Mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research indicates that on an annual basis, smolts of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha collected at Snake River dams and transported by barge to below Bonneville Dam have greater post-hydropower system mortality than smolts that migrate in-river. To date, this difference has most commonly been attributed to stress from collection and transportation, leading to decreased disease resistance or predator

William D. Muir; Douglas M. Marsh; Benjamin P. Sandford; Steven G. Smith; John G. Williams

2006-01-01

75

Neuro-fuzzy controller of low head hydropower plants using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an attempt of nonlinear, multivariable control of low-head hydropower plants, by using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The new design technique enhances fuzzy controllers with self-learning capability for achieving prescribed control objectives in a near optimal manner. The controller has flexibility for accepting more sensory information, with the main goal to improve the generator unit transients,

M. B. Djukanovic; M. S. Calovic; B. V. Vesovic; D. J. Sobajic

1997-01-01

76

Adaptation to Climate Change in the Management of a Canadian Water-Resources System Exploited for Hydropower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management adaptation potential of the Peribonka River water resource system (Quebec, Canada) is investigated in the context\\u000a of the evolution of climate change. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts on hydropower, power plant efficiency,\\u000a unproductive spills and reservoir reliability due to changes in the hydrological regimes. The climate change projections used\\u000a here are from the

Marie Minville; François Brissette; Stéphane Krau; Robert Leconte

2009-01-01

77

Steam turbine flow direction control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a reheat steam turbine having at least one turbine element with an impulse chamber and an exhaust stage, the steam turbine having other elements and zones wherein the pressure is lower than that of the exhaust stage, a system for reducing windage heating and resulting distress to turbine blading by prevention of Coanda-type flow. It comprises: outlet means located upstream of the exhaust stage for extraction of steam therethrough; first duct means connecting the outlet means to a relatively low pressure zone; first valve means connected to the duct means for controlling steam flow through the outlet means; inlet means into the impulse chamber for introduction of exhaust steam from the exhaust stage; second duct means connected between the inlet means and the exhaust stage; and second valve means connected to the second duct means for controlling the flow to exhaust steam into the impulse chamber.

Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

1990-09-18

78

Solar turbines perspective on advanced fuel cell\\/gas turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Turbines Inc. has a vested interest in integrating gas turbines and high-temperature fuel cells(eg, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)). Approach is to develop more efficient recuperated engines, which would be followed by more efficient intercooled and recuperated engines and finally by a humid air turbine cycle system. This engine system would be capable of providing efficiencies on the order

1996-01-01

79

Analyzing turbine bypass systems at hydro facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the 1960s, biologists for several federal and state resource agencies investigated turbine mortality at US Army Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric projects along the Columbia River. Their findings suggested that turbine bypass systems would provide improved passage conditions for juvenile salmon. In response to these findings, the Corps installed bypass systems at many of its facilities. However, evaluations of salmon after the bypasses were installed indicated that these systems are not completely benign. The bypass system, guidance devices, and tailrace predation can cause variable levels of stress, injury, and mortality. When compared to a favorable turbine environment of deeply submerged runners and low head, certain bypass systems may even reduce survival in some cases. For example, preliminary results of a survival study conducted by biologists at the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) from 1987 through 1990 at Bonneville Dam indicate bypassed juvenile chinook salmon have significantly lower survival rates than those passing through turbines. Consequently, comprehensive analyses of bypass components are necessary to ensure bypass passage improves survival, relative to turbine passage.

Ferguson, J.W. (Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States))

1992-06-01

80

Numerical investigation for design and critical performance evaluation of a horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will discuss findings from our numerical investigation on the hydrodynamic performance of horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbines (HAHkT) under different turbine geometries and flow conditions. Hydrokinetic turbines are a class of zero-head hydropower systems which utilizes kinetic energy of flowing water to drive a generator. However, such turbines very often suffer from low efficiency which is primarily controlled by tip-speed

Suchi Subhra Mukherji; Arindam Banerjee

2010-01-01

81

Stability Simulation of Wind Turbine Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation and digital computer modeling effort is described in which a wind turbine-generator system is adapted for stability evaluation using a large scale transient stability computer program. Component models of the MOD-2 wind generator system are described and their digital model equations are provided. A versatile wind velocity model is described, which provides the capability of simulating a wide

P. M. Anderson; Anjan Bose

1983-01-01

82

Development of advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems study is to investigate innovative natural gas fired cycle developments to determine the feasibility of achieving 60% efficiency within a 8-year time frame. The potential system was to be environmentally superior, cost competitive and adaptable to coal-derived fuels. Progress is described.

Bannister, R.L.; Little, D.A.; Wiant, B.C.

1993-11-01

83

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Ventera VT10 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

84

Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

2012-11-01

85

A Dynamic Wind Turbine Simulator of the Wind Turbine Generator System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study dynamic performances of wind turbine generator system (WTGS), and to determine the control structures in laboratory. The dynamic torque generated by wind turbine (WT) must be simulated. In there paper, a dynamic wind turbine emulator (WTE) is designed, which consider wind shear and tower shadow effect, and a dynamic torque compensation scheme is also developed to compensate the

Lei Lu; Zhen Xie; Xing Zhang; Shuying Yang; Renxian Cao

2012-01-01

86

Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design  

SciTech Connect

The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

1993-11-01

87

Hydropower potential in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey has a total hydropower potential of 433 GW that is equal to 1.2% of the total hydropower potential of the world and to 14% of European hydropower potential. Only 125 GW of the total hydroelectric potential of Turkey can be economically used. By the commissioning of new hydropower plants, which are under construction, 34% of the economically usable potential

Kamil Kaygusuz

1999-01-01

88

ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

Frank Macri

2003-10-01

89

Plasma-Sprayed Dual Density Ceramic Turbine Seal System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dual density, plasma sprayed ceramic coating systems were investigated for possible application as abradable turbine tip seal systems in small gas turbine engines. Abradability, erosion resistance, internal leakage, and microstructural characterization we...

D. L. Clingman B. Schechter K. R. Cross J. R. Cavanagh

1979-01-01

90

76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 13637-001] Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and...2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper...46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine...

2011-02-11

91

Combustion heated air turbine starter system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a combustion heated air turbine starter system. It comprises: an air turbine starter operatively associated with a main turbine engine; an auxiliary power unit adapted to deliver air through a bleed duct to the air turbine starter; and means for combusting fuel from a source with air from the auxiliary power unit; the combusting means including an auxiliary combustor disposed within the bleed duct upstream of the air turbine starter, the auxiliary combustor including an outer wall positioned in radially inwardly spaced relation to the bleed duct, the outer wall defining an axial combustion air flow path inwardly thereof and an axial bypass air flow path outwardly thereof; the auxiliary combustor including a fuel injector positioned centrally of the outer wall at an open upstream end thereof, the auxiliary combustor also including means for producing a rotating annulus of air about the fuel injector at the open upstream end of the outer wall; the rotating annulus of air causing a laminerized blue flame to be produced in radially inwardly spaced relation to the outer wall and the rotating annulus of air mixing with air in the axial bypass air flow path downstream of the outer wall to produce a flame zone radially inwardly of the bleed duct.

Shekleton, J.R.

1991-10-08

92

A review of large wind turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research areas in the design and operation of large wind turbines in the U.S. and Europe are detailed, with attention given to current and completed programs. Theoretical work in the U.S. is focused on aerodynamics of blades, structural dynamics, control systems, and safety through safe life design, redundancy, and quality assurance. Work is continuing on wind characteristics over the rotor

H. Selzer; J. I. Lerner

1983-01-01

93

Distributed control system for turbine engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distributed control system (DCS) for a turbine engine has been demonstrated and tested, consisting of prototype electronic interface units (EIUs) connected to data and power busses. In the DCS, a central control computer communicated with smart sensors and smart actuators via a 2.5 megabit\\/sec digital data bus, using the Fieldbus protocol. Power was distributed to the smart devices as

P. L. Shaffer

1999-01-01

94

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

2010-02-01

95

Optimization of the operation of a two-reservoir hydropower system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for optimizing the operation of a system of two hydraulically separate reservoirs serving the same demand area for hydropower production is described. The reservoir system is assumed to be operated, and import and export decisions made, so as to maximize the value of energy produced while considering the value of water stored in the reservoirs at the end of the model time horizon. The optimization considers uncertain reservoir inflows, energy demands, and electricity prices, and is subject to physical and operational constraints. The proposed method consists of two cascaded models. A longer-term monthly model based upon dynamic programming and linear programming is used to estimate the value of water stored in each reservoir as a function of the storage in both reservoirs, as well as the marginal values of water storage in the two reservoirs. Linear programming is used to evaluate the recursive equation in the dynamic program by making tradeoffs between releasing water, making energy trades, and keeping water in storage for the next month. The monthly energy value functions are input to the shorter-term model, which is based upon stochastic linear programming with recourse. The shorter-term model allows for the planning of operations and the calculation of marginal water values over periods shorter than one month. The time horizon in the shorter-term model is divided into time steps that may be of variable duration. Uncertainty in the model is handled through a scenario tree. Scenarios describe the values assumed by the inflows, demands, and prices in each time step. Sub-periods allow for the consideration of on- and off-peak periods. Application of the proposed model is made to a system based roughly on the two main river systems in the BC Hydro system---the Peace and Columbia. It is found that the marginal value of storage in the Columbia Reservoir is generally dependent upon the storage in both the Columbia and Peace Reservoirs, and vice versa. Regions of storage existed in which the marginal energy value in one reservoir was independent of storage in the second, although no general rules for identifying these regions were found.

Nash, Garth Andrew

96

Control system of a MW-class wind turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is on control system for MW-class wind turbine. The basic control structure is on the performance of wind turbine and is a control system tracked power curve. To track the power curve, we discuss the control method for variable speed variable pitch that is used for torque control and pitch control. Furthermore, the MW-class wind turbine is a

Jeonggi Kim; Janghwan Cho; Hansoon Choi; Yoonsu Nam

2010-01-01

97

Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Energys Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assess...

1999-01-01

98

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOEpatents

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21

99

An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (?58%) and nuclear power (?38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does

Silvia Banfi; Massimo Filippini; Adrian Mueller

2005-01-01

100

A review of large wind turbine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research areas in the design and operation of large wind turbines in the U.S. and Europe are detailed, with attention given to current and completed programs. Theoretical work in the U.S. is focused on aerodynamics of blades, structural dynamics, control systems, and safety through safe life design, redundancy, and quality assurance. Work is continuing on wind characteristics over the rotor disk and design criteria with regard to cost/benefits and tradeoffs involving various configurations and materials for the rotor blades, placement, pitch control, blade articulation, the tower, the drive train, the gear box, a quill shaft, generator type, and reliability and maintenance. Costing models are being developed. Test experience has been gained through the manufacture and operation of the five Mod 0A, one Mod-1, four Mod-2, and one WTS-4 wind turbines. The European work on blade loading, wind turbine dimensioning, materials, wind structure, environmental impacts, and economics are reviewed, together with the operational experience with the Gedser, two Nibe, the Tvind, and Growian machines. Several countries are also testing smaller wind turbines manufactured indigenously or imported.

Selzer, H.; Lerner, J. I.

101

Drive turbine systems for 20-inch turbofan simulators. 1: Duct turbine design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made to evolve the turbine drive systems for 20-inch turbofan engine simulators. The fan designs used in the simulators included single-stage and two-stage configurations that covered a wide range of rotative speed and power requirement. The objective assumed for the study was to evolve one core turbine design that could drive all of the single-stage fans and, when operated in combination with one duct turbine design, drive all of the two-stage fans. The duct turbine power output is then needed to determine the make-up power required of the core turbine over the range of two-stage fan operating conditions. The duct turbine design analysis is reported and includes the selection of the duct turbine velocity diagram, a description of the blade design, and a determination of its off-design performance. Adjustable stators were found to be quite advantageous to the duct turbine off-design operation. The use of adjustable stators enabled the duct turbine to accommodate fan mass flow at all operating points and caused the duct turbine power output to increase as the total power requirement increased. This in turn resulted in a core turbine make-up power requirement that was not significantly greater than that required for driving the single-stage fans.

Whitney, W. J.

1972-01-01

102

Hydrogen production at hydro-power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tentative design for hydrogen-producing installations at hydropower facilities is discussed from technological, economic and applications viewpoints. The plants would use alternating current to electrolyze purified river water. The hydrogen would be stored in gas or liquid form and oxygen would be sold or vented to the atmosphere. The hydrogen could later be burned in a turbine generator for meeting peak loads, either in closed or open cycle systems. The concept would allow large hydroelectric plants to function in both base- and peak-load modes, thus increasing the hydraulic utilization of the plant and the capacity factor to a projected 0.90. Electrolyzer efficiencies ranging from 0.85-0.90 have been demonstrated. Excess hydrogen can be sold for other purposes or, eventually, as domestic and industrial fuel, at prices competitive with current industrial hydrogen.

Tarnay, D. S.

103

Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system  

DOEpatents

A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

2013-06-11

104

Advanced Turbine Systems scoping and feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) study was to investigate innovative natural gas fired cycle developments to determine the feasibility of achieving 60% (LHV) efficiency within a 10-year time frame. The potential ATS was to be environmentally superior, cost competitive and adaptable to coal-derived fuels. The National Energy Strategy (NES) calls for a balanced program of greater energy efficiency, use of alternative fuels, and the environmentally responsible development of all US energy resources> Consistent with the NES, a Department of Energy (DOE) program has been created to develop Advanced Turbine Systems. The objective of this 10-year program is to develop natural gas fired base load power plants that will have cycle efficiencies greater than 60% (LHV), be environmentally superior to current technology, and also be cost competitive.

Bannister, R.L.; Little, D.A.; Wiant, B.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Archer, D.H. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-01-01

105

Initialization of wind turbine models in power system dynamics simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of increasing environmental concern, increasing amounts of electricity are generated from renewable sources. One way of generating electricity from renewable sources is to use wind turbines. A tendency to erect more wind turbines can be observed. As a result of this, in the near future wind turbines may start to influence the behavior of electrical power systems.

J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2001-01-01

106

Modeling of wind turbines for power system studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the modeling of wind turbines for power system studies is investigated. Complexities of various parts of a wind turbine model, such as aerodynamic conversion, drive train, and generator representation, are analyzed. The results are verified by field measurements made on a stall-regulated fixed-speed wind turbine. The modeling focuses on deriving a representation that is suitable for use

Tomas Petru; Torbjörn Thiringer

2002-01-01

107

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01

108

ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

Lawrence P. Golan

2004-04-01

109

ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

Lawrence P. Golan

2002-07-01

110

ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The quarterly activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program are described in this quarterly report. As this program administers research, we have included all program activity herein within the past quarter as dated. More specific research progress reports are provided weekly at the request of the AGTSR COR and are being sent to NETL. As for the administration of this program, items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

Lawrence P. Golan

2001-07-01

111

Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine  

SciTech Connect

In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

Capstone Turbine Corporation

2007-12-31

112

Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

Webb, W. L.

1973-01-01

113

Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

2013-05-14

114

Steady and transient regimes in hydropower plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydropower plant that has been in operation for about 30 years has to be reconstructed. They have already installed 12 Kaplan turbines, the largest in the world at that time. The existing CAM relationship was determined based on hydraulic model tests and checked by efficiency on-site tests. It was also tested based on turbine bearing vibrations. In order to discover vibrations and long cracks on stay vanes detailed on-site measurements were performed. Influence of the modification of the trailing edges on the dynamic stresses of the stay vanes is also shown. In order to improve power output transient regimes were analyzed, both experimentally and numerically. Reversible hydropower plant, a pioneer in Europe since it was the first Pump storage power plant constructed with the highest head pump-turbines in the world. Analyses of transient regimes discover some problems with S-shaped characteristics coupled with non-symmetrical penstock.

Gajic, A.

2013-12-01

115

Hydrogen turbines for space power systems: A simplified axial flow gas turbine model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrogen cooled, turbine powered space weapon systems require a relatively simple, but reasonably accurate hydrogen gas expansion turbine model. Such a simplified turbine model would require little computational time and allow incorporation into system level computer programs while providing reasonably accurate volume/mass estimates. This model would then allow optimization studies to be performed on multiparameter space power systems and provide improved turbine mass and size estimates for the various operating conditions (when compared to empirical and power law approaches). An axial flow gas expansion turbine model was developed for these reasons and is in use as a comparative bench mark in space power system studies at Sandia. The turbine model is based on fluid dynamic, thermodynamic, and material strength considerations, but is considered simplified because it does not account for design details such as boundary layer effects, shock waves, turbulence, stress concentrations, and seal leakage. Although the basic principles presented here apply to any gas or vapor axial flow turbine, hydrogen turbines are discussed because of their immense importance on space burst power platforms.

Hudson, Steven L.

1988-01-01

116

76 FR 2359 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 13637-001] Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted...2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper...46-foot-wide by 25-foot-high concrete hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine...

2011-01-13

117

Fuel cell\\/gas turbine system performance studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the synergistic effects (higher efficiencies, lower emissions) of combining a fuel cell and a gas turbine into a power generation system, many potential system configurations were studied. This work is focused on novel power plant systems by combining gas turbines, solid oxide fuel cells, and a high-temperature heat exchanger; these systems are ideal for the distributed power and

G. T. Lee; F. A. Sudhoff

1996-01-01

118

Contribution of stochastic control singular perturbation averaging and team theories to an example of large-scale systems: Management of hydropower production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a global model describing a hydropower production system and the related management problem. Using averaging and singular perturbation techniques, we define a nearby optimal problem. The optimization in the class of local feedbacks leads to a team problem which can be solved numerically.

F. Delebecque; J. Quadrat

1978-01-01

119

Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

1978-01-01

120

Reliability assurance of turbine energy conversion systems  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) is a 6-k (electric) space power system utilizing a {sup 238}Pu radioisotope heat source and a dual redundant closed Brayton cycle power conversion assembly. The DIPS program is currently funded to design, fabricate, and test a ground demonstration engineering unit. Primary objectives of the test will be to validate design and demonstrate performance and lifetime. The DIPS is one application of a broader group of space power systems known as turbine energy conversion systems (TECS). The TECS couples closed-cycle Brayton energy conversion systems to either a radioisotope, reactor, or solar collector heat source to provide an efficient source of power for a wide spectrum of civilian and military space missions. This paper describes the reliability assurance program for the DIPS that will demonstrate that the highly reliable TECS will be available for space operation in the last decade of this century.

Rutherford, P.D.; Burgess, D.S.; Robb, S.

1989-01-01

121

Regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a demand for developments of the distributed energy system using a small-scale gas turbine. The steam injection configuration can improve the thermal efficiency of simple and regenerative gas-turbine cycles. In this paper, the performance characteristics of two types of regenerative steam-injection gas-turbine (RSTIG) systems are analyzed and they are compared with the performances of the simple, regenerative, water

Kousuke Nishida; Toshimi Takagi; Shinichi Kinoshita

2005-01-01

122

Representing wind turbine electrical generating systems in fundamental frequency simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of wind turbines are being erected. In the near future, they may start to influence the dynamics of electrical power systems by interacting with conventional generation equipment and with loads. The impact of wind turbines on the dynamics of electrical power systems therefore becomes an important subject, studied by means of power system dynamics simulations. Various types of

J. G. Slootweg; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2003-01-01

123

Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the

Kazunari Fujiyama; Satoshi Nagai; Yasunari Akikuni; Toshihiro Fujiwara; Kenichiro Furuya; Shigeru Matsumoto; Kentaro Takagi; Taro Kawabata

2004-01-01

124

ADAPTIVE CLEARANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR TURBINE ENGINES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center primarily deals in developing controls, dynamic models, and health management technologies for air and space propulsion systems. During the summer of 2004 I was granted the privilege of working alongside professionals who were developing an active clearance control system for commercial jet engines. Clearance, the gap between the turbine blade tip and the encompassing shroud, increases as a result of wear mechanisms and rubbing of the turbine blades on shroud. Increases in clearance cause larger specific fuel consumption (SFC) and loss of efficient air flow. This occurs because, as clearances increase, the engine must run hotter and bum more fuel to achieve the same thrust. In order to maintain efficiency, reduce fuel bum, and reduce exhaust gas temperature (EGT), the clearance must be accurately controlled to gap sizes no greater than a few hundredths of an inch. To address this problem, NASA Glenn researchers have developed a basic control system with actuators and sensors on each section of the shroud. Instead of having a large uniform metal casing, there would be sections of the shroud with individual sensors attached internally that would move slightly to reform and maintain clearance. The proposed method would ultimately save the airline industry millions of dollars.

Blackwell, Keith M.

2004-01-01

125

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test is being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, four turbines are being tested at the NWTC as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a grid connected ARE 442 wind turbine mounted on a 30.5 meter (100 ft) lattice tower manufactured by Abundant Renewable Energy. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Abundant Renewable Energy.

van Dam, J.; Baker, D.; Jager, D.

2010-05-01

126

Pilot Scale Tests Alden/Concepts NREC Turbine  

SciTech Connect

Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. has completed pilot scale testing of the new Alden/Concepts NREC turbine that was designed to minimize fish injury at hydropower projects. The test program was part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems Program. The prototype turbine operating point was 1,000 cfs at 80ft head and 100 rpm. The turbine was design to: (1) limit peripheral runner speed; (2) have a high minimum pressure; (3) limit pressure change rates; (4) limit the maximum flow shear; (5) minimize the number and total length of leading blade edges; (6) maximize the distance between the runner inlet and the wicket gates and minimize clearances (i.e., gaps) between other components; and (7) maximize the size of flow passages.

Thomas C. Cook; George E.Hecker; Stephen Amaral; Philip Stacy; Fangbiao Lin; Edward Taft

2003-09-30

127

Advanced turbine blade tip seal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

Zelahy, J. W.

1981-01-01

128

How Hydropower Plants Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Worldwide, hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity and supply more than 1 billion people with power. The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts, the energy equivalent of 3.6 billion barrels of oil, according to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. There are more than 2,000 hydropower plants operating in the United States, making hydropower the country's largest renewable energy source. In this article, we'll take a look at how falling water creates energy and learn about the hydrologic cycle that creates the water flow essential for hydropower. You will also get a glimpse at one unique application of hydropower that may affect your daily life

Bonsor, Kevin

2008-02-07

129

Verification of a Flow3d Mathematical Model by a Physical Hydraulic Model of a Turbine Intake Structure of a Small Hydropower Plant and a Practical Use of the Mathematical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Drava Power Plants Utility company is the owner of all hydropower plants on the Drava River, Slovenia. On the flood waves relief structure of the Zlatoli?je HPP headrace channel the construction of a turbine intake structure for the Melje small hydropower plant is planned. The Melje small HPP shall exploit the biological minimum discharge for electricity production. Since the structure shall be small, the price of a physical hydraulic model research, in comparison with the price of the structure itself, would be too high. Consequently, the client decided to test the designed structure in the cheapest possible way and ordered a 3D mathematical model of the turbine intake structure. By this mathematical model the designed form of the intake structure should be verified, or, in case of non-compliance, a modified form of such structure which would meet the required modes of the SHPP operation should be proposed. Since such a 3D mathematical model hasn't been used for a hydraulic modelling of this type yet, the project performers were slightly mistrustful of the results obtained by it. Regarding our long years' experiences with physical modelling we decided to construct also a physical hydraulic model in order to be able to verify the designed form of the intake structure and then to use the results for the 3D mathematical model calibration. A partial physical hydraulic model was constructed in the Laboratory for Hydraulic Research in Ljubljana in a model scale of 1:20. For construction and implementation of all the necessary research only 30 days were needed. Simultaneously with the physical model all the preparatory arrangements for the geometry of the mathematical model were going on. During the further development of the mathematical model, also some additional researches on the physical model were performed. Considering the time needed to fully establish the functionality of the mathematical model, it showed up to be very time consuming even in comparison to the construction, all necessary adaptations and the research on the physical model. A commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) program, which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, was used to model physical model setup. The mathematical model was applied for the modelling of the zone of the same size as that on the physical model. The measurements of the water flow velocity, which were performed on the physical model, served us for the verification of results, obtained by means of the mathematical model. This paper gives a comparison of physical and mathematical models research results. However, it presents the results of the project form, as well as those of the proposed form, too.

Vosnjak, S.; Mlacnik, J.

2009-04-01

130

Impacts of hydropower development on downstream fish passage  

SciTech Connect

Hydroelectric dams can have a significant impact on anadeomous species (e.g., Atlantic salmon and American shad) that spend most of their adult life in the ocean but return to freshwater to spawn. Mortality can result from turbine passage and delays in downstream migration caused by flow regulation. Minimization and compensation are two general approaches that can be employeed to reduce the adverse impacts of hydroelectric dams on downstream migrants. Mortality resulting from turbine passage can be minimized by (1) installation of intake diversion and bypass systems, (2) collection and transportation of downstream migrants around dams, and (3) controlled spills. Restoration of degraded spawning/nursery habitat, on the other hand, can be employed to compensate for losses in natural production reulting from the construction of new dams or the operation of existing hydroelectric dams. Close cooperation between developers and regulators of hydropower projects will be required to ensure the protection of anadromous fish stocks in regions such as the Northeast where hydropower resources are abundant.

Loar, J.M.

1982-01-01

131

Mod-2 wind turbine system development. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the MOD-2 wind turbine through acceptance testing and initial operational evaluation is documented. Pitch control hydraulic system, yaw control system, drive train, electrical power station, control system, operations and maintenance experience, and availability are discussed.

1982-09-01

132

Combined gas turbine power system using catalytic partial fuel oxidation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A gas turbine power system for generating energy by means of a gas turbine cycle, wherein heat energy is more effectively used by burning the exhaust gases (109) and the partial oxidation of said exhaust gases (109) is achieved by means of a hypostoichiometric amount of air and steam fed into a catalytic reactor (107) to form a first oxidation stage followed downstream in said turbine (103) by additional oxidation occurring in a power turbine (104) or downstream therefrom, said power turbine being in turn arranged downstream from the catalytic reactor (107). Catalytic partial oxidation may be performed using a supply of an initiating agent, particularly hydrogen. The method is remarkable in that the hydrogen fed into the reactor inlet through an injector (113) is provided by recycling part of the effluent from the reactor, the power turbine or a reforming reactor for reforming part of the fuel gas with a large excess amount of steam for performing catalytic partial oxidation.

2001-02-20

133

Water turbine technology for small power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

T. Salovaara

1980-01-01

134

Agricultural vs. hydropower tradeoffs in the operation of the High Aswan Dam  

SciTech Connect

A tradeoff relationship is defined between hydropower and agriculture for the monthly operations of the High Aswan Dam under current water availability conditions. A stochastic dynamic programming model is employed which incorporates the physical constraints (e.g., reservoir storage limits, turbine capacity, allowable reservoir releases, etc.) of the High Aswan Dam system. Variations of monthly reservoir releases for agriculatural purposes are imposed on the system through this model, and consequent impacts on hydropower production at the high dam are studied. The results show that once operating rules are optimized for current agricultural demands an 11-20% increase in firm monthly hydropower production can be gained when summer irrigation allocations are reduced by 25%. A simple benefit/cost analysis concludes that potential benefits obtained by gains in firm monthly hydropower are nearly equal to potential losses in the agricultural sector when summer allocations are reduced by 5-10%. Operation questions raised by the introduction of a new emergency flood control spillway at Toshka are addressed. Recommendations are made for the operating guidelines of the high dam releases in light of these results.

Oven-Thompson, K. (Metcalf and Eddy, Boston, MA); Alercon, L.; Marks, D.H.

1982-12-01

135

Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

United Technologies Research Center, Pratt Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

Not Available

1993-04-01

136

Techno-economic analysis and modelling of stand-alone versus grid-connected small hydro-power systems – a review of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydro-energy has been universally accepted as the most reliable and cost-effective renewable energy source. Among the several types of hydro-power-generation methods, small hydro-power (SHP) system plays a major role in meeting power requirements of remote, isolated hilly areas in a de-centralized manner by tapping water streams, rivulets and canals of small discharge. An SHP system can function either connected with

P. P. Sharma; S. Chatterji; Balwinder Singh

2011-01-01

137

Solar gas turbine systems: Design, cost and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of high solar shares with high conversion efficiencies is one of the major advantages of solar gas turbine systems compared to other solar-fossil hybrid power plants. Pressurized air receivers are used in solar tower plants to heat the compressed air in the gas turbine to temperatures up to 1000°C. Therefore solar shares in the design case of 40%

Peter Schwarzbözl; Reiner Buck; Chemi Sugarmen; Arik Ring; M Marcos Crespo; Peter Altwegg; Juan Enrile

2006-01-01

138

General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program, Turbine Engine System Element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) Program Turbine Engine System Elements is to conduct a shared resource project to develop an affordable gas turbine engine for use on 4 to 6 place, light aircraft that will lead to revitalization of the general aviation industry in the United States, creating many new, high-quality jobs.

1997-01-01

139

Fault detection of large scale wind turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault diagnosis of large scale wind turbine systems has received much attention in the recent years. Effective fault prediction would allow for scheduled maintenance and for avoiding catastrophic failures. Thus the availability of wind turbines can be enhanced and the cost for maintenance can be reduced. In this paper, we consider the sensor and actuator fault detection issue for large

Xiukun Wei; Lihua Liu

2010-01-01

140

Fault estimation of large scale wind turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault diagnosis of large scale wind turbine systems has received much attention in the recent years. Effective fault prediction would allow for scheduled maintenance and for avoiding catastrophic failures. Thus the availability of wind turbines can be enhanced and the cost for maintenance can be reduced. In this paper, we consider the sensor and actuator fault detection issue for large

Wei Xiukun; Liu Lihua

2010-01-01

141

Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program  

SciTech Connect

In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone?s lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector was tested in a C65 engine operating on 100% hydrogen and with the redesigned combustion liner - Combustion Liner Design A - installed. The results were promising for the FFTS program as the system was able to burn 100% hydrogen fuel without flashback while maintaining good combustion performance. While initial results have been demonstrated the feasibility of this program, further research is needed to determine whether these results will be repeated with FFTS-4 injectors installed in all injector ports and over a wide range of operating conditions and fuel variations.

None

2012-12-31

142

Inspection system for a turbine blade region of a turbine engine  

DOEpatents

An inspection system formed at least from a viewing tube for inspecting aspects of a turbine engine during operation of the turbine engine. An outer housing of the viewing tube may be positioned within a turbine engine using at least one bearing configured to fit into an indentation of a support housing to form a ball and socket joint enabling the viewing tube to move during operation as a result of vibrations and other movements. The viewing tube may also include one or more lenses positioned within the viewing tube for viewing the turbine components. The lenses may be kept free of contamination by maintaining a higher pressure in the viewing tube than a pressure outside of the viewing tube and enabling gases to pass through an aperture in a cap at a viewing end of the viewing tube.

Smed, Jan P. (Winter Springs, FL); Lemieux, Dennis H. (Casselberry, FL); Williams, James P. (Orlando, FL)

2007-06-19

143

Optimizing Hydropower Day-Ahead Scheduling for the Oroville-Thermalito Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under an award from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Water Power Program, a team of national laboratories is developing and demonstrating a suite of advanced, integrated analytical tools to assist managers and planners increase hydropower resources while enhancing the environment. As part of the project, Argonne National Laboratory is developing the Conventional Hydropower Energy and Environmental Systems (CHEERS) model to optimize day-ahead scheduling and real-time operations. We will present the application of CHEERS to the Oroville-Thermalito Project located in Northern California. CHEERS will aid California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) schedulers in making decisions about unit commitments and turbine-level operating points using a system-wide approach to increase hydropower efficiency and the value of power generation and ancillary services. The model determines schedules and operations that are constrained by physical limitations, characteristics of plant components, operational preferences, reliability, and environmental considerations. The optimization considers forebay and afterbay implications, interactions between cascaded power plants, turbine efficiency curves and rough zones, and operator preferences. CHEERS simultaneously considers over time the interactions among all CDWR power and water resources, hydropower economics, reservoir storage limitations, and a set of complex environmental constraints for the Thermalito Afterbay and Feather River habitats. Power marketers, day-ahead schedulers, and plant operators provide system configuration and detailed operational data, along with feedback on model design and performance. CHEERS is integrated with CDWR data systems to obtain historic and initial conditions of the system as the basis from which future operations are then optimized. Model results suggest alternative operational regimes that improve the value of CDWR resources to the grid while enhancing the environment and complying with water delivery obligations for non-power uses.

Veselka, T. D.; Mahalik, M.

2012-12-01

144

Pseudospectral method for hydropower optimal control problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal control is a mathematical optimization problem and optimal control problems seek optimal control design subjective to a system of differential equations. Because of the nonlinearity of problems, it is hard to derive the analytic solutions for optimal control problem. Hence, the research uses an efficient numerical method, pseudospectral method, to solve complex optimal control problem. The design of the algorithm is based on using the pseudo-spectral differentiation matrix to reduce a high-dimensional function to low-dimensional functions, and the low-dimensional functions are more possible to solve difficult optimization problems. The reservoirs generate electricity constantly is built on the basis of steady inflow, but Taiwan's reservoirs unable to provide a stable amount of water. So designing a mathematical model of optimal control is used to deploy water distribution ratio for hydropower of wet and dry seasons. Because of the hydrological and geographical conditions in water resources systems in Taiwan, unstable water flow is hard to provide steady hydropower generation. An optimal control problem of hydropower generation is formulated for water resources system. A case study of Taiwanese water resources system is conducted. This study use monthly rainfall and output hydropower data to analysis the maximum hydropower with steady outflow. The results show the optimal control of water management and hydropower generation.

Lee, T.

2013-12-01

145

77 FR 32497 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine Nacelles and Generating Sets...special-purpose subzone at the wind turbine nacelle and generating set manufacturing...related to the manufacturing of wind turbine nacelles and generating sets...

2012-06-01

146

Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development  

SciTech Connect

Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

NONE

1996-08-31

147

MATERIALS AND COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS ? PROJECT SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

Future hydrogen-fired or oxy-fuel turbines will likely experience an enormous level of thermal and mechanical loading, as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) approach ?1425-1760?C (?2600-3200?F) with pressures of ?300-625 psig, respectively. Maintaining the structural integrity of future turbine components under these extreme conditions will require (1) durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), (2) high temperature creep resistant metal substrates, and (3) effective cooling techniques. While advances in substrate materials have been limited for the past decades, thermal protection of turbine airfoils in future hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines will rely primarily on collective advances in the TBCs and aerothermal cooling. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has continued its collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University, while working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers. This paper presents the technical accomplishments that were made during FY09 in the initial areas of advanced materials, aerothermal heat transfer and non-destructive evaluation techniques for use in advanced land-based turbine applications in the Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems project, and introduces three new technology areas ? high temperature overlayer coating development, diffusion barrier coating development, and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy development that are being conducted in this effort.

M. A. Alvin

2010-06-18

148

Distributed control system for turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

A distributed control system (DCS) for a turbine engine has been demonstrated and tested, consisting of prototype electronic interface units (EIUs) connected to data and power busses. In the DCS, a central control computer communicated with smart sensors and smart actuators via a 2.5 megabit/sec digital data bus, using the Fieldbus protocol. Power was distributed to the smart devices as 100 kHz 100V peak AC, allowing light, simple power converters at each smart device. All smart sensors, smart actuators, and cables were dual redundant. The smart actuators received position demand from the central control computer, exchanged data between channels to provide local redundancy management, closed the position loop locally, and reported actuator position to the central controller. Smart sensors converted sensed signals to digital values in engineering units, and performed local built-in tests. Testing of the DCS was done in a closed-loop simulation with an engine model. Frequency response of the DCS was almost identical with the conventional system.

Shaffer, P.L. [General Electric Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1999-01-01

149

Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program  

SciTech Connect

The technology based portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) contains several subelements which address generic technology issues for land-based gas-turbine systems. One subelement is the Materials/ Manufacturing Technology Program which is coordinated by DOE Oak Ridge Operations and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from universities and the national laboratories. Projects in this sub-element are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines.

Karnitz, M.A.; Holcomb, R.S.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hoffman, E.E. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

150

Fuel Effects on Gas Turbine Combustion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of variations in properties and characteristics of liquid hydrocarbon-base fuels in gas turbine engine combustors was investigated. Baseline fuels consisted of military-specification materials processed from petroleum and shale oil. Experiment...

S. A. Mosier

1984-01-01

151

Next Generation Gas Turbine (NGGT) Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting bubble of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the co...

2001-01-01

152

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compressor development, turbine, combustion, regenerator system, gearbox/transmission, ceramic material and component development, foil gas bearings, bearings and seals, rotor dynamics development, and controls and accessories are discussed.

1981-01-01

153

Optical systems for gas turbine engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and fabrication of a turbine-blade pyrometer transducer for in situ measurements of blade temperature in operating gas-turbine engines are described and illustrated with diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Consideration is given to the primary components (optical probe, fiber-optic cable, and electronics), the operating environment (extreme temperatures and pressures, vibration, EMI, and liquids), the design specifications, and specific fabrication

Mark Wrigley

1986-01-01

154

Definitional Mission Report on U.S. Hydropower Sector International Competitiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the U.S. hydropower sector's technological competitiveness in major equipment categories such as turbines/generators, switch gears, transformers, etc. for the full range of hydroelectric power plants, that is, from small plants of 50MW...

E. L. Boyd

1992-01-01

155

State of direct fuel cell\\/turbine systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

FuelCell Energy Inc. (FCE) is actively developing fuel cell\\/gas turbine hybrid systems, DFC\\/T®, for generation of clean electric power with very high efficiencies. The gas turbine extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell without the need for supplementary fuel. Key features of the DFC\\/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas (60% on coal gas),

Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh; Jim Walzak; Dilip Patel; Joseph Daly; Hans Maru; Robert Sanderson; William Livingood

2005-01-01

156

Advanced Turbine Systems Program: Conceptual design and product development  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to provide the conceptual design and product development plant for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000 (secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS). This report addresses the remaining 7 of the 9 subtasks in Task 8, Design and Test of Critical Components: catalytic combustion, recuperator, high- temperature turbine disc, advanced control system, and ceramic materials.

NONE

1996-12-31

157

NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Building upon the 1999 AD Little Study, an expanded market analysis was performed by GE Power Systems in 2001 to quantify the potential demand for an NGGT product. This analysis concluded that improvements to the US energy situation might be best served in the near/mid term (2002-2009) by a ''Technology-Focused'' program rather than a specific ''Product-Focused'' program. Within this new program focus, GEPS performed a parametric screening study of options in the three broad candidate categories of gas turbines: aero-derivative, heavy duty, and a potential hybrid combining components of the other two categories. GEPS's goal was to determine the best candidate systems that could achieve the DOE PRDA expectations and GEPS's internal design criteria in the period specified for initial product introduction, circa 2005. Performance feasibility studies were conducted on candidate systems selected in the screening task, and critical technology areas were identified where further development would be required to meet the program goals. DOE PRDA operating parameters were found to be achievable by 2005 through evolutionary technology. As a result, the study was re-directed toward technology enhancements for interim product introductions and advanced/revolutionary technology for potential NGGT product configurations. Candidate technologies were identified, both evolutionary and revolutionary, with a potential for possible development products via growth step improvements. Benefits were analyzed from two perspectives: (1) What would be the attributes of the top candidate system assuming the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity in 2009/2010; and (2) What would be the expected level of public benefit, assuming relevant technologies were incorporated into existing new and current field products as they became available. Candidate systems incorporating these technologies were assessed as to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.

Unknown

2001-12-05

158

INDUSTRIAL ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS: DEVELOPMENT & DEMONSTRATION  

SciTech Connect

Rochelle Municipal Utilities (RMU) was selected for the field evaluation site and placed an order for the first Mercury 50 generator set in November 1997. Field evaluation of the Mercury 50 package at Rochelle began in June 2000 and ran through December 2003. A total of 4,749 package hours were achieved on two generation 2-design engines. Engine Serial Number (ESN) 6 was installed in April 2000 and accumulated 2,324 hours and 267 starts until it was exchanged for ESN 7 in April 2001. ESN 7 ran until completion of the field evaluation period accumulating 2,426 hours and 292 starts. While the 4,749 hours of package operation falls short of the 8,000-hour goal, important lessons were learned at the Rochelle site that resulted in bringing a far superior generation 3 Mercury 50 package to commercialization. Among the issues raised and resolved were: (1) Engine shaft stability; (2) Engine power and efficiency degradation--Air inlet Restrictions, Compressor Efficiency, Turbine Efficiency, Exhaust System Cracks/Leaks; (3) Recuperator Core Durability; (4) Cold Weather Operations; (5) Valve Actuator Reliability; and (6) Remote Operation and Maintenance Support.

George Escola

2004-02-20

159

Integrated bleed load compressor and turbine control system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a turbine engine and control system therefor. It comprises: a turbine engine adapted to be coupled to a load and including interconnected first and second stage compressors, a turbine wheel connected in driving relation thereto, and exhaust from the turbine wheel, a combustor interposed between the turbine wheel and the second stage compressor, and variable inlet guide vanes at the inlet to the first stage compressor; means defining a controllable bleed air flow path connected between the first and second stage compressor and including a bleed air flow sensor associated therewith; a fuel system including a fuel flow control for providing fuel to the combustor to be combusted therein; a turbine wheel speed sensor connected to the turbine engine; means for moving the inlet guide vanes between open, closed and intermediate positions; means for sensing the position of the inlet guide vanes and for providing a signal representative thereof; means for providing a variable bleed air signal to command varying bleed air flows.

McArthur, M.; Rodgers, C.

1992-06-02

160

A control model for dependable hydropower capacity optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article a control model that can be used to determine the dependable power capacity of a hydropower system is presented and tested. The model structure consists of a turbine load allocation module and a reservoir control module and allows for a detailed representation of hydroelectric facilities and various aspects of water management. Although this scheme is developed for planning purposes, it can also be used operationally with minor modifications. The model is applied to the Lanier-Allatoona-Carters reservoir system on the Chattahoochee and Coosa River Basins, in the southeastern United States. The case studies demonstrate that the more traditional simulation-based approaches often underestimate dependable power capacity. Firm energy optimization with or without dependable capacity constraints is taken up in a companion article [Georgakakos et al., this issue].

Georgakakos, Aris P.; Yao, Huaming; Yu, Yongqing

161

Turbine speed control system based on a fuzzy-PID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flexibility demand of marine nuclear power plant is very high, the multiple parameters of the marine nuclear power plant with the once-through steam generator are strongly coupled, and the normal PID control of the turbine speed can’t meet the control demand. This paper introduces a turbine speed Fuzzy-PID controller to coordinately control the steam pressure and thus realize the demand for quick tracking and steady state control over the turbine speed by using the Fuzzy control’s quick dynamic response and PID control’s steady state performance. The simulation shows the improvement of the response time and steady state performance of the control system.

Sun, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei; Yu, Hai-Yan

2008-12-01

162

PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

2000-02-01

163

Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems  

DOEpatents

A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1999-01-01

164

Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-04-27

165

Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50

Jeffrey Price

2008-01-01

166

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 74.5 kW(100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine engine is described. A design iteration to improve the weight and production cost associated with the original concept is discussed. Major rig tests included 15 hours of compressor testing to 80% design speed and the results are presented. Approximately 150 hours of cold flow testing showed duct loss to be less than the design goal. Combustor test results are presented for initial checkout tests. Turbine design and rig fabrication is discussed. From a materials study of six methods to fabricate rotors, two have been selected for further effort. A discussion of all six methods is given.

Helms, H. E.; Kaufeld, J.; Kordes, R.

1981-01-01

167

Hybrid Power Generation System Using Offshore-Wind Turbine and Tidal Turbine for Power Fluctuation Compensation (HOT-PC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid power generation system using Offshore-wind turbine and Tidal turbine for Power fluctuation Compensation (HOT-PC) is an autonomous power system. Electric power is generated from both offshore wind and tidal and is distributed over the load system. Power quality problems such as frequency fluctuations and voltage sags, which arise due to a fault or a pulsed load, can cause interruptions

Mohammad Lutfur Rahman; Shunsuke Oka; Yasuyuki Shirai

2010-01-01

168

Optical semiconductor blade vibration monitoring system for gas turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost optical blade vibration monitoring system was designed to measure the deflection of vibrating gas turbine rotor blade tips under engine running conditions. The basic principle of the new system is the use of low-cost semiconductors and shorter optical fiber bundles. This approach yields a simple and inexpensive system with much less hardware than required for former systems. The

T. KAWASIklA; H. Iinuma; N. Minagawa

1994-01-01

169

Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW's has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, and increased power density and the need for

F. Blaabjerg; M. Liserre; K. Ma

2011-01-01

170

Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity  

SciTech Connect

A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N. [McNiff Light Industry, Harborside, ME (United States); Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01

171

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1995-01-01

172

Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-07-11

173

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS(ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The following paper provides an overview of GE's H System{trademark} technology, and specifically, the design, development, and test activities associated with the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program. There was intensive effort expended in bringing this revolutionary advanced technology program to commercial reality. In addition to describing the magnitude of performance improvement possible through use of H System{trademark} technology, this paper discusses the technological milestones during the development of the first 9H (50Hz) and 7H (60 Hz) gas turbines. To illustrate the methodical product development strategy used by GE, this paper discusses several technologies that were essential to the introduction of the H System{trademark}. Also included are analyses of the series of comprehensive tests of materials, components and subsystems that necessarily preceded full scale field testing of the H System{trademark}. This paper validates one of the basic premises with which GE started the H System{trademark} development program: exhaustive and elaborate testing programs minimized risk at every step of this process, and increase the probability of success when the H System{trademark} is introduced into commercial service. In 1995, GE, the world leader in gas turbine technology for over half a century, in conjunction with the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's ATS program, introduced its new generation of gas turbines. This H System{trademark} technology is the first gas turbine ever to achieve the milestone of 60% fuel efficiency. Because fuel represents the largest individual expense of running a power plant, an efficiency increase of even a single percentage point can substantially reduce operating costs over the life of a typical gas-fired, combined-cycle plant in the 400 to 500 megawatt range. The H System{trademark} is not simply a state-of-the-art gas turbine. It is an advanced, integrated, combined-cycle system in which every component is optimized for the highest level of performance. The unique feature of an H-technology combined-cycle system is the integrated heat transfer system, which combines both the steam plant reheat process and gas turbine bucket and nozzle cooling. This feature allows the power generator to operate at a higher firing temperature than current technology units, thereby resulting in dramatic improvements in fuel-efficiency. The end result is the generation of electricity at the lowest, most competitive price possible. Also, despite the higher firing temperature of the H System{trademark}, the combustion temperature is kept at levels that minimize emission production. GE has more than 3.6 million fired hours of experience in operating advanced technology gas turbines, more than three times the fired hours of competitors' units combined. The H System{trademark} design incorporates lessons learned from this experience with knowledge gleaned from operating GE aircraft engines. In addition, the 9H gas turbine is the first ever designed using ''Design for Six Sigma'' methodology, which maximizes reliability and availability throughout the entire design process. Both the 7H and 9H gas turbines will achieve the reliability levels of our F-class technology machines. GE has tested its H System{trademark} gas turbine more thoroughly than any previously introduced into commercial service. The H System{trademark} gas turbine has undergone extensive design validation and component testing. Full-speed, no-load testing of the 9H was achieved in May 1998 and pre-shipment testing was completed in November 1999. The 9H will also undergo approximately a half-year of extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site. Testing of the 7H began in December 1999, and full speed, no-load testing was completed in February 2000. The 7H gas turbine will also be subjected to extensive demonstration and characterization testing at the launch site.

Kenneth A. Yackly

2001-06-01

174

Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of the two concepts was also performed. Key cost components included the material and construction costs of the buoy; material and installation costs of the tethers, mooring lines, and anchor technologies; costs of transporting and installing the system at the chosen site; and the cost of mounting the wind turbine to the platform. The two systems were evaluated based on their static and dynamic performance and the total system installed cost. Both systems demonstrated acceptable motions, and have estimated costs of $1.4-$1.8 million, not including the cost of the wind turbine, the power electronics, or the electrical transmission.

Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

2006-03-01

175

Shipboard Maintenance and Repair System - Steam-Turbine Plant Prototype.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the basic system design and the diesel plant prototype developed under MarAd Contract 5-38042 and inputs from ship operators, the steam-turbine plant prototype system was developed and installed on the LASH TURKIYE. The system is comprised of a prog...

J. E. Robinson R. E. Kelly J. W. Viele

1979-01-01

176

Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account for design considerations. In addition, the benefits of this approach for wind turbine design and future efforts are discussed.

Dey, Soumitr

177

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary layouts were made for the exhaust system, air induction system, and battery installation. Points of interference were identified and resolved by altering either the vehicle or engine designs. An engine general arrangement evolved to meet the vehicle engine compartment constraints while minimizing the duct pressure losses and the heat rejection. A power transfer system (between gasifier and power turbines) was developed to maintain nearly constant temperatures throughout the entire range of engine operation. An advanced four speed automatic transmission was selected to be used with the engine. Performance calculations show improvements in component efficiencies and an increase in fuel economy. A single stage centrifugal compressor design was completed and released for procurement. Gasifier turbine, power turbine, combustor, generator, secondary systems, materials, controls, and transmission development are reported.

1981-01-01

178

A decision support system for real-time hydropower scheduling in a competitive power market environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity supply market is rapidly changing from a monopolistic to a competitive environment. Being able to operate their system of reservoirs and generating facilities to get maximum benefits out of existing assets and resources is important to the British Columbia Hydro Authority (B.C. Hydro). A decision support system has been developed to help B.C. Hydro operate their system in an optimal way. The system is operational and is one of the tools that are currently used by the B.C. Hydro system operations engineers to determine optimal schedules that meet the hourly domestic load and also maximize the value B.C. Hydro obtains from spot transactions in the Western U.S. and Alberta electricity markets. This dissertation describes the development and implementation of the decision support system in production mode. The decision support system consists of six components: the input data preparation routines, the graphical user interface (GUI), the communication protocols, the hydraulic simulation model, the optimization model, and the results display software. A major part of this work involved the development and implementation of a practical and detailed large-scale optimization model that determines the optimal tradeoff between the long-term value of water and the returns from spot trading transactions in real-time operations. The postmortem-testing phase showed that the gains in value from using the model accounted for 0.25% to 1.0% of the revenues obtained. The financial returns from using the decision support system greatly outweigh the costs of building it. Other benefits are the savings in the time needed to prepare the generation and trading schedules. The system operations engineers now can use the time saved to focus on other important aspects of their job. The operators are currently experimenting with the system in production mode, and are gradually gaining confidence that the advice it provides is accurate, reliable and sensible. The main lesson learned from developing and implementing the system was that there is no alternative to working very closely with the intended end-users of the system, and with the people who have deep knowledge, experience and understanding of how the system is and should be operated.

Shawwash, Ziad Khaled Elias

2000-10-01

179

Variable speed, condensing steam turbine and power system  

SciTech Connect

The variable speed condensing steam turbine is a simplified and effective steam expander which is built mainly of simple, lowcost sheet metal parts and is designed to provide a variable speed/torque output range. The turbine concept is based on the past tesla turbine principle of equally spaced rotor discs to provide a long helical path for steam expansion with high operating efficiency and minimum friction. Unlike the cylindrical tesla turbine this unit is in conical form with uniformly varying diameter discs used to provide a variable speed/torque power output range. A further purpose of having a uniform conical housing and uniformly increasing diameter discs is to achieve maximum steam expansion which will lead to rapid steam condensation, or a precondensation condition for the expended steam passing through the conical turbine. A fuel conservation feature of the condensing turbine is a provision for separating hydrogen gas from a portion of the expanded/expended steam which will be conducted to the external fuel burner of the vapor generator, as part of the complete power system.

Kelly, D.A.

1980-09-30

180

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1979-01-01

181

Benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of solar/fossil hybrid gas turbine power systems were assessed. Both retrofit and new systems were considered from the aspects of; cost of electricity, fuel conservation, operational mode, technology requirements, and fuels flexibility. Hybrid retrofit (repowering) of existing combustion (simple Brayton cycle) turbines can provide near-term fuel savings and solar experience, while new and advanced recuperated or combined cycle systems may be an attractive fuel saving and economically competitive vehicle to transition from today's gas and oil-fired powerplants to other more abundant fuels.

Bloomfield, H. S.

1978-01-01

182

Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines  

DOEpatents

Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

Pillsbury, Paul W. (Winter Springs, FL)

1990-01-01

183

Power fluctuations smoothing and regulations in wind turbine generator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind is one of the most popular renewable energy sources and it has the potential to become the biggest energy source in future. Since the wind does not always blow constantly, the output wind power is not constant which may make some problem for the power grid. According to the grid code which is set by independent system operator, ISO, wind turbine generator systems need to follow some standards such as the predetermined acceptable power fluctuations. In order to smooth the output powers, the energy storage system and some power electronics modules are employed. The utilized power electronics modules in the wind turbine system can pursue many different goals, such as maintaining the voltage stability, frequency stability, providing the available and predetermined output active and reactive power. On the other side, the energy storage system can help achieving some of these goals but its main job is to store the extra energy when not needed and release the stored energy when needed. The energy storage system can be designed in different sizes, material and also combination of different energy storage systems (hybrid designs). Combination of power electronics devises and also energy storage system helps the wind turbine systems to smooth the output power according to the provided standards. In addition prediction of wind speed may improve the performance of wind turbine generator systems. In this research study all these three topics are studied and the obtained results are written in 10 papers which 7 of them are published and three of them are under process.

Babazadehrokni, Hamed

184

Prospects of Hydropower Utilization for Electricity Generation in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospects of hydropower utilization as a renewable energy source for electricity generation in Jordan are assessed. A hydroelectric power system is proposed for generating electricity by exploiting the resulted hydropower (due to the 400 m difference in elevation) from linking the Red Sea with the Dead Sea. A simulation model is suggested for the evaluation of electricity produced by the

E. S. Hrayshat

2009-01-01

185

Horizontal axis wind turbine systems: optimization using genetic algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the optimization of a grid-connected wind turbine system is presented. The behaviour of the system components is coupled in a non-linear way, and optimization must take into account technical and economical aspects of the complete system design. The annual electrical energy cost is estimated using a cost model for the wind turbine rotor, nacelle and tower and an energy output model based on the performance envelopes of the power coefficient of the rotor, CP, on the Weibull parameters k and c and on the power law coefficient of the wind profile. In this study the site is defined with these three parameters and the extreme wind speed Vmax. The model parameters vary within a range of possible values. Other elements of the project (foundation, grid connection, financing cost, etc.) are taken into account through coefficients. The optimal values of the parameters are determined using genetic algorithms, which appear to be efficient for such a problem. These optimal values were found to be very different for a Mediterranean site and a northern European site using our numerical model. Optimal wind turbines at the Mediterranean sites considered in this article have an excellent profitability compared with reference northern European wind turbines. Most of the existing wind turbines appear to be well designed for northern European sites but not for Mediterranean sites.

Diveux, T.; Sebastian, P.; Bernard, D.; Puiggali, J. R.; Grandidier, J. Y.

2001-10-01

186

Analyzing tradeoffs between hydropower production and hydrological alteration to support water resources planning in large river systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. In this study, we analyze the case of the Red River Vietnam, a large basin of 169.000 kmq where the storing capacity, mainly targeted at hydropower production, has steadily increased since from the Eighties through the construction of a number of reservoirs (Hoa Binh completed in 1994, Tuyen Quang in 2008, Son La in 2012), which nowadays account for the 15% of the national electric power production. On the other hand, reservoir operation dramatically alters downstream river hydrology, geomorphological processes and riverine ecosystems. In this work, we focus in particular on the alteration of the hydrological regime downstream of the Hoa Binh reservoir and explore re-operation options to mitigate the hydrological alteration while guaranteeing reasonable hydropower production. To reach this goal we (i) define an index of hydrological alteration starting from the well established set of Indicators of Hydrological Alteration and applying a novel selection and aggregation procedure; (ii) embed such an index into a multi-objective optimization process, to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal solutions between maximization of hydropower production and minimization of hydrological alteration. This work demonstrates the potential of multi-objective optimization and simulation tools to analyze tradeoffs between conflicting needs and thus support the evaluation and planning of sustainable energy production programs.

Micotti, Marco; Pianosi, Francesca; Bizzi, Simone; Mason, Emanuele; Weber, Enrico

2014-05-01

187

Fault-Tolerant Control of Wind Turbine Systems - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbine systems are complex and remotely- installed structures which are subject to many possible faults in the existed components. Early fault detection, isolation and successful controller reconfiguration can considerably increase the performance in faulty conditions and prevent abysmal failures in the system. This paper gives an overview of recent progress in theory and methods to analyze and design fault-

Sajjad Pourmohammad; Afef Fekih

2011-01-01

188

Wind turbine control monitor system simulation and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Using Labview as a tool, to take virtual equipment instead of a real object to control the system and improve system performance. Not only save money but also can change any profile an one wish. Using Labview characteristic of the human-machine interface transfer data in graphical results. This paper is applied to wind turbine monitor and sensors

Ho-Ling Fu; Wei-Chiang Chang

2010-01-01

189

Fuzzy PID controller used in yaw system of Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yaw system plays an important role in wind turbine generator because of the direction and intensity of wind is time-varying. Because the model of yaw system is difficult to be set up and some parameters of controller are uncertain. General PID controller is not suit for all operation scope. This paper presents a fuzzy PID controller to deal with the

Fu-qing Chen; Jin-ming Yang

2009-01-01

190

Abradable Dual-Density Ceramic Turbine Seal System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plasma sprayed dual density ceramic abradable seal system for direct application to the HPT seal shroud of small gas turbine engines. The system concept is based on the thermal barrier coating and depends upon an additional layer of modified density cer...

D. L. Clingman B. Schechter K. R. Cross J. R. Cavanagh

1981-01-01

191

BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN GAS-TURBINE-BASED SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a comparative evaluation of a range of biomass power generation systems. he objective was to identify systems most suitable for unique properties of biomass. he characteristics of biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance of several gas-turbine-b...

192

Combination wind turbine generator and solar hot water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This demonstration combined two renewable sources of energy, wind and solar, to meet the needs for a hot water system and electrical generation. A new and unique wind blade design called a Helical Wind Turbine was used. The solar hot water system used was commercially produced. The project has demonstrated that wind generators are feasible in Harford County, Maryland.

J. L. Jr

1983-01-01

193

Advanced, Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectric Turbines for the Restoration of Fish and Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the world?s electrical energy. The contribution of hydroelectric generation has declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, ?environmentally friendly? turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been he AHTS program are described.

Brookshier, P.A.; Cada, G.F.; Flynn, J.V.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sale, M.J.; Sommers, G.L.

1999-09-06

194

a Review of Hydropower Reservoir and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like most manmade projects, hydropower dams have multiple effects on the environment that have been studied in some depth over the past two decades. Among their most important effects are potential changes in water movement, flowing much slower than in the original river. This favors the appearance of phytoplankton as nutrients increase, with methanogenesis replacing oxidative water and generating anaerobic conditions. Although research during the late 1990s highlighted the problems caused by hydropower dams emitting greenhouse gases, crucial aspects of this issue still remain unresolved. Similar to natural water bodies, hydropower reservoirs have ample biota ranging from microorganisms to aquatic vertebrates. Microorganisms (bacteria) decompose organic matter producing biogenic gases under water. Some of these biogenic gases cause global warming, including methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The levels of GHG emissions from hydropower dams are a strategic matter of the utmost importance, and comparisons with other power generation options such as thermo-power are required. In order to draw up an accurate assessment of the net emissions caused by hydropower dams, significant improvements are needed in carbon budgets and studies of representative hydropower dams. To determine accurately the net emissions caused by hydro reservoir formation is required significant improvement of carbon budgets studies on different representatives' hydro reservoirs at tropical, boreal, arid, semi arid and temperate climate. Comparisons must be drawn with emissions by equivalent thermo power plants, calculated and characterized as generating the same amount of energy each year as the hydropower dams, burning different fuels and with varying technology efficiency levels for steam turbines as well as coal, fuel oil and natural gas turbines and combined cycle plants. This paper brings to the scientific community important aspects of the development of methods and techniques applied as well as identifying the main players and milestones to this subject.

Rosa, L. P.; Dos Santos, M. A.

2013-05-01

195

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method  

DOEpatents

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01

196

ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

Albrecht H. Mayer

2000-07-15

197

Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system  

DOEpatents

In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01

198

TED-Turbine Engine Diagnostics: an expert diagnostic system for the M1 Abrams AGT1500 turbine engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

TED (Turbine Engine Diagnostics) is a diagnostic expert system to aid the M1 Abrams' mechanic find and fix problems in the AGT1500 turbine engine. TED was designed and built by the US Army Research Laboratory and the US Army Ordnance Center. Limited fielding was begun in July 1994 to selected National Guard Units, with eventual fielding to 28 National Guard

Richard Helfman; J. Dumer; T. Hanratty

1995-01-01

199

Clean Energy: Hydropower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydropower generation is introduced to students as a common purpose and benefit of constructing dams. Through an introduction to kinetic and potential energy, students come to understand how a dam creates electricity. They also learn the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

200

Materials/manufacturing element of the Advanced Turbine System Program  

SciTech Connect

One of the supporting elements of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is the materials/manufacturing technologies task. The objective of this element is to address critical materials issues for both industrial and utility gas turbines. DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) will manage this element of the program, and a team from DOE-ORO and Oak Ridge National Laboratory is coordinating the planning for the materials/manufacturing effort. This paper describes that planning activity which is in the early stages.

Karnitz, M.A.; Devan, J.H.; Holcomb, R.S.; Ferber, M.K.; Harrison, R.W.

1994-08-01

201

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas turbine powertrain for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact is investigated. The automotive gas turbine, when installed in an automobile (3000 pounds inertia weight), provides a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on EPA test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT powered vehicle substantially gives the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system. The emissions are less than federal standards, and a variety of fuels can be used.

1982-01-01

202

System for pressure modulation of turbine sidewall cavities  

DOEpatents

A system and method are provided for controlling cooling air flow for pressure modulation of turbine components, such as the turbine outer sidewall cavities. The pressure at which cooling and purge air is supplied to the turbine outer side wall cavities is modulated, based on compressor discharge pressure (Pcd), thereby to generally maintain the back flow margin (BFM) so as to minimize excessive leakage and the consequent performance deterioration. In an exemplary embodiment, the air pressure within the third stage outer side wall cavity and the air pressure within the fourth stage outer side wall cavity are each controlled to a respective value that is a respective prescribed percentage of the concurrent compressor discharge pressure. The prescribed percentage may be determined from a ratio of the respective outer side wall pressure to compressor discharge pressure at Cold Day Turn Down (CDTD) required to provide a prescribed back flow margin.

Leone, Sal Albert (Scotia, NY); Book, Matthew David (Altamont, NY); Banares, Christopher R. (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01

203

Design and analysis of a fuel cell\\/gas turbine hybrid power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system that aims to increase the system efficiency and decrease the costs by employing the waste heat from the fuel cell stack in the gas turbine. The hybrid system consists mainly of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a gas-turbine generator and a heat exchanger between them.

Atideh Abbasi; Zhenhua Jiang

2008-01-01

204

Control systems of wind turbine generators: an Italian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control system of a wind turbine plays a crucial role in determining its dynamic performances in all the possible operating conditions, along the generator start-up and shut-down maneuvers, as well as during the production phase. In particular the regulation of blade pitch and nacelle alignment to the wind direction permit to maximize the power production or to limit the

S. Corsi; M. Pozzi

2003-01-01

205

Gas turbine total energy vapour compression desalination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various arrangements for heat recovery systems (HRS) are investigated for using the waste energy of a gas turbine (GT) engine driven sea water desalination plant, and the outcomes are compared with a basic sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. These arrangements are analyzed, and their flow diagrams are presented. The analysis showed that using a mechanical vapour compression (MVC) unit

Samir E Aly

1999-01-01

206

Turbine speed control for an ocean wave energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a hydraulic turbine speed governor is proposed in view of its application in an isolated electric generation system based on an ocean wave energy converter (WEC). The proposed strategy is based on cascade closed-loop control combined with feedforward of load disturbances. The main characteristics of a WEC are presented and a dynamic model of the generating unit

Paula B. Garcia-Rosa; J. P. V. S. Cunha; Fernando Lizarralde

2009-01-01

207

Thermoeconomic evaluation of a gas turbine cogeneration system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to apply thermoeconomics concepts to a projected steam injected gas turbine cogeneration system, which aims at providing the thermal and electrical demands of an industrial district sited in Cabo (Pernambuco, Brazil). The power plant is evaluated on the basis of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. A thermoeconomic analysis, using the Theory

Flávio Guarinello; Sérgio A. A. G. Cerqueira; Silvia A. Nebra

2000-01-01

208

Gas turbine engine compartment vent system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes improvement in a gas turbine engine of the type having a core engine, a shroud surrounding the core engine, a tubular outer nacelle defining an annular bypass duct therebetween and a fan disposed in the nacelle inlet for directing compressed air flow into and through the bypass duct, the shroud spaced from the engine sufficiently to provide space for installation of heat sensitive engine related components. The improvement comprises: at least one vent through the shroud, selectively positioned to direct compressed fan air from the bypass duct into the space between the shroud and engine for direct impingement on at least one of the heat sensitive engine related components for cooling same; the vent comprising an open ended tube extending through a hole in the shroud, bonded thereto, and terminating therein adjacent to the heat sensitive engine related components.

Mutch, H.

1991-10-08

209

Debris trap in a turbine cooling system  

DOEpatents

In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

2002-01-01

210

Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

Ladkany, Samaan G.

1998-01-01

211

Optimization of value of CVP's hydropower production  

Microsoft Academic Search

CVPOP is a nonlinear programming model for the optimization of the multi-month operation of the hydropower system of the California Central Valley Project (CVP). CVPOP includes the dependence of energy values within each month of the capacity factor of the generating unit, avoiding the simplification of assuming constant monthly or yearly values as is common in other models. The model

J. Alberto Tejada-Guibert; Jery R. Stedinger; Konstantin Staschus

1990-01-01

212

An Improved Algorithm for Hydropower Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm named energy management by successive linear programming (EMSLP) was developed to solve the optimization problem of the hydropower system operation. The EMSLP algorithm has two iteration levels: at the first level a stable solution is sought, and at the second the interior of the feasible region is searched to improve the objective function whenever its value decreases.

K. K. Reznicek; S. P. Simonovic

1990-01-01

213

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August--October 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the tasks completed for the advanced turbine systems program. The topics of the report include last row turbine blade development, single crystal blade casting development, ceramic materials development, combustion cylinder flow mapp...

1996-01-01

214

Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems  

SciTech Connect

In order to meet the 2010-2020 DOE Fossil Energy goals for Advanced Power Systems, future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbines will need to be operated at higher temperatures for extended periods of time, in environments that contain substantially higher moisture concentrations in comparison to current commercial natural gas-fired turbines. Development of modified or advanced material systems, combined with aerothermal concepts are currently being addressed in order to achieve successful operation of these land-based engines. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has initiated a research program effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers as Howmet International and Coatings for Industry (CFI), and test facilities as Westinghouse Plasma Corporation (WPC) and Praxair, to develop advanced material and aerothermal technologies for use in future oxy-fuel and hydrogen-fired turbine applications. Our program efforts and recent results are presented.

Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.; Yanar, N.; Chyu, M.; Mazzotta, D.; Slaughter, W.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.; Feng, C.; Chen, R.; Fu, T-C.

2008-10-01

215

System study of an MHD\\/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MHD\\/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from

Annen

1982-01-01

216

Modeling and Control of Micro-Turbine Based Distributed Generation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro turbine generation is currently attracting lot of attention to meet users need in the distributed generation market due to the deregulation of electric power utilities, advancement in technology, environmental concerns. In this paper modeling of micro-turbine distributed generation system has been implemented and a new converter controller for a simulation of dynamic model of a micro-turbine generation system (MTG)

Ashwani Kumar; K. S. Sandhu; S. P. Jain; P. Sharath Kumar

217

Study of fuzzy PID controller for industrial steam turbine governing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to satisfy the higher control performance requirement of the industrial steam turbine governing system, the electro-hydraulic servo system and turbine governor based on fuzzy PID control are researched. Since the electric and the heat load models of the turbine always have uncertain dynamics and cross coupling influencing factors, the simple linear or nonlinear differential equations can not sufficiently

Guihua Han; Lihua Chen; Junpeng Shao; Zhibin Sun

2005-01-01

218

Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid fuel cell\\/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment

Rory A. Roberts; Jack Brouwer; Eric Liese; Randall S. Gemmen

2006-01-01

219

Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code  

SciTech Connect

Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

1996-10-01

220

Steam cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

2002-01-01

221

How Hydropower Plants Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How Stuff Works is a site that offers in-depth articles explaining in simple terms how things work. This article provides a detailed description of how hydropower plants work and generate electricity. It describes how water provides power, what goes on in the generator to make power, the hydrologic cycle, and a new invention known as hydroelectric footwear. Links are provided for additional information.

2007-12-12

222

Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup system for direct coal fueled turbines  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of.Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of coal-fired turbine technology in the areas of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles, and Direct Coal-Fired Turbines. A major technical challenge remaining for the development of coal-fired turbine systems is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards for sulfur oxides and particulate emissions, as well as to provide acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, is evaluating an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept that has been configured to meet this technical challenge. This ceramic barrier filter, ILEC concept simultaneously controls sulfur, particulate, and alkali contaminants in high-pressure fuel gases or combustion gases, and is considering cleaning temperatures up to 2100{degrees}F. This document describes Phase II of the program, the design, construction, and shakedown of a bench-scale facility to test and confirm the feasibility of this ILEC technology.

Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

1993-07-01

223

Control of wind turbine generators connected to power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique simulation model based on a Mode-O wind turbine is developed for simulating both speed and power control. An analytical representation for a wind turbine that employs blade pitch angle feedback control is presented, and a mathematical model is formulated. For Mode-O serving as a practical case study, results of a computer simulation of the model as applied to the problems of synchronization and dynamic stability are provided. It is shown that the speed and output of a wind turbine can be satisfactorily controlled within reasonable limits by employing the existing blade pitch control system under specified conditions. For power control, an additional excitation control is required so that the terminal voltage, output power factor, and armature current can be held within narrow limits. As a result, the variation of torque angle is limited even if speed control is not implemented simultaneously with power control. Design features of the ERDA/NASA 100-kW Mode-O wind turbine are included.

Hwang, H. H.; Mozeico, H. V.; Gilbert, L. J.

1978-01-01

224

Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level, variability due to geographic distribution of wind resources, and forecast error. Electric power system factors include the mix of thermal generation resources, available transmission, demand patterns, and market structures. Hydropower factors include relative storage capacity, reservoir operating policies and hydrologic conditions. In addition, the wind, power system, and hydropower factors are often interrelated because stochastic weather patterns can simultaneously influence wind generation, power demand, and hydrologic inflows. One of the central findings is that the sensitivity of the model to changes cannot be performed one factor at a time because the impact of the factors is highly interdependent. For example, the net value of wind generation may be very sensitive to changes in transmission capacity under some hydrologic conditions, but not at all under others.

Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

2012-12-01

225

Field test of ultra-low head hydropower package based on marine thrusters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project includes the design, fabrication, assembly, installation, and field test of the first full-scale operating hydropower package (turbine, transmission, and generator) based on a design which incorporates a marine-thruster as the hydraulic prime mover. Included here are: the project overview; engineering design; ultra-low head hydropower package fabrication; component procurement, cost control, and scheduling; thruster hydraulic section installation; site modeling and resulting recommended modifications; testing; and baseline environmental conditions at Stone Drop. (MHR)

Not Available

1983-12-01

226

Torsional vibration analysis of turbine-generator-blade coupled system  

SciTech Connect

Turbine-generator sets are major components of electricity generating power plants. Pretwisted turbine blades, fixed on a rotating shaft by means of mounting disks, vibrate in both tangential and axial directions. The tangential component of blade vibrations is coupled with torsional vibrations of the shaft. This problem of a coupled shaft-blade torsional vibration in turbine-generator sets requires an equivalent reduction modeling technique used for coupled vibrating systems; however, to date, the shaft system and the blade system were modeled separately. The designers of a rotating shaft system analyze its torsional vibration ignoring the flexibility of the blade and of the disks. The shaft is modeled as a beam element using the finite element method (FEM). This FEM beam model is then used to calculate and design the shaft natural frequencies such that resonance is avoided with unbalanced torque excitations which have twice the line frequency (2f). This paper shows explicitly how to determine the modeling masses and spring constants to obtain the equivalent reduction of the real sub-system.

Matsushita, O.; Namura, K. Yoshida, T. (Mechanical Engineering Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., 502 Kandatsu-machi, Tsuchiura-shi, Ibaraki (JP)); Kaneko, R.; Okabe, A. (Hitachi Works, Hitachi, Ltd., 3-1-1 Saiwai-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (JP))

1989-01-01

227

Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility Data Acquisition System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility (WTDTF) is a stateof-the-art industrial facility used for testing wind turbine drivetrains and generators. Large power output wind turbines are primarily installed for off-shore wind power generation. The facility...

J. B. McIntosh

2011-01-01

228

Study of sediment erosion in hydraulic turbine using rotating disc apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are huge potential for hydropower development in Himalayan region in general and Nepal is particular. However, there are also technical challenges for hydropower development due to sediment erosion problem. Erosion not only reduces efficiency and life of hydropower turbines but also causes problems in operation and maintenance. A large number of factors can influence the process of sediment erosion

Hari Prasad Neopane; Surendra Sujakhu; Sanjay Shrestha; Khsitij Subedi; Anil Basnet

2012-01-01

229

State of direct fuel cell/turbine systems development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FuelCell Energy Inc. (FCE) is actively developing fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid systems, DFC/T ®, for generation of clean electric power with very high efficiencies. The gas turbine extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell without the need for supplementary fuel. Key features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas (60% on coal gas), minimal emissions, simple design, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed sub-MW scale proof-of-concept tests (pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant). The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. A small packaged natural gas fueled sub-MW unit is being developed for demonstrations (alpha and beta units). Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Walzak, Jim; Patel, Dilip; Daly, Joseph; Maru, Hans; Sanderson, Robert; Livingood, William

230

Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems annual program review meeting  

SciTech Connect

Goals of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. During this Nov. 9-11, 1994, meeting, presentations on energy policy issues were delivered by representatives of regulatory, industry, and research institutions; program overviews and technical reviews were given by contractors; and ongoing and proposed future projects sponsored by university and industry were presented and displayed at the poster session. Panel discussions on distributed power and Advanced Gas Systems Research education provided a forum for interactive dialog and exchange of ideas. Exhibitors included US DOE, Solar Turbines, Westinghouse, Allison Engine Co., and GE.

NONE

1994-12-31

231

TED-Turbine Engine Diagnostics: A Practical Application of a Diagnostic Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

TED (Turbine Engine Diagnostics) is a diagnostic expert system to aid an M1 Abrams tank mechanic in finding and fixing problems in an AGT-1500 turbine engine. TED was designed to provide apprentice mechanics with the ability to diagnose and repair a turbine engine like an expert mechanic. This paper discusses the reasoning method used in TED, called the Procedural Reasoning

Holly Ingham; Richard Helfman; Tim Hanratty; John Dumer; Edmund H. Baur

1997-01-01

232

General model for representing variable speed wind turbines in power system dynamics simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tendency to erect ever more wind turbines can be observed in order to reduce the environmental consequences of electric power generation. As a result of this, in the near future, wind turbines may start to influence the behavior of electric power systems by interacting with conventional generation and loads. Therefore, wind turbine models that can be integrated into power

J. G. Slootweg; S. W. H. de Haan; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2003-01-01

233

Studies on the Variable Speed Wind Turbine Control System Based on PSCAD\\/EMTDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) based on Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has some advantages and better integration characteristics comparing with fixed speed wind turbine. On the basis of existing models of main components of wind turbine in the model library of PSCAD\\/EMTDC, the control system of VSWT is established in this paper. Furthermore, taking a kind of prevailing

Feng Shuang-lei; Zhao Hai-xiang; Wang Wei-sheng

2006-01-01

234

Performance of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype 3kW horizontal upwind type wind turbine generator of 4m in diameter has been designed and examined under real wind conditions. The machine was designed based on the concept that even small wind turbines should have a variable pitch control system just as large wind turbines, especially in Japan where typhoons occur at least once a year. A characteristic

Baku M. Nagai; Kazumasa Ameku; Jitendro Nath Roy

2009-01-01

235

UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH-HIGH EFFICIENCY ENGINES AND TURBINES (UTSR-HEET)  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, the U S Department of Energy established a cooperative agreement for a program now designated as the University Turbine Systems (UTSR) Program. As stated in the cooperative agreement, the objective of the program is to support and facilitate development of advanced energy systems incorporating turbines through a university research environment. This document is the first annual, technical progress report for the UTSR Program. The Executive Summary describes activities for the year of the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), which administers the UTSR Program. Included are descriptions of: Outline of program administrative activities; Award of the first 10 university research projects resulting from a year 2001 RFP; Year 2002 solicitation and proposal selection for awards in 2003; Three UTSR Workshops in Combustion, Aero/Heat Transfer, and Materials; SCIES participation in workshops and meetings to provide input on technical direction for the DOE HEET Program; Eight Industrial Internships awarded to higher level university students; Increased membership of Performing Member Universities to 105 institutions in 40 states; Summary of outreach activities; and a Summary table describing the ten newly awarded UTSR research projects. Attachment A gives more detail on SCIES activities by providing the monthly exceptions reports sent to the DOE during the year. Attachment B provides additional information on outreach activities for 2002. The remainder of this report describes in detail the technical approach, results, and conclusions to date for the UTSR university projects.

Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz; William H. Day

2003-03-01

236

Large-scale hydropower system optimization using dynamic programming and object-oriented programming: the case of the Northeast China Power Grid.  

PubMed

This paper examines long-term optimal operation using dynamic programming for a large hydropower system of 10 reservoirs in Northeast China. Besides considering flow and hydraulic head, the optimization explicitly includes time-varying electricity market prices to maximize benefit. Two techniques are used to reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' of dynamic programming with many reservoirs. Discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) reduces the search space and computer memory needed. Object-oriented programming (OOP) and the ability to dynamically allocate and release memory with the C++ language greatly reduces the cumulative effect of computer memory for solving multi-dimensional dynamic programming models. The case study shows that the model can reduce the 'curse of dimensionality' and achieve satisfactory results. PMID:24334896

Li, Ji-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Shan; Ji, Chang-Ming; Wang, Ai-Jing; Lund, Jay R

2013-01-01

237

Analysis of Some Exergoeconomic Parameters of Small Wind Turbine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates some exergoeconomic parameters (energy and exergy loss ratios) for a 1.5 kW wind turbine system, linking capital costs and thermodynamic losses, based on some operating conditions. The results show that while the ratio of energy loss rate to capital cost (Ren) changes between 0.007 and 0.813 at different wind speeds, the ratio of exergy loss rate to

Onder Ozgener; Leyla Ozgener; Ibrahim Dincer

2009-01-01

238

Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.  

PubMed

This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation. PMID:11460628

Yoshida, T

2001-05-01

239

Instrumentation for propulsion systems development. [high speed fans and turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and techniques developed or used by NASA-Lewis to make steady state or dynamic measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and velocity and of the temperature, tip clearance, and vibration of the blades of high-speed fans or turbines are described. The advantages and limitations of each instrument and technique are discussed and the possibility of modifying them for use in developing various propulsion systems is suggested.

Warshawsky, I.

1978-01-01

240

Boiler-turbine control system design using a genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of a genetic algorithm to control system design for boiler-turbine plant. In particular we study the ability of the genetic algorithm to develop a proportional-integral (PI) controller and a state feedback controller for a nonlinear multi-input\\/multi-output (MIMO) plant model. The plant model is presented along with a discussion of the inherent difficulties in such controller

Robert Dimeo; Kwang Y. Lee

1995-01-01

241

Fuel Cell\\/Turbine Ultra High Efficiency Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

FuelCell Energy, INC. (FCE) is currently involved in the design of ultra high efficiency power plants under a cooperative agreement (DE-FC26-00NT40) managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of the DOE's Vision 21 program. Under this project, FCE is developing a fuel cell\\/turbine hybrid system that integrates the atmospheric pressure Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) with an unfired Brayton

Hossein; Ghezel-Ayagh

2001-01-01

242

Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows that adjustable speed generators for wind turbines are necessary when output power becomes higher than 1 MW. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) system presented in this article offers many advantages to reduce cost and has the potential to be built economically at power levels above 1.5 MW, e.g., for off-shore applications. A dynamic model of the

S. Muller; M. Deicke; R. W. De Doncker

2002-01-01

243

Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

1990-07-01

244

Advanced technology cogeneration system conceptual design study: Closed cycle gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a three task study performed for the Department of Energy under the direction of the NASA Lewis Research Center are documented. The thermal and electrical energy requirements of three specific industrial plants were surveyed and cost records for the energies consumed were compiled. Preliminary coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed heated closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration system designs were developed for each industrial plant. Preliminary cost and return-on-equity values were calculated and the results compared. The best of the three sites was selected for more detailed design and evaluation of both closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration systems during Task II. Task III involved characterizing the industrial sector electrical and thermal loads for the 48 contiguous states, applying a family of closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine cogeneration systems to these loads, and conducting a market penetration analysis of the closed cycle gas turbine cogeneration system.

Mock, E. A. T.; Daudet, H. C.

1983-01-01

245

Fusion of a FBG-based health monitoring system for wind turbines with a fiber-optic lightning detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbine blades are made of composite materials and reach a length of more than 42 meters. Developments for modern offshore turbines are working on about 60 meters long blades. Hence, with the increasing height of the turbines and the remote locations of the structures, health monitoring systems are becoming more and more important. Therefore, fiber-optic sensor systems are well-suited,

Sebastian G. M. Krämer; Benjamin Wiesent; Mathias S. Müller; Fernando Puente León; Yarú Méndez Hernández

2008-01-01

246

Wind turbine effects on VOR system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of wind farms establishment in France is increasing. When wind farms are located close to radionavigation systems, it becomes important to evaluate their electromagnetic effects on existing radionavigation instalations. In this study, the radionavigation system is a VOR (VHF omnidirectional radio) operating at about 110 MHz. Because rotor blades are made of a balsa and dielectric multilayers composition,

C. Morlaas; M. Fares; B. Souny

2008-01-01

247

Steam turbine generator excitation system modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many power plants built 20-30 years ago are facing problems associated with the excitation system used for controlling generator output voltage. After years of reliable operation, generation is experiencing increased down time due to maintenance associated with the existing excitation equipment. Reliability of the excitation system has become an issue, especially where many of these generation plants may be critical

Richard C. Schaefer

1995-01-01

248

Greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the findings of a recent IAEA expert meeting on the assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the full ‘lifecycle’ of hydropower. It discusses the different categories of hydropower plants in view of the two main sources of GHG emissions: first, direct and indirect emissions associated with the construction of the plants; second, emissions from decaying

Joop F. van de Vate

1997-01-01

249

Multicriterion analysis of hydropower operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two examples are presented to show how multicriterion decision-making (MCDM) techniques can help hydropower engineers mitigate the environmental and social effects of hydropower development and operation. A brief introduction and overview of MCDM is presented, consisting of an 11-step process that starts with problem definition and ends with implementation. A typology of MCDM is provided, dividing the techniques into three

L. Duckstein; B. F. Hobbs; A. Tecle; H. P. Nachnebel

1989-01-01

250

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01

251

Operation of small wind turbines on a distribution system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed technical interconnection problems associated with the dispersed wind turbine WT application scenario: WTs connected on distribution systems producing ac power directly or dc power fed into an inverter, without storage systems, feeding back surplus power whenever the wind is blowing. Its specific objectives included analysis of: utility personnel safety; distribution system and WT protection equipment; WTs' effects on distribution feeder voltage and regulation equipment, and line losses; and development of a method to analyze utility load-frequency control problems with load patterns produced by customer demand and the WTs' intermittent power output.

Curtice, D.; Patton, J.

1981-03-01

252

Reliability assurance of turbine energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) is a 6-k (electric) space power system utilizing a ²³⁸Pu radioisotope heat source and a dual redundant closed Brayton cycle power conversion assembly. The DIPS program is currently funded to design, fabricate, and test a ground demonstration engineering unit. Primary objectives of the test will be to validate design and demonstrate performance and lifetime.

P. D. Rutherford; D. S. Burgess; S. Robb

1989-01-01

253

Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam- and water-cooled gas turbine: steam turbine combined cycle systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study was made of the performance of air-, steam-, and water-cooled gas-turbine\\/steam-turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal-barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205°C to 1370°C, resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4% when the turbine

Nainiger

1978-01-01

254

Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United Technologies Research Center, Pratt & Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt & Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the ...

1993-01-01

255

Turbine Engine Clearance Control Systems: Current Practices and Future Directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved blade tip sealing in the high pressure compressor (HPC) and high pressure turbine (HPT) can provide dramatic reductions in specific fuel consumption (SFC), time-on-wing, compressor stall margin, and engine efficiency as well as increased payload and mission range capabilities. Maintenance costs to overhaul large commercial gas turbine engines can easily exceed 1M. Engine removal from service is primarily due to spent exhaust gas temperature (EGT) margin caused mainly by the deterioration of HPT components. Increased blade tip clearance is a major factor in hot section component degradation. As engine designs continue to push the performance envelope with fewer parts and the market drives manufacturers to increase service life, the need for advanced sealing continues to grow. A review of aero gas turbine engine HPT performance degradation and the mechanisms that promote these losses are discussed. Benefits to the HPT due to improved clearance management are identified. Past and present sealing technologies are presented along with specifications for next generation engine clearance control systems.

Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

2002-09-01

256

Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

2010-09-01

257

Multi-Megawatt Gas Turbine Power Systems for Lunar Colonies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept for development of second generation 10 MWe prototype lunar power plant utilizing a gas cooled fission reactor supplying heated helium working fluid to two parallel 5 MWe closed cycle gas turbines is presented. Such a power system is expected to supply the energy needs for an initial lunar colony with a crew of up to 50 persons engaged in mining and manufacturing activities. System performance and mass details were generated by an author developed code (BRMAPS). The proposed pilot power plant can be a model for future plants of the same capacity that could be tied to an evolutionary lunar power grid.

Juhasz, Albert J.

2006-01-01

258

Design and Implementation of a Control System for the Mesabi V27 Wind Turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is the design and implementation of a control law for a Vestas V27 turbine. There are two motivations for this work. First, there is a rapidly growing industry to refurbish turbines and the proposed control design can be used to update V27 turbines to extend their operational life. Second, the proposed control design will be open-source thus enabling the V27 turbine to be used for research purposes. The thesis will first provide a review of traditional wind turbine control systems. Next the V27 turbine hardware, software, and design specification are described. A control system is then described that includes supervisory control and a SISO classical control for the rotor speed tracking controller. Experimental test results are presented using a V27 turbine installed at the Mesabi Range Community and Technical College.

Thorson, William M.

259

An artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tank`s AGT-1500 gas turbine engine. This paper describes the design and prototype development of the ANN component of the diagnostic system, which we refer to as ``TEDANN`` for Turbine Engine Diagnostic Artificial Neural Networks.

Illi, O.J. Jr. [Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Knowledge Engineering Group (KEG); Greitzer, F.L.; Kangas, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Reeve, T. [Expert Solutions, Stratford, CT (United States)

1994-04-01

260

Cooling system for a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

A plurality of arcuate circumferentially spaced supply and return manifold segments are arranged on the rim of a rotor for respectively receiving and distributing cooling steam through exit ports for distribution to first and second-stage buckets and receiving spent cooling steam from the first and second-stage buckets through inlet ports for transmission to axially extending return passages. Each of the supply and return manifold segments has a retention system for precluding substantial axial, radial and circumferential displacement relative to the rotor. The segments also include guide vanes for minimizing pressure losses in the supply and return of the cooling steam. The segments lie substantially equal distances from the centerline of the rotor and crossover tubes extend through each of the segments for communicating steam between the axially adjacent buckets of the first and second stages, respectively.

Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Salamah, Samir Armando (Niskayuna, NY); Bylina, Noel Jacob (Niskayuna, NY)

2003-01-01

261

System study of an MHD\\/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that that the thermal and economic performance of the systems could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to a MHD steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could

K. D. Annen

1981-01-01

262

Smolt-to-adult return rates of juvenile chinook salmon transported through the Snake-Columbia River hydropower system, USA, in relation to densities of co-transported juvenile steelhead  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce mortality associated with passage of migrating juvenile salmonids through the Snake-Columbia River Federal power system, a large percentage of smolts migrating from the Snake River basin are currently transported downstream through the hydropower system in fish-transport barges. It has recently been suggested that transportation-associated stressors may reduce the fitness of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and increase mortality

Tyler Wagner; James L Congleton; Douglas M Marsh

2004-01-01

263

Hydropower Resource Assessment Modeling Results  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Hydropower Program developed the Hydropower Evaluation Software to model the undeveloped hydropower resources in the United States based on environmental, legal, and institutional constraints. This Hydropower Resource Assessment effort has identified 5,677 sites that have an undeveloped total capacity of about 30,000 megawatts. The Hydropower Evaluation Software uses the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission?s Hydroelectric Power Resource Assessment database to identify sites with undeveloped hydropower capacity and the estimated megawatts of undeveloped capacity at each site. The software integrates this information with environmental values from the National Park Service?s National Rivers Inventory database. Other constraints to development that are modeled include Federal and state legislative protection for river segments that have been identified as being wild and scenic river segments. River segments containing threatened and/or endangered wildlife and fish are also modeled for their influence on hydropower development. The amount that each attribute affects the likelihood of development is dependent on the prior development of a site.

A. M. Conner; J. E. Francfort

1999-07-06

264

Uniform criteria for U.S. hydropower resource assessment: Hydropower Evaluation Software status report -- 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy is estimating the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation So...

A. M. Conner J. E. Francfort B. N. Rinehart

1996-01-01

265

Uniform criteria for US Hydropower Resource Assessment. Hydropower evaluation software status report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy is estimating the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The Hydropower Evaluation...

J. E. Francfort B. N. Rinehart K. M. Moore

1993-01-01

266

Analysis methods for wind turbine control and electrical system dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integration of new energy technologies into electric power systems requires methods which recognize the full range of dynamic events in both the new generating unit and the power system. Since new energy technologies are initially perceived as small contributors to large systems, little attention is generally paid to system integration, i.e. dynamic events in the power system are ignored. As a result, most new energy sources are only capable of base-load operation, i.e. they have no load following or cycling capability. Wind turbines are no exception. Greater awareness of this implicit (and often unnecessary) limitation is needed. Analysis methods are recommended which include very low penetration (infinite bus) as well as very high penetration (stand-alone) scenarios.

Hinrichsen, E. N.

1995-01-01

267

Fuel control system for a gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A fuel control system for a gas turbine engine has a main metering valve which is positioned by a servo pressure signal controlled by a pilot valve. The pilot valve is responsive to compressor pressures within the engine and also to the operating position of the main metering valve. Response to the main metering valve position is variable in accordance with the difference between desired and actual engine speeds, and is effected by varying the position of a force multiplying roller interposed between the main metering valve and the pilot valve.

Smith, T.S.

1980-02-12

268

Dynamic modelling and simulation of a Micro-turbine generation system in the microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interconnection of MW scale micro-turbine as a set of small, modular generation system at the LV distribution level have a significant impact on micro-grid performance. According to the dynamic characteristics of the Micro-turbine system, a complete mathematic model which considers the Micro-turbine and other electrical components as a whole is established in PACAD\\/EMTDC. The proposal model is built based

Huang Wei; Zhang Jianhua; Wu Ziping; Niu Ming

2008-01-01

269

Modeling and control of an integrated fuel cell-wind turbine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generation will play an increasing role in the electric power system of the near future. It includes a variety of technologies, such as fuel cells, microturbines, wind turbines, photovoltaics and storage systems, in the power range between 10 kW and 100 MW. In this paper, a control system for the integration of a fuel cell and a wind turbine generating

B. Delfino; F. Fornari

2003-01-01

270

Power sharing control of fuel cell\\/gas-turbine hybrid power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid oxide fuel cell\\/gas turbine (SOFC\\/GT) hybrid power systems can utilize exhaust fuel and waste heat from fuel cells in gas turbines to increase system efficiency. The control system plays a critical role in achieving the synergistic operation of various subsystems, improving the reliability of operation, and reducing the maintenance frequency and costs. This paper aims to investigate different

Atideh Abbasi; Zhenhua Jiang

2009-01-01

271

Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell\\/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in fuel cells for hybrid system. Fuel cells when combined with conventional turbine power plants offer high fuel efficiencies. The feature of certain fuel cells (SOFC, MCFC), which makes them suitable for hybrid systems, is their high operating temperature. In this work, a detailed thermodynamic model of SOFC\\/Gas turbine hybrid system is simulated in Matlab-Simulink.

Nischal Srivastava

2006-01-01

272

Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

Price, Jeffrey

2008-09-30

273

Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of a highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive utility ATS for base-load utility-scale power generation, the GE 7H (60 Hz) combined cycle power system, and related 9H (50 Hz) common technology. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

NONE

2000-09-15

274

UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between Ge and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially be GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished from 4Q97 through 3Q98.

Unknown

1998-10-01

275

Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted horn DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include fill speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown.

NONE

1999-05-01

276

WIND TURBINE DRIVETRAIN TEST FACILITY DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility (WTDTF) is a state-of-the-art industrial facility used for testing wind turbine drivetrains and generators. Large power output wind turbines are primarily installed for off-shore wind power generation. The facility includes two test bays: one to accommodate turbine nacelles up to 7.5 MW and one for nacelles up to 15 MW. For each test bay,

2012-01-01

277

Variable speed, condensing steam turbine and power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variable speed condensing steam turbine is a simplified and effective steam expander which is built mainly of simple, lowcost sheet metal parts and is designed to provide a variable speed\\/torque output range. The turbine concept is based on the past tesla turbine principle of equally spaced rotor discs to provide a long helical path for steam expansion with high

1980-01-01

278

Turbine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbines for most space propulsion applications, such as the hydrogen and oxygen pump turbines for the Vulcain engine, are characterized by a high pressure ratio, a highly energetic working fluid, and a small size. Data on Vulcain turbines are given. The following topics are reviewed: turbine concept design and design tools; blade design; losses occurring in a blade which are due to friction, secondary flow, tip clearance and shock formation; and turbine testing. The purpose of any turbine is to provide power for other parts of an engineering system (compressors, electrical generators, pumps) or to drive mechanical components such as wheels or propellers to give propulsion to a vehicle. It should therefore always be the performance and cost effectiveness of this larger system and not of the isolated turbine that are the main objectives for the turbine design engineer.

Andersson, Per

279

Detecting and mitigating wind turbine clutter for airspace radar systems.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that a wind turbine has a large radar cross-section (RCS) and, due to the movement of the blades, the wind turbine will generate a Doppler frequency shift. This scattering behavior may cause severe interferences on existing radar systems including static ground-based radars and spaceborne or airborne radars. To resolve this problem, efficient techniques or algorithms should be developed to mitigate the effects of wind farms on radars. Herein, one transponder-based mitigation technique is presented. The transponder is not a new concept, which has been proposed for calibrating high-resolution imaging radars. It modulates the radar signal in a manner that the retransmitted signals can be separated from the scene echoes. As wind farms often occupy only a small area, mitigation processing in the whole radar operation will be redundant and cost inefficient. Hence, this paper uses a transponder to determine whether the radar is impacted by the wind farms. If so, the effects of wind farms are then mitigated with subsequent Kalman filtering or plot target extraction algorithms. Taking airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and pulse Doppler radar as the examples, this paper provides the corresponding system configuration and processing algorithms. The effectiveness of the mitigation technique is validated by numerical simulation results. PMID:24385880

Wang, Wen-Qin

2013-01-01

280

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automotive gas turbine powertrain system which, when installed in a 1985 production vehicle (3000 pounds inertia weight), is being developed with a CFDC fuel economy of 42.8 miles per gallon based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) test procedures and diesel No. 2 fuel. The AGT-powered vehicle shall give substantially the same overall vehicle driveability and performance as a comparable 1985 production vehicle powered by a conventional spark ignition powertrain system (baseline system). Gaseous emissions and particulate levels less than: NOx = 0.4 gm/mile, HC = 0.41 gm/mile, and CO = 3.4 gm/mile, and a total particulate of 0.2 gm/mile, using the same fuel as used for fuel economy measurements is expected, along with the ability to use a variety of alternate fuels.

1981-01-01

281

Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

2011-01-01

282

Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

2006-04-01

283

Target Value Surface and Energy Loss Surface in the Steam Turbine Unit Performance Monitoring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimize the performance of the steam turbine unit performance monitoring system, improve the reliability, stability and accuracy of the system, a new idea to establish target value surface and coal consumption growth surface in different load is presented. Take an imported supercritical steam turbine unit, which capacity is 600 MW, as an example to expound the design

Zhao-Hui Yi; Nian-Su Hu; Jian Kang; Di Guo; Mei Huang; Jie Liu

2009-01-01

284

International comparison of requirements for connection of wind turbines to power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power production from wind turbines has increased considerably during the last decade. Therefore today's wind turbines, which are typically set up in wind farms, have a significant influence on the operation of power systems. The efficient and secure operation of power systems is supported by grid codes, which are sets of requirements for all network users (suppliers, customers, etc.). In

Clemens Jauch; Julija Matevosyan; Thomas Ackermann; Sigrid Bolik

2005-01-01

285

Improvement of automatic control systems for large-capacity steam turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the structures of microprocessor-based control systems we have developed for steam turbines. We also present the results from tests carried out on 300-and 800-MW power units with turbines equipped with upgraded control systems, and these results confirm that this equipment complies with the requirements the SO-CDA Standard places on selective primary control of the grid frequency.

Chernomzav, I. Z.; Nefedov, K. A.

2008-10-01

286

Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has

R. Chacartegui; F. Jiménez-Espadafor; D. Sánchez; T. Sánchez

2008-01-01

287

Effect of grid-connected DFIG wind turbines on power system transient stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some power systems, the penetration of wind power is increasing rapidly and starts to influence the overall system behavior and stability. Under this condition, it becomes necessary to require wind turbine generators (WTGs) to remain in service during grid faults to support network voltage and frequency. This paper investigates the effect of grid-connected wind turbines driving doubly-fed induction generators

Wei Qiao; Ronald G. Harley

2008-01-01

288

Research on system modeling and control of turbine-driven centrifugal compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the model of centrifugal compressor driven by turbine is built up. Comparing with the centrifugal compressor driven by motor which has the steady speed, system in this paper can be governed not only by anti-surge valve but also by speed of turbine. The purpose of this paper is system simulation and to design PID controller governing this

Le Wen; Lin Gao; Yiping Dai

2011-01-01

289

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development: Quarterly report, November 1993--January 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress made in the advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. The topics of the report include selection of the Allison GFATS, castcool technology development for industrial engines test plan and schedule, code development and background gathering phase for the ultra low NOx combustion technology task, active turbine clearance task, and water vapor/air mixture cooling of turbine vanes task.

NONE

1995-01-01

290

Composite turbine blade design options for Claude (open) cycle OTEC power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale turbine rotors made from composites offer several technical advantages for a Claude (open) cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system. Westinghouse Electric Corporation has designed a composite turbine rotor\\/disk using state-of-the-art analysis methods for large-scale (100-MW\\/sub e\\/) open cycle OTEC applications. Near-term demonstrations using conventional low-pressure turbine blade shapes with composite material would achieve feasibility and modern credibility

Penney

1985-01-01

291

United States Department of Energy Hydropower Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Department of Energy (DOE) page discusses the Hydropower Program, which is aimed at conducting and coordinating development to improve the numerous benefits of hydropower. It contains facts about hydropower such as its history and development, how it works, types of facilities, undeveloped hydropower potential, production expenses, electricity generation, and advanced programs to develop hydro technology while minimizing environmental effects. There are assessment reports for each state summarizing the current and potential outlook for hydropower use. A large annotated bibliography contains resources about hydropower from 1978 to the present.

Brookshier, Peggy; Sommers, Garold; Hunt, Robert

292

Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

2011-01-01

293

Modeling Wind Turbines in the Simulation of Power System Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the modeling of variable speed wind turbines for stability studies. Using the space-phasor representation and the fundamental relationships governing the operation of the machine quasi stationary model, suitable control algorithms for the simulation of the doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) as well as the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) operating on an interconnected system are developed. The control schemes include the pitch-angle/speed control and the decoupled control of the real and reactive power outputs. As an additional modeling option, the generic model for variable speed machine has been introduced. The models were then implemented on a representative test network, and simulations have been carried out to observe the response of the control system to typical abnormal situations such as three phase grid faults to compare the accuracy of the generic models with the detailed quasi-stationary (QSS) models.

Erlich, Istvan; Shewarega, Fekadu; Scheufeld, Oliver

2010-01-01

294

Factors affecting water quality in the releases from hydropower reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Typical water quality concerns with releases from hydropower reservoirs include low dissolved oxygen, inappropriate temperature for downstream uses, supersaturation of total dissolved gases, and water quality constituents associated with low dissolved oxygen. Except for supersaturation of total dissolved gases, which is usually caused by by-passing turbines and spilling water, all of these concerns are related to the limnology of the upstream reservoir. Various limnological factors affect water quality, particularly dissolved oxygen (DO) in turbine releases. This paper describes three groups of reservoirs, thermal stratification characteristics for each group, DO effects for each group, the main factors that affect DO in TVA turbine releases, and other water quality constituents that are related to low DO.

Ruane, R.J.; Hauser, G.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States))

1990-01-01

295

Aspects concerning the quality of aeration for environmental friendly turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydro renewable energy provides a reliable power source; it does not pollute the air or land but affects the aquatic habitat due to low dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the water discharged from turbines. Hydro-turbines intake generally withdraws water from the bottom layer of the reservoirs with low DO level. In the different methods used for improving DO downstream the hydropower plants the volume of air is considered to be the main parameter of the injection. The energetic consumption is affected, in terms of loss of turbine efficiency due to air injection. The authors propose a study to show the importance of the quality of air injection, meaning bubble size, pressure loss on the aeration device etc. Different types of fine bubble aeration systems have been tested and compared. The capacity to predict the aeration by numerical simulation is analysed.

Bunea, F.; Houde, S.; Ciocan, G. D.; Oprina, G.; Baran, G.; Pincovschi, I.

2010-08-01

296

BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

David Liscinsky

2002-10-20

297

Reliability of the Southwest Research Institute TREES (Turbine Rotor Examination and Evaluation System) rotor bore inspection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A performance evaluation of a rotor boresonic examination system built by Southwest Research Institute for Taiwan Power was conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute Nondestructive Evaluation Center. The system evaluated, a Turbine Rotor Examination and Evaluation System (TREES), is used to perform ultrasonic examinations of turbine and generator rotors by transporting the ultrasonic transducers through the central bore hole

L. D. Nottingham; P. A. Zayicek

1989-01-01

298

Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL)

2009-12-15

299

After fogging process in water injected gas turbine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In gas turbine system with after fogging, water droplets are injected after compressor. After fogging could have more significant potential for enhancement of specific power production compared to inlet fogging alone, since a larger water injection rate is possible. Transient analysis of after fogging process is carried out by using a heat and mass transfer modeling on water droplet evaporation. Transient variables such as droplet diameter and air temperature are evaluated as the droplet evaporation proceeds for different values of initial droplet diameter, pressure ratio of compressor, and water injection ratio. The evaporation time for injected droplets are also estimated. Present results show that the evaporation time decreases sensitively with increasing pressure ratio or initial droplet diameter. However, the effect of water injection ratio on evaporation time is relatively insignificant unless water injection ratio is near the critical ratio.

Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Kyoungjin

2013-12-01

300

US hydropower resource assessment for Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The softwa...

J. E. Francfort

1995-01-01

301

US hydropower resource assessment for New Hampshire.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The softwa...

J. E. Francfort

1995-01-01

302

US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The softwa...

A. M. Conner J. E. Francfort

1996-01-01

303

US hydropower resource assessment for Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The softwa...

J. E. Francfort

1995-01-01

304

Turbine Engine Diagnostics (TED): A Practical Application of a Diagnostic Expert System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turbine engine diagnostics (TED) is a diagnostic expert system that aids the M1 Abrams' mechanic in finding and fixing problems in the AGT-1500 turbine engine. TED was designed to provide the apprentice mechanic the ability to diagnose and repair the turb...

H. Ingham R. Helfman T. Hanratty J. Dumer E. H. Baur

1998-01-01

305

AGGREGATED MODELLING OF WIND PARKS WITH VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES IN POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more wind turbines are made part of electrical power systems, in order to reduce the adverse environmental impact of conventional electrical power generation. A tendency to erect these turbines in wind parks, that are connected to the high voltage transmission grid can be observed. To facilitate the investigation of the impact of a wind park on the dynamics

J. G. Slootweg; S. W. H. de Haan; H. Polinder; W. L. Kling

2002-01-01

306

Smoothing Output Power of a Doubly Fed Wind Turbine with an Energy Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy sources are characterized by irregularity and unpredictability. In normal operation, random properties of wind and blade rotational turbulence can produce unwanted fluctuation on the voltage and power supplied into the system. Power output of a wind turbine is a function of wind speed. Wind turbine is a source of power fluctuations due to the nature of wind speed.

M. Aktarujjaman; M. A. Kashem; M. Negnevitsky; G. Ledwich

307

Modeling of Wind Turbine Driving Permanent Magnet Generator with Maximum Power Point Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on the analysis and simulation of 15 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) driving low speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) using PSIM computer simulation program. The system consists of wind turbine, permanent magnet generator, three-phase diode rectifier, boost converter, and voltage source inverter models. In the WTG model, the best performance coefficient has been determined according to

Ali M. Eltamaly

2007-01-01

308

A hybrid generation system using variable speed wind turbines and diesel units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study of a power system consisting of wind turbines and diesel generation units. In the study, a direct drive modular permanent magnet generator is used for the wind turbine and a normal permanent magnet generator is used for the diesel generation unit. Both types of generation units are connected to the load via power electronic converters

Z. Chen; Y. Hu

2003-01-01

309

Optimal Maintenance Strategies for Wind Turbine Systems Under Stochastic Weather Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine optimal repair strategies for wind turbines operated under stochastic weather conditions. In-situ sensors installed at wind turbines produce useful information about the physical conditions of the system, allowing wind farm operators to make informed decisions. Based on the information from sensors, our research objective is to derive an optimal preventive maintenance policy that minimizes the expected average cost

Eunshin Byon; Lewis Ntaimo; Yu Ding

2010-01-01

310

DDDAS - SMTP: A Framework for the Dynamic Data Driven Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this NSF research is to develop a dynamic data driven fault diagnosis framework for wind turbine systems. An important component of the research is the development of wireless sensor nodes that will be deployed inside a wind turbine to collect vibration and acoustic signals. To enhance the research and education, an IREE program has been added

JIONG TANG

311

Optimization of inlet air cooling systems for steam injected gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooling of the inlet air in gas turbines is a practice used to improve power performances. In the past, the authors suggested extending this practice to STIG turbines, using some of the heat generated in the back boiler to supply the absorption systems. Positive results have prompted further developments. For the purpose of verifying the positive effects of compression

Danilo Salvi; Paolo Pierpaoli

2002-01-01

312

Dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines for power system stability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing installation capacity and energy production, wind power plays more important role in power systems. In transient stability analysis, detailed modeling to each induction generator and wind turbine will introduce lots of calculation effort, which necessitates dynamic equivalence to induction generators and wind turbines in the same wind farm, or wind farms closely located. In this paper, weighted equivalence

Shenghu Li; Zhengkai Liu; Xinjie Hao; Shusen Jia

2010-01-01

313

Design of a robust adaptive controller for a water turbine governing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospective of parameter space methods for robust control and an algorithm for a robust controller based on a pole-shifting adaptive control technique are presented in this paper for a hydroelectric turbine generator. Mathematical development of the robust adaptive controller algorithm, calculation procedure and results of simulation studies when applied to a water turbine governing system are described in this

O. P. Malik; Y. Zeng

1995-01-01

314

Advanced Turbine Systems Program -- Conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. A secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS. This quarterly report, addresses only Task 4, conversion of a gas turbine to a coal-fired gas turbine, which was completed during the quarter and the nine subtasks included in Task 8, design and test of critical components. These nine subtasks address six ATS technologies as follows: catalytic combustion; recuperator; autothermal fuel reformer; high temperature turbine disc; advanced control system (MMI); and ceramic materials.

NONE

1995-12-31

315

Focusing attention on turbine rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant modernization is not a new issue for the hydropower industry. Utilities and federal power suppliers in North America have been performing major overhauls and plant life extension programs for many years. However, several recent developments have caused the industry to refocus its attention on the advantages of rehabilitating older hydro plants. And, plant owners are finding that turbine rehabilitation

D. R. Froehlich; J. A. Veatch

1991-01-01

316

[Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research]. Technical Quarterly Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Major Accomplishments by Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) during this reporting period are highlighted below and amplified in later sections of this report: AGTSR distributed 50 proposals from the 98RFP to the IRB for review, evaluation and rank-ordering during the summer; AGTSR conducted a detailed program review at DOE-FETC on July 24; AGTSR organized the 1998 IRB proposal review meeting at SCIES on September 15-16; AGTSR consolidated all the IRB proposal scores and rank-orderings to facilitate the 98RFP proposal deliberations; AGTSR submitted meeting minutes and proposal short-list recommendation to the IRB and DOE for the 98RFP solicitation; AGTSR reviewed two gas turbine related proposals as part of the CU RFP State Project for renovating the central energy facility; AGTSR reviewed and cleared research papers with the IRB from the University of Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; AGTSR assisted GTA in obtaining university stakeholder support of the ATS program from California, Pennsylvania, and Colorado; AGTSR assisted GTA in distributing alert notices on potential ATS budget cuts to over 150 AGTSR performing university members; AGTSR submitted proceedings booklet and organizational information pertaining to the OAI hybrid gas turbine workshop to DOE-FETC; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR updated the university consortium poster to include new members and research highlights; For DOE-FETC, the general AGTSR Fact Sheet was updated to include new awards, workshops, educational activity and select accomplishments from the research projects; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR prepared three fact sheets highlighting university research supported in combustion, aero-heat transfer, and materials; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted pictures on materials research for inclusion in the ATS technology brochure; For DOE-FETC, AGTSR submitted a post-2000 roadmap showing potential technology paths AGTSR could pursue in the next decade; AGTSR distributed the ninth newsletter UPDATE to DOE, the IRB: and two interested partners involved in ATS; AGTSR submitted information on its RFP's, workshops, and educational activities for the 1999 ASMWIGTI technology report for worldwide distribution; AGTSR coordinated university poster session titles and format with Conference Management Associates (CMA) for the 98 ATS Annual; and AGTSR submitted 2-page abstract to CMA for the 98 ATS Review titled: ''AGTSR: A Virtual National Lab''.

NONE

1998-09-30

317

US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using

A. M. Connor; J. E. Francfort

1996-01-01

318

Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the

H. B. Nguyen; A. den Otter

1994-01-01

319

Control of wind turbine generators connected to power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique simulation model based on a Mode-O wind turbine is developed for simulating both speed and power control. An analytical representation for a wind turbine that employs blade pitch angle feedback control is presented, and a mathematical model is formulated. For Mode-O serving as a practical case study, results of a computer simulation of the model as applied to

H. H. Hwang; H. V. Mozeico; L. J. Gilbert

1978-01-01

320

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics covered include the AGT 101 engine test; compressor design modification; cold air turbine testing; Mod 1 alloy turbine rotor fabrication; combustion aspects; regenerator development; and thermal screening tests for ceramic materials. The foil gas bearings, rotor dynamics, and AGT controls and accessories are also considered.

1982-01-01

321

MHD\\/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MHD\\/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a

K. D. Annen; R. H. Eustis

1983-01-01

322

System study of an MHD\\/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. HTGL report No. 134  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MHD\\/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from

Annen

1981-01-01

323

Abradable dual-density ceramic turbine seal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plasma sprayed dual density ceramic abradable seal system for direct application to the HPT seal shroud of small gas turbine engines. The system concept is based on the thermal barrier coating and depends upon an additional layer of modified density ceramic material adjacent to the gas flow path to provide the desired abradability. This is achieved by codeposition of inert fillers with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to interrupt the continuity of the zirconia struture. The investigation of a variety of candidate fillers, with hardness values as low as 2 on Moh's scale, led to the conclusion that solid filler materials in combination with a YSZ matrix, regardless of their hardness values, have a propensity for compacting rather than shearing as originally expected. The observed compaction is accompanied by high energy dissipation in the rub interaction, usually resulting in the adhesive transfer of blade material to the stationary seal member. Two YSZ based coating systems which incorported hollow alumino silicate spheres as density reducing agents were surveyed over the entire range of compositions from 100 percent filler to 100 percent YSZ. Abradability and erosion characteristics were determined, hardness and permeability characterized, and engine experience acquired with several system configurations.

Clingman, D. L.; Schechter, B.; Cross, K. R.; Cavanagh, J. R.

1981-01-01

324

System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant  

SciTech Connect

The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from the MHD exhaust gases by means of metal tube heat exchangers. In addition to the base case systems, vapor cycle variation systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems required a small amount of cooling water. The MHD/gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that the thermal and economic performance of the system could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD/gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to an MHD/steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The systems are nominally 800 MW/sub e/ to 1000 MW/sub e/ in size. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water.

Annen, K.D.

1982-01-01

325

Design of advanced automatic inspection system for turbine blade FPI analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft engine turbine blade is the most susceptible part to discontinuities as it works in the extremely high pressure and temperature. Among various types of NDT method, Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI) is comparably cheap and efficient thus suitable for detecting turbine blade surface discontinuities. In this paper, we have developed an Advanced Automatic Inspection System (AAIS) with Image Processing and Pattern Recognition techniques to aid human inspector. The system can automatically detect, measure and classify the discontinuities from turbine blade FPI images. The tests on the sample images provided by industrial partner have been performed to evaluate the system.

Zheng, J.; Xie, W. F.; Viens, M.; Birglen, L.; Mantegh, I.

2013-01-01

326

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of various markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.

White, D.J.

1994-07-01

327

Stabilization of Wind Turbine Generator System by STATCOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently voltage-source or current-source inverter based various FACTS devices have been used for flexible power flow control, secure loading, damping of power system oscillation and even for the stabilization of wind energy generation. In this paper, we propose the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based on voltage source converter (VSC) PWM technique to stabilize grid connected wind generator system. A simple control strategy of STATCOM is adopted where only measurement of rms voltage at the wind generator terminal is needed. Fuzzy logic controller rather than conventional PI controller is proposed as the control methodology of STATCOM. Multi-mass shaft model of wind turbine generator system (WTGS) is also considered as shaft modeling has a big influence on the transient performance of WTGS. Transient performance of STATCOM connected WTGS is compared also with that of pitch controlled WTGS. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed. Moreover, the steady state performance of STATCOM connected WTGS is analyzed. It is reported that STATCOM can reduce the voltage fluctuation significantly. Finally STATCOM is applied to a wind park model with multiple wind generators. Comprehensive results are presented to assess the performance of STATCOM connected WTGS, where the simulations have been done by PSCAD/EMTDC.

Muyeen, S. M.; Mannan, Mohammad Abdul; Ali, Mohd. Hasan; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji

328

Improve wind energy penetration in an isolated power system by a stand-alone wind pumped storage hydropower plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is well-known, using pumped storage system in a power system is one of ways to raise the wind energy penetration. In former studies, the introduction of pumped storage system in power production systems aims mainly at peak clipping, valley filling of a grid and so on. In the present study, a relatively novel solution is introduced to enable wind-hydro-pumped

Kun Qian; Yuxiang Jiang; Zheng Li

2011-01-01

329

DOE: Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms of energy, capacity, and ancillary services. Many potential improvements to existing hydropower plants were found to be cost-effective. Pumped storage is the most likely form of large new hydro asset expansions in the U.S. however, justifying investments in new pumped storage plants remains very challenging with current electricity market economics. Even over a wide range of possible energy futures, up to 2020, no energy future was found to bring quantifiable revenues sufficient to cover estimated costs of plant construction. Value streams not quantified in this study may provide a different cost-benefit balance and an economic tipping point for hydro. Future studies are essential in the quest to quantify the full potential value. Additional research should consider the value of services provided by advanced storage hydropower and pumped storage at smaller time steps for integration of variable renewable resources, and should include all possible value streams such as capacity value and portfolio benefits i.e.; reducing cycling on traditional generation.

None

2012-12-31

330

Twisted Savonius turbine based marine current energy conversion system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Network Seafloor Instrumentation (ONSFI) Project is a multidisciplinary research and development project that aims to design, fabricate and validate a proof-of-concept seafloor array of wireless marine sensors for use in monitoring seabed processes. The sensor pods, known as Seaformatics, will be powered by ocean bottom currents and will be able to communicate with each other and to the Internet through surface master units to facilitate observation of the ocean floor from the shore. This thesis explores the use of the twisted Savonius turbine as a means of converting the kinetic energy of the free flowing water into electrical energy for the pods. This will eliminate the need for battery replacement. A physical model of the turbine was constructed and tested in the Water Flume at the Marine Institute of Memorial University and in the Wind Tunnel in the Engineering Building at Memorial University. A mathematical model of the turbine was constructed in SolidWorks. This was tested in the Computational Fluid Dynamics or CFD software FLOW-3D. Experimental results were compared with CFD results and the agreement was reasonable. A twisted Savonius turbine emulator was developed to test a dc-dc boost converter. A low cost microcontroller based MPPT algorithm was developed to obtain maximum power from the turbine. Overall the thesis shows that the twisted Savonius turbine can provide the power needed by the sensor pods. It also shows that CFD is a viable way to study the performance of the Savonius type of turbine.

Hassan, Md. Imtiaj

331

MATERIALS AND COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Future hydrogen-fired or oxy-fuel turbines will likely experience an enormous level of thermal and mechanical loading, as turbine inlet temperatures (TIT) approach 1425-1760ºC with pressures of 300-625 psig, respectively. Maintaining the structural integrity of future turbine components under these extreme conditions will require durable thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), high temperature creep resistant metal substrates, and effective cooling techniques. While advances in substrate materials have been limited for the past decades, thermal protection of turbine airfoils in future hydrogen-fired and oxy-fuel turbines will rely primarily on collective advances in TBCs and aerothermal cooling. To support the advanced turbine technology development, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) at the Office of Research and Development (ORD) has initiated a research project effort in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh (UPitt), and West Virginia University (WVU), working in conjunction with commercial material and coating suppliers, to develop advanced materials, aerothermal configurations, as well as non-destructive evaluation techniques for use in advanced land-based gas turbine applications. This paper reviews technical accomplishments recently achieved in each of these areas.

M. A. Alvin

2009-06-12

332

System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that that the thermal and economic performance of the systems could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to a MHD steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The results show that the MHD gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MN, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

Annen, K. D.

1981-08-01

333

Electromagnetic transients of a micro-turbine based distributed generation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the electromagnetic transients of a micro-turbine based distributed generation system that includes an AC-DC-AC converter. An outline of modelling the micro-turbine based generation system including the AC-DC-AC converter is presented. A controller for the converter, that consists of a number of single-input single-output sub-controllers, is designed based on the developed model of the system. Furthermore, the thermodynamic

H. Nikkhajoei; R. Iravani

2007-01-01

334

Multidisciplinary modeling and simulation of a fuel cell\\/gas turbine hybrid power system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel cell\\/gas-turbine hybrid power systems can utilize exhaust fuel and waste heat from fuel cells to increase the system efficiency. This paper considers an internally reforming solid oxide fuel cell\\/gas turbine (SOFC\\/GT) hybrid system, where the anode exhaust, which contains the remainder of the fuel, is mixed with the cathode exhaust as well as an additional supply of fuel

Atideh Abbasi; Zhenhua Jiang

2009-01-01

335

Advanced turbine systems study system scoping and feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

United Technologies Research Center, Pratt & Whitney Commercial Engine Business, And Pratt & Whitney Government Engine and Space Propulsion has performed a preliminary analysis of an Advanced Turbine System (ATS) under Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247 with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The natural gas-fired reference system identified by the UTC team is the Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle in which the gas turbine exhaust heat and heat rejected from the intercooler is used in a saturator to humidify the high pressure compressor discharge air. This results in a significant increase in flow through the turbine at no increase in compressor power. Using technology based on the PW FT4000, the industrial engine derivative of the PW4000, currently under development by PW, the system would have an output of approximately 209 MW and an efficiency of 55.3%. Through use of advanced cooling and materials technologies similar to those currently in the newest generation military aircraft engines, a growth version of this engine could attain approximately 295 MW output at an efficiency of 61.5%. There is the potential for even higher performance in the future as technology from aerospace R&D programs is adapted to aero-derivative industrial engines.

Not Available

1993-04-01

336

Wind and turbine characteristics needed for integration of wind turbine arrays into a utility system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind data and wind turbine generator (WTG) performance characteristics are often available in a form inconvenient for use by utility planners and engineers. The steps used by utility planners are summarized and the type of wind and WTG data needed for integration of WTG arrays suggested. These included long term yearly velocity averages for preliminary site feasibility, hourly velocities on a 'wind season' basis for more detailed economic analysis and for reliability studies, worst-case velocity profiles for gusts, and various minute-to-hourly velocity profiles for estimating the effect of longer-term wind fluctuations on utility operations. wind turbine data needed includes electrical properties of the generator, startup and shutdown characteristics, protection characteristics, pitch control response and control strategy, and electro-mechanical model for stability analysis.

Park, G. L.

337

Composite turbine blade design options for Claude (open) cycle OTEC power systems  

SciTech Connect

Small-scale turbine rotors made from composites offer several technical advantages for a Claude (open) cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system. Westinghouse Electric Corporation has designed a composite turbine rotor/disk using state-of-the-art analysis methods for large-scale (100-MW/sub e/) open cycle OTEC applications. Near-term demonstrations using conventional low-pressure turbine blade shapes with composite material would achieve feasibility and modern credibility of the open cycle OTEC power system. Application of composite blades for low-pressure turbo-machinery potentially improves the reliability of conventional metal blades affected by stress corrosion.

Penney, T.R.

1985-11-01

338

The diversity of hydropower projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydropower is based on a simple process, taking advantage of the kinetic energy freed by falling water. In practice, this process is applied in many different ways depending on the electrical services sought and the specific site conditions. Accordingly, there is a wide variety of hydroelectric projects, each providing different types of services and generating environmental and social impacts of

Dominique Egré; Joseph C. Milewski

2002-01-01

339

Hydropower potential and development activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technically feasible hydropower potential estimated at nearly 15000 TWh\\/yr still exists in the world today, mostly in countries where increased power supplies from clean and renewable sources are most urgently needed to progress social and economic development. While it is not realistic to assume that all of this potential will be developed in the short or even medium term, it

Alison Bartle

2002-01-01

340

Automation of Small Hydropower Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small hydropower (SHP) is one of the most appropriate options to meet increasing energy demand especially in a country like India, Sri Lanka where a huge power potential in this sector is available. It is clean and renewable in contrast to fossil fuel based generations which pollute the environment and whose resources are depleting fast. But high cost per unit

Raju Gupta; S. N. Singh; S. K. Singal

341

Ceramic regenerator systems development program. [for automobile gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic regenerator cores are considered that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines. The results of 19,600 hours of turbine engine durability testing are described. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate, continue to show promise toward achieving the durability objectives of this program. A regenerator core made from aluminum silicate showed minimal evidence of chemical attack damage after 6935 hours of engine test at 800 C and another showed little distress after 3510 hours at 982 C. Results obtained in ceramic material screening tests, aerothermodynamic performance tests, stress analysis, cost studies, and material specifications are also included.

Cook, J. A.; Fucinari, C. A.; Lingscheit, J. N.; Rahnke, C. J.

1977-01-01

342

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, February 1995--April 1995  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the design of advanced turbine systems. This report describes the design and test of critical components such as blades, materials, cooling, combustion, and optical diagnostics probes.

NONE

1995-06-01

343

Smart Sensor System for Structural Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines (Mary 30, 2002-April 30, 2006).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of the University of Cincinnati, North Carolina A&T State University, and NREL to develop a structural neural system for structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades.

M. L. Schultz M. J. Sundaresan

2006-01-01

344

PEMSWECS: Performance Evaluation Methods for Autonomous, Applications Oriented Wind Turbine Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the PEMSWECS project is to provide a technical basis for the standardization of power performance evaluation methods. This can serve as the basis for commercial warranties for autonomous, application orientated wind turbine system...

J. T. P. Pierik R. W. Dunlop W. K. Lee J. Gabriel

2001-01-01

345

The DOE/NASA wind turbine data acquisition system. Part 3: Unattended power performance monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software documentation, operational procedures, and diagnostic instructions for development version of an unattended wind turbine performance monitoring system is provided. Designed to be used for off line intelligent data acquisition in conjunction with the central host computer.

Halleyy, A.; Heidkamp, D.; Neustadter, H.; Olson, R.

1983-01-01

346

Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD`s study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD`s study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC`s General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency.

Ornstein, H.L.

1995-04-01

347

Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of ?1425-1760°C (?2600-3200°F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling configurations are anticipated prior to commercial operation. This paper reviews recent technical accomplishments resulting from NETL’s collaborative research efforts with the University of Pittsburgh and West Virginia University for future land-based gas turbine applications.

Alvin, M.A.; Pettit, F.; Meier, G.H.; Yanar, M.; Helminiak, M.; Chyu, M.; Siw, S.; Slaughter, W.S.; Karaivanov, V.; Kang, B.S.; Feng, C.; Tannebaum, J.M.; Chen, R.; Zhang, B.; Fu, T.; Richards, G.A,; Sidwell, T.G.; Straub, D.; Casleton, K.H.; Dogan, O.M.

2008-07-01

348

Advanced Turbine System (ATS): Task 1, System scoping and feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Present GT(Gas Turbine) Systems are available to achieve 52% (LHV) thermal efficiencies, plants in construction will be capable of 54%, and the goal of this study is to identify incentives, technical issues, and resource requirements to develop natural gas-and coal-compatible ATS which would have a goal of 60% or greater based on LHV. The prime objective of this project task is to select a natural gas-fired ATS (Advanced Turbine System) that could be manufactured and marketed should development costs not be at issue with the goals of: (1) Coal of electricity 10% below 1991 vintage power plants in same market class and size. (2) Expected performance 60% efficiency and higher, (3) Emission levels, NO[sub x] < 10 ppM (0.15 lb/MW-h), CO < 20 ppM (0.30 lb/MW-h), and UHC < 20 ppM (0.30 lb/MW-h). ABB screening studies have identified the gas-fueled combined cycle as the most promising full scale solution to achieve the set goals for 1988--2002. This conclusion is based on ABB's experience level, as well as the multi-step potential of the combined cycle process to improve in many component without introducing radical changes that might increase costs and lower RAM. The technical approach to achieve 60% or better thermal efficiency will include increased turbine inlet temperatures, compressor intercooling, as well a improvements in material, turbine cooling technology and the steam turbine. Use of improved component efficiencies will achieve gas-fired cycle performance of 61.78%. Conversion to coal-firing will result in system performance of 52.17%.

van der Linden, S.

1993-02-01

349

Advanced Turbine System (ATS): Task 1, System scoping and feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Present GT(Gas Turbine) Systems are available to achieve 52% (LHV) thermal efficiencies, plants in construction will be capable of 54%, and the goal of this study is to identify incentives, technical issues, and resource requirements to develop natural gas-and coal-compatible ATS which would have a goal of 60% or greater based on LHV. The prime objective of this project task is to select a natural gas-fired ATS (Advanced Turbine System) that could be manufactured and marketed should development costs not be at issue with the goals of: (1) Coal of electricity 10% below 1991 vintage power plants in same market class and size. (2) Expected performance 60% efficiency and higher, (3) Emission levels, NO{sub x} < 10 ppM (0.15 lb/MW-h), CO < 20 ppM (0.30 lb/MW-h), and UHC < 20 ppM (0.30 lb/MW-h). ABB screening studies have identified the gas-fueled combined cycle as the most promising full scale solution to achieve the set goals for 1988--2002. This conclusion is based on ABB`s experience level, as well as the multi-step potential of the combined cycle process to improve in many component without introducing radical changes that might increase costs and lower RAM. The technical approach to achieve 60% or better thermal efficiency will include increased turbine inlet temperatures, compressor intercooling, as well a improvements in material, turbine cooling technology and the steam turbine. Use of improved component efficiencies will achieve gas-fired cycle performance of 61.78%. Conversion to coal-firing will result in system performance of 52.17%.

van der Linden, S.

1993-02-01

350

System evaluation of advanced technology gas turbines for naval ship propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system design study was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of future aircraft-derivative gas turbine systems suitable for naval ship propulsion applications. Gas turbines representing next-generation aircraft engine technology were reviewed, and candidates for potential use as regenerative-cycle or advanced simple-cycle propulsion units were selected. Part-power performance characteristics and preliminary design features were determined, and various combinations of the

R. M. Pierce; H. T. Shu

1984-01-01

351

Flicker contribution of a wind turbine in a stand-alone wind diesel system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the impact of aeroelastic aspects of a wind turbine (i.e. tower shadow, wind shear, turbulence, and mechanical vibrations) on the power quality of a wind-diesel system all electrical, mechanical and aerodynamic aspects of the wind turbine must be studied. Moreover, the contribution of the diesel-generator system and its controllers should be considered. This paper, describes how the aerodynamic

Roohollah Fadaeinedjad; Gerry Moschopoulos; Mehrdad Moallem

2008-01-01

352

Control Sensitivity Study for a Hybrid Fuel Cell\\/Gas Turbine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed a hardware simulator to test the operating characteristics of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell\\/Gas Turbine (SOFC\\/GT) hybrid systems. The Hybrid Performance (HyPer) simulator has been described previously, and has contributed to the understanding of SOFC\\/GT system operation. HyPer contains not only the requisite elements of gas turbine\\/compressor\\/generator, recuperator, combustor, and associated piping, but

Larry Banta; Jason Absten; Alex Tsai; R. S. Gemmen; D. A. Tucker

2008-01-01

353

Modeling and control of distributed generation systems including PEM fuel cell and gas turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concentrates on the modeling and control of distributed generation systems including fuel cell and gas turbine. The fuel cell is connected to the power system through a dc\\/ac converter, which is equipped with both voltage- and power-control loops. The gas turbine is also assumed to be equipped with both voltage-control and generation (or frequency)-control loops. Moreover the gas

Rekha T. Jagaduri; Ghadir Radman

2007-01-01

354

The Remote Wireless Monitoring System Based on GPRS for Off-Grid Wind Turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article introduced a remote wireless monitoring system for the off-grid wind turbine. Considering the characteristics of the off-grid wind turbine, the system will have primarily function-monitoring, counting and saving the operation data. And, the design adopts primarily the remote communication technique to finish communication between control terminal and monitoring center. It can master the operation conditions of the wind

Chen Chao; Meng Keqilao; Gao Muyu

2009-01-01

355

Control design of an atmospheric solid oxide fuel cell\\/gas turbine hybrid system: Variable versus fixed speed gas turbine operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is focused on a hybrid fuel cell\\/gas turbine (FC\\/GT) system with an atmospheric pressure solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The impact of the gas turbine rotational speed on dynamic performance and controllability of a hybrid system is investigated. The transient response of the FC\\/GT system to perturbations in the power demand has been investigated. Two operational strategies of

Rory Roberts; Jack Brouwer; Faryar Jabbari; Tobias Junker; Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2006-01-01

356

Steam Turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

1981-01-01

357

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1994--July 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the tasks completed under this project during the period from August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1994. The objective of the study is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. The tasks completed include a market study for the advanced turbine system; definition of an optimized recuperated gas turbine as the prime mover meeting the requirements of the market study and whose characteristics were, in turn, used for forecasting the total advanced turbine system (ATS) future demand; development of a program plan for bringing the ATS to a state of readiness for field test; and demonstration of the primary surface recuperator ability to provide the high thermal effectiveness and low pressure loss required to support the proposed ATS cycle.

NONE

1995-11-01

358

MHD/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements  

SciTech Connect

The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems require a small amount of cooling water. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine systems have very good thermal and economic performances. The base case I MHD/gas turbine system (782 MW /SUB e/ ) requires no cooling water, has a heat rate which is 13% higher, and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher than a comparable MHD/steam system (878 MW /SUB e/ ) having a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW. The case I vapor cycle bottomed systems have thermal and economic performances which approach and even exceed those of the MHD/steam system, while having substantially lower cooling water requirements. Performances of a second-generation MHD/gas turbine system and an oxygen-enriched, early commercial system are also evaluated. An analysis of nitric oxide emissions shows compliance with emission standards.

Annen, K.D.; Eustis, R.H.

1983-11-01

359

Effect of thermal barrier coatings on the performance of steam and water-cooled gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study was made of the performance of air, steam, and water-cooled gas-turbine/steam turbine combined-cycle systems with and without thermal-barrier coatings. For steam cooling, thermal barrier coatings permit an increase in the turbine inlet temperature from 1205 C (2200 F), resulting in an efficiency improvement of 1.9 percentage points. The maximum specific power improvement with thermal barriers is 32.4 percent, when the turbine inlet temperature is increased from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1675 C (3050 F) and the airfoil temperature is kept the same. For water cooling, the maximum efficiency improvement is 2.2 percentage points at a turbine inlet temperature of 1683 C (3062 F) and the maximum specific power improvement is 36.6 percent by increasing the turbine inlet temperature from 1425 C (2600 F) to 1730 C (3150 F) and keeping the airfoil temperatures the same. These improvements are greater than that obtained with combined cycles using air cooling at a turbine inlet temperature of 1205 C (2200 F). The large temperature differences across the thermal barriers at these high temperatures, however, indicate that thermal stresses may present obstacles to the use of coatings at high turbine inlet temperatures.

Nainiger, J. J.

1978-01-01

360

A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts  

SciTech Connect

Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a framework is that it can expedite the environmental flow process by 1) organizing data and applications to identify predictable relationships between flows and ecology, and 2) suggesting when and where tools should be used in the environmental flow process. In addition to regulatory procedures, a framework should also provide the coordination for a comprehensive research agenda to guide the science of environmental flows. This research program has further reaching benefits than just environmental flow determination by providing modeling applications, data, and geospatial layers to inform potential hydropower development. We address several objectives within this document that highlight the limitations of existing environmental flow paradigms and their applications to hydropower while presenting a new framework catered towards hydropower needs. Herein, we address the following objectives: 1) Provide a brief overview of the Natural Flow Regime paradigm and existing environmental flow frameworks that have been used to determine ecologically sensitive stream flows for hydropower operations. 2) Describe a new conceptual framework to aid in determining flows needed to meet ecological objectives with regard to hydropower operations. The framework is centralized around determining predictable relationships between flow and ecological responses. 3) Provide evidence of how efforts from ORNL, PNNL, and ANL have filled some of the gaps in this broader framework, and suggest how the framework can be used to set the stage for a research agenda for environmental flow.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-05-01

361

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes progress and work performed during January through June 1984 to develop technology for an Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) engine for automotive applications. Work performed during the first eight periods initiated design and analysis, ceramic development, component testing, and test bed evaluation. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System Program. This program is oriented at providing the United States automotive industry the high-risk long-range techology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. Technology resulting from this program is intended to reach the marketplace by the early 1990s.

1984-01-01

362

Characterization of Bead Trajectories Through the Draft Tube of a Turbine Physical Model.  

SciTech Connect

Using high-speed video imaging, trajectories, and kinematics of beads passing below the turbine runner and through the draft tube region of the 1:25 scale model of a single turbine unit from Bonneville Dam powerhouse 1 were collected from May 6-9, 2003 at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Environmental Research and Development Center (ERDC) in Vicksburg, MS. An individual camera was used to produce 2-dimensional trajectories and paired cameras with overlapping fields of view were used to produce 3-dimension trajectories of near neutrally buoyant beads as they passed through the draft tube region of the turbine model. Image data was collected at two turbine operating levels, lower 1% efficiency and maximum rated output for beads released mid-depth into the turbine intake from each of the three gatewell slots. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using video imaging to track the trajectories of beads through the draft tube of turbine physical models and from the trajectories calculate the kinematics of the bead trajectory and the beads response to turbulence in the model. This project is part of a research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) who's goal is to increase the operating potential of hydroelectric facilities while also reducing the reducing the risk of injury and death to fish as they pass through the turbines.

Weiland, Mark A.; Mueller, Robert P.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiquan; McKinstry, Craig A.

2005-02-18

363

A short-term scheduling for a hydropower plant chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimal control of a hydropower plant chain is introduced. The aim is to meet a predefined power demand and in the same time provide sufficient control capabilities. At first a state-space model of the river chain is presented. Then an optimal feedback control method is developed by introducing Hamiltonian for the system. The constraints are considered using Lagrangian multipliers.

J. M. Pursimo; H. K. Antila; M. K. Vilkko; P. A. Lautala

1998-01-01

364

Advanced Turbine Systems Program, Conceptual Design and Product Development. Task 6, System definition and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The strategy of the ATS program is to develop a new baseline for industrial gas turbine systems for the 21st century, meeting the buying criteria of industrial gas turbine end users, and having growth potential. These criteria guided the Solar ATS Team in selecting the system definition described in this Topical Report. The key to selecting the ATS system definition was meeting or exceeding each technical goal without negatively impacting other commercial goals. Among the most crucial goals are the buying criteria of the industrial gas turbine market. Solar started by preliminarily considering several cycles with the potential to meet ATS program goals. These candidates were initially narrowed based on a qualitative assessment of several factors such as the potential for meeting program goals and for future growth; the probability of successful demonstration within the program`s schedule and expected level of funding; and the appropriateness of the cycle in light of end users` buying criteria. A first level Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis then translated customer needs into functional requirements, and ensured favorable interaction between concept features. Based on this analysis, Solar selected a recuperated cycle as the best approach to fulfilling both D.O.E. and Solar marketing goals. This report details the design and analysis of the selected engine concept, and explains how advanced features of system components achieve program goals. Estimates of cost, performance, emissions and RAMD (reliability, availability, maintainability, durability) are also documented in this report.

NONE

1995-04-01

365

Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

1982-01-01

366

The Application and Improvement of Helium Turbines in the EAST Cryogenic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The helium cryogenic system supplies supercritical helium cooling capacity at 4.5 K for the superconducting magnets in the EAST superconducting tokamak. Four low-temperature helium turbines are used in the 2 kW helium refrigeration system, and their performance and reliability are critical for the continuous operation of the tokamak. The turbines were made by the Helium Mechanics Company in Russia. The start-up process is very unstable, easily broken, and thus testing and improvements are needed. In this paper, we analyze the structure of the helium turbine, make improvements, and describe the testing process and results of the improved helium turbines. Some of the operational experiences during the start-up process and tests are also presented.

Fu, Bao; Zhang, Qiyong; Zhu, Ping; Cheng, Anyi

2014-05-01

367

Performance estimates for the Space Station power system Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methods which have been used by the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine performance for different gases and flow rates are described. These methods were developed by NASA Lewis during the early days of Brayton cycle component development and they can now be applied to the task of predicting the performance of the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Station Freedom power system. Computer programs are given for performing these calculations and data from previous NASA Lewis Brayton Compressor and Turbine tests is used to make accurate estimates of the compressor and turbine performance for the CBC power system. Results of these calculations are also given. In general, calculations confirm that the CBC Brayton Cycle contractor has made realistic compressor and turbine performance estimates.

Cummings, Robert L.

1989-01-01

368

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

DOEpatents

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15

369

Torsional Fatigue of Turbine-Generator Shafts Caused by Different Electrical System Faults and Switching Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The torsional stresses that occur in large steam turbine- generator shafts due to both planned and unplanned system switching operations are discussed. These operations include routine line switching, reclosing line-to-ground faults by either triple-pole or single-pole breaker operation, reclosing line-to-line and three-phase faults, malsynchronization and load rejection. The calculation of cumulative fatigue of individual turbine-generator shafts from computer-plotted torsional swing

John S. Joyce; Tadeusz Kulig; Dietrich Lambrecht

1978-01-01

370

Inlet Mode Transition Screening Test for a Turbine-Based Combined-Cycle Propulsion System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined computational and experimental study of inlet mode transition needed for Turbine-Based Combined-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion has been conducted. The Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (IMX) model used in this study is based on a careful design of an inlet system that supplies both a turbine engine and a ram\\/scramjet flowpath in an 'over\\/under' configuration. Traditional aerodynamic design techniques were used

J. D. Saunders; J. W. Slater; V. Dippold; J. Lee; B. W. Sanders; L. J. Weir

371

Simulation and experiment of a fuzzy logic based MPPT controller for a small wind turbine system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) strategy for a variable speed wind turbine system (VSWT). For this scope, a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was described, simulated and tested on a real time "hardware in the loop" wind turbine emulator. Simulation and experimental results show that the controller is able to track the maximum power point for various wind conditions and validate the proposed control strategy.

Petrila, Diana; Muntean, Nicolae

2012-09-01

372

Technical review of Westinghouse`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program  

SciTech Connect

US DOE`s ATS program has the goals of increased efficiency of natural gas-fired power generation plants, decreased cost of electricity, and a decrease in harmful emissions. The Westinghouse ATS plant is based on an advanced gas turbine design combined with an advanced steam turbine and a high efficiency generator. Objectives of the ATS Program Phase 2 are to select the ATS cycle and to develop technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals: combustion, cooling, aerodynamics, leakage control, coatings, materials. This paper describes progress on each.

Diakunchak, I.S.; Bannister, R.L.

1995-12-31

373

Advanced Turbine System (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Achieving the goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system: the turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase, leading also to increased NOx emission. However, improved coating and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. The program is focused on two specific products: a 70MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling technology, and a 200MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency.

NONE

1995-12-31

374

77 FR 64506 - Robert D. Willis Hydropower Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Power Administration Robert D. Willis Hydropower Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration...power rate for the Robert Douglas Willis Hydropower Project (Willis) pursuant to the Willis...Power Administration Robert D. Willis Hydropower Project Rate ) Rate Order No....

2012-10-22

375

75 FR 16456 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 12783-003] Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments...July 22, 2009. d. Applicant: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed...

2010-04-01

376

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Power-Train System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. The design for an engine to be tested was finalized, and component testing, and ceramic component design, testing, and procurement were continued. Compres...

H. E. Helms R. A. Johnson R. K. Gibson

1982-01-01

377

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Power-Train System Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed perform...

H. E. Helms R. A. Johnson R. K. Gibson

1982-01-01

378

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT): Power-Train System Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine is described. The general effort was concentrated on building an engine for test starting in July. The buildup progressed with only routine problem...

H. E. Helms L. B. Smith R. A. Johnson R. K. Gibson

1983-01-01

379

Ultra-Low NOx Gas Turbine Combustion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and initial rig testing of an ultra-low NOx gas turbine combustor primary zone are described. A lean premixed, swirl stabilized combustor was evaluated over a range of pressures up to 13.2 x 10 to the 5th power Pa (13 atm) in a test rig environ...

K. O. Smith

1986-01-01

380

Axial-flow turbines for low head microhydro systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of four different specific speed microhydro propeller turbines operating at heads between 4m and 9m, and their application to a wider range of heads and outputs by scaling. The features are specifically tailored for ease of manufacture and uniquely resistant to debris blockage. Test machines are described and test results given; hydraulic efficiencies of over

K. V. Alexander; E. P. Giddens; A. M. Fuller

2009-01-01

381

Materials and Component Development for Advanced Turbine Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrogen-fired and oxy-fueled land-based gas turbines currently target inlet operating temperatures of approx. 1425-1760C (approx. 2600-3200F). In view of natural gas or syngas-fired engines, advancements in both materials, as well as aerothermal cooling ...

B. S. Kang G. Richards M. A. Alvin S. Siw T. G. Sidwell

2007-01-01

382

Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

2013-06-01

383

Impact of Advanced Turbine Systems on coal-based power plants  

SciTech Connect

The advanced power-generation products currently under development in our program show great promise for ultimate commercial use. Four of these products are referred to in this paper: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC), and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC). Three of these products, IGCC, PFBC, and EFCC, rely on advanced gas turbines as a key enabling technology and the foundation for efficiencies in the range of 52 to 55 percent. DOE is funding the development of advanced gas turbines in the newly instituted Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, one of DOE`s highest priority natural gas initiatives. The turbines, which will have natural gas efficiencies of 60 percent, are being evaluated for coal gas compatibility as part of that program.

Bechtel, T.F.

1993-12-31

384

Compressor and Turbine Models of Brayton Units for Space Nuclear Power Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed Brayton Cycles with centrifugal flow, single-shaft turbo-machines are being considered, with gas cooled nuclear reactors, to provide 10's to 100's of electrical power to support future space exploration missions and Lunar and Mars outposts. Such power system analysis is typically based on the cycle thermodynamics, for given operating pressures and temperatures and assumed polytropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine of the Brayton energy conversion units. Thus the analysis results not suitable for modeling operation transients such as startup and changes in the electric load. To simulate these transients, accurate models of the turbine and compressor in the Brayton rotating unit, which calculate the changes in the compressor and turbine efficiencies with system operation are needed. This paper presents flow models that account for the design and dimensions of the compressor impeller and diffuser, and the turbine stator and rotor blades. These models calculate the various enthalpy losses and the polytropic efficiencies along with the pressure ratios of the turbine and compressor. The predictions of these models compare well with reported performance data of actual hardware. In addition, the results of a parametric analysis to map the operations of the compressor and turbine, as functions of the rotating shaft speed and inlet Mach number of the gas working fluid, are presented and discussed. The analysis used a binary mixture of He-Xe with a molecular weight of 40 g/mole as the working fluid.

Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

2007-01-01

385

Compressor and Turbine Models of Brayton Units for Space Nuclear Power Systems  

SciTech Connect

Closed Brayton Cycles with centrifugal flow, single-shaft turbo-machines are being considered, with gas cooled nuclear reactors, to provide 10's to 100's of electrical power to support future space exploration missions and Lunar and Mars outposts. Such power system analysis is typically based on the cycle thermodynamics, for given operating pressures and temperatures and assumed polytropic efficiencies of the compressor and turbine of the Brayton energy conversion units. Thus the analysis results not suitable for modeling operation transients such as startup and changes in the electric load. To simulate these transients, accurate models of the turbine and compressor in the Brayton rotating unit, which calculate the changes in the compressor and turbine efficiencies with system operation are needed. This paper presents flow models that account for the design and dimensions of the compressor impeller and diffuser, and the turbine stator and rotor blades. These models calculate the various enthalpy losses and the polytropic efficiencies along with the pressure ratios of the turbine and compressor. The predictions of these models compare well with reported performance data of actual hardware. In addition, the results of a parametric analysis to map the operations of the compressor and turbine, as functions of the rotating shaft speed and inlet Mach number of the gas working fluid, are presented and discussed. The analysis used a binary mixture of He-Xe with a molecular weight of 40 g/mole as the working fluid.

Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

2007-01-30

386

Recent advances in variable speed electrical generator systems for large wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

Major variable speed electrical generator system design objectives have been verified through large-scale experiment. Full exploitation of variable speed generator benefits can revolutionize large wind turbine design. The greatest advantages come not only from the improved aerodynamic efficiency of keeping tip speed proportional to wind speed, but from dramatic reduction in drive train resonances, elimination of dissipative damping losses, easy motorized turbine start, and isolation of turbine dynamics from the electrical network. Experimental verification proceeded by two steps: first, actual control hardware and software were verified with a hybrid simulation of a full wind turbine system; then the controls were combined with power thyristor bridges configured as a cycloconverter and motor-generator test train to implement a variable speed generator and a simulated wind-turbine/drive train. Although the existing equipment presented several constraints on testing latitude, major features demonstrated include: (1) variable frequency motoring to 50% speed for quick, efficient turbine start-up; (2) synchronization below, at, and above synchronous speeds, both steady state and transient; (3) net power output up to 120 kW with stable response to 50 kW step changes in demand within one second and similarly responsive control of VARs; (4) steady power and VAR output throughout speed transients from ten percent below to ten percent above synchronous speed; (5) output voltage waveform with less than five percent total harmonic distortion; and (6) damping of simulated drive train resonance at 0.2 Hz.

Andersen, T.S.; Hughes, P.S.; Klein, F.F.; Mutone, G.A.

1983-01-01

387

78 FR 14528 - Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 11169-029] Mayo Hydropower, LLC, Avalon Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...Motions To Intervene On November 20, 2012, Mayo Hydropower, LLC (transferor) and Avalon...

2013-03-06

388

75 FR 65012 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar October 13, 2010. The...will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on November 10,...

2010-10-21

389

76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory...will host a Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on January 25, 2012,...

2011-12-29

390

76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. AD09-9-000] Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory...will host a Small/ Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar on June 22, 2011,...

2011-05-27

391

A Java-Enabled Interactive Graphical Gas Turbine Propulsion System Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a gas turbine simulation system which utilizes the newly developed Java language environment software system. The system provides an interactive graphical environment which allows the quick and efficient construction and analysis of arbitrary gas turbine propulsion systems. The simulation system couples a graphical user interface, developed using the Java Abstract Window Toolkit, and a transient, space- averaged, aero-thermodynamic gas turbine analysis method, both entirely coded in the Java language. The combined package provides analytical, graphical and data management tools which allow the user to construct and control engine simulations by manipulating graphical objects on the computer display screen. Distributed simulations, including parallel processing and distributed database access across the Internet and World-Wide Web (WWW), are made possible through services provided by the Java environment.

Reed, John A.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

1997-01-01

392

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Annual report, August 1993--July 1994  

SciTech Connect

This Yearly Technical Progress Report covers the period August 3, 1993 through July 31, 1994 for Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE Contract No. DE-AC421-93MC30246. As allowed by the Contract (Part 3, Section J, Attachment B) this report is also intended to fulfill the requirements for a fourth quarterly report. The objective of Phase 2 of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost-competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized in the year 2000. During the period covered by this report, Solar has completed three of eight program tasks and has submitted topical reports. These three tasks included a Project Plan submission of information required by NEPA, and the selection of a Gas-Fueled Advanced Turbine System (GFATS). In the latest of the three tasks, Solar`s Engineering team identified an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine as the eventual outcome of DOE`s ATS program coupled with Solar`s internal New Product Introduction (NPI) program. This machine, designated ``ATS50`` will operate at a thermal efficiency (turbine shaft power/fuel LHV) of 50 percent, will emit less than 10 parts per million of NOx and will reduce the cost of electricity by 10 percent. It will also demonstrate levels of reliability, availability, maintainability, and durability (RAMD) equal to or better than those of today`s gas turbine systems. Current activity is concentrated in three of the remaining five tasks a Market Study, GFATS System Definition and Analysis, and the Design and Test of Critical Components.

NONE

1994-11-01

393

Analysis and numerical optimization of gas turbine space power systems with nuclear fission reactor heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new three objective optimization technique is developed and applied to find the operating conditions for fission reactor heated Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) space power systems at which maximum efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum total system mass is achieved. Such CCGT space power systems incorporate a nuclear reactor heat source with its radiation shield; the rotating turbo-alternator, consisting

Albert J. Juhasz

2005-01-01

394

System-wide inertial response from fixed speed and variable speed wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wind penetration levels on power systems in- crease worldwide, the dynamic characteristics of these systems are changing due to the displacement of synchronous generation. One issue, of particular concern, is the resulting reduction in system inertia. Modern, variable speed wind turbines are con- trolled by power electronics and so do not inherently contribute to the inertial response of the

Lisa Ruttledge; Damian Flynn

2011-01-01

395

A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

Culley, Dennis E.

2011-01-01

396

Advanced turbine systems program. Final report, August 3, 1993--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Six tasks were approved under the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) extension program. The six tasks include the following: Task 5.0 -- Market Study. The objective of the market study task is to focus on distributed generation prospects for an industrial ATS, using the Allison ATS family as the primary gas turbine systems. Task 6.0 -- Gas Fired Advanced Turbine System (GFATS) Definition and Analysis. Task 8.01 -- Castcool{reg_sign} Blades Fabrication Process Development. Task 8.04 -- ATS Low Emission Combustion System. Task 8.07 -- Ceramic Vane Design and Evaluation. Task 9.0 -- Program Management. Each of these tasks is described, progress is discussed, and results are given.

NONE

1996-12-31

397

Advanced turbine systems sensors and controls needs assessment study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Instrumentation and Controls Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed an assessment of the sensors and controls needs for land-based advanced gas turbines being designed as a part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program for both utility and industrial applications. The assessment included visits to five turbine manufacturers. During these visits, in-depth discussions were held with design and manufacturing staff to obtain their views regarding the need for new sensors and controls for their advanced turbine designs. The Unsteady Combustion Facilities at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was visited to assess the need for new sensors for gas turbine combustion research. Finally, a workshop was conducted at the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center which provided a forum for industry, laboratory, and university engineers to discuss and prioritize sensor and control needs. The assessment identified more than 50 different measurement, control, and monitoring needs for advanced turbines that cannot currently be met from commercial sources. While all the identified needs are important, some are absolutely critical to the success of the ATS Program.

Anderson, R.L.; Fry, D.N.; McEvers, J.A.

1997-02-01

398

Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

2012-06-01

399

Multidisciplinary Modeling, Control, and Optimization of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell\\/Gas Turbine Hybrid Power System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes a systematical study, including multidisciplinary modeling, simulation, control, and optimization, of a fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system that aims to increase the system efficiency and decrease the energy costs by combining two power sources. The fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid power systems can utilize exhaust fuel and waste heat from fuel cells in the gas

Atid Abbassi Baharanchi

2009-01-01

400

Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor  

DOEpatents

In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01

401

Performance optimization of a gas turbine-based cogeneration system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an exergy optimization has been carried out for a cogeneration plant consisting of a gas turbine, which is operated in a Brayton cycle, and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the analysis, objective functions of the total produced exergy and exergy efficiency have been defined as functions of the design parameters of the gas turbine and the HRSG. An equivalent temperature is defined as a new approach to model the exergy rate of heat transfer from the HRSG. The optimum design parameters of the cogeneration cycle at maximum exergy are determined and the effects of these parameters on exergetic performance are investigated. Some practical mathematical relations are also derived to find the optimum values of the adiabatic temperature ratio for given extreme temperatures and consumer temperature.

Yilmaz, Tamer

2006-06-01

402

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) power-train system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical work on the design and component testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) advanced automotive gas turbine is described. Selected component ceramic component design, and procurement were tested. Compressor tests of a modified rotor showed high speed performance improvement over previous rotor designs; efficiency improved by 2.5%, corrected flow by 4.6%, and pressure ratio by 11.6% at 100% speed. The aerodynamic design is completed for both the gasifier and power turbines. Ceramic (silicon carbide) gasifier rotors were spin tested to failure. Improving strengths is indicated by burst speeds and the group of five rotors failed at speeds between 104% and 116% of engine rated speed. The emission results from combustor testing showed NOx levels to be nearly one order of magnitude lower than with previous designs. A one piece ceramic exhaust duct/regenerator seal platform is designed with acceptable low stress levels.

Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.

1982-01-01

403

Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

Juhasz, Albert J.

1997-01-01

404

Data-Based Performance Assessments for the DOE Hydropower Advancement Project  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy s Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated to characterize and trend hydropower asset conditions across the U.S.A. s existing hydropower fleet and to identify and evaluate the upgrading opportunities. Although HAP includes both detailed performance assessments and condition assessments of existing hydropower plants, this paper focuses on the performance assessments. Plant performance assessments provide a set of statistics and indices that characterize the historical extent to which each plant has converted the potential energy at a site into electrical energy for the power system. The performance metrics enable benchmarking and trending of performance across many projects in a variety contexts (e.g., river systems, power systems, and water availability). During FY2011 and FY2012, assessments will be performed on ten plants, with an additional fifty plants scheduled for FY2013. This paper focuses on the performance assessments completed to date, details the performance assessment process, and describes results from the performance assessments.

March, Patrick [Hydro Performance Processes, Inc.; Wolff, Dr. Paul [WolffWare Ltd.; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL; Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Dham, Rajesh [U.S. Department of Energy

2012-01-01

405

Possibilities of small-passage systems of internal convective blade cooling for gas turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic and thermal characteristics of turbine blades with small-passage cooling systems are analyzed. It is shown that a generalized hydraulic characteristic can be derived for the cooling systems of gas turbine blades of different dimensions. The initial thermal efficiency of blade cooling is shown to be practically independent of the cooling passage diameter. At the cooling passage outlet, the required cooling efficiency can obtained only through an increase in air flow rate. The cooling systems described here provide sufficient blade cooling for initial gas temperatures of 1900-1950 K with air flow rates equal to 3 percent of the gas flow rate.

Klimenko, V. N.

406

US Navy chose ICR gas turbine for new propulsion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolls-Royce and Westinghouse made a successful joint bid of the WR21 Inter-Cooled Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine package which is being developed to replace some of the US Navy's propulsion units. The specifications are very precise: The initial power rating is 26400 bhp with the ability to grow to 29000 bhp without reduced capability or physical change, the overall fuel consumption

Jeffs

2009-01-01

407

SiC flame sensors for gas turbine control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and development activities carried out to develop a SiC flame sensor for gas turbines utilized for power generation are discussed. These activities included the fabrication and characterization of SiC UV photodiodes and small SiC signal diodes as well as the designing and testing of production flame detector assemblies. The characteristics that make this solid state flame detector particularly

Dale M Brown; Evan Downey; Jim Kretchmer; Gerald Michon; Emily Shu; Don Schneider

1998-01-01

408

Definitional mission report on U. S. hydropower sector international competitiveness. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses the U.S. hydropower sector's technological competitiveness in major equipment categories such as turbines/generators, switch gears, transformers, etc. for the full range of hydroelectric power plants, that is, from small plants of 50MW or less to large plants such as Guayabo-Siquirres. The subject has three interwoven threads, each affecting the others but subject to individual discussion. They are technological ability; productivity and the state of industrial plant; and management and sales methods.

Boyd, E.L.

1992-06-01

409

Numerical investigation for design and critical performance evaluation of a horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will discuss findings from our numerical investigation on the hydrodynamic performance of horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbines (HAHkT) under different turbine geometries and flow conditions. Hydrokinetic turbines are a class of zero-head hydropower systems which utilizes kinetic energy of flowing water to drive a generator. However, such turbines very often suffer from low efficiency which is primarily controlled by tip-speed ratio, solidity, angle of attack and number of blades. A detailed CFD study was performed using two-dimensional and three dimensional numerical models to examine the effect of each of these parameters on the performance of small HAHkTs having power capacities <= 10 kW. The two-dimensional numerical results provide an optimum angle of attack that maximizes the lift as well as lift to drag ratio yielding maximum power output. However three-dimensional numerical studies estimate optimum turbine solidity and blade numbers that produces maximum power coefficient at a given tip speed ratio. In addition, simulations were also performed to observe the axial velocity deficit at the turbine rotor downstream for different tip-speed ratios to obtain both qualitative and quantitative details about stall delay phenomena and the energy loss suffered by the turbine under ambient flow condition.

Subhra Mukherji, Suchi; Banerjee, Arindam

2010-11-01

410

Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

Lee, T.

2013-12-01

411

SENSITIVITY OF HYDROPOWER PERFORMANCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

One solution to reduce the extent of climate change is to replace fossil-fuelled electricity generation with renewable sources including hydropower. However, simultaneous changes in climate may alter the available hydropower resource, threatening the financial viability of schemes. To illustrate the potential problem, a sensitivity analysis is presented that considers the impact of altered precipitation and temperature on river flows, energy

G. P. Harrison; H. W. Whittington; A. R. Wallace

2006-01-01

412

System engineering and energy costs of small and medium wind turbines  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary system-level, computational model was developed to allow broad assessment and optimization of wind turbine design and costs analysis at The Wind Energy Research Center, Solar Energy Research Institute under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper briefly describes the basic principles used in the model for energy capture and cost-of-energy (COE), and demonstrates the model's usefulness in determining the effects of rotor and system design modifications. The model's utilization for conducting parametric studies and defining the energy cost of small and medium-sized wind turbines is also shown. Topics of interest to wind turbine engineers and designers include the effects on rotor performance of airfoil geometry, blade pitch angle setting, and the system RPM schedule, etc.

Tu, P.K.C.

1985-07-01

413

U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

1998-10-01

414

US hydropower resource assessment for Vermont  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Vermont.

Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-02-01

415

US hydropower resource assessment for Rhode Island  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Rhode Island.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

416

US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

1996-03-01

417

US hydropower resource assessment for New Hampshire  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Hampshire.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-07-01

418

US Hydropower Resource Assessment for Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

1995-07-01

419

US hydropower resource assessment for Indiana  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Indiana.

Francfort, J.E.

1995-12-01

420

US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

Francfort, J.E.

1994-05-01

421

Artificial neural network system for diagnosing gas turbine engine fuel faults.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Army Ordnance Center & School and Pacific Northwest Laboratories are developing a turbine engine diagnostic system for the M1A1 Abrams tank. This system employs Artificial Neural Network (AN) technology to perform diagnosis and prognosis of the tan...

O. J. Illi F. L. Greitzer L. J. Kangas T. Reeve

1994-01-01

422

Development of PD on-line monitoring system for large turbine generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feature of partial discharge (PD) is an important aspect of generators' insulation. The paper introduces an automatic online PD monitoring system for large turbine generators. By using digital signal processor (DSP) sampling technology, the system can obtain a long duration PD signal with high sampling rate. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, finite impulse response (FIR) filter, Adaptive filter and

Chengjun Huang; Weiyong Yu; Wei Wei

2002-01-01

423

A feedback linearization based Wind turbine control system for ancillary services and standard steady state operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the control problem of the wind turbine driven doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) is faced, both in wind park operator and system operator perspective. Two control schemes are proposed, based on feedback linearization theory for MIMO systems and PI controllers: the first one for simultaneous active and reactive power regulation, the second one for simultaneous propeller angular

Alessandro Di Giorgio; Laura Pimpinella; Andrea Mercurio

2010-01-01

424

Dynamic Models for Steam and Hydro Turbines in Power System Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic models for speed-governing systems and turbines in power system stability studies are presented. These models provide adequate representation for hydro, fossil-fired, and pressurized water reactor nuclear units in most stability analyses. Models for boiling water reactor nuclear units are to be presented at a later date. Typical parameters are given.

1973-01-01

425

Effects of Trends in Large Steam Turbine Driven Generator Parameters on Power System Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend in turbine-generator characteristics as unit sizes become larger is in an adverse direction from the standpoint of power system stability. Results of specific studies as well as a general rule of thumb for evaluating this effect are given. The effectiveness of independent pole switching and other control measures available to the system planner are shown.

C. Concordia; P. G. Brown

1971-01-01

426

Development of sprayed ceramic seal systems for turbine gas path sealing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ceramic seal system is reported that employs plasma-sprayed graded metal/ceramic yttria stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ). The performance characteristics of several YSZ configurations were determined through rig testing for thermal shock resistance, abradability, and erosion resistance. Results indicate that this type of sealing system offers the potential to meet operating requirements of future gas turbine engines.

Bill, R. C.; Shiembob, L. T.; Stewart, O. L.

1978-01-01

427

Blade-by-blade tip clearance measurement system for gas turbine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to make a reliable measurement of running clearance in the hostile environment over the blading of a modern gas turbine. When engine manufacturers require the measurement to be made over every blade during live engine tests, system reliability, ruggedness, and ease of operation are of primary importance. This paper describes a tip clearance measurement system that can

A. G. Sheard; B. Killeen

1995-01-01

428

Fuzzy Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation System for Hybrid Fuel-Cell\\/Gas-Turbine Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of hybrid fuel-cell power plants has shown its potential for applications and is already under commercialization. In a hybrid fuel-cell and turbine power plant, the control system is an essential component that guarantees reliable and efficient operations. However, due to the limited information possessed by particular local controllers, the plant may become degraded or unstable during system failures.

Wenli Yang; Kwang Y. Lee; S. Tobias Junker; Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

2010-01-01

429

Small-scale hydropower  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel harmonics-reducing system of cascaded-induction generators has been proposed, and its effectiveness has been confirmed by the simulation results. Comparing the characteristics of the cascaded generators with those of the single generator, we see that the power efficiency decreases by 1-3%, and the input power factor decreases by around 20%, but the power factor can be improved by controlling

S. Kato; N. Hoshi; K. Oguchi

2003-01-01

430

Systems and methods for detecting a flame in a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine  

DOEpatents

A system may detect a flame about a fuel nozzle of a gas turbine. The gas turbine may have a compressor and a combustor. The system may include a first pressure sensor, a second pressure sensor, and a transducer. The first pressure sensor may detect a first pressure upstream of the fuel nozzle. The second pressure sensor may detect a second pressure downstream of the fuel nozzle. The transducer may be operable to detect a pressure difference between the first pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor.

Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Storey, James Michael; Lipinski, John; Mestroni, Julio Enrique; Williamson, David Lee; Marshall, Jason Randolph; Krull, Anthony

2013-05-07

431

Available water for hydropower generation in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of available water for hydropower generation was carried out in Swaziland as part of the national water study commissioned by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The study was carried out in 2004/05 and it involved field assessment of major hydropower stations, hydrological assessment of the major water courses where hydropower generation plants are located, climatic changes over the last 10 years and an assessment of the demand for electricity in Swaziland. The study showed that more than 90% of the electricity which Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB) provides to its customers is produced by hydropower while a small proportion is produced by diesel power. The study also showed that the capacity of SEB to generate hydropower is limited mainly by low water flows. It was found out that due to limited capacity to generate hydropower, SEB imports most of the electricity from ESKOM in South Africa and that in 2004 the imported power was more that 84% of the total electricity consumed in Swaziland. It was found out that the causes of low water flows were upstream abstractions and long-term drought conditions. This indicated that hydropower generation is now less favourable in Swaziland than it was in the 1970s, when the existing schemes were built or studied. The other cause for reduced availability of water for hydropower generation is deforestation and increasing land use pressure in the catchment leading to high sedimentation levels in reservoirs. It was concluded that, while the future of locally generated hydropower is limited by dwindling water flows, the capacity to generate more power can be increased by constructing additional dams. It was also recommended that deforestation and intensive cultivation of the catchment areas need to be controlled to reduce the sedimentation of hydropower reservoirs and that more dams should be constructed to counteract the effects of droughts on river flows.

Mwendera, E. J.

432

Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine  

SciTech Connect

This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

2011-07-01

433

Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to provide experimental combustion data of our target fuels at gas turbine conditions. Based on an initial assessment of premixer design requirements and challenges, the most promising sub-scale premixer concepts were evaluated both experimentally and computationally. After comprehensive screening tests, two best performing concepts were scaled up for further development. High pressure single nozzle tests were performed with the scaled premixer concepts at target gas turbine conditions with opportunity fuels. Single-digit NOx emissions were demonstrated for syngas fuels. Plasma-assisted pilot technology was demonstrated to enhance ignition capability and provide additional flame stability margin to a standard premixing fuel nozzle. However, the impact of plasma on NOx emissions was observed to be unacceptable given the goals of this program and difficult to avoid.

Venkatesan, Krishna

2011-11-30

434

Fusion of a FBG-based health monitoring system for wind turbines with a fiber-optic lightning detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind turbine blades are made of composite materials and reach a length of more than 42 meters. Developments for modern offshore turbines are working on about 60 meters long blades. Hence, with the increasing height of the turbines and the remote locations of the structures, health monitoring systems are becoming more and more important. Therefore, fiber-optic sensor systems are well-suited, as they are lightweight, immune against electromagnetic interference (EMI), and as they can be multiplexed. Based on two separately existing concepts for strain measurements and lightning detection on wind turbines, a fused system is presented. The strain measurement system is based on a reflective fiber-Bragg-grating (FBG) network embedded in the composite structure of the blade. For lightning detection, transmissive &fiber-optic magnetic field sensors based on the Faraday effect are used to register the lightning parameters and estimate the impact point. Hence, an existing lightning detection system will be augmented, due to the fusion, by the capability to measure strain, temperature and vibration. Load, strain, temperature and impact detection information can be incorporated into the turbine's monitoring or SCADA system and remote controlled by operators. Data analysis techniques allow dynamic maintenance scheduling to become a reality, what is of special interest for the cost-effective maintenance of large offshore or badly attainable onshore wind parks. To prove the feasibility of this sensor fusion on one optical fiber, interferences between both sensor systems are investigated and evaluated.

Krämer, Sebastian G. M.; Wiesent, Benjamin; Müller, Mathias S.; Puente León, Fernando; Méndez Hernández, Yarú

2008-06-01

435

Program to develop a performance and heat load prediction system for multistage turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flows in low-aspect ratio turbines, such as the SSME fuel turbine, are three dimensional and highly unsteady due to the relative motion of adjacent airfoil rows and the circumferential and spanwise gradients in total pressure and temperature, The systems used to design these machines, however, are based on the assumption that the flow is steady. The codes utilized in these design systems are calibrated against turbine rig and engine data through the use of empirical correlations and experience factors. For high aspect ratio turbines, these codes yield reasonably accurate estimates of flow and temperature distributions. However, future design trends will see lower aspect ratio (reduced number of parts) and higher inlet temperature which will result in increased three dimensionality and flow unsteadiness in turbines. Analysis of recently acquired data indicate that temperature streaks and secondary flows generated in combustors and up-stream airfoils can have a large impact on the time-averaged temperature and angle distributions in downstream airfoil rows.

Sharma, OM

1994-01-01

436

System Study of an MHD/Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Baseload Power Plant. HTGL Report No. 134.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and r...

K. D. Annen

1981-01-01

437

Two-level backward operation of a VSMC for PMSG grid-connected variable speed wind turbine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial wind driven electrical generation tur- bines are well engineered systems that economically extract power from the wind. These systems often restrict the range of turbine rotational speeds so as to facilitate connection of the generator to the electrical power grid. Recently research attention is turning to the possibility of operating the turbine and generator with a wide range of

Mohamed Aner; Ed Nowicki

2011-01-01

438

Design performance analysis of pressurized solid oxide fuel cell\\/gas turbine hybrid systems considering temperature constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents critical aspects and their influence on the performance of hybrid power systems combining a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine (GT). Two types of hybrid system configurations with internal and external reforming have been analyzed. In order to examine the effect of matching between the fuel cell temperature and the turbine inlet temperature

W. J. Yang; S. K. Park; T. S. Kim; J. H. Kim; J. L. Sohn; S. T. Ro

2006-01-01

439

Green Hydropower: The contribution of aquatic science research to the promotion of sustainable electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Hydropower use is responsible for a wide range of environmental disturbances to river systems. Over the past decades, aquatic\\u000a science research has been successful in identifying a considerable number of relationships that exist between plant operation\\u000a and ecosystem quality. This increase in scientific knowledge was, however, not matched by a corresponding reduction in environmental\\u000a impacts stemming from hydropower. In

Bernhard Truffer; Christine Bratrich; Jochen Markard; Armin Peter; Alfred Wüest; Bernhard Wehrli

2003-01-01

440

Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Wieringa, M.J. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Morton, A.G. [Dept. of Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-11-01

441

Advanced system identification techniques for wind turbine structures with special emphasis on modal parameters  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research is to develop advanced system identification techniques that can be used to accurately measure the frequency response functions of a wind-turbine structure immersed in wind noise. To allow for accurate identification, the authors have developed a special test signal called the Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS). The Matlab program that generates this signal allows the user to interactively tailor its parameters for the frequency range of interest based on the response of the wind turbine under test. By controlling NREL`s Mobile Hydraulic Shaker System, which is attached to the wind turbine structure, the PRBS signal produces the wide-band excitation necessary to perform system identification in the presence of wind noise. The techniques presented here will enable researchers to obtain modal parameters from an operating wind turbine, including frequencies, damping coefficients, and mode shapes. More importantly, the algorithms they have developed and tested (so far using input-output data from a simulated structure) permit state-space representation of the system under test, particularly the modal state space representation. This is the only system description that reveals the internal behavior the system, such as the interaction between the physical parameters, and which, in contrast to transfer functions, is valid for non-zero initial conditions.

Bialasiewicz, J.T.

1995-06-01

442

Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine  

DOEpatents

This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

Twerdochlib, Michael (Oviedo, FL)

1999-01-01

443

30. VICTOR WATER TURBINE, STILWELLBIERCE CO., DAYTON, OHIO. SIMILAR TURBINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VICTOR WATER TURBINE, STILWELL-BIERCE CO., DAYTON, OHIO. SIMILAR TURBINE TO LEFT (DOUBLE TURBINE SYSTEM), PHOTO TAKEN FROM PENSTOCK. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

444

Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT): Power-train system development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical work on the design and effort leading to the testing of a 74.5 kW (100 hp) automotive gas turbine is described. The general effort was concentrated on building an engine for test starting in July. The buildup progressed with only routine problems and the engine was delivered to the test stand 9 July. In addition to the engine build effort, work continued in selected component areas. Ceramic turbine parts were built and tested. Burst tests of ceramic rotors show strengths are approaching that achieved in test bars; proof testing is required for acceptable strength ceramic vanes. Over 25 hours was accumulated on the combustor rig in three test modes: pilot nozzle only, start nozzle, and main nozzle operation. Satisfactory ignition was achieved for a wide range of starting speeds and the lean blowout limit was as low as 0.06 kg/b (0.14 lb/hr). Lean blowout was more a function of nozzle atomization than fuel/air ratio. A variety of cycle points were tested. Transition from start nozzle flow to main nozzle flow was done manually without difficulty. Regenerator parts were qualification tested without incident and the parts were assembled on schedule. Rig based performance matched first build requirements. Repeated failures in the harmonic drive gearbox during rig testing resulted in that concept being abandoned for an alternate scheme.

Helms, H. E.; Johnson, R. A.; Gibson, R. K.; Smith, L. B.

1983-01-01

445

Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, February 1995--April 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers the period February 1, 1995, through April 30, 1995, for Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program by Solar Turbines Incorporated under DOE contract No. DE-AC21-93MC30246. The objective of Phase II of the ATS Program is to provide the conceptual design and product development plan for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000. A secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS. Tasks 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7 of Phase II have been completed in prior quarters. Their results have been discussed in the applicable quarterly reports and in their respective topical reports. With the exception of Task 7, final editions of these topical reports have been submitted to the DOE. This quarterly report, then, addresses only Task 4 and the nine subtasks included in Task 8, {open_quotes}Design and Test of Critical Components.{close_quotes} These nine subtasks address six ATS technologies as follows: (1) Catalytic Combustion - Subtasks 8.2 and 8.5, (2) Recuperator - Subtasks 8.1 and 8.7, (3) Autothermal Fuel Reformer - Subtask 8.3, (4) High Temperature Turbine Disc - Subtask 8.4, (5) Advanced Control System (MMI) - Subtask 8.6, and (6) Ceramic Materials - Subtasks 8.8 and 8.9. Major technological achievements from Task 8 efforts during the quarter are as follows: (1) The subscale catalytic combustion rig in Subtask 8.2 is operating consistently at 3 ppmv of NO{sub x} over a range of ATS operating conditions. (2) The spray cast process used to produce the rim section of the high temperature turbine disc of Subtask 8.4 offers additional and unplanned spin-off opportunities for low cost manufacture of certain gas turbine parts.

Karstensen, K.W.

1995-07-01

446

Development of a stereo-optical camera system for monitoring tidal turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development, implementation, and testing of a stereo-optical imaging system suitable for environmental monitoring of a tidal turbine is described. This monitoring system is intended to provide real-time stereographic imagery in the near-field (<10 m) of tidal turbines proposed for deployment in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. Postdeployment observations will provide the necessary information about the frequency and type of interactions between marine animals and the turbine. A method for optimizing the stereo camera arrangement is given, along with a quantitative assessment of the system's ability to measure and track targets in three-dimensional space. Optical camera effectiveness is qualitatively evaluated under realistic field conditions to determine the range within which detection, discrimination, and classification of targets is possible. These field evaluations inform optimal system placement relative to the turbine rotor. Tests suggest that the stereographic cameras will likely be able to discriminate and classify targets at ranges up to 3.5 m and detect targets at ranges up to, and potentially beyond, 4.5 m. Future system testing will include the use of an imaging sonar ("acoustical camera") to evaluate behavioral disturbances associated with artificial lighting.

Joslin, James; Polagye, Brian; Parker-Stetter, Sandra

2014-01-01

447

Control Sensitivity Study for a Hybrid Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed a hardware simulator to test the operating characteristics of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid systems. The Hybrid Performance (HyPer) simulator has been described previously, and has contributed to the understanding of SOFC/GT system operation. HyPer contains not only the requisite elements of gas turbine/compressor/generator, recuperator, combustor, and associated piping, but also several air flow control valves that are proposed as system control mechanisms. It is necessary to know how operation of these valves affects the various entities such as cathode air flow, turbine speed, and various temperatures important to the safe and efficient operation of fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid systems. To determine the interactions among key variables, a series of experiments was performed in which the effect of modulating each of the key manipulated variables was recorded. This document outlines the test methods used and presents some of the data from those tests, along with analysis and interpretation of that data in the context of control system design.

Banta, Larry; Absten, Jason; Tsai, Alex; Gemmen, R.S.; Tucker, D.A.

2008-06-01

448

System study of an MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle baseload power plant. HTGL report No. 134  

SciTech Connect

The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consisted of an MHD plant with a gas turbine bottoming plant, and required no cooling water. The gas turbine plant uses only air as its working fluid and receives its energy input from the MHD exhaust gases by means of metal tube heat exchangers. In addition to the base case systems, vapor cycle variation systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems required a small amount of cooling water. The MHD/gas turbine systems were modeled with sufficient detail, using realistic component specifications and costs, so that the thermal and economic performance of the system could be accurately determined. Three cases of MHD/gas turbine systems were studied, with Case I being similar to an MHD/steam system so that a direct comparison of the performances could be made, with Case II being representative of a second generation MHD system, and with Case III considering oxygen enrichment for early commercial applications. The systems are nominally 800 MW/sub e/ to 1000 MW/sub e/ in size. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine system has very good thermal and economic performances while requiring either little or no cooling water. Compared to the MHD/steam system which has a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW, the Base Case I MHD/gas turbine system has a heat rate which is 13% higher and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher while requiring no cooling water. Case II results show that an improved performance can be expected from second generation MHD/gas turbine systems. Case III results show that an oxygen enriched MHD/gas turbine system may be attractive for early commercial applications in dry regions of the country.

Annen, K.D.

1981-08-01

449

Fast Reactor with Indirect Cycle System of Supercritical COâ Gas Turbine Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attractive power generation system using supercritical carbon dioxide (C0â) gas turbine¹ has been studied because of high cycle thermal efficiency and potential compactness of the Balance Of Plant equipment due to the small-sized turbo machinery system. This paper deals with an indirect cycle system with a sodium-cooled reactor eliminating intermediate cooling system, and design study of reactor core, reactor

Mito Makoto; Yoshioka Naoki; Ohkubo Yoshiyuki; Tsuzuki Nobuyoshi; Kato Yasuyoshi

2006-01-01

450

Cooling system for a gas turbine using a cylindrical insert having V-shaped notch weirs  

DOEpatents

An improved cooling system for a gas turbine is disclosed. A plurality of V-shaped notch weirs are utilized to meter a coolant liquid from a pool of coolant into a plurality of platform and airfoil coolant channels formed in the buckets of the turbine. The V-shaped notch weirs are formed in a separately machined cylindrical insert and serve to desensitize the flow of coolant into the individual platform and airfoil coolant channels to design tolerances and non-uniform flow distribution.

Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Germain, Malcolm R. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1981-01-01

451

The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

1981-01-01

452

Disappearing rivers — The limits of environmental assessment for hydropower in India  

SciTech Connect

The mountain rivers of the Indian Himalaya possess a vast potential for hydropower generation. After decades of comparatively modest development recent years have seen a major intensification in the construction of new hydropower dams. Although increasingly portrayed as a form of renewable energy generation, hydropower development may lead to extensive alterations of fluvial systems and conflicts with resource use patterns of local communities. To appraise and reduce adverse effects is the purpose of statutory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and corresponding mitigation plans. However, in the light of ambitious policies for hydropower expansion conventional approaches of environmental assessment are increasingly challenged to keep up with the intensity and pace of development. This paper aims to explore the systemic limitations of environmental assessment for hydropower development in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Based on a qualitative methodology involving interviews with environmental experts, document reviews and field observations the study suggests that the current practice of constraining EIAs to the project level fails to address the larger effects of extensive hydropower development. Furthermore, it is critically discussed as to what extent the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) might have the potential to overcome existing shortcomings.

Erlewein, Alexander, E-mail: erlewein@sai.uni-heidelberg.de

2013-11-15

453

Wind turbine blade fatigue tests: lessons learned and application to SHM system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results of several structural health monitoring (SHM) methods applied to a 9-meter CX-100 wind turbine blade that underwent fatigue loading. The blade was instrumented with piezoelectric transducers, accelerometers, acoustic emission sensors, and foil strain gauges. It underwent harmonic excitation at its first natural frequency using a hydraulically actuated resonant excitation system. The blade was initially excited

Stuart G. Taylor; Kevin M. Farinholt; Hyomi Jeong; JaeKyung Jang; Gyu Hae Park; Michael D. Todd; Charles R. Farrar; Curtt N. Ammerman

2012-01-01