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Sample records for hydrothermal vent site

  1. Hydrothermal Fluxes at the Turtle Pits Vent Site, southern MAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Sültenfuß, J.; Rhein, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Turtle Pits vent fields are located in a north-south orientated rift valley at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) near 5oS. The site consists of three known hydrothermal fields: Turtle Pits, Comfortless Cove, and Red Lion. Data collected during a Meteor cruise in May 2006 and a L' Atalante cruise in January 2008 are used to calculate the total emission of volume, heat, and helium of the site. The data sets consist of vertical profiles and towed transsects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity, as well as direct velocity measurements with a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) and water samples for Helium isotope analysis. Vent fluid samples for noble gas analysis where taken with an ROV. The particle plume is confined to the rift valley since the depth of the valley exceeds the rise height of the plume. Therefore the fluxes of heat and volume can be estimated from the helium fluxes at the vent sites in comparison with the horizontal helium transport in the valley. The comparison of the 3He concentration measured south of the hydrothermal vents with the 3He signal north of the hydrothermal vents suggests a rather strong northward flow. This is confirmed by the tide corrected velocities observed with the LADCP during the Meteor cruise. The northward volume transport has been calculated using the local bathymetry and tide corrected velocities from the Meteor cruise. In combination with the 3He concentrations and an average 3He end member concentration a flux of 900 l/s is estimated, which corresponds to a heat flux of 450 MW. The rise height of the particle plume estimated from the turbidity data combined with the known background stratification yields an estimate of the total flux of the hydrothermal vents which is one order of magnitude lower.

  2. Discovery of new hydrothermal vent sites in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhammer, G. P.; Chin, C. S.; Keller, R. A.; Dählmann, A.; Sahling, H.; Sarthou, G.; Petersen, S.; Smith, F.; Wilson, C.

    2001-12-01

    We carried out a search for hydrothermal vents in the Central Basin of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. The ZAPS (zero angle photon spectrometer) chemical sensor and instrument package (Oregon State University), OFOS (ocean-floor observation system) camera sled and TVG (TV-grab) (GEOMAR) were used to explore the water column and underlying seafloor. These operations were supplemented with a series of dredges. Hydrothermal plumes over Hook Ridge at the eastern end of the basin are confined to the E ridge crest and SE flank. The plumes are complex and sometimes contain two turbidity maxima one widespread feature centered at 1150 m and a smaller, more localized but broad maximum at 600-800 m. We traced the source of the shallower plume to a sunken crater near the ridge crest using sensors on the ZAPS instrument package. Subsequently two TV-grabs from the crater brought back hot, soupy sediment (42-49°C) overlain by hard, siliceous crusts and underlain by a thick layer of volcanic ash. We also recovered chimney fragments whose texture and mineralogy indicate venting temperatures in excess of 250°C. Native sulfur and Fe-sulfides occur in fractures and porous layers in sediment from throughout the area. Pore water data from the crater site are consistent with venting into a thin sediment layer and indicate phase separation of fluids beneath Hook Ridge. The source of the deeper plumes at Hook Ridge has yet to be located. We also explored a series of three parallel volcanic ridges west of Hook Ridge called Three Sisters. We detected water column anomalies indicative of venting with the ZAPS package and recovered hydrothermal barites and sulfides from Middle Sister. We spent considerable time photographing Middle Sister and Hook Ridge but did not identify classic vent fauna at either location. We either missed small areas with our photography or typical MOR vent fauna are absent at these sites.

  3. Quantifying diffuse and discrete venting at the Tour Eiffel vent site, Lucky Strike hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Eric; EscartíN, Javier; Gracias, Nuno; Olive, Jean-Arthur; Barreyre, Thibaut; Davaille, Anne; Cannat, Mathilde; Garcia, Rafael

    2012-04-01

    The relative heat carried by diffuse versus discrete venting of hydrothermal fluids at mid-ocean ridges is poorly constrained and likely varies among vent sites. Estimates of the proportion of heat carried by diffuse flow range from 0% to 100% of the total axial heat flux. Here, we present an approach that integrates imagery, video, and temperature measurements to accurately estimate this partitioning at a single vent site, Tour Eiffel in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluid temperatures, photographic mosaics of the vent site, and video sequences of fluid flow were acquired during the Bathyluck'09 cruise (Fall, 2009) and the Momarsat'10 cruise (Summer, 2010) to the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field by the ROV Victor6000 aboard the French research vessel the "Pourquoi Pas"? (IFREMER, France). We use two optical methods to calculate the velocities of imaged hydrothermal fluids: (1) for diffuse venting, Diffuse Flow Velocimetry tracks the displacement of refractive index anomalies through time, and (2) for discrete jets, Particle Image Velocimetry tracks eddies by cross-correlation of pixel intensities between subsequent images. To circumvent video blurring associated with rapid velocities at vent orifices, exit velocities at discrete vents are calculated from the best fit of the observed velocity field to a model of a steady state turbulent plume where we vary the model vent radius and fluid exit velocity. Our results yield vertical velocities of diffuse effluent between 0.9 cm s-1 and 11.1 cm s-1 for fluid temperatures between 3°C and 33.5°C above that of ambient seawater, and exit velocities of discrete jets between 22 cm s-1 and 119 cm s-1 for fluid temperatures between 200°C and 301°C above ambient seawater. Using the calculated fluid velocities, temperature measurements, and photo mosaics of the actively venting areas, we calculate a heat flux due to diffuse venting from thin fractures of 3.15 ± 2.22 MW, discrete venting of

  4. Stabilization of dissolved trace metals at hydrothermal vent sites: Impact on their marine biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Sylvia G.; Powell, Zach D.; Koschinsky, Andrea; Kuzmanovski, Stefan; Kleint, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal vents have long been neglected as a significant source of several bioactive trace metals as it was assumed that elements such as Fe, Mn, and Cu etc., precipitate in extensor forming poly-metallic sulfide and oxy-hydroxy sediments in the relative vicinity of the emanation site. However, recently this paradigm has been reviewed since the stabilization of dissolved Fe and Cu from hydrothermal vents was observed [1, 2] and increased concentrations of trace metals can be traced from their hydrothermal source thousands of kilometres through the ocean basins [3]. Furthermore several independent modelling attempts have shown that not only a stabilization of dissolved hydrothermal Fe and Cu is possible [4] but also that hydrothermalism must be a significant source of Fe to be able to balance the Fe-biogeochemical cycle [5]. Here we present new data that gives further evidence of the presence of copper stabilising organic and inorganic compounds in samples characterized by hydrothermal input. We can show that there are systematic differences in copper-complexing ligands at different vent sites such as 5°S on the Mid Atlantic Ridge, Brother Volcano on the Kermadec Arc, and some shallow hydrothermal CO2 seeps in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand and the Mediterranean Sea. Quantitative and qualitative voltammetric data convincingly indicates that inorganic sulphur and organic thiols form the majority of the strong copper-complexing ligand pool in many of these hydrothermal samples. On average, the high temperature vents had a significantly higher copper binding capacity than the diffuse vents due to higher inorganic sulphur species concentrations. References: [1] Sander, S. G., et al. 2007. Organic complexation of copper in deep-sea hydrothermal vent systems. Environmental Chemistry 4: 81-89 [2] Bennett, S. A., et al. 2008. The distribution and stabilisation of dissolved Fe in deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 270: 157-167. [3] Wu J

  5. Discovery of New Hydrothermal Venting Sites in the Lau Basin, Tonga Back Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, P. V.; Arculus, R. J.; Massoth, G. J.; Baptista, L.; Stevenson, I.; Angus, R.; Baker, E. T.; Walker, S. L.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Between 22 April and 25 June 2009, a systematic search for hydrothermal venting along 1340 km of back-arc features was conducted throughout the Lau Basin aboard the CSIRO owned RV Southern Surveyor. The selection of survey areas was based on bathymetry, sidescan and water column anomaly datasets collected during previous marine science research and commercial exploration voyages. During 54 operational days, 76 CTD tows were completed using real-time plume mapping protocols, augmented with mini autonomous plume recorders, to discern anomalies in light scattering, and oxidation-reduction potential with water samples collected within the peak anomalies. Coincident with CTD towing at an average speed of 1.1 knots high resolution EM300 bathymetry and backscatter data was collected which significantly enhanced geological interpretation of possible source sites for follow up cross tows. 32 venting sites were detected, 24 of which are believed to be new discoveries. 13 dredge operations were conducted on 7 of these sites. Sulfides were recovered from 2 sites, one being a new discovery on the NE Lau spreading centre, ~14 km north of the commercial discovery by Teck and ~7km north of the eruption site discovery during a RV Thompson NOAA survey, both during 2008. The new venting field discoveries at North Mata, northern extent of the CLSC and far southern Valu Fa ridge are beyond any previously known areas of hydrothermal activity and further enhances the reputation of the Lau Basin as one of the most productive back arc regions for hydrothermally active spreading centers. A significant number of filter residue samples collected from the vent sites yielded greater than background values for metals including Cu and Zn, which is interpreted to imply they were sourced from active seafloor massive sulfide systems rather than volcanic activity.

  6. Food Web Structure at South Su, Solwara 1 and Solwara 8 Hydrothermal Vent Sites (Manus Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honig, D. L.; Hsing, P.; Jones, R.; Schultz, T.; Sobel, A.; Thaler, A.; van Dover, C. L.

    2008-12-01

    A robust understanding of food webs in chemoautotrophically based hydrothermal vent ecosystems requires quantifying the input of local bacterial chemoautoptrophic production vs. photosynthetically derived debris from surface waters. As an initial step towards this goal for vent communities in Papua New Guinea's Manus Basin, we use isotopic ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur to describe trophic relations among 17 invertebrate genera collected in July 2008 at the Solwara 1, Solwara 8 and South Su hydrothermal vent beds. Prior stable isotope work by Erickson, Macko and Van Dover (unpublished) at Manus Basin vent sites suggests that we will see relatively depleted ä13C and ä15N values for the primary consumers Ifremeria, Alviniconcha and Olgasolaris compared to secondary consumers like the mobile, scavenging genera Munidopsis, Austinograea, Alvinocaris and Chorocaris, sessile suspension feeders of the genera Eochinolasmus and Vulcanolepas, and the predatory sponge Abyssocladia. We further hypothesize that mobile fauna will exhibit greater within-genus variance of ä13C, ä15N and ä34S values than sessile genera due to mobile organisms' ability to forage for photosynthetically derived detritus.

  7. First hydrothermal discoveries on the Australian-Antarctic Ridge: Discharge sites, plume chemistry, and vent organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Doshik; Baker, Edward T.; Siek Rhee, Tae; Won, Yong-Jin; Resing, Joseph A.; Lupton, John E.; Lee, Won-Kyung; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Sung-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    The Australian-Antarctic Ridge (AAR) is one of the largest unexplored regions of the global mid-ocean ridge system. Here, we report a multiyear effort to locate and characterize hydrothermal activity on two first-order segments of the AAR: KR1 and KR2. To locate vent sites on each segment, we used profiles collected by Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorders on rock corers during R/V Araon cruises in March and December of 2011. Optical and oxidation-reduction-potential anomalies indicate multiple active sites on both segments. Seven profiles on KR2 found 3 sites, each separated by ˜25 km. Forty profiles on KR1 identified 17 sites, some within a few kilometer of each other. The spatial density of hydrothermal activity along KR1 and KR2 (plume incidence of 0.34) is consistent with the global trend for a spreading rate of ˜70 mm/yr. The densest area of hydrothermal activity, named "Mujin," occurred along the 20 km-long inflated section near the segment center of KR1. Continuous plume surveys conducted in January-February of 2013 on R/V Araon found CH4/3He (1 - 15 × 106) and CH4/Mn (0.01-0.5) ratios in the plume samples, consistent with a basaltic-hosted system and typical of ridges with intermediate spreading rates. Additionally, some of the plume samples exhibited slightly higher ratios of H2/3He and Fe/Mn than others, suggesting that those plumes are supported by a younger hydrothermal system that may have experienced a recent eruption. The Mujin-field was populated by Kiwa crabs and seven-armed Paulasterias starfish previously recorded on the East Scotia Ridge, raising the possibility of circum-Antarctic biogeographic connections of vent fauna.

  8. Hydrocarbons in surface sediments from a Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Farrington, J.W.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    Petroleum-like materials found at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site (Gulf of California) are derived from pyrolysis of organic matter. Two characteristics surface sediment cores differing in temperature profiles and other parameters were collected by DSV ALVIN, sectioned, and analyzed for hydrocarbons. The quantitative and qualitative composition of alkanes, steranes, diasteranes, and triterpanes differed between these cores as well as within sections of the same core. These differences, apparent for scales of tens of centimeters, are related to interactive physical, chemical, and microbial processes as well as the influence of multiple sources for the petroleum.

  9. Liquid Carbon Dioxide Venting at the Champagne Hydrothermal Site, NW Eifuku Volcano, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J.; Lilley, M.; Butterfield, D.; Evans, L.; Embley, R.; Olson, E.; Proskurowski, G.; Resing, J.; Roe, K.; Greene, R.; Lebon, G.

    2004-12-01

    In March/April 2004, submersible dives with the remotely-operated vehicle ROPOS discovered an unusual CO2-rich hydrothermal system near the summit of NW Eifuku, a submarine volcano located at 21.49° N, 144.04° E in the northern Mariana Arc. Although several sites of hydrothermal discharge were located on NW Eifuku, the most intense venting was found at 1600-m depth at the Champagne site, slightly west of the volcano summit. The Champagne site was found to be discharging two distinct fluids into the ocean: a) several small white chimneys were emitting milky 103° C gas-rich hydrothermal fluid with at least millimolar levels of H2S and b) cold (< 4° C) droplets coated with a milky skin were rising slowly from the sediment. These droplets were later determined to consist mainly of liquid CO2, with H2S as a probable secondary component. The droplets were sticky, and did not tend to coalesce into larger droplets, even though they adhered to the ROV like clumps of grapes. The film coating the droplets was assumed to be CO2 hydrate (or clathrate) which is known to form whenever liquid CO2 contacts water under these P,T conditions. Samples of the 103° C hydrothermal fluids were collected in special gas-tight titanium sampling bottles that were able to withstand the high internal pressures created by the dissolved gases. The Champagne hydrothermal fluids contained a surprising 2.3 moles/kg of CO2, an order of magnitude higher than any CO2 values previously reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids. The overall gas composition was 87% CO2, < 0.1% CH4, < 2 ppm H2, 0.012 mM/kg 4He, with the remaining 13% (322 mM/kg) assumed to be sulfur gases (H2S, SO2, etc.). (Additional analyses planned will confirm the speciation of this sulfur gas component). The helium had R/RA = 7.3, typical of subduction zone systems (R = 3He/4He and RA = Rair). Isotopic analysis of the CO2 yielded δ 13C = -1.75 ‰ , much heavier than the -6.0 ‰ typical for carbon in MOR vent fluids. The C/3He

  10. Microbial utilization of naturally occurring hydrocarbons at the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal vent site

    SciTech Connect

    Bazylinski, D.A.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W. )

    1989-11-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California; depth, 2,000 m) is a site of hydrothermal activity in which petroliferous materials is formed by thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter. We investigated certain components of these naturally occurring hydrocarbons as potential carbon sources for a specific microflora at these deep-sea vent sites. Respiratory conversion of (1-{sup 14}C)hexadecane and (1(4,5,8)-{sup 14}C)naphthalene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was observed at 4{degree}C and 25{degree}C, and some was observed at 55{degree}C, but none was observed at 80{degree}C. Bacterial isolates were capable of growing on both substrates as the sole carbon source. All isolates were aerobic and mesophilic with respect to growth on hydrocarbons but also grew at low temperatures (4 to 5{degree}C). These results correlate well with previous geochemical analyses, indicating microbial hydrocarbon degradation, and show that at least some of the thermally produced hydrocarbons at Guaymas Basin are significant carbon sources to vent microbiota.

  11. Lithosphere-biosphere interaction at a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent site; Hot Lake, Panarea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chia-I.; Amann, Rudolf; Amend, Jan P.; Bach, Wolfgang; Brunner, Benjamin; Meyerdierks, Anke; Price, Roy E.; Schubotz, Florence; Summons, Roger; Wenzhöfer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Deep-Sea hydrothermal systems are unique habitats for microbial life with primary production based on chemosynthesis and are considered to be windows to the subsurface biosphere. It is often overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts are also valuable targets to study the effects of hydrothermal activity on geology, seawater chemistry and finally, on microbial life. Such an area of shallow marine hydrothermal venting is observed approximately 2.5 km east of Panarea Island (Sicily, Italy). This system is characterized by fluid temperatures of up to 135° C, gas emissions dominated by CO2 and precipitation of elemental sulfur on the seafloor. In an interdisciplinary project to investigate the influence of geofuels on marine microbiota, sediment cores and pore fluids were sampled for geological and geochemical analyses. An attempt was made to link these geochemical data with a characterization of the microbial community. One of the investigated sites (Lago Caldo, Hot Lake) is an oval-shaped (~10 by 6 meters) shallow (~2.5 m deep) depression covered by elemental sulfur. The sediments in this depression are strongly affected by hydrothermal activity: the pH of pore fluids is in a range between 5 and 6; the salinity is approximately two times higher than seawater. In situ temperatures of 36° C and 74° C (10 cm sediment depth) at two different locations within Hot Lake indicate variability in hydrothermal flux. The sediment surface layer is anoxic, and with increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, sulfate concentrations decrease from ~30 mM to less than 10 mM, whereas sulfide concentrations increase from less than 50 μm to ~1000 μm at 25 cm sediment depth, thus suggesting a higher potential for energy gain based on sulfur disequilibrium. As indicated by the variability in the sediment temperatures at 10 cm, fluid fluxes and mixing with seawater is not found to be uniform at Hot Lake. This is reflected in variability of the

  12. Biogeography of bacteriophages at four hydrothermal vent sites in the Antarctic based on g23 sequence diversity.

    PubMed

    Millard, Andrew D; Pearce, David; Zwirglmaier, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, which was carried out within the ChEsSO consortium project (Chemosynthetically driven ecosystems south of the Polar Front), we sampled two hydrothermal vent sites on the East Scotia Ridge, Scotia Sea, one in the Kemp Caldera, South Sandwich Arc and one in the Bransfield Strait, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, which exhibit strong differences in their chemical characteristics. We compared a subset of their bacteriophage population by Sanger- and 454-sequencing of g23, which codes for the major capsid protein of T4likeviruses. We found that the sites differ vastly in their bacteriophage diversity, which reflects the differences in the chemical conditions and therefore putatively the differences in microbial hosts living at these sites. Comparing phage diversity in the vent samples to other aquatic samples, the vent samples formed a distinct separate cluster, which also included the non-vent control samples that were taken several hundred meters above the vent chimneys. This indicates that the influence of the vents on the microbial population and therefore also the bacteriophage population extends much further than anticipated. PMID:26903011

  13. Vibrio diabolicus challenge in Bathymodiolus azoricus populations from Menez Gwen and Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent sites.

    PubMed

    Martins, Eva; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Bettencourt, Raul

    2015-12-01

    Menez Gwen (MG) and Lucky Strike (LS) deep-sea hydrothermal vents are located at 850 m and 1730 m depths respectively and support chemosynthesis-based ecosystems partially differing in heavy metal concentration, temperature range, and faunistic composition. The successfully adapted deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus is found at both vent locations. In such inhospitable environments survival strategies rely on the establishment of bacteria-vent animal symbiosis In spite of the toxic nature of deep-sea vents, the problem of microbial threat and the need for immunity exist in B. azoricus. This study aims at investigating the immune system of B. azoricus from MG and LS populations by comparing immune gene expressions profiles using the deep-sea vent-related Vibrio diabolicus. Expression of nineteen immune genes was analyzed from gill, digestive gland and mantle tissues upon 3 h, 12 h and 24 h V. diabolicus challenges. Based on quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) significant gene expression differences were found among MG and LS populations and challenge times MG mussels revealed that gill and digestive gland gene expression levels were remarkably higher than those from LS mussels. Expression of Carcinolectin, Serpin-2, SRCR, IRGs, RTK, TLR2, NF-κB, HSP70 and Ferritin genes was greater in MG than LS mussels. In contrast, mantle tissue from LS mussels revealed the highest peak of expression at 24 h for most genes analyzed. The activation of immune signaling pathways demonstrated that gene expression profiles are distinct between the two mussel populations. These differences may possibly ensue from intrinsic immune transcriptional activities upon which host responses are modulated in presence of V. diabolicus. mRNA transcript variations were assessed during 24 h acclimatization taking into account the partial depuration to which mussels were subjected to. Additionally, gene expression differences may reflect still accountable effects from the presence

  14. Mantle to hydrothermal vent sites of the Southern Mariana Trough back-arc Basin: Results from the Taiga Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seama, N.; Okino, K.; Nogi, Y.; Sato, T.; Matsuno, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Mochizuki, N.; Shinohara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Mariana Trough back-arc basin shows an EPR type axial relief in morphology and constant low mantle Bouguer anomaly along the spreading axis (Kitada et al., 2006), suggesting abundance of magma supply, even though the full spreading rate of 40 km/Myr is categorized as slow spreading. Further, five hydrothermal vent sites exist within 5 km near the spreading axis at 13 N; two sites on the spreading axis, one site at the eastern foot of the axial high, and two sites on an off-axis knoll. We selected this area as one of three integrated target sites for the Taiga Project, and we conducted series of JAMSTEC research cruises for four different types of geophysical surveys, together with dive observation and samplings by the submersible Shinkai6500. The geophysical surveys consists of 1) a marine magnetotelluric (MT) survey of a 130 km length transect across the spreading axis using 10 ocean bottom electro-magnetometers, 2) a 15 km scale seismic reflection/refraction survey and seismicity observation using 9 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS), 3) near-bottom acoustic and magnetic mapping around all the hydrothermal sites using the AUV Urashima, and 4) a magnetometric resistivity (MMR) survey around the on-axis hydrothermal sites. Two-dimensional electrical resistivity structure of the upper mantle from the MT analysis shows highly asymmetry, which may be affected by hydration driven by water release from the subducting slab; that may result in abundant magma supply to support EPR type axial morphology. Three months OBS observation shows that the seismicity near the hydrothermal vent sites is very low, suggesting that hydrothermal activities are not related to tectonic stress. Moreover, the morphology of the mound and knoll near the three off-axis hydrothermal sites shows undeformed features without any faults, suggesting that their formation is closely related to an off-axis magma upwelling system rather than fault systems. The two on-axis hydrothermal sites

  15. Biogeographical distribution of Rimicaris exoculata resident gut epibiont communities along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent sites.

    PubMed

    Durand, Lucile; Roumagnac, Marie; Cueff-Gauchard, Valérie; Jan, Cyrielle; Guri, Mathieu; Tessier, Claire; Haond, Marine; Crassous, Philippe; Zbinden, Magali; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Cambon-Bonavita, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Rimicaris exoculata is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimp whose enlarged gill chamber houses a complex trophic epibiotic community. Its gut harbours an autochthonous and distinct microbial community. This species dominates hydrothermal ecosystem megafauna along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, regardless of contrasting geochemical conditions prevailing in them. Here, the resident gut epibiont community at four contrasted hydrothermal vent sites (Rainbow, TAG, Logatchev and Ashadze) was analysed and compiled with previous data to evaluate the possible influence of site location, using 16S rRNA surveys and microscopic observations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses). Filamentous epibionts inserted between the epithelial cell microvilli were observed on all examined samples. Results confirmed resident gut community affiliation to Deferribacteres, Mollicutes, Epsilonproteobacteria and to a lesser extent Gammaproteobacteria lineages. Still a single Deferribacteres phylotype was retrieved at all sites. Four Mollicutes-related operational taxonomic units were distinguished, one being only identified on Rainbow specimens. The topology of ribotype median-joining networks illustrated a community diversification possibly following demographic expansions, suggesting a more ancient evolutionary history and/or a larger effective population size at Rainbow. Finally, the gill chamber community distribution was also analysed through ribotype networks based on sequences from R. exoculata collected at the Rainbow, Snake Pit, TAG, Logatchev and Ashadze sites. Results allow the refining of hypotheses on the epibiont role and transmission pathways. PMID:26324855

  16. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  17. The NeMO Explorer Web Site: Interactive Exploration of a Recent Submarine Eruption and Hydrothermal Vents, Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, C.; Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.

    2001-12-01

    To help visualize the submarine volcanic landscape at NOAA's New Millennium Observatory (NeMO), we have created the NeMO Explorer web site: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/vents/nemo/explorer.html. This web site takes visitors a mile down beneath the ocean surface to explore Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano 300 miles off the Oregon coast. We use virtual reality to put visitors in a photorealistic 3-D model of the seafloor that lets them view hydrothermal vents and fresh lava flows as if they were really on the seafloor. At each of six virtual sites there is an animated tour and a 360o panorama in which users can view the volcanic landscape and see biological communities within a spatially accurate context. From the six sites there are hyperlinks to 50 video clips taken by a remotely operated vehicle. Each virtual site concentrates on a different topic, including the dynamics of the 1998 eruption at Axial volcano (Rumbleometer), high-temperature hydrothermal vents (CASM and ASHES), diffuse hydrothermal venting (Marker33), subsurface microbial blooms (The Pit), and the boundary between old and new lavas (Castle vent). In addition to exploring the region geographically, visitors can also explore the web site via geological concepts. The concepts gallery lets you quickly find information about mid-ocean ridges, hydrothermal vents, vent fauna, lava morphology, and more. Of particular interest is an animation of the January 1998 eruption, which shows the rapid inflation (by over 3 m) and draining of the sheet flow. For more info see Fox et al., Nature, v.412, p.727, 2001. This project was funded by NOAA's High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) and Vents Programs. Our goal is to present a representative portion of the vast collection of NOAA's multimedia imagery to the public in a way that is easy to use and understand. These data are particularly challenging to present because of their high data rates and low contextual information. The 3-D models create

  18. Bacteria dominate the ammonia-oxidizing community in a hydrothermal vent site at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Li, Meng; Ding, Jie-Fei; Gu, Ji-Dong; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification, which is carried out by two groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and the recently discovered ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). In this study, diversity and abundance of AOB and AOA were investigated in five rock samples from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent site at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) of the South Atlantic Ocean. Both bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene sequences obtained in this study were closely related to the sequences retrieved from deep-sea environments, indicating that AOB and AOA in this hydrothermal vent site showed typical deep ocean features. AOA were more diverse but less abundant than AOB. The ratios of AOA/AOB amoA gene abundance ranged from 1/3893 to 1/242 in all investigate samples, indicating that bacteria may be the major members responding to the aerobic ammonia oxidation in this hydrothermal vent site. Furthermore, diversity and abundance of AOA and AOB were significantly correlated with the contents of total nitrogen and total sulfur in investigated samples, suggesting that these two environmental factors exert strong influences on distribution of ammonia oxidizers in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. PMID:24893665

  19. Modelling of hydrothermal fluid circulation in a heterogeneous medium: Application to the Rainbow Vent site (Mid-Atlantic-Ridge, 36°14N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Mügler, C.; Jean-Baptiste, P.; Charlou, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity at the axis of mid-ocean ridges is a key driver for energy and matter transfer from the interior of the Earth to the ocean floor. At mid-ocean ridges, seawater penetrates through the permeable young crust, warms at depth and exchanges chemicals with the surrounding rocks. This hot fluid focuses and flows upwards, then is expelled from the crust at hydrothermal vent sites in the form of black or white smokers completed by diffusive emissions. We developed a new numerical tool in the Cast3M software framework to model such hydrothermal circulations. Thermodynamic properties of one-phase pure water were calculated from the IAPWS formulation. This new numerical tool was validated on several test cases of convection in closed-top and open-top boxes. Simulations of hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium also gave results in good agreement with already published simulations. We used this new numerical tool to construct a geometric and physical model configuration of the Rainbow Vent site at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In this presentation, several configurations will be discussed, showing that high temperatures and high mass fluxes measured at the Rainbow site cannot be modelled with hydrothermal circulation in a homogeneous-permeability porous medium. We will show that these high values require the presence of a fault or a preferential pathway right below the venting site. We will propose and discuss a 2-D one-path model that allows us to simulate both high temperatures and high mass fluxes. This modelling of the hydrothermal circulation at the Rainbow site constitutes a first but necessary step to understand the origin of high concentrations of hydrogen issued from this ultramafic-hosted vent field.

  20. Fluid Geochemistry of the Capelinhos Vent Site. A Key to Understand the Lucky Strike Hydrothermal Vent Field (37°N, MAR).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.; Cannat, M.; Ceuleneer, G.; Castillo, A.; Menjot, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Lucky Strike hydrothermal field is situated at the mid-Atlantic ridge, south of the Azores, on top of a central volcano within the axial valley. The volcano is composed of a fossil lava lake surrounded by three volcanic cones. An Axial Magma Chamber (AMC) is reported 3.4km below the seafloor. The active venting sites are situated around the fossil lava lake and are directly linked to the heat supplied by the AMC. High temperature fluids from the Lucky Strike field were sampled in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in order to document the depth of the reaction zone, subsurface mixing, geographical control and magmatic degassing. A new active site named Capelinhos was discovered approximately 1.5km eastward from the lava lake, during exploration by ROV Victor6000 - MoMARsat cruise, 2013. It is composed of 10m-high chimneys discharging black smoker-type fluid. Fluid temperatures were 328°C in 2013 and decreased to 318°C in 2014 and 2015. Capelinhos fluids are Cl-depleted by 55% compared to seawater indicating phase separation at depth. In comparison, the other sites range from 6% enrichment (2608/Y3 site) to 22% depletion (Eiffel tower site). Si geothermobarometry of Y3 site estimates quartz equilibration at P=300 bars and T=360-380°C, coherent with Fe/Mn geothermometer (T=370±10°C). For Capelinhos, Fe/Mn suggests 398°C (±10°C) which is close to the critical point of seawater (P=300 bars and T=407°C). Other geothermobarometer uses Si/Cl vapor-like fluid to constrain depth of the top of reaction zone and predicts significant bias due to mixing along the up-flow zone. Application gives P=~370 bars, T=~435°C at Capelinhos and P=~390 bars, T=~440°C at Eiffel tower. This is further sustained by end-member 87Sr/86Sr=0.7038, which indicates little interaction of Capelinhos vent fluids with seawater-derived fluid, compared to other vapor-like sites with 87Sr/86Sr=0.7043. Because of its external location, Capelinhos site isn't influenced by the complex tectonic context of the

  1. Trophic regions of a hydrothermal plume dispersing away from an ultramafic-hosted vent-system: Von Damm vent-site, Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Sarah A.; Coleman, Max; Huber, Julie A.; Reddington, Emily; Kinsey, James C.; McIntyre, Cameron; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; German, Christopher R.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Deep-sea ultramafic-hosted <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems have the potential to provide large amounts of metabolic energy to both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in their dispersing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes. Such <span class="hlt">vent</span>-systems release large quantities of hydrogen and methane to the water column, both of which can be exploited by autotrophic microorganisms. Carbon cycling in these <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes may, therefore, have an important influence on open-ocean biogeochemistry. In this study, we investigated an ultramafic-hosted system on the Mid-Cayman Rise, emitting metal-poor and hydrogen sulfide-, methane-, and hydrogen-rich <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids. Total organic carbon concentrations in the plume ranged between 42.1 and 51.1 μM (background = 43.2 ± 0.7 μM (n = 5)) and near-field plume samples with elevated methane concentrations imply the presence of chemoautotrophic primary production and in particular methanotrophy. In parts of the plume characterized by persistent potential temperature anomalies but lacking elevated methane concentrations, we found elevated organic carbon concentrations of up to 51.1 μM, most likely resulting from the presence of heterotrophic communities, their extracellular products and <span class="hlt">vent</span> larvae. Elevated carbon concentrations up to 47.4 μM were detected even in far-field plume samples. Within the Von Damm <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume, we have used our data to hypothesize a microbial food web in which chemoautotrophy supports a heterotrophic community of microorganisms. Such an active microbial food web would provide a source of labile organic carbon to the deep ocean that should be considered in any future studies evaluating sources and sinks of carbon from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> to the deep ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135626','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27135626"><span id="translatedtitle">Immunomodulatory N-acyl Dopamine Glycosides from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Myxilla incrustans Collected at a <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> <span class="hlt">Site</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Einarsdottir, Eydis; Liu, Hong-Bing; Freysdottir, Jona; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Omarsdottir, Sesselja</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A chemical investigation of the sponge (Porifera) Myxilla incrustans collected from the unique submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> Strytan, North of Iceland, revealed a novel family of closely related N-acyl dopamine glycosides. Three new compounds, myxillin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated and structurally elucidated using several analytical techniques, such as HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Myxillin A (1) and B (2)were shown to be structurally similar, composed of a dopamine moiety, but differ in the acyl chain length and saturation. The myxillin C (3) has a dehydrotyrosine moiety composing the same acyl chain and glycosylation as myxillin B (2). Myxillins A (1) and C (3) were tested for immunomodulating activity in an in vitro dendritic cell model. Dendritic cells matured and stimulated in the presence of myxillin A (1) secreted lower levels of IL-12p40, whilst dendritic cells matured and stimulated in the presence of myxillin C (3) secreted lower levels of IL-10 compared with dendritic cells matured and stimulated in the presence of the solvent alone. These opposing results indicate that the structural differences in the aromatic ring part of the molecules could have an impact on the immunological effects of dendritic cells. These molecules could, therefore, prove to be important in preventing inflammatory diseases on the one hand, and inducing a response to fight tumors and/or pathogens on the other hand. Further studies will be needed to confirm these potential uses. PMID:27135626</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS23C2028S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS23C2028S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Noble Gas geochemistry of the newly discovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields in the Gulf of California: preliminary He-isotope ratios from the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero basin <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spelz, R. M.; Lupton, J. E.; Evans, L. J.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Neumann, F.; Paduan, J. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Numerous submarine deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> related to volcanic activity of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are situated along the Pacific margins of Mexico. Until recently, active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> was unknown between the Guaymas Basin and 21°N on the EPR. MBARI's recent oceanographic surveys have added 7 new active <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. In this study, we aimed to sample the high-temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids emanating from two distinct <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, named Meyibo and Auka, located in the Alarcon Rise and Pescadero Basin, respectively. Mantle-derived He have long been identified in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid releases. The presence of He in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA, where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the presence of mantle-derived melts. Preliminary analyses of He-isotope ratios derived from the newly discovered Meyibo and Auka <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields show high 3He/4He ratios (~8RA), typical of MORB's. Auka <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, characterized by chimneys composed of light carbonate minerals and oil-like hydrocarbons, and temperatures between 250-290oC, show average values of ~7.87RA. In contrast, the black-smokers at the Meyibo field, composed of dark sulfide minerals and temperatures over 350oC, yielded a higher He ratio of ~8.24RA. Recently, it has become clear that regional maximum mantle He values correlate with the velocity structure in the mantle, therefore, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle that are undergoing partial melting. Seismic records could then be compared with the geochemical He ratio signal and supply information regarding tectonics and other processes involved in the generation of these gases. The data presented here will be completing a totally new inventory of He results from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the EPR and fault-termination basins distributed along the P-NA plate boundary in the Gulf of California. The results will be further coupled with the analysis of other geochemical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477324.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477324.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Living with the Heat. Submarine Ring of Fire--Grades 5-6. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.</p> <p></p> <p>This activity is designed to teach about <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecology. Students are expected to describe how <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are formed and characterize the physical conditions at these <span class="hlt">sites</span>, explain chemosynthesis and contrast this process with photosynthesis, identify autotrophic bacteria as the basis for food webs in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> vent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V41B2076G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V41B2076G"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial Diets of Primary Consumers at <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Govenar, B.; Shank, T. M.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Chemical energy produced by mixing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and seawater supports dense biological communities on mid-ocean ridges. The base of the food web at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> is formed by chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that use the energy from the oxidation of reduced chemicals to fix inorganic carbon into simple sugars. With the exception of a few species that have chemolithoautotropic bacterial symbionts, most of the <span class="hlt">vent</span>-endemic macrofauna are heterotrophs that feed on free-living bacteria, protists, and other invertebrates. The most abundant and diverse group of primary consumers in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities belong to the Gastropoda, particularly the patellomorph limpets. Gastropod densities can be as high as 2000 individuals m-2, and there can be as many as 13 species of gastropods in a single aggregation of the siboglinid tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and more than 40 species along the East Pacific Rise. Some gastropods are ubiquitous and others are found in specific microhabitats, stages of succession, or associated with different foundation species. To determine the mechanisms of species coexistence (e.g. resource partitioning or competition) among <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> primary consumers and to track the flow of energy in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities, we employed molecular genetic techniques to identify the gut contents of four species of co-occurring <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> gastropods, Eulepetopsis vitrea, Lepetodrilus elevatus, Lepetodrilus ovalis and Lepetodrilus pustulosus, collected from a single diffuse-flow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> on the East Pacific Rise. Unique haplotypes of the 16S gene that fell among the epsilon-proteobacteria were found in the guts of every species, and two species had gut contents that were similar only to epsilon-proteobacteria. Two species had gut contents that also included haplotypes that clustered with delta-proteobacteria, and one species had gut contents that clustered with alpha- proteobacteria. Differences in the diets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21232364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21232364"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities along seafloor spreading centers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Dover, C L</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>Compared to terrestrial and shallow-water habitats, deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are unique environments characterized by their local insularity, global distribution, individual ephemerality, collective geological longevity, geochemical homogeneity, and their physical and energetic isolation from the catastrophic events implicated in the extinction and speciation of terrestrial and shallow-water forms. Development of <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities has thus occurred in novel biogeographical contexts that challenge our ability to understand evolutionary processes in the deep sea. Recent field work by French, Canadian, German, Japanese and American scientists has revealed intriguing patterns in the taxonomic composition and distribution of <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms at geographically disjunct study <span class="hlt">sites</span>. PMID:21232364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250503','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250503"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic Marine Biodiversity and Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chown, Steven L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The diversity of many marine benthic groups is unlike that of most other taxa. Rather than declining from the tropics to the poles, much of the benthos shows high diversity in the Southern Ocean. Moreover, many species are unique to the Antarctic region. Recent work has shown that this is also true of the communities of Antarctic deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> ecosystems have been documented from many <span class="hlt">sites</span> across the globe, associated with the thermally and chemically variable habitats found around these, typically high temperature, streams that are rich in reduced compounds and polymetallic sulphides. The animal communities of the East Scotia Ridge <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems are very different to those elsewhere, though the microbiota, which form the basis of <span class="hlt">vent</span> food webs, show less differentiation. Much of the biological significance of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> lies in their biodiversity, the diverse biochemistry of their bacteria, the remarkable symbioses among many of the marine animals and these bacteria, and the prospects that investigations of these systems hold for understanding the conditions that may have led to the first appearance of life. The discovery of diverse and unusual Antarctic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems provides opportunities for new understanding in these fields. Moreover, the Antarctic <span class="hlt">vents</span> south of 60°S benefit from automatic conservation under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Antarctic Treaty. Other deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> located in international waters are not protected and may be threatened by growing interests in deep-sea mining. PMID:22235192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS34A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS34A..03S"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Temperature <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field of Kolumbo Submarine Volcano, Aegean Sea: <span class="hlt">Site</span> of Active Kuroko-Type Mineralization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Alexandri, M.; Vougioukalakis, G.; Croff, K.; Roman, C.; Sakellariou, D.; Anagnostou, C.; Rousakis, G.; Ioakim, C.; Gogou, A.; Ballas, D.; Misaridis, T.; Nomikou, P.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Kolumbo submarine volcano is located 7 km north-east of the island of Santorini in the Hellenic arc (Greece), and comprises one of about twenty submarine cones in a NE-trending rift zone. Kolumbo erupted explosively in 1649-50AD, causing 70 fatalities on Santorini. Kolumbo's crater is 1700 m in diameter, with a crater rim at 10 m below sea level and crater floor at depth of 505 m. Recent marine geological investigations, using ROVs, reveal a very active high-temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field in the northeastern part of the Kolumbo crater floor, about 25,000 m2. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> chimneys up to 4 m high are vigorously emitting colorless gas plumes up to 10 m high in the water column. Temperatures up to 220oC are recorded in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids. Some <span class="hlt">vents</span> are in crater- like depressions, containing debris from collapsed extinct chimneys. The entire crater floor of Kolumbo is mantled by a reddish-orange bacterial mat, and bacterial filaments of a variety of colors cling to chimneys in dense clusters. Glassy tunicates and anemones are common in lower-temperature environments on the crater floor. Most chimneys show a high porosity, with a central conduit surrounded by an open and very permeable framework of sulfides and sulfates, aiding fluid flow through the chimney walls. In the sulfate-rich samples, blades of euhedral barite and anhydrite crystals coat the outside of the chimney wall, and layers of barite alternate with sulfide in the interior. The dominant sulfides are pyrite, sphalerite, wurtzite, marcasite and galena. Crusts on extinct and lower-temperature chimneys are composed of amorphous silica, goethite and halite. Sulfur isotope composition of sulfates is virtually at sea water values, whereas the sulfides are more depleted. Elevated levels of copper, gold and silver are observed in bulk composition of chimney samples. Both the structural setting, character of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> field and sulfide/sulfate mineralogy and geochemistry indicate on-going Kuroko-type mineralization in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Geo....21..499T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Geo....21..499T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in Lake Tanganyika, East African, Rift system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Pflumio, Catherine; Castrec, Maryse; Boulégue, Jacques; Gente, Pascal; Rolet, Joël; Coussement, Christophe; Stetter, Karl O.; Huber, Robert; Buku, Sony; Mifundu, Wafula</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Sublacustrine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 °C were measured in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with <span class="hlt">vents</span> at the Pemba <span class="hlt">site</span>. At Cape Banza,active <span class="hlt">vents</span> are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> pipes. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO3-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO3 thermal fluids from lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch off the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction off 219 and 179 °C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa</em> mats were found surrounding the active <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130 °N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north- south major rift trend. The source of heat for such <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFMNS33A..02N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFMNS33A..02N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> as "Biogeobatteries" (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nielsen, M. E.; Girguis, P. R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are unique systems that play an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycles. As chemically reduced <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid mixes with cold oxic seawater, minerals precipitate out of solution resulting in chimney structures composed largely of metal sulfides and anhydrite. Pyrite, which is a natural semi-conductor, is the primary sulfide mineral, but other minerals within chimneys are also conductive (e.g. chalcopyrite, wurtzite, and some iron oxides). Sulfide chimneys are also known to host an extensive endolithic microbial community. Accordingly, submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems appear to be examples of biogeobatteries, wherein conductive mineral assemblages span naturally occuring redox gradients and enable anaerobic microbes to access oxygen as an oxidant via extracellular electron transfer (or EET). To test this hypothesis, we ran a series of electrochemical laboratory experiments in which pyrite was used as an anode (in a vessel flushed with <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span>-like fluid). When placed in continuity with a carbon fiber cathode, pyrite was found to accept and conduct electrons from both abiotic and biological processes (microbial EET). Specifically, electrical current increased 4-fold (5 nA/m2 to 20 nA/m2) in response to inoculation with a slurry prepared from a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> sample. Inspection of the pyrite anode with SEM revealed ubiquitous coverage by microbes. DNA was extracted from the anodes and the inoculum, and was subjected to pyrosequencing to examine prokaryotic diversity. These data suggest that key microbial phylotypes were enriched upon the pyrite, implicating them in EET. In addition, we deployed an in situ experiment based on microbial fuel cell architecture with a graphite anode inserted into a <span class="hlt">vent</span> wall coupled to a carbon fiber cathode outside the <span class="hlt">vent</span>. We observed current production over the course of one year, implying microbial EET in situ. Via pyrosequencing, we observed that the microbial community on the anode was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013BGD....10.2013B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013BGD....10.2013B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Differential gene expression in the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from the Menez Gwen and Lucky Strike deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bettencourt, R.; Rodrigues, M. I.; Barros, I.; Cerqueira, T.; Freitas, C.; Costa, V.; Pinheiro, M.; Egas, C.; Santos, R. S.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus is a symbiont bearing bivalve that is found in great abundance at the Menez Gwen and Lucky Strike <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and in close vicinity off the Azores region near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The distinct relationships that <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussels have developed with their physical and chemical environments are likely reflected in global gene expression profiles providing thus a means to distinguish geographically distinct <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussels on the basis of gene expression studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, to assess the natural expression of bacterial genes and <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussel immune genes and the constitutive distribution and relative abundance of endosymbiotic bacteria within gill tissues. Our results confirmed the presence of methanotroph-related endosymbionts in Menez Gwen <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussels whereas Lucky Strike specimens seem to harbor a different bacterial morphotype when a methane monooxygenase gene specific probe was used. No qualitative differences could be visualized between Menez Gwen and Lucky Strike individuals when tested with sulfur-oxidizing-related nucleic-acid probe. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies revealed varied gene expression profiles in both Menez Gwen and Lucky Strike mussel gill tissues for the immune genes selected. Genes encoding transcription factors presented noticeably low levels of fold expression whether in MG or LS animals whereas the genes encoding effector molecules appeared to have higher levels expression in MG gill tissues. The peptidoglycan recognition molecule, encoding gene, PGRP presented the highest level of transcriptional activity among the genes analyzed in MG gill tissues, seconded by carcinolectin and thus denoting the relevance of immune recognition molecules in early stage of the immune responses onset. Genes regarded as encoding molecules involved in signaling pathways were consistently expressed in both MG and LS gill</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998DSRII..45..319V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998DSRII..45..319V"><span id="translatedtitle">Naked in toxic fluids: A nudibranch mollusc from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Valdés, Ángel; Bouchet, Philippe</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A new species of the nudibranch genus Dendronotus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia) is reported from a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> at the Lucky Strike area, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This is the first species of nudibranch recorded with certainty from a <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>. Other species of Dendronotus are distributed in temperate waters on the continental shelf of the northern hemisphere. Two factors that probably account for the occurrence of a nudibranch in this <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field are that the Lucky Strike area presents potential hydroid prey, and that nudibranchs apparently inhabit a lower activity area. It is hypothesized that the new species, which lacks eyes, is a permanent resident of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, but is probably not restricted to that environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040065937&hterms=deep+vent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bvent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040065937&hterms=deep+vent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bvent"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Detection of Organic Chemical Biosignatures at <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Conrad, P. G.; Lane, A. L.; Bhartia, R.; Hug, W. H.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a non-contact, optical life detection instrument that can detect organic chemical biosignatures in a number of different environments, including dry land, shallow aqueous, deep marine or in ice. Hence, the instrument is appropriate as a biosignature survey tool both for Mars exploration or in situ experiments in an ice-covered ocean such as one might wish to explore on Europa. Here, we report the results we obtained on an expedition aboard the Russian oceanographic vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Pacific Ocean using our life detection instrument MCDUVE, a multichannel, deep ultraviolet excitation fluorescence detector. MCDUVE detected organic material distribution on rocks near the <span class="hlt">vent</span>, as well as direct detection of organisms, both microbial and microscopic. We also were able to detect organic material issuing directly from <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys, measure the organic signature of the water column as we ascended, and passively observe the emission of light directly from some <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26913091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26913091"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 from an Arctic deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wissuwa, Juliane; Stokke, Runar; Fedøy, Anita-Elin; Lian, Kjersti; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Steen, Ida Helene</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Members of the genus Geobacillus have been isolated from a wide variety of habitats worldwide and are the subject for targeted enzyme utilization in various industrial applications. Here we report the isolation and complete genome sequence of the thermophilic starch-degrading Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1. The strain 12AMOR1 was isolated from deep-sea hot sediment at the Jan Mayen <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> <span class="hlt">Site</span>. Geobacillus sp. 12AMOR1 consists of a 3,410,035 bp circular chromosome and a 32,689 bp plasmid with a G + C content of 52 % and 47 %, respectively. The genome comprises 3323 protein-coding genes, 88 tRNA species and 10 rRNA operons. The isolate grows on a suite of sugars, complex polysaccharides and proteinous carbon sources. Accordingly, a versatility of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) and peptidases were identified in the genome. Expression, purification and characterization of an enzyme of the glycoside hydrolase family 13 revealed a starch-degrading capacity and high thermal stability with a melting temperature of 76.4 °C. Altogether, the data obtained point to a new isolate from a marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> with a large bioprospecting potential. PMID:26913091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5815304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5815304"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecology of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lutz, R.A.; Kennish, M.J. )</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>The present article reviews studies of the past 15 years of active and inactive <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The focus of the discussion is on the ecology of the biological communities inhabiting <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. These communities exhibit high densities and biomass, low species diversity, rapid growth rates, and high metabolic rates. The authors attempt to relate the biology of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems to geology. Future directions for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> research are suggested. Since many <span class="hlt">vent</span> populations are dependent on <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and are consequently unstable, both short- and long-term aspects of the ecology of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms and the influence of chemical and geological factors on the biology of <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems need to be established. 200 refs., 28 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5247351','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5247351"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffuse flow from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Doctoral thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trivett, D.A.</p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>The effluent from a collection of diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> was modelled to determine the fate of the source of flow under typical environmental conditions at seafloor spreading centers. A laboratory simulation was conducted to test an analytic model of diffuse plume rise. The results showed that diffuse plumes are likely to remain near the seafloor, with their maximum rise height scaled with the diameter of the source of diffuse flow. The entrainment of ambient seawater into these plumes is limited by the proximity to the seafloor, thus slowing the rate of dilution. The model of diffuse plume behaviour was used to guide the design and implementation of a scheme for monitoring the flow from diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the ocean. A deployment of an array at the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge yielded measurements of a variety of diffuse plume properties, including total heat output. Two distinct sources of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> flow were detected during the field deployment. The larger source was 1-1.5km north of the instrument array, and its energy output was 450 + or - 270MW. A smaller source was located 100m east of one instrument in the array. The energy output of the source was 12 + or - 8MW. The rise heights of the centerlines of these plumes were 45m and 10m, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6205C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeoRL..43.6205C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal magnetization and the subseafloor structure of the ASHES <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Implications for the investigation of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caratori Tontini, Fabio; Crone, Timothy J.; Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel J.; Kinsey, James C.; Mittelstaedt, Eric; Tivey, Maurice</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>High-resolution geophysical data have been collected using the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry over the ASHES (Axial Seamount <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Emission Study) high-temperature (~348°C) <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at Axial Seamount, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Multiple surveys were performed on a 3-D grid at different altitudes above the seafloor, providing an unprecedented view of magnetic data resolution as a function of altitude above the seafloor. Magnetic data derived near the seafloor show that the ASHES field is characterized by a zone of low magnetization, which can be explained by <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> alteration of the host volcanic rocks. Surface manifestations of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity at the ASHES <span class="hlt">vent</span> field are likely controlled by a combination of local faults and fractures and different lava morphologies near the seafloor. Three-dimensional inversion of the magnetic data provides evidence of a vertical, pipe-like upflow zone of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids with a vertical extent of ~100 m.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543373"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> is Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tiercelin, J.J.; Pflumio, C.; Castrec, M.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Sublacustrine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> with associated massive sulfides were discovered during April 1987 at Pemba and Cape Banza on the Zaire side of the northern basin of Lake Tanganyika, East African Rift system. New investigations by a team of ten scuba divers during the multinational (France, Zaire, Germany, and Burundi) TANGANYDRO expedition (August-October 1991) found <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> down to a depth of 46 m along north-trending active faults bounding the Tanganyika rift on the western side. Temperatures from 53 to 103 {degrees}C were measured in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and sediments. Veins of massive sulfides 1-10 cm thick (pyrite and marcasite banding) were found associated with <span class="hlt">vents</span> at the Pemba <span class="hlt">site</span>. At Cape Banza, active <span class="hlt">vents</span> are characterized by 1-70-cm-high aragonite chimneys, and there are microcrystalline pyrite coatings on the walls of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> pipes. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> fluid end members show distinctive compositions at the two <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The Pemba end member is a NaHCO{sub 3}-enriched fluid similar to the NaHCO{sub 3} thermal fluids form lakes Magadi and Bogoria in the eastern branch of the rift. The Cape Banza end member is a solution enriched in NaCl. Such brines may have a deep-seated basement origin, as do the Uvinza NaCl brines on the eastern flank of the Tanganyika basin. Geothermometric calculations have yielded temperatures of fluid-rock interaction of 219 and 179 {degrees}C in the Pemba and Cape Banza systems, respectively. Abundant white or reddish-brown microbial colonies resembling Beggiatoa mats were found surrounding the active <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Thermal fluid circulation is permitted by opening of cracks related to 130{degrees}N normal-dextral faults that intersect the north-south major rift trend. The sources of heat for such <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems may relate to the existence of magmatic bodies under the rift, which is suggested by the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide released at Pemba and Cape Banza. 21 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010GMS...188...27E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010GMS...188...27E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical signatures from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> on slow spreading ridges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edmonds, Henrietta N.</p> <p></p> <p>At least 24 <span class="hlt">sites</span> of active <span class="hlt">venting</span> have been confirmed on slow and ultraslow spreading ridges, with dozens more indicated on the basis of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume distributions and/or dredge recovery of massive sulfides. Fluid chemistry data have been published for 13 <span class="hlt">sites</span>: 8 on the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 3 on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and 2 on the Central Indian Ridge. Three of these 13 <span class="hlt">sites</span> (Rainbow, Logatchev, and Lost City) are known to be hosted in ultramafic terrain, and their fluid chemistries reflect the influence of serpentinization reactions, including elevated hydrogen and methane, and low silica concentrations. This brief review presents the published fluid chemistry for all 13 <span class="hlt">sites</span>, including time series where available, and demonstrates the diversity of chemical compositions engendered by the myriad settings (near and off axis, young volcanic to ultramafic terrain, and depths up to 4100 m) of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems on slow and ultraslow spreading ridges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047210','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047210"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal-Vent</span> Sampler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behar, Alberto E.; Venkateswaran, Kasthur; Matthews, Jaret B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An apparatus is being developed for sampling water for signs of microbial life in an ocean <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> at a depth of as much as 6.5 km. Heretofore, evidence of microbial life in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> has been elusive and difficult to validate. Because of the extreme conditions in these environments (high pressures and temperatures often in excess of 300 C), deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span>- <span class="hlt">vent</span> samplers must be robust. Because of the presumed low density of biomass of these environments, samplers must be capable of collecting water samples of significant volume. It is also essential to prevent contamination of samples by microbes entrained from surrounding waters. Prior to the development of the present apparatus, no sampling device was capable of satisfying these requirements. The apparatus (see figure) includes an intake equipped with a temperature probe, plus several other temperature probes located away from the intake. The readings from the temperature probes are utilized in conjunction with readings from flowmeters to determine the position of the intake relative to the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume and, thereby, to position the intake to sample directly from the plume. Because it is necessary to collect large samples of water in order to obtain sufficient microbial biomass but it is not practical to retain all the water from the samples, four filter arrays are used to concentrate the microbial biomass (which is assumed to consist of particles larger than 0.2 m) into smaller volumes. The apparatus can collect multiple samples per dive and is designed to process a total volume of 10 L of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid, of which most passes through the filters, leaving a total possibly-microbe-containing sample volume of 200 mL remaining in filters. A rigid titanium nose at the intake is used for cooling the sample water before it enters a flexible inlet hose connected to a pump. As the water passes through the titanium nose, it must be cooled to a temperature that is above a mineral</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841485"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomicrobiology of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jannasch, H W; Mottl, M J</p> <p>1985-08-23</p> <p>During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the mid-ocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (</=25 degrees C) and hot ( approximately 350 degrees C) submarine <span class="hlt">vents</span> at depths of 2000 to 3000 meters. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use these reduced chemical species as sources of energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide (assimilation) to organic carbon. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Such highly prolific, although narrowly localized, deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits. PMID:17841485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Sci...229..717J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Sci...229..717J"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomicrobiology of Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jannasch, Holger W.; Mottl, Michael J.</p> <p>1985-08-01</p> <p>During the cycling of seawater through the earth's crust along the midocean ridge system, geothermal energy is transferred into chemical energy in the form of reduced inorganic compounds. These compounds are derived from the reaction of seawater with crustal rocks at high temperatures and are emitted from warm (<= 25 degrees C) and hot (~ 350 degrees C) submarine <span class="hlt">vents</span> at depths of 2000 to 3000 meters. Chemolithotrophic bacteria use these reduced chemical species as sources of energy for the reduction of carbon dioxide (assimilation) to organic carbon. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Such highly prolific, although narrowly localized, deep-sea communities are thus maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy. Reduced sulfur compounds appear to represent the major electron donors for aerobic microbial metabolism, but methane-, hydrogen-, iron-, and manganese-oxidizing bacteria have also been found. Methanogenic, sulfur-respiring, and extremely thermophilic isolates carry out anaerobic chemosynthesis. Bacteria grow most abundantly in the shallow crust where upwelling hot, reducing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid mixes with downwelling cold, oxygenated seawater. The predominant production of biomass, however, is the result of symbiotic associations between chemolithotrophic bacteria and certain invertebrates, which have also been found as fossils in Cretaceous sulfide ores of ophiolite deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009DSRII..56.1577E&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009DSRII..56.1577E&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a chemoautotrophically based food web at inactive <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (Manus Basin)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erickson, K. L.; Macko, S. A.; Van Dover, C. L.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are ephemeral systems. When <span class="hlt">venting</span> shuts down, sulfide-dependent taxa die off, and non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa can colonize the hard substrata. In Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea), where <span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span> active and inactive <span class="hlt">sites</span> are interspersed, hydroids, cladorhizid sponges, barnacles, bamboo corals, and other invertebrate types may occupy inactive <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of animals occupying inactive <span class="hlt">sites</span> are consistent with nutritional dependence on either chemoautotrophically or photosynthetically produced organic material, but sulfur isotopic compositions of these animals point to a chemoautotrophic source of sulfur from dissolved sulfide in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids rather than sulfur derived from seawater sulfate through photosynthesis. Given that suspension-feeding and micro-carnivorous invertebrates are the biomass dominants at inactive <span class="hlt">sites</span>, the primary source of chemoautotrophic nutrition is likely suspended particulates and organisms delivered from nearby active <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V23A2385I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.V23A2385I"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomicrobiology of <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> in Yellowstone Lake: Phylogenetic and Functional Analysis suggest Importance of Geochemistry (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inskeep, W. P.; Macur, R.; Jay, Z.; Clingenpeel, S.; Tenney, A.; Lavalvo, D.; Shanks, W. C.; McDermott, T.; Kan, J.; Gorby, Y.; Morgan, L. A.; Yooseph, S.; Varley, J.; Nealson, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p> outflow channels of YNP. Analysis of functional genes present in the consensus metagenome sequence representing these populations indicate metabolic potential for oxidation of reduced sulfur and hydrogen, both of which are present at high concentrations in these <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems. Metagenome sequence of biomass associated with sediments from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> at Mary Bay (50 m depth) suggest greater archaeal and bacterial diversity in this environment, which may be due to higher concentrations of hydrogen, iron, and manganese measured in these environments. Results from metagenome sequence and modest 16S rRNA gene surveys from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> biomass indicate that several groups of novel thermophilic archaea inhabit these <span class="hlt">sites</span>, and in many cases, are represented by organisms not found in YNP terrestrial geothermal environments that have been characterized to date. The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> from Inflated Plain and West Thumb indicate a linkage between various geochemical attributes (sulfide, hydrogen) and the metabolic potential associated with dominant Aquificales populations present in these communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS22A..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS22A..05N"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential biomass in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, K.; Takai, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of black smoker <span class="hlt">vents</span> hosting chemosynthetic macrofaunal communities (Spiess et al., 1980), submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems and associated biota have attracted interest of many researchers (e.g., Humphris et al., 1995; Van Dover, 2000; Wilcock et al., 2004). In the past couple of decades, particular attention has been paid to chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that sustain the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>-endemic animal communities as the primary producer. This type of microorganisms obtains energy from inorganic substances (e.g., sulfur, hydrogen, and methane) derived from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids, and is often considered as an important modern analogue to the early ecosystems of the Earth as well as the extraterrestrial life in other planets and moons (e.g., Jannasch and Mottl, 1985; Nealson et al., 2005; Takai et al., 2006). Even today, however, the size of this type of chemosynthetic deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem is largely unknown. Here, we present geophysical and geochemical constraints on potential biomass in the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem. The estimation of the potential biomass in the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem is based on <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid flux calculated from heat flux (Elderfield and Schltz, 1996), maximum chemical energy available from metabolic reactions during mixing between <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids and seawater (McCollom, 2007), and maintenance energy requirements of the chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms (Hoehler, 2004). The result shows that the most of metabolic energy sustaining the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem is produced by oxidation reaction of reduced sulfur, although some parts of the energy are derived from hydrogenotrophic and methanotrophic reactions. The overall total of the potential biomass in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem is calculated to be much smaller than that in terrestrial ecosystems including terrestrial plants. The big difference in biomass between the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6191629','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6191629"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> clam and tube worm /sup 13/C//sup 12/C: further evidence of nonphotosynthetic food sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rau, G.H.</p> <p>1981-07-17</p> <p>The stable carbon isotope ratios in clam mantle tissues taken from both Galapagos and 21/sup 0/N <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> were similar to the unusually low ratios of carbon-13 to carbon-12 previously reported for a Galapagos <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussel. In marked contrast to these bivalues, vestimentiferan worm tissues from a Galapagos <span class="hlt">vent</span> had isotope ratios that were higher than those of open ocean biota. These observations suggest that more than one nonpelagic and nonphotosynthetic carbon fixation pathway is of nutritional importance to <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals, and that at least one of these pathways is common to two geographically separated <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007AGUFMOS43A0989S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007AGUFMOS43A0989S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Macrofauna of shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at 71N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schander, C.; Rapp, H. T.; Pedersen, R. B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna and since their discovery in 1977, more than 400 species of animals have been described. Specialized <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna includes various animal phyla, but the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. We have investigated the fauna collected around newly discovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the Mohns Ridge north of Jan Mayen. The <span class="hlt">venting</span> fields are located at 71°N and the <span class="hlt">venting</span> takes place within two main areas separated by 5 km. The shallowest <span class="hlt">vent</span> area is at 500-550 m water depth and is located at the base of a normal fault. This <span class="hlt">vent</span> field stretches approximately 1 km along the strike of the fault, and it is composed of 10-20 major <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> each with multiple chimney constructions discharging up to 260°C hot fluids. A large area of diffuse, low- temperature <span class="hlt">venting</span> occurs in the area surrounding the high-temperature field. Here, partly microbial mediated iron-oxide-hydroxide deposits are abundant. The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> do not show any high abundance of specialized <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. Single groups (i.e. Porifera and Mollusca) have a few representatives but groups otherwise common in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> areas (e.g. vestimentifera, Alvinellid worms, mussels, clams, galathaeid and brachyuran crabs) are absent. Up until now slightly more than 200 species have been identified from the <span class="hlt">vent</span> area. The macrofauna found in the <span class="hlt">vent</span> area is, with few exceptions, an assortment of bathyal species known in the area. One endemic, yet undescribed, species of mollusc has been found so far, an gastropod related to Alvania incognita Warén, 1996 and A. angularis Warén, 1996 (Rissoidae), two species originally described from pieces of sunken wood north and south of Iceland. It is by far the most numerous mollusc species at the <span class="hlt">vents</span> and was found on smokers, in the bacterial mats, and on the ferric deposits. A single specimen of an undescribed tanaidacean has also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMOS43C..05X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMOS43C..05X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat flux measured acoustically at Grotto <span class="hlt">Vent</span>, a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> cluster on the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, G.; Jackson, D. R.; Bemis, K. G.; Rona, P. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Over the past several decades, quantifying the heat output has been a unanimous focus of studies at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields discovered around the global ocean. Despite their importance, direct measurements of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> heat flux are very limited due to the remoteness of most <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and the complexity of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span>. Moreover, almost all the heat flux measurements made to date are snapshots and provide little information on the temporal variation that is expected from the dynamic nature of a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system. The Cabled Observatory <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Imaging Sonar (COVIS, https://<span class="hlt">sites</span>.google.com/a/uw.edu/covis/) is currently connected to the Endeavour node of the NEPTUNE Canada observatory network (http://www.neptunecanada.ca) to monitor the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes issuing from a <span class="hlt">vent</span> cluster (Grotto) on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. COVIS is acquiring a long-term (20-months to date) time series of the vertical flow rate and volume flux of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume above Grotto through the Doppler analysis of the acoustic backscatter data (Xu et al., 2013). We then estimate the plume heat flux from vertical flow rate and volume flux using our newly developed inverse method. In this presentation, we will briefly summarize the derivation of the inverse method and present the heat-flux time series obtained consequently with uncertainty quantification. In addition, we compare our heat-flux estimates with the one estimated from the plume in-situ temperatures measured using a Remotely Operative Vehicle (ROV) in 2012. Such comparison sheds light on the uncertainty of our heat flux estimation. Xu, G., Jackson, D., Bemis, K., and Rona, P., 2013, Observations of the volume flux of a seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume using an acoustic imaging sonar, Geochemistry, Geophysics Geosystems, 2013 (in press).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5341819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5341819"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-sea primary production at the Galapagos <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karl, D.M.; Wirsen, C.O.; Jannasch, H.W.</p> <p>1980-03-21</p> <p>Dense animal populations surrounding recently discovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> at the Galapagos Rift sea-floor spreading center, 2550 meters deep, are probably sustained by microbial primary production. Energy in the form of geothermically reduced sulfur compounds emitted from the <span class="hlt">vents</span> is liberated during oxidation and used for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic matter by chemosynthetic bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.121..202B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.121..202B"><span id="translatedtitle">Where are the undiscovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on oceanic spreading ridges?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaulieu, Stace E.; Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In nearly four decades since the discovery of deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span>, one-third of the length of global oceanic spreading ridges has been surveyed for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity. Active submarine <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields are now known along the boundaries of 46 out of 52 recognized tectonic plates. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> survey efforts over the most recent decade were sparked by national and commercial interests in the mineral resource potential of seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits, as well as by academic research. Here we incorporate recent data for back-arc spreading centers and ultraslow- and slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges (MORs) to revise a linear equation relating the frequency of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along oceanic spreading ridges to spreading rate. We apply this equation globally to predict a total number of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on spreading ridges, which suggests that ~900 <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields remain to be discovered. Almost half of these undiscovered <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields (comparable to the total of all <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields discovered during 35 years of research) are likely to occur at MORs with full spreading rates less than 60 mm/yr. We then apply the equation regionally to predict where these <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> may be discovered with respect to plate boundaries and national jurisdiction, with the majority expected to occur outside of states' exclusive economic zones. We hope that these predictions will prove useful to the community in the future, in helping to shape continuing ridge-crest exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002seip.conf....7S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002seip.conf....7S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> of Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stark, Joyce</p> <p></p> <p>As a member of REVEL (Research and Education: Volcanoes, Exploration and Life), I had an opportunity to participant in a scientific research cruise focused on the active volcanoes along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the submarine spreading center off the Washington- Oregon-Canada coast. REVEL was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, University of Washington, Pennsylvania State University and the American Museum of Natural History. We studied the geological, chemical and biological processes associated with active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems and my research focused on the biological communities of the sulfide structures. We worked on board the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Vessel, R/V Atlantis and the submersible ALVIN was used to sample the "Black Smokers". As a member of the scientific party, I participated in collection and sorting of biological specimens from the <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities, attended lectures by scientists, contributed to the cruise log website, maintained a journal and developed my own research project. It was my responsibility to bring this cutting-edge research back to the classroom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233630"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world's deepest seafloor spreading centre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jonathan T; Murton, Bramley J; Stansfield, Kate; Tyler, Paul A; German, Christopher R; Van Dover, Cindy L; Amon, Diva; Furlong, Maaten; Grindlay, Nancy; Hayman, Nicholas; Hühnerbach, Veit; Judge, Maria; Le Bas, Tim; McPhail, Stephen; Meier, Alexandra; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Nye, Verity; Pebody, Miles; Pedersen, Rolf B; Plouviez, Sophie; Sands, Carla; Searle, Roger C; Stevenson, Peter; Taws, Sarah; Wilcox, Sally</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Mid-Cayman spreading centre is an ultraslow-spreading ridge in the Caribbean Sea. Its extreme depth and geographic isolation from other mid-ocean ridges offer insights into the effects of pressure on <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span>, and the biogeography of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. Here we report the discovery of two <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre. The Von Damm <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field is located on the upper slopes of an oceanic core complex at a depth of 2,300 m. High-temperature <span class="hlt">venting</span> in this off-axis setting suggests that the global incidence of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields may be underestimated. At a depth of 4,960 m on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre axis, the Beebe <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field emits copper-enriched fluids and a buoyant plume that rises 1,100 m, consistent with >400 °C <span class="hlt">venting</span> from the world's deepest known <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system. At both <span class="hlt">sites</span>, a new morphospecies of alvinocaridid shrimp dominates faunal assemblages, which exhibit similarities to those of Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:22233630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274706','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3274706"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world's deepest seafloor spreading centre</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jonathan T.; Murton, Bramley J.; Stansfield, Kate; Tyler, Paul A.; German, Christopher R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Amon, Diva; Furlong, Maaten; Grindlay, Nancy; Hayman, Nicholas; Hühnerbach, Veit; Judge, Maria; Le Bas, Tim; McPhail, Stephen; Meier, Alexandra; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Nye, Verity; Pebody, Miles; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Plouviez, Sophie; Sands, Carla; Searle, Roger C.; Stevenson, Peter; Taws, Sarah; Wilcox, Sally</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Mid-Cayman spreading centre is an ultraslow-spreading ridge in the Caribbean Sea. Its extreme depth and geographic isolation from other mid-ocean ridges offer insights into the effects of pressure on <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span>, and the biogeography of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. Here we report the discovery of two <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre. The Von Damm <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field is located on the upper slopes of an oceanic core complex at a depth of 2,300 m. High-temperature <span class="hlt">venting</span> in this off-axis setting suggests that the global incidence of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields may be underestimated. At a depth of 4,960 m on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre axis, the Beebe <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field emits copper-enriched fluids and a buoyant plume that rises 1,100 m, consistent with >400 °C <span class="hlt">venting</span> from the world's deepest known <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system. At both <span class="hlt">sites</span>, a new morphospecies of alvinocaridid shrimp dominates faunal assemblages, which exhibit similarities to those of Mid-Atlantic <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:22233630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20099811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20099811"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>: potential hot spots for natural products discovery?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thornburg, Christopher C; Zabriskie, T Mark; McPhail, Kerry L</p> <p>2010-03-26</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are among the most extreme and dynamic environments on Earth. However, islands of highly dense and biologically diverse communities exist in the immediate vicinity of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> flows, in stark contrast to the surrounding bare seafloor. These communities comprise organisms with distinct metabolisms based on chemosynthesis and growth rates comparable to those from shallow water tropical environments, which have been rich sources of biologically active natural products. The geological setting and geochemical nature of deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span> that impact the biogeography of <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms, chemosynthesis, and the known biological and metabolic diversity of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea, including the handful of natural products isolated to date from deep-sea <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms, are considered here in an assessment of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> as potential hot spots for natural products investigations. Of critical importance too are the logistics of collecting deep <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms, opportunities for re-collection considering the stability and longevity of <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, and the ability to culture natural product-producing deep <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms in the laboratory. New cost-effective technologies in deep-sea research and more advanced molecular techniques aimed at screening a more inclusive genetic assembly are poised to accelerate natural product discoveries from these microbial diversity hot spots. PMID:20099811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170844','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70170844"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> and methane seeps: Rethinking the sphere of influence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Levin, Lisa A.; Baco, Amy; Bowden, David; Colaco, Ana; Cordes, Erik E.; Cunha, Marina; Demopoulos, Amanda; Gobin, Judith; Grupe, Ben; Le, Jennifer; Metaxas, Anna; Netburn, Amanda; Rouse, Greg; Thurber, Andrew; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Vanreusel, Ann; Watling, Les</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although initially viewed as oases within a barren deep ocean, <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> and methane seep communities are now recognized to interact with surrounding ecosystems on the sea floor and in the water column, and to affect global geochemical cycles. The importance of understanding these interactions is growing as the potential rises for disturbance from oil and gas extraction, seabed mining and bottom trawling. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the nature, extent and time and space scales of <span class="hlt">vent</span> and seep interactions with background systems. We document an expanded footprint beyond the <span class="hlt">site</span> of local <span class="hlt">venting</span> or seepage with respect to elemental cycling and energy flux, habitat use, trophic interactions, and connectivity. Heat and energy are released, global biogeochemical and elemental cycles are modified, and particulates are transported widely in plumes. Hard and biotic substrates produced at <span class="hlt">vents</span> and seeps are used by “benthic background” fauna for attachment substrata, shelter, and access to food via grazing or through position in the current, while particulates and fluid fluxes modify planktonic microbial communities. Chemosynthetic production provides nutrition to a host of benthic and planktonic heterotrophic background species through multiple horizontal and vertical transfer pathways assisted by flow, gamete release, animal movements, and succession, but these pathways remain poorly known. Shared species, genera and families indicate that ecological and evolutionary connectivity exists among <span class="hlt">vents</span>, seeps, organic falls and background communities in the deep sea; the genetic linkages with inactive <span class="hlt">vents</span> and seeps and background assemblages however, are practically unstudied. The waning of <span class="hlt">venting</span> or seepage activity generates major transitions in space and time that create links to surrounding ecosystems, often with identifiable ecotones or successional stages. The nature of all these interactions is dependent on water depth, as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B53D..08O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B53D..08O"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and Stability of Distinct Subsurface Microbial Communities Associated with Two <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Opatkiewicz, A. D.; Butterfield, D. A.; Baross, J. A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Subseafloor microbial communities may be important in global primary production and biogeochemical cycling. However, too little is known about the physiological and phylogenetic diversity and activity of these communities to assess this potential, and understanding the temporal and spatial variability in microbial community structure is critical. The microbial community structure of five geographically distinct <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> located within the Axial Seamount caldera, and four geographically distinct <span class="hlt">vents</span> within the Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge, were examined over six years. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (tRFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were used to determine the bacterial and archaeal diversity, and the statistical software Primer was used to compare <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbiology, temperature and fluid chemistry. Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid temperature and chemical composition shows that there are significant differences between <span class="hlt">vents</span> in any year, and persistent differences in composition between one of the Axial <span class="hlt">vents</span> compared to the rest of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. For the majority of <span class="hlt">vents</span>, however, the fluid composition changed over time such that separate <span class="hlt">vents</span> do not maintain a statistically distinct composition. In contrast, the subseafloor microbial communities associated with individual <span class="hlt">vents</span> also changed from year to year but each location maintained a distinct community structure (based on tRFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses) that was significantly different and greater than 60-percent dissimilar from all other <span class="hlt">vents</span> included in this study. At Axial, epsilon-proteobacterial microdiversity is shown to be important in distinguishing <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities. The deeper, high-temperature archaeal communities have more overlap between <span class="hlt">sites</span>. We propose that persistent <span class="hlt">venting</span> at many diffuse <span class="hlt">sites</span> over time creates the potential to isolate and stabilize diverse microbial community structures between <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Variation in dilution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V72A1282O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V72A1282O"><span id="translatedtitle">Euryhaline Halophilic Microorganisms From the Suiyo Seamount <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okamoto, T.; Kimura, H.; Maruyama, A.; Naganuma, T.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>The euryhaline halophilic microorganisms grow in a wide salinity range from <3% NaCl (seawater equivalent) to >15% NaCl or to even saturation (about 30% NaCl). A number of euryhaline halophiles have been found in a wide range of habitats from oceanic and terrestrial regimes, from deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span> and seeps, and from Antarctic sea ice and terrains. We have isolated the euryhaline strains independently from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids and Antarctic terrains are closely related species of the genus Halomonas. Some euryhaline halophiles maintain intracellular osmotic balance by controlling the concentration of compatible solute such as ectoine. This compatible solute not only stabilizes the proteins from denaturation caused by high salt concentration but also serves as a protectant against stresses such as heating, freezing and drying. The sub-seafloor structure of a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> is highly complicated with mosaic heterogeneity of physicochemical parameters such as temperature and salinity. This premise led us to the hypothesis that some euryhaline halophiles including Halomonas species well adapt to a wide salinity-ranged habitat in the sub-<span class="hlt">vent</span>. To test this hypothesis, isolation and characterization of euryhaline halophiles from the Suiyo Seamount <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> were conducted the drill-cored rock samples from the <span class="hlt">sites</span> APSK-02, 03, and 07 and the filter-trapped fluid particle samples from the <span class="hlt">sites</span> APSK-01 and 05 were used. For initial cultivation, a heterotrophic bacterial medium of 15% NaCl was used. The samples was added to the medium and incubated under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at room temperature. A total of 5 euryhaline halophilic strains were obtained and phylogenetically characterized: two strains (both related to Marinobacter) from APSK-02 core section 2; one strain (related to H. meridiana) from APSK-07 core section 3; and two strains (related to H. meridiana and H. variabilis) from APSK-01 trapped particles. In addition, some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5203065','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5203065"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> of Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaplinski, M.A.; Morgan, P. . Geology Dept.)</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems within Yellowstone Lake are located within the Yellowstone caldera in the northeastern and West Thumb sections of the lake. The <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems lie within areas of extremely high geothermal gradients (< 1,000 C/km) in the lake sediments and occur as clusters of individual <span class="hlt">vents</span> that expel both <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and gas. Regions surrounding the <span class="hlt">vents</span> are colonized by unique, chemotropic biologic communities and suggest that <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> input plays an important role in the nutrient dynamics of the lake's ecosystem. The main concentration of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity occurs in the northeast region of the main lake body in a number of locations including: (1) along the shoreline from the southern edge of Sedge Bay to the inlet of Pelican Creek; (2) the central portion of the partially submerged Mary Bay phreatic explosion crater, within deep (30--50 m) fissures; (3) along the top of a 3 km long, steep-sided ridge that extends from the southern border of Mary Bay, south-southeast into the main lake basin; and (4) east of Stevenson Island along the lower portion of the slope (50--107 m) into the lake basin, within an anastomosing series of north to northwest trending, narrow troughs or fissures. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> were also located within, and surrounding the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake, with the main concentration occurring the offshore of the West Thumb and Potts Geyser Basin. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in Yellowstone Lake occur along fractures that have penetrated the lake sediments or along the tops of ridges and near shore areas. Underneath the lake, rising <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids encounter a semi-permeable cap of lake sediments. Upwardly convecting <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid flow may be diverted by the impermeable lake sediments along the buried, pre-existing topography. These fluids may continue to rise along topography until fractures are encountered, or the lake sediment cover is thinned sufficiently to allow egress of the fluids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.T52A0923M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.T52A0923M"><span id="translatedtitle">First Survey For Submarine <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> massive sulfide environments involving <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight <span class="hlt">sites</span> were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7049404','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7049404"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>The bibliography contains citations concerning biological, chemical, and geophysical investigations of seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Biological community descriptions, primary production and growth studies, the nature and occurrence of mineral deposits, and the structure and morphology of <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems are among the topics discussed. Specific <span class="hlt">site</span> studies, and general investigations are considered. (Contains a minimum of 157 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.4892B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.4892B"><span id="translatedtitle">An authoritative global database for active submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaulieu, Stace E.; Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.; Maffei, Andrew</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The InterRidge <span class="hlt">Vents</span> Database is available online as the authoritative reference for locations of active submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. Here we describe the revision of the database to an open source content management system and conduct a meta-analysis of the global distribution of known active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. The number of known active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields has almost doubled in the past decade (521 as of year 2009), with about half visually confirmed and others inferred active from physical and chemical clues. Although previously known mainly from mid-ocean ridges (MORs), active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields at MORs now comprise only half of the total known, with about a quarter each now known at volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers. Discoveries in arc and back-arc settings resulted in an increase in known <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields within exclusive economic zones, consequently reducing the proportion known in high seas to one third. The increase in known <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits as mineral resources. The purpose of the database now extends beyond academic research and education and into marine policy and management, with at least 18% of known <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields in areas granted or pending applications for mineral prospecting and 8% in marine protected areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3695286','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3695286"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the distribution and rates of microbial sulfate reduction at Middle Valley <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Daniel R; Olins, Heather C; Vidoudez, Charles; Girguis, Peter R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Few studies have directly measured sulfate reduction at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, and relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction in <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments. A better understanding of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems may be achieved by integrating ecological and geochemical data with metabolic rate measurements. Here we present rates of microbially mediated sulfate reduction from three distinct <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Middle Valley <span class="hlt">vent</span> field along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, as well as assessments of bacterial and archaeal diversity, estimates of total biomass and the abundance of functional genes related to sulfate reduction, and in situ geochemistry. Maximum rates of sulfate reduction occurred at 90 °C in all three deposits. Pyrosequencing and functional gene abundance data revealed differences in both biomass and community composition among <span class="hlt">sites</span>, including differences in the abundance of known sulfate-reducing bacteria. The abundance of sequences for Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms and higher sulfate reduction rates at elevated temperatures suggests that Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms may have a role in sulfate reduction in warmer environments. The rates of sulfate reduction presented here suggest that—within anaerobic niches of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits—heterotrophic sulfate reduction may be quite common and might contribute substantially to secondary productivity, underscoring the potential role of this process in both sulfur and carbon cycling at <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:23535916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.B13C0630H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.B13C0630H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Community Structure Comparisons of <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Microbial Mats Along the Mariana Arc and Back-arc</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hager, K. W.; Fullerton, H.; Moyer, C. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> along the Mariana Arc and back-arc represent a hotspot of microbial diversity that has not yet been fully recognized. The Mariana Arc and back-arc contain <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> with varied <span class="hlt">vent</span> effluent chemistry and temperature, which translates to diverse community composition. We have focused on iron-rich <span class="hlt">sites</span> where the dominant primary producers are iron oxidizing bacteria. Because microbes from these environments have proven elusive in culturing efforts, we performed culture independent analysis among different microbial communities found at these <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Illumina sequencing of small subunit ribosomal gene amplicons were used to characterize community members and identify samples for shotgun metagenomics. Used in combination, these methods will better elucidate the composition and characteristics of the bacterial communities at these <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and compare taxonomic and metabolic diversity among different communities of microbial mats. We compared communities collected on a fine scale to analyze the bacterial community based on gross mat morphology, geography, and nearby <span class="hlt">vent</span> effluent chemistry. Taxa richness and evenness are compared with rarefaction curves to visualize diversity. As well as providing a survey of diversity this study also presents a juxtaposition of three methods in which ribosomal small subunit diversity is compared with T-RFLP, next generation amplicon sequencing, and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057135&hterms=Hydrothermal+vents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Hydrothermal%2Bvents%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950057135&hterms=Hydrothermal+vents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528Hydrothermal%2Bvents%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The stability of amino acids at submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bada, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Stanley L.; Zhao, Meixun</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>It has been postulated that amino acid stability at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> temperatures is controlled by a metastable thermodynamic equilibrium rather than by kinetics. Experiments reported here demonstrate that the amino acids are irreversibly destroyed by heating at 240 C and that quasi-equilibrium calculations give misleading descriptions of the experimental observations. Equilibrium thermodynamic calculations are not applicable to organic compounds under high-temperature submarine <span class="hlt">vent</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028504','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028504"><span id="translatedtitle">A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reysenbach, A.-L.; Liu, Yajing; Banta, A.B.; Beveridge, T.J.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Schouten, S.; Tivey, M.K.; Von Damm, K. L.; Voytek, M.A.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide-sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively <span class="hlt">venting</span> sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from <span class="hlt">vent</span> deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> euryarchaeotic 2). Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75??C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span>. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16871216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16871216"><span id="translatedtitle">A ubiquitous thermoacidophilic archaeon from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Liu, Yitai; Banta, Amy B; Beveridge, Terry J; Kirshtein, Julie D; Schouten, Stefan; Tivey, Margaret K; Von Damm, Karen L; Voytek, Mary A</p> <p>2006-07-27</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are important in global biogeochemical cycles, providing biological oases at the sea floor that are supported by the thermal and chemical flux from the Earth's interior. As hot, acidic and reduced <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids mix with cold, alkaline and oxygenated sea water, minerals precipitate to form porous sulphide-sulphate deposits. These structures provide microhabitats for a diversity of prokaryotes that exploit the geochemical and physical gradients in this dynamic ecosystem. It has been proposed that fluid pH in the actively <span class="hlt">venting</span> sulphide structures is generally low (pH < 4.5), yet no extreme thermoacidophile has been isolated from <span class="hlt">vent</span> deposits. Culture-independent surveys based on ribosomal RNA genes from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits have identified a widespread euryarchaeotal lineage, DHVE2 (deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> euryarchaeotic 2). Despite the ubiquity and apparent deep-sea endemism of DHVE2, cultivation of this group has been unsuccessful and thus its metabolism remains a mystery. Here we report the isolation and cultivation of a member of the DHVE2 group, which is an obligate thermoacidophilic sulphur- or iron-reducing heterotroph capable of growing from pH 3.3 to 5.8 and between 55 and 75 degrees C. In addition, we demonstrate that this isolate constitutes up to 15% of the archaeal population, providing evidence that thermoacidophiles may be key players in the sulphur and iron cycling at deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:16871216</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS22C..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMOS22C..04F"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow Water <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> in the Gulf of California: Natural Laboratories for Multidisciplinary Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forrest, M.; Hilton, D. R.; Price, R. E.; Kulongoski, J. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Modern and fossil examples of shallow water submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> occur throughout the Gulf of California. These <span class="hlt">sites</span> offer important information about the processes involved in the extensional tectonics that created the Gulf of California and continue to shape the region to this day. Due to their accessibility, shallow water marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are far easier to access and study than their deeper analogs, and these settings can provide natural laboratories to study biogeochemical processes. Certain biogeochemical and biomineralizing processes occurring at shallow <span class="hlt">vents</span> are very similar to those observed around deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. In some cases, authigenic carbonates form around shallow <span class="hlt">vents</span>. However, the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> precipitates are generally composed of Fe-oxyhydroxides, Mn-oxides, opal, calcite, pyrite and cinnabar, and their textural and morphological characteristics suggest microbial mediation for mineral deposition. Modern shallow-water <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> also support complex biotic communities, characterized by the coexistence of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic organisms. These shallow <span class="hlt">vents</span> are highly productive and provide valuable resources to local fishermen. Extant shallow water <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity has been studied in Bahía Concepción, San Felipe, Punta Estrella, El Coloradito, Puertecitos, and around the Islas Encantadas. Discrete streams of gas bubbles are often discharged along with hot liquids at shallow water <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The <span class="hlt">vent</span> liquids generally exhibit lower salinities than seawater, and their isotopic compositions indicate that they contain meteoric water mixed with seawater. The composition of the shallow <span class="hlt">vent</span> gas is primarily made up of CO2, but may also be enriched in N2, H2S, CH4, and other higher hydrocarbons. The geochemistry of these gases can be informative in determining the sources and processes involved in their generation. In particular, 3He/4He ratios may provide valuable information about the origin of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33F..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33F..05M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> at 5000m on the Mid-Cayman Rise: The Deepest and Hottest <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Systems Yet Discovered!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murton, B. J.; Connelly, D. P.; Copley, J. T.; Stansfield, K. L.; Tyler, P. A.; Cruise Jc044 Sceintific Party</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This contribution describes the geological setting of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity within the Mid- Cayman Rise (MCR) using data acquired during cruise JC044 (MAR-APR 2010) from the deep-towed sidescan sonar TOBI, AUV Autosub6000 and the ROTV HyBIS. The 110 km-long Mid- Cayman Rise (MCR), located within Caribbean Sea, is the deepest spreading centre known, reaching over 6000m. Hence it poses an end-member of extreme depth for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> circulation. Accretion of new volcanic crust is focused within two ridge segments, to the north and south of a centrally located massif of peridotite and gabbro. Following earlier indications of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes (German et al., in 2009), we discovered two high-temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system: one at a depth of 5000m in the neovolcanic zone of the northern segment, and another at 2300m on the flanks of the MCR. These <span class="hlt">sites</span> show contrasting styles of fluid <span class="hlt">venting</span>, mineralisation, geological setting and host rock interaction. At 5000m-depth, the ultra-deep <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> forms the deepest <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system known. <span class="hlt">Venting</span> is focused at the western side of a 100m diameter, 30m high mound, while inactive sulphides extend eastwards for at least 800m. Fluids discharge from clusters of chimneys whose location is related to basement faults. Changes in salinity in the <span class="hlt">venting</span> fluids indicate discharge of a low salinity phase and a brine phase. At 500bar, this is definitive evidence for supercritical fluid emission. We also found the sulphide mineralization to be copper-rich, giving a characteristic green hue to many of the deposits, probably a result of the super-critical state of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids. A prominent axial volcanic ridge nearby indicates a robust magma supply to the northern MCR segment. Thus it is likely the ultra-deep <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> derives its thermal energy from magmatic sources, similar to those thought to underlie other slow-spreading ridge volcanic-hosted <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> (e.g. Broken Spur: MAR). The shallower (2300m) MCR <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25556400"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs. PMID:25556400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4359681','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4359681"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralization of Alvinella polychaete tubes at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Georgieva, M N; Little, C T S; Ball, A D; Glover, A G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Alvinellid polychaete worms form multilayered organic tubes in the hottest and most rapidly growing areas of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys. Over short periods of time, these tubes can become entirely mineralized within this environment. Documenting the nature of this process in terms of the stages of mineralization, as well as the mineral textures and end products that result, is essential for our understanding of the fossilization of polychaetes at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Here, we report in detail the full mineralization of Alvinella spp. tubes collected from the East Pacific Rise, determined through the use of a wide range of imaging and analytical techniques. We propose a new model for tube mineralization, whereby mineralization begins as templating of tube layer and sublayer surfaces and results in fully mineralized tubes comprised of multiple concentric, colloform, pyrite bands. Silica appeared to preserve organic tube layers in some samples. Fine-scale features such as protein fibres, extracellular polymeric substances and two types of filamentous microbial colonies were also found to be well preserved within a subset of the tubes. The fully mineralized Alvinella spp. tubes do not closely resemble known ancient <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> tube fossils, corroborating molecular evidence suggesting that the alvinellids are a relatively recent polychaete lineage. We also compare pyrite and silica preservation of organic tissues within <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> to soft tissue preservation in sediments and hot springs. PMID:25556400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS13G..07B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS13G..07B"><span id="translatedtitle">Larval abundance and dispersal at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the southern Mariana Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaulieu, S. E.; Watanabe, H.; Mills, S. W.; Pradillon, F.; Kojima, S.; Mullineaux, L. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Since the discovery of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> over thirty years ago, scientists have been perplexed by the question: “How are the faunal populations established and maintained at these very discrete and often ephemeral habitats?” For the animals that are sessile or have limited mobility as adults, dispersal to these habitats occurs early in the life cycle, as planktonic larvae in the water column. Due to the difficulties in sampling deep-sea larvae, including low abundances (dilute concentrations), we have very few quantitative estimates of larval dispersal between or larval supply to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Here, we will present results of an international, collaborative effort to study larval abundance and dispersal at <span class="hlt">vents</span> near the back-arc spreading center in the southern Mariana Trough. On R/V Yokosuka cruise YK10-11 in September 2010, we will deploy large-volume plankton pumps at approximately 3000-m depth at Snail (also called South Backarc), Archaean, and Pika, three of the <span class="hlt">Vents</span> (Volcanic) Unit <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the U.S. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. These <span class="hlt">vents</span> are being studied as part of the Japanese multi-disciplinary program TAIGA (Trans-crustal Advection and In-situ biogeochemical proceses of Global sub-sea floor Aquifer). These will be the first collections of <span class="hlt">vent</span> larvae in the Mariana back-arc, and we will compare the abundances and diversity of larvae to similar work conducted at the Ridge 2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Studies <span class="hlt">Site</span>. We will deploy a current meter near the Snail <span class="hlt">site</span> (on-axis) for preliminary estimates of passive larval transport on the time scale of the cruise. The three study <span class="hlt">sites</span> are situated in a line perpendicular to the back-arc spreading axis, and thus may be interesting in terms of local dispersal processes. Perhaps more interesting, however, is that the back-arc <span class="hlt">vents</span> that we will visit are as close as 25 km to known <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the arc, yet 600 km south of the other known <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the back-arc. These two</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..186B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.449..186B"><span id="translatedtitle">How many <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields? New estimates of <span class="hlt">vent</span> field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge locations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Edward T.; Resing, Joseph A.; Haymon, Rachel M.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lavelle, J. William; Martinez, Fernando; Ferrini, Vicki; Walker, Sharon L.; Nakamura, Koichi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Decades of exploration for <span class="hlt">venting</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> along spreading ridge crests have produced global datasets that yield estimated mean <span class="hlt">site</span> spacings of ∼ 12- 220 km. This conclusion demands that <span class="hlt">sites</span> where <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid leaks from the seafloor are improbably rare along the 66 000 km global ridge system, despite the high bulk permeability of ridge crest axes. However, to date, exploration methods have neither reliably detected plumes from isolated low-temperature, particle-poor, diffuse sources, nor differentiated individual, closely spaced (clustered within a few kilometers) <span class="hlt">sites</span> of any kind. Here we describe a much lower mean discharge spacing of 3-20 km, revealed by towing real-time oxidation-reduction-potential and optical sensors continuously along four fast- and intermediate-rate (>55 mm/yr) spreading ridge sections totaling 1470 km length. This closer spacing reflects both discovery of isolated <span class="hlt">sites</span> discharging particle-poor plumes (25% of all <span class="hlt">sites</span>) and improved discrimination (at a spatial resolution of ∼1 km) among clustered discrete and diffuse sources. Consequently, the number of active <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> on fast- and intermediate-rate spreading ridges may be at least a factor of 3-6 higher than now presumed. This increase provides new quantitative constraints for models of seafloor processes such as dispersal of fauna among seafloor and crustal chemosynthetic habitats, biogeochemical impacts of diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span>, and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.449..186B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.449..186B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">How many <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields? New estimates of <span class="hlt">vent</span> field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge locations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Edward T.; Resing, Joseph A.; Haymon, Rachel M.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lavelle, J. William; Martinez, Fernando; Ferrini, Vicki; Walker, Sharon L.; Nakamura, Koichi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Decades of exploration for <span class="hlt">venting</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> along spreading ridge crests have produced global datasets that yield estimated mean <span class="hlt">site</span> spacings of ∼ 12- 220 km. This conclusion demands that <span class="hlt">sites</span> where <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid leaks from the seafloor are improbably rare along the 66 000 km global ridge system, despite the high bulk permeability of ridge crest axes. However, to date, exploration methods have neither reliably detected plumes from isolated low-temperature, particle-poor, diffuse sources, nor differentiated individual, closely spaced (clustered within a few kilometers) <span class="hlt">sites</span> of any kind. Here we describe a much lower mean discharge spacing of 3-20 km, revealed by towing real-time oxidation-reduction-potential and optical sensors continuously along four fast- and intermediate-rate (>55 mm/yr) spreading ridge sections totaling 1470 km length. This closer spacing reflects both discovery of isolated <span class="hlt">sites</span> discharging particle-poor plumes (25% of all <span class="hlt">sites</span>) and improved discrimination (at a spatial resolution of ∼1 km) among clustered discrete and diffuse sources. Consequently, the number of active <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> on fast- and intermediate-rate spreading ridges may be at least a factor of 3-6 higher than now presumed. This increase provides new quantitative constraints for models of seafloor processes such as dispersal of fauna among seafloor and crustal chemosynthetic habitats, biogeochemical impacts of diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span>, and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..334J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006cosp...36..334J"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA/JPL <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> bio-sampler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jonsson, J.; Behar, A.; Bruckner, J.; Matthews, J.</p> <p></p> <p>pagestyle empty begin document On the bottom of the oceans with volcanic activity present <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> can be found which spew out mineral rich superheated water from the porous seafloor crust Some of these <span class="hlt">vents</span> are situated several thousands of meters below the surface where the sunlight never reaches Yet life thrives here on the minerals and chemical compounds that the <span class="hlt">vent</span> water brings up with it This chemosynthetic microbial community forms the basis of some of the most interesting ecosystems on our planet and could possibly also be found on other water rich planets and moons in the solar system Perhaps under the icy surface of the moon Europa there exist <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> with such biota thriving independently of the solar energy The <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Bio-sampler HVB is a system which will be used to collect pristine samples of the water emanating from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> An array of temperature and flow sensors will monitor the sampling conditions This will allow for the samples to be collected from defined locations within the plume and the diversity and distribution of the chemosynthetic communities that might live there can be accurately described The samples will have to be taken without any contamination from the surrounding water thus the pristine requirement Monitoring the flow will assure that enough water has been sampled to account for the low biomass of these environments The system will be using a series of filters down to 0 2 mu m in pore size and the samples can be directly collected from the system for both culture-</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060042927&hterms=Filtration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFiltration','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060042927&hterms=Filtration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DFiltration"><span id="translatedtitle">A deep sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Bio-sampler for large volume in-situ filtration of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Behar, Alberto; Matthews, Jaret; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bruckner, James; Basic, Goran; So, Edmond; Rivadeneyra, Cesar</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides a physical description of the current system, as well as a summary of the preliminary tests conducted in 2005: a pressure chamber test, a dive test in a 30 foot dive pool, and a dive operation at a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> off the northern coast of Iceland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26154881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26154881"><span id="translatedtitle">RNA Oligomerization in Laboratory Analogues of Alkaline <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burcar, Bradley T; Barge, Laura M; Trail, Dustin; Watson, E Bruce; Russell, Michael J; McGown, Linda B</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Discovering pathways leading to long-chain RNA formation under feasible prebiotic conditions is an essential step toward demonstrating the viability of the RNA World hypothesis. Intensive research efforts have provided evidence of RNA oligomerization by using circular ribonucleotides, imidazole-activated ribonucleotides with montmorillonite catalyst, and ribonucleotides in the presence of lipids. Additionally, mineral surfaces such as borates, apatite, and calcite have been shown to catalyze the formation of small organic compounds from inorganic precursors (Cleaves, 2008 ), pointing to possible geological <span class="hlt">sites</span> for the origins of life. Indeed, the catalytic properties of these particular minerals provide compelling evidence for alkaline <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> as a potential <span class="hlt">site</span> for the origins of life since, at these <span class="hlt">vents</span>, large metal-rich chimney structures can form that have been shown to be energetically favorable to diverse forms of life. Here, we test the ability of iron- and sulfur-rich chimneys to support RNA oligomerization reactions using imidazole-activated and non-activated ribonucleotides. The chimneys were synthesized in the laboratory in aqueous "ocean" solutions under conditions consistent with current understanding of early Earth. Effects of elemental composition, pH, inclusion of catalytic montmorillonite clay, doping of chimneys with small organic compounds, and in situ ribonucleotide activation on RNA polymerization were investigated. These experiments, under certain conditions, showed successful dimerization by using unmodified ribonucleotides, with the generation of RNA oligomers up to 4 units in length when imidazole-activated ribonucleotides were used instead. Elemental analysis of the chimney precipitates and the reaction solutions showed that most of the metal cations that were determined were preferentially partitioned into the chimneys. PMID:26154881</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33F..03R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33F..03R"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of a novel fauna from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge (AMOR) (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rapp, H.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. M.; Levin, L. A.; Sweetman, A.; Tverberg, J.; Hoem, S.; Steen, I.; Thorseth, I. H.; Pedersen, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic deep ocean hosts a variety of habitats ranging from fairly uniform sedimentary abyssal plains to highly variable hard bottoms on mid ocean ridges, including biodiversity hotspots like seamounts and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are usually associated with a highly specialized fauna, and since their discovery in 1977 more than 400 species of animals have been described. This fauna includes various animal groups of which the most conspicuous and well known are annelids, mollusks and crustaceans. The newly discovered deep sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the Mohns-Knipovich ridge north of Iceland harbour unique biodiversity. The Jan Mayen field consists of two main areas with high-temperature white smoker <span class="hlt">venting</span> and wide areas with low-temperature seepage, located at 5-700 m, while the deeper Loki Castle <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at 2400 m depth consists of a large area with high temperature black smokers surrounded by a sedimentary area with more diffuse low-temperature <span class="hlt">venting</span> and barite chimneys. The Jan Mayen <span class="hlt">sites</span> show low abundance of specialized <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. Single groups have a few specialized representatives but groups otherwise common in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> areas are absent. Slightly more than 200 macrofaunal species have been identified from this <span class="hlt">vent</span> area, comprising mainly an assortment of bathyal species known from the surrounding area. Analysis of stable isotope data also indicates that the majority of the species present are feeding on phytodetritus and/or phytoplankton. However, the deeper Loki Castle <span class="hlt">vent</span> field contains a much more diverse <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic fauna with high abundances of specialized polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. These specializations also include symbioses with a range of chemosynthetic microorganisms. Our data show that the fauna composition is a result of high degree of local specialization with some similarities to the fauna of cold seeps along the Norwegian margin and wood-falls in the abyssal Norwegian Sea</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ECSS...51..627P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000ECSS...51..627P"><span id="translatedtitle">The Sponge Community of a Subtidal Area with <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>: Milos Island, Aegean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pansini, M.; Morri, C.; Bianchi, C. N.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Sponges were sampled by SCUBA diving at six subtidal rocky <span class="hlt">sites</span>, three of which were close to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, a common feature on the sea-floor off the south-east coast of Milos. Twenty-five species (2 Calcarea and 23 Demospongiae) were found, few compared with the 589 recorded for the Mediterranean, but an important addition to the scant information on the sponge fauna of the Aegean Sea. The number of species found at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> was consistently higher than that found at non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but no <span class="hlt">vent</span>-obligate species could be identified. However, Geodia cydonium and three species of Cliona ( C. copiosa, C. nigricans and C. rhodensis) showed a tendency to colonize <span class="hlt">vent</span> areas. The former might take advantage of increased silica availability, the latter of the enhanced deposition of carbonates near <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Substratum cover by sponges (estimated from wire-framed photographs of 0·7 m 2), varied greatly both among and within <span class="hlt">sites</span>, mostly according to slope. Most sponge species preferred vertical to overhanging, shaded substrata. Proximity to <span class="hlt">vents</span> seemed to have little or no influence on sponge cover, notwithstanding a primary effect on species diversity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235194"><span id="translatedtitle">The discovery of new deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogers, Alex D; Tyler, Paul A; Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jon T; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D; Pearce, David A; Polunin, Nicholas V C; German, Christopher R; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H; Alker, Belinda J; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J J; Graham, Alastair G C; Green, Darryl R H; Hawkes, Jeffrey A; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D K; Roterman, Christopher N; Sweeting, Christopher J; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span>. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these <span class="hlt">vents</span> are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR <span class="hlt">vents</span>. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for <span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems represent a new <span class="hlt">vent</span> biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> globally indicate that <span class="hlt">vent</span> biogeography is more complex than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250512','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3250512"><span id="translatedtitle">The Discovery of New Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Communities in the Southern Ocean and Implications for Biogeography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogers, Alex D.; Tyler, Paul A.; Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jon T.; James, Rachael; Larter, Robert D.; Linse, Katrin; Mills, Rachel A.; Garabato, Alfredo Naveira; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearce, David A.; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.; German, Christopher R.; Shank, Timothy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Alker, Belinda J.; Aquilina, Alfred; Bennett, Sarah A.; Clarke, Andrew; Dinley, Robert J. J.; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hepburn, Laura; Hilario, Ana; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Marsh, Leigh; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Reid, William D. K.; Roterman, Christopher N.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Thatje, Sven; Zwirglmaier, Katrin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span>. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these <span class="hlt">vents</span> are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp.), stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae), bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR <span class="hlt">vents</span>. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for <span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems represent a new <span class="hlt">vent</span> biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> globally indicate that <span class="hlt">vent</span> biogeography is more complex than</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS11B1488T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS11B1488T"><span id="translatedtitle">First <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> active <span class="hlt">vent</span> discovered on the Galapagos Microplate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, C.; Li, H.; Wu, G.; Su, X.; Zhang, G.; Chinese DY115-21 Leg 3 Scientific Party</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Galapagos Microplate (GM) lies on the western Gaplapagos Spreading Center (GSC), representing one of the classic Ridge-Ridge-Ridge (R-R-R) plate boundaries of the Nazca, Cocos, and Pacific plates. The presence of the 'black smoke' and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> community were firstly confirmed on the GSC. Lots of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields were discovered on the center and eastern GSC, while the western GSC has not been well investigated. During 17th Oct. to 9th Nov. 2009, the 3rd leg of Chinese DY115-21 cruise with R/V Dayangyihao has been launched along 2°N-5°S near equatorial East Pacific Rise (EPR). Two new <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields were confirmed. One is named 'Precious Stone Mountain', which is the first <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field on the GM. The other is found at 101.47°W, 0.84°S EPR. The 'Precious Stone Mountain' <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field (at 101.49°W, 1.22°N) is located at an off-axial seamount on the southern GM boundary, with a depth from 1,450 to 1,700m. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> fluids emitting from the fissures and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fauna were captured by deep-tow video. Few mineral clasts of pyrite and chalcopyrite were separated from one sediment sample, but no sulfide chimney was found yet. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> fauna such as alive mussels, crabs, shrimps, tubeworms, giant clams, as well as rock samples were collected by TV-Grab. The study of the seafloor classification with Simrad EM120 multi-beam echosounder has been conducted on the 'Precious Stone Mountain' <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field. The result indicates that seafloor materials around the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field can be characterized into three types, such as the fresh lava, <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sediment, and altered rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008GMS...178..259S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008GMS...178..259S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Processes and interactions in macrofaunal assemblages at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>: A modeling perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shea, Katriona; Metaxas, Anna; Young, Curtis R.; Fisher, Charles R.</p> <p></p> <p>Our understanding of the biological assemblages at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> is growing rapidly, in part facilitated by the coupling of experimental and observational methods with theoretical modeling efforts. We review theoretical approaches in four main areas and link them to empirical studies of the biology of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems. First, we describe models of dispersal of <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms within and among <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. These models fall broadly into two categories: those based on larval biology and currents that predict dispersal capabilities from a source, and those using genetic data to address historical genetic links between populations. Then we discuss models for individual and population growth at a location and give examples from work in a biologically similar deep-sea environment: cold seeps. Third, we address how these two aspects can be integrated using models that couple dispersal and demography. Last, we summarize existing modeling approaches for community succession in other types of habitats, and outline the conceptual models and the sorts of data that currently exist for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities. Throughout, we also examine the use of models in improving experimental design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12712202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12712202"><span id="translatedtitle">Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lilley, Marvin D; Butterfield, David A; Lupton, John E; Olson, Eric J</p> <p>2003-04-24</p> <p>The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge is host to one of the most vigorous <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> areas found on the global mid-ocean-ridge system, with five separate <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields located within 15 km along the top of the ridge segment. Over the past decade, the largest of these <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields, the 'Main Endeavour Field', has exhibited a constant spatial gradient in temperature and chloride concentration in its <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids, apparently driven by differences in the nature and extent of subsurface phase separation. This stable situation was disturbed on 8 June 1999 by an earthquake swarm. Owing to the nature of the seismic signals and the lack of new lava flows observed in the area during subsequent dives of the Alvin and Jason submersibles (August-September 1999), the event was interpreted to be tectonic in nature. Here we show that chemical data from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid samples collected in September 1999 and June 2000 strongly suggest that the event was instead volcanic in origin. Volatile data from this event and an earlier one at 9 degrees N on the East Pacific Rise show that such magmatic events can have profound and rapid effects on fluid-mineral equilibria, phase separation, 3He/heat ratios and fluxes of volatiles from submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. PMID:12712202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRII.121..193G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRII.121..193G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in the diets of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> gastropods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R.; Shank, Timothy M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A prevailing paradigm of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecology is that primary consumers feed on chemoautotrophic bacteria. However, for the purposes of reconstructing <span class="hlt">vent</span> food webs and for tracking energy flow from the generation of rock and fluid chemistry through primary/ secondary productivity and consumption to the overlying water column, it remains unclear which consumers feed on which bacteria. In paired analyses of carbon and nitrogen tissue stable isotope values with unique 16S rRNA sequences from the stomach contents, we determined that two species of gastropod grazers appear to feed on epsilon-proteobacteria, while two other species have more diverse diets, including one species that consumes alpha-proteobacteria, planctomycetes, and non-green sulfur bacteria. Different carbon fixation pathways used by epsilon- and alpha-proteobacteria may account for the variation in the carbon stable isotope values among the consumers. Furthermore, our results indicate that trophic specialization and niche partitioning may contribute to the distribution and abundance of <span class="hlt">vent</span>-endemic gastropods and support the hypothesis that consumers in the warmer habitats commonly feed on epsilon-proteobacteria that use the rTCA cycle, while in the cooler habitats they feed on additional bacteria that use the CBB cycle. These results suggest that the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of free-living bacteria may play an important and previously overlooked role in facilitating species coexistence among primary consumers at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> and other chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.B13A0164P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.B13A0164P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfate Reduction and Sulfide Biomineralization By Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Microorganisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Picard, A.; Gartman, A.; Clarke, D. R.; Girguis, P. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are characterized by steep temperature and chemical gradients and moderate pressures. At these <span class="hlt">sites</span>, mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria thrive, however their significance for the formation of sulfide minerals is unknown. In this study we investigated sulfate reduction and sulfide biomineralization by the deep-sea bacterium Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis isolated from a deep-sea <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimney at the Grandbonum <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> (13°N, East Pacific Rise, 2600 m water depth) [1]. Sulfate reduction rates were determined as a function of pressure and temperature. Biomineralization of sulfide minerals in the presence of various metal concentrations was characterized using light and electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. We seek to better understand the significance of biological sulfate reduction in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environments, to characterize the steps in sulfide mineral nucleation and growth, and identify the interactions between cells and minerals. [1] D. Alazard, S. Dukan, A. Urios, F. Verhe, N. Bouabida, F. Morel, P. Thomas, J.L. Garcia and B. Ollivier, Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis sp. nov., a novel sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 53 (2003) 173-178.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRI..106..167G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRI..106..167G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in recovery between deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> and <span class="hlt">vent</span>-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities and <span class="hlt">vent</span>-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic macrofauna and <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic dirivultid copepods. At <span class="hlt">vents</span>, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm <span class="hlt">site</span> Tica, a total of 26</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1744W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1744W"><span id="translatedtitle">Ambient light emission from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>White, Sheri N.; Chave, Alan D.; Reynolds, George T.; Van Dover, Cindy L.</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>A spectral imaging camera was used to observe light emission from high-temperature, deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span> at three <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR): Logatchev, Snake Pit, and Lucky Strike. Ambient light measured at these <span class="hlt">sites</span> is similar to that observed at <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge, with components from both thermal and non-thermal sources. The shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata, which is found on the MAR but not in the Eastern Pacific, possesses a unique photoreceptor capable of detecting low light levels. It is not yet known if R. exoculata ``sees'' <span class="hlt">vent</span> light. However, since the characteristics of <span class="hlt">vent</span> light appear to be unrelated to geographical location, the exclusion of R. exoculata from the Eastern Pacific is probably unrelated to differences in ambient light conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRII.121...85B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRII.121...85B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The importance of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> to water-column secondary production in the northeast Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burd, Brenda J.; Thomson, Richard E.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to show that seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> in the open northeast Pacific Ocean has a marked impact on secondary biomass and production within the overlying water column. Specifically, we use net tows and concurrently measured acoustic backscatter data collected over six summers to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> from the Endeavour Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge on macro-zooplankton biomass and production throughout the entire 2000 m depth range. Previous research shows that ontogenetic diapausing migrators and their predators from the upper ocean aggregate above the neutrally buoyant plumes in summer and resume feeding on plume and bottom upwelled particles, resulting in increased zooplankton reproductive output to the upper ocean. Within the limitations of our sampling methodology, net tows reveal a statistically significant exponential decline in total water-column biomass with increasing lateral distance from the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. The acoustic backscatter data show a similar decline, but only below 800 m depth. Near-surface biomass was highly variable throughout the region, but values near <span class="hlt">vents</span> consistently ranged higher than summer values found elsewhere in the offshore northeast Pacific. Water-column biomass was similar in magnitude above and below 800 m depth throughout the region. Because epiplume biomass can be advected a considerable distance from <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields, biomass enhancement of the water column from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> may extend considerable distances to the west and northwest of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, in the prevailing directions of the subsurface flow. Based on the extensive acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data collected, and the strong correlation between zooplankton production derived from net sample biomass and acoustic backscatter intensity, we estimate that daily macro-zooplankton production in the upper 400 m of the water column within 10 km of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields averages approximately 16% of photosynthetic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25602032"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of <span class="hlt">vent</span> barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-<span class="hlt">site</span> associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that <span class="hlt">vent</span> barnacles have colonized deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major <span class="hlt">vent</span> barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of <span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:25602032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24391244"><span id="translatedtitle">Vacuolate-attached filaments: highly productive Ridgeia piscesae epibionts at the Juan de Fuca <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalanetra, Karen M; Nelson, Douglas C</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Vacuolate sulfur bacteria with high morphological similarity to vacuolate-attached filaments previously described from shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (White Point, CA) were found at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. These filamentous bacteria grow in dense mats that cover surfaces and potentially provide a significant source of organic carbon where they occur. Vacuolate-attached filaments were collected near <span class="hlt">vents</span> at the Clam Bed <span class="hlt">site</span> of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and from the sediment surface at Escanaba Trough on the Gorda Ridge. A phylogenetic analysis comparing their 16S rRNA gene sequences to those collected from the shallow White Point <span class="hlt">site</span> showed that all vacuolate-attached filament sequences form a monophyletic group within the vacuolate sulfur-oxidizing bacteria clade in the gamma proteobacteria. Abundance of the attached filaments was quantified over the length of the exterior surface of the tubes of Ridgeia piscesae worms collected from the Clam Bed <span class="hlt">site</span> at Juan de Fuca yielding a per worm average of 0.070 ± 0.018 cm(3) (n = 4). In agreement with previous results for White Point filaments, anion measurements by ion chromatography showed no detectable internal nitrate concentrations above ambient seawater (n = 9). For one R. piscesae tube worm "bush" at the Easter Island <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>, potential gross epibiont productivity is estimated to be 15 to 45× the net productivity of the worms. PMID:24391244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19362761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19362761"><span id="translatedtitle">High levels of natural radioactivity in biota from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>: a preliminary communication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charmasson, Sabine; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie; Le Faouder, Antoine; Agarande, Michèle; Loyen, Jeanne; Desbruyères, Daniel</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> deep-sea <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna is naturally exposed to a peculiar environment enriched in potentially toxic species such as sulphides, heavy metals and natural radionuclides. It is now well established that some of the organisms present in such an environment accumulate metals during their lifespan. Though only few radionuclide measurements are available, it seems likely that <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities are exposed to high natural radiation doses. Various archived biological samples collected on the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1996, 2001 and 2002 were analysed by ICP-MS in order to determine their uranium contents ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U). In addition (210)Po-Pb were determined in 2 samples collected in 2002. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> organisms are characterized by high U, and Po-Pb levels compared to what is generally encountered in organisms from outside <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems. Though the number of data is low, the results reveal various trends in relation to the <span class="hlt">site</span>, the location within the mixing zone and/or the organisms' trophic regime. PMID:19362761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20975681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20975681"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals seek cool fluids in a highly variable thermal environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bates, Amanda E; Lee, Raymond W; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Lamare, Miles D</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The thermal characteristics of an organism's environment affect a multitude of parameters, from biochemical to evolutionary processes. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on mid-ocean ridges are created when warm <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids are ejected from the seafloor and mixed with cold bottom seawater; many animals thrive along these steep temperature and chemical gradients. Two-dimensional temperature maps at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> have demonstrated order of magnitude thermal changes over centimetre distances and at time intervals from minutes to hours. To investigate whether animals adapt to this extreme level of environmental variability, we examined differences in the thermal behaviour of mobile invertebrates from aquatic habitats that vary in thermal regime. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> animals were highly responsive to heat and preferred much cooler fluids than their upper thermal limits, whereas invertebrates from other aquatic environments risked exposure to warmer temperatures. Avoidance of temperatures well within their tolerated range may allow <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals to maintain a safety margin against rapid temperature fluctuations and concomitant toxicity of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids. PMID:20975681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008DSRI...55.1718P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008DSRI...55.1718P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertebrate nutrition in a deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem: Fatty acid and stable isotope evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pond, D. W.; Fallick, A. E.; Stevens, C. J.; Morrison, D. J.; Dixon, D. R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> zoarcid fish Thermarces cerberus is a top predator that inhabits deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Bacterial chemoautotrophy at these <span class="hlt">sites</span> supports abundant animal communities. Paradoxically, these chemoautotrophic bacteria are not known to produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dietary nutrients essential for all marine vertebrates. To understand how T. cerberus successfully exploits the <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment and obtains essential PUFA, we compared its fatty acid composition to those of its invertebrate prey. Levels of 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) in muscle and ovary tissues of T. cerberus were low and contained higher amounts of 20:5(n-3) than 22:6(n-3). This is in contrast to most marine fish where 22:6(n-3) typically dominates. Prey items include the limpet ( Lepetodrilus elevatus) and amphipods ( Halice hesmonectes and Ventiella sulfuris) and all contained PUFA dominated by 20:5(n-3) in amounts likely to support the requirements of T. cerberus. δC13 values of 20:5(n-3) in the invertebrate prey were consistent with synthesis from a chemoautotrophic carbon source within the <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment. The potential origins of these PUFA are discussed in terms of the nutrition of T. cerberus and more generally in terms of the evolution of <span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16242792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16242792"><span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic Ridge <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bebianno, M J; Company, R; Serafim, A; Camus, L; Cosson, R P; Fiala-Médoni, A</p> <p>2005-11-30</p> <p>Enzymatic defenses involved in protection from oxygen radical damage were determined in gills and mantle of Bathymodiolus azoricus collected from three contrasting Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields (Menez-Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GPx) (total and Se-dependent), and levels of total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC), metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in B. azoricus tissues and the impact of metal concentrations on these antioxidant systems and lipid peroxidation assessed. SOD, CAT, TOSC, MTs and LPO levels were higher in B. azoricus gills while glutathione peroxidases (total and Se-dependent) were higher in the mantle, and with the exception of CAT, were of the same order of magnitude as in other molluscs. TOSC levels from Menez-Gwen indicate that the <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment at this <span class="hlt">site</span> is less stressful and the formation of ROS in mussels is effectively counteracted by the antioxidant defense system. TOSC depletion indicates an elevated ROS production in molluscs at the other two <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Cytosolic SOD, GPx and LPO were more relevant at Lucky Strike (Bairro Alto) where levels of essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic metals (Cd and Ag) were highest in the organisms. CAT activity and LPO were predominant at the Rainbow <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>, where an excess of Fe in mussel tissues and in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids (the highest of all three <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>) may have contributed to increased LPO. Therefore, three distinct pathways for antioxidant enzyme systems and LPO based on environmental metal speciation of MAR <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields are proposed for Bathymodiolus gills. At Menez-Gwen, TOSC towards peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite are predominant, while at Lucky Strike cytosolic SOD activity and GPx are the main antioxidant mechanisms. Finally at Rainbow, catalase and lipid peroxidation are dominant, suggesting that resistance of mussels to metal toxicity at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26911272"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes <span class="hlt">vented</span> <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids with the ambient seawater. PMID:26911272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...622163N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...622163N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes <span class="hlt">vented</span> <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids with the ambient seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4766430','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4766430"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid growth of mineral deposits at artificial seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Nagase, Toshiro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Watsuji, Tomoo; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamada, Ryoichi; Saruhashi, Tomokazu; Kyo, Masanori; Takai, Ken</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Seafloor massive sulphide deposits are potential resources for base and precious metals (Cu-Pb-Zn ± Ag ± Au), but difficulties in estimating precise reserves and assessing environmental impacts hinder exploration and commercial mining. Here, we report petrological and geochemical properties of sulphide chimneys less than 2 years old that formed where scientific boreholes <span class="hlt">vented</span> <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids in the Iheya-North field, Okinawa Trough, in East China Sea. One of these infant chimneys, dominated by Cu-Pb-Zn-rich sulphide minerals, grew a height of 15 m within 25 months. Portions of infant chimneys are dominated by sulphate minerals. Some infant chimneys are sulphide-rich similar to high-grade Cu-Pb-Zn bodies on land, albeit with relatively low As and Sb concentrations. The high growth rate reaching the 15 m height within 25 months is attributed to the large <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> more than 50 cm in diameter created by the borehole, which induced slow mixing with the ambient seawater and enhanced efficiency of sulphide deposition. These observations suggest the possibility of cultivating seafloor sulphide deposits and even controlling their growth and grades through manipulations of how to mix and quench <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids with the ambient seawater. PMID:26911272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3746894','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3746894"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Novikov, Yehor; Copley, Shelley D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pyruvate is an important “hub” metabolite that is a precursor for amino acids, sugars, cofactors, and lipids in extant metabolic networks. Pyruvate has been produced under simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> conditions from alkyl thiols and carbon monoxide in the presence of transition metal sulfides at 250 °C [Cody GD et al. (2000) Science 289(5483):1337–1340], so it is plausible that pyruvate was formed in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems on the early earth. We report here that pyruvate reacts readily in the presence of transition metal sulfide minerals under simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids at more moderate temperatures (25–110 °C) that are more conducive to survival of biogenic molecules. We found that pyruvate partitions among five reaction pathways at rates that depend upon the nature of the mineral present; the concentrations of H2S, H2, and NH4Cl; and the temperature. In most cases, high yields of one or two primary products are found due to preferential acceleration of certain pathways. Reactions observed include reduction of ketones to alcohols and aldol condensation, both reactions that are common in extant metabolic networks. We also observed reductive amination to form alanine and reduction to form propionic acid. Amino acids and fatty acids formed by analogous processes may have been important components of a protometabolic network that allowed the emergence of life. PMID:23872841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23872841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23872841"><span id="translatedtitle">Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Novikov, Yehor; Copley, Shelley D</p> <p>2013-08-13</p> <p>Pyruvate is an important "hub" metabolite that is a precursor for amino acids, sugars, cofactors, and lipids in extant metabolic networks. Pyruvate has been produced under simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> conditions from alkyl thiols and carbon monoxide in the presence of transition metal sulfides at 250 °C [Cody GD et al. (2000) Science 289(5483):1337-1340], so it is plausible that pyruvate was formed in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems on the early earth. We report here that pyruvate reacts readily in the presence of transition metal sulfide minerals under simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids at more moderate temperatures (25-110 °C) that are more conducive to survival of biogenic molecules. We found that pyruvate partitions among five reaction pathways at rates that depend upon the nature of the mineral present; the concentrations of H2S, H2, and NH4Cl; and the temperature. In most cases, high yields of one or two primary products are found due to preferential acceleration of certain pathways. Reactions observed include reduction of ketones to alcohols and aldol condensation, both reactions that are common in extant metabolic networks. We also observed reductive amination to form alanine and reduction to form propionic acid. Amino acids and fatty acids formed by analogous processes may have been important components of a protometabolic network that allowed the emergence of life. PMID:23872841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15802678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15802678"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of environmental conditions on early development of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> polychaete Alvinella pompejana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pradillon, Florence; Le Bris, Nadine; Shillito, Bruce; Young, Craig M; Gaill, Françoise</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Dispersal and colonisation processes at deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span> are still not fully understood, essentially because early life stages of <span class="hlt">vent</span> species remain unknown. The polychaete worm Alvinella pompejana forms colonies on chimney walls at East Pacific Rise <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> where the temperature can frequently exceed 20 degrees C. In vitro studies in pressure vessels showed that the early embryos tolerate temperatures in a lower range (10-14 degrees C), suggesting that they would have to escape the colony to develop. Pressure vessels offer the advantage that each parameter can be independently controlled, but they do not simulate the more complex and dynamic conditions naturally encountered at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Accordingly, in addition to incubations in pressure vessels, we incubated embryos directly at a <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>, in different habitats along a gradient of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> influence. Embryos incubated on an adult A. pompejana colony where temperature and H(2)S concentrations were relatively high showed a very low survival rate and did not develop, whereas embryos incubated in a Riftia pachyptila clump environment with a lower <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> signature, or at the base of the chimney where the influence of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity was very weak, survived well and developed. Although the average temperature recorded in the A. pompejana colony was within the range tolerated by embryos (13 degrees C), frequent peaks above 20 degrees C were recorded. Estimated sulphide concentration at this <span class="hlt">site</span> reached 200 mumol l(-1). Punctuated exposure to both high temperature and elevated sulphide levels probably explain the low survival of embryos within the A. pompejana colony. The in situ experiments further support the idea that embryos require conditions with moderate <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> influence not generally found within an adult colony. However, as much more benign physicochemical conditions can be found within a few tens of cm of adult colonies, embryos do not necessarily have to leave their <span class="hlt">vent</span> of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557339','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557339"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial diversity of a sulfide black smoker in main endeavour <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, Juan de Fuca Ridge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Huaiyang; Li, Jiangtao; Peng, Xiaotong; Meng, Jun; Wang, Fengping; Ai, Yuncan</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are among the least-understood habitats on Earth but have been the intense focus of research in the past 30 years. An active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sulfide chimney collected from the Dudley <span class="hlt">site</span> in the Main Endeavour <span class="hlt">vent</span> Field (MEF) of Juan de Fuca Ridge was investigated using mineralogical and molecular approaches. Mineral analysis indicated that the chimney was composed mainly of Fe-, Zn-and Cu-rich sulfides. According to phylogenetic analysis, within the Crenarchaeota, clones of the order Desulfurococcales predominated, comprising nearly 50% of archaeal clones. Euryarchaeota were composed mainly of clones belonging to Thermococcales and deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> Euryarchaeota (DHVE), each of which accounted for about 20% of all clones. Thermophilic or hyperthermophilic physiologies were common to the predominant archaeal groups. More than half of bacterial clones belonged to epsilon-Proteobacteria, which confirmed their prevalence in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments. Clones of Proteobacteria (gamma-, delta-, beta-), Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) and Deinococcus-Thermus occurred as well. It was remarkable that methanogens and methanotrophs were not detected in our 16S rRNA gene library. Our results indicated that sulfur-related metabolism, which included sulfur-reducing activity carried out by thermophilic archaea and sulfur-oxidizing by mesophilic bacteria, was common and crucial to the <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem in Dudley <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>. PMID:19557339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMOS12A..03D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009AGUFMOS12A..03D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Acoustically derived measurements of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6962771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6962771"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> solutions from Pele's <span class="hlt">Vents</span>, Loihi Seamount, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sedwick, P.N.; McMurtry, G.M. ); Macdougall, J.D. )</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> fluids were sampled from Pele's <span class="hlt">Vents</span> on the summit of Loihi Seamount, an intraplate, hotspot volcano, on four occasions from February 1987 to September 1990. The warm ([le]31C) <span class="hlt">vent</span> solutions are enriched in dissolved Si, CO[sub 2], H[sub 2]S, alkalinity, K[sup +], Li[sup +], Rb[sup +], Ca[sup 2+], Ba[sup 2+], Fe[sup 2+], Mn[sup 2+], NH[sup +][sub 4], and possibly Ni[sup 2+], and depleted in SO[sup 2-][sub 4], O[sub 2], Mg[sup 2+], [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr, NO[sup -][sub 3], and sometimes Cl[sup -] and Na[sup +] (calculated), relative to ambient seawater. Dissolved Si correlates linearly with sample temperature, suggesting that the solutions sampled from numerous <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the [approximately]20 m diameter field have a common source and that Si can be used as a conservative tracer for mixing of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids with ambient seawater. These juvenile inputs likely reflect the shallow, hotspot setting of this <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system. A simple quantitative fluid-history model is considered and shown to be consistent with mass-balance constraints and saturation-state calculations, which suggest that the Si concentration of the fluids may be controlled by amorphous silica saturation at [approximately]31C. Observed temporal variations in fluid composition between expeditions - specifically, in Cl[sup -], A[sub T], C[sub T], Na[sup +] (calculated), Mg[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], Sr[sup 2+], [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr, Fe[sup 2+], Mn[sup 2+] and perhaps NH[sup +][sub 4], relative to Si - are, excepting Mg[sup 2+], [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr, and Mn[sup 2+], consistent with the effects of variable phase segregation at the proposed high-temperature endmember.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFMOS21A1469R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFMOS21A1469R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Cameras on the NEPTUNE Canada seafloor observatory: Towards monitoring <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robert, K.; Matabos, M.; Sarrazin, J.; Sarradin, P.; Lee, R. W.; Juniper, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments are among the most dynamic benthic habitats in the ocean. The relative roles of physical and biological factors in shaping <span class="hlt">vent</span> community structure remain unclear. Undersea cabled observatories offer the power and bandwidth required for high-resolution, time-series study of the dynamics of <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities and the physico-chemical forces that influence them. The NEPTUNE Canada cabled instrument array at the Endeavour <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> provides a unique laboratory for researchers to conduct long-term, integrated studies of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem dynamics in relation to environmental variability. Beginning in September-October 2010, NEPTUNE Canada (NC) will be deploying a multi-disciplinary suite of instruments on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Two camera and sensor systems will be used to study ecosystem dynamics in relation to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge. These studies will make use of new experimental protocols for time-series observations that we have been developing since 2008 at other observatory <span class="hlt">sites</span> connected to the VENUS and NC networks. These protocols include sampling design, camera calibration (i.e. structure, position, light, settings) and image analysis methodologies (see communication by Aron et al.). The camera systems to be deployed in the Main Endeavour <span class="hlt">vent</span> field include a Sidus high definition video camera (2010) and the TEMPO-mini system (2011), designed by IFREMER (France). Real-time data from three sensors (O2, dissolved Fe, temperature) integrated with the TEMPO-mini system will enhance interpretation of imagery. For the first year of observations, a suite of internally recording temperature probes will be strategically placed in the field of view of the Sidus camera. These installations aim at monitoring variations in <span class="hlt">vent</span> community structure and dynamics (species composition and abundances, interactions within and among species) in response to changes in environmental conditions at different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616710Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616710Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic drivers of a shallow-water <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecogeochemical system (Milos, Eastern Mediterranean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yücel, Mustafa; Sievert, Stefan; Giovanelli, Donato; Foustoukos, Dionysis; DeForce, Emelia; Thomas, François; Vetriani, Constantino; Le Bris, Nadine</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Shallow-water <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> share many characteristics with their deep-sea analogs. However, despite ease of access, much less is known about the dynamics of these systems. Here, we report on the spatial and temporal chemical variability of a shallow-water <span class="hlt">vent</span> system at Paleochori Bay, Milos Island, Greece, and on the bacterial and archaeal diversity of associated sandy sediments. Our multi-analyte voltammetric profiles of dissolved O2 and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> tracers (e.g. Fe2+, FeSaq, Mn2+) on sediment cores taken along a transect in <span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span> affected sediments indicate three different areas: the central <span class="hlt">vent</span> area (highest temperature) with a deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediment, and a lack of dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+; a middle area (0.5 m away) rich in dissolved Fe2+ and Mn2+ (exceeding 2 mM) and high free sulfide with potential for microbial sulfide oxidation as suggested by the presence of white mats at the sediment surface; and, finally, an outer rim area (1-1.5 m away) with lower concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+ and higher signals of FeSaq, indicating an aged <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid contribution. In addition, high-frequency temperature series and continuous in situ H2S measurements with voltammetric sensors over a 6-day time period at a distance 0.5 m away from the <span class="hlt">vent</span> center showed substantial temporal variability in temperature (32 to 46 ºC ) and total sulfide (488 to 1329 µM) in the upper sediment layer. Analysis of these data suggests that tides, winds, and abrupt geodynamic events generate intermittent mixing conditions lasting for several hours to days. Despite substantial variability, the concentration of sulfide available for chemoautotrophic microbes remained high. These findings are consistent with the predominance of Epsilonproteobacteria in the <span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span> influenced sediments Diversity and metagenomic analyses on sediments and biofilm collected along a transect from the center to the outer rim of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> provide further insights on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.2661W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.2661W"><span id="translatedtitle">Geology, sulfide geochemistry and supercritical <span class="hlt">venting</span> at the Beebe <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field, Cayman Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Beebe <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" <span class="hlt">vents</span> that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich sulfide mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of sulfide material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> interaction with chalcophile-bearing sulfides in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for basalt hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/85441','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/85441"><span id="translatedtitle">Effluent from diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span>. 1: A simple model of plumes from diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trivett, D.A.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on modeling the fate of effluent from diffuse seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity after it has been <span class="hlt">vented</span> into the water column. The model was formulated using a number of simplifying assumptions which permit direct application of this model to field measurements. I have limited the configurations to those where the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> outflow velocities are smaller than horizontal current. I assume that the entrainment of ambient seawater into the plume is constant over the length of the plume. This permits formulation of a first-order relation for the rise height and dilution in a diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume as a function of downstream distance. The analytic model is compared with a simple laboratory simulation of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> flow. The results suggest that diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> effluent will penetrate to a height in the water column that is proportional to the overall dimension of the diffuse <span class="hlt">vent</span> patch, multiplied by a dimensionless plume intensity parameter. I also ahow relations for plume dilution which will be compared with field data in part 2 of this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050821"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial and archaeal populations at two shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Panarea Island (Eolian Islands, Italy).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maugeri, Teresa Luciana; Lentini, Valeria; Gugliandolo, Concetta; Italiano, Francesco; Cousin, Sylvie; Stackebrandt, Erko</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial community thriving at two shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Panarea Island (Italy). Physico-chemical characteristics of thermal waters were examined in order to establish the effect of the <span class="hlt">vents</span> on biodiversity of both Bacteria and Archaea. Water and adjacent sediment samples were collected at different times from two <span class="hlt">vents</span>, characterised by different depth and temperature, and analysed to evaluate total microbial abundances, sulphur-oxidising and thermophilic aerobic bacteria. Total microbial abundances were on average of the order of 10(5) cells ml(-1), expressed as picoplanktonic size fraction. Picophytoplanktonic cells accounted for 0.77-3.83% of the total picoplanktonic cells. The contribution of bacterial and archaeal taxa to prokaryotic community diversity was investigated by PCR-DGGE fingerprinting method. The number of bands derived from bacterial DNA was highest in the DGGE profiles of water sample from the warmest and deepest <span class="hlt">site</span> (<span class="hlt">site</span> 2). In contrast, archaeal richness was highest in the water of the coldest and shallowest <span class="hlt">site</span> (<span class="hlt">site</span> 1). Sulphur-oxidising bacteria were detected by both culture-dependent and -independent methods. The primary production at the shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system of Panarea is supported by a complex microbial community composed by phototrophs and chemolithotrophs. PMID:19050821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997E%26PSL.148...69L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997E%26PSL.148...69L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> near a mantle hot spot: the Lucky Strike <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at 37°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langmuir, C.; Humphris, S.; Fornari, D.; Van Dover, C.; Von Damm, K.; Tivey, M. K.; Colodner, D.; Charlou, J.-L.; Desonie, D.; Wilson, C.; Fouquet, Y.; Klinkhammer, G.; Bougault, H.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The Lucky Strike <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field occurs in the summit basin of a large seamount that forms the shallow center of a 65 km long ridge segment near 37°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The depth and chemistry of the ridge segment are influenced by the Azores hot spot, and this <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field is the first Atlantic <span class="hlt">site</span> found on crust that is dominated by a hot spot signature. Multiple <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> occur over an area of at least 300 m by 700 m. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> morphologies range from flanges and chimneys with temperatures of 200-212°C, to black smoker chimneys with temperatures up to 333°C. Cooler fluids from northern <span class="hlt">vents</span> have higher chlorinities and lower gas volumes, while hotter, southern fluids have chlorinities 20% below seawater with higher gas volumes, suggesting phase separation has influenced their compositions. All gas volumes in fluids are higher than those at TAG and Snake Pit <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields. Black smokers exhibit their typical mineralogy, except that barite is a major mineral, particularly at lower-temperature <span class="hlt">sites</span>, which contrasts with previously investigated Atlantic <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The fluid chemistry, distribution of the relict sulfide deposits on the seamount summit in the areas investigated using DSV Alvin, and contact relationships between active <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and surrounding basaltic and sulfide substrate suggest that the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system has a long history and may have recently been rejuvenated. Fauna at the Lucky Strike <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> are dominated by a new species of mussel, and include the first reported sea urchins. The Lucky Strike biological community differs considerably from other <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna at the species level and appears to be a new biogeographic province. The Lucky Strike field helps to constrain how variations in the basaltic substrate influence the composition of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and solids, because basalt compositions at Lucky Strike are 10-30 times enriched in incompatible elements compared to other Atlantic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> such as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840031038&hterms=deep+vent&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bvent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840031038&hterms=deep+vent&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bvent"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulphur isotopic compositions of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The S-34/S-32 ratios of tissues from vestimentiferan worms, brachyuran crabs, and giant clams living around deep <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are reported. Clean tissues were dried, ground, suspended in 0.1 M LiCl, shaken twice at 37 C to remove seawater sulfates, dried at 60 C, combusted in O2 in a Parr bomb. Sulfur was recovered as BaSO4, and the isotopic abundances in SO2 generated by thermal decomposition of 5-30-mg samples were determined using an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. The results are expressed as delta S-34 and compared with values measured in seawater sulfates and in normal marine fauna. The values ranged from -4.7 to 4.7 per thousand, comparable to <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfide minerals (1.3-4.1 per thousand) and distinct from seawater sulfates (20.1 per thousand) and normal marine fauna (about 13-20 per thousand). These results indicate that <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfur rather than seawater sulfur is utilized by these animals, a process probably mediated by chemoautotrophic bacteria which can use inorganic sulfur compounds as energy sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032178','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032178"><span id="translatedtitle">S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modern seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ono, Shuhei; Shanks, Wayne C., III; Rouxel, O.J.; Rumble, D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Sulfide sulfur in mid-oceanic ridge <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> is derived from leaching of basaltic-sulfide and seawater-derived sulfate that is reduced during high temperature water rock interaction. Conventional sulfur isotope studies, however, are inconclusive about the mass-balance between the two sources because 34S/32S ratios of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid H2S and chimney sulfide minerals may reflect not only the mixing ratio but also isotope exchange between sulfate and sulfide. Here, we show that high-precision analysis of S-33 can provide a unique constraint because isotope mixing and isotope exchange result in different ??33S (?????33S-0.515 ??34S) values of up to 0.04??? even if ??34S values are identical. Detection of such small ??33S differences is technically feasible by using the SF6 dual-inlet mass-spectrometry protocol that has been improved to achieve a precision as good as 0.006??? (2??). Sulfide minerals (marcasite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite) and <span class="hlt">vent</span> H2S collected from four active seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, East Pacific Rise (EPR) 9-10??N, 13??N, and 21??S and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) 37??N yield ??33S values ranging from -0.002 to 0.033 and ??34S from -0.5??? to 5.3???. The combined ??34S and ??33S systematics reveal that 73 to 89% of <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides are derived from leaching from basaltic sulfide and only 11 to 27% from seawater-derived sulfate. Pyrite from EPR 13??N and marcasite from MAR 37??N are in isotope disequilibrium not only in ??34S but also in ??33S with respect to associated sphalerite and chalcopyrite, suggesting non-equilibrium sulfur isotope exchange between seawater sulfate and sulfide during pyrite precipitation. Seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides are characterized by low ??33S values compared with biogenic sulfides, suggesting little or no contribution of sulfide from microbial sulfate reduction into <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sulfides at sediment-free mid-oceanic ridge systems. We conclude that 33S is an effective new tracer for interplay among</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.1170O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeCoA..71.1170O"><span id="translatedtitle">S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modern seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Shuhei; Shanks, Wayne C.; Rouxel, Olivier J.; Rumble, Douglas</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Sulfide sulfur in mid-oceanic ridge <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> is derived from leaching of basaltic-sulfide and seawater-derived sulfate that is reduced during high temperature water rock interaction. Conventional sulfur isotope studies, however, are inconclusive about the mass-balance between the two sources because 34S/ 32S ratios of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid H 2S and chimney sulfide minerals may reflect not only the mixing ratio but also isotope exchange between sulfate and sulfide. Here, we show that high-precision analysis of S-33 can provide a unique constraint because isotope mixing and isotope exchange result in different Δ 33S (≡δ 33S-0.515 δ 34S) values of up to 0.04‰ even if δ 34S values are identical. Detection of such small Δ 33S differences is technically feasible by using the SF 6 dual-inlet mass-spectrometry protocol that has been improved to achieve a precision as good as 0.006‰ (2 σ). Sulfide minerals (marcasite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite) and <span class="hlt">vent</span> H 2S collected from four active seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, East Pacific Rise (EPR) 9-10°N, 13°N, and 21°S and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) 37°N yield Δ 33S values ranging from -0.002 to 0.033 and δ 34S from -0.5‰ to 5.3‰. The combined δ 34S and Δ 33S systematics reveal that 73 to 89% of <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides are derived from leaching from basaltic sulfide and only 11 to 27% from seawater-derived sulfate. Pyrite from EPR 13°N and marcasite from MAR 37°N are in isotope disequilibrium not only in δ 34S but also in Δ 33S with respect to associated sphalerite and chalcopyrite, suggesting non-equilibrium sulfur isotope exchange between seawater sulfate and sulfide during pyrite precipitation. Seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides are characterized by low Δ 33S values compared with biogenic sulfides, suggesting little or no contribution of sulfide from microbial sulfate reduction into <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sulfides at sediment-free mid-oceanic ridge systems. We conclude that 33S is an effective new tracer for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26841066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26841066"><span id="translatedtitle">The Origin of Life in Alkaline <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline <span class="hlt">vents</span> are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea. PMID:26841066</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26475295','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26475295"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environment. PMID:26475295</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26626941"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> from Three Oceanic Regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, Tianliang; Zhang, Xiaobo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are considered to be one of the most spectacular ecosystems on Earth. Microorganisms form the basis of the food chain in <span class="hlt">vents</span> controlling the <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities. However, the diversity of bacterial communities in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> from different oceans remains largely unknown. In this study, the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities of the <span class="hlt">venting</span> sulfide, seawater, and tubeworm trophosome from East Pacific Rise, South Atlantic Ridge, and Southwest Indian Ridge, respectively. A total of 23,767 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were assigned into 42 different phyla. Although Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in all <span class="hlt">vents</span>, differences of bacterial diversity were observed among different <span class="hlt">vents</span> from three oceanic regions. The sulfides of East Pacific Rise possessed the most diverse bacterial communities. The bacterial diversities of <span class="hlt">venting</span> seawater were much lower than those of <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides. The symbiotic bacteria of tubeworm Ridgeia piscesae were included in the bacterial community of <span class="hlt">vent</span> sulfides, suggesting their significant ecological functions as the primary producers in the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems. Therefore, our study presented a comprehensive view of bacterial communities in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> from different oceans. PMID:26626941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1988DSRA...35.1759B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1988DSRA...35.1759B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Allozymic variability of Riftia pachyptila populations from the Galapagos Rift and 21$deg;N <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bucklin, Ann</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>Species endemic to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments face difficult ecological and evolutionary conditions, especially since <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> are irregularly distributed in space and ephemeral. Theoretical predictions for an optimal life history for an endemic organism may not be matched by one of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> community's prominent species, the vestimentiferan Riftia pachyptila. Population samples were collected by submersible from <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the Galapagos Rift and at 21°N along the East Pacific Rise. Allozymes were used to examine the population genetics of R. pachyptila, including the estimation of genetic variability of the species and differentiation of populations at different <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. For the 13 enzyme loci assayed by starch-gel electrophoresis, 31% were polymorphic. Heterozygosity was low: 1.5%. Genetic divergence between samples from the two regions was small but significant: genetic distance, Nei's D, was 0.008 and Wright's measure of variance partitioning, FST = 0.025 ( p < 0.05) after correction for small sample sizes. Genotypic frequencies also provided evidence of the differentiation of populations: there was a deficiency of one class of heterozygotes ( Pgm-1 98/100) in the pooled samples. The slight genetic differentiation may result from low genetic variability, which may prevent the use of allozymes as markers of gene flow. Endemic <span class="hlt">vent</span> species may experience bottlenecks during colonization of new <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> and extinction as <span class="hlt">vents</span> become inactive. Low variability is a predictable outcome of repeated bouts of colonization and extinction, during which the effects of random genetic drift may rapidly decrease genetic variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.3929B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.3929B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid chemistry on trophic structure at two deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the Mid-Cayman Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bennett, Sarah; Van Dover, Cindy; Coleman, Max</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The two known deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along the Mid-Cayman Rise are separated by a distance of only 21 km, yet their chemistry and faunal diversity are distinct. The deeper of the two <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields, Piccard (with active <span class="hlt">venting</span> from Beebe <span class="hlt">Vents</span>, Beebe Woods and Beebe Sea), at 4980 m is basalt hosted. The shallower <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, Von Damm, at 2300 m appears to have an ultramafic influence. The Von Damm <span class="hlt">vent</span> field can be separated into two <span class="hlt">sites</span>: The Spire and The Tubeworm Field. The dominant <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids at the Tubeworm Field are distinct from those at the Spire, as a result of fluid modification in the sub-surface. Von Damm and Piccard <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields support abundant invertebrates, sharing the same biomass-dominant shrimp species, Rimicaris hybisae. Although there are some other shared species (squat lobsters (Munidopsis sp.) and gastropods (Provanna sp. and Iheyaspira sp.)) between the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields, they are much more abundant at one <span class="hlt">site</span> than the other. In this study we have examined the bulk carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope composition of microbes and fauna at each <span class="hlt">vent</span> field. With these data we have deduced the trophic structure of the communities and the influence of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid chemistry. From stable isotope data and end-member <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid chemistry, we infer that the basis of the trophic structure at Piccard is dominated by sulfur, iron, and hydrogen-oxidizing microbial communities. In comparison, the basis of the Von Damm trophic structure is dominated by microbial communities of sulfur and hydrogen oxidizers, sulfate reducers and methanotrophs. This microbial diversity at the base of the trophic structure is a result of chemical variations in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids and processes in the sub-surface that alter the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid chemistry. These differences influence higher trophic levels and can be used to explain some of the variability as well as similarity in fauna at the <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Part of this work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375668"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial diversity in deep-sea sediments from the Menez Gwen <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> system of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cerqueira, Teresa; Pinho, Diogo; Egas, Conceição; Froufe, Hugo; Altermark, Bjørn; Candeias, Carla; Santos, Ricardo S; Bettencourt, Raul</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sediments are known to support remarkably diverse microbial consortia. Cultureindependent sequence-based technologies have extensively been used to disclose the associated microbial diversity as most of the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain uncultured. Here we provide the first description of the microbial community diversity found on sediments from Menez Gwen <span class="hlt">vent</span> system. We compared <span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span> influenced sediments, retrieved from an active <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimney at 812 m depth, with non-<span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span> influenced sediments, from a 1400 m depth bathyal plain. Considering the enriched methane and sulfur composition of Menez Gwen <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids, and the sediment physicochemical properties in each sampled area, we hypothesized that the <span class="hlt">site</span>-associated microbes would be different. To address this question, taxonomic profiles of bacterial, archaeal and micro-eukaryotic representatives were studied by rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Communities were shown to be significantly different and segregated by sediment geographical area. Specific mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeal (e.g., Archaeoglobus, ANME-1) and bacterial (e.g., Caldithrix, Thermodesulfobacteria) taxa were highly abundant near the <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimney. In contrast, bathyal-associated members affiliated to more ubiquitous phylogroups from deep-ocean sediments (e.g., Thaumarchaeota MGI, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria). This study provides a broader picture of the biological diversity and microbial biogeography, and represents a preliminary approach to the microbial ecology associated with the deep-sea sediments from the Menez Gwen <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field. PMID:26375668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265507','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265507"><span id="translatedtitle">The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal-vent</span> gastropod from the southwest Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres) and small (hundreds of meters) spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific <span class="hlt">vents</span> has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific <span class="hlt">vent</span>-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single <span class="hlt">vent</span> field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or <span class="hlt">sites</span> within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart) also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed. PMID:22192622</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...62...10K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRI...62...10K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> community zonation along environmental gradients at the Lau back-arc spreading center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Stacy; Hammerstrom, Kamille</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Lau back-arc spreading center exhibits gradients in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitat characteristics from north to south. Biological zonation within a few meters of <span class="hlt">vents</span> has been described as temperature driven. We constructed georeferenced photomosaics of the seafloor out to tens of meters beyond <span class="hlt">vents</span> to describe peripheral zonation and explore correlations between environmental conditions and the biological community. Cluster analysis separated northern <span class="hlt">sites</span> from southern <span class="hlt">sites</span>, corresponding to a break in substrate from basalt in the north to andesite in the south. Northern <span class="hlt">sites</span> were dominated by anemones, and southern by sponges. A previous suggestion that dominants may be dependent on friability of the substrate was not supported; when visually distinguishable, individual species within taxa showed different patterns. Northern <span class="hlt">sites</span> hosted proportionally more suspension feeding species. Sulfide that can support microbial food sources is at higher concentrations at these <span class="hlt">sites</span>, though bathymetry that may enhance bottom currents is less rugged. Northern <span class="hlt">sites</span> had higher diversity that may result from the overall northwards flow, which would generally permit easier dispersal downcurrent, though we observed no difference in dispersal strategies at different <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623654"><span id="translatedtitle">Sperm ultrastructure of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> octopod Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roura, A; Guerra, A; González, A F; Pascual, S</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Sperm ultrastructure of the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> octopod Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy. Spermatozoa of this species have the shortest head observed so far in octopodids. The acrosome possesses a helix with six gyres. The rod-shaped nucleus is short and wide in relation with other octopodids. Noteworthy features along the nucleus are the regularly disposed dense bands of cytoplasm, which have not been observed before in octopodids. The nuclear fossa is very short and wavy. Mitochondrial sheath has 10 elongated mitochondria running parallel to the axoneme-coarse fibers complex. Sperm morphology of V. hydrothermalis resembles that of Enteroctopus dofleini, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship. PMID:20623654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573109','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573109"><span id="translatedtitle">Endemic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> species identified in the open ocean seed bank.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gonnella, Giorgio; Böhnke, Stefanie; Indenbirken, Daniela; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Seifert, Richard; Mertens, Christian; Kurtz, Stefan; Perner, Mirjam</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems host microbial communities among which several microorganisms have been considered endemic to this type of habitat. It is still unclear how these organisms colonize geographically distant <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environments. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, we compare the bacterial communities of sixteen Atlantic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> samples with our own and publicly available global open ocean samples. Analysing sequences obtained from 63 million 16S rRNA genes, the genera we could identify in the open ocean waters contained 99.9% of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> reads. This suggests that previously observed <span class="hlt">vent</span> exclusiveness is, in most cases, probably an artefact of lower sequencing depth. These findings are a further step towards elucidating the role of the open ocean as a seed bank. They can explain the predicament of how species expected to be endemic to <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems are able to colonize geographically distant <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> habitats and contribute to our understanding of whether 'everything is really everywhere'. PMID:27573109</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23002089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23002089"><span id="translatedtitle">When did decapods invade <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>? Clues from the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Jin-Shu; Lu, Bo; Chen, Dian-Fu; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Fan; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Tsuchida, Shinji; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yang, Wei-Jun</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are typically located in midocean ridges and back-arc basins and are usually generated by the movement of tectonic plates. Life thrives in these environments despite the extreme conditions. In addition to chemoautotrophic bacteria, decapod crustaceans are dominant in many of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> discovered to date. Contrary to the hypothesis that these species are remnants of relic fauna, increasing evidence supports the notion that <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> decapods have diversified in more recent times with previous research attributing the origin of alvinocarid shrimps to the Miocene. This study investigated seven representative decapod species from four <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> throughout the Western Pacific and Indian Oceans. A partitioned mix-model phylogenomic analysis of mitochondrial DNA produced a consistent phylogenetic topology of these <span class="hlt">vent</span>-endemic species. Additionally, molecular dating analysis calibrated using multiple fossils suggested that both bythograeid crabs and alvinocarid shrimps originated in the late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic. Although of limited sampling, our estimates support the extinction/repopulation hypothesis, which postulates recent diversification times for most <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> species due to their mass extinction by global deep-water anoxic/dysoxic events during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. The continental-derived property of the West Pacific province is compatible with the possibility that <span class="hlt">vent</span> decapods diversified from ancestors from shallow-water regions such as cold seeps. Our results move us a step closer toward understanding the evolutionary origin of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> species and their distribution in the Western Pacific-Indian Ocean Region. PMID:23002089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T43D2704F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T43D2704F"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic Structure of Backarc Spreading Axis with <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>; the Southern Mariana Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Mochizuki, N.; Honsho, C.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.; Nakamura, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems are important in relation to global heat and chemical fluxes as well as habitat of microbial communities. The substantial variation of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems in various tectonic settings has important implications for the magnetic structure of oceanic crust. It has been very difficult to detect the geophysical signature of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems from sea-surface data because the small scale of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems is below the limit of resolution. The advance of near-bottom survey methods using a submersible, deep-tow, ROV and AUV has made possible high-resolution geophysical mapping around <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> areas. Near-bottom magnetic surveys can provide direct information on the magnetization of the shallower oceanic crust, implying <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> alteration both in active and fossil <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Near-bottom three component magnetic measurements on submersible Shinkai 6500 were carried out at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields in the Southern Mariana Trough, a slow spreading backarc basin. Fourteen dive surveys were conducted during cruises YK11-10 and YK10-11. We investigated the magnetic structure of four <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems located at on- and off-axis to clarify how the geophysical and geological setting controls the fluid circulation at small scale. Recent researches at slow spreading ridges showed a relationship between crustal magnetic structure and host rock around <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (e.g. Tivey and Dyment, 2010), but no observation at backarc spreading axis has been reported so far. We carefully corrected the effects of induced and permanent magnetizations of the submersible by applying the method of Isezaki [1986] with dumped least-square method (Honsho et al., 2009). After subtracting the IGRF from the corrected observed data, we obtained geomagnetic vector anomalies in geographical coordinate. For three transects of the axis, we applied three methods; 2D inversion technique (Parker and Huestis, 1972), 2D forward modeling technique (Honsho et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035670','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035670"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial community structure of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits from geochemically different <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Flores, Gilberto E.; Campbell, James H.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Meneghin, Jennifer; Podar, Mircea; Steinberg, Joshua I.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Tivey, Margaret Kingston; Voytek, Mary A.; Yang, Zamin K.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37°17'N, 32°16.3'W, depth 1600-1750m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36°13'N, 33°54.1'W, depth 2270-2330m) <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow <span class="hlt">vent</span> field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this <span class="hlt">site</span>. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1024290','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1024290"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial community structure of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits from geochemically different <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flores, Gilberto E; Campbell, James H; Kirshtein, Julie D; Meneghin, Jennifer; Podar, Mircea; Steinberg, Joshua; Seewald, Jeffrey S; Tivey, Margaret Kingston; Voytek, Mary A; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Yang, Zamin Koo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the effects of local fluid geochemistry on microbial communities associated with active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> deposits, we examined the archaeal and bacterial communities of 12 samples collected from two very different <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields: the basalt-hosted Lucky Strike (37 17'N, 32 16.3'W, depth 1600-1750 m) and the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow (36 13'N, 33 54.1'W, depth 2270-2330 m) <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Using multiplexed barcoded pyrosequencing of the variable region 4 (V4) of the 16S rRNA genes, we show statistically significant differences between the archaeal and bacterial communities associated with the different <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays of the functional gene diagnostic for methanogenesis (mcrA), as well as geochemical modelling to predict pore fluid chemistries within the deposits, support the pyrosequencing observations. Collectively, these results show that the less reduced, hydrogen-poor fluids at Lucky Strike limit colonization by strict anaerobes such as methanogens, and allow for hyperthermophilic microaerophiles, like Aeropyrum. In contrast, the hydrogen-rich reducing <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids at the ultramafic-influenced Rainbow <span class="hlt">vent</span> field support the prevalence of methanogens and other hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles at this <span class="hlt">site</span>. These results demonstrate that biogeographical patterns of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> microorganisms are shaped in part by large scale geological and geochemical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3703533','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3703533"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic diversity and functional gene patterns of sulfur-oxidizing subseafloor Epsilonproteobacteria in diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akerman, Nancy H.; Butterfield, David A.; Huber, Julie A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Microorganisms throughout the dark ocean use reduced sulfur compounds for chemolithoautotrophy. In many deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, sulfide oxidation is quantitatively the most important chemical energy source for microbial metabolism both at and beneath the seafloor. In this study, the presence and activity of <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic Epsilonproteobacteria was examined in six low-temperature diffuse <span class="hlt">vents</span> over a range of geochemical gradients from Axial Seamount, a deep-sea volcano in the Northeast Pacific. PCR primers were developed and applied to target the sulfur oxidation soxB gene of Epsilonproteobacteria. soxB genes belonging to the genera Sulfurimonas and Sulfurovum are both present and expressed at most diffuse <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but not in background seawater. Although Sulfurovum-like soxB genes were detected in all fluid samples, the RNA profiles were nearly identical among the <span class="hlt">vents</span> and suggest that Sulfurimonas-like species are the primary Epsilonproteobacteria responsible for actively oxidizing sulfur via the Sox pathway at each <span class="hlt">vent</span>. Community patterns of subseafloor Epsilonproteobacteria 16S rRNA genes were best matched to methane concentrations in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids, as well as individual <span class="hlt">vent</span> locations, indicating that both geochemistry and geographical isolation play a role in structuring subseafloor microbial populations. The data show that in the subseafloor at Axial Seamount, Epsilonproteobacteria are expressing the soxB gene and that microbial patterns in community distribution are linked to both <span class="hlt">vent</span> location and chemistry. PMID:23847608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847608"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic diversity and functional gene patterns of sulfur-oxidizing subseafloor Epsilonproteobacteria in diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akerman, Nancy H; Butterfield, David A; Huber, Julie A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Microorganisms throughout the dark ocean use reduced sulfur compounds for chemolithoautotrophy. In many deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, sulfide oxidation is quantitatively the most important chemical energy source for microbial metabolism both at and beneath the seafloor. In this study, the presence and activity of <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic Epsilonproteobacteria was examined in six low-temperature diffuse <span class="hlt">vents</span> over a range of geochemical gradients from Axial Seamount, a deep-sea volcano in the Northeast Pacific. PCR primers were developed and applied to target the sulfur oxidation soxB gene of Epsilonproteobacteria. soxB genes belonging to the genera Sulfurimonas and Sulfurovum are both present and expressed at most diffuse <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but not in background seawater. Although Sulfurovum-like soxB genes were detected in all fluid samples, the RNA profiles were nearly identical among the <span class="hlt">vents</span> and suggest that Sulfurimonas-like species are the primary Epsilonproteobacteria responsible for actively oxidizing sulfur via the Sox pathway at each <span class="hlt">vent</span>. Community patterns of subseafloor Epsilonproteobacteria 16S rRNA genes were best matched to methane concentrations in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids, as well as individual <span class="hlt">vent</span> locations, indicating that both geochemistry and geographical isolation play a role in structuring subseafloor microbial populations. The data show that in the subseafloor at Axial Seamount, Epsilonproteobacteria are expressing the soxB gene and that microbial patterns in community distribution are linked to both <span class="hlt">vent</span> location and chemistry. PMID:23847608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26663423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26663423"><span id="translatedtitle">Subseafloor microbial communities in hydrogen-rich <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems along the Mid-Cayman Rise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reveillaud, Julie; Reddington, Emily; McDermott, Jill; Algar, Christopher; Meyer, Julie L; Sylva, Sean; Seewald, Jeffrey; German, Christopher R; Huber, Julie A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Warm fluids emanating from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> can be used as windows into the rocky subseafloor habitat and its resident microbial community. Two new <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems on the Mid-Cayman Rise each exhibits novel geologic settings and distinctively hydrogen-rich <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid compositions. We have determined and compared the chemistry, potential energy yielding reactions, abundance, community composition, diversity, and function of microbes in <span class="hlt">venting</span> fluids from both <span class="hlt">sites</span>: Piccard, the world's deepest <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>, hosted in mafic rocks; and Von Damm, an adjacent, ultramafic-influenced system. Von Damm hosted a wider diversity of lineages and metabolisms in comparison to Piccard, consistent with thermodynamic models that predict more numerous energy sources at ultramafic systems. There was little overlap in the phylotypes found at each <span class="hlt">site</span>, although similar and dominant hydrogen-utilizing genera were present at both. Despite the differences in community structure, depth, geology, and fluid chemistry, energetic modelling and metagenomic analysis indicate near functional equivalence between Von Damm and Piccard, likely driven by the high hydrogen concentrations and elevated temperatures at both <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Results are compared with <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> worldwide to provide a global perspective on the distinctiveness of these newly discovered <span class="hlt">sites</span> and the interplay among rocks, fluid composition and life in the subseafloor. PMID:26663423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35.1793L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35.1793L"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of bivalve ( Calyptogena magnifica) growth at two deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the eastern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lutz, Richard A.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Cerrato, Robert M.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>Analyses of specimens of a common deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> bivalve, Calyptogena magnifica, from two <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the eastern Pacific, have been utilized to develop a mathematical model of the growth of this species based on accurate measurements of: (1) in situ rates of dissolution of the aragonitic outer granular shell layer; and (2) the thickness of the outer shell layer remaining at any given point in time at various distances from the umbo. The model permits the variances of each independently measured variable to be combined into a final confidence limit on age at a given size, making possible statistical comparisons of the calculated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation. This model, in turn, provides a powerful tool for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in rates of biological processes both within and between deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities. Ontogenetic growth curves for C. magnifica specimens at both <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> suggest that growth rates of this species are several orders of magnitude greater than those reported for the one bivalve ( Tindaria callistiformis) analysed to date from a deep-sea, non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> habitat. These data provide additional evidence that biological processes at submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> along the mid-oceanic ridge system proceed at rates that are extremely rapid for a deep-sea environment and are comparable with those from some shallow water temperate environments. Rates of shell dissolution decreased markedly with increasing distance from <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids. In a 20 cm distance spanning 10 cm into a bivalve assemblage atop an active <span class="hlt">vent</span> at Rose Garden (Galapagos Rift) to 10 cm outside the assemblage, dissolution rates of the outer granular layer of C. magnifica declined 100-fold (from 355.4 to 3.5 μm y -1, respectively) in in situ exposures of approximately 210 days. At distances ranging from 1 to 6 m away from active <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, no measurable thickness (<1 μm) of C. magnifica shells had</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147438"><span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Bacterial Symbionts Retrieved from Shallow Water <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eythorsdottir, Arnheidur; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Einarsson, Hjorleifur</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Marine sponges and other sessile macro-organisms were collected at a shallow water <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> in Eyjafjörður, Iceland. Bacteria were isolated from the organisms using selective media for actinomycetes, and the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 111 isolates revealed antimicrobial activity displaying different antimicrobial patterns which indicates production of various compounds. Known test strains were grown in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts from one selected isolate, and a clear growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was observed down to 0.1 % extract concentration in the medium. Identification of isolates shows different species of Actinobacteria with Streptomyces sp. playing the largest role, but also members of Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Sponges have an excellent record regarding production of bioactive compounds, often involving microbial symbionts. At the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, however, the majority of active isolates originated from other invertebrates such as sea anemones or algae. The results indicate that antimicrobial assays involving isolates in full growth can detect activity not visible by other methods. The macro-organisms inhabiting the Eyjafjörður <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> area host diverse microbial species in the phylum Actinobacteria with antimicrobial activity, and the compounds responsible for the activity will be subject to further research. PMID:27147438</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.173...64J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GeCoA.173...64J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation and growth of barite within <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> deposits from the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jamieson, John William; Hannington, Mark D.; Tivey, Margaret K.; Hansteen, Thor; Williamson, Nicole M.-B.; Stewart, Margaret; Fietzke, Jan; Butterfield, David; Frische, Matthias; Allen, Leigh; Cousens, Brian; Langer, Julia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> deposits form on the seafloor as a result of cooling and mixing of hot <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids with cold seawater. Amongst the major sulfide and sulfate minerals that are preserved at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, barite (BaSO4) is unique because it requires the direct mixing of Ba-rich <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid with sulfate-rich seawater in order for precipitation to occur. Because of its extremely low solubility, barite crystals preserve geochemical fingerprints associated with conditions of formation. Here, we present data from petrographic and geochemical analyses of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> barite from the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeast Pacific Ocean, in order to determine the physical and chemical conditions under which barite precipitates within seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems. Petrographic analyses of 22 barite-rich samples show a range of barite crystal morphologies: dendritic and acicular barite forms near the exterior <span class="hlt">vent</span> walls, whereas larger bladed and tabular crystals occur within the interior of chimneys. A two component mixing model based on Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr of both seawater and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid, combined with 87Sr/86Sr data from whole rock and laser-ablation ICP-MS analyses of barite crystals indicate that barite precipitates from mixtures containing as low as 17% and as high as 88% <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid component, relative to seawater. Geochemical modelling of the relationship between aqueous species concentrations and degree of fluid mixing indicates that Ba2+ availability is the dominant control on mineral saturation. Observations combined with model results support that dendritic barite forms from fluids of less than 40% <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> component and with a saturation index greater than ∼0.6, whereas more euhedral crystals form at lower levels of supersaturation associated with greater contributions of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid. Fluid inclusions within barite indicate formation temperatures of between ∼120 °C and 240 °C during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V43F..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V43F..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Geologic Setting of <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> at Mariana Arc Submarine Volcanoes: High-Resolution Bathymetry and ROV Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chadwick, W. W.; Embley, R. W.; de Ronde, C. E.; Stern, R. J.; Hein, J.; Merle, S.; Ristau, S.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p> below the summit, and is characterized by focused flow of CO2-rich fluids, whereas the summit has extensive areas of diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span> and is covered with thick bacterial mats. (3) Some of the most remarkable <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> are deep, narrow volcanic craters at NW Rota-1 and Daikoku volcanoes. The crater at NW Rota-1 volcano (named "Brimstone Pit") is 15-m wide, 20-m deep, funnel shaped, and was actively erupting ash, lapilli, and molten sulfur. The rim of Brimstone Pit is composed of welded spatter and is located at 550 m depth, about 30 m below the summit. Other diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> at NW Rota-1 are located along the rocky summit ridge. At Daikoku volcano, an extraordinary crater emitting cloudy <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid was found at 375 m depth on the north shoulder of the volcano, about 75 m below the summit. This crater was at least 135 m deep and had a remarkably cylindrical cross-section with a diameter of ~50 m. ROPOS descended 75 m into the crater and was still at least 60 m above the bottom, according to the altimeter, when we were forced to cease operations due to weather. In addition, diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids seep from large areas of the summit and upper slopes of Daikoku.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13B0475S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13B0475S"><span id="translatedtitle">Bacterial and Archaeal Community Dynamics at CO2-RICH Shallow-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> (panarea, Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schubotz, F.; Huang, C.; Meyerdierks, A.; Amend, J.; Price, R. E.; Amann, R.; Hinrichs, K.; Summons, R. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Shallow marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are highly dynamic systems with unique habitats that can support both chemosynthetic and photosynthetic communities at steep temperature and geochemical gradients. Here, we present a combined organic geochemical and microbiological approach to describe the microbial community composition and their metabolism at the CO2-rich shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Panarea Island, in Sicily. We investigated two contrasting <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environments: Hot Lake, a depression filled with <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids diffusing gradually out of the seafloor, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C, and Blackpoint, a <span class="hlt">site</span> with vigorous <span class="hlt">venting</span> of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> gasses and fluids with temperatures as high as 135°C. At Hot Lake, Bacteria dominate the microbial community composition in the sediments. 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed Bacteriodetes-, Epsilonproteobacteria- and Deltaproteobacteria-related sequences as the most abundant members. Bacterial intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) were dominated by the non-phosphorous containing ornithine lipids throughout all depths, indicating an important role of this aminolipid at elevated temperatures and/or low pH. At Hot Lake, archaeal IPLs were comprised mainly of glycosidic tetraethers and increased up to 20% of total IPLs with increasing temperature and depth. At the same <span class="hlt">site</span>, archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries were mainly comprised of Euryarchaea-affiliated sequences; crenarchaeotal sequences were only found in deeper sediment layers with temperatures of ca. 70°C. In contrast to Hot Lake, Archaea dominated sediments at the much hotter <span class="hlt">site</span> at Blackpoint. Here, novel methylated H-shaped archaeal tetraethers, with multiple sugars as head groups, were the most abundant membrane lipids. Reports on these lipids in cultures are very limited, but their abundant occurrence at elevated temperatures suggests an important role in membrane homeostastis in thermophilic Archaea. Stable carbon isotope values of -35‰ to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237624','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1237624"><span id="translatedtitle">Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> with associated rare earth element data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Andrew Fowler</p> <p>2016-02-10</p> <p>Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.B43G0496O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.B43G0496O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Primary Productivity in <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Chimneys at Middle Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olins, H. C.; Rogers, D.; Frank, K. L.; Girguis, P. R.; Vidoudez, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Chemosynthetic primary productivity supports <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems, but the extent of that productivity has not been well measured. To examine the role that environmental temperature plays in controlling carbon fixation rates, and to assess the degree to which microbial community composition, in situ geochemistry, and mineralogy influence carbon fixation, we conducted a series of shipboard incubations across a range of temperatures (4, 25, 50 and 90°C) and at environmentally relevant geochemical conditions using material recovered from three <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys in the Middle Valley <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field (Juan de Fuca Ridge). Net rates of carbon fixation (CFX) were greatest at lower temperatures, and were similar among structures. Rates did not correlate with the mineralogy or the geochemical composition of the high temperature fluids at each chimney. No obvious patterns of association were observed between carbon fixation rates and microbial community composition. Abundance of selected functional genes related to different carbon fixation pathway exhibited striking differences among the three study <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but did not correlate with rates. Natural carbon isotope ratios implicate the Calvin Benson Bassham Cycle as the dominant mechanism of primary production in these systems, despite the abundance of genes related to other pathways (and presumably some degree of activity). Together these data reveal that primary productivity by endolithic communities does not exhibit much variation among these chimneys, and further reveal that microbial activity cannot easily be related to mineralogical and geochemical assessments that are made at a coarser scale. Indeed, the relationships between carbon fixation rates and community composition/functional gene abundance were also likely obfuscated by differences in scale at which these measurements were made. Regardless, these data reveal the degree to which endolithic, anaerobic carbon fixation contributes to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS13B1737K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS13B1737K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the Piccard <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Field - The World's Deepest Known <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinsey, J. C.; German, C. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We report the recent mapping and exploration of the Piccard <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Field on the Mid-Cayman Rise. Two previous expeditions in 2009 and 2010 led to the discovery of the <span class="hlt">site</span>, which at 5000m hosts the world's deepest known <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The <span class="hlt">site</span> was mapped and explored in January 2012 and the Piccard Field was found to be larger than previously appreciated. The <span class="hlt">site</span> includes 3 separate currently active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> mounts together with 4 additional extinct depo-centers. The 3 active centers are the Beebe <span class="hlt">Vents</span>, Beebe Woods, and Beebe Sea <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Beebe <span class="hlt">Vents</span> is an active black smoker system with maximum temperatures of 400-403 degrees Celsius. Beebe Woods contains a set of tall beehive smokers with temperatures of approximately 353 degrees Celsius. Beebe Sea, the largest sulfide mound in the field, contains diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span> together with numerous extinct chimneys that indicate significant past active focused flow. Observations of the 4 extinct mounds indicate differences in their apparent ages based on the texture and morphology of the extinct sulfides at the summit of each mound. The entire field is located on top of an axial volcanic ridge with extrusive pillow mounds prominent. A major fault traverses the mound along its long axis, from Southwest to Northeast. Beebe Woods, Beebe Sea, and extinct Beebe mound D abut this fault directly with an apparent monotonic age progression from youngest (Beebe Woods) in the SW to relict mound 'D' in the NE. Similarly, the Beebe <span class="hlt">Vents</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> and mound is located at the SW limit of a parallel set of mounds, offset from the fault by approximately 100m, which also ages progressively through extinct Beebe Mounds 'E', 'F' and 'G'. The major fault that bisects the axial volcanic ridge at Piccard evidently serves as a controlling mechanism for the mounds abutting that fault however the mechanism for the second line of mounds remains to be determined. Bathymetry suggests the presence of a second, smaller fault which may serve as the control</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5108926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5108926"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between lava types, seafloor morphology, and the occurrence of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> in the ASHES <span class="hlt">vent</span> field of Axial Volcano. [Axial Seamount <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Emission Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hammond, S.R. )</p> <p>1990-08-10</p> <p>Deep-towed and submersible photographic surveys within the caldera of Axial Volcano have been integrated with high-resolution bathmetry to produce a geological map of the most active <span class="hlt">vent</span> field in the caldera. Locations for over 2,000 photographs in and near the <span class="hlt">vent</span> field were determined using a seafloor transponder network. Then each photograph was described utilizing a classification system which provides detailed information concerning lava type, <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity, sediment cover, geological structure, and biology. Resulting data were entered into a digital data base, and computer-generated maps were created that portray spatial relationships between selected geological variables. In general, the entire ASHES field is characterized by pervasive low-temperature <span class="hlt">venting</span>. The most vigorous <span class="hlt">venting</span> is concentrated in an approximately 80 m {times} 80 m area where there are several high-temperature <span class="hlt">vents</span> including some which are producing high-temperature vapor-phase fluids derived from a boiling <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system. Lava types within the ASHES <span class="hlt">vent</span> field are grouped into three distinct morphologies: (1) smooth (flat-surfaced, ropy, and whorled) sheet flows, (2) lobate flows, and (3) jumbled-sheet flows. The most intense <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> is concentrated in the smooth sheet flows and the lobate flows. The location of the ASHES field is mainly attributable to faulting which defines the southwest caldera wall, but the concentration of intense <span class="hlt">venting</span> appears to be related also to the spatial distribution of lava types in the <span class="hlt">vent</span> field and their contrasting permeabilities. Other structural trends of faults and fissures within the field also influence the location of individual events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3676328','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3676328"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Differences in East Scotia Ridge <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Food Webs: Influences of Chemistry, Microbiology and Predation on Trophodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reid, William D. K.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Wigham, Ben D.; Zwirglmaier, Katrin; Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; McGill, Rona A. R.; Linse, Katrin; Polunin, Nicholas V. C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp.) and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp.) but their food webs are unknown. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> (E2, E9N and E9S) at distances of tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres apart with contrasting <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid chemistries to describe trophic interactions and identify potential carbon fixation pathways using stable isotopes. δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon from <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids ranged from −4.6‰ to 0.8‰ at E2 and from −4.4‰ to 1.5‰ at E9. The lowest macroconsumer δ13C was observed in peltospiroid gastropods (−30.0‰ to −31.1‰) and indicated carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle by endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria. Highest δ13C occurred in Kiwa sp. (−19.0‰ to −10.5‰), similar to that of the epibionts sampled from their ventral setae. Kiwa sp. δ13C differed among <span class="hlt">sites</span>, which were attributed to spatial differences in the epibiont community and the relative contribution of carbon fixed via the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) and CBB cycles assimilated by Kiwa sp. <span class="hlt">Site</span> differences in carbon fixation pathways were traced into higher trophic levels e.g. a stichasterid asteroid that predates on Kiwa sp. Sponges and anemones at the periphery of E2 assimilated a proportion of epipelagic photosynthetic primary production but this was not observed at E9N. Differences in the δ13C and δ34S values of <span class="hlt">vent</span> macroconsumers between E2 and E9 <span class="hlt">sites</span> suggest the relative contributions of photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (rTCA v CBB) entering the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> food webs vary between the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. PMID:23762393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647923"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of basalt- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> fluids passing through basaltic rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in sulfide, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in basalt-hosted systems is available through sulfide oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from sulfide oxidation in basalt-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological sulfide and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids from basalt-hosted and ultramafic-hosted <span class="hlt">vents</span>. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (basalt-hosted) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids from ultramafic-hosted or basalt-hosted <span class="hlt">sites</span> were used. <span class="hlt">Site</span>-specific hydrogen and sulfide availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or sulfide oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> biotopes. PMID:23647923</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4069388','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4069388"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> Epsilonproteobacteria encode a conserved and widespread nitrate reduction pathway (Nap)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vetriani, Costantino; Voordeckers, James W; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; O'Brien, Charles E; Giovannelli, Donato; Lutz, Richard A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite the frequent isolation of nitrate-respiring Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, the genes coding for the nitrate reduction pathway in these organisms have not been investigated in depth. In this study we have shown that the gene cluster coding for the periplasmic nitrate reductase complex (nap) is highly conserved in chemolithoautotrophic, nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Furthermore, we have shown that the napA gene is expressed in pure cultures of <span class="hlt">vent</span> Epsilonproteobacteria and it is highly conserved in microbial communities collected from deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span> characterized by different temperature and redox regimes. The diversity of nitrate-reducing Epsilonproteobacteria was found to be higher in moderate temperature, diffuse flow <span class="hlt">vents</span> than in high temperature black smokers or in low temperatures, substrate-associated communities. As NapA has a high affinity for nitrate compared with the membrane-bound enzyme, its occurrence in <span class="hlt">vent</span> Epsilonproteobacteria may represent an adaptation of these organisms to the low nitrate concentrations typically found in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids. Taken together, our findings indicate that nitrate reduction is widespread in <span class="hlt">vent</span> Epsilonproteobacteria and provide insight on alternative energy metabolism in <span class="hlt">vent</span> microorganisms. The occurrence of the nap cluster in <span class="hlt">vent</span>, commensal and pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria suggests that the ability of these bacteria to respire nitrate is important in habitats as different as the deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span> and the human body. PMID:24430487</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4342K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4342K"><span id="translatedtitle">Heat and Volume Fluxes at the Turtle Pits <span class="hlt">Vent</span> <span class="hlt">Site</span>, southern Mid Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Köhler, Janna; Walter, Maren; Mertens, Christian; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Rhein, Monika</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Turtle Pits <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> consists of eight known high temperature <span class="hlt">vents</span> and several diffuse <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> which are distributed over three <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields: Turtle Pits, Comfortless Cove, and Red Lion. These <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields are located in a north-south orientated rift valley at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) near 5°S. The total volume and heat emissions of the entire Turtle Pits <span class="hlt">site</span> have been calculated with three different approaches using data collected during a Meteor cruise in May 2006 and a L'Atalante cruise in January 2008. The data sets consist of vertical profiles and towed transects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity, as well as direct velocity measurements with a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) and water samples for Helium isotope analysis. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> fluid samples for noble gas analysis where taken with ROVs. Since the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid is highly enriched in primordial 3He this noble gas can be used as a conservative tracer for <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid. The geographical setting of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> confines the particle plume to the rift valley since the depth of the valley exceeds the rise height of the plume. Therefore the fluxes of heat and volume can be estimated from the horizontal helium transport in the valley in combination with a mean 3He endmember concentration determined from the water samples taken with the ROVs. The comparison of the 3He concentrations measured south of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> with the 3He signal north of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> suggests a rather strong northward flow. This is confirmed by the tide corrected velocities observed with the LADCP during the Meteor cruise. The northward volume transport has been calculated using the local bathymetry and tide corrected velocities from the Meteor cruise. In combination with the 3He concentrations and the average 3He endmember concentration a flux of 1000 l/s is estimated, which corresponds to a heat flux of 1400 MW. The measured temperature anomalies within the plume combined with the known</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V32A0959O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V32A0959O"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Particulate Matter from a Shallow <span class="hlt">Venting</span> System, offshore Nayarit, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortega-Osorio, A.; Prol-Ledesma, R. M.; Reyes, A. G.; Rubio-Ramos, M. A.; Torres-Vera, M. A.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>A shallow (30 ft) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> named ``Cora'' (after the indigenous people thereby) was surveyed and sampled throughout direct observation with SCUBA diving during November 25 to December 4, 2000. A total of 10 dives were conducted in order to obtain representative samples from an 85oC fluid source of approximately 10 cm in diameter. Inherent difficulties to the sampling, such as poor visibility and strong bottom currents were overcome and samples of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid, gas, rocks, and particulate matter were collected directly from the <span class="hlt">vent</span>. Water samples and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid were taken with a homemade 1 l cylindrical bottles of two lines by flushing in from the bottom for about ten minutes until total displacement of the seawater; similar procedure was carried out for gas samples. Particulate matter was collected with 0.4mm polycarbonate membrane filters and preserved in a desiccators at a fridge temperature until analysis onshore. Preliminary description of the rock samples suggest that pyritization is the main mineralisation process. Filters containing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> particulate matter were surveyed under the scanning electron microscope in order to identify the nature (inorganic and organic), as well as the chemistry of the particles. SEM examination revealed the presence of particles of different kind that suggests high degree of mixing and re-suspension: Planctonic organisms and organic matter appeared to be abundant; 25 micron particles of different carbonate faces and inorganic particles of silicates were also recognized. Distinctive euhedral colloidal grains were identified as the resulting process of precipitation from the solution. Microanalysis of iron and sulfur content of 10 micron particles indicate a very likely sulphide mineral face (greigite); 8 micron cinnabar particles are consistent with the mineralization conditions, observed as well in the inner walls of the <span class="hlt">vent</span>. Analyses of dissolved and particulate trace metals are still ongoing at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911507"><span id="translatedtitle">An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:25911507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=383022','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=383022"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfide Ameliorates Metal Toxicity for Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Archaea†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Edgcomb, Virginia P.; Molyneaux, Stephen J.; Saito, Mak A.; Lloyd, Karen; Böer, Simone; Wirsen, Carl O.; Atkins, Michael S.; Teske, Andreas</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The chemical stress factors for microbial life at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> include high concentrations of heavy metals and sulfide. Three hyperthermophilic <span class="hlt">vent</span> archaea, the sulfur-reducing heterotrophs Thermococcus fumicolans and Pyrococcus strain GB-D and the chemolithoautotrophic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, were tested for survival tolerance to heavy metals (Zn, Co, and Cu) and sulfide. The sulfide addition consistently ameliorated the high toxicity of free metal cations by the formation of dissolved metal-sulfide complexes as well as solid precipitates. Thus, chemical speciation of heavy metals with sulfide allows <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> archaea to tolerate otherwise toxic metal concentrations in their natural environment. PMID:15066859</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRI...52.1515O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRI...52.1515O"><span id="translatedtitle">High abundances of viruses in a deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> system indicates viral mediated microbial mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortmann, Alice C.; Suttle, Curtis A.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Little is known about the distribution and abundance of viruses at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Based on estimates made using epifluorescence microscopy and the dye YoPro-1, much higher viral abundances were observed at active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> than in the surrounding deep sea. This indicates that viral production was occurring and that viruses were a source of microbial mortality. Samples collected from three actively <span class="hlt">venting</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> (Clam Bed, S&M and Salut) within the Endeavour Ridge system off the west coast of North America had viral abundances ranging from 1.45×10 5 to 9.90×10 7 ml -1, while the abundances of prokaryotes ranged from 1.30×10 5 to 4.46×10 6 ml -1. The abundances of viruses and prokaryotes in samples collected along the neutrally buoyant plume associated with the Main Endeavour Field were lower than at actively <span class="hlt">venting</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, with a mean of 5.3×10 5 prokaryotes ml -1 (s.d. 2.9×10 5, n=64) and 3.50×10 6 viruses ml -1 (s.d. 1.89×10 6, n=64), but were higher than non-plume samples (2.7×10 5 prokaryotes ml -1, s.d. 5.0×10 4, n=15 and 2.94×10 6 viruses ml -1, s.d. 1.08×10 6, n=15). Prokaryotic and viral abundances in non-<span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> regions were as much as 10-fold higher than found in previous studies, in which sample fixation likely resulted in underestimates. This suggests that viral infection may be a greater source of prokaryotic mortality throughout the deep sea than previously recognized. Overall, our results indicate that virus-mediated mortality of prokaryotes at these <span class="hlt">hydrothermal-vent</span> environments is significant and may reduce energy flow to higher trophic levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659317','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659317"><span id="translatedtitle">The microbiology of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> plumes: ecological and biogeographic linkages to seafloor and water column habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dick, Gregory J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Baker, Brett J.; Li, Meng; Reed, Daniel C.; Sheik, Cody S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> plumes are an important yet understudied component of deep-sea <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbial ecosystems. The significance of plume microbial processes can be appreciated from three perspectives: (1) mediation of plume biogeochemistry, (2) dispersal of seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbes between <span class="hlt">vents</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, (3) as natural laboratories for understanding the ecology, physiology, and function of microbial groups that are distributed throughout the pelagic deep sea. Plume microbiology has been largely neglected in recent years, especially relative to the extensive research conducted on seafloor and subseafloor systems. Rapidly advancing technologies for investigating microbial communities provide new motivation and opportunities to characterize this important microbial habitat. Here we briefly highlight microbial contributions to plume and broader ocean (bio)geochemistry and review recent work to illustrate the ecological and biogeographic linkages between plumes, seafloor <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitats, and other marine habitats such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), cold seeps, and oil spills. 16S rRNA gene surveys and metagenomic/-transcriptomic data from plumes point to dominant microbial populations, genes, and functions that are also operative in OMZs (SUP05, ammonia-oxidizing Archaea, and SAR324 Deltaproteobacteria) and hydrocarbon-rich environments (methanotrophs). Plume microbial communities are distinct from those on the seafloor or in the subsurface but contain some signatures of these habitats, consistent with the notion that plumes are potential vectors for dispersal of microorganisms between seafloor <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Finally, we put forward three pressing questions for the future of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume research and consider interactions between <span class="hlt">vents</span> and oceans on global scales. PMID:23720658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23720658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23720658"><span id="translatedtitle">The microbiology of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> plumes: ecological and biogeographic linkages to seafloor and water column habitats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dick, Gregory J; Anantharaman, Karthik; Baker, Brett J; Li, Meng; Reed, Daniel C; Sheik, Cody S</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> plumes are an important yet understudied component of deep-sea <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbial ecosystems. The significance of plume microbial processes can be appreciated from three perspectives: (1) mediation of plume biogeochemistry, (2) dispersal of seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbes between <span class="hlt">vents</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, (3) as natural laboratories for understanding the ecology, physiology, and function of microbial groups that are distributed throughout the pelagic deep sea. Plume microbiology has been largely neglected in recent years, especially relative to the extensive research conducted on seafloor and subseafloor systems. Rapidly advancing technologies for investigating microbial communities provide new motivation and opportunities to characterize this important microbial habitat. Here we briefly highlight microbial contributions to plume and broader ocean (bio)geochemistry and review recent work to illustrate the ecological and biogeographic linkages between plumes, seafloor <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitats, and other marine habitats such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), cold seeps, and oil spills. 16S rRNA gene surveys and metagenomic/-transcriptomic data from plumes point to dominant microbial populations, genes, and functions that are also operative in OMZs (SUP05, ammonia-oxidizing Archaea, and SAR324 Deltaproteobacteria) and hydrocarbon-rich environments (methanotrophs). Plume microbial communities are distinct from those on the seafloor or in the subsurface but contain some signatures of these habitats, consistent with the notion that plumes are potential vectors for dispersal of microorganisms between seafloor <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Finally, we put forward three pressing questions for the future of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume research and consider interactions between <span class="hlt">vents</span> and oceans on global scales. PMID:23720658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690812','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690812"><span id="translatedtitle">Life in the extreme environment at a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>: haemoglobin in a deep-sea copepod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sell, A F</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This is the first study, to my knowledge, quantifying the respiratory pigment haemoglobin discovered in a deep-sea copepod. Haemoglobin in copepods has previously been documented in only one other species from the deep water of an Italian lake. Specimens of the siphonostomatoid Scotoecetes introrsus Humes were collected during submersible dives at 2500 m depth near a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> at the East Pacific Rise (9 degrees N). The haemoglobin content in the copepods' haemolymph was 4.3 +/- 0.6 micrograms per individual female (n = 6) and 1.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms per individual male (n = 6). Weight-specific concentrations of haemoglobin were identical for females and males (0.25 +/- 0.04 and 0.26 +/- 0.02 microgram per microgram dry weight, respectively). These haemoglobin concentrations are higher than those found in other small crustaceans. Activity of the electron transport system indicated that the respiration rates in S. introrsus (13.7 +/- 7.7 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour) were similar to those in the shallow-water copepod Acartia tonsa (9.1 +/- 1.3 microliters O2 per milligram dry weight per hour). It was concluded that the possession of highly concentrated haemoglobin allows S. introrsus to colonize a geologically young, thermally active <span class="hlt">site</span> such as the vicinity of a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>, despite the prevailing oxygen depletion. PMID:11413650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26431911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26431911"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of sulfide, osmotic, and thermal stresses on taurine transporter mRNA levels in the gills of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>-specific mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamura-Kusakabe, Ikumi; Nagasaki, Toshihiro; Kinjo, Azusa; Sassa, Mieko; Koito, Tomoko; Okamura, Kei; Yamagami, Shosei; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Tsuchida, Shinji; Inoue, Koji</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environmental conditions are characterized by high sulfide concentrations, fluctuating osmolality, and irregular temperature elevations caused by <span class="hlt">vent</span> effluents. These parameters represent potential stressors for organisms that inhabit the area around <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Here, we aimed to obtain a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of marine species to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments. Specifically, we examined the effect of sulfide, osmolality, and thermal stress on the expression of taurine transporter (TAUT) mRNA in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, which is a dominant species around <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. We analyzed TAUT mRNA levels by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the gill of mussels exposed to sulfide (0.1 or 1mg/L Na2S·9H2O), hyper- (115% seawater) and hypo- (97.5%, 95.5%, and 85% seawater) osmotic conditions, and thermal stresses (12°C and 20°C) for 24 and 48h. The results showed that mussels exposed to relatively low levels of sulfide (0.1mg/L) and moderate heat stress (12°C) exhibited higher TAUT mRNA levels than the control. Although hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress did not significantly change TAUT mRNA levels, slight induction was observed in mussels exposed to low osmolality. Our results indicate that TAUT is involved in the coping mechanism of mussels to various <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> stresses. PMID:26431911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014522','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014522"><span id="translatedtitle">Submarine fissure eruptions and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge: preliminary observations from the submersible Alvin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Normark, W.R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The submersible Alvin was used to investigate 3 active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the S Juan de Fuca Ridge in September 1984. The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> zones occur within a 10-30m-deep, 30-50m-wide cleft marking the center of the axial valley. This cleft is the eruptive locus for the axial valley. The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> coincide with the main eruptive <span class="hlt">vents</span> along the cleft. Each <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> zone has multiple discharge <span class="hlt">sites</span> extending as much as 500m along the cleft. Sulfide deposits occur as clusters (15-100m2 area) of small chimneys (= or <2m high) and as individual and clustered fields of large, branched chimneys (= or <10m high). Recovered sulfide samples are predominantly the tops of chimneys and spires and typically contain more than 80% sphalerite and wurtzite with minor pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, isocubanite, chalcopyrite, anhydrite, anhydrite, and amorphous silica. The associated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids have the highest chlorinity of any reported to date.-Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3483289','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3483289"><span id="translatedtitle">Microdistribution of Faunal Assemblages at Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> in the Southern Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D. K.; Rogers, Alex D.; Sweeting, Christopher J.; Tyler, Paul A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of <span class="hlt">vent</span> biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity in a <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m2 of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from <span class="hlt">vent</span> sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to <span class="hlt">vent</span> sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m−2), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m−2), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m−2), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m−2). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ34S values of primary consumers with distance from <span class="hlt">vent</span> sources, and variation in their δ13C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment over a greater extent than previous studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144754"><span id="translatedtitle">Microdistribution of faunal assemblages at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Southern Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marsh, Leigh; Copley, Jonathan T; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Linse, Katrin; Reid, William D K; Rogers, Alex D; Sweeting, Christopher J; Tyler, Paul A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chemosynthetic primary production by microbes supports abundant faunal assemblages at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, with zonation of invertebrate species typically occurring along physico-chemical gradients. Recently discovered <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) in the Southern Ocean represent a new province of <span class="hlt">vent</span> biogeography, but the spatial dynamics of their distinct fauna have yet to be elucidated. This study determines patterns of faunal zonation, species associations, and relationships between faunal microdistribution and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity in a <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at a depth of 2,400 m on the ESR. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives obtained high-definition imagery of three chimney structures with varying levels of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity, and a mosaic image of >250 m(2) of seafloor co-registered with temperature measurements. Analysis of faunal microdistribution within the mosaiced seafloor reveals a consistent pattern of faunal zonation with increasing distance from <span class="hlt">vent</span> sources and peak temperatures. Assemblages closest to <span class="hlt">vent</span> sources are visibly dominated by a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa n. sp. (abundance >700 individuals m(-2)), followed by a peltospiroid gastropod (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), eolepadid barnacle (>1,500 individuals m(-2)), and carnivorous actinostolid anemone (>30 individuals m(-2)). Peripheral fauna are not dominated by a single taxon, but include predatory and scavenger taxa such as stichasterid seastars, pycnogonids and octopus. Variation in faunal microdistribution on chimneys with differing levels of activity suggests a possible successional sequence for <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna in this new biogeographic province. An increase in δ(34)S values of primary consumers with distance from <span class="hlt">vent</span> sources, and variation in their δ(13)C values also indicate possible zonation of nutritional modes of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. By using ROV videography to obtain a high-resolution representation of a <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment over a greater extent than previous studies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS11B1474M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS11B1474M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vent</span>DB: A Global Online Synthesis Database of Seafloor <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> Spring Geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mottl, M. J.; Lehnert, K. A.; Johansson, A. K.; Hsu, L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Chemical data for seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> springs are fundamental to the study of mid-ocean ridge and seafloor processes, ocean water chemistry, and global geochemical cycles, as well as <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems and the sub-seafloor biosphere. So far, these data have been accessible only in the scientific literature or in online data catalogs where they are widely dispersed in individual data tables, and are often insufficiently documented for re-use. We have developed <span class="hlt">Vent</span>DB as an online data system for geochemical data for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> springs that will facilitate access and analysis of these data. <span class="hlt">Vent</span>DB uses the concept and architecture of the popular PetDB database for seafloor igneous and metamorphic rock geochemistry (www.petdb.org) to provide easy and fast access to a global synthesis of seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> spring geochemical data. The <span class="hlt">Vent</span>DB database contains concentrations of major and trace species, dissolved gases, and radiogenic and isotopic ratios for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the seafloor. Further chemical or physical properties of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> springs can be included in the future if desired. The database comprises both the calculated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> end-member solution compositions as estimated by extrapolation of the concentrations of individual chemical species to a Mg concentration of zero, and the raw data for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> solution samples as collected, where available. Data quality is documented by including information for the raw analytical data about the analytical method, precision, and reference material measurements, and quality control parameters for end-member compositions including the lowest Mg measured in any sample, the number of samples and correlation coefficient of the linear regression, and the charge balance for the extrapolated zero-Mg composition. The database also includes information about the sampled locations (geospatial coordinates, <span class="hlt">vent</span> or <span class="hlt">vent</span> field names, names of other physiographic features), temperature, flow and <span class="hlt">vent</span> type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849440"><span id="translatedtitle">Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> off Kueishan Island, Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. <span class="hlt">Vents</span> are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water <span class="hlt">vents</span> have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the <span class="hlt">vent</span>, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the <span class="hlt">vent</span> crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with <span class="hlt">vents</span> and inhabit the <span class="hlt">vent</span> mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments. PMID:26849440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744018','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744018"><span id="translatedtitle">Community Structure of Macrobiota and Environmental Parameters in Shallow Water <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> off Kueishan Island, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Wang, Teng-Wei; Chen, Pin-Chen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam; Tsang, Ling Ming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> represent a unique habitat in the marine ecosystem characterized with high water temperature and toxic acidic chemistry. <span class="hlt">Vents</span> are distributed at depths ranging from a few meters to several thousand meters. The biological communities of shallow-water <span class="hlt">vents</span> have, however, been insufficiently studied in most biogeographic areas. We attempted to characterize the macrofauna and macroflora community inhabiting the shallow-water <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Kueishan Island, Taiwan, to identify the main abiotic factors shaping the community structure and the species distribution. We determined that positively buoyant <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid exhibits a more pronounced negative impact to species on the surface water than on the bottom layer. Species richness increased with horizontal distance from the <span class="hlt">vent</span>, and continuing for a distance of 2000 m, indicating that the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid may exert a negative impact over several kilometers. The community structure off Kueishan Island displayed numerous transitions along the horizontal gradient, which were broadly congruent with changes in environmental conditions. Combination of variation in Ca2+, Cl-, temperature, pH and depth were revealed to show the strongest correlation with the change in benthic community structure, suggesting multiple factors of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid were influencing the associated fauna. Only the <span class="hlt">vent</span> crabs of Kueishan Island may have an obligated relationship with <span class="hlt">vents</span> and inhabit the <span class="hlt">vent</span> mouths because other fauna found nearby are opportunistic taxa that are more tolerant to acidic and toxic environments. PMID:26849440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2867905','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2867905"><span id="translatedtitle">Larvae from afar colonize deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> after a catastrophic eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mullineaux, Lauren S.; Adams, Diane K.; Mills, Susan W.; Beaulieu, Stace E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The planktonic larval stage is a critical component of life history in marine benthic species because it confers the ability to disperse, potentially connecting remote populations and leading to colonization of new <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Larval-mediated connectivity is particularly intriguing in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities, where the habitat is patchy, transient, and often separated by tens or hundreds of kilometers. A recent catastrophic eruption at <span class="hlt">vents</span> near 9°50′N on the East Pacific Rise created a natural clearance experiment and provided an opportunity to study larval supply in the absence of local source populations. Previous field observations have suggested that established <span class="hlt">vent</span> populations may retain larvae and be largely self-sustaining. If this hypothesis is correct, the removal of local populations should result in a dramatic change in the flux, and possibly species composition, of settling larvae. Fortuitously, monitoring of larval supply and colonization at the <span class="hlt">site</span> had been established before the eruption and resumed shortly afterward. We detected a striking change in species composition of larvae and colonists after the eruption, most notably the appearance of the gastropod Ctenopelta porifera, an immigrant from possibly more than 300 km away, and the disappearance of a suite of species that formerly had been prominent. This switch demonstrates that larval supply can change markedly after removal of local source populations, enabling recolonization via immigrants from distant <span class="hlt">sites</span> with different species composition. Population connectivity at this <span class="hlt">site</span> appears to be temporally variable, depending not only on stochasticity in larval supply, but also on the presence of resident populations. PMID:20385811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385811"><span id="translatedtitle">Larvae from afar colonize deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> after a catastrophic eruption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mullineaux, Lauren S; Adams, Diane K; Mills, Susan W; Beaulieu, Stace E</p> <p>2010-04-27</p> <p>The planktonic larval stage is a critical component of life history in marine benthic species because it confers the ability to disperse, potentially connecting remote populations and leading to colonization of new <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Larval-mediated connectivity is particularly intriguing in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities, where the habitat is patchy, transient, and often separated by tens or hundreds of kilometers. A recent catastrophic eruption at <span class="hlt">vents</span> near 9 degrees 50'N on the East Pacific Rise created a natural clearance experiment and provided an opportunity to study larval supply in the absence of local source populations. Previous field observations have suggested that established <span class="hlt">vent</span> populations may retain larvae and be largely self-sustaining. If this hypothesis is correct, the removal of local populations should result in a dramatic change in the flux, and possibly species composition, of settling larvae. Fortuitously, monitoring of larval supply and colonization at the <span class="hlt">site</span> had been established before the eruption and resumed shortly afterward. We detected a striking change in species composition of larvae and colonists after the eruption, most notably the appearance of the gastropod Ctenopelta porifera, an immigrant from possibly more than 300 km away, and the disappearance of a suite of species that formerly had been prominent. This switch demonstrates that larval supply can change markedly after removal of local source populations, enabling recolonization via immigrants from distant <span class="hlt">sites</span> with different species composition. Population connectivity at this <span class="hlt">site</span> appears to be temporally variable, depending not only on stochasticity in larval supply, but also on the presence of resident populations. PMID:20385811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25748345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25748345"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury accumulation in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> mollusks from the southern Tonga Arc, southwestern Pacific Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Seyong; Kim, Se-Joo; Ju, Se-Jong; Pak, Sang-Joon; Son, Seung-Kyu; Yang, Jisook; Han, Seunghee</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We provide the mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) levels of the plume water, sulfide ore, sediment, and mollusks located at the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields of the southern Tonga Arc, where active volcanism and intense seismic activity occur frequently. Our objectives were: (1) to address the potential release of Hg from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids and (2) to examine the distribution of Hg and MMHg levels in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> mollusks (mussels and snails) harboring chemotrophic bacteria. While high concentrations of Hg in the sediment and Hg, As, and Sb in the sulfide ore indicates that their source is likely <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids, the MMHg concentration in the sediment was orders of magnitude lower than the Hg (<0.001%). It suggests that Hg methylation may have not been favorable in the <span class="hlt">vent</span> field sediment. In addition, Hg concentrations in the mollusks were much higher (10-100 times) than in other <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments, indicating that organisms located at the Tonga Arc are exposed to exceedingly high Hg levels. While Hg concentration was higher in the gills and digestive glands than in the mantles and residues of snails and mussels, the MMHg concentrations in the gills and digestive glands were orders of magnitude lower (0.004-0.04%) than Hg concentrations. In summary, our results suggest that the release of Hg from the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields of the Tonga Arc and subsequent bioaccumulation are substantial, but not for MMHg. PMID:25748345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS51E..08W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS51E..08W"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Species of the Genus Kiwa (Decapoda: Anomura) from the <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> of the Australia-Antarctic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Won, Y. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, W. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Due to extreme weather conditions and remoteness to access, the great part of the Southern Ocean remains to be explored. Therefore, little is known about the Circum-Antarctic Ridge (CAR) system and its <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem underlying the Southern Ocean. We report the first discovery of a new deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field and a new anomuran species from the Australia-Antarctic Ridge (AAR), the highest latitude (62°S; 158°E) explored in the Southern Ocean up to date. At this <span class="hlt">site</span>, a new anomuran species which belongs to the genus Kiwa known as 'yeti crabs' was found. Morphologically, this species has characteristics of the genus Kiwa, including fifth pereopod inserted below sterna plastron, third sternite strongly produced anteriorly, and eyes extremely reduced. However, the new species differs from the other known species of Kiwa, K. hirsuta and K. puravida, showing relatively short rostrum and slender dactylus on second to fourth pereopods. Phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences of eight genetic loci also supported the result of morphological analysis, confirming this species as a new Kiwa species, Kiwa n. sp. In addition, phylogenetic tree revealed the evolutionary relationship among the Kiwa species, presenting the Kiwa n. sp. as the sister species to K. puravida which inhabits the methane cold seep on the Pacific continental slope off Costa Rica. Considering the geography and the physicochemical environment, this unlikely result casts a mystery to be solved through further taxon sampling particularly from as-yet-unexplored <span class="hlt">vents</span> and seeps. Discovery of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> and Kiwa n. sp. from the AAR segment is significant because this <span class="hlt">site</span> is located in the high latitude of the southern hemisphere and it is the region affected by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Future research on the relation of Kiwa n. sp. and the other Kiwa species affected by the ACC will provide an idea about the biogeography and the evolutionary connections of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E.148B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016cosp...41E.148B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">From Geochemistry to Biochemistry: Simulating Prebiotic Chemistry Driven by Geochemical Gradients in Alkaline <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barge, Laurie</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Planetary water-rock interfaces generate energy in the form of redox, pH, and thermal gradients, and these disequilibria are particularly focused in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems where the reducing, heated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid feeds back into the more oxidizing ocean. Alkaline <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> have been proposed as a likely location for the origin of life on the early Earth due to various factors: including the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> pH / Eh gradients that resemble the ubiquitous electrical / proton gradients in biology, the catalytic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> precipitates that resemble inorganic catalysts in enzymes, and the presence of electron donors and acceptors in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems (e.g. H2 + CH4 and CO2) that are thought to have been utilized in the earliest metabolisms. Of particular importance for the emergence of metabolism are the mineral "chimneys" that precipitate at the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid / seawater interface. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> chimneys are flow-through chemical reactors that form porous and permeable inorganic membranes transecting geochemical gradients; in some ways similar to biological membranes that transect proton / ion gradients and harness these disequilibria to drive metabolism. These emergent chimney structures in the far-from-equilibrium system of the alkaline <span class="hlt">vent</span> have many properties of interest to the origin of life that can be simulated in the laboratory: for example, they can generate electrical energy and drive redox reactions, and produce catalytic minerals (in particular the metal sulfides and iron oxyhydroxides - "green rust") that can facilitate chemical reactions towards proto-metabolic cycles and biosynthesis. Many of the factors prompting interest in alkaline <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on Earth may also have been present on early Mars, or even presently within icy worlds such as Europa or Enceladus - thus, understanding the disequilibria and resulting prebiotic chemistry in these systems can be of great use in assessing the potential for other environments in the Solar</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.4170W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GGG....14.4170W"><span id="translatedtitle">Moytirra: Discovery of the first known deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wheeler, A. J.; Murton, B.; Copley, J.; Lim, A.; Carlsson, J.; Collins, P.; Dorschel, B.; Green, D.; Judge, M.; Nye, V.; Benzie, J.; Antoniacomi, A.; Coughlan, M.; Morris, K.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Geological, biological, morphological, and hydrochemical data are presented for the newly discovered Moytirra <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at 45oN. This is the only high temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> known between the Azores and Iceland, in the North Atlantic and is located on a slow to ultraslow-spreading mid-ocean ridge uniquely situated on the 300 m high fault scarp of the eastern axial wall, 3.5 km from the axial volcanic ridge crest. Furthermore, the Moytirra <span class="hlt">vent</span> field is, unusually for tectonically controlled <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> systems, basalt hosted and perched midway up on the median valley wall and presumably heated by an off-axis magma chamber. The Moytirra <span class="hlt">vent</span> field consists of an alignment of four <span class="hlt">sites</span> of <span class="hlt">venting</span>, three actively emitting "black smoke," producing a complex of chimneys and beehive diffusers. The largest chimney is 18 m tall and vigorously <span class="hlt">venting</span>. The <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna described here are the only ones documented for the North Atlantic (Azores to Reykjanes Ridge) and significantly expands our knowledge of North Atlantic biodiversity. The surfaces of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys are occupied by aggregations of gastropods (Peltospira sp.) and populations of alvinocaridid shrimp (Mirocaris sp. with Rimicaris sp. also present). Other fauna present include bythograeid crabs (Segonzacia sp.) and zoarcid fish (Pachycara sp.), but bathymodiolin mussels and actinostolid anemones were not observed in the <span class="hlt">vent</span> field. The discovery of the Moytirra <span class="hlt">vent</span> field therefore expands the known latitudinal distributions of several <span class="hlt">vent</span>-endemic genera in the north Atlantic, and reveals faunal affinities with <span class="hlt">vents</span> south of the Azores rather than north of Iceland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35.1681H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35.1681H"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal change in megafauna at the Rose Garden <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> (Galapagos Rift; eastern tropical Pacific)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hessler, Robert R.; Smithey, William M.; Boudrias, Michel A.; Keller, Clifford H.; Lutz, Richard A.; Childress, James J.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities must undergo substantial temporal change because of their dynamic physical milieu. This was verified in March 1985, when the Rose Garden <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> on the Galapagos Rift was revisited after 5 1/4 years' absence. Comparison of photographs from the two visits revealed considerable faunal change. Among the hosts to chemoautotrophic bacteria, vestimentiferans were reduced from dominance to very low numbers. The mytilid was now extremely abundant and dominated <span class="hlt">vent</span> openings. Vesicomyids also were more abundant. In general, <span class="hlt">vent</span>-field suspension feeders had declined; anemones were distinctly less abundant, and siphonophores and enteropneusts were virtually absent. The decline of serpulids was likely, but less obvious. Of the mobile scavengers and carnivores, both galatheids and whelks were distincly more common. These community changes appear to result from both continuing recruitment and changes in the physical milieu. While the growth of some populations could have resulted from expanding opportunities, the population of at least one, the vesicomyid, had not achieved carrying capacity in 1979, and this could have pertained to others as well. The decrease of vestimentiferans may have been caused by declining <span class="hlt">vent</span>-water flux, a process that would favor mytilids, or more complete <span class="hlt">vent</span>-water filtration by the mytilids themselves. The same factors also could explain the reduction of <span class="hlt">vent</span>-field filter feeders. These observations suggest that early stages in the cycle of Galapagos-type <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities are likely to be dominated by vestimentiferans, but that bivalves will replace them with time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B12B..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B12B..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial anaerobic methane cycling in the subseafloor at the Von Damm <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, Mid-Cayman Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, J. A.; Reveillaud, J. C.; Stepanauskas, R.; McDermott, J. M.; Sylva, S. P.; Seewald, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR) is Earth's deepest and slowest spreading mid-ocean ridge located in the western Caribbean. With an axial rift valley floor at a depth of ~4200-6500 m, it represents one of the deepest sections of ridge crest worldwide. In 2009, the world's deepest <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (Piccard at 4960 m) and an ultramafic-influenced system only 20 km away on top of an oceanic core complex (Von Damm at 2350 m) were discovered along the MCR. Each <span class="hlt">site</span> is hosted in a distinct geologic setting with different thermal and chemical regimes. The Von Damm <span class="hlt">site</span> is a particularly interesting location to examine chemolithoautotrophic subseafloor microbial communities due to the abundant hydrogen, methane, and organic compounds in the <span class="hlt">venting</span> fluids. Here, we used a combination of stable isotope tracing, next-generation sequencing, and single cell techniques to determine the identity, activity, and genomic repertoire of subseafloor anaerobic archaea involved in methane cycling in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids <span class="hlt">venting</span> at the Von Damm <span class="hlt">site</span>. Molecular sequencing of phylogenetic marker genes revealed the presence of diverse archaea that both generate and consume methane across a geochemical and thermal spectrum of <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Stable isotope tracing experiments were used to detect biological utilization of formate and dissolved inorganic carbon, and methane generation at 70 °C under anaerobic conditions. Results indicate that methanogenesis with formate as a substrate is occurring at 70 °C at two Von Damm <span class="hlt">sites</span>, Ginger Castle and the Main Orifice. The results are consistent with thermodynamic predictions for carbon speciation at the temperatures encountered at the ultramafic-hosted Von Damm, where formate is predicted to be thermodynamically stable, and may thus serve as a an important source of carbon. Diverse thermophilic methanogenic archaea belonging to the genera Methanothermococcus were detected at all <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> with both 16S rRNA tag sequencing and single cell sorting. Other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805789"><span id="translatedtitle">An Unusual Stress Metabolite from a <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Fungus Aspergillus sp. WU 243 Induced by Cobalt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Chihong; Wu, Xiaodan; Auckloo, Bibi Nazia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Bin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A novel hybrid polyketide-terpenoid, aspergstressin (1), possessing a unique fused polycyclic structure, was induced from culture broth of strain Aspergillus sp. WU 243 by cobalt ion stimulation. The strain was isolated from the digestive gland of Xenograpsus testudinatus, a unique type of crab which dwells in the Kueishantao <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Taiwan. The chemical structure and relative configuration of the stress metabolite were established by spectroscopic means. Aspergillus sp. WU 243 produced aspergstressin (1) only under cobalt stressed culture conditions. The results show that stress-driven discovery of new natural products from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fungi is an effective strategy to unveil the untapped reservoir of small molecules from species found in the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment. PMID:26805789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26784166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26784166"><span id="translatedtitle">An Unusual Stress Metabolite from a <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Fungus Aspergillus sp. WU 243 Induced by Cobalt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Chihong; Wu, Xiaodan; Auckloo, Bibi Nazia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Ye, Ying; Wang, Kuiwu; Wu, Bin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A novel hybrid polyketide-terpenoid, aspergstressin (1), possessing a unique fused polycyclic structure, was induced from culture broth of strain Aspergillus sp. WU 243 by cobalt ion stimulation. The strain was isolated from the digestive gland of Xenograpsus testudinatus, a unique type of crab which dwells in the Kueishantao <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Taiwan. The chemical structure and relative configuration of the stress metabolite were established by spectroscopic means. Aspergillus sp. WU 243 produced aspergstressin (1) only under cobalt stressed culture conditions. The results show that stress-driven discovery of new natural products from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fungi is an effective strategy to unveil the untapped reservoir of small molecules from species found in the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment. PMID:26784166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V72A1288D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V72A1288D"><span id="translatedtitle">A Retrievable Mineral Microcosm for Examining Microbial Colonization and Mineral Precipitation at Seafloor <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunn, E. E.; Holloway, J. R.; Cary, S.; Voglesonger, K. M.; Ashbridge, D. A.; O'Day, P. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p> amounts of chalcopyrite and sphalerite and with thin veneers of anhydrite on exterior surfaces in contact with seawater. Bulk trace element analyses of the newly formed chimneys show concentrations of Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Pb (up to ~200 ppm) but a lack of As, Sn, U, and W. On the last deployment in a polychaete-rich, diffuse-flow area (<span class="hlt">vent</span> temperature ~300°C), the microcosm was covered with biofilm and polychaete tubes had formed on the surface during the ~48 hours on the <span class="hlt">vent</span>. Temperatures at chamber exteriors had decreased to 16- 20°C, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">vent</span> was not vigorous enough to maintain a large flow through the chambers. Although no evidence for microbial colonization was obtained in these initial deployments, the device can simulate the mineralogy and temperature gradients of a natural <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> chimney. Young chimney samples of known age (~96 hours) obtained from the second deployment were analyzed by synchrotron X-ray computed tomography for porosity and mineralogy and compared with existing chimneys at these <span class="hlt">sites</span> (see companion abstract by Ashbridge, et al.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.3428Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.3428Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">In situ Raman-based detections of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> and cold seep fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xin; Du, Zengfeng; Zheng, Ronger; Luan, Zhendong; Qi, Fujun; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Bing; Ye, Wangquan; Liu, Xiaorui; Chen, Changan; Guo, Jinjia; Li, Ying; Yan, Jun</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> and cold seeps, and their associated biological communities play an important role in global carbon and sulphur biogeochemical cycles. Most of the studies of fluid composition geochemistry are based on recovered samples, both with gas-tight samplers and as open specimens, but the in situ conditions are difficult to maintain in recovered samples. Determination in situ of the chemical signals of the emerging fluids are challenging due to the high pressure, often strongly acidic and temperature in which few sensors can survive. Most of those sensors used so far are based on electrochemistry, and can typically detect only a few chemical species. Here we show that direct measurement of critical chemical species of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> and cold seeps can be made rapidly and in situ by means of a new hybrid version of earlier deep-sea pore water Raman probe carried on the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian. The fluid was drawn through the probe by actuating a hydraulic pump on the ROV, and measured at the probe optical cell through a sapphire window. We have observed the concentrations of H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, HSO4‑, CO2, and H2 in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids from the Pacmanus and Desmos <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems in the Manus back-arc basin, Papua New Guinea. Two black smokers (279° C and 186° C) at the Pacmanus <span class="hlt">site</span> showed the characteristic loss of SO42‑, and the increase of CO2 and well resolved H2S and HS‑ peaks. At the white smoker of Onsen <span class="hlt">site</span> the strong HSO4‑peak observed at high temperature quickly dropped with strong accompanying increase of SO42‑and H2 peaks when the sample contained in the Raman sensing cell was removed from the hot fluid due to rapid thermal deprotonation. We report here also the finding of a new lower temperature (88° C) white smoker "Kexue" field at the Desmos <span class="hlt">site</span> with strong H2S, HS‑ and CO2 signals. We also have detected the concentrations of CH4,H2S, HS‑, SO42‑, and S8 in cold seep fluids and the surrounding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3497024','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3497024"><span id="translatedtitle">Ammonificins C and D, Hydroxyethylamine Chromene Derivatives from a Cultured Marine <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andrianasolo, Eric H.; Haramaty, Liti; Rosario-Passapera, Richard; Vetriani, Costantino; Falkowski, Paul; White, Eileen; Lutz, Richard</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chemical and biological investigation of the cultured marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonifican led to the isolation of two hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives, ammonificins C and D. Their structures were elucidated using combination of NMR and mass spectrometry. Absolute stereochemistry was ascertained by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra. Biological evaluation and assessment were determined using the patented ApopScreen cell-based screen for apoptosis-induction. Ammonificins C and D induce apoptosis in micromolar concentrations. To our knowledge, this finding is the first report of chemical compounds that induce apoptosis from the cultured deep-sea marine organism, <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans. PMID:23170085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24963774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24963774"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete mitochondrial genome of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods. PMID:24963774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DSRI...53..726L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DSRI...53..726L"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial organization of food webs along habitat gradients at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on Axial Volcano, Northeast Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levesque, Christian; Kim Juniper, S.; Limén, Helene</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are characterized by steep spatial gradients and high temporal variability in habitat conditions. This leads to the organization of species distribution along spatial habitat gradients, which may constrain food resource utilization and food web structure. We conducted a stable-isotope-based study to test the hypothesis that food resource utilization is constrained by spatial habitat variability at diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on Axial Volcano, Northeast Pacific. Our study included the ten most biomass-prominent species and considered the temporal change in food web structure at recently created <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> during three consecutive years. We related species average stable isotopic composition to their position between the center and the periphery of <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, using previously published data. Species spread widely along the δ13C axis, and showed a small variability in δ15N. This indicates that most species partition food resources between isotopically different carbon sources, and that they are not organized along predator-prey trophic chains. Particulate organic matter (POM) stable isotopic composition from a concomitant study corresponds to the signature of the expected diet for most organisms. Species average δ13C was significantly correlated to their relative position between the center and the periphery of <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. We relate this spatial variability in species isotopic composition to variability in the isotopic signature of both dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and POM. This spatial isotopic signal of consumers reveals the spatial structuring of food (POM) production and its consumption by the fauna. Accrual of species during the development of diffuse <span class="hlt">sites</span> increased the inter-specific spread in δ13C, but did not increase the range in δ15N. Our results show that the spatial organization of species distribution results in a fragmented food web where species partition POM food resources according to their position in space</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26779119"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic Reconstruction of an Uncultured <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Gammaproteobacterial Methanotroph (Family Methylothermaceae) Indicates Multiple Adaptations to Oxygen Limitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skennerton, Connor T; Ward, Lewis M; Michel, Alice; Metcalfe, Kyle; Valiente, Chanel; Mullin, Sean; Chan, Ken Y; Gradinaru, Viviana; Orphan, Victoria J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are an important contributor to marine biogeochemistry, producing large volumes of reduced fluids, gasses, and metals and housing unique, productive microbial and animal communities fueled by chemosynthesis. Methane is a common constituent of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid and is frequently consumed at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> by methanotrophic bacteria that serve to control escape of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Despite their ecological and geochemical importance, little is known about the ecophysiology of uncultured <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated methanotrophic bacteria. Using metagenomic binning techniques, we recovered and analyzed a near-complete genome from a novel gammaproteobacterial methanotroph (B42) associated with a white smoker chimney in the Southern Lau basin. B42 was the dominant methanotroph in the community, at ∼80x coverage, with only four others detected in the metagenome, all on low coverage contigs (7x-12x). Phylogenetic placement of B42 showed it is a member of the Methylothermaceae, a family currently represented by only one sequenced genome. Metabolic inferences based on the presence of known pathways in the genome showed that B42 possesses a branched respiratory chain with A- and B-family heme copper oxidases, cytochrome bd oxidase and a partial denitrification pathway. These genes could allow B42 to respire over a wide range of oxygen concentrations within the highly dynamic <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment. Phylogenies of the denitrification genes revealed they are the result of separate horizontal gene transfer from other Proteobacteria and suggest that denitrification is a selective advantage in conditions where extremely low oxygen concentrations require all oxygen to be used for methane activation. PMID:26779119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688376','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4688376"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic Reconstruction of an Uncultured <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Gammaproteobacterial Methanotroph (Family Methylothermaceae) Indicates Multiple Adaptations to Oxygen Limitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Skennerton, Connor T.; Ward, Lewis M.; Michel, Alice; Metcalfe, Kyle; Valiente, Chanel; Mullin, Sean; Chan, Ken Y.; Gradinaru, Viviana; Orphan, Victoria J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are an important contributor to marine biogeochemistry, producing large volumes of reduced fluids, gasses, and metals and housing unique, productive microbial and animal communities fueled by chemosynthesis. Methane is a common constituent of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid and is frequently consumed at <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> by methanotrophic bacteria that serve to control escape of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Despite their ecological and geochemical importance, little is known about the ecophysiology of uncultured <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated methanotrophic bacteria. Using metagenomic binning techniques, we recovered and analyzed a near-complete genome from a novel gammaproteobacterial methanotroph (B42) associated with a white smoker chimney in the Southern Lau basin. B42 was the dominant methanotroph in the community, at ∼80x coverage, with only four others detected in the metagenome, all on low coverage contigs (7x–12x). Phylogenetic placement of B42 showed it is a member of the Methylothermaceae, a family currently represented by only one sequenced genome. Metabolic inferences based on the presence of known pathways in the genome showed that B42 possesses a branched respiratory chain with A- and B-family heme copper oxidases, cytochrome bd oxidase and a partial denitrification pathway. These genes could allow B42 to respire over a wide range of oxygen concentrations within the highly dynamic <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment. Phylogenies of the denitrification genes revealed they are the result of separate horizontal gene transfer from other Proteobacteria and suggest that denitrification is a selective advantage in conditions where extremely low oxygen concentrations require all oxygen to be used for methane activation. PMID:26779119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3718303Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeoRL..3718303Z"><span id="translatedtitle">A reduced crustal magnetization zone near the first observed active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field on the Southwest Indian Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Jian; Lin, Jian; Chen, Yongshun J.; Tao, Chunhui; German, Christopher R.; Yoerger, Dana R.; Tivey, Maurice A.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Inversion of near-bottom magnetic data reveals a well-defined low crustal magnetization zone (LMZ) near a local topographic high (37°47‧S, 49°39‧E) on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The magnetic data were collected by the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE on board R/V DaYangYiHao in February-March 2007. The first active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field observed on the SWIR is located in Area A within and adjacent to the LMZ at the local topographic high, implying that this LMZ may be the result of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> alteration of magnetic minerals. The maximum reduction in crustal magnetization is 3 A/M. The spatial extent of the LMZ is estimated to be at least 6.7 × 104 m2, which is larger than that of the LMZs at the TAG <span class="hlt">vent</span> field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), as well as the Relict Field, Bastille, Dante-Grotto, and New Field <span class="hlt">vent-sites</span> on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdF). The calculated magnetic moment, i.e., the product of the spatial extent and amplitude of crustal magnetization reduction is at least -3 × 107 Am2 for the LMZ on the SWIR, while that for the TAG field on the MAR is -8 × 107 Am2 and that for the four individual <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the JdF range from -5 × 107 to -3 × 107 Am2. Together these results indicate that crustal demagnetization is a common feature of basalt-hosted <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields at mid-ocean ridges of all spreading rates. Furthermore, the crustal demagnetization of the Area A on the ultraslow-spreading SWIR is comparable in strength to that of the TAG area on the slow-spreading MAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=183184','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=183184"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Methylotrophic Symbionts in a <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Mussel (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Wirsen, Carl O.; Jannasch, H. W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Symbioses between chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and the major macrofaunal species found at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> have been reported for numerous <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Pacific Ocean. We present microscopical and enzymatic evidence that methylotrophic bacteria occur as intracellular symbionts in a new species of mytilid mussel discovered at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Two distinct ultrastructural types of gram-negative procaryotic symbionts were observed within gill epithelial cells by transmission electron microscopy: small coccoid or rod-shaped cells and larger coccoid cells with stacked intracytoplasmic membranes typical of methane-utilizing bacteria. Methanol dehydrogenase, an enzyme diagnostic of methylotrophs, was detected in the mytilid gills, while tests for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, the enzyme diagnostic of autotrophy via the Calvin cycle, were negative. Stable carbon isotope values (δ13C) of mytilid tissue (−32.7 and −32.5% for gill and foot tissues, respectively) fall within the range of values reported for Pacific <span class="hlt">vent</span> symbioses but do not preclude the use of <span class="hlt">vent</span>-derived methane reported to be isotopically heavy relative to biogenically produced methane. Images PMID:16348816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS...97...10K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS...97...10K"><span id="translatedtitle">Virioplankton and bacterioplankton in a shallow CO 2-dominated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> (Panarea Island, Tyrrhenian Sea)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karuza, Ana; Celussi, Mauro; Cibic, Tamara; Del Negro, Paola; De Vittor, Cinzia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Gas <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are used as a natural analogue for studying the effects of CO 2 leakage from hypothetical shallow marine storage <span class="hlt">sites</span> on benthic and pelagic systems. This study investigated the interrelationships between planktonic prokaryotes and viruses in the Panarea Islands <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), especially their abundance, distribution and diversity. No difference in prokaryotic abundance was shown between high-CO 2 and control <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The community structure displayed differences between fumarolic field and the control, and between surface and bottom waters, the latter likely due to the presence of different water masses. Bacterial assemblages were qualitatively dominated by chemo- and photoautotrophic organisms, able to utilise both CO 2 and H 2S for their metabolic requirements. From significantly lower virioplankton abundance in the proximity of the exhalative area together with particularly low Virus-to-Prokaryotes Ratio, we inferred a reduced impact on prokaryotic abundance and proliferation. Even if the fate of viruses in this particular condition remains still unknown, we consider that lower viral abundance could reflect in enhancing the energy flow to higher trophic levels, thus largely influencing the overall functioning of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6165743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6165743"><span id="translatedtitle">Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stein, J.L.</p> <p>1984-02-17</p> <p>The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging <span class="hlt">vent</span> abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Sci...223..696S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Sci...223..696S"><span id="translatedtitle">Subtidal Gastropods Consume Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria: Evidence from Coastal <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stein, Jeffrey L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging <span class="hlt">vent</span> abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841030','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17841030"><span id="translatedtitle">Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stein, J L</p> <p>1984-02-17</p> <p>The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging <span class="hlt">vent</span> abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy. PMID:17841030</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B51D0416V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B51D0416V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a Chemoautotrophically Based Food Web at Inactive <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> (Manus Basin)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Dover, C. L.; Erickson, K.; Macko, S.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> are ephemeral systems. When <span class="hlt">venting</span> shuts down, sulfide-dependent taxa die off, and non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa can colonize the hard substrata. In Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea), where active and inactive sulfide mounds are interspersed, hydroids, cladorhizid sponges, barnacles, and bamboo sponges, and other invertebrate types may occupy inactive sulfide mounds. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of animals occupying inactive sulfide mounds are consistent with nutritional dependence on either chemoautotrophically or photosynthetically produced organic material, but sulfur isotopic compositions of these animals point to a chemoautotrophic source of sulfur from dissolved sulfide in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids rather than sulfur derived from seawater sulfate through photosynthesis. Given that suspension-feeding and micro- carnivorous invertebrates are the biomass dominants at inactive sulfide mounds, the primary source of chemoautotrophic nutrition is likely suspended particulates and organisms delivered from nearby active <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533947"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolated communities of Epsilonproteobacteria in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids of the Mariana Arc seamounts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huber, Julie A; Cantin, Holly V; Huse, Susan M; Welch, David B Mark; Sogin, Mitchell L; Butterfield, David A</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Low-temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids represent access points to diverse microbial communities living in oceanic crust. This study examined the distribution, relative abundance, and diversity of Epsilonproteobacteria in 14 low-temperature <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids from five volcanically active seamounts of the Mariana Arc using a 454 tag sequencing approach. Most <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids were enriched in cell concentrations compared with background seawater, and quantitative PCR results indicated that all fluids were dominated by bacteria. Operational taxonomic unit-based statistical tools applied to 454 data show that all <span class="hlt">vents</span> from the northern end of the Mariana Arc grouped together, to the exclusion of southern arc seamounts, which were as distinct from one another as they were from northern seamounts. Statistical analysis also showed a significant relationship between seamount and individual <span class="hlt">vent</span> groupings, suggesting that community membership may be linked to geographical isolation and not geochemical parameters. However, while there may be large-scale geographic differences, distance is not the distinguishing factor in the microbial community composition. At the local scale, most <span class="hlt">vents</span> host a distinct population of Epsilonproteobacteria, regardless of seamount location. This suggests that there may be barriers to exchange and dispersal for these <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic microorganisms at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> seamounts of the Mariana Arc. PMID:20533947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRI...57..893C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010DSRI...57..893C"><span id="translatedtitle">Metal concentrations and metallothionein-like protein levels in deep-sea fishes captured near <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge off Azores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Company, R.; Felícia, H.; Serafim, A.; Almeida, A. J.; Biscoito, M.; Bebianno, M. J.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The knowledge of metal contamination in deep-sea fishes living in the surroundings of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> is very scarce, along with the detoxification mechanisms that allow them to live near one of the most metal contaminated marine environments. Six deep-sea fish species, although not <span class="hlt">vent</span> endemic were collected near three Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow) and the gills, muscle and liver were selected for this study due to their importance in metal metabolism and storage. The concentrations of seven metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni) and a metal-related biomarker (metallothionein-like proteins-MTL) were assessed. Major differences in metal accumulation among fish species are related to their feeding habits and <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> of their capture. The liver and gills are in general the most important tissues for metal accumulation compared to the muscle, but tissue partitioning is very dependent on the fish species considered. Compared to other deep-sea fishes, fish capture in the vicinity of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> accumulates higher amounts of metals in general. However, MTL levels are not considerably different from what is found in commercial coastal fishes, and is poorly correlated with metal concentrations in the tissues. Therefore, MTL may not constitute one major detoxification system for deep-sea species living in the vicinity of three important MAR <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P53E..09T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P53E..09T"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial community development in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Earth and the Enceladus (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takai, K.; Shibuya, T.; Sekine, Y.; Russell, M. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Over the past 35 years, researchers have explored seafloor deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments around the globe and studied a number of microbial ecosystems. Bioinformatics and interdisciplinary geochemistry-microbiology approaches have provided new ideas on the diversity and community composition of microbial life living in deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span>. In particular, recent investigations have revealed that the community structure and productivity of chemolithotrophic microbial communities in the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environments are controlled primarily by variations in the geochemical composition of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids. This was originally predicted by a thermodynamic calculation of energy yield potential of various chemolithotrophic metabolisms in a simulated <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> mixing zone. The prediction has been finally justified by the relatively quantitative geomicrobiological characterizations in various deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments all over the world. Thus, there should be a possible principle that the thermodynamic estimation of chemolithotrophic energy yield potentials could predict the realistic chemolithotrophic living community in any of the deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> environments in this planet. In 2005, a spacecraft Cassini discovered a water vapour jet plume from the sole pole area of the Saturnian moon Enceladus. The chemical composition analyses of Cassini's mass spectrometer strongly suggested that the Enceladus could host certain extent of extraterrestrial ocean beneath the surface ice sheet and possible ocean-rock <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. In addition, a recent research has suggests that there is silica nanoparticles in Saturn's E-ring derived from the Enceladus plume. An experimental study simulating the reaction between chondritic material and alkaline seawater reveals that the formation of silica nanoparticles requires <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> reaction at high temperatures. Based on these findings, we attempt to built a model of possible <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMOS22B..05D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMOS22B..05D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial geochemistry in rising plumes of two <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> at the Mid-Cayman Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dick, G.; Breier, J. A.; Toner, B. M.; Sheik, C.; Cron, B. R.; Li, M.; Reed, D. C.; Anantharaman, K.; Baker, B. J.; Jain, S.; Klausmeier, C. A.; Jiang, H.; German, C. R.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; McDermott, J. M.; Bennett, S. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Slow and ultraslow spreading ridges comprise ~50% of the global ridge-axis length and are thus relevant to the impact of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity on global ocean biogeochemistry. These ridges host ultramafic <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems with reducing chemical environments that yield <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids rich in methane, hydrogen, and organic carbon, thus providing energy sources to biological communities relevant to the origin and early evolution of life on Earth and the potential for life on other planets. Microbial-geochemical interactions are also important for understanding how deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> impact ocean biogeochemistry, especially in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes, where <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids stimulate chemosynthetic microbial communities and microbes influence the oceanic fate of <span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span>-sourced elements. Many critical processes occur in the rising portion of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes, which are dynamic and challenging to sample. To address these questions and challenges, we developed methods for the in situ collection and preservation of paired microbiology and geochemical samples from rising <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes. Samples were collected with ROV Jason from two <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems, Von Damm and Beebe, which are in close proximity to each other on the Mid Cayman Rise yet are quite distinct in terms of chemistry, temperature, and depth. Bulk geochemistry, spatially-resolved spectroscopy, and molecular microbiological approaches were applied to yield some of the first views into the dynamic biotic and abiotic processes operative in rising <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes from an ultra-slow spreading system. Results indicate that the Cayman plumes are enriched in hydrogen, sulfur, and methane-utilizing microorganisms relative to background deep Caribbean seawater. Clear differences were observed between near-<span class="hlt">vent</span> samples, which were dominated by seafloor-derived organisms, and samples from the upper buoyant or non-buoyant plume. These Cayman plume microbes are distinct from those observed in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8108D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8108D"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon fluxes from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> off Milos, Aegean Volcanic Arc, and the influence of <span class="hlt">venting</span> on the surrounding ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dando, Paul; Aliani, Stefano; Bianchi, Nike; Kennedy, Hilary; Linke, Peter; Morri, Carla</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The island of Milos, in the Aegean Sea, has extensive <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields to the east and southeast of the island with additional <span class="hlt">venting</span> areas near the entrance to and within the central caldera. A calculation of the total area of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields, based on ship and aerial surveys, suggested that the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields occupy 70 km2, twice the area previously estimated. The <span class="hlt">vents</span> ranged in water depth from the intertidal to 300 m. As a result of the low depths there was abundant free gas release: in places water boiled on the seabed. The stream of gas bubbles rising through the sandy seabed drove a shallow re-circulation of bottom seawater. The majority of the water released with the gas, with a mean pH of 5.5, was re-circulated bottom water that had become acidified in contact with CO2 gas and was often diluted by admixture with the vapour phase from the deeper fluids. The major component of the free gas, 80%, was CO2, with an estimated total flux of 1.5-7.5 x 1012 g a-1. The methane flux, by comparison, was of the order of 1010 g a.-1 Using methane as a tracer it was shown that the major gas export from the <span class="hlt">vents</span> was below the thermocline towards the southwest, in agreement with the prevailing currents. Areas of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> brine seepage occurred between the gas <span class="hlt">vents</span> and occasional brine pools were observed in seabed depressions. Under relatively calm conditions, many of the brine seeps were covered by thick minero-bacterial mats consisting of silica and sulphur and surrounded by mats of diatoms and cyanobacteria. The minerals were not deposited in the absence of bacteria. Storms disrupted the mats, leading to an export of material to the surrounding area. Stable isotope data from sediments and sediment trap material suggested that exported POM was processed by zooplankton. The combined effects of the geothermal heating of the seabed, the large gas flux, variation in the <span class="hlt">venting</span> and the effect of the brine seeps had a dramatic effect on the surrounding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244359"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and activity of acetate-assimilating bacteria in diffuse fluids <span class="hlt">venting</span> from two deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winkel, Matthias; Pjevac, Petra; Kleiner, Manuel; Littmann, Sten; Meyerdierks, Anke; Amann, Rudolf; Mußmann, Marc</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids often contain organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, lipids, and organic acids. Microorganisms consuming these compounds at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> are so far only known from cultivation-dependent studies. To identify potential heterotrophs without prior cultivation, we combined microbial community analysis with short-term incubations using (13)C-labeled acetate at two distinct <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. We followed cell growth and assimilation of (13)C into single cells by nanoSIMS combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In 55 °C-fluids from the Menez Gwen <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system/Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a novel epsilonproteobacterial group accounted for nearly all assimilation of acetate, representing the first aerobic acetate-consuming member of the Nautiliales. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria dominated the (13) C-acetate assimilation in incubations of 37 °C-fluids from the back-arc <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system in the Manus Basin/Papua New Guinea. Here, 16S rRNA gene sequences were mostly related to mesophilic Marinobacter, reflecting the high content of seawater in these fluids. The rapid growth of microorganisms upon acetate addition suggests that acetate consumers in diffuse fluids are copiotrophic opportunists, which quickly exploit their energy sources, whenever available under the spatially and temporally highly fluctuating conditions. Our data provide first insights into the heterotrophic microbial community, catalyzing an under-investigated part of microbial carbon cycling at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:25244359</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26107940"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptations to <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thatje, Sven; Marsh, Leigh; Roterman, Christopher Nicolai; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Linse, Katrin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). The species is known to depend on primary productivity by chemosynthetic bacteria and resides at the warm-eurythermal <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment for most of its life; its short-range distribution away from <span class="hlt">vents</span> (few metres) is physiologically constrained by the stable, cold waters of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on - or in close proximity of - <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida), which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments. PMID:26107940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4480985','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4480985"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptations to <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Life in Kiwa tyleri, a New Species of Yeti Crab from the East Scotia Ridge, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thatje, Sven; Marsh, Leigh; Roterman, Christopher Nicolai; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Linse, Katrin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Southern Ocean are the physiologically most isolated chemosynthetic environments known. Here, we describe Kiwa tyleri sp. nov., the first species of yeti crab known from the Southern Ocean. Kiwa tyleri belongs to the family Kiwaidae and is the visually dominant macrofauna of two known <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> situated on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR). The species is known to depend on primary productivity by chemosynthetic bacteria and resides at the warm-eurythermal <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment for most of its life; its short-range distribution away from <span class="hlt">vents</span> (few metres) is physiologically constrained by the stable, cold waters of the surrounding Southern Ocean. Kiwa tylerihas been shown to present differential life history adaptations in response to this contrasting thermal environment. Morphological adaptations specific to life in warm-eurythermal waters, as found on – or in close proximity of – <span class="hlt">vent</span> chimneys, are discussed in comparison with adaptations seen in the other two known members of the family (K. hirsuta, K. puravida), which show a preference for low temperature chemosynthetic environments. PMID:26107940</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS43A1993B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS43A1993B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">COVIS Detects Interconnections Between Atmospheric, Oceanic and Geologic systems at a Deep Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Lee, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>COVIS (Cabled Observatory <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Imaging Sonar) is an innovative sonar system designed to quantitatively monitor focused and diffuse flows from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> clusters. From 9/2010 to 9/2015, COVIS was connected to the NEPTUNE observatory at Grotto <span class="hlt">vent</span> in the Main Endeavour Field, JdFR. COVIS monitored plumes and diffuse discharge by transmitting high-frequency (200-400 kHz), pulsed acoustic waves and recording the backscattered signals to yield time series of plume heat and volume transports, plume bending, and diffuse flow area. Temporal variations indicate the rate of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume mixing with the ambient seawater increases with the magnitude of ocean currents. Such current-driven entrainment links the dynamics of a deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume with oceanic and atmospheric processes. We estimate the direction and relative amplitude of the local bottom currents from the bending angles of the plumes. A comparison with currents from an ADCP (~80 m south of Grotto) reveals significant complexity in the mean bottom flow structure within a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field. Diffuse flow area, temperature, and faunal densities vary periodically reflecting some combination of tidal pressure and current interactions. The heat transport time series suggests the heat source driving the plume remained relatively steady for 41 months. Local seismic data reveals that increased heat transport in 2000 followed seismic events in 1999 and 2000 and the steady heat flux from 10/2011 to 2/2015 coincided with quiescent seismicity. Such a correlation points to the close linkage of a seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> system with geological processes. These findings demonstrate the intimate interconnections of seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems with processes spanning the Earth's interior to the sea surface. Further, they (and the time-series acquired by COVIS) testify to the effectiveness and robustness of employing an acoustic-imaging sonar for long-term monitoring of a seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U14C..05E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.U14C..05E"><span id="translatedtitle">New Frontiers in Arctic Exploration: Autonomous Location and Sampling of <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> Under the Ice at Earth's Slowest Spreading Ridge (IPY Project 173)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edmonds, H. N.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Shank, T. M.; Humphris, S.; Seewald, J.; Akin, D.; Bach, W.; Nogi, Y.; Pedersen, R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>As part of IPY project #173, we are planning an international expedition for 2007 to locate and study <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel Ridge, at depths greater than 4000 m beneath the permanent ice cap. This effort necessitates the development of novel exploration technologies, because the Gakkel Ridge rift valley is inaccessible to traditional deep submergence tools. With funding from NASA, NSF, and the private sector we have developed two new autonomous underwater vehicles that will find and map <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes in the water column, trace the buoyant plume stem to the seafloor source, and then map, photograph, and collect samples from the <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. The Gakkel Ridge is a key target for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> exploration not only because of its spreading rate but also because its geographic and hydrographic isolation from other portions of the mid-ocean ridge system have important implications for novel endemic <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna. Our major scientific themes are the geological diversity and biogeography of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the Arctic mid-ocean ridge system. Our major technology theme is autonomous exploration and sample return with an explicit mandate to develop techniques and methods for eventual use in astrobiology missions to search for life under the ice covered oceans of Europa, a moon of Jupiter. In addition to the US-led Gakkel Ridge expedition, a Norway-led expedition will target <span class="hlt">sites</span> in seasonally ice-free water over the Mohns Ridge. The results of these two expeditions will be combined to reveal systematic patterns regarding biogeography (through both community-level and genetic-level investigations) of <span class="hlt">vent</span>-endemic fauna, to study the differences between basalt vs. peridotite hosted <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields, and to improve our understanding of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> circulation at ultra- slow spreading plate boundaries where amagmatic extension and long-lived faulting predominate. The expeditions will provide educational and outreach activities through the award</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1234403','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1234403"><span id="translatedtitle">Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Andrew Fowler</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMOS22B..01B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMOS22B..01B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the global distribution of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields: One decade later</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plumes. A majority of the <span class="hlt">vents</span> discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with < 60 mm/yr full spreading rate. Discoveries at ultra-slow MORs in the past decade included the deepest known <span class="hlt">vent</span> (Beebe at Mid-Cayman Rise) and high-temperature black smoker <span class="hlt">vents</span> (e.g., Dragon at SWIR and Loki's Castle at Mohns Ridge), and the highest temperature <span class="hlt">vent</span> was measured at the slow-spreading S MAR (Turtle Pits). Using a previously published equation for the linear relationship between the number of active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields per 100 km strike length (F_s) vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the <span class="hlt">vents</span> that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (< 40 mm/yr) and about 1/3 at intermediate rates (40-80 mm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032871','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032871"><span id="translatedtitle">Bottom sediments and pore waters near a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> in Lake Baikal (Frolikha Bay)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Granina, L.Z.; Klerkx, J.; Callender, E.; Leermakers, M.; Golobokova, L.P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We discuss the redox environments and the compositions of bottom sediments and sedimentary pore waters in the region of a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> in Frolikha Bay, Lake Baikal. According to our results, the submarine <span class="hlt">vent</span> and its companion nearby spring on land originate from a common source. The most convincing evidence for their relation comes from the proximity of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in pore waters and in the spring water. The isotope composition indicates a meteoric origin of pore waters, but their major- and minor-element chemistry bears imprint of deep water which may seep through permeable faulted crust. Although pore waters near the submarine <span class="hlt">vent</span> have a specific enrichment in major and minor constituents, <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> discharge at the Baikal bottom causes a minor impact on the lake water chemistry, unlike the case of freshwater geothermal lakes in the East-African Rift and North America. ?? 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6956153','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6956153"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid flow and sound generation at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. Doctoral thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Little, S.A.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>Several experiments in this thesis examine methods to measure and monitor fluid flow from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields. Simultaneous velocity temperature, and conductivity data were collected in the convective flow emanating from a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field located on the East Pacific rise. The horizontal profiles obtained indicate that the flow field approaches an ideal plume in the temperature and velocity distribution. Such parameters as total heat flow and maximum plume height can be estimated using either the velocity or the temperature information. The results of these independent calculations are in close agreement, yielding a total heat capacity and volume changes slightly alter the calculations applied to obtain these values. In Guaymas Basin, a twelve day time series of temperature data was collected from a point three centimeters above a diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> flow area. Using concurrent tidal gauge data from the town of Guaymas it is shown that the effects of tidal currents can be strong enough to dominate the time variability of a temperature signal at a fixed point in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> flow and are a plausible explanation for the variations seen in the Guaymas Basin temperature data. The increase in power due to convected flow inhomogeneities, however, was lower in the near field than expected. Indirect evidence of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> sound fields showing anomalous high power and low frequency noise associated with <span class="hlt">vents</span> is due to processes other than jet noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060010264&hterms=Hydrothermal+vents&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Hydrothermal%2Bvents%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060010264&hterms=Hydrothermal+vents&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Hydrothermal%2Bvents%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Sampler: Does Life Exist in High Temperature Environments?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rivadeneyra, Cesar R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The main purpose of this research is to search for the existence of biomass under extreme temperature and pressure conditions to determine the upper bounds of environments on which life can exist. <span class="hlt">Vents</span> are, simply put, underwater volcano openings located at the bottom of the sea. The conditions at these locations are considerably extreme with pressures of up to 10,000 psi, and enormous temperature gradients. The temperature of the water near these <span class="hlt">vents</span> is around 400 C, while that of the surrounding water is about 3 C. The extremity of these conditions makes it hard to estimate the existence of life in those environments. I n order to find whether such existence happens, we need to search for biomass inside these <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The <span class="hlt">vent</span> sampler is a device that has the purpose of safely and accurately collecting this biomass for examination. This sampler is constituted of a Series of filters of the order of 100-0.2 microns in size. Since this is a 3-year project, it has not concluded yet; however, during the time I contributed to this project, I worked with the mechanical design of this sampler device including the selection, assembly, and testing of the various subsystems and the design and construction of the electronics enclosure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53C1062S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS53C1062S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismicity at the Kairei <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field Near the Rodriguez Triple Junction in the Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sato, T.; Takata, H.; Imai, Y.; Mori, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Kono, A.; Yamada, T.; Shinohara, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>1. Introduction In the first segment of the central Indian Ridge from the Rodriguez triple junction, the Kairei <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field exists and extrudes <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid with richer hydrogen content compared to other <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the world. Around the Kairei <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field, serpentinized peridotite and troctolites, and gabbroic rocks were discovered. These deep-seated rocks exposed around the Kairei field may cause the enrichment of H2 in the Kairei fluids. At the Kairei field, a hydrogen-based subsurface microbial ecosystem and various <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> macrofauna were found. In the "TAIGA" Project (Trans-crustal Advection and In situ reaction of Global sub-seafloor Aquifer), this area is a representative field of "TAIGA" of hydrogen. To investigate how the deep-seated rocks (originally situated at several kilometers below seafloor) are uplifted and exposed onto seafloor, and the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids circulate in subsurface, we conducted a seismic refraction/reflection survey and seismicity observation with ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs). This presentation will show seismicity of the survey area. 2. Observation and results We conducted a seismic survey around the Kairei <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field from January 27 to March 19 in 2013 using S/V Yokosuka of Jamstec. We used 21 OBSs. From the 50 days seismicity observation, we found many micro earthquakes in this area. A swarm of micro earthquakes exists at a location about 1 km northwest of the Kairei field. The swarm has a NNW-SSE strike, parallel to the ridge axis. The depth of the swarm is very shallow (~4 km from seafloor). This swarm may be related to the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activities of the Kairei field. At the first segment of the central Indian Ridge, many micro earthquakes occurred. The depth of these events is deeper than that of the swarm near the Kairei field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS11B1471L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS11B1471L"><span id="translatedtitle">Zones of life in the subsurface of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>: A synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larson, B. I.; Houghton, J.; Meile, C. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> bioenergetics by predicting functionally-defined 'Zones of Life' and placing them spatially within the boundary of the 120 deg. C isotherm, estimating the extent of subsurface biosphere beneath mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. Preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis yields the most energy per kg of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid, consistent with the elevated CH4(aq) seen at all three <span class="hlt">sites</span>, but may be constrained by temperatures too hot for microbial life while available energy from the oxidation of Fe(II) peaks near regions of the crust that are more hospitable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35.1833V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988DSRA...35.1833V"><span id="translatedtitle">Recruitment of marine invertebrates to hard substrates at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the East Pacific Rise and Galapagos spreading center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Dover, Cindy Lee; Berg, Carl J.; Turner, Ruth D.</p> <p>1988-10-01</p> <p>Recruitment panels were placed at and near <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities at three <span class="hlt">sites</span> on the Galapagos spreading center and one <span class="hlt">site</span> on the East Pacific Rise at 21°N. Deployment periods ranged from 26 days (Clam Acres, 21°N) to 260-320 days (Rose Garden, Garden of Eden, Mussel Bed, GSC) to 1216 days (Clam Acres). Recruitment of gastropod post-larvae and juveniles was observed on arrays deployed at Clam Acres for 26 days. Regardless of length of deployment, populations of polychaetes, mollusks, and barnacles colonizing the panels were predominantly post-larval, juvenile, or sub-adult stages. We suggest that some combination of competition, migration, and predation maintains these populations in immature stages. Size distributions of individuals within a taxon on panels deployed for 1216 days are broad, suggesting intermittent or continuous recruitment in many of the <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated species rather than a single episodic recruitment event. Folliculinid and foraminiferan protozoans were the most abundant eucaryotic organisms colonizing long-term deployments at Clam Acres. On the Galapagos spreading center, level of recruitment differed among the <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, with Rose Garden > Garden of Eden ≫ Mussel Bed. Recruitment of <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated species was greater on panels placed within <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities compared to panels placed adjacent to these communities. This observation is consistent with the maintenance of <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities in discrete regions of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.T32A0920W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.T32A0920W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Venting</span> in the Southern Most Portion of the Mariana Backarc Spreading Center at 12.57 Degrees N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wheat, C. G.; Fryer, P.; Hulme, S.; Becker, N.; Curtis, A.; Moyer, C.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The southernmost portion of the Mariana Trough is a complex zone of deformation and magmatism. The centerpiece of the trough is the Malaguana-Gadao Spreading Center Ridge, which has a morphology that is inflated relative to all of the other spreading segments in the Mariana Backarc Basin. This inflated morphology is similar to that of the EPR and is consistent with a high rate of eruption. Samples of lavas from the spreading center are island arc tholeiites, which typically contain higher concentrations of CO2 relative to MORBs. In February 2003 the NOAA <span class="hlt">VENTS</span> program conducted two CTD tow-yos in this area, revealing a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> plume consistent with the presence of a high temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>. In May 2003 we used the ROV Jason II to survey a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> at 12 degrees 57.214'N, 143 degrees 37.147'E in a water depth of ~2860 m. Here we collected <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids, sulfides, basalt, microbial mats, and macrofauna. Two styles of <span class="hlt">venting</span> were identified within an 80 m by 70 m area. Higher temperature <span class="hlt">venting</span> was located in cracks among extinct mounds that were 2-5 m high and wide and are nearly monomineralic (sphalerite) in composition. The exterior is soft and vuggy in contrast to the interior that has crystalline layers with bladed habit lining the orifices. Maximum temperatures of 248 degrees C were recorded 30 cm into these cracks, which were covered with abundant large provannid snails, Alvinoconcha Hessleri, and crabs. In contrast, lower temperature diffuse <span class="hlt">venting</span> (77 degrees C) emanated from mounds that have a porous structure that is composed of amorphous iron oxide and opal. These mounds are covered with microbial mats, which exhibit a high degree of biomass as detected by Cyto-13 nucleic acid epifluorescent staining. Filament and amorphous particulate morphotypes are observed in association with microbial cells, but sheaths have not been detected. These mats have a morphology that is similar to that of neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria. Fluid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16..208V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16..208V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Previously unsuspected dietary habits of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fauna: the bactivorous shrimp Rimicaris hybisae can be carnivorous or even cannibalistic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Versteegh, Emma; Van Dover, Cindy; Coleman, Max</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Most <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> support productive communities, with chemosynthetic bacteria at the base of the food web. They form a potentially important link in global geochemical cycles. However, few data yet exist on their significance in ocean biogeochemistry and related ecological processes. We present results on the structure of part of the food web around <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> of the Mid-Cayman Rise (MCR), revealing previously unknown life-history traits of the alvinocarid shrimp species Rimicaris hybisae. We also demonstrate that stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) are an excellent tracer of trophic positions in these ecosystems, in spite of recent findings arguing otherwise. Two <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields have been described at the ultra-slow spreading ridge of the MCR. These include the world's deepest <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (Piccard field ~4985 m), which support a food web, which includes bactivorous shrimp and carnivorous anemones. The nearby Von Damm <span class="hlt">vent</span> field (~2300 m) supports a more complex food web, with more primary producers, and probably some influx of photosynthetically produced carbon. Rimicaris hybisae is abundant at both known MCR <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields and shows a high degree of spatial variability in population structure and reproductive features. In previous work it has been considered bactivorous. Large variations in tissue δ13C values remained largely unexplained, and it has been argued that δ13C values are not a good food web tracer in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems. We observed that shrimp tended to be either in dense aggregations on active chimneys or more sparsely distributed, peripheral shrimp in ambient or near-ambient temperatures. With the hypothesis that varying δ13C values show real differences in food sources between individuals and that shrimp in different locales might have different diets, we collected shrimp from both environments at the Von Damm <span class="hlt">site</span> during E/V Nautilus (NA034, August 2013) and examined their gut contents. Stomach</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24983244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24983244"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative population structure of two deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal-vent</span>-associated decapods (Chorocaris sp. 2 and Munidopsis lauensis) from southwestern Pacific back-arc basins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thaler, Andrew David; Plouviez, Sophie; Saleu, William; Alei, Freddie; Jacobson, Alixandra; Boyle, Emily A; Schultz, Thomas F; Carlsson, Jens; Van Dover, Cindy Lee</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Studies of genetic connectivity and population structure in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems often focus on endosymbiont-hosting species that are directly dependent on chemical energy extracted from <span class="hlt">vent</span> effluent for survival. Relatively little attention has been paid to <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated species that are not exclusively dependent on chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here we assess connectivity and population structure of two <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated invertebrates--the shrimp Chorocaris sp. 2 and the squat lobster Munidopsis lauensis--that are common at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the western Pacific. While Chorocaris sp. 2 has only been observed at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, M. lauensis can be found throughout the deep sea but occurs in higher abundance around the periphery of active <span class="hlt">vents</span> We sequenced mitochondrial COI genes and deployed nuclear microsatellite markers for both species at three <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Manus Basin and either North Fiji Basin (Chorocaris sp. 2) or Lau Basin (Munidopsis lauensis). We assessed genetic differentiation across a range of spatial scales, from approximately 2.5 km to more than 3000 km. Population structure for Chorocaris sp. 2 was comparable to that of the <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated snail Ifremeria nautilei, with a single seemingly well-mixed population within Manus Basin that is genetically differentiated from conspecifics in North Fiji Basin. Population structure for Munidopsis lauensis was more complex, with two genetically differentiated populations in Manus Basin and a third well-differentiated population in Lau Basin. The unexpectedly high level of genetic differentiation between M. lauensis populations in Manus Basin deserves further study since it has implications for conservation and management of diversity in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems. PMID:24983244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4077841','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4077841"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Population Structure of Two Deep-Sea <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal-Vent</span>-Associated Decapods (Chorocaris sp. 2 and Munidopsis lauensis) from Southwestern Pacific Back-Arc Basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thaler, Andrew David; Plouviez, Sophie; Saleu, William; Alei, Freddie; Jacobson, Alixandra; Boyle, Emily A.; Schultz, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Jens; Van Dover, Cindy Lee</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Studies of genetic connectivity and population structure in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems often focus on endosymbiont-hosting species that are directly dependent on chemical energy extracted from <span class="hlt">vent</span> effluent for survival. Relatively little attention has been paid to <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated species that are not exclusively dependent on chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here we assess connectivity and population structure of two <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated invertebrates—the shrimp Chorocaris sp. 2 and the squat lobster Munidopsis lauensis—that are common at deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the western Pacific. While Chorocaris sp. 2 has only been observed at <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>, M. lauensis can be found throughout the deep sea but occurs in higher abundance around the periphery of active <span class="hlt">vents</span> We sequenced mitochondrial COI genes and deployed nuclear microsatellite markers for both species at three <span class="hlt">sites</span> in Manus Basin and either North Fiji Basin (Chorocaris sp. 2) or Lau Basin (Munidopsis lauensis). We assessed genetic differentiation across a range of spatial scales, from approximately 2.5 km to more than 3000 km. Population structure for Chorocaris sp. 2 was comparable to that of the <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated snail Ifremeria nautilei, with a single seemingly well-mixed population within Manus Basin that is genetically differentiated from conspecifics in North Fiji Basin. Population structure for Munidopsis lauensis was more complex, with two genetically differentiated populations in Manus Basin and a third well-differentiated population in Lau Basin. The unexpectedly high level of genetic differentiation between M. lauensis populations in Manus Basin deserves further study since it has implications for conservation and management of diversity in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems. PMID:24983244</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012BGeo....9.4661B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012BGeo....9.4661B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Activity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria in the subsurface biosphere of diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> of the Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourbonnais, A.; Juniper, S. K.; Butterfield, D. A.; Devol, A. H.; Kuypers, M. M. M.; Lavik, G.; Hallam, S. J.; Wenk, C. B.; Chang, B. X.; Murdock, S. A.; Lehmann, M. F.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Little is known about fixed nitrogen (N) transformation and elimination at diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> where anoxic fluids are mixed with oxygenated crustal seawater prior to discharge. Oceanic N sinks that remove bio-available N ultimately affect chemosynthetic primary productivity in these ecosystems. Using 15N paired isotope techniques, we determined potential rates of fixed N loss pathways (denitrification, anammox) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in sulfidic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids discharging from the subsurface at several <span class="hlt">sites</span> at Axial Volcano and the Endeavour Segment on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We also measured physico-chemical parameters (i.e., temperature, pH, nutrients, H2S and N2O concentrations) as well as the biodiversity and abundance of chemolithoautotrophic nitrate-reducing, sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria (SUP05 cluster) using sequence analysis of amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes in combination with taxon-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Denitrification was the dominant N loss pathway in the subsurface biosphere of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, with rates of up to ~1000 nmol N l-1 day-1. In comparison, anammox rates were always < 5 nmol N l-1 day-1 and below the detection limit at most of the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. DNRA rates were up to ~150 nmol N l-1 day-1. These results suggest that bacterial denitrification out-competes anammox in sulfidic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> waters. Taxon-specific qPCR revealed that γ-proteobacteria of the SUP05 cluster sometimes dominated the microbial community (SUP05/total bacteria up to 38%). Significant correlations were found between fixed N loss (i.e., denitrification, anammox) rates and in situ nitrate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deficits in the fluids, indicating that DIN availability may ultimately regulate N loss in the subsurface. Based on our rate measurements, and on published data on <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid fluxes and residence times, we estimated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012BGD.....9.4177B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012BGD.....9.4177B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Activity and abundance of denitrifying bacteria in the subsurface biosphere of diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> of the Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bourbonnais, A.; Juniper, S. K.; Butterfield, D. A.; Devol, A. H.; Kuypers, M. M. M.; Lavik, G.; Hallam, S. J.; Wenk, C. B.; Chang, B. X.; Murdock, S. A.; Lehmann, M. F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Little is known about nitrogen (N) transformations in general, and the elimination of N in particular, at diffuse <span class="hlt">vents</span> where anoxic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids have mixed with oxygenated crustal seawater prior to discharge. Oceanic N sinks that remove bio-available N ultimately affect chemosynthetic primary productivity in these ecosystems. Using 15N paired isotope techniques, we determined potential rates of fixed N-loss pathways (denitrification, anammox) and dissimilative nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in sulfidic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids discharging from the subsurface at several <span class="hlt">sites</span> at Axial Volcano and the Endeavour Segment on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We also measured physico-chemical parameters (i.e. temperature, pH, nutrients, H2S and N2O concentrations) as well as the biodiversity and abundance of chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing, sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria (SUP05 cluster) using sequence analysis of amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes in combination with taxon-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. Denitrification was the dominant N-loss pathway in the subsurface biosphere of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, with rates of up to ~1000 nmol N l-1 day-1. In comparison, anammox rates were always <5 nmol N l-1 day-1 and below the detection limit at most of the <span class="hlt">sites</span>. DNRA rates were up to 152 nmol N l-1 day-1. These results suggest that bacterial denitrification out-competes anammox in sulfidic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> waters. Taxon-specific qPCR revealed that γ-proteobacteria of the SUP05 cluster sometimes dominated the microbial community (SUP05/total bacteria up to 38%). Significant correlation existed between fixed N-loss (i.e., denitrification, anammox) rates and in-situ nitrate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deficits in the fluids, indicating that DIN availability may ultimately regulate N-loss in the subsurface. Based on our rate measurements, and on published data on <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluid fluxes and residence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21734728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21734728"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression patterns of mRNAs for methanotrophy and thiotrophy in symbionts of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendeberg, Annelie; Zielinski, Frank U; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (Mytilidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hosts symbiotic sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria in its gills. In this study, we investigated the activity and distribution of these two symbionts in juvenile mussels from the Logatchev <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field (14°45'N Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Expression patterns of two key genes for chemosynthesis were examined: pmoA (encoding subunit A of the particulate methane monooxygenase) as an indicator for methanotrophy, and aprA (encoding the subunit A of the dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase) as an indicator for thiotrophy. Using simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rRNA and mRNA we observed highest mRNA FISH signals toward the ciliated epithelium where seawater enters the gills. The levels of mRNA expression differed between individual specimens collected in a single grab from the same sampling <span class="hlt">site</span>, whereas no obvious differences in symbiont abundance or distribution were observed. We propose that the symbionts respond to the steep temporal and spatial gradients in methane, reduced sulfur compounds and oxygen by modifying gene transcription, whereas changes in symbiont abundance and distribution take much longer than regulation of mRNA expression and may only occur in response to long-term changes in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid geochemistry. PMID:21734728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V21A4738D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.V21A4738D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent Investigation of In-Situ pH in <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Fluids at Main Endeavour Field (MEF) and ASHES <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field (ASHES): Implications for Dynamic Changes in Subseafloor <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Tan, C.; Schaen, A. T.; Luhmann, A. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In-situ pH is among the key factors affecting chemical reactions involved with fluid-rock interaction and metal transport in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. A small variation in pH will often result in a large difference in dissolved metal concentrations. For instance, at 400oC, a decrease of ~0.15 pH unit will cause dissolved Fe concentration to double in fluid coexisting with a Fe-bearing mineral assemblage. This parameter also offers us an opportunity to better understand processes controlling the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid chemistry at mid-ocean ridges. During our recent cruise AT 26-17 with newly upgraded DSV2 Alvin, in-situ measurements of pH were carried out along with gas-tight sampling of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids. Our efforts were focused at MEF and ASHES on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems have been shown to be particularly responsive to subseafloor seismic and magmatic events. The measured fluid temperature was approximately 333˚C and 300˚C at Dante <span class="hlt">vent</span> orifice of MEF and Inferno <span class="hlt">vent</span> orifice of ASHES, respectively. The corresponding measured in-situ pH values for both <span class="hlt">vents</span> are: 4.94 and 4.88, respectively. Dissolved gases and other species were also measured from gas-tight fluid samples providing a means of comparison with the in-situ data. As we have known the earthquake and magmatic activity often places the system at higher temperature and more reducing conditions in connection with a new evolutionary cycle. Comparing these relatively low in-situ pH values with those measured in the past, especially with the ones obtained at MEF in 1999 after an intense swarm of earthquakes, we see the system trending towards more acidic conditions along with decreasing temperature and dissolved H2 and H2S. Taking an example from Dante <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>, in-situ pH value of 5.15 was recorded with a measured temperature of 363oC two month after the event in 1999, which gives 0.2 pH unit greater than the more recent data. Measured dissolved H2 and H2S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26929376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26929376"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying dispersal from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields in the western Pacific Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitarai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yuichi; Shchepetkin, Alexander F; McWilliams, James C</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields in the western Pacific Ocean are mostly distributed along spreading centers in submarine basins behind convergent plate boundaries. Larval dispersal resulting from deep-ocean circulations is one of the major factors influencing gene flow, diversity, and distributions of <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals. By combining a biophysical model and deep-profiling float experiments, we quantify potential larval dispersal of <span class="hlt">vent</span> species via ocean circulation in the western Pacific Ocean. We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields within back-arc basins could be well connected without particular directionality, whereas basin-to-basin dispersal is expected to occur infrequently, once in tens to hundreds of thousands of years, with clear dispersal barriers and directionality associated with ocean currents. The southwest Pacific <span class="hlt">vent</span> complex, spanning more than 4,000 km, may be connected by the South Equatorial Current for species with a longer-than-average larval development time. Depending on larval dispersal depth, a strong western boundary current, the Kuroshio Current, could bridge <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields from the Okinawa Trough to the Izu-Bonin Arc, which are 1,200 km apart. Outcomes of this study should help marine ecologists estimate gene flow among <span class="hlt">vent</span> populations and design optimal marine conservation plans to protect one of the most unusual ecosystems on Earth. PMID:26929376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4801315','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4801315"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying dispersal from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields in the western Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mitarai, Satoshi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakajima, Yuichi; Shchepetkin, Alexander F.; McWilliams, James C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields in the western Pacific Ocean are mostly distributed along spreading centers in submarine basins behind convergent plate boundaries. Larval dispersal resulting from deep-ocean circulations is one of the major factors influencing gene flow, diversity, and distributions of <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals. By combining a biophysical model and deep-profiling float experiments, we quantify potential larval dispersal of <span class="hlt">vent</span> species via ocean circulation in the western Pacific Ocean. We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields within back-arc basins could be well connected without particular directionality, whereas basin-to-basin dispersal is expected to occur infrequently, once in tens to hundreds of thousands of years, with clear dispersal barriers and directionality associated with ocean currents. The southwest Pacific <span class="hlt">vent</span> complex, spanning more than 4,000 km, may be connected by the South Equatorial Current for species with a longer-than-average larval development time. Depending on larval dispersal depth, a strong western boundary current, the Kuroshio Current, could bridge <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields from the Okinawa Trough to the Izu-Bonin Arc, which are 1,200 km apart. Outcomes of this study should help marine ecologists estimate gene flow among <span class="hlt">vent</span> populations and design optimal marine conservation plans to protect one of the most unusual ecosystems on Earth. PMID:26929376</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23D1238F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS23D1238F"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace Metal and Sulfur Dynamics in the First Meter of Buoyant <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Plumes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Findlay, A.; Gartman, A.; Shaw, T. J.; Luther, G. W., III</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The speciation and reactivity of metals and metal sulfides within the buoyant plume is critical to determining the ultimate fate of metals emitted from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. The concentration, size fractionation, and partitioning of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined within the first meter of the rising plume at three <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields (TAG, Snakepit, and Rainbow) along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. At Rainbow, total Fe concentrations exceed total sulfide concentrations by an order of magnitude, whereas at the other two <span class="hlt">sites</span>, total Fe and total sulfide concentrations are nearly equal. At all three <span class="hlt">sites</span>, Mn and Fe are primarily in the filtered (< 0.2 μm) fraction and Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, and Pb are mainly in the unfiltered fraction. At TAG and Snakepit, unfiltered copper is correlated with unfiltered cobalt, and unfiltered zinc is correlated with unfiltered cadmium and lead. At Rainbow, unfiltered zinc, cadmium and lead are correlated, but unfiltered copper and cobalt are not, indicating precipitation dynamics at Rainbow are different than those at TAG and Snakepit due to bulk geochemical differences, including a higher iron to sulfide ratio. A sequential HCl/HNO3 leaching method was used to distinguish metals present in pyrite and chalcopyrite in both unfiltered and filtered samples. Significant portions of unfiltered Cu and Co were extracted in HNO3, whereas unfiltered Zn, Cd, and Pb were extracted in HCl. Up to 95 % of filtered Cu, Co, and Zn, up to 80% Cd, and up to 60 % Pb are only extractable in HNO3, indicating that a significant portion of metals < 0.2 μm are incorporated into a recalcitrant fraction such as nanoparticulate pyrite or chalcopyrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1522K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1522K"><span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic characteristics of possible <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in TA 25 and TA26 seamounts, the Lau Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Chang Hwan; Choi, Soon Young; Park, Chan Hong</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> area. The low anomalous magnetization zones of the survey areas usually appear in groups. Some of these low magnetization zones are well matched with the chimney <span class="hlt">sites</span> or <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> altered areas, based on the previous results of video or rock sampling. The low magnetization zones are likely to be the possible <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145251','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4145251"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur and oxygen isotope insights into sulfur cycling in shallow-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, Milos, Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Shallow-sea (5 m depth) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> off Milos Island provides an ideal opportunity to target transitions between igneous abiogenic sulfide inputs and biogenic sulfide production during microbial sulfate reduction. Seafloor <span class="hlt">vent</span> features include large (>1 m2) white patches containing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> minerals (elemental sulfur and orange/yellow patches of arsenic-sulfides) and cells of sulfur oxidizing and reducing microorganisms. Sulfide-sensitive film deployed in the <span class="hlt">vent</span> and non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> sediments captured strong geochemical spatial patterns that varied from advective to diffusive sulfide transport from the subsurface. Despite clear visual evidence for the close association of <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms and <span class="hlt">hydrothermalism</span>, the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of pore fluids did not permit delineation of a biotic signal separate from an abiotic signal. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the free gas had uniform δ34S values (2.5 ± 0.28‰, n = 4) that were nearly identical to pore water H2S (2.7 ± 0.36‰, n = 21). In pore water sulfate, there were no paired increases in δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 as expected of microbial sulfate reduction. Instead, pore water δ34SSO4 values decreased (from approximately 21‰ to 17‰) as temperature increased (up to 97.4°C) across each <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> feature. We interpret the inverse relationship between temperature and δ34SSO4 as a mixing process between oxic seawater and 34S-depleted <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> inputs that are oxidized during seawater entrainment. An isotope mass balance model suggests secondary sulfate from sulfide oxidation provides at least 15% of the bulk sulfate pool. Coincident with this trend in δ34SSO4, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate tended to be 18O-enriched in low pH (<5), high temperature (>75°C) pore waters. The shift toward high δ18OSO4 is consistent with equilibrium isotope exchange under acidic and high temperature conditions. The source of H2S contained in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids could not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25183951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25183951"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur and oxygen isotope insights into sulfur cycling in shallow-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, Milos, Greece.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilhooly, William P; Fike, David A; Druschel, Gregory K; Kafantaris, Fotios-Christos A; Price, Roy E; Amend, Jan P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Shallow-sea (5 m depth) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> off Milos Island provides an ideal opportunity to target transitions between igneous abiogenic sulfide inputs and biogenic sulfide production during microbial sulfate reduction. Seafloor <span class="hlt">vent</span> features include large (>1 m(2)) white patches containing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> minerals (elemental sulfur and orange/yellow patches of arsenic-sulfides) and cells of sulfur oxidizing and reducing microorganisms. Sulfide-sensitive film deployed in the <span class="hlt">vent</span> and non-<span class="hlt">vent</span> sediments captured strong geochemical spatial patterns that varied from advective to diffusive sulfide transport from the subsurface. Despite clear visual evidence for the close association of <span class="hlt">vent</span> organisms and <span class="hlt">hydrothermalism</span>, the sulfur and oxygen isotope composition of pore fluids did not permit delineation of a biotic signal separate from an abiotic signal. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the free gas had uniform δ(34)S values (2.5 ± 0.28‰, n = 4) that were nearly identical to pore water H2S (2.7 ± 0.36‰, n = 21). In pore water sulfate, there were no paired increases in δ(34)SSO4 and δ(18)OSO4 as expected of microbial sulfate reduction. Instead, pore water δ(34)SSO4 values decreased (from approximately 21‰ to 17‰) as temperature increased (up to 97.4°C) across each <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> feature. We interpret the inverse relationship between temperature and δ(34)SSO4 as a mixing process between oxic seawater and (34)S-depleted <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> inputs that are oxidized during seawater entrainment. An isotope mass balance model suggests secondary sulfate from sulfide oxidation provides at least 15% of the bulk sulfate pool. Coincident with this trend in δ(34)SSO4, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfate tended to be (18)O-enriched in low pH (<5), high temperature (>75°C) pore waters. The shift toward high δ(18)OSO4 is consistent with equilibrium isotope exchange under acidic and high temperature conditions. The source of H2S contained in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS43A2033H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS43A2033H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria Found at Slow-Spreading Ridge: a Case Study of Capelinhos <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> (Lucky Strike, MAR 37°N)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henri, P. A.; Rommevaux, C.; Lesongeur, F.; Emerson, D.; Leleu, T.; Chavagnac, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Iron-oxidizing bacteria becomes increasingly described in different geological settings from volcanically active seamounts, coastal waters, to diffuse <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> near seafloor spreading centers [Emerson et al., 2010]. They have been mostly identified and described in Pacific Ocean, and have been only recently found in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems associated to slow spreading center of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) [Scott et al., 2015]. During the MoMARSAT'13 cruise at Lucky Strike <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field (MAR), a new <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> was discovered at about 1.5 km eastward from the lava lake and from the main <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. This active <span class="hlt">venting</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>, named Capelinhos, is therefore the most distant from the volcano, features many chimneys, both focused and diffuses. The <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> end-member fluids from Capelinhos are different from those of the other <span class="hlt">sites</span> of Lucky Strike, showing the highest content of iron (Fe/Mn≈3.96) and the lowest chlorinity (270 mmol/l) [Leleu et al., 2015]. Most of the chimneys exhibit rust-color surfaces and bacterial mats near diffuse flows. During the MoMARSAT'15 cruise, an active chimney, a small inactive one, and rust-color bacterial mat near diffuse flow were sampled at Capelinhos. Observations by SEM of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> samples revealed the presence of iron oxides in an assemblage of tubular "sheaths", assembled "stalks", helical "stalks" and amorphous aggregates. These features are similar to those described from the Loihi iron-mats deposits and argue for the occurrence of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Cultures under micro-aerobic and neutral pH conditions allowed us to isolate strains from the small inactive chimney. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolates and environmental samples will soon be performed, which should confirm the presence of iron-oxidizing bacteria and reveal the organization of bacterial communities in this original and newly discovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> of the slow spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Emerson</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4184897','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4184897"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary Strategies of Viruses, Bacteria and Archaea in <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Ecosystems Revealed through Metagenomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anderson, Rika E.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Baross, John A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these systems, a high proportion of which are lysogenic, must also withstand these environmental extremes. Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, collected by size fractionation of high temperature fluids from a diffuse flow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>. We detected a high enrichment of mobile elements and proviruses in the cellular fraction relative to microorganisms in other environments. We observed a relatively high abundance of genes related to energy metabolism as well as cofactors and vitamins in the viral fraction compared to the cellular fraction, which suggest encoding of auxiliary metabolic genes on viral genomes. Moreover, the observation of stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool suggests viral strategies that promote prolonged host integration. Our results demonstrate that there is great potential for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> viruses to integrate into hosts, facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and express or transfer genes that manipulate the hosts’ functional capabilities. PMID:25279954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25279954"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary strategies of viruses, bacteria and archaea in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystems revealed through metagenomics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Rika E; Sogin, Mitchell L; Baross, John A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these systems, a high proportion of which are lysogenic, must also withstand these environmental extremes. Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, collected by size fractionation of high temperature fluids from a diffuse flow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>. We detected a high enrichment of mobile elements and proviruses in the cellular fraction relative to microorganisms in other environments. We observed a relatively high abundance of genes related to energy metabolism as well as cofactors and vitamins in the viral fraction compared to the cellular fraction, which suggest encoding of auxiliary metabolic genes on viral genomes. Moreover, the observation of stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool suggests viral strategies that promote prolonged host integration. Our results demonstrate that there is great potential for <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> viruses to integrate into hosts, facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and express or transfer genes that manipulate the hosts' functional capabilities. PMID:25279954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568577','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568577"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of Putatively Thermophilic Anaerobic Methanotrophs in Diffuse <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huber, Julie A.; Chernyh, Nikolay A.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Lebedinsky, Alexander V.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is carried out by a globally distributed group of uncultivated Euryarchaeota, the anaerobic methanotrophic arachaea (ANME). In this work, we used G+C analysis of 16S rRNA genes to identify a putatively thermophilic ANME group and applied newly designed primers to study its distribution in low-temperature diffuse <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. We found that the G+C content of the 16S rRNA genes (PGC) is significantly higher in the ANME-1GBa group than in other ANME groups. Based on the positive correlation between the PGC and optimal growth temperatures (Topt) of archaea, we hypothesize that the ANME-1GBa group is adapted to thrive at high temperatures. We designed specific 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers for the ANME-1 cluster to detect all phylogenetic groups within this cluster, including the deeply branching ANME-1GBa group. The primers were successfully tested both in silico and in experiments with sediment samples where ANME-1 phylotypes had previously been detected. The primers were further used to screen for the ANME-1 microorganisms in diffuse <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid samples from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Pacific Ocean, and sequences belonging to the ANME-1 cluster were detected in four individual <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Phylotypes belonging to the ANME-1GBa group dominated in clone libraries from three of these <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Our findings provide evidence of existence of a putatively extremely thermophilic group of methanotrophic archaea that occur in geographically and geologically distinct marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> habitats. PMID:23183981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3522073','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3522073"><span id="translatedtitle">Widespread Occurrence of Two Carbon Fixation Pathways in Tubeworm Endosymbionts: Lessons from <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Associated Tubeworms from the Mediterranean Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thiel, Vera; Hügler, Michael; Blümel, Martina; Baumann, Heike I.; Gärtner, Andrea; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Strauss, Harald; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Petersen, Sven; Cowart, Dominique A.; Fisher, Charles R.; Imhoff, Johannes F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Vestimentiferan tubeworms (siboglinid polychetes) of the genus Lamellibrachia are common members of cold seep faunal communities and have also been found at sedimented <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Pacific. As they lack a digestive system, they are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts growing in a specialized tissue called the trophosome. Here we present the results of investigations of tubeworms and endosymbionts from a shallow <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tubeworms, which are the first reported <span class="hlt">vent</span>-associated tubeworms outside the Pacific, are identified as Lamellibrachia anaximandri using mitochondrial ribosomal and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences. They harbor a single gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. Carbon isotopic data, as well as the analysis of genes involved in carbon and sulfur metabolism indicate a sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic endosymbiont. The detection of a hydrogenase gene fragment suggests the potential for hydrogen oxidation as alternative energy source. Surprisingly, the endosymbiont harbors genes for two different carbon fixation pathways, the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle as well as the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, as has been reported for the endosymbiont of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> tubeworm Riftia pachyptila. In addition to RubisCO genes we detected ATP citrate lyase (ACL – the key enzyme of the rTCA cycle) type II gene sequences using newly designed primer sets. Comparative investigations with additional tubeworm species (Lamellibrachia luymesi, Lamellibrachia sp. 1, Lamellibrachia sp. 2, Escarpia laminata, Seepiophila jonesi) from multiple cold seep <span class="hlt">sites</span> in the Gulf of Mexico revealed the presence of acl genes in these species as well. Thus, our study suggests that the presence of two different carbon fixation pathways, the CBB cycle and the rTCA cycle, is not restricted to the Riftia endosymbiont, but rather might be common in vestimentiferan tubeworm endosymbionts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.123..440T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.123..440T"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructing the oxygen isotope composition of late Cambrian and Cretaceous <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Shaun T.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Coggon, Rosalind M.; Chi, Guoxiang; Bédard, Jean H.; Skulski, Thomas</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Oxygen isotope analyses (δ18O) of 16 quartz-epidote pairs from late Cambrian (Betts Cove and Mings Bight, Newfoundland), Ordovician (Thetford Mines, Québec, Canada) and Cretaceous (Troodos, Cyprus) ophiolites are used to calculate the δ18O of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids from which they crystallized. We combine these with 3 quartz-fluid inclusion measurements and 3 quartz-magnetite measurements from the Cambrian ophiolites to explore how the range in the δ18O of submarine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid has varied between the late Cambrian, Cretaceous and today. The range of calculated δ18O values of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid (-4 to +7.4) is larger than that of modern seafloor <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid (0 to +4). We employ two numerical models to ascertain whether this range is most consistent with changes in paleo-seawater δ18O or with changes in the reactive flow path in ancient <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. A static calculation of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid oxygen isotope composition as a function of the water-rock ratio suggests that in an ocean with a lower δ18O than today, the range of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid δ18O should be larger. Our data, however, show little evidence that the δ18O of the ocean was much lower than the global ice-free value of -1.2. A dual porosity model for reactive flow through fractured and porous media is used to model the relative evolution of the 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O of <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluid in contact with rock. Our 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O for Cretaceous epidotes suggest the strontium concentration of the Cretaceous oceans may have been much higher than at present. The 87Sr/86Sr and δ18O data from Cambrian epidotes are strikingly different from the younger samples, and are difficult to model unless fluid-rock interaction in the Cambrian <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems was substantially different. It is also possible that some of the quartz-epidote veins have been reset by obduction-related metamorphism. Our data suggest that the high calcium-to-sulfate ratio in early (and Cretaceous) seawater may have affected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4725K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4725K"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Heat and Mass Flux at the ASHES <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Field with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinsey, J. C.; Crone, T. J.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Medagoda, L.; Fourie, D.; Nakamura, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> influences ocean chemistry, the thermal and chemical structure of the oceanic crust, the style of accretion at mid-ocean ridges, and the evolution of unique and diverse chemosynthetic ecosystems. Surprisingly, only a few studies have attempted to constrain the volume and heat flux of entire <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields given that axially-hosted <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems are estimated to be responsible for ~20-25% of the total heat flux out of the Earth's interior, as well as potentially playing a large role in global and local biogeochemical cycles. However, same-<span class="hlt">site</span> estimates can vary greatly, such as at the Lucky Strike Field where estimates range from 100 MW to 3800 MW. We report a July 2014 field program with the Sentry AUV that obtains the water velocity and heat measurements necessary to estimate the total heat and mass flux emanating from the ASHES <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field. We equipped Sentry with a Nortek acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) with an inertial measurement unit attached, two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), and two SBE3 temperature probes, to measure the temperature and water velocity. This sensing suite provided more accurate measurements than previous AUV based studies. A control volume approach was employed in which Sentry was pre-programmed to survey a 150m by 150m box centered over the <span class="hlt">vent</span> field flying a "mowing the lawn" pattern at 5m trackline spacing followed by a survey of the perimeter. During a 40 hour survey, the pattern was repeated 9 times allowing us to obtain observations over multiple tidal cycles. Concurrent lowered ADCP (LADCP) measurements were also obtained. Water velocity data obtained with Sentry was corrected for platform motion and then combined with the temperature measurements to estimate heat flux. Analysis of this data is on-going, however these experiments permit us to quantify the heat and mass exiting the control volume, and potentially provide the most accurate and highest resolution heat</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013515','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013515"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological communities at the Florida Escarpment resemble <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> taxa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paull, C.K.; Hecker, Barbara; Commeau, R.; Freeman-Lynde, R. P.; Neumann, C.; Corso, W.P.; Golubic, S.; Hook, J.E.; Sikes, E.; Curray, J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Dense biological communities of large epifaunal taxa similar to those found along ridge crest <span class="hlt">vents</span> at the East Pacific Rise were discovered in the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. These assemblages occur on a passive continental margin at the base of the Florida Escarpment, the interface between the relatively impermeable hemipelagic clays of the distal Mississippi Fan and the jointed Cretaceous limestone of the Florida Platform. The fauna apparently is nourished by sulfide rich hypersaline waters seeping out at near ambient temperatures onto the sea floor.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Sci...213..342A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981Sci...213..342A"><span id="translatedtitle">Blood Function in the <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Vestimentiferan Tube Worm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arp, Alissa J.; Childress, James J.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>Extracellular hemoglobin in the whole blood of Riftia pachyptila has a high oxygen affinity (P50 = 1.8 millimeters of mercury at 3circC), a moderate decrease in oxygen affinity at higher temperatures (P50 = 2.7 millimeters of mercury at 14circC), a small effect of carbon dioxide on oxygen affinity (Δ log P50/Δ pH = - 0.12), and a high oxygen carrying capacity (up to 11 milliliters of oxygen per 100 milliliters of blood). These characteristics are compatible with the high oxygen demand of chemoautotrophic metabolism in the variable <span class="hlt">vent</span> environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4206443','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4206443"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic Variation and Fitness in a Metapopulation of Tubeworms (Ridgeia piscesae Jones) at <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tunnicliffe, Verena; St. Germain, Candice; Hilário, Ana</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We examine the nature of variation in a hot <span class="hlt">vent</span> tubeworm, Ridgeia piscesae, to determine how phenotypes are maintained and how reproductive potential is dictated by habitat. This foundation species at northeast Pacific <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> occupies a wide habitat range in a highly heterogeneous environment. Where fluids supply high levels of dissolved sulphide for symbionts, the worm grows rapidly in a “short-fat” phenotype characterized by lush gill plumes; when plumes are healthy, sperm package capture is higher. This form can mature within months and has a high fecundity with continuous gamete output and a lifespan of about three years in unstable conditions. Other phenotypes occupy low fluid flux habitats that are more stable and individuals grow very slowly; however, they have low reproductive readiness that is hampered further by small, predator cropped branchiae, thus reducing fertilization and metabolite uptake. Although only the largest worms were measured, only 17% of low flux worms were reproductively competent compared to 91% of high flux worms. A model of reproductive readiness illustrates that tube diameter is a good predictor of reproductive output and that few low flux worms reached critical reproductive size. We postulate that most of the propagules for the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields originate from the larger tubeworms that live in small, unstable habitat patches. The large expanses of worms in more stable low flux habitat sustain a small, but long-term, reproductive output. Phenotypic variation is an adaptation that fosters both morphological and physiological responses to differences in chemical milieu and predator pressure. This foundation species forms a metapopulation with variable growth characteristics in a heterogeneous environment where a strategy of phenotypic variation bestows an advantage over specialization. PMID:25337895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26316638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26316638"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome Sequence of Bacillus alveayuensis Strain 24KAM51, a Halotolerant Thermophile Isolated from a <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filippidou, Sevasti; Wunderlin, Tina; Junier, Thomas; Jeanneret, Nicole; Johnson, Shannon; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Po-E; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S; Junier, Pilar</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Bacillus alveayuensis strain 24KAM51 was isolated from a marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> in Milos, Greece. Its genome depicts interesting features of halotolerance and resistance to heavy metals. PMID:26316638</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5435606','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5435606"><span id="translatedtitle">Geologic form and setting of a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field at latitude 10/sup 0/56'N, East Pacific Rise: a detailed study using Angus and Alvin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McConachy, T.F.; Ballard, R.D.; Mottl, M.J.; Von Herzen, R.P.</p> <p>1986-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> field, here called the Feather Duster <span class="hlt">site</span>, occurs on the eastern marginal high near the edge of a narrow (95-m) and shallow (15-20-m) axial graben, within an area dominated by sheet flows and collapse features. The sheet flows are intermediate in relative age between younger fluid-flow lavas on the floor of the axial graben and older pillow (constructional) lavas on the marginal highs. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> activity occurs in two zones within a 65 by 45 m area. The main zone is located where a fissure system and sulfide-sulfate chimneys <span class="hlt">vent</span> warm (9-47/sup 0/C) and hot (347/sup 0/C) <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fluids. Here, two mounds of massive sulfide totaling about 200 t are forming. One occurs at the base of a 3-m-high scarp which is the wall of a drained lava lake; the other is perched on top of the scarp. 19 references, 4 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP11A..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP11A..07F"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute Magnetization Distribution on Back-arc Spreading Axis Hosting <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span>; Insight from Shinkai 6500 Magnetic Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Honsho, C.; Mochizuki, N.; Szitkar, F.; Dyment, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Near-bottom magnetic profiling using submersible, deep-tow, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) make possible to conduct high-resolution surveys and depict detailed magnetic features reflecting, for instance, the presence of fresh lavas or <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> alteration, or geomagnetic paleo-intensity variations. We conducted near-bottom three component magnetic measurements onboard submersible Shinkai 6500 in the Southern Mariana Trough, where five active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields (Snail, Yamanaka, Archean, Pica, and Urashima <span class="hlt">sites</span>) have been found in both on- and off-axis areas of the active back-arc spreading center, to detect signals from <span class="hlt">hydrothermally</span> altered rock and to distinguish old and new submarine lava flows. Fourteen dives were carried out at an altitude of 1-40 m during the R/V Yokosuka YK10-10 and YK10-11 cruises in 2010. We carefully corrected the effect of the induced and permanent magnetizations of the submersible by applying the correction method for the shipboard three-component magnetometer measurement modified for deep-sea measurement, and subtracted the IGRF values from the corrected data to obtain geomagnetic vector anomalies along the dive tracks. We then calculated the synthetic magnetic vector field produced by seafloor, assumed to be uniformly magnetized, using three dimensional forward modeling. Finally, values of the absolute magnetizations were estimated by using a linear transfer function in the Fourier domain from the observed and synthetic magnetic anomalies. The distribution of estimated absolute magnetization generally shows low values around the five <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. This result is consistent with the equivalent magnetization distribution obtained from previous AUV survey data. The areas of low magnetization are also consistent with <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> deposits identified in video records. These results suggest that low magnetic signals are due to <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> alteration zones where host rocks are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1982EOSTr..63..537H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1982EOSTr..63..537H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">[Comment on “Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?”] <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Sarah</p> <p></p> <p>It was gratifying to read Peter Bell's synopsis of our paper [Corliss et al., 1981] in the March 23 issue of Eos (Submarine hot springs: Origin of life?) however, in the last sentence, he wrote, ‘They note that microorganisms found in recent expeditions to the submarine hot springs of the East Pacific Rise would be evidence that the processes are still occurring.’In our final paragraph we actually said that while “events leading to the formation of complex organic compounds and “protocell” structures may still be occurring in present-day oceanic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems … the complex communities of bacteria in modern oceanic environments would outcompete and consume abiotically synthesized protocells…” Modern-day <span class="hlt">vent</span> microbiota will probably mask or destroy any evidence for abiotic synthesis in the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21856628"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography revisited with network theory: retracing the history of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moalic, Yann; Desbruyères, Daniel; Duarte, Carlos M; Rozenfeld, Alejandro F; Bachraty, Charleyne; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Defining biogeographic provinces to understand the history and evolution of communities associated with a given kind of ecosystem is challenging and usually requires a priori assumptions to be made. We applied network theory, a holistic and exploratory method, to the most complete database of faunal distribution available on oceanic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, environments which support fragmented and unstable ecosystems, to infer the processes driving their worldwide biogeography. Besides the identification of robust provinces, the network topology allowed us to identify preferential pathways that had hitherto been overlooked. These pathways are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis of a role of plate tectonics in the biogeographical history of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities. A possible ancestral position of the Western Pacific is also suggested for the first time. Finally, this work provides an innovative example of the potential of network tools to unravel the biogeographic history of faunal assemblages and to supply comprehensive information for the conservation and management of biodiversity. PMID:21856628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813553K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813553K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">3D structure and formation of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> complexes in the Møre Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kjoberg, Sigurd; Schmiedel, Tobias; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik H.; Galland, Oliver; Jerram, Dougal A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The mid-Norwegian Møre margin is regarded as a type example of a volcanic rifted margin, with its formation usually related to the influence of the Icelandic plume activity. The area is characterized by the presence of voluminous basaltic complexes such as extrusive lava sequences, intrusive sills and dikes, and <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> complexes within the Møre Basin. Emplacement of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> complexes is accommodated by deformation of the host rock. The edges of igneous intrusions mobilize fluids by heat transfer into the sedimentary host rock (aureoles). Fluid expansion may lead to formation of piercing structures due to upward fluid migration. <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> complexes induce bending of overlying strata, leading to the formation of dome structures at the paleo-surface. These dome structures are important as they indicate the accommodation created for the intrusions by deformation of the upper layers of the stratigraphy, and may form important structures in many volcanic margins. Both the morphological characteristics of the upper part and the underlying feeder-structure (conduit-zone) can be imaged and studied on 3D seismic data. Seismic data from the Tulipan prospect located in the western part of the Møre Basin have been used in this study. The investigation focusses on (1) the <span class="hlt">vent</span> complex geometries, (2) the induced surface deformation patterns, (3) the relation to the intrusions (heat source), as well as (4) the emplacement depth of the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> complexes. We approach this by doing a detailed 3D seismic interpretation of the Tulipan seismic data cube. The complexes formed during the initial Eocene, and are believed to be a key factor behind the rapid warming event called the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). The newly derived understanding of age, eruptive deposits, and formation of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> complexes in the Møre Basin enables us to contribute to the general understanding of the igneous plumbing system in volcanic basins and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.B23J..05S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010AGUFM.B23J..05S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Metaproteomic Analysis of a Chemosynthetic <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Community Reveals Insights into Key-Metabolic Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steen, I.; Stokke, R.; Lanzen, A.; Pedersen, R.; Øvreås, L.; Urich, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In 2005 researchers at the Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, Norway, discovered two active <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields at the southwestern Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The fields harbours both low-temperature iron deposits and high-temperature white smoker <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Distinct microbial mats were abundantly present and located in close vicinity to the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span>. Characteristics of the mat environment were steep physical and chemical gradients with temperatures ranging from 10°C in the top layer to 90°C at 10 cm bsf and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The work presented here focus on the In situ community activities, and is part of an integrated strategy combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to in-depth characterise these newly discovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> communities. Extracted proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE. Peptides extracted after In-gel tryptic digest was injected into an Ultimate 3000 nanoLC system connected to a linear quadropole ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. A custom database of open reading frames (ORFs) from the combined metatranscriptome and metagenome datasets was implemented and searched against using Mascot 2.2; the IRMa tool box [1] was used in peptide validation. Validated ORFs were subjected to a Blastp search against Refseq with an E-value cut-off of 0.001. A total of 1097 proteins with ≥ 2 peptides were identified of which 921 gave a hit against Refseq, containing 519 unique proteins. Key enzymes of the sulfur oxidation pathway (sox) were found, which were taxonomically affiliated to Epsilonproteobacteria. In addition, this group actively expressed hydrogenases and membrane proteins involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. Enzymes of dissimilatory sulfate-reduction (APS-reductase, AprAB and DsrA2) were found with closest hit to members of the Deltaproteobacteria. These findings indicate an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B14B..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B14B..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Fe-oxidizing microbes are <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> ecosystem engineers at the Loihi Seamount (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chan, C. S.; McAllister, S.; Leavitt, A.; Emerson, D.; Moyer, C. L.; Glazer, B. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing microorganisms (FeOM) colonize gradients of Fe(II) and oxygen, taking advantage of the available chemical energy. Vast communities of FeOM proliferate at deep sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, forming mineralized mats that range from centimeters to meters thick. Because these mats structure the environment for both FeOM and the entire microbial community, the Fe-oxidizers are acting as ecosystem engineers. What organisms are responsible for initiating these mats, and how does the physical structure and community composition develop as the mats mature? By connecting structure, function, and ecology, we can better interpret modern mat structures, as well as ancient fossilized mats. We have been studying Fe microbial mats at Loihi Seamount in Hawaii, a long-term study <span class="hlt">site</span> that has become a model for Fe oxidation in marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. Recent improvements in ROV imaging systems allow us to see a great range of mat textures and colors, which may represent diverse habitats and/or different stages of mat development. With improved imaging and sampling techniques, we have been able to obtain discrete, intact samples of these delicate microbial mats. Previous bulk sampling methods showed that mats consist of a mixture of Fe-mineralized morphologies. Our analyses of intact mats show that mats are initiated by one type of structure-former (either a stalk-former like Mariprofundus ferrooxydans or a Zetaproteobacterial sheath-former). These microbes may be the vanguard organisms that stabilize chemical gradients in this dynamic environment, allowing colonization by other organisms (evidenced by branching tubes, fibrillar nests, and other morphologies). We will show evidence of the composition and development of these mats, and discuss parallels between these marine Fe mats and their freshwater counterparts, supporting the idea that FeOM engineer environments favorable for growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C41B0329S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C41B0329S"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous Underwater Vehicle(AUV) and Towed Vehicle Technologies for Under-Ice <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Studies at the Gakkel Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, H.; Akin, D.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Edmonds, H.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The extreme polar environment presents a unique challenge to the use of the otherwise mature oceanographic technologies associated with Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and towed vehicles. For deep water mapping and sampling applications, ice cover in the arctic is a formidable obstacle. In pursuing our goals to locate, map and sample <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on the Gakkel Ridge, we have built and plan to deploy two AUVs named JAGUAR and PUMA and a towed sampling sled with hydraulically actuated sampling chambers. Our methodologies for working with AUVs in the Arctic differ significantly from standard blue-water operations. Specifically, we have focused on, deploying and calibrating acoustic transponders with the limited mobility imposed by multi-year ice; a far more robust system architecture for dealing with component failures underwater; an autonomous manipulation system on the AUV for capturing sessile biological organisms and geological samples; and a low bandwidth acoustic tether for vehicle status, navigation and mission redirection. Our sampling sled was designed with the premise that the limited mobility associated with working in ice will at best provide us with a few, short opportunities to image and sample on a <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span>. To this end our sled is equipped with a suite of imaging and chemical sensors as well as devices for quickly obtaining multiple samples of both sessile and motile biological organisms. We plan to deploy these new technologies during the International Polar Year in 2007 as part of a collaborative international effort to characterize the biological and geological characteristics of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> on the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge in the eastern Arctic basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.256..554S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.256..554S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre; Chevallier, Luc; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Corfu, Fernando; Jamtveit, Bjørn</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The climate change in the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) was characterized by a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming of ˜ 6 °C, anoxic conditions in the oceans, and extinction of marine species. The triggering mechanisms for the perturbation and environmental change are however strongly debated. Here, we present evidence for a rapid formation and transport of greenhouse gases from the deep sedimentary reservoirs in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Magmatic sills were emplaced during the initial stages of formation of the Early Jurassic Karoo Large Igneous Province, and had a profound influence on the fate of light elements in the organic-rich sedimentary host rocks. Total organic carbon contents and vitrinite reflectivity data from contact aureoles around the sills show that organic carbon was lost from the country rocks during heating. We present data from a new type of geological structures, termed breccia pipes, rooted in the aureoles within the shale of the Western Karoo Basin. The breccia pipes are cylindrical structures up to 150 meters in diameter and are mainly comprised of brecciated and baked black shale. Thousands of breccia pipes were formed due to gas pressure build-up during metamorphism of the shales, resulting in <span class="hlt">venting</span> of greenhouse gases to the Toarcian atmosphere. Mass balance calculations constrained by new aureole data show that up to 1800 Gt of CO 2 was formed from organic material in the western Karoo Basin. About 15 times this amount of CO 2 (27,400 Gt) may have formed in the entire basin during the intrusive event. U-Pb dating of zircons from a sill related to many of the pipes demonstrates that the magma was emplaced 182.5 ± 0.4 million years ago. This supports a causal relationship between the intrusive volcanism, the gas <span class="hlt">venting</span>, and the Toarcian global warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51D1906W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51D1906W"><span id="translatedtitle">Near-bottom water column anomalies associated with active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span> at Aeolian arc volcanoes, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, S. L.; Carey, S.; Bell, K. L.; Baker, E. T.; Faure, K.; Rosi, M.; Marani, M.; Nomikou, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> several active <span class="hlt">sites</span> along the 50-km-long summit. The distribution of ORP anomalies seen during these dives correlates quite well with the locations of anomalous helium samples from 2007. An ORP anomaly of -160 mv was located at the west end of Palinuro where <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids up to 54°C were found. Living tubeworms, bacterial mats of various colors and textures, and small chimneys and globular spires coated with iron oxide having bright-green interiors indicative of the iron-rich <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> clay nontronite were found at actively <span class="hlt">venting</span> areas on Palinuro. ORP anomalies were generally only detected in the near-bottom MAPR mounted on Hercules. In a few locations the MAPRs on Argus (10-30 meters above bottom) and 25 meters above Argus registered anomalies not seen by the MAPR on Hercules indicating active <span class="hlt">venting</span> nearby, but not observed along the trackline of the ROV. Only the higher-temperature <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> at the west end of Palinuro generated a plume that had an appreciable particle anomaly and rise height (seen by the Argus+25m MAPR). No anomalies were measured by the MAPR located 50 meters above Argus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26508672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26508672"><span id="translatedtitle">Genome sequence of Bacillus sp. CHD6a, isolated from the shallow-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Wenxin; Chen, Hong; Chen, Qi; Liu, Yanting; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zheng, Qiang</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Bacillus sp. CHD6a, which can produce oval endosperms, isolated from the shallow-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems off northeast Taiwan's coast. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. CHD6a. It comprises ~3.97Mb in 55 contigs with the G+C content of 39.9%, and a total of 3740 protein-coding genes were obtained. PMID:26508672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V41B2081T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.V41B2081T"><span id="translatedtitle">First Active <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vent</span> Fields Discovered at the Equatorial Southern East Pacific Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, C.; Lin, J.; Wu, G.; German, C. R.; Yoerger, D. R.; Chen, Y. J.; Guo, S.; Zeng, Z.; Han, X.; Zhou, N.; Li, J.; Xia, S.; Wang, H.; Ding, T.; Gao, S.; Qian, X.; Cui, R.; Zhou, J.; Ye, D.; Zhang8, Y.; Zhang, D.; Li, L.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Wu, X.; Li, S.; He, Y.; Huang, W.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.; Li, X.; Wang, K.; Gai, Y.; Science Party, D.; Baker, E. T.; Nakamura14, K.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The third leg of the 2008 Chinese DY115-20 expedition on board R/V Dayangyihao has successfully discovered, for the first time, active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields on the fast-spreading Southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) near the equator. This expedition follows the work of a 2005 expedition by R/V Dayangyihao, during which water column turbidity anomalies were measured in the region. The newly discovered <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields are located along a 22-km-long ridge segment of the SEPR at 102.655°W/2.22°S, 102.646°W/2.152°S, 102.619°W/2.078°S, and 102.62°W/2.02°S, respectively, as well as on an off-axial volcano near 102.456°W/1.369°S. A significant portion of the activity appears to be concentrated along the edges of a seafloor fissure system. Furthermore, water column turbidity anomalies were observed over off-axis volcanoes near 102.827°W/2.084°S and 102.58°W/2.019°S. Video footage of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields and water column turbidity, temperature, and methane anomalies were recorded by a deep-towed integrated system consisting of video, still camera, CTD, and ADCP, and MAPR and METS sensors. Two active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> fields at 2.217°S and 2.023°S were then extensively photographed and surveyed using the autonomous underwater vehicle ABE of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Four samples of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> chimneys were successfully obtained by a TV-guided grab in three locations, showing evidence of high-temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">venting</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1762412','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1762412"><span id="translatedtitle">The Sound Generated by Mid-Ocean Ridge Black Smoker <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crone, Timothy J.; Wilcock, William S.D.; Barclay, Andrew H.; Parsons, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> flow through seafloor black smoker <span class="hlt">vents</span> is typically turbulent and vigorous, with speeds often exceeding 1 m/s. Although theory predicts that these flows will generate sound, the prevailing view has been that black smokers are essentially silent. Here we present the first unambiguous field recordings showing that these <span class="hlt">vents</span> radiate significant acoustic energy. The sounds contain a broadband component and narrowband tones which are indicative of resonance. The amplitude of the broadband component shows tidal modulation which is indicative of discharge rate variations related to the mechanics of tidal loading. <span class="hlt">Vent</span> sounds will provide researchers with new ways to study flow through sulfide structures, and may provide some local organisms with behavioral or navigational cues. PMID:17205137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26250301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26250301"><span id="translatedtitle">New Sericosura (Pycnogonida:Ammotheidae) from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the Southern Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arango, Claudia P; Linse, Katrin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Three new species of Sericosura (Pycnogonida: Ammotheidae) are described from recently discovered <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> in the East Scotia Ridge, Southern Ocean: Sericosura bamberi sp. nov., S. dimorpha sp. nov. and S. curva sp. nov. The eleven species known to date in the genus Sericosura are all inhabitants of chemosynthetic environments in different oceans around the world. Morphology and preliminary DNA data from the COI locus suggest the East Scotia Ridge pycnogonids have relatively close evolutionary affinities with species known from the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This finding highlights the importance of Sericosura as a characteristic taxon of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> and the great potential of this genus for global scale ecological and evolutionary studies of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> fauna. The use of pycnogonid DNA data combined with recent models explaining biogeographic provinces along the mid-ocean ridge system should prove extremely useful to understanding the patterns of diversification of endemic fauna from chemosynthetic environments and from the deep-sea in general. PMID:26250301</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26147346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26147346"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional interactions among filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in a deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> biofilm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stokke, Runar; Dahle, Håkon; Roalkvam, Irene; Wissuwa, Juliane; Daae, Frida Lise; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Thorseth, Ingunn H; Pedersen, Rolf B; Steen, Ida Helene</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Little is known about how lithoautotrophic primary production is connected to microbial organotrophic consumption in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems. Using a multifaceted approach, we analysed the structure and metabolic capabilities within a biofilm growing on the surface of a black smoker chimney in the Loki's Castle <span class="hlt">vent</span> field. Imaging revealed the presence of rod-shaped Bacteroidetes growing as ectobionts on long, sheathed microbial filaments (> 100 μm) affiliated with the Sulfurovum genus within Epsilonproteobacteria. The filaments were composed of a thick (> 200 nm) stable polysaccharide, representing a substantial fraction of organic carbon produced by primary production. An integrated -omics approach enabled us to assess the metabolic potential and in situ metabolism of individual taxonomic and morphological groups identified by imaging. Specifically, we provide evidence that organotrophic Bacteroidetes attach to and glide along the surface of Sulfurovum filaments utilizing organic polymers produced by the lithoautotrophic Sulfurovum. Furthermore, in situ expression of acetyl-CoA synthetase by Sulfurovum suggested the ability to assimilate acetate, indicating recycling of organic matter in the biofilm. This study expands our understanding of the lifestyles of Epsilonproteobacteria in <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>, their metabolic properties and co-operative interactions in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> food webs. PMID:26147346</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23630523"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> of the Western Pacific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mino, Sayaka; Makita, Hiroko; Toki, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Kato, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiromi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-O; Nunoura, Takuro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 Persephonella hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough (SNT). Although the strains share >98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types (ST), indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> bacteria. PMID:23630523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUSMEP31A..03C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUSMEP31A..03C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermic Potential Assessment of <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> of Township Barranca De Upia - Meta - Colombia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chica, J.; Chicangana, G.; Eco Energy Research Group</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> have been traditionally exploited in Colombia as a source of tourism revenue such as pools and saunas. Leaving aside its high potential for geothermal power generation in applications like heating, drying, cooling, extensive use in crops, livestock, electricity generation and more. Currently the use given to this natural resource in the town of Barranca de Upia in Meta department, central Colombia, is like Wellness Centre. However, the geothermal gradient for the area where <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> occur, indicates that the water emerges at temperatures above 70 ° C (Alfaro et al., 2003), which opens a window of opportunity to assess their geothermal potential, in order to know the actual energy potential of the region as an option of augmenting their development. this research is the analysis of information gathered from databases in gravimetry and magnetometry of the study area and the temperatures measured in wells derived from the oil industry. Based on that information, a numerical analysis of the data will be performed in order to establish a model to parameterize the energy potential of the study area and identify possible uses of the energy contained by the <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5705468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5705468"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound field near <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Little, S.A.; Stolzenbach, K.D.; Purdy, G.M.</p> <p>1990-08-10</p> <p>High-quality acoustic noise measurements were obtained by two hydrophones located 3 m and 40 m from an active <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, in an effort to determine the feasibility of monitoring <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> activity through flow noise generation. Most of the measured noise field could be attributed to ambient ocean noise sources of microseisms, distant shipping, and weather, punctuated by local ships and biological sources. Long-period, low-velocity, water/rock interface waves were detected with high amplitudes which rapidly decayed with distance from the seafloor. Detection of <span class="hlt">vent</span> signals was hampered by unexpected spatial nonstationarity due to the shadowing effects of the calders wall. No continuous <span class="hlt">vent</span> signals were deemed significant based on a criterion of 90% probability of detection and 5% probability of false alarm. However, a small signal near 40 Hz, with a power level of 0.0001 Pa sq/Hz was noticed on two records taken within 3 m of the Inferno black smoker. The frequency of this signal is consistent with predictions, and the power level suggests the occurrence of jet noise amplification due to convected density inhomogeneities. Keywords: Seamounts; Flow noise; Underwater acoustics; Acoustic measurement; Geothermy/noise; Ocean ridges; Underwater sound signals; Reprints; North Pacific Ocean. (EDC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=244008','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=244008"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemolithotrophic Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria from the Galapagos Rift <span class="hlt">Hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">Vents</span> †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruby, E. G.; Wirsen, C. O.; Jannasch, H. W.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Three distinct physiological types of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were enriched and isolated from samples collected at several deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (2,550 m) of the Galapagos Rift ocean floor spreading center. Twelve strains of the obligately chemolithotrophic genus Thiomicrospira were obtained from <span class="hlt">venting</span> water and from microbial mats covering surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. From these and other sources two types of obligately heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers were repeatedly isolated that presumably oxidized thiosulfate either to sulfate (acid producing; 9 strains) or to polythionates (base producing; 74 strains). The former were thiobacilli-like, exhibiting a thiosulfate-stimulated increase in growth and CO2 incorporation, whereas the latter were similar to previously encountered pseudomonad-like heterotrophs. The presence of chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the sulfide-containing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> water supports the hypothesis that chemosynthesis provides a substantial primary food source for the rich populations of invertebrates found in the immediate vicinity of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Images PMID:16345831</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26439286"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of miRNAs from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Yadong; He, Yaodong; Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Xiaobo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is a dominant species aggregating in <span class="hlt">vent</span> fields along the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge. MicroRNAs play important roles in life cycles of eukaryotes. However, little is known about miRNAs of <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals. In the present study, a small RNA cDNA library from the muscle of R. exoculata was constructed and the miRNA sequencing was performed. The results indicated that a total of 7,983,331 raw reads were obtained, representing 569,354 unique sequences. Based on sequence analysis, R. exoculata contained 159 conserved miRNAs and 34 novel miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs included 54 families belonging to three different taxonomic units (bilaterian, protostomes and arthropods). The results also showed that miR-2001, a lost miRNA in crustaceans, existed in R. exoculata. Among the conserved miRNAs, iso-miRs were detected. Therefore, this study presented the first insight into the miRNAs of deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> animals. PMID:26439286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16345831','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16345831"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the galapagos rift <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruby, E G; Wirsen, C O; Jannasch, H W</p> <p>1981-08-01</p> <p>Three distinct physiological types of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were enriched and isolated from samples collected at several deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span> (2,550 m) of the Galapagos Rift ocean floor spreading center. Twelve strains of the obligately chemolithotrophic genus Thiomicrospira were obtained from <span class="hlt">venting</span> water and from microbial mats covering surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. From these and other sources two types of obligately heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers were repeatedly isolated that presumably oxidized thiosulfate either to sulfate (acid producing; 9 strains) or to polythionates (base producing; 74 strains). The former were thiobacilli-like, exhibiting a thiosulfate-stimulated increase in growth and CO(2) incorporation, whereas the latter were similar to previously encountered pseudomonad-like heterotrophs. The presence of chemolithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the sulfide-containing <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> water supports the hypothesis that chemosynthesis provides a substantial primary food source for the rich populations of invertebrates found in the immediate vicinity of the <span class="hlt">vents</span>. PMID:16345831</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26283348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26283348"><span id="translatedtitle">Endosymbionts escape dead <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> tubeworms to enrich the free-living population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klose, Julia; Polz, Martin F; Wagner, Michael; Schimak, Mario P; Gollner, Sabine; Bright, Monika</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Theory predicts that horizontal acquisition of symbionts by plants and animals must be coupled to release and limited dispersal of symbionts for intergenerational persistence of mutualisms. For deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> tubeworms (Vestimentifera, Siboglinidae), it has been demonstrated that a few symbiotic bacteria infect aposymbiotic host larvae and grow in a newly formed organ, the trophosome. However, whether viable symbionts can be released to augment environmental populations has been doubtful, because (i) the adult worms lack obvious openings and (ii) the vast majority of symbionts has been regarded as terminally differentiated. Here we show experimentally that symbionts rapidly escape their hosts upon death and recruit to surfaces where they proliferate. Estimating symbiont release from our experiments taken together with well-known tubeworm density ranges, we suggest a few million to 1.5 billion symbionts seeding the environment upon death of a tubeworm clump. In situ observations show that such clumps have rapid turnover, suggesting that release of large numbers of symbionts may ensure effective dispersal to new <span class="hlt">sites</span> followed by active larval colonization. Moreover, release of symbionts might enable adaptations that evolve within host individuals to spread within host populations and possibly to new environments. PMID:26283348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5771688','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5771688"><span id="translatedtitle">Extremely thermophilic fermentative archaebacteria of the genus desulfurococcus from deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vents</span>. Technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jannasch, H.W.; Wirsen, C.O.; Molyneaux, S.J.; Langworthy, T.A.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>Two strains of extremely thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria are described that are representative of isolates obtained from a variety of oceanic <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">sites</span> at depths from 2,000 to 3,700 m. The isolates were similar in their requirements for complex organic media, elemental sulfur, and seawater-range salinities (optimum, 2.1 to 2.4%); their high tolerance for sulfide (100 mM) and oxic conditions below growth-range temperatures (50 to 95%C); and their archaebacterial characteristics: absence of murein, presence of certain di-and tetraethers, and response to specific antibiotics. The two strains (S and SY, respectively) differed slightly in their optimum growth temperatures (85 and 90 C), optimum pHs for growth (7.5 and 7.0), and DNA base compositions (52.01 and 52.42 G+C mol%). At their in situ pressure of about 250 atm (25,313 kPa), growth rates at 80 and 90 C were about 40% lower than those at 1 atm (101.29 kPa), and no growth occurred at 100 and 110 C, respectively, at either pressure. In yeast extract medium, only 2% of the organic carbon was used and appeared to stem largely from the proteinaceous constituents. According to physiological criteria, the isolates belong to the genus Desulfurococcus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26441901"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and evolution of Thermococcus isolates from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems of the Pacific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Price, Mark T; Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Thermococcus is a genus of hyperthermophilic archaea that is ubiquitous in marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environments growing in anaerobic subsurface habitats but able to survive in cold oxygenated seawater. DNA analyses of Thermococcus isolates were applied to determine the relationship between geographic distribution and relatedness focusing primarily on isolates from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and South East Pacific Rise. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to resolve genomic differences in 90 isolates of Thermococcus, making biogeographic patterns and evolutionary relationships apparent. Isolates were differentiated into regionally endemic populations however there was also evidence in some lineages of cosmopolitan distribution. The biodiversity identified in Thermococcus isolates and presence of distinct lineages within the same <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> suggests the utilization of varying ecological niches in this genus. In addition to resolving biogeographic patterns in Thermococcus, this study has raised new questions about the closely related Pyrococcus genus. The phylogenetic placement of Pyrococcus type strains shows the close relationship between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus and the unresolved divergence of these two genera. PMID:26441901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568656','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568656"><span id="translatedtitle">Endosymbionts escape dead <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> tubeworms to enrich the free-living population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klose, Julia; Polz, Martin F.; Wagner, Michael; Schimak, Mario P.; Gollner, Sabine; Bright, Monika</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Theory predicts that horizontal acquisition of symbionts by plants and animals must be coupled to release and limited dispersal of symbionts for intergenerational persistence of mutualisms. For deep-sea <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> tubeworms (Vestimentifera, Siboglinidae), it has been demonstrated that a few symbiotic bacteria infect aposymbiotic host larvae and grow in a newly formed organ, the trophosome. However, whether viable symbionts can be released to augment environmental populations has been doubtful, because (i) the adult worms lack obvious openings and (ii) the vast majority of symbionts has been regarded as terminally differentiated. Here we show experimentally that symbionts rapidly escape their hosts upon death and recruit to surfaces where they proliferate. Estimating symbiont release from our experiments taken together with well-known tubeworm density ranges, we suggest a few million to 1.5 billion symbionts seeding the environment upon death of a tubeworm clump. In situ observations show that such clumps have rapid turnover, suggesting that release of large numbers of symbionts may ensure effective dispersal to new <span class="hlt">sites</span> followed by active larval colonization. Moreover, release of symbionts might enable adaptations that evolve within host individuals to spread within host populations and possibly to new environments. PMID:26283348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4585236','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4585236"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and evolution of Thermococcus isolates from <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> <span class="hlt">vent</span> systems of the Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Price, Mark T.; Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Thermococcus is a genus of hyperthermophilic archaea that is ubiquitous in marine <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> environments growing in anaerobic subsurface habitats but able to survive in cold oxygenated seawater. DNA analyses of Thermococcus isolates were applied to determine the relationship between geographic distribution and relatedness focusing primarily on isolates from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and South East Pacific Rise. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to resolve genomic differences in 90 isolates of Thermococcus, making biogeographic patterns and evolutionary relationships apparent. Isolates were differentiated into regionally endemic populations however there was also evidence in some lineages of cosmopolitan distribution. The biodiversity identified in Thermococcus isolates and presence of distinct lineages within the same <span class="hlt">vent</span> <span class="hlt">site</span> suggests the utilization of varying ecological niches in this genus. In addition to resolving biogeographic patterns in Thermococcus, this study has raised new questions about the closely related Pyrococcus genus. The phylogenetic placement of Pyrococcus type strains shows the close relationship between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus and the unresolved divergence of these two genera. PMID:26441901</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.275...61M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.275...61M"><span id="translatedtitle">First evidence for high-temperature off-axis <span class="hlt">venting</span> of deep crustal/mantle heat: The Nibelungen <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> field, southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melchert, B.; Devey, C. W.; German, C. R.; Lackschewitz, K. S.; Seifert, R.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Baker, E. T.; Paulick, H.; Nakamura, K.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>During segment-scale studies of the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), 7-12° S, we found evidence in the water column for high-temperature <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> activity, off-axis, east of Ascension Island. Extensive water column and seafloor work using both standard CTD and deep submergence AUV and ROV deployments led to the discovery and sampling of the "Drachenschlund" ("Dragon Throat") black smoker <span class="hlt">vent</span> at 8°17.87' S/13°30.45' W in 2915 m water depth. The <span class="hlt">vent</span> is flanked by several inactive chimney structures in a field we have named "Nibelungen". The <span class="hlt">site</span> is located 6 km south of a non-transform offset between two adjacent 2nd-order ridge-segments and 9 km east of the presently-active, northward-propagating A2 ridge-segment, on a prominent outward-facing fault scarp. Both <span class="hlt">vent</span>-fluid compositions and host-rock analyses show this <span class="hlt">site</span> to be an ultramafic-hosted system, the first of its kind to be found on the southern MAR. The thermal output of this single <span class="hlt">vent</span>, based on plume rise-height information, is estimated to be 60 ± 15 MW. This value is high for a single "black smoker" <span class="hlt">vent</span> but small for an entire field. The tectonic setting and low He content of the <span class="hlt">vent</span> fluids imply that high-temperature off-axis <span class="hlt">venting</span> at "Drachenschlund" is driven not by magmatic processes, as at the majority of on-axis <span class="hlt">hydrothermal</span> systems, but by residual heat "mined" from the deeper lithosphere. Whether this heat is being extracted from high-temperature mantle peridotites or deep crustal cumulates formed at the "duelling" non-transfrom offset is unclear, in either case the Drachenschlund <span class="hlt">vent</span> provides the first direct observations of how cooling of deeper parts of the lithosphere, at least at slow-spreading ridges, may be occurring.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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