Science.gov

Sample records for hydroxyapatite ha microspheres

  1. Modified composite microspheres of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as an injectable scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xixue; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Liang, Xinjie; Wang, Shenguo; Wu, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    The compound of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA-PLGA) was prepared by ionic bond between HA and PLGA. HA-PLGA was more stable than the simple physical blend of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA/PLGA). The surface of HA-PLGA microsphere fabricated by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method was rougher than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. Moreover, surface HA content of HA-PLGA microspheres was more than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. In vitro mouse OCT-1 osteoblast-like cell culture results showed that the HA-PLGA microspheres clearly promoted osteoblast attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that surface rich HA component and rough surface of HA-PLGA microsphere enhanced cell growth and differentiation. The good cell affinity of the HA-PLGA microspheres indicated that they could be used as an injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  2. Biomimetic composite microspheres of collagen/chitosan/nano-hydroxyapatite: In-situ synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shu-Hua; Liang, Mian-Hui; Wang, Peng; Luo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The collagen/chitosan/hydroxyapatite (COL/CS/HA) composite microspheres with a good spherical form and a high dispersity were successfully obtained using an in-situ synthesis method. The FT-IR and XRD results revealed that the inorganic phase in the microspheres was crystalline HA containing carbonate ions. The morphology of the composite microspheres was dependent on the HA content, and a more desirable morphology was achieved when 20wt.% HA was contained. The composite microspheres exhibited a narrow particle distribution, most of which ranged from 5 to 10?m. In addition, the needle-like HA nano-particles were uniformly distributed in the composite microspheres, and their crystallinity and crystal size decreased with the HA content. PMID:26478351

  3. Preparation, characterization and in vitro gentamicin release of porous HA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Zhou, Kechao; Li, Zhiyou; Zhang, Dou

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres with high porosities were successfully obtained using an improved ice-templated spray drying (ITSD) technique for drug delivery applications. Pore structures and pore sizes of microspheres have great impact on drug loading and release kinetics. Therefore, solvent types, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) contents and solid loadings of suspensions were adjusted to control the pore structures and pore sizes. Microspheres with interconnected pore networks and aligned pore structures were obtained using camphene-based and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)-based suspensions, respectively. With the increase of PVA contents in suspensions, the growth of sintering neck became more obvious and the surface of HA particles became smoother. The inner pore structures of microspheres transformed from uniformly distributed cellular pores to three-dimensional interconnected pore networks, with the increase of solid loadings in suspensions. Gentamicin was successfully loaded into porous HA microspheres. The drug loading percentage increased from 40.59 to 49.82% with the increase of porosity of HA microspheres. The release percentage during the initial 18 h increased from 48.72 to 65.68% with the transformation of pore structures from independent cellular pores (main diameter~3 ?m) to three-dimensional interconnected pore networks (main diameter>3 ?m). PMID:25491833

  4. Preparation of resorbable carbonate-substituted hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres and their evaluation in osseous defects in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Sonny Bal, B; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2016-03-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres, with a high-surface-area mesoporous shell, can provide a unique bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for proteins to stimulate bone regeneration. However, synthetic HA has a slow resorption rate and a limited ability to remodel into bone. In the present study, hollow HA microspheres with controllable amounts of carbonate substitution (0-12wt.%) were created using a novel glass conversion route and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Hollow HA microspheres with ~12wt.% of carbonate (designated CHA12) showed a higher surface area (236m(2)g(-1)) than conventional hollow HA microspheres (179m(2)g(-1)) and a faster degradation rate in a potassium acetate buffer solution. When implanted for 12weeks in rat calvarial defects, the CHA12 and HA microspheres showed a limited capacity to regenerate bone but the CHA12 microspheres resorbed faster than the HA microspheres. Loading the microspheres with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) (1?g per defect) stimulated bone regeneration and accelerated resorption of the CHA12 microspheres. At 12weeks, the amount of new bone in the defects implanted with the CHA12 microspheres (738%) was significantly higher than the HA microspheres (592%) while the amount of residual CHA12 microspheres (72% of the total defect area) was significantly lower than the HA microspheres (213%). The combination of these carbonate-substituted HA microspheres with clinically safe doses of BMP2 could provide promising implants for healing non-loaded bone defects. PMID:26706537

  5. Evaluation of BSA protein release from hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres into PEG hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Brown, Roger F.; Day, Delbert E.

    2013-01-01

    Implants that simultaneously function as an osteoconductive matrix and as a device for local drug or growth factor delivery could provide an attractive system for bone regeneration. In our previous work, we prepared hollow hydroxyapatite (abbreviated HA) microspheres with a high surface area, mesoporous shell wall and studied the release of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from the microspheres into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The present work is an extension of our previous work to study the release of BSA from similar HA microspheres into a biocompatible hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). BSA-loaded HA microspheres were placed in a PEG solution which was rapidly gelled using ultraviolet radiation. The BSA release rate into the PEG hydrogel, measured using a spectrophotometric method, was slower than into PBS, and it was dependent on the initial BSA loading and on the microstructure of the microsphere shell wall. A total of 3540% of the BSA initially loaded into the microspheres was released into PEG over ~14 days. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres have promising potential as an osteoconductive device for local drug or growth factor delivery in bone regeneration and in the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:23498254

  6. Preparation and characterization of gelatin-hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shao Ching; Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su; Yen, Shiow-Kang

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin-hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G-HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6-10nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G-HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G-HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G-HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. PMID:26354246

  7. Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffolds with controlled macrochannel pores.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chang-Jun; Kim, Hae-Won; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2006-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) macrochanneled porous scaffolds, with a controlled pore structure, were fabricated via a combination of the extrusion and lamination processes. The scaffold was architectured by aligning and laminating the extruded HA and carbon filaments. The macrochannel pores were formed by removing the carbon filaments after thermal treatments (binder removal and sintering). The porosity of the scaffolds was varied between 48 and 73% with a controlled pore size of approximately 450 microm, by adjusting the fractions of HA and carbon filaments. As the porosity was increased from 48 to 73%, the compressive strength decreased from 11.5 to 3.2 MPa. However, the osteoblast-like cell responses on the scaffold, such as the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, were significantly enhanced as the porosity was increased. PMID:16691349

  8. Biopolymers for Medical Applications: Polyglycerol Sebacate (PGS) doped Hydroxyapatite (HA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teruel, Maria; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Levi, Nicole; Wake College Team

    2011-04-01

    In the investigation to engineer the ideal scaffolding device for cleft palate repair, polyglycerol sebacate (PGS) doped with hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for their elastomeric and biodegradable properties, as well as their cost-effective synthesis. Hydroxyapatite was integrated into the PGS to form a composite with high porosity and improved mechanical properties yielding a good substrate for cell attachment during the repair process. FT-IR scans were performed to characterize the composite polymer. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was utilized to identify an acceptable glass transition temperature (Tg), between -18 and - 21C. At this Tg, it was determined that the material was sufficiently polymerized to a point where it was durable yet pliable enough to use for cleft palate devices. In the synthesis of PGS 3% and 5% HA, a Tg of - 20.10C and - 21.72C, respectively, was achieved and further analytical tests were then performed on the polymers. Methods of analysis included X-Ray Diffraction and Tensile Strength Testing. Acknowledgements to the Research Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Wake Forest University and College of Charleston.

  9. Hydroxyapatite-armored poly(?-caprolactone) microspheres and hydroxyapatite microcapsules fabricated via a Pickering emulsion route.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Syuji; Okada, Masahiro; Nishimura, Taiki; Maeda, Hayata; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Hamasaki, Hiroyuki; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yoshinobu

    2012-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticle-armored poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres were fabricated via a "Pickering-type" emulsion solvent evaporation method in the absence of any molecular surfactants. It was clarified that the interaction between carbonyl/carboxylic acid groups of PCL and the HAp nanoparticles at an oil-water interface played a crucial role in the preparation of the stable Pickering-type emulsions and the HAp nanoparticle-armored microspheres. The HAp nanoparticle-armored PCL microspheres were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, morphology, and chemical compositions using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The presence of HAp nanoparticles at the surface of the microspheres was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Pyrolysis of the PCL cores led to the formation of the corresponding HAp hollow microcapsules. PMID:22364710

  10. Preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres by the conversion of borate glass at near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Aihua; Ai, Fanrong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-15

    Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres, consisting of a hollow core and a porous shell, were prepared by converting Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass microspheres in dilute phosphate solution at 37 {sup o}C. The results confirmed that Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass was transformed to hydroxyapatite without changing the external shape and dimension of the original glass object. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the shell wall of the microsphere was built from hydroxyapatite particles, and these particles spontaneously align with one another to form a porous sphere with an interior cavity. Increase in phosphate concentration resulted in an increase in the reaction rate, which in turn had an effect on shell wall structure of the hollow hydroxyapatite microsphere. For the Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass microspheres reacted in low-concentration K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, lower reaction rate and a multilayered microstructure were observed. On the other hand, the glass microspheres reacted in higher phosphate solution converted more rapidly and produced a single hydroxyapatite layer. Furthermore, the mechanism of forming hydroxyapatite hollow microsphere was described.

  11. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres: a novel bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Yonxing; Bal, B. Sonny

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is a common and significant clinical problem. Limitations associated with existing treatments such as autologous bone grafts and allografts have increased the need for synthetic bone graft substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of novel hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres to serve as a carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic-2 (BMP2) in bone regeneration. Hollow HA microspheres (106–150 μm) with a high surface area (>100 m2/g) and a mesoporous shell wall (pore size 10–20 nm) were created using a glass conversion technique. The release of BMP2 from the microspheres into a medium composed of diluted fetal bovine serum in vitro was slow, but it occurred continuously for over 2 weeks. When implanted in rat calvarial defects for 3 or 6 weeks, the microspheres loaded with BMP2 (1 μg/defect) showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone than those without BMP2. The amount of new bone in the defects implanted with the BMP2-loaded microspheres was 40% and 43%, respectively, at 3 and 6 weeks, compared to 13% and 17%, respectively, for the microspheres without BMP2. Coating the BMP2-loaded microspheres with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), reduced the amount of BMP2 released in vitro and, above a certain coating thickness, significantly reduced bone regeneration in vivo. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres could provide a bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for growth factors in bone regeneration. PMID:23747325

  12. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m2/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration. PMID:25609957

  13. Evaluation of bone regeneration in implants composed of hollow HA microspheres loaded with TGF– 1 in a rat calvarial defect model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Brown, Roger F.; Day, Delbert E.

    2012-01-01

    Implants that serve simultaneously as an osteoconductive matrix and as a device for local growth factor delivery may be required for optimal bone regeneration in some applications. In the present study, hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres (106–150 μm) in the form of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or individual (loose) microspheres were created using a glass conversion process. The capacity of the implants, with or without transforming growth factor- 1 (TGF- 1), to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model was compared. The 3D scaffolds supported the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro, showing their cytocompatibility. Release of TGF- 1 from the 3D scaffolds into phosphate-buffered saline ceased after 2–3 days when 30% of the growth factor was released. Bone regeneration in the 3D scaffolds and the individual microspheres increased with time from 6 to 12 weeks, but it was significantly higher (23%) in the individual microspheres than in the 3D scaffolds (15%) after 12 weeks. Loading with TGF-β1 (5 μg/defect) enhanced bone regeneration in the 3D scaffolds and individual microspheres after 6 weeks, but had little effect after 12 weeks. 3D scaffolds and individual microspheres with larger HA diameter (150–250 μm) showed better ability to regenerate bone. Based on these results, implants composed of hollow HA microspheres show promising potential as an osteoconductive matrix for local growth factor delivery in bone regeneration. PMID:23168225

  14. Fabrication of inorganic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and organic biomolecules-dual encapsulated alginate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Pu; Liao, Yu-Te; Liu, Chia-Hung; Yu, Jiashing; Chen, Jung-Chih; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) and two kinds of organic biomolecules (i.e., fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and protein lysozyme) were coencapsulated into alginate microspheres through an air dynamical atomization with optimized operation conditions. The synthesized microspheres have several advantages: HANP provides osteoconductivity and mechanical strength, rhodamine 6G (R6G) and lysozyme act as model drugs, and alginate provides excellent biocompatibility and carboxylate functionality. The results of fluorescent microscopic images indicated the successful dual encapsulation of HANPs and lysozyme inside the alginate microspheres. Furthermore, the results of 3- (4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the fabricated alginate microspheres could be uptaken by HepG2 without apparent cytotoxicity. The dual encapsulated alginate microspheres fabricated in this study show great potential in many biomedical applications. PMID:25939572

  15. Preparation of chitosan/nano hydroxyapatite organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingdi; Pan, Panpan; Zhang, Yujue; Zhong, Shengnan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we encapsulated icariin (ICA) into chitosan (CS)/nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP) composite microspheres to form organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres for drug delivery carrier. The composition and morphology of composite microspheres were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry- thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA). Moreover, we further studied the performance of swelling properties, degradation properties and drug release behavior of the microspheres. ICA, the extract of traditional Chinese medicine-epimedium, was combined to study drug release properties of the microspheres. ICA loaded microspheres take on a sustained release behavior, which can be not only ascribed to electrostatic interaction between reactive negative hydroxyl (OH) of ICA and positive amine groups (NH?) of CS, but also depended on the homogeneous dispersion of HAP nanoparticles inside CS organic matrix. In addition, the adhesion and morphology of osteoblasts were detected by inverted fluorescence microscopy. The biocompatibility of CS/nHAP/ICA microspheres was evaluated by the MTT cytotoxicity assay, Hoechst 33258 and PI fluorescence staining. These studies demonstrate that composite microspheres provide a suitable microenvironment for osteoblast attachment and proliferation. It can be speculated that the ICA loaded CS-based organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres might have potential applications in drug delivery systems. PMID:26218713

  16. Development of Nanolayer Hydroxyapatite (HA) on Titanium Alloy via Superplastic Deformation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Hidayah Mohd; Jauhari, Iswadi; Dom, Adibah Haneem Mohamad

    2012-10-01

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) is successfully embedded onto titanium alloy using the superplastic deformation method. An embedded layer of approximately 249 nm is obtained at a temperature of 1200 K (927 C), strain rate of 1 10-4 s-1, and process duration of 90 minutes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses indicate that HA is retained after the embedment process, and a significant amount of titanium (Ti) is diffused into the HA, forming a dense HA/Ti composite layer. Wear tests under a simulated body fluids (SBF) condition show that the adherent strength of HA and the interfacial strength between the HA layer and substrate are superior compared with the nonsuperplastic sample.

  17. Novel synthesis strategy for composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microsphere originating from conversion of CaCO3 templates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingrong; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiaoying; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-20

    Inspired by coralline-derived hydroxyapatite, we designed a methodological route to synthesize carbonated-hydroxyapatite microspheres from the conversion of CaCO3 spherulite templates within a collagen matrix under mild conditions and thus constructed the composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to confirm the successful generation of the carbonated hydroxyapatite phase originating from CaCO3, and the ratios of calcium to phosphate were tracked over time. Variations in the weight portion of the components in the hybrid gels before and after the phase transformation of the CaCO3 templates were identified via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows these composite hydrogels have a unique multiscale microstructure consisting of a collagen nanofibril network and hydroxyapatite microspheres. The relationship between the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and the collagen fibrils was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in detail, and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern further confirmed the results of the XRD analyses which show the typical low crystallinity of the generated hydroxyapatite. This smart synthesis strategy achieved the simultaneous construction of microscale hydroxyapatite particles and collagen fibrillar hydrogel, and appears to provide a novel route to explore an advanced functional hydrogel materials with promising potentials for applications in bone tissue engineering and reconstruction medicine. PMID:25719911

  18. Novel synthesis strategy for composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microsphere originating from conversion of CaCO3 templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingrong; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiaoying; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by coralline-derived hydroxyapatite, we designed a methodological route to synthesize carbonated-hydroxyapatite microspheres from the conversion of CaCO3 spherulite templates within a collagen matrix under mild conditions and thus constructed the composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to confirm the successful generation of the carbonated hydroxyapatite phase originating from CaCO3, and the ratios of calcium to phosphate were tracked over time. Variations in the weight portion of the components in the hybrid gels before and after the phase transformation of the CaCO3 templates were identified via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows these composite hydrogels have a unique multiscale microstructure consisting of a collagen nanofibril network and hydroxyapatite microspheres. The relationship between the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and the collagen fibrils was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in detail, and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern further confirmed the results of the XRD analyses which show the typical low crystallinity of the generated hydroxyapatite. This smart synthesis strategy achieved the simultaneous construction of microscale hydroxyapatite particles and collagen fibrillar hydrogel, and appears to provide a novel route to explore an advanced functional hydrogel materials with promising potentials for applications in bone tissue engineering and reconstruction medicine.

  19. In Vivo Osteogenic Potential of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Microspheres: Comparison with Injectable Cement Pastes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanares, Maria-Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Franch, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The osteogenic capacity of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite microspheres with and without collagen obtained by emulsification of a calcium phosphate cement paste has been evaluated in an in vivo model, and compared with an injectable calcium phosphate cement with the same composition. The materials were implanted into a 5 mm defect in the femur condyle of rabbits, and bone formation was assessed after 1 and 3 months. The histological analysis revealed that the cements presented cellular activity only in the margins of the material, whereas each one of the individual microspheres was covered with osteogenic cells. Consequently, bone ingrowth was enhanced by the microspheres, with a tenfold increase compared to the cement, which was associated to the higher accessibility for the cells provided by the macroporous network between the microspheres, and the larger surface area available for osteoconduction. No significant differences were found in terms of bone formation associated with the presence of collagen in the materials, although a more extensive erosion of the collagen-containing microspheres was observed. PMID:26132468

  20. Sr-containing hydroxyapatite: morphologies of HA crystals and bioactivity on osteoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Aina, Valentina; Bergandi, Loredana; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Malavasi, Gianluca; Imrie, Flora E; Gibson, Iain R; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Ghigo, Dario

    2013-04-01

    A series of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatites (HA), of general formula Ca(10-x)Srx(PO4)6(OH)2, where x=2 and 4, were synthesized by solid state methods and characterized extensively. The reactivity of these materials in cell culture medium was evaluated, and the behavior towards MG-63 osteoblast cells (in terms of cytotoxicity and proliferation assays) was studied. Future in vivo studies will give further insights into the behavior of the materials. A paper by Lagergren et al. (1975), concerning Sr-substituted HA prepared by a solid state method, reports that the presence of Sr in the apatite composition strongly influences the apatite diffraction patterns. Zeglinsky et al. (2012) investigated Sr-substituted HA by ab initio methods and Rietveld analyses and reported changes in the HA unit cell volume and shape due to the Sr addition. To further clarify the role played by the addition of Sr on the physico-chemical properties of these materials we prepared Sr-substituted HA compositions by a solid state method, using different reagents, thermal treatments and a multi-technique approach. Our results indicated that the introduction of Sr at the levels considered here does influence the structure of HA. There is also evidence of a decrease in the crystallinity degree of the materials upon Sr addition. The introduction of increasing amounts of Sr into the HA composition causes a decrease in the specific surface area and an enrichment of Sr-apatite phase at the surface of the samples. Bioactivity tests show that the presence of Sr causes changes in particle size and/or morphology during soaking in MEM solution; on the contrary the morphology of pure HA does not change after 14 days of reaction. The presence of Sr, as Sr-substituted HA and SrCl2, in cultures of human MG-63 osteoblasts did not produce any cytotoxic effect. In fact, Sr-substituted HA increased the proliferation of osteoblast cells and enhanced cell differentiation: Sr in HA has a positive effect on MG-63 cells. In contrast, Sr ions alone, at the concentrations released by Sr-HA (1.21-3.24 ppm), influenced neither cell proliferation nor differentiation. Thus the positive effects of Sr in Sr-HA materials are probably due to the co-action of other ions such as Ca and P. PMID:23827552

  1. Polyphosphazene/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite Microsphere Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nukavarapu, Syam P.; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Brown, Justin L.; Krogman, Nicholas R.; Weikel, Arlin L.; Hindenlang, Mark D.; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2009-01-01

    The non-toxic, neutral degradation products of amino acid ester polyphosphazenes make them ideal candidates for in vivo orthopaedic applications. The quest for new osteocompatible materials for load bearing tissue engineering applications has led us to investigate mechanically competent amino acid ester substituted polyphosphazenes. In this study, we have synthesized three biodegradable polyphosphazenes substituted with side groups namely leucine, valine and phenylalanine ethyl esters. Of these polymers, the phenylalanine ethyl ester substituted polyphosphazene showed the highest glass transition temperature (41.6 C) and hence was chosen as a candidate material for forming composite microspheres with 100 nm sized hydroxyapatite (nHAp). The fabricated composite microspheres were sintered into a three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffold by adopting a dynamic solvent sintering approach. The composite microsphere scaffolds showed compressive moduli of 4681 MPa with mean pore diameters in the range of 86145 m. The three-dimensional polyphosphazene-nHAp composite microsphere scaffolds showed good osteoblast cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, and are potential suitors for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:18517248

  2. Effect of interfacial serum proteins on melanoma cell adhesion to biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres coated with hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Takuya; Fukasawa, Tomonori; Fujii, Syuji; Maeda, Hayata; Okada, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the interaction forces between a murine melanoma cell and a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere coated with/without hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles (i.e., an HAp/PLLA or a bare PLLA microsphere) in a serum-free culture medium, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with colloid probe technique, in order to investigate how the HAp-nanoparticle coating as well as interfacial serum proteins influence the cell-microsphere adhesion. The cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA microspheres was 1.4-fold stronger than that of the bare PLLA microspheres. When the microspheres were pretreated with a culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, the cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA microspheres was increased by a factor of 2.1; in contrast, no change was observed in the cell adhesion force of the bare PLLA microspheres before/after the pretreatment. Indeed, the cell adhesion force of the HAp/PLLA was 2.8-fold larger than that of the bare PLLA after the pretreatment. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of interfacial serum proteins on the zeta potentials of these microspheres. On the basis of the obtained results, possible mechanism of cell adhesion to the HAp/PLLA and bare PLLA microspheres in the presence/absence of the interfacial serum proteins is discussed. PMID:23524077

  3. Hydrothermal fabrication of porous hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres for a drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wen; Chen, Cen; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Lee, In-Seop; Jiang, Guohua; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    Porous hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (PHHMs) are the promising biomaterials, owing to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioactivity. PHHMs have been used as drug controlled carriers due to their advantages such as large drug loading capacity, nanochannels for drug loading and release and high specific surface area. In this study, PHHMs were prepared successfully in Na2HPO4 solution by an anion-exchange process using vaterite CaCO3 through a hydrothermal method. The previous vaterite CaCO3 was synthesized by a polymer-templated method in the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt (PSS) aqueous solutions. The PHHMs have a size distribution from 0.8 to 2.0μm, with an average pore size of about 24.3nm. The wall of PHHMs is constructed with building units of hydroxyapatite nanofibers with an average length of 300nm and an average width of 20nm. The PHHMs displayed a high drug loading capacity and pH-responsive sustained-controlled drug release behavior when we used doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) as a loading drug. Moreover, the controlled drug release system showed a high ability to kill cancer cells and less damage to normal cells. These results indicated that PHHMs are promising for applications in various biomedical fields such as drug delivery system and oncotherapy. PMID:26952411

  4. Effect of hydroxyapatite-containing microspheres embedded into three-dimensional magnesium phosphate scaffolds on the controlled release of lysozyme and in vitro biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongman; Yun, Hui-suk

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of porous three-dimensional (3D) magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold was investigated for the development of a novel protein delivery system and biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold. This enhancement can be achieved by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-containing polymeric microspheres (MSs) into a bulk MgP matrix, and a paste-extruding deposition (PED) system. In this work, the amount of MS and HA was precisely controlled when manufacturing MS-embedded MgP (MS/MgP) composite scaffolds. The main influence was researched in terms of in vitro lysozyme-release, in vitro biodegradation, mechanical properties, and in vitro calcification. The controlled release of lysozyme was indicated, while showing graded release patterns according to HA content. The composite scaffolds degraded gradually with MS content and degradation time. Due to the effect of HA inclusion, the higher HA-containing MS/MgP scaffolds could, not only delay the biodegradation process but also, compensate for the possible loss of mechanical properties. In this regard, it is reasonable to confirm the inverse relationship between biodegradation and corresponding compressive properties. In order to encourage bioactivity and osteoconductivity, the MS/MgP composite scaffolds were subjected to simulated body fluid treatment. Calcium deposition was, in turn, improved with increasing MS and HA content over time. This quantitative result was also proved using morphological and elemental analysis. In summary, a significant transformation of a monolithic MgP scaffold was directed toward a multifunctional bone tissue engineering scaffold equipped with controlled protein delivery, biodegradability, and bioactivity. PMID:25214782

  5. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) dual coating on magnesium alloy under deformation for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Diez, Mathilde; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of a protective coating layer to highly corrosive magnesium (Mg) has been proposed as one of the common approaches for improved corrosion resistance of Mg-based implants as load-bearing biomedical applications. However, only few studies have focused on the mechanical stability of the coated Mg under practical conditions where significant deformation of the load-bearing implants is induced during the surgical operation or under physiological environments. Therefore, in this study, we developed a dual coating system composed of an interlayer hydroxyapatite (HA) and a top layer poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) to improve the coating stability under deformation of Mg alloy (WE43) substrate. The HA interlayer was directly formed on the Mg alloy surface, followed by dip-coating of PLLA. As the interlayer, HA improved the adhesion of PLLA by modulating nano- and microscale roughness, in addition to its inherently good bonding strength to Mg. The flexible and deformable top coating PLLA layer mitigated crack propagation in the HA layer under deformation. Thus, the dual coating layer provided good protection to the underlying WE43 from corrosion regardless of deformation. The enhanced corrosion behavior of dual-coated WE43 exhibited better mechanical and biological performance compared to the non-coated or single-coated WE43. Therefore, this dual coating layer on Mg is expected to accelerate Mg-based applications in biomedical devices. PMID:26704551

  6. Bioresorbable devices made of forged composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and poly-L-lactide (PLLA): Part I. Basic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shikinami, Y; Okuno, M

    1999-05-01

    Compounds that had neither calcined nor sintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles (particulate size 0.2-20 microns, averaging 3.0 microns, Ca/P = 1.69, and containing CO3(2-) uniformly distributed in a poly-L-lactide (PLLA, Mv: 400 KDa) matrix with a content of 20-50 wt% (with 10% increment) were reinforced into composites by a forging process, which was a unique compression molding, and were then machined on a lathe in order to produce practical radiopaque internal bone fixation devices having high mechanical strength which was maintained during bony union, total resorbability and bioactivity such as bone bonding capability and osteoconductivity. From the results of measurement of various mechanical properties, it was confirmed that the composites generally showed the highest mechanical strength among this type of reinforced bioceramic fibers or particles/bioresorbable polymer composite known to date. The bending strength (Sb) of about 270 MPa was far higher value than that for cortical bone, and the modulus (Eb) of 12 GPa was almost equivalent to that for cortical bone. In particular, the impact strength (Si) was extremely high at about two times the value (166 KJ/m2) of polycarbonate. The in vitro change in Sb, Mv (viscosity average molecular weight), Mw/Mn (molecular weight distribution) and crystallinity, and their relationship with each other was also examined by immersing samples in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). An immediate decrease in the initial Mv could be found in composites with high u-HA contents (30-50 wt%), although a time-lag stage for degradation where the initial Mv hardly changes was apparent in cases of PLLA-only or in a composite with a low u-HA content (20 wt%). The Sb changed with corresponding decremental curves for the Mv and retained over 200 MPa for up to 24 weeks, the period of time necessary for full bony union, so that the composite satisfied initial mechanical strengths while maintaining them for as long as necessary for internal bone fixation devices. These results supported the idea that there is a difference in the degradation process such that PLLA alone required a period of time to achieve the possibility of hydrolysis into the inner side, whereas composites with high u-HA contents (30-50 wt%) immediately filled with water through to the inner side and were hydrolyzed homogeneously. Many hydroxyapatite crystals deposited and grew on the surface after 3-6 d and generously covered the surface with a fairly thick layer after 7 d of post-immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) as evaluated by means of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). This suggested the ability of the radiopaque composites to bond to bone. Since the composites were dense and had ultra-high strength, and the processability was so excellent, many kinds of fine and accurate screws, pins, plates, and other internal bone fixation devices for orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial, craniofacial, and plastic and reconstructive surgeries could be produced by machining treatment. These devices have potential applications for clinical use following the assessment of adaptation during in vivo studies. PMID:10226712

  7. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK-Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn't increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery. PMID:26956660

  8. Response of Human Osteoblast to n-HA/PEEK—Quantitative Proteomic Study of Bio-effects of Nano-Hydroxyapatite Composite

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Liu, Xiaochen; Wei, Jie; Ji, Jianguo; Yang, Shu; Hu, Zhiyuan; Wei, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is considered as a bio-active material, which is often mixed into bone implant material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK). To reveal the global protein expression modulations of osteoblast in response to direct contact with the PEEK composite containing high level (40%) nano-sized hydroxyapatite (n-HA/PEEK) and explain its comprehensive bio-effects, quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted on human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 cultured on n-HA/PEEK in comparison with pure PEEK. Results from quantitative proteomic analysis showed that the most enriched categories in the up-regulated proteins were related to calcium ion processes and associated functions while the most enriched categories in the down-regulated proteins were related to RNA process. This enhanced our understanding to the molecular mechanism of the promotion of the cell adhesion and differentiation with the inhibition of the cell proliferation on n-HA/PEEK composite. It also exhibited that although the calcium ion level of incubate environment hadn’t increased, merely the calcium fixed on the surface of material had influence to intracellular calcium related processes, which was also reflect by the higher intracellular Ca2+ concentration of n-HA/PEEK. This study could lead to more comprehensive cognition to the versatile biocompatibility of composite materials. It further proves that proteomics is useful in new bio-effect discovery. PMID:26956660

  9. In vitro degradation and cytocompatibility of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cements prepared using the monocalcium phosphate monohydrate/hydroxyapatite system reveals rapid conversion to HA as a key mechanism.

    PubMed

    Alge, Daniel L; Goebel, W Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2012-04-01

    We previously showed that dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements can be prepared using monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, we have characterized the degradation properties and biocompatibility of these novel cements. To study the degradation properties, cements were prepared using MCPM:HA molar ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 2:3, and 2:5. Degradation was evaluated in vitro by static soaking in PBS, and changes in pH, mass, compressive strength, and composition were monitored. Conversion of DCPD to HA was noted in the 4:1 group, which initially consisted of pure DCPD. However, the 2:1 group, which initially consisted of DCPD and an intermediate amount of unreacted HA, underwent rapid conversion to HA associated with significantly greater pH drop and mass loss as well as a complete loss of mechanical integrity. On the basis of these results, we directly compared the cytocompatibility of 2:1 MCPM:HA cements to DCPD cements prepared with an equivalent percent molar excess of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) using an in vitro cell viability assay. Viability of cells co-cultured with 2:1 MCPM:HA cements was significantly reduced after just 48 h, while viability of cells cultured with the ?-TCP-based cements was no different from control cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that conversion to HA plays an important role in the degradation of DCPD cements prepared with the MCPM/HA system, affecting both physical properties and cytocompatibility. These results could have important clinical implications for MCPM/HA cements. PMID:22323239

  10. Facile fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate/hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds based on Pickering emulsion templates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Zhuohong; Zhou, Wuyi; Du, Zhengshan; Huang, Jian; Yi, Huan; Wang, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we develop a facile one-pot approach to the fabrication of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere-incorporated calcium alginate (ALG-Ca)/hydroxyapatite (HAp) porous scaffolds based on HAp nanoparticle-stabilized oil-in-water Pickering emulsion templates, which contain alginate in the aqueous phase and PLLA in the oil phase. The emulsion aqueous phase is solidified by in situ gelation of alginate with Ca(2+) released from HAp by decreasing pH with slow hydrolysis of d-gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to produce emulsion droplet-incorporated gels, followed by freeze-drying to form porous scaffolds containing microspheres. The pore structure of porous scaffolds can be adjusted by varying the HAp or GDL concentration. The compressive tests show that the increase of HAp or GDL concentration is beneficial to improve the compressive property of porous scaffolds, while the excessive HAp can lead to the decrease in compressive property. Moreover, the swelling behavior studies display that the swelling ratios of porous scaffolds reduce with increasing HAp or GDL concentration. Furthermore, hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU) and hydrophilic drug bovine serum albumin (BSA) are loaded into the microspheres and scaffold matrix, respectively. In vitro drug release results indicate that BSA has a rapid release while IBU has a sustained release in the dual drug-loaded scaffolds. In vitro cell culture experiments verify that mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells can proliferate on the porous scaffolds well, indicating the good biocompatibility of porous scaffolds. All these results demonstrate that the PLLA microsphere-incorporated ALG-Ca/HAp porous scaffolds have a promising potential for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. PMID:26774574

  11. Bioresorbable devices made of forged composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and poly L-lactide (PLLA). Part II: practical properties of miniscrews and miniplates.

    PubMed

    Shikinami, Y; Okuno, M

    2001-12-01

    Miniscrews and miniplates made of forged composites composed of raw hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles (particle size 0.2-20 microm, averaging 3.0 microm, Ca/p = 1.69 and containing CO3(2-)) and a poly L-lactide (PLLA, Mv: about 180 kDa, containing residual 0.05 wt% lactide) with osteological bioactivity such as direct bonding to bone and osteoconductivity, total resorbability and radiopacity were examined for various mechanical properties in order to evaluate their usefulness for cranio-, oral and maxillo-facial as well as plastic and reconstructive surgeries with PLLA-only or titanium devices. The composites containing u-HA particles at 30wt% for miniscrews and 40wt% for miniplates were selected based on total mechanical strengths and bioactivity, respectively. It was found that the composite devices generally had slightly different mechanical properties than forged PLLA-only devices of which strengths are ranked the highest among the reinforced PLLA-only ones that having been used in many clinical cases to date, in spite of their approximate 2 or 3 times lower absolute strengths than those of titanium ones. However, a remarkable distinction that makes the composite miniplates stand above the titanium ones was confirmed on their fatigue resistance to alternate bendings such that they retained 70% of their initial strength even after 60 times without revealing any damage, whereas the metallic devices fully broke off at only 8 times. This behavior was similar to that of forged PLLA-only devices but is unique as composites made of organic polymers divided by inorganic particles. In addition, profile plates such as L-, T-, X, T, C-, Mesh-, Box-, and Barhole types which were processed by forging twice exhibited nearly directional isotropy in strength and could be deformed in situ at ordinary temperatures to adjust their shapes along the surface undulations of the skull, mandible, maxilla, zygomatic bone and the like without thermoforming and did not return to their original shapes inside an alive body due to the high PLLA's Tg (65 degrees C) over an alive body temperature (37 degrees C). Since it had already been confirmed in previous papers that these stiff and tough composites have the osteological bioactivity which is missing from both PLLA-only and titanium ones, and radiopacity which is wanting in PLLA-only ones, these various small and thin screws and plates have conclusively less objectionable practicality for use in oral-maxillo and craniofacial as well as plastic and reconstructive surgeries. PMID:11603592

  12. Bioactive apatite incorporated alginate microspheres with sustained drug-delivery for bone regeneration application.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Fei; Ye, Song; Wu, Yingying; Zhu, Kaiping; Wang, Deping

    2016-05-01

    The strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite microspheres (SrHA) incorporated alginate composite microspheres (SrHA/Alginate) were prepared via adding SrHA/alginate suspension dropwise into calcium chloride solution, in which the gel beads were formed by means of crosslinking reaction. The structure, morphology and in vitro bioactivity of the composite microspheres were studied by using XRD, SEM and EDS methods. The biological behaviors were characterized and analyzed through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), CCK-8, confocal laser microscope and ALP activity evaluations. The experimental results indicated that the synthetic SrHA/Alginate showed similar morphology to the well-known alginate microspheres (Alginate) and both of them possessed a great in vitro bioactivity. Compared with the control Alginate, the SrHA/Alginate enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and ALP activity by releasing osteoinductive and osteogenic Sr ions. Furthermore, vancomycin was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors of the SrHA/Alginate, Alginate and SrHA. The results suggested that the SrHA/Alginate had a highest drug-loading efficiency and best controlled drug release properties. Additionally, the SrHA/Alginate was demonstrated to be pH-sensitive as well. The increase of the pH value in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) accelerated the vancomycin release. Accordingly, the multifunctional SrHA/Alginate can be applied in the field of bioactive drug carriers and bone filling materials. PMID:26952484

  13. Porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold containing drug-loaded ADM-PLGA microspheres for bone cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zi-Jie; Yang, Lian-Jun; Cai, Bao-Ta; Zhu, Li-Xin; Cao, Yan-Lin; Wu, Guo-Feng; Zhang, Zan-Jie

    2016-05-01

    To develop adriamycin (ADM)-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles in a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold (ADM-PLGA-NHAC). To provide novel strategies for future treatment of osteosarcoma, the properties of the scaffold, including its in vitro extended-release properties, the inhibition effects of ADM-PLGA-NHAC on the osteosarcoma MG63 cells, and its bone repair capacity, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The PLGA copolymer was utilized as a drug carrier to deliver ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-PLGA-NP). Porous nano-hydroxyapatite and collagen were used to materials to produce the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold (NHAC), into which the ADM-PLGA-NP was loaded. The performance of the drug-carrying scaffold was assessed using multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy and in vitro extended release. The antineoplastic activities of scaffold extracts on the human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line were evaluated in vitro using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method and live-dead cell staining. The bone repair ability of the scaffold was assessed based on the establishment of a femoral condyle defect model in rabbits. ADM-PLGA-NHAC and NHAC were implanted into the rat muscle bag for immune response experiments. A tumor-bearing nude mice model was created, and the TUNEL and HE staining results were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate the antineoplastic activity and toxic side effects of the scaffold. The composite scaffold demonstrated extraordinary extended-release properties, and its extracts also exhibited significant inhibition of the growth of osteosarcoma MG63 cells. In the bone repair experiment, no significant difference was observed between ADM-PLGA-NHAC and NHAC by itself. In the immune response experiments, ADM-PLGA-NHAC exhibited remarkable biocompatibility. The in vivo antitumor experiment revealed that the implantation of ADM-PLGA-NHAC in the tumor resulted in a improved antineoplastic effect and fewer adverse side effects than direct intraperitoneal injection of ADM. The ADM-PLGA-NHAC developed in this study exhibited excellent extended-release drug properties, bone repairing and antineoplastic efficacy, which make it a promising osteoconductivity material with the capability to inhibit osteosarcoma. PMID:26975746

  14. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus-induced chronic osteomyelitis with bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid loaded with rifapentine microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ling; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Cao, Zhi-Dong; Wu, Jun; Wang, Xin; Wang, Zheng-Long; Li, Ya-Jun; Yi, Yong-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the curative effect of bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (BHA/PAA) as a carrier for poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated rifapentine microsphere (RPM) in the treatment of rabbit chronic osteomyelitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus. Methods RPM was prepared through an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method, and RPM was combined with BHA/PAA to obtain drug-loaded, slow-releasing materials. Twenty-six New Zealand white rabbits were induced to establish the animal model of chronic osteomyelitis. After debridement, the animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8): the experimental group (with RPM-loaded BHA/PAA), the control group (with BHA/PAA), and the blank group. The RPM-loaded BHA/PAA was evaluated for antibacterial activity, dynamics of drug release, and osteogenic ability through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results In vitro, RPM-loaded BHA/PAA released the antibiotics slowly, inhibiting the bacterial growth of S. aureus for up to 5 weeks. In vivo, at week 4, the bacterial colony count was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control and blank groups (P<0.01). At week 12, the chronic osteomyelitis was cured and the bone defect was repaired in the experimental group, whereas the infection and bone defect persisted in the control and blank groups. Conclusion In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that RPM-loaded BHA/PAA effectively cured S. aureus-induced chronic osteomyelitis. Therefore, BHA/PAA has potential value as a slow-releasing material in clinical setting. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal dosage for loading rifapentine. PMID:26213463

  15. Preparation, evaluation, and first clinical use of 177Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) particles in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: utility of cold kits for convenient dose formulation at hospital radiopharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Vimalnath, K V; Rajeswari, A; Shinto, Ajit; Sarma, H D; Kamaleshwaran, K; Thirumalaisamy, P; Dash, Ashutosh

    2014-06-15

    While radiation synovectomy (RSV) constitutes a successful paradigm for the treatment of arthritis, a major cornerstone of its success resides in the selection of appropriate radiolabeled agent. Among the radionuclide used for RSV, the scope of using (177)Lu [T1/2  = 6.65 d, Eβ(max)  = 497 keV, Eγ  = 113 KeV (6.4%), 208 KeV (11%)] seemed to be attractive owing to its suitable decay characteristics, easy availability, and cost-effective production route. The present article describes a formulation of (177)Lu-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) using ready-to-use kits of HA particles of 1-10 µm size range. The developed kits enable convenient one-step preparation of (177)Lu-HA (400 ± 30 MBq doses) in high radiochemical purity (>99%) and stability at hospital radiopharmacy. The preparation showed promising results in pre-clinical studies carried out in Wistar rats bearing arthritis in knee joints. In preliminary clinical investigation, significant improvement in the disease conditions was reported in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis of knee joints treated with 333 ± 46 MBq doses of (177)Lu-HA. The studies reveal that while (177)Lu labeled HA particles holds considerable promise as a cost-effective agent for RSV, the adopted strategy of using HA kits could be a potential step toward wider clinical utilization of radiolanthanide-labeled HA particles. PMID:24966157

  16. BCP ceramic microspheres as drug delivery carriers: synthesis, characterisation and doxycycline release.

    PubMed

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Kumar, T S Sampath

    2008-01-01

    Resorbable ceramics such as biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) are ideal candidates as drug delivery systems. The BCP ceramic is based on the optimum balance of the most stable hydroxyapatite (HA) phase and more soluble tricalcium phosphate phase (TCP). Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used for the local treatment of periodontitis. The development of BCP microspheres and its release kinetics with doxycycline have been studied. The BCP ceramic powder were prepared by microwave processing and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods. The BCP microspheres were formed by liquid immiscibility effect using gelatin and paraffin oil. Difference in the morphology of the microspheres as a function of gelatin content has been observed. Scanning electron microscope indicated spherical and porous morphology of the microspheres. Drug incorporation was studied at varying pH and the pH 7 was found to be optimal for drug loading. Release pattern tend to depend on the morphology of BCP microspheres. An optimum release of 80% drug has been observed for BCP microsphere with HA:TCP=65:35 ratio. The surface area measurement results also correlate with drug release obtained. PMID:17597367

  17. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  18. Facile and controllable synthesis of hydroxyapatite/graphene hybrid materials with enhanced sensing performance towards ammonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huixia; Tan, Yanni; Luo, Lanlan; Duan, Junhao; Li, Kaiyang; Banks, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    In this work, needle-like and micro-spherical agglomerates of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully assembled on the surface of graphene sheets with the aid of dopamine having two roles, as a template and a reductant for graphite oxide during the process of self-polymerization. The crystalline structure and micromorphology of HA can be conveniently regulated by controlling the mineralization route either with a precipitation (cHA/GR) or biomimetic methodology (bHA/GR). Both the composites exhibit improvements of ?150% and ?250% in sensitivity towards the sensing of ammonia at room temperature, compared with that of bare graphene. The combination of the multi-adsorption capability of HA and the electric conductivity of graphene is proposed to be the major reason for the observed enhancements. Gas sensing tests demonstrated that the HA/GR composites exhibit excellent selectivity, high sensitivity and repeatable stability towards the analytical sensing of ammonia. PMID:26066071

  19. Formulation, antimicrobial and toxicity evaluation of bioceramic based ofloxacin loaded biodegradable microspheres for periodontal infection.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Tariq; Rahman, Md Akhlaquer; Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Panda, A K; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat

    2012-09-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to load Poly (Lactic-Co-glycolic acid) microspheres with hydroxyapatite (HA) and ofloxacin and propose the composite microspheres to be used as local drug delivery system with the drug releasing capability for periodontitis treatment. A modified single emulsion method has been used for the preparation of microspheres. Experiments were conducted to optimize the formulation by RSM-Box-Behnken Method, which is an independent quadratic design involving three or four independent variables against a pre determined set of dependant parameters. The particle size of composite microspheres was analyzed and the average size was found to be 22.05 ?m. Photomicrographs and scanning electron micrographs showed that the composite microspheres are spherical in shape and porous in nature. The microbiological activity of optimized formulation was evaluated using strain: S. aureus-ATCC- 29213 and E. coli-ATCC-25922. In vivo/in situ toxicity evaluation of the formulation was assessed by MTT assay and the formulation was found to be biocompatible. PMID:22758655

  20. Production and characterization of HA and SiHA coatings.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qian; Brooks, Roger; Rushton, Neil; Best, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metallic prostheses have been used clinically in dentistry and orthopedics since the mid 1980s. The coating properties are dependent on the spraying parameters. Since silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) has been shown to offer improved bioactivity over phase pure HA, SiHA coatings have the potential for enhanced performance in clinical application. In this study, phase pure HA and 0.8 wt% SiHA powders were synthesized with similar particle size distribution and morphology. The powders were plasma sprayed onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates at 37 kW and 40 kW plasma gun input power respectively. Four kinds of samples were prepared, HAC 37, HAC 40, SiHAC 37 and SiHAC 40. Materials characterization showed that the coatings were of relatively high phase purity. In vitro cell culture demonstrated that human osteoblast cells grew well on all samples, with the highest cell growth observed on SiHA coatings produced under the lower plasma gun input power. PMID:19672562

  1. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Calasans-Maia, Mônica Diuana; Melo, Bruno Raposo de; Alves, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; Resende, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito; Louro, Rafael Seabra; Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA) microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group) (n=5/period/group). After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption. PMID:26814461

  2. Cytocompatibility and biocompatibility of nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite spheres for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    CALASANS-MAIA, Mônica Diuana; de MELO, Bruno Raposo; ALVES, Adriana Terezinha Neves Novellino; RESENDE, Rodrigo Figueiredo de Brito; LOURO, Rafael Seabra; SARTORETTO, Suelen Cristina; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; ALVES, Gutemberg Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo biological responses to nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/calcium alginate (CHA) microspheres used for alveolar bone repair, compared to sintered hydroxyapatite (HA). Material and Methods The maxillary central incisors of 45 Wistar rats were extracted, and the dental sockets were filled with HA, CHA, and blood clot (control group) (n=5/period/group). After 7, 21 and 42 days, the samples of bone with the biomaterials were obtained for histological and histomorphometric analysis, and the plasma levels of RANKL and OPG were determined via immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed by Two-Way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey test at 95% level of significance. Results The CHA and HA microspheres were cytocompatible with both human and murine cells on an in vitro assay. Histological analysis showed the time-dependent increase of newly formed bone in control group characterized by an intense osteoblast activity. In HA and CHA groups, the presence of a slight granulation reaction around the spheres was observed after seven days, which was reduced by the 42nd day. A considerable amount of newly formed bone was observed surrounding the CHA spheres and the biomaterials particles at 42-day time point compared with HA. Histomorphometric analysis showed a significant increase of newly formed bone in CHA group compared with HA after 21 and 42 days from surgery, moreover, CHA showed almost 2-fold greater biosorption than HA at 42 days (two-way ANOVA, p<0.05) indicating greater biosorption. An increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio was observed in the CHA group on the 7th day. Conclusion CHA spheres were osteoconductive and presented earlier biosorption, inducing early increases in the levels of proteins involved in resorption. PMID:26814461

  3. Facilitating the mineralization of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogel by incorporation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nejadnik, M Reza; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2012-05-01

    Exploring strategies to induce the mineralization of hydrogels is an important step toward the development of hydrogel-based materials for bone regeneration. In the current study, the effect of incorporating hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles on the mineralization capacity of an inert poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel was investigated. HA nanoparticles were either directly loaded into oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogel or loaded into commonly used gelatin microsphere porogens that were subsequently integrated in the OPF matrix. Mineralization of composites after immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid up to 28 days was assessed. In contrast to the blank OPF hydrogel, the HA-containing constructs strongly mineralized such that the average rate of calcium uptake by the material was enhanced by orders of magnitude. The mineral formed was observed to be apatitic and needle shaped. The presented method allows modification of inert PEG-based hydrogels into bioactive biomaterials for applications in bone regeneration. PMID:22374694

  4. Robotic deposition of model hydroxyapatite scaffolds with multiple architectures and multiscale porosity for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Jennifer G; Cesarano, Joseph; Jamison, Russell D

    2007-08-01

    Model hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with porosities spanning multiple length scales were fabricated by robocasting, a solid freeform fabrication technique based on the robotic deposition of colloidal pastes. Scaffolds of various architectures including periodic, radial, and superlattice structures were constructed. Macropores (100-600 microm) were designed by controlling the arrangement and spacing between rods of HA. Micropores (1-30 microm) and submicron pores (less than 1 microm) were produced within the rods by including polymer microsphere porogens in the HA pastes and by controlling the sintering of the scaffolds. These model scaffolds may be used to systematically study the effects of scaffold porosity on bone ingrowth processes both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17295231

  5. Nanoscale Adhesion Forces between Enamel Pellicle Proteins and Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Vukosavljevic, D.; Hutter, J.L.; Helmerhorst, E.J.; Xiao, Y.; Custodio, W.; Zaidan, F.C.; Oppenheim, F.G.; Siqueira, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) is important for minimizing the abrasion caused by parafunctional conditions as they occur, for instance, during bruxism. It is a remarkable feature of the AEP that a protein/peptide film can provide enough protection in normofunction to prevent teeth from abrasion and wear. Despite its obvious critical role in the protection of tooth surfaces, the essential adhesion features of AEP proteins on the enamel surface are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to measure the adhesion force between histatin 5, a primary AEP component, and hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. Both biotinylated histatin 5 and biotinylated human serum albumin were allowed to adsorb to streptavidin-coated silica microspheres attached to atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. A multimode AFM with a Nanoscope IIIa controller was used to measure the adhesion force between protein-functionalized silica microspheres attached to cantilever tips and the HA surface. The imaging was performed in tapping mode with a Si3N4 AFM cantilever, while the adhesion forces were measured in AFM contact mode. A collection of force-distance curves (~3,000/replicate) was obtained to generate histograms from which the adhesion forces between histatin 5 or albumin and the HA surface were measured. We found that histatin 5 exhibited stronger adhesion forces (90% >1.830 nN) to the HA surface than did albumin (90% > 0.282 nN). This study presents an objective approach to adhesion force measurements between histatin 5 and HA, and provides the experimental basis for measuring the same parameters for other AEP constituents. Such knowledge will help in the design of synthetic proteins and peptides with preventive and therapeutic benefits for tooth enamel. PMID:24591293

  6. Hydroxyapatite reinforced collagen scaffolds with improved architecture and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert J; Weiss-Bilka, Holly E; Meagher, Matthew J; Liu, Yongxing; Gargac, Joshua A; Niebur, Glen L; Wagner, Diane R; Roeder, Ryan K

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced collagen scaffolds have shown promise for synthetic bone graft substitutes and tissue engineering scaffolds. Freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds are readily fabricated and have exhibited osteogenicity in vivo, but are limited by an inherent scaffold architecture that results in a relatively small pore size and weak mechanical properties. In order to overcome these limitations, HA-collagen scaffolds were prepared by compression molding HA reinforcements and paraffin microspheres within a suspension of concentrated collagen fibrils (? 180 mg/mL), cross-linking the collagen matrix, and leaching the paraffin porogen. HA-collagen scaffolds exhibited an architecture with high porosity (85-90%), interconnected pores ? 300-400 ?m in size, and struts ? 3-100 ?m in thickness containing 0-80 vol% HA whisker or powder reinforcements. HA reinforcement enabled a compressive modulus of up to ? 1 MPa, which was an order of magnitude greater than unreinforced collagen scaffolds. The compressive modulus was also at least one order of magnitude greater than comparable freeze-dried HA-collagen scaffolds and two orders of magnitude greater than absorbable collagen sponges used clinically. Moreover, scaffolds reinforced with up to 60 vol% HA exhibited fully recoverable elastic deformation upon loading to 50% compressive strain for at least 100,000 cycles. Thus, the scaffold mechanical properties were well-suited for surgical handling, fixation, and bearing osteogenic loads during bone regeneration. The scaffold architecture, permeability, and composition were shown to be conducive to the infiltration and differentiation of adipose-derive stromal cells in vitro. Acellular scaffolds were demonstrated to induce angiogenesis and osteogenesis after subcutaneous ectopic implantation by recruiting endogenous cell populations, suggesting that the scaffolds were osteoinductive. PMID:25644451

  7. Osteogenic effect of controlled released rhBMP-2 in 3D printed porous hydroxyapatite scaffold.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Wu, Gui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Kui; Yin, Bo; Su, Xinlin; Qiu, Guixing; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Xianglin; Zhou, Gang; Wu, Zhihong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, 3D printing as effective technology has been highlighted in the biomedical field. Previously, a porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold with the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity has been developed by this method. However, its osteoinductivity is limited. The main purpose of this study was to improve it by the introduction of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). This scaffold was developed by coating rhBMP-2-delivery microspheres with collagen. These synthesized scaffolds were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), a delivery test in vitro, cell culture, and the experiments in vivo by a Micro-computed tomography (μCT) scan and histological evaluation of VanGieson staining. SEM results indicated the surface of scaffolds were more fit for the adhesion of hMSCs to coat collagen/rhBMP-2 microspheres. Biphasic release of rhBMP-2 could continue for more than 21 days, and keep its osteoinductivity to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. In addition, the experiments in vivo showed that the scaffold had a good bone regeneration capacity. These findings demonstrate that the HA/Collagen/Chitosan Microspheres system can simultaneously achieve localized long-term controlled release of rhBMP-2 and bone regeneration, which provides a promising route for improving the treatment of bone defects. PMID:26896655

  8. Microsphere-based selective laser sintering for building macroporous bone scaffolds with controlled microstructure and excellent biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingying; Liu, Haoming; Shuang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianglin; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of bulk biomaterials with controlled structures and excellent properties is increasingly important in tissue engineering, but remains a major challenge in the current stage. Herein we used selective laser sintering (SLS) to construct a series of three-dimensional (3D) bone scaffolds with uniform multi-scaled porosity, moderate mechanical properties as well as good biocompatibility. As starting architectural units for SLS, the pure microspheres of polycaprolactone (PCL) and the composite microspheres of PCL and hydroxyapatite (HA) were firstly synthesized via a modified solvent evaporation method, respectively. Our findings showed that the as-prepared microspheres exhibited the uniform size and monodispersity. Moreover, the microsphere-based 3D scaffolds generated by SLS technique showed a multi-scaled porous structure, and adequate mechanical features. Both in vitro and in vivo evaluations further demonstrated that the resultant SLS-derived scaffolds can not only manipulate multiple stem cell behaviors including promoting cell adhesion, supporting cell proliferation and inducing cell differentiation in vitro, but also showed an excellent histocompatibility and induced the vascularization of newly formed tissue in vivo. Consequently, our current study suggests a feasible and effective protocol for fabricating new biomimetic bone biomaterials via SLS technique, also paves a new way for other bulk biomaterials. PMID:26241919

  9. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and co-polymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  10. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and copolymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  11. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and copolymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  12. OTS-modified HA and its toughening effect on PLLA/HA porous composite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunli; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian; Yang, Chunyu

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, hydroxyapatite (HA) particles was modified with long-chain organic silane-Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), and the modified particles were further used for preparing Poly(L-lactic acid) PLLA/HA porous composite. The modified particles were characterized by means of XRD, FTIR, and XPS techniques. Both XPS and FTIR results showed that OTS had been combined with HA, and the formation of P-O-Si bond, a covalent bond, on the HA particle surface was confirmed by XPS. OTS-modified HA particles were used to prepare porous composites by thermally induced phase separation method. The results showed that the composite had an interconnected pore structure with 100-300 mum macropores. With OTS dosage increasing during modification, the mechanical properties of PLLA/OTS-modified HA porous composites increased obviously. These results showed that OTS modification can effectively improve the interface compatibility between HA surface and PLLA. PMID:18941869

  13. Cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda; Gracia, Luis

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  14. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  15. Dissolution studies of hydroxyapatite and glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, A.C.; Santos, J.D.; Monteiro, F.J.; Prado da Silva, M.H

    2003-03-15

    In the continuous agitation assays, glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (GR-HA) was shown to form a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer, but hydroxyapatite (HA) only formed dispersed precipitates. The formation of this layer was first detected on the GR-HA with a 7.5% glass addition (7.5 GR-HA) after only 3 days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The time required for layer formation decreased as the amount of glass added to the HA increased. The dissolution rate of the materials followed a similar pattern, i.e. the dissolution rate for GR-HA was higher than for HA, and increased with the addition of glass. The immersion of 7.5 GR-HA in water showed almost linear dissolution kinetics over the immersion periods (3, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days). The concentration of calcium ions in solution and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the 7.5 GR-HA specimens immersed in water and in SBF revealed a clear competition between the material dissolution and the precipitation of a CaP phase. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy with alternated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) analysis indicated that the CaP phase that formed during longer immersion times (30 and 60 days) could be a carbonate-substituted CaP precipitate. As expected from previous work, the GR-HA behavior in terms of its in vitro bioactivity is higher than HA because a homogeneous CaP layer is formed and the precipitation occurs faster. From the dissolution test and in accordance with the chemical composition of the samples, GR-HA was more soluble than HA.

  16. Fluorescent microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.

    1978-01-01

    Latex particles with attached antibodies have potential biochemical and environmental applications. Human red blood cells and lymphocytes have been labeled with fluorescent microspheres by either direct or indirect immunological technique. Immunolatex spheres can also be used for detecting and localizing specific cell surface receptors. Hormones and toxins may also be bondable.

  17. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  18. Physical and chemical aspects of a new porous hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Martinetti, R; Dolcini, L; Mangano, C

    2005-02-01

    The new engineered porous hydroxyapatite (EP-HA) described in this paper seems to be suitable as a bone substitute. Its physico-chemical characteristics and morphology are similar to those of natural bone. Study of its histological behaviour in humans revealed bone formation within and around the porous hydroxyapatite that is markedly resorbed. PMID:15692812

  19. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  20. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, R.M.

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  1. Hybrid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Substrates, particularly inert synthetic organic resin beads (10) or sheet (12) such as polystyrene are coated with a covalently bound layer (24) of polyacrolein by irradiation a solution (14) of acrolein or other aldehyde with high intensity radiation. Individual microspheres (22) are formed which attach to the surface to form the aldehyde containing layer (24). The aldehyde groups can be converted to other functional groups by reaction with materials such as hydroxylamine. Adducts of proteins such as antibodies or enzymes can be formed by direct reaction with the surface aldehyde groups.

  2. Biodegradable composites with aligned hydroxyapatite nanoneedles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shih-Po; Wei, Mei; Olson, James R; Shaw, Montgomery T

    2012-10-01

    We prepared an anisotropic bone graft composite to mimic the hierarchical structure of the natural bone in which aligned hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals deposit along collagen fibers. To approach the modulus and strength of the bone, we incorporated synthesized HA nanoneedles and melt drawn poly(L-lactic acid) fibers in our composite as reinforcing components. Their preferred orientation was induced via a modified pultrusion process. The HA orientation distribution was examined using wide angle X-ray diffraction. Micromechanical Halpin-Tsai model predictions considering the amount, shape, and orientation distribution of HA were compared, favorably, with the experimental observations. PMID:22821763

  3. Fabrication and characterization of needle-like nano-HA and HA/MWNT composites.

    PubMed

    Meng, Y H; Tang, Chak Yin; Tsui, Chi Pong; Chen, Da Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic has been used in tissue engineering and orthopedics for its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, its clinical applications are usually limited by the low strength and brittleness. The objective of this research was to develop a new kind of HA composites in which multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were introduced to the HA ceramic matrix to improve the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. A simple chemical wet method was applied to synthesize the HA ceramic particles with the aid of surfactant and ultrasonication technique at normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized HA were characterized by XRD and TEM as a function of treatment time. The results showed that the synthesized HA particles are needle-like with a length of 80-160 nm along the (211) direction and an aspect ratio of 5-15. MWNTs were treated with a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. The HA/MWNT composites were prepared by solution blending. The composites were sintered using a hot-press method. The mechanical properties of the HA/MWNT composites with different volume percentages of MWNTs were examined. The fracture toughness and flexural strength were improved by 50% and 28% separately when the volume percentage of MWNTs reached 7%. PMID:17577639

  4. microsphere assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pea-Flores, Jess I.; Palomec-Garfias, Abraham F.; Mrquez-Beltrn, Csar; Snchez-Mora, Enrique; Gmez-Barojas, Estela; Prez-Rodrguez, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    The effect of Fe ion concentration on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of TiO2 films supported on silica (SiO2) opals has been studied. TiO2:Fe2O3 films were prepared by the sol-gel method in combination with a vertical dip coating procedure; precursor solutions of Ti and Fe were deposited on a monolayer of SiO2 opals previously deposited on a glass substrate by the same procedure. After the dip coating process has been carried out, the samples were thermally treated to obtain the TiO2:Fe2O3/SiO2 composites at the Fe ion concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show the formation of colloidal silica microspheres of about 50 nm diameter autoensembled in a hexagonal close-packed fashion. Although the X-ray diffractograms show no significant effect of Fe ion concentration on the crystal structure of TiO2, the ?-Raman and reflectance spectra do show that the intensity of a phonon vibration mode and the energy bandgap of TiO2 decrease as the Fe+3 ion concentration increases.

  5. Preparation of irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hualin Zhai Linfeng; Li Yanhong; Shi Tiejun

    2008-06-03

    An irregular mesoporous hydroxyapatite (meso-HA), Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, is successfully prepared from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} using surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results reveal that the positive head of CTAB is assembled on the surface precipitated HA and much NH{sub 4}{sup +} is enclosed in precipitated HA before calcination. Field scanning electron microscope (FSEM) reveals that there exist many interconnected pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment exhibits a mesoporous material type IV curve, and pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch of the isotherms based on Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) model shows that most pores throughout the HA reticular skeleton are sized at about 40 nm, but the pores are not uniform on the whole, owning to decomposition of the 'organic' CTAB templating structures and ammonium salt enclosed in the precipitated HA. The specific surface area of irregular meso-HA is calculated to be 37.6 m{sup 2}/g according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equation. Moreover, after polylactic acid/meso-HA (PLA/meso-HA) composites degraded 12 weeks in normal saline at 37 deg. C, the interconnected pores throughout the HA skeleton were enlarged and sized in micron degree, which resemble trabecular bone structure very much.

  6. Hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, W R

    1988-01-01

    Four coating techniques were evaluated to determine which is most suitable for producing a dense, highly adherent coating onto metallic and ceramic implant materials. Two of the selected coating methods have serious limitations for use in this particular application, and did not meet the specified criteria for satisfactory coating as defined in the initial stages of the study. For example, the dip coating-sintering technique was judged to be unsatisfactory because of the adverse effect of the high-temperature sintering cycle on the mechanical properties of the metallic substrate materials. These materials could not be used in load-bearing applications because of the excessive grain growth and loss of the wrought structure of both the commercially pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V substrates, and the loss of ductility in the cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Another area of concern was that bond strength between the HA coating and the substrate was not high enough to insure that interfacial failure would not occur during the lifetime of the implant. The immersion-coating technique, in which the metal substrate is immersed into the molten ceramic, was shown in a previous study to be the best method of coating a bioreactive glass onto a Co-Cr-Mo implant. Heating HA above its melting temperature, however, caused undesired compositional and structural changes, and upon solidification very limited adherence between the modified ceramic and substrate material occurred under the conditions of this study. The HIP technique, in which the Ti powder substrate and the HA powder coating are sintered together in a high-pressure autoclave, shows great promise for the fabrication of high-quality composite implants. Initial studies have indicated that high-density Ti substrates with a small grain size that are well bonded to a dense HA coating can be produced under optimum conditions. Sintering and densification additives, such as SiO2 powder, do not appear to be necessary. The main drawback to this technique appears to be the reaction of the encapsulating material--whether soda glass, steel, or fused silica--to the HA coating. More extensive testing will necessary to determine the ideal conditions for the HIP technique, as efforts on this technique were discontinued in order to concentrate on the HIP technique, as efforts on this technique were discontinued in order to concentrate on the optimization of the sputter-coating technique so that coated implants for an animal study could be produced on schedule. Based on the results of this study, sputter coating appears to be the method of choice for forming a dense, adherent coating of HA onto a metal substrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3382133

  7. Strontium-phosphate hydroxyapatite high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, T; Niikura, M; Takahashi, S; Kobayashi, W

    1987-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography using spherical aggregates of strontium-phosphate hydroxyapatite(SrHA) micro-crystals as adsorbent has been developed; preliminary performance tests were carried out by using several types of protein. It can be deduced that, in parallel with the case of usual calcium-phosphate hydroxyapatite(CaHA), with SrHA also, two types of effective surface, vector a (or vector b) and vector c surfaces, appear on the crystal: the same protein molecular generally shows slightly different chromatographic behaviors between the CaHA and the SrHA packed column. Combining the SrHA and the CaHA packed column would lead to an efficient fractionation of a particular molecule from an assembly of molecules with subtle structural differences from one another. PMID:2830881

  8. Removal of Uranium in Drinking Water: Brimac Environmental Services, Inc. Brimac HA 216 Adsorptive Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brimac HA 216 Adsorptive Media was tested for uranium (U) removal from a drinking water source (well water) at Grappone Toyota located in Bow, New Hampshire. The HA 216 media is a hydroxyapatite-based material. A pilot unit, consisting of a TIGG Corporation Cansorb C-5 ste...

  9. Removal of Uranium in Drinking Water: Brimac Environmental Services, Inc. Brimac HA 216 Adsorptive Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brimac HA 216 Adsorptive Media was tested for uranium (U) removal from a drinking water source (well water) at Grappone Toyota located in Bow, New Hampshire. The HA 216 media is a hydroxyapatite-based material. A pilot unit, consisting of a TIGG Corporation Cansorb® C-5 ste...

  10. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, P. K.; Swain, P. K.; Patnaik, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles.

  11. The thermal spray processing of HA powders and coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.; Cheang, P.; Wang, Y.

    1997-02-01

    In recent years, coated implants have been actively researched and put to use in many biomedical engineering applications. The coating used on the implants is hydroxyapatite (HA), a calcium-phosphate compound with attractive bioactive and biocompatible properties that can enhance the fixation process of biomedical implants. Thermal spraying provides a potent means for depositing the HA coatings on implants. Among the populat thermal-spray techniques are combustion-flame spray, plasma spray, and high-velocity oxy-fuel spray. This article investigates the versatility of thermal-spray techniques to perform spheroidization of HA powders, the preparation of HA-based biocomposite powders and coatings, and the deposition of HA coatings.

  12. Processing and mechanical properties of HA/UHMWPE nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liming; Leng, Yang; Gao, Ping

    2006-07-01

    A hydroxyapatite (HA) particulate reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) nanocomposite was fabricated by compounding HA and UHMWPE mixtures in paraffin oil using twin-screw extrusion and then compression molding. Scanning electron microscope images revealed that HA aggregates were broken down to nano-sized particles and homogeneously dispersed in UHMWPE by the combined processes of twin-screw extrusion and UHMWPE swelling treatment. Transmission electron microscope images indicated the HA particles and UHMWPE matrix were intimately contacted through mechanical interlocking. The composite with the HA volume fraction of 0.23 exhibited a Young's modulus nine times higher than that of UHMWPE, while the composite maintained the excellent toughness feature of UHMWPE. The fracture strain reached over 300%, significantly higher than other types of biocomposites. PMID:16564570

  13. Influence of Barium Hexaferrite on Magnetic Properties of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Jarupoom, P; Jaita, P

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powders was derived from natural bovine bone by sequence of thermal processes. The barium hexaferrite (BF) find magnetic powders were added into HA powders in ratio of 1-3 vol.%. The HA-BF ceramics were prepared by a solid state reaction method and sintered at 1250 degrees C for 2 h. Effects of BF additive on structural, physical and magnetic properties of HA ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed that all HA-BF samples showed a main phase of high purity hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] with calcium and phosphate molar ratio of 1.67. The addition of BF into HA inhibited grain growth and caused an improvement of mechanical properties. The M-H hysteresis loops also showed an improvement in magnetic behavior for higher content of BF. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity test indicated that the 2-3 vol.% sample may be suitable for biological applications. PMID:26726671

  14. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  15. A prospective randomized study comparing electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite on titanium stems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) is a successful coating for fixation of uncemented femoral stems. There may be alternative coatings with advantages in bone remodeling and transport of bone-active substances. We investigated whether an electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite, Bonemaster (BM), might be a safe alternative in total hip arthroplasty. Our hypothesis was that the new coating would not be inferior to the conventional one. Patients and methods 50 patients (55 hips) were included. The stem was tapered and porous-coated proximally. On top of the porous coating was either HA or BM. Patients were evaluated postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months to measure fixation by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and conventional radiography. Clinical evaluation was performed with Harris hip score and Oxford hip score, both preoperatively and after 2 years. Results After 2 years, the stems had subsided 0.25 (HA) and 0.28 (BM) mm and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any direction, regarding both migration and rotation. The BM group retained significantly more bone than the HA group in Gruen zone 1 during the first 2 years. The Harris and Oxford hip scores were similar in both groups. Interpretation Electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite on an uncemented stem does not appear to be inferior to plasma-sprayed HA regarding clinical and radiological results, bone remodeling, and micromotion after 2 years follow-up. PMID:21189109

  16. Development of model hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds with multiscale porosity for potential load bearing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Jennifer Gwynne

    2005-11-01

    Model hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffolds consisting of a latticed pattern of rods were fabricated by a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique based on the robotic deposition of colloidal pastes. An optimal HA paste formulation for this method was developed. Local porosity, i.e. microporosity (1--30 mum) and sintering porosity (less than 1 mum), were produced by including polymer microsphere porogens in the HA pastes and by controlling the sintering of the scaffolds. Scaffolds with and without local porosity were evaluated with and without in vitro accelerated degradation. Percent weight loss of the scaffolds and calcium and phosphorus concentrations in solution increased with degradation time. After degradation, compressive strength and modulus decreased significantly for scaffolds with local porosity, but did not change significantly for scaffolds without local porosity. The compressive strength and modulus of scaffolds without local porosity were comparable to human cortical bone and were significantly greater than the scaffolds with local porosity. Micropores in HA disks caused surface pits that increased the surface roughness as compared to non-microporous HA disks. Mouse mesenchymal stem cells extended their cell processes into these microporous pits on HA disks in vitro. ALP expression was prolonged, cell attachment strength increased, and ECM production appeared greater on microporous HA disks compared to non-microporous HA disks and tissue culture treated polystyrene controls. Scaffolds with and without microporosity were implanted in goats bones. Microporous scaffolds with rhBMP-2 increased the percent of the scaffold filled with bone tissue compared to microporous scaffolds without rhBMP-2. Lamellar bone inside scaffolds was aligned near the rods junctions whereas lamellar bone was aligned in a more random configuration away from the rod junctions. Microporous scaffolds stained darkly with toluidine blue beneath areas of contact with new bone. This staining might indicate either extracellular matrix (ECM) in the rods or dye bound to the degrading scaffold. Although the presence of microporous topography alone did not influence bone healing in vivo, micropores were shown to provide tailorability of scaffold mechanical properties, provide a location for the storage and controlled release of a growth factor, and provide a location for bone integration inside the scaffold rods.

  17. Surface-induced changes in the conformation and glucan production of glucosyltransferase adsorbed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fears, Kenan P; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Love, Corey T; Day, Delbert E; Koo, Hyun

    2015-04-28

    Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) from S. mutans play critical roles in the development of virulent oral biofilms associated with dental caries disease. Gtfs adsorbed to the tooth surface produce glucans that promote local microbial colonization and provide an insoluble exopolysaccharides (EPS) matrix that facilitates biofilm initiation. Moreover, agents that inhibit the enzymatic activity of Gtfs in solution often have reduced or no effects on surface-adsorbed Gtfs. This study elucidated the mechanisms responsible for the differences in functionality that GtfB exhibits in solution vs surface-adsorbed. Upon adsorption to planar fused-quartz substrates, GtfB displayed a 37% loss of helices and 36% increase of ?-sheets, as determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and surface-induced conformational changes were more severe on substrates modified with CH3- and NH2-terminated self-assembled monolayers. GtfB also underwent substantial conformation changes when adsorbing to hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres, likely due to electrostatic interactions between negatively charged GtfB and positively charged HA crystal faces. Conformational changes were lessened when HA surfaces were coated with saliva (sHA) prior to GtfB adsorption. Furthermore, GtfB remained highly active on sHA, as determined by in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, producing glucans that were structurally different than GtfB in solution and known to increase the accumulation and virulence of biofilms. Our data provide the first insight into the structural underpinnings governing Gtf conformation and enzymatic function that occur on tooth surfaces in vivo, which may lead to designing potent new inhibitors and improved strategies to combat the formation of pathogenic oral biofilms. PMID:25867796

  18. Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite/Si Coating by Mechanical Alloying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Hannora, Ahmed E.; Mukasyan, Alexander S.; Mansurov, Zulkhair A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) films on titanium substrates by using mechanical alloying (MA) technique has been developed. However, it was shown that one-hour heat treatment at 800C of such mechanically coated HA layer leads to partial transformation of desired HA phase to beta-tri-calcium phosphate (?-TCP) phase. It appears that the grain boundary and interface defects formed during MA promote this transformation. It was discovered that doping HA by silicon results in hindering this phase transformation process. The Si-doped HA does not show phase transition to ?-TCP or decomposition after heat treatment even at 900C. PMID:22312324

  19. In situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi; Luo, Zhiping

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile chemical precipitation method is reported for effective in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite on graphene nanosheets. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. Display Omitted Highlights: ► It is a facile and effective method for deposition of HA on GR nanosheets. ► It avoids the use of harmful reducing agents like hydrazine, NaBH{sub 4} etc. ► GR nanosheets were produced using bio-compatible, ethylenediamine. ► The graphitic structure of synthesized GR nanosheets was high ordered. ► The ratio of Ca to P in HA was 1.64, which is close to ratio in natural bone. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets were effectively functionalized by in situ deposition of hydroxyapatite through a facile chemical precipitation method. Prior to grafting of hydroxyapatite, chemically modified graphene nanosheets were obtained by the reduction of graphene oxide in presence of ethylenediamine. The resulting hydroxyapatite functionalized graphene nanosheets were characterized by attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. These characterization techniques revealed the successful grafting of hydroxyapatite over well exfoliated graphene nanosheets without destroying their structure.

  20. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Henning, S.A.

    1990-12-31

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800--1200{mu} diameter and 100--300{mu} wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  1. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Henning, Sten A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  2. Metabolism of proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The literature of metabolism in proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres is reviewed and criticized from a biochemical and experimental point of view. Closely related literature is also reviewed in order to understand the function of proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres. Proteinoids or proteinoid microspheres have many activities. Esterolyis, decarboxylation, amination, deamination, and oxidoreduction are catabolic enzyme activities. The formation of ATP, peptides or oligonucleotides is synthetic enzyme activities. Additional activities are hormonal and inhibitory. Selective formation of peptides is an activity of nucleoproteinoid microspheres; these are a model for ribosomes. Mechanisms of peptide and oligonucleotide syntheses from amino acids and nucleotide triphosphate by proteinoid microspheres are tentatively proposed as an integrative consequence of reviewing the literature.

  3. Metabolism of proteinoid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The literature of metabolism in proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres is reviewed and criticized from a biochemical and experimental point of view. Closely related literature is also reviewed in order to understand the function of proteinoids and proteinoid microspheres. Proteinoids or proteinoid microspheres have many activities. Esterolysis, decarboxylation, amination, deamination, and oxidoreduction are catabolic enzyme activities. The formation of ATP, peptides or oligonucleotides is synthetic enzyme activities. Additional activities are hormonal and inhibitory. Selective formation of peptides is an activity of nucleoproteinoid microspheres; these are a model for ribosomes. Mechanisms of peptide and oligonucleotide syntheses from amino acids and nucleotide triphosphate by proteinoid microspheres are tentatively proposed as an integrative consequence of reviewing the literature.

  4. Effects of degradation and porosity on the load bearing properties of model hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds.

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, Jennifer Gwynne; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Jamison, Russell D.; Wojtowicz, Abigail M.

    2005-06-01

    Degradation of three types of model hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds was studied after in vitro degradation in a sodium acetate buffer (pH 4). Degradation was evaluated using compression testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and weight measurements. Scaffolds were fabricated with a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique based on the robotic deposition of colloidal pastes. Scaffolds had a macrostructure resembling a lattice of rods. Scaffolds contained either macropores (270 or 680 m in the x-y direction and 280 m in the z-direction) and micropores (1-30-m pores and pores <1 m) or only macropores pores (270 m in the x-y direction and 280 m in the z-direction). A computer-aided design (CAD) program controlled the size and distribution of macropores; micropores were created by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microsphere porogens (1-30-m pore diameter) and controlled sintering (pores <1 m). Percent weight loss of the scaffolds and calcium and phosphorus ion concentrations in solution increased as the degradation period increased for all scaffold types. After degradation, compressive strength and compressive modulus decreased significantly for those scaffolds with microporosity. For scaffolds without microporosity, the changes in strength and modulus after degradation were not statistically significant. The compressive strength of scaffolds without microporosity was significantly greater than the scaffolds with microporosity.

  5. Effects of degradation and porosity on the load bearing properties of model hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Jennifer G; Wojtowicz, Abigail M; Jamison, Russell D

    2006-06-01

    Degradation of three types of model hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds was studied after in vitro degradation in a sodium acetate buffer (pH 4). Degradation was evaluated using compression testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and weight measurements. Scaffolds were fabricated with a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique based on the robotic deposition of colloidal pastes. Scaffolds had a macrostructure resembling a lattice of rods. Scaffolds contained either macropores (270 or 680 microm in the x-y direction and 280 microm in the z-direction) and micropores (1-30-microm pores and pores <1 microm) or only macropores pores (270 microm in the x-y direction and 280 microm in the z-direction). A computer-aided design (CAD) program controlled the size and distribution of macropores; micropores were created by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microsphere porogens (1-30-microm pore diameter) and controlled sintering (pores <1 microm). Percent weight loss of the scaffolds and calcium and phosphorus ion concentrations in solution increased as the degradation period increased for all scaffold types. After degradation, compressive strength and compressive modulus decreased significantly for those scaffolds with microporosity. For scaffolds without microporosity, the changes in strength and modulus after degradation were not statistically significant. The compressive strength of scaffolds without microporosity was significantly greater than the scaffolds with microporosity. PMID:16498598

  6. Electrospinning of Hyaluronic acid (HA) and HA/Gelatin Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Aihua; Li, Junxing; Han, Charles; Fang, Dufei; Hsiao, Benjamin; Chu, Benjamin

    2007-03-01

    It was found that the processability of HA solution with high viscosity had been improved greatly by using a DMF-water solvent mixture or/and by adding gelatin(GE) into the HA solution. Nano-fibrous membranes with different average fiber diameters and different HA/GE compositions could be obtained. Measurements on viscosity indicated that the HA solution in DMF-water mixed solvent still showed high viscosity. The decrease in surface tension contributed to the fiber formation of HA and HA/GE by electrospinning. Therefore, this study not only provided a novel and simpler way to electrospin the natural polyanion HA solution, but also provided the fundamental physical insight and solution to this spinning difficulty. The HA-GE nanofibrous membranes at different HA/GE compositions are expected to be useful in the biomedical field as novel scaffolds for many applications.

  7. Characterization, Corrosion Resistance, and Cell Response of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed HA and HA/TiO2 Coatings on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Hazoor

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate corrosion and biocompatibility behavior of thermal spray hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite/titania bond (HA/TiO2)-coated 316L stainless steel (316L SS). In HA/TiO2 coatings, TiO2 was used as a bond coat between HA top coat and 316L SS substrate. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and corrosion resistance determined for the uncoated substrate and the two coatings. The biological behavior was investigated by the cell culture studies using osteosarcoma cell line KHOS-NP (R-970-5). The corrosion resistance of the steel was found to increase after the deposition of the HA and HA/TiO2 bond coatings. Both HA, as well as, HA/TiO2 coatings exhibit excellent bond strength of 49 and 47 MPa, respectively. The cell culture studies showed that HA-coated 316L SS specimens appeared more biocompatible than the uncoated and HA/TiO2-coated 316L SS specimens.

  8. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements. PMID:15875256

  9. Controlled, sustained release of proteins via an injectable, mineral-coated microsphere delivery vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin-Ford, Travelle

    Hydroxyapatite interfaces have demonstrated strong protein binding and protein selection from a passing solution and can serve as a biocompatible carrier for controlled protein delivery. Hydroxyapatite is a major component of long bones and tooth enamel and is the most stable of all calcium phosphate isoforms in aqueous solutions at physiologic pH, providing a sensitive chromatographic mechanism for separating proteins. Here we describe an approach to create a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating through a biomimetic, heterogeneous nucleation from a modified simulated body fluid--supersaturated with calcium and phosphate ions on the surface of injectable polymer microspheres. We are able to bind and release bioactive growth factors into a variety of in vitro and in vivo conditions, demonstrating the functionality and advantage of the biomaterial. Creating a hydroxyapatite layer on the Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microsphere surface, avails the microsphere interior for another application that will not compete with protein binding and release. Encapsulating an imaging agent within the aqueous phase of the emulsion provides a visual reference for the injectable therapy upon microsphere fabrication. Another advantage of this system is that the mineral coating and subsequent protein binding is not compromised by the encapsulated imaging agent. This dual function delivery vehicle is not only advantageous for spatial tracking therapeutic applications, but also determining the longevity of the delivery vehicle once injected. In the broader sense, providing a mechanism to image and track our temporally controlled, sustained delivery system gives more evidence to support the effects of released protein on in vivo responses (bioactivity) and locate microspheres within different biological systems.

  10. Adhesion behaviors of Escherichia coli on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Takahashi, Shohei; Yokoi, Taishi; Inoue, Chihiro; Ioku, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Optimum design of support materials for microorganisms is required for the construction of bioreactors. However, the effects of support materials on microorganisms are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on hydroxyapatite (HA), polyurethane (PU), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and carbon (Carbon) to obtain basic knowledge for the design of support materials. The total metabolic activity and number of E. coli adhering on the samples followed the order of HA≈Carbon>PVC>PU. On the other hand, the water contact angle of the pellet surfaces followed the order of HAHA surface might be one of the suitable characters for the adhesion of E. coli. The results implied that HA has a potential as a support material for microorganisms used in bioreactors. PMID:26838837

  11. Porous hydroxyapatite-gelatin composites with functions of bone substitutes and drug releasing agents: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopyan, I.; Sulaiman, N. S.; Gustiono, D.; Herdianto, N.

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical composites made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bonded with a biodegradable polymeric matrix gelatin have been prepared. This device is expected to be useful as an excellent bone graft with bioactive hydroxyapatite which will facilitate new bone formation and at the same time it could functions as drug delivery with a controlled release rate. In this preliminary report, we wish to present preparation and physical characterization of the biomedical composite and the non-biodegradable porous hydroxyapatite composing the matrix of the composite. Porous hydroxyapatite was prepared via polymeric sponge method using hydroxyapatite nanopowders which were prepared via sol-gel procedure. Suspensions of the sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite powder was prepared with an adjusted loading of hydroxyapatite, using a dispersant. After soaking cellulosic sponges into the suspension, the sponges were dried and then subjected to heat-treatment at 600C, followed by sintering at 1250C for 1h. Three types of porous hydroxyapatite samples have been prepared in various composition of hydroxyapatite suspension. Porous hydroxyapatite bodies produced from slurry with less hydroxyapatite powder content and more dispersant amount yielded higher porosity and thus causing weaker compressive strength. Compressive strengths varied between 0.67 and 1.94 MPa depending on the porosity of the sample. Porosity plays important role in gelatin loading; the amount of gelatin coated on the porous hydroxyapatite bodies depend on porosity and the gelatin concentration in water solution. The higher porosity the more gelatin can be absorbed by the porous body.

  12. Effect of Thickness of HA-Coating on Microporous Silk Scaffolds Using Alternate Soaking Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Xue, Yingsen; Hao, Zhangying; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Xiangli; Fan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated on various materials surface and has the function of osteogenicity. Microporous silk scaffold has excellent biocompatibility. In this study, alternate soaking technology was used to coat HA on microporous silk scaffolds. However, the cell proliferation was found to decrease with the increasing thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating. This study aims to determine the best thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds. The SEM observation showed that group with one cycle of alternate soaking (1C-HA) has the most optimal porosity like non-HA-modified microporous silk scaffolds. The proliferation of osteoblasts has no significant difference between noncoated HA (N-HA) and 1C-HA groups, which are both significantly higher than those in two cycles of soaking (2C-HA) and three cycles of soaking (3C-HA) groups. The transcription levels of specific genes (runx2 and osteonectin) in osteoblasts of 1C-HA group were significantly higher than those of N-HA group. Moreover, the levels showed no significant difference among 1C-HA, 2C-HA, and 3C-HA groups. In conclusion, microporous silk scaffold with 1 cycle of HA-coating can combine the biocompatibility of silk and osteogenicity of HA. PMID:25093176

  13. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  14. Surface Corrosion of Nanoscaled Hydroxyapatite During an In Vivo Experiment.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong

    2015-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely used as a bioactive ceramics as it forms a chemical bond with bone. However, the drawback to using this material is its inferior mechanical properties. In this research, surface corrosion and disintegration of nanoscaled HA in a dog were studied, and the mechanism by which phase-pure HA dissolved in vivo was investigated. Biological properties of HA in vivo are affected by the grain-boundary dissolution followed by a surface corrosion and microstructural disintegration. This kind of dissolution process, apparently evidenced at the grain boundary, causes particle generation, which indicates that both long-term bone in-growth and mechanical properties can dramatically deteriorate. Implant dissolution by osteoclasts in vivo is also observed on the surface of hydroxyapatite. Implant surface showed an aggressive corrosion by an osteoclast resorption. Severe and deeper dissolution underwent close to osteoclast resulting in formation of smaller and more round particle shape. PMID:26726450

  15. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kong, Fung-Ming; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  16. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  17. Growth of one-dimensional single-crystalline hydroxyapatite nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuzeng; Ding, Yonghui; Ge, Xiang; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Kefeng; Leng, Yang

    2012-06-01

    A facile, effective and template/surfactant-free hydrothermal route in the presence of sodium bicarbonate was developed to synthesize highly uniform single-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with the lengths of several hundred nanometers and aspect ratio up to 20. One dimensional (1-D) growth and aspect ratio could be controlled by hydrothermal reaction time and temperature. The longitudinal axis, also the growth direction of the nanorods, is parallel to the [001] direction of HA hexagonal crystal structure.

  18. Synthesis, structural properties and thermal stability of Mn-doped hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czes?awa; ?lsarczyk, Anna; Pijocha, Dawid; Sitarz, Maciej; Bu?ko, Miros?aw; Zima, Aneta; Chr?cicka, Anna; Lewandowska-Szumie?, Ma?gorzata

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) - Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2 is a basic inorganic model component of hard biological tissues, such as bones and teeth. The significant property of HA is its ability to exchange Ca 2+ ions, which influences crystallinity, physico-chemical and biological properties of modified hydroxyapatite materials. In this work, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and EDS techniques were used to determine thermal stability, chemical and phase composition of Mn containing hydroxyapatite (MnHA). Described methods confirmed thermal decomposition and phase transformation of MnHA to ?TCP, ?TCP and formation of Mn 3O 4 depending on sintering temperature and manganese content. In vitro biological evaluation of Mn-modified HA ceramics was also performed using human osteoblast cells.

  19. Improvement of the stability of hydroxyapatite through glass ceramic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Ha, Na Ra; Yang, Zheng Xun; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Kim, Tae Suk; Lee, Jong Kook

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite has achieved significant application in orthopedic and dental implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Sintered hydroxyapatites showed significant dissolution, however, after their immersion in water or simulated body fluid (SBF). This grain boundary dissolution, even in pure hydroxyapatites, resulted in grain separation at the surfaces, and finally, in fracture. In this study, hydroxyapatite ceramics containing apatite-wollastonite (AW) or calcium silicate (SG) glass ceramics as additives were prepared to prevent the dissolution. AW and SG glass ceramics were added at 0-7 wt% and powder-compacted uniaxially followed by firing at moisture conditions. The glass phase was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite to act as a sintering aid, followed by crystallization, to improve the mechanical properties without reducing the biocompatibility. As seen in the results of the dissolution test, a significant amount of damage was reduced even after more than 14 days. TEM and SEM showed no decomposition of HA to the secondary phase, and the fracture toughness increased, becoming even higher than that of the commercial hydroxyapatite. PMID:20358978

  20. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Tulinski M; Jurczyk M

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts).

  1. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts). PMID:23421285

  2. HDPE-HA composites synthetized by in situ polymerization with different filler content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermán, V.; Karam, A.; Albano, C.; Romero, K.; González, G.

    2012-07-01

    In Situ ethylene polymerization was used to synthesize high density polyethylene - hydroxyapatite (HDPE-HA) composites, employing Cp2ZrCl2/MAO as catalytic system. A good dispersion of HA into the HDPE matrix was obtained when the following synthesis conditions were combined: high stirring velocities (2000 rpm), low quantities of solvent (100 mL), and 10 °C. Under these conditions different filler content was used to synthetized HDPE-HA composites. An interaction between HA and HDPE was obtained by FTIR. On the other hand, thermal analysis indicated that no significant differences were observed between HDPE and the composites.

  3. The Effect of Zirconia in Hydroxyapatite on Staphylococcus epidermidis Growth

    PubMed Central

    Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Sunarintyas, Siti; Tontowi, Alva Edy

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used and developed as the material for bone substitute in medical applications. The addition of zirconia is needed to improve the strength of hydroxyapatite as the bone substitute. One of the drawbacks in the use of biomedical materials is the occurrence of biomaterial-centred infections. The recent method of limiting the presence of microorganism on biomaterials is by providing biomaterial-bound metal-containing compositions. In this case, S. epidermidis is the most common infectious organism in biomedical-centred infection. Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of zirconia concentrations in hydroxyapatite on the growth of S. epidermidis. Methods and Materials. The subjects of this study were twenty hydroxyapatite discs, divided into four groups in which one was the control and the other three were the treatment groups. Zirconia powder with the concentrations of 20%, 30%, and 40% was added into the three different treatment groups. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed according to the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-zirconia specimens. All discs were immersed into S. epidermidis culture for 24 hours and later on they were soaked into a medium of PBS. The cultured medium was spread on mannitol salt agar. After incubation for 24 hours at 37C , the number of colonies was measured with colony counter. Data obtained were analyzed using the ANOVA followed by the pairwise comparison. Result. The statistical analysis showed that different concentrations of zirconia powder significantly influenced the number of S. epidermidis colony (P < 0.05) . Conclusion. The addition of zirconia into hydroxyapatite affected the growth of S. epidermidis. Hydroxyapatite with 20% zirconia proved to be an effective concentration to inhibit the growth of S. epidermidis colony. PMID:22919390

  4. First principles study of hydroxyapatite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepko, Alexander; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2013-07-01

    The biomineral hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is the main mineral constituent of mammal bone. We report a theoretical investigation of the HA surface. We identify the low energy surface orientations and stoichiometry under a variety of chemical environments. The surface most stable in the physiologically relevant OH-rich environment is the OH-terminated (1000) surface. We calculate the work function of HA and relate it to the surface composition. For the lowest energy OH-terminated surface we find the work function of 5.1 eV, in close agreement with the experimentally reported range of 4.7 eV-5.1 eV [V. S. Bystrov, E. Paramonova, Y. Dekhtyar, A. Katashev, A. Karlov, N. Polyaka, A. V. Bystrova, A. Patmalnieks, and A. L. Kholkin, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 065302 (2011), 10.1088/0953-8984/23/6/065302].

  5. Preparation and characterization of PHBV microsphere/45S5 bioactive glass composite scaffolds with vancomycin releasing function.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ding, Yaping; Rai, Ranjana; Roether, Judith A; Schubert, Dirk W; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-08-01

    PHBV microsphere/45S5 bioactive glass (BG) composite scaffolds with drug release function were developed for bone tissue engineering. BG-based glass-ceramic scaffolds with high porosity (94%) and interconnected pore structure prepared by foam replication method were coated with PHBV microspheres (nominal diameter=3.5 ?m) produced by water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion solvent evaporation method. A homogeneous microsphere coating throughout the porous structure of scaffolds was obtained by a simple dip coating method, using the slurry of PHBV microspheres in hexane. Compressive strength tests showed that the microsphere coating slightly improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. It was confirmed that the microsphere coating did not inhibit the bioactivity of the scaffolds in SBF. Hydroxyapatite crystals homogeneously grew not only on the struts of the scaffolds but also on the surface of microspheres within 7 days of immersion in SBF. Vancomycin was successfully encapsulated into the PHBV microspheres. The encapsulated vancomycin was released with a dual release profile involving a relatively low initial burst release (21%) and a sustained release (1 month), which is favorable compared to the high initial burst release (77%) and short release period (4 days) measured on uncoated scaffolds. The developed bioactive composite scaffold with drug delivery function has thus the potential to be used advantageously in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24907766

  6. Silk fibroin regulated mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X. D.; Cui, F. Z.; Wang, X. M.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, W.

    2004-09-01

    In the present study, silk fibroin was employed to regulate the mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals. The calcium phosphate crystals precipitated in the aqueous solution of silk fibroin at pH 8 and room temperature. The depositions collected at different reaction time were detected by X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the mineralization process of calcium phosphate. The results indicated that fibroin protein could significantly promote the crystal growth of HA. The formed HA crystals were also studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR results revealed that the HA crystals are carbonate-substituted HA and compounded with fibroin. There are strong chemical interactions between HA and fibroin protein, which can be derived from the blue shift of amide II peak (from the position of 1517-1539 cm-1). TEM images showed that the mineralized nanofibrils in the composites are rod like in shape with the diameter of about 2-3 nm. Selected area electron diffraction patterns from the composites exhibit polycrystalline rings, which were well indexed as the HA phase with 0 0 2 preferential orientations.

  7. Osteoclasts in the interface with electrospun hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Pasuri, Jenni; Holopainen, Jani; Kokkonen, Hanna; Persson, Maria; Kauppinen, Kysti; Lehenkari, Petri; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2015-11-01

    Electrospinning is a method to produce lightweight, resorbable and bioinspired scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here we investigated the influence of electrospun hydroxyapatite fibers (HA) on macrophages and osteoclasts. A mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and human bone marrow derived primary osteoclasts (hOC) were cultured with electrospun HA fibers embedded in Matrigel. Cell morphology and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-?) were analyzed using macrophages. Both fluorescent microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cell morphology differed on the various materials (HA fibers on Matrigel, pure Matrigel and a glass control). Control macrophages were activated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but electrospun HA did not provoke an inflammatory response. Cytokine secretion detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also supported this observation. LPS, but not HA fibers, stimulated TNF-? and IL-6 secretion by macrophages at the 2 day time point. After 4 days in culture there was an increasing trend in cytokine secretion in the HA fiber samples. Human bone marrow myeloid precursor cells were able to fuse and differentiate on the fibrous mineral scaffold to form functional multinuclear osteoclasts that were able to resorb the HA nanofibers. This indicates that osteoclasts do not necessarily need a continuous bone surface but osteoclast ruffled border membranes can form a resorption interface with a fibrous mineral scaffold. PMID:26342323

  8. Near net-shape fabrication of hydroxyapatite glass composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingshan; De With, Gijsbertus; Dortmans, Leonardus J M G; Feenstra, Frits

    2004-11-01

    Near net-shape fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HA) glass composites has been attempted by infiltrating a glass into porous HA performs. Main efforts were put to develop glasses that are chemically compatible with HA at elevated temperatures. After extensive investigations in the phosphate and borosilicate systems, glasses of (50-55)SiO2-(20-25)B203-(10-20)Li2O-(0-6)CaO (wt%) composition were successfully developed. The glass shows good chemical compatibility with HA at elevated temperatures. Dense HA/glass composites can be fabricated at 850-950 degress C by the melt infiltration process. Investigations demonstrated a good near net-shape capability of the process, where the linear shrinkage induced by the infiltration process is less than 0.1%. Preliminary mechanical tests showed that the fracture strength and toughness of the infiltrated HA/glass composite are comparable with dense HA. PMID:15880926

  9. Hydroxyapatite with environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, C. L.; Ciobanu, C. S.; Predoi, D.; Petre, C. C.; Jiga, G.; Motelica-Heino, M.; Iconaru, S. L.

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study was to synthetize new nanoparticles based on methyltrimethoxysilane coated hydroxyapatite (MTHAp) for lead removal in aqueous solutions. The morphological and compositional analysis of MTHAp was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Removal experiments of Pb{sup 2+} ions were carried out in aqueous solutions with controlled concentration of Pb{sup 2+} and at fixed pH of 5. After the removal experiment of Pb{sup 2+} ions from solutions, porous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were transformed into PbMTHAp-5 via the adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} ions followed by a cation exchange reaction. Our results demonstrate that the porous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can be used as an adsorbent for removing Pb{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solution.

  10. Biomedical potential of chitosan/HA and chitosan/?-1,3-glucan/HA biomaterials as scaffolds for bone regeneration--A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Przekora, Agata; Palka, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare biomedical potential of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (chit/HA) and novel chitosan/?-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (chit/glu/HA) materials as scaffolds for bone regeneration via characterization of their biocompatibility, porosity, mechanical properties, and water uptake behaviour. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed in direct-contact with the materials using normal human foetal osteoblast cell line. Cytotoxicity and osteoblast proliferation rate were evaluated. Porosity was assessed using computed microtomography analysis and mechanical properties were determined by compression testing. Obtained results demonstrated that chit/HA scaffold possessed significantly better mechanical properties (compressive strength: 1.23 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.46 MPa) than chit/glu/HA material (compressive strength: 0.26 MPa, Young's modulus: 0.25 MPa). However, addition of bacterial ?-1,3-glucan to the chit/HA scaffold improved its flexibility and porosity. Moreover, chit/glu/HA scaffold revealed significantly higher water uptake capability (52.6% after 24h of soaking) compared to the chit/HA (30.7%) and thus can serve as a very good drug delivery carrier. Chit/glu/HA scaffold was also more favourable to osteoblast survival (near 100% viability after 24-h culture), proliferation, and spreading compared to the chit/HA (63% viability). The chit/glu/HA possesses better biomedical potential than chit/HA scaffold. Nevertheless, poor mechanical properties of the chit/glu/HA limit its application to non-load bearing implantation area. PMID:26478384

  11. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-01-01

    Bone comprises structure of body and is consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite(Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite, however economical cost and time consuming make the production difficult. In this study we synthesized the hydroxyapatite with Ethyenediamine tetraacetic acid. Freeze Dried Bone Allograft(Hans Biomed) was used to be a control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod shape, white powdery type substance with 2 ~ 5 ?m length and 0.5 ~ 1 ?m width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32 and high peaks at 25.8, 39.8, 46.8, 49.5, and 64.0 indicating a similar substance to the freeze Dried Bone Allograft. 3 days after the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5 fold more than the Bone Allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone alloagraft. In this study we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also the the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products. PMID:23714942

  12. Spherical porous hydroxyapatite granules containing composites of magnetic and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for the hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ohtoshi, Naohiro; Kawashita, Masakazu; Ioku, Koji

    2016-05-01

    Spherical porous granules of hydroxyapatite (HA) containing magnetic nanoparticles would be suitable for the hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor, because porous HA granules act as a scaffold for bone regeneration, and magnetic nanoparticles generate sufficient heat to kill tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field. Although magnetic nanoparticles are promising heat generators, their small size makes them difficult to support in porous HA ceramics. We prepared micrometer-sized composites of magnetic and HA nanoparticles, and then supported them in porous HA granules composed of rod-like particles. The spherical porous HA granules containing the composites of magnetic and HA nanoparticle were successfully prepared using a hydrothermal process without changing the crystalline phase and heat generation properties of the magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained granules generated sufficient heat for killing tumor cells under an alternating magnetic field (300 Oe at 100 kHz). The obtained granules are expected to be useful for the hyperthermia treatment of bone tumors. PMID:26984358

  13. Osteogenic Properties of PBLG-g-HA/PLLA Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lan; Yang, Shuang; Miron, Richard J.; Wei, Junchao; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    New development of biomaterial scaffolds remains a prominent issue for the regeneration of lost or fractured bone. Of these scaffolds, a number of bioactive polymers have been synthesized and fabricated for diverse biological roles. Although recent evidence has demonstrated that composite scaffolds such as HA/PLLA have improved properties when compared to either HA or PLLA alone, recent investigations have demonstrated that the phase compatibility between HA and PLLA layers is weak preventing optimal enhancement of the mechanical properties and making the composites prone to breakdown. In the present study, poly (?-benzyl-L-glutamate) modified hydroxyapatite/(poly (L-lactic acid)) (PBLG-g-HA/PLLA) composite scaffolds were fabricated with improved phase compatibility and tested for their osteogenic properties in 18 Wistar female rats by analyzing new bone formation in 3 mm bilateral femur defects in vivo. At time points, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, bone formation was evaluated by -CT and histological analysis by comparing 4 treatment groups; 1) blank defect, 2) PLLA, 3) HA/PLLA and 4) PBLG-g-HA/PLLA scaffolds. The in vivo analysis demonstrated that new bone formation was much more prominent in HA/PLLA and PBLG-g-HA/PLLA groups as depicted by -CT, H&E staining and immunohistochemistry for collagen I. TRAP staining was also utilized to determine the influence of osteoclast cell number and staining intensity to the various scaffolds. No significant differences in either staining intensity or osteoclast numbers between all treatment modalities was observed, however blank defects did contain a higher number of osteoclast-like cells. The results from the present study illustrate the potential of PBLG-g-HA/PLLA scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by demonstrating favorable osteogenic properties. PMID:25184285

  14. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. PMID:24623976

  15. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. PMID:24623976

  16. Controlled release carrier of BSA made by W/O/W emulsion method containing PLGA and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mei Ling; Fu, Yin Chih; Wang, Gwo Jaw; Chen, Hui Ting; Chang, Je Ken; Tsai, Tsung Hsien; Wang, Chih Kuang

    2008-06-01

    This study relates to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein-controlled release system with Poly(lactic-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable polymer. It also has special double emulsification carriers containing alkaline material of hydroxyapatite (HAp), which can carry the hydrophilic drug effectively and sustain a controlled substance release. The controlled release strategy is based on the HAp absorption ability, which will be trapped into the core of PLGA microsphere. Besides, the acidic degradation products of PLGA polymer and basic inorganic component of HAp can be used to control the dissolution of microsphere, then resulting in protein release. We have varied the HAp amount to observe its effect on microsphere characteristics such as the particle size, surface/internal morphology, BSA entrapment efficiency, microsphere degradation, BSA in vitro release behaviour, and cell toxicity etc. PMID:18436324

  17. Effect of n-HA with different surface-modified on the properties of n-HA/PLGA composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Dongliang, Chen; Lixin, Jiang; xiubing, Pang

    2012-10-01

    Three different surface modification methods for nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) of stearic acid, grafted with L-lactide, combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic were adopted, respectively. The surface modification reaction and the effect of different methods were evaluated by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that n-HA surfaces were all successful modified, and the modification method of combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic had the greatest grafting amount and the best dispersion among the three modification methods. Then, the n-HA with three different surface modification and unmodified n-HA were introduced into PLGA, respectively, and a serials of n-HA/PLGA composites with 3% n-HA amount in weight were prepared by solution mixing, and the properties of n-HA/PLGA composites were also investigated by electromechanical universal tester and scanning electron microscope(SEM), comparing with PLGA. The results showed that the n-HA/PLGA composite with the n-HA surface modified by combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic had the highest bending strength and the best dispersion and interfacial adhesion among the three different modification methods, suggesting the surface modification of combining stearic acid and surface-grafting L-lactic was the most ideal method in this study, which has a great deal of enhancement of bending strength than PLGA, and it would be potential to be used in the field of bone fracture internal fixation in future.

  18. [Design of HA/Ti biomedical implants with the use of ion-beam-assisted deposition].

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Chen, Z

    1999-06-01

    Hydroxy-apatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2,HA) is a potential material for coating on metal implants owing to its bioaffinity and osteo-integration to body. At present, in addition to bulk HA directly used in restoration and reconstruction surgery, hydroxy-apatite is also coated on metal implants by plasma-spraying method, adhesion and sintering. However, these kinds of biomaterials are restricted in application due to their insufficient strength and weak bonding. It is of great advantage to modify the surface of titanium and its alloy by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) combining ion implantation with physical vapor deposition(PVD). This paper is focused on the design of HA/Ti implants by ion-beam-assisted deposition technique and the computation of fabricating parameter using Trim96 program. The present investigation lays a foundation of further researches and application. PMID:12552649

  19. Innovative collagen nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds offer a highly efficient non-viral gene delivery platform for stem cell-mediated bone formation.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Caroline M; Cunniffe, Grinne M; Lyons, Frank G; Bessho, Kazuhisa; Dickson, Glenn R; Duffy, Garry P; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2012-02-01

    The ability of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) particles developed in-house to act as non-viral delivery vectors is assessed. These nHA particles are combined with collagen to yield bioactive, biodegradable collagen nano-hydroxyapatite (coll-nHA) scaffolds. Their ability to act as gene-activated matrices for BMP2 delivery is demonstrated with successful transfection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) resulting in high calcium production. PMID:22213347

  20. Electrokinetic properties of hydroxyapatite under flotation conditions.

    PubMed

    Vucini?, Dusica R; Radulovi?, Dragan S; Deusi?, Slaven D

    2010-03-01

    The effect of calcite supernatant, calcium, and carbonate ions on the hydroxyapatite (HA) zeta potential without and in the presence of sodium oleate (1x10(-4) mol L(-1)) was examined within the pH range from 4 to 12. The interpretation of results was based on the HA surface and oleate solution chemistry, and on some floatability tests. HA, with different positive and negative surface sites formed depending on its solubility and pH, had a negative zeta potential over the whole pH range. This mineral is not naturally floatable (flotation recovery, 5%HA surface centers [triple bond]Ca(+), [triple bond]HPO(4)Ca(+), and [triple bond]OH(2)(+), increasing the negative zeta potential of the mineral. Within the pH range from 7 to 9, the dominant oleate species Ol(-) ion and ion-molecule complex, H(Ol)(2)(-), adsorbed on HA by head groups toward the solid and associated due to chain-chain interaction in hemimicelles, made the HA surface with zeta potential about -22/-23 mV, and more floatable (R=80-100%) than in 49.3. The HA surface is less negatively charged in calcite supernatant than in water from pH 6.6 to 9.2 due to the adsorption on HA negative surface active centers ([triple bond]HPO(4)(-) and [triple bond]PO(4)(2-)) of the Ca(2+), and CaOH(+) ions (present in the calcite supernatant), producing more surface sites [triple bond]HPO(4)Ca(+), [triple bond]PO(4)Ca, [triple bond]HPO(4)CaOH, and [triple bond]PO(4)(-) CaOH, and new centers [triple bond]HPO(4)CaHCO(3) and [triple bond]PO(4)(-) CaHCO(3). In the presence of 1x10(-3) mol L(-1) CaCl(2), the HA sample has positive zeta potential, the same as calcite from the same deposit, up to IEP at pH 11.25. Carbonate ions (1x10(-3) mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)) do not affect the HA zeta potential. However, a possible process can be the ion-exchange reaction between bicarbonate (or carbonate) and some anion from the surface sites formed on HA. The obtained values of the HA zeta potential with the collector (1x10(-4) mol L(-1) Na-oleate) added into hydroxyapatite/calcite supernatant suspensions corroborate the weak chemisorption of Ol(-) and H(Ol)(2)(-). The likely processes in this system also are the ion-exchange reactions on [triple bond]HPO(4)CaOH and [triple bond]PO(4)(-) CaOH, [triple bond]HPO(4)CaHCO(3) and [triple bond]PO(4)(-) CaHCO(3) between oleate ion and surface hydroxyl and bicarbonate ions, surface and bulk precipitations of calcium oleate, Ca(Ol)(2), and the surface and bulk precipitations of Ca[H(Ol)(2)(-)](2) over the pH range from 7 to 9. Calcite supernatant does not influence natural floatability of the mineral. However, calcite supernatant depresses the hydroxyapatite flotation in the presence of 1x10(-4) mol L(-1) Na-oleate (pH 9, R approximately 50%), a likely result of the weak chemisorption due to the steric effect of heterogeneous HA surface formed in calcite supernatant, Ca(Ol)(2) and Ca[H(Ol)(2)(-)](2) surface and bulk precipitations. PMID:20018290

  1. Study of thermal effects of silicate-containing hydroxyapatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Zaits, A. V.; Berdinskaya, N. V.; Mylnikova, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of modifications of hydroxyapatite silicate ions, from the extracellular fluid prototype solution under near-physiological conditions has been studied. Formation of silicon-structured hydroxyapatite with different extent of substitution of phosphate groups in the silicate group has been established through chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results obtained are in agreement and suggest the possibility of substitution of phosphate groups for silicate groups in the hydroxyapatite structure when introducing different sources of silica, tetraethoxysilane and sodium silicate, in the reaction mixture. Growth in the amount of silicon in Si-HA results in the increase in the thermal stability of the samples. The greatest mass loss occurs at temperatures in the range of 25-400 0C that is caused by the removal of the crystallization and adsorption water and volatile impurities. It is shown that the modified apatites are of imperfect structure and crystallize in a nanocrystalline state.

  2. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Song, Jie; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  3. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  4. Citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds enhance calvarial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  5. Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T.; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4 mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  6. Hydroxyapatite as a carrier for bone morphogenetic protein.

    PubMed

    Rohanizadeh, Ramin; Chung, Kimberly

    2011-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) can induce the formation of new bone in numerous orthopedic and dental applications in which loss of bone is the main issue. The combination of BMP with a biomaterial that can carry and deliver proteins has been demonstrated to maximize the therapeutic effects of BMPs. However, no ideal candidate with optimal characteristics as a carrier has emerged for clinical use of BMPs. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a potential BMP carrier with its osteoconductive properties and desirable characteristics as a bone graft biomaterial. In this study, 3 different methods to load BMP into HA materials were characterized and compared based on the BMP uptake and release profile. BMP was loaded into HA in 3 ways: (1) incorporation of BMP during HA precipitation, (2) HA immersion in BMP solution, and (3) BMP incorporation during dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) conversion to HA. The size of HA crystals decreased when BMP was loaded during HA precipitation and HA immersion in BMP solution; however, it did not change when BMP was loaded during DCPD-to-HA conversion. The highest BMP uptake was achieved using the immersion method followed by HA precipitation, and the lowest via DCPD conversion. It is interesting to note that BMP loading during HA precipitation resulted in sustained and prolonged BMP release compared with the 2 other BMP loading methods. In conclusion, BMP incorporation during HA precipitation revealed itself to be the best loading method. PMID:20662667

  7. The influence of collagen support and ionic species on the morphology of collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ficai, Anton; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Ghitulica, Cristina; Ficai, Denisa

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the influence of collagenous supports and ionic species on the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from aqueous solutions. To this end, we obtained hydroxyapatite by co-precipitation from a solution of calcium hydroxide and sodium dihydrogenophosphate. The formation of HA was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate that the morphology of hydroxyapatite is highly influenced by the support material and the ionic species present. The obtained materials were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  9. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite enriched in selenite and manganese ions: physicochemical and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Piotrowska, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we used the co-precipitation method to synthesize hydroxyapatite (Mn-SeO3-HA) containing both selenium IV (approximately 3.60wt.%) and manganese II (approximately 0.29wt.%). Pure hydroxyapatite (HA), hydroxyapatite-containing manganese (II) ions (Mn-HA), and hydroxyapatite-containing selenite ions alone (SeO3-HA), prepared with the same method, were used as reference materials. The structures and physicochemical properties of all the obtained samples were investigated. PXRD studies showed that the obtained materials were homogeneous and consisted of apatite phase. Introducing selenites into the hydroxyapatite crystals considerably affects the size and degree of ordering. Experiments with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that Mn-SeO3-HA crystals are very small, needle-like, and tend to form agglomerates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) were used to analyze the structure of the obtained material. Preliminary microbiological tests showed that the material demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, yet such properties were not confirmed regarding Escherichia coli. PACS codes: 61, 76, 81. PMID:26138453

  10. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite enriched in selenite and manganese ions: physicochemical and antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Piotrowska, Urszula

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we used the co-precipitation method to synthesize hydroxyapatite (Mn-SeO3-HA) containing both selenium IV (approximately 3.60 wt.%) and manganese II (approximately 0.29 wt.%). Pure hydroxyapatite (HA), hydroxyapatite-containing manganese (II) ions (Mn-HA), and hydroxyapatite-containing selenite ions alone (SeO3-HA), prepared with the same method, were used as reference materials. The structures and physicochemical properties of all the obtained samples were investigated. PXRD studies showed that the obtained materials were homogeneous and consisted of apatite phase. Introducing selenites into the hydroxyapatite crystals considerably affects the size and degree of ordering. Experiments with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that Mn-SeO3-HA crystals are very small, needle-like, and tend to form agglomerates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) were used to analyze the structure of the obtained material. Preliminary microbiological tests showed that the material demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, yet such properties were not confirmed regarding Escherichia coli. PACS codes: 61, 76, 81

  11. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  12. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  13. Polyvinyl pyridine microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Microspheres are produced by cobalt gamma radiation initiated polymerization of a dilute aqueous vinyl pyridine solution. Addition of cross-linking agent provides higher surface area beads. Addition of monomers such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate acrylamide or methacrylamide increases hydrophilic properties and surface area of the beads. High surface area catalytic supports are formed in the presence of controlled pore glass substrate.

  14. Polyvinyl pyridine microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microspheres are produced by cobalt gamma radiation initiated polymerization of a dilute aqueous vinyl pyridine solution. Addition of cross-linking agent provides higher surface area beads. Addition of monomers such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate acrylamide or methacrylamide increases hydrophilic properties and surface area of the beads. High surface area catalytic supports are formed in the presence of controlled pore glass substrate.

  15. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  16. A solid-state NMR study of selenium substitution into nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kolmas, Joanna; Kuras, Marzena; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of selenium oxyanions in the hydroxyapatite structure was examined using multinuclear solid-state resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR). The study was supported by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF). Samples of pure hydroxyapatite (HA300) and selenate (HA300-1.2SeO4) or selenite (HA300-1.2SeO3) substituted hydroxyapatites were synthesized using the standard wet method and heated at 300 C to remove loosely bonded water. PXRD data showed that all samples are single-phase, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. The incorporation of selenite and selenate ions affected the lattice constants. In selenium-containing samples the concentration of Se was very similar and amounted to 9.55% and 9.64%, for HA300-1.2SeO4 and HA300-1.2SeO3, respectively. PXRD and ssNMR data showed that the selenite doping significantly decreases the crystallite size and crystallinity degree. 31P and 1H NMR experiments demonstrated the developed surface hydrated layer in all samples, especially in HA300-1.2SeO3. 1H NMR studies showed the dehydroxylation of HA during the selenium oxyanions substitution and the existence of hydrogen bonding in structural hydroxyl group channels. 1H?77Se cross polarization NMR experiments indicated that selenites and selenates are located in the crystal lattice and on the crystal surface. PMID:25997001

  17. A Solid-State NMR Study of Selenium Substitution into Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Kuras, Marzena; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of selenium oxyanions in the hydroxyapatite structure was examined using multinuclear solid-state resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR). The study was supported by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF). Samples of pure hydroxyapatite (HA300) and selenate (HA300-1.2SeO4) or selenite (HA300-1.2SeO3) substituted hydroxyapatites were synthesized using the standard wet method and heated at 300 C to remove loosely bonded water. PXRD data showed that all samples are single-phase, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. The incorporation of selenite and selenate ions affected the lattice constants. In selenium-containing samples the concentration of Se was very similar and amounted to 9.55% and 9.64%, for HA300-1.2SeO4 and HA300-1.2SeO3, respectively. PXRD and ssNMR data showed that the selenite doping significantly decreases the crystallite size and crystallinity degree. 31P and 1H NMR experiments demonstrated the developed surface hydrated layer in all samples, especially in HA300-1.2SeO3. 1H NMR studies showed the dehydroxylation of HA during the selenium oxyanions substitution and the existence of hydrogen bonding in structural hydroxyl group channels. 1H?77Se cross polarization NMR experiments indicated that selenites and selenates are located in the crystal lattice and on the crystal surface. PMID:25997001

  18. Nanophase hydroxyapatite coatings for dental and orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Michiko

    In order to improve dental and orthopedic implant performance, the objective of this study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) powders to coat metals (specifically, titanium and tantalum). Precipitated HA powders were either sintered in order to produce UltraCaP HA (or microcrystalline size HA) or were treated hydrothermally to produce nanocrystalline HA. Some of the UltraCaP and nanocrystalline HA powders were doped with yttrium (Y) since previous in vitro studies demonstrated that Y-doped HA in bulk improved osteoblast (or bone-forming cell) function over undoped HA. The nanocrystalline HA powders were also mixed with nanophase titania powders because previous studies demonstrated that titania/HA composite coatings increased coating adhesive strength and HA nucleation. These powders were then deposited onto titanium by a novel room-temperature process, called IonTiteT(TM). The results demonstrated that the chemical properties and crystallite size of the original HA powders were maintained in the coatings. More importantly, in vitro studies showed increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on the single phase nanocrystalline HA and nano-titania/HA coatings compared to traditionally used plasma-sprayed HA coatings and uncoated metals. Results further demonstrated greater amounts of calcium deposition by osteoblasts cultured on nanocrystalline HA coatings compared to UltraCaP coatings and conventionally used plasma-sprayed HA coatings. To elucidate mechanisms that influenced osteoblast functions on the HA coatings, the amount of proteins (fibronectin and vitronectin) onto the HA powders and the adsorbed fibronectin conformation were investigated. Exposure of cell integrin binding domains (in fibronectin III10 segments) was greater in fibronectin adsorbed onto 1.2 mole% Y-doped UltraCaP HA coatings compared to nanocrystalline HA coatings tested. However, 1.2 mole% Y-doped UltraCaP HA coatings did not increase mineralization by osteoblasts compared to the nanocrystalline HA coatings. These results suggested that the availability of integrin binding domains in fibronectin did not correlate to enhanced mineralization by osteoblasts on nanocrystalline HA coatings. Lastly, undoped nanocrystalline HA coatings were studied using a well-established rat calvaria in vivo. Histological analysis showed that nanocrystalline HA coated on tantalum scaffolds increased bone and fibrous tissue infiltration into the scaffolds while uncoated and UltraCaP HA coated scaffolds did not after as early as 6 weeks. In summary, these results encourage further studies on nanocrystalline IonTiteTM HA coatings on various metals for orthopedic and dental applications.

  19. Porous microsphere and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Porous microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of porous microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the porous microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359

  20. Additive manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds with the RF- magnetron sputter deposited hydroxyapatite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Koptioug, A.; Scoglund, P.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-01-01

    Present paper reports on the results of surface modification of the additively manufactured porous Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the alloy via deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of the HA-coated alloy were studied. It was revealed that RF magnetron sputtering allows preparing a homogeneous HA coating onto the entire surface of scaffolds.

  1. Iron(III) and manganese(II) substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Characterization and cytotoxicity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Teck Nam, Chai; Ooi, Chui Ping

    2009-09-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of natural bones and can bond to bone directly in vivo. Thus HA is widely used as coating material on bone implants due to its good osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. Metal ions doped HA have been used as catalyst or absorbents since the ion exchange method has introduced new properties in HA which are inherent to the metal ions. For example, Mn2+ ions have the potential to increase cell adhesion while Fe3+ ions have magnetic properties. Here, Fe(III) substituted hydroxyapatite (Fe-HA) and Mn(II) substituted hydroxyapatite (Mn-HA) were produced by wet chemical method coupled with ion exchange mechanism. Compared with pure HA, the colour of both Fe-HA and Mn-HA nanoparticles changed from white to brown and pink respectively. The intensity of the colours increased with increasing substitution concentrations. XRD patterns showed that all samples were single phased HA while the FTIR spectra revealed all samples possessed the characteristic phosphate and hydroxyl adsorption bands of HA. However, undesired adsorption bands of carbonate substitution (B-type carbonated HA) and H2O were also detected, which was reasonable since the wet chemical method was used in the synthesis of these nanoparticles. FESEM images showed all samples were elongated spheroids with small size distribution and of around 70 nm, regardless of metal ion substitution concentrations. EDX spectra showed the presence of Fe and Mn and ICP-AES results revealed all metal ion substituted HA were non-stoichiometric (Ca/P atomic ratio deviates from 1.67). Fe-HA nanoparticles were paramagnetic and the magnetic susceptibility increased with the increase of Fe content. Based on the extraction assay for cytotoxicity test, both Fe-HA and Mn-HA displayed non-cytotoxicity to osteoblast.

  2. In vitro evaluation of the risk of inflammatory response after chitosan/HA and chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA bone scaffold implantation.

    PubMed

    Przekora, Agata; Ginalska, Grazyna

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the risk of inflammatory response induced by chitosan/hydroxyapatite (chit/HA) and novel chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/hydroxyapatite (chit/glu/HA) bone scaffolds. The inflammatory response was assessed via measurement of proinflammatory cytokine and ROI production by human monocytes, macrophages, and osteoblasts stimulated with investigated scaffolds. Moreover, adsorption of human serum/plasma proteins to the tested materials was determined. Both biomaterials did not induce intracellular ROI generation by monocytes, macrophages, and osteoblasts and did not stimulate proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) production by inflammatory cells. Moreover, the chit/glu/HA material induced increased TNF-α production by osteoblasts that is believed to enhance osteogenic differentiation. Thus, it was demonstrated that chit/HA and chit/glu/HA scaffolds carry a low risk of biomaterial-induced inflammatory response and are promising materials as bone scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26838861

  3. Hydroxyapatite-reinforced polymer biocomposites for synthetic bone substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Ryan K.; Converse, Gabriel L.; Kane, Robert J.; Yue, Weimin

    2008-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-reinforced polymer biocomposites offer a robust system to engineer synthetic bone substitutes with tailored mechanical, biological, and surgical functions. The basic design rationale has been to reinforce a tough, biocompatible polymer matrix with a bioactive HA filler. A large number of studies have investigated modifications to the biocomposite structure and composition, aimed at improving the mechanical properties, often through modified or novel processing methods. In this article, the effects of the polymer composition and molecular orientation; the HA/polymer interface; and the HA-reinforcement content, morphology, preferred orientation, and size are reviewed with respect to mechanical properties, drawing frequent comparisons between various HA-reinforced polymer composites and bone tissue.

  4. Surface modification of zinc-containing hydroxyapatite by tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Thouraya; Othmani, Masseoud; Bac, Christophe Goze; Rachdi, Frid; Bouzouita, Khaled

    2013-11-01

    The surface of Zn-substituted hydroxyapatites (Ca(10-x)Znx(PO4)6(OH)2, with 0 ? x ? 2, CaxZnxHA) modified by tartaric acid was investigated by various techniques. XRD powder patterns revealed that synthesized samples were single phase of HA with broadened XRD reflections. FTIR and (13C, 1H and 31P) MAS NMR measurements confirmed the grafting of the tartaric acid on the apatite surface. Chemical analysis showed that for ZnHA the grafted acid amount increases with the increase of the acid concentration in the starting solutions, while for HA, it remained constant, indicating more reactivity for ZnHA surface. A mechanism of surface modification is proposed based on the obtained results.

  5. Functional magnetic microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Landel, Robert F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Functional magnetic particles are formed by dissolving a mucopolysaccharide such as chitosan in acidified aqueous solution containing a mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. As the pH of the solution is raised magnetite is formed in situ in the solution by raising the pH. The dissolved chitosan is a polyelectrolyte and forms micelles surrounding the granules at pH of 8-9. The chitosan precipitates on the granules to form microspheres containing the magnetic granules. On addition of the microspheres to waste aqueous streams containing dissolved ions, the hydroxyl and amine functionality of the chitosan forms chelates binding heavy metal cations such as lead, copper, and mercury and the chelates in turn bind anions such as nitrate, fluoride, phosphate and borate.

  6. Synergistic interaction of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) with the surface of PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds produces rapid osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao Balaji; Mohan, Saktiswaren; Genasan, Krishnamurithy; Murali, Malliga Raman; Naveen, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj; Talebian, Sepehr; McKean, Robert; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-03-01

    Scaffolds with structural features similar to the extracellular matrix stimulate rapid osteogenic differentiation in favorable microenvironment and with growth factor supplementation. In this study, the osteogenic potential of electrospun poly-l-lactide/hydroxyapatite/collagen (PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/HA and PLLA/Col) scaffolds were tested in vitro with the supplementation of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). Cell attachment and topography, mineralization, extracellular matrix protein localization, and gene expression of the human mesenchymal stromal cells were compared between the fibrous scaffolds PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/Col, and PLLA/HA. The levels of osteocalcin, calcium, and mineralization were significantly greater in the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. High expression of fibronectin, intracellular adhesion molecule, cadherin, and collagen 1 (Col1) suggests that PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds had superior osteoinductivity than PLLA/Col. Additionally, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osterix, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and bone morphogenic protein (BMP2) expression were higher in PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA compared with PLLA/Col. In comparison with PLLA/Col, the PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA scaffolds presented a significant upregulation of the genes Runx2, Col 1, Integrin, osteonectin (ON), bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGALP), osteopontin (OPN), and BMP2. The upregulation of these genes was further increased with PDGF-BB supplementation. These results show that PDGF-BB acts synergistically with PLLA/Col/HA and PLLA/HA to enhance the osteogenic differentiation potential. Therefore, this combination can be used for the rapid expansion of bone marrow stromal cells into bone-forming cells for tissue engineering. PMID:26700235

  7. Effect of hydroxyapatite content on physical properties and connective tissue reactions to a chitosan-hydroxyapatite composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Hidaka, Y; Nakajima, M; Yagasaki, H; Kafrawy, A H

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect on certain physical properties of adding various amounts of hydroxyapatite (HAP) to chitosan sol. Also investigated were connective tissue reactions to a composite membrane that is being developed for possible use in guided tissue regeneration and for the limitation of HA particle migration at sites of implantation. The physical properties evaluated were shrinkage, tensile strength, hardness, calcium ion release, and morphology. Assessment of physical properties indicated that a ratio of HA to chitosan sol of 4/11 by weight is optimal in the preparation of the composite membrane. Subperiosteal implantation of the membranes over rat calvaria revealed that the membranes were well tolerated, with fibrous encapsulation and occasional areas of osteogenesis. Increasing the hydroxyapatite content seems to enhance membrane degradation. PMID:10397977

  8. Barium Vanadate Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yosinski, Shari; Tweeton, Landon; Feller, Steve; Affatigato, Mario

    2009-11-01

    It has been found that many glass powders can form micro- or nanospheres when heated in a flame or by a laser. Much of the research in this area of microspheres has concentrated on making hollow spheres, called microballoons, of silica and borosilicate glasses. Our aim was to create highly porous barium vanadate microspheres for possible future applications in material storage. The surface area of porous spheres would provide a greater amount of bonding surface area for dopants than hollow spheres. Barium vanadate glass with a molar fraction of 0.4 to 0.6 barium oxide was used because this glass is stable and has a low Tg. Size distributions of the spheres were quantified and the extent of sphere formation and porosity was examined using a scanning electron microscope. The size of spheres formed is affected by powder size, dropping method, and flame position. The porosity of the microspheres is affected by flame temperature, time spent in flame, and the material onto which the spheres fall. The greatest porosity was achieved by first heating the glass powder at a low temperature and then immediately sending it through the flames of two MAPP gas torches at approximately 2100^oC onto a metal sheet.

  9. The beneficial effect of hydroxyapatite lasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose In contrast to early migration, the long-term migration of hydroxyapatite- (HA-) coated tibial components in TKA has been scantily reported. This randomized controlled trial investigated the long-term migration measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) of HA-coated, uncoated, and cemented tibial components in TKA. Patients and methods 68 knees were randomized to HA-coated (n = 24), uncoated (n = 20), and cemented (n = 24) components. All knees were prospectively followed for 1116 years, or until death or revision. RSA was used to evaluate migration at yearly intervals. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was according to the Knee Society system. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM, adjusted for age, sex, diagnosis, revisions, and BMI) was used to take into account the repeated-measurement design. Results The present study involved 742 RSA analyses. The mean migration at 10 years was 1.66 mm for HA, 2.25 mm for uncoated and 0.79 mm for the cemented group (p < 0.001). The reduction of migration by HA as compared to uncoated components was most pronounced for subsidence and external rotation. 3 tibial components were revised for aseptic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), 3 for septic loosening (2 uncoated and 1 cemented), and 1 for instability (HA-coated). 2 of these cases were revised for secondary loosening after a period of stability: 1 case of osteolysis and 1 case of late infection. There were no statistically significant differences between the fixation groups regarding clinical or radiographic scores. Interpretation HA reduces migration of uncemented tibial components. This beneficial effect lasts for more than 10 years. Cemented components showed the lowest migration. Longitudinal follow-up of TKA with RSA allows early detection of secondary loosening. PMID:22329667

  10. Hydroxyapatite grafted carbon nanotubes and graphene nanosheets: promising bone implant materials

    PubMed Central

    Oyefusi, Adebola; Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Peterson, Deforest; Stone, Julia M.; Williams, Ebonee; Carson, Laura; Regisford, Gloria; Oki, and Aderemi

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was successfully grafted to carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanosheets. The HA grafted CNTs and HA-graphene nanosheets were characterized using FT-IR, TGA, SEM and X-ray diffraction. The HA grafted CNTs and graphene nanosheets (CNTs-HA and Gr-HA) were further used to examine the proliferation and differentiation rate of temperature-sensitive human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB 1.19). Total protein assays and western blot analysis of osteocalcin expression were used as indicators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Results indicated that hFOB 1.19 cells proliferate and differentiate well in treatment media containing CNTs-HA and graphene-HA. Both CNTs-HA and graphene-HA could be promising nanomaterials for use as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24892524

  11. Rod-shaped and substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles stimulating type 1 and 2 cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupeng; Li, Xia; Ito, Atsuo; Watanabe, Yohei; Sogo, Yu; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuji, Noriko M

    2016-03-01

    A Th1 immune response is required for modern vaccines as the most commonly used alum adjuvant has weak capacity for inducing Th1 immune response. Herein, rod-shaped hydroxyapatite (HA), magnesium-substituted HA (MgHA) and zinc-substituted HA (ZnHA) nanoparticles with irregular nanopores were synthesized and used as immunoadjuvants. Magnesium and zinc substitution in HA showed no influence on morphology, particle size, zeta potential and surface area of the nanoparticles. The rod-shaped MgHA and ZnHA nanoparticles promoted the cellular uptake of a molecular immunopotentiator, stimulated both type 1 and 2 cytokine secretion in vitro that relate to Th1 and Th2 immunity of bone marrow dentritic cells, respectively. The MgHA and ZnHA nanoparticles may be useful as immunoadjuvants for human. PMID:26700228

  12. Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R; McGregor, W J; Martyn, M T; Tanner, K E; Coates, P D

    2002-11-01

    The commercial success of hydroxyapatite (HA) filled polyethylene composite has generated growing interest in improving the processability of the composite. A number of synthetic procedures and post synthesis heat treatment of HA has lead to the availability of powders with widely varying morphological features. This paper addresses the effect of morphological features of HA on the rheology and processability of an injection-moulding grade HA-HDPE composite. The results showed that low surface area HA filled composite exhibited better injection processing characteristics through improved rheological responses. The effect of reducing the surface area of the filler is to require less polyethylene to wet the filler and allows more polyethylene to be involved in the flow processes. These changes reduced the temperatures and pressures required for successful processing. PMID:12194532

  13. In vivo study of chitosan-natural nano hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seo; Baek, Sang Dae; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Bhatnagar, Ira; Chang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Hui Taek; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Significant development has been achieved with bioceramics and biopolymer scaffolds in the construction of artificial bone. In the present study, we have developed and compared chitosan-micro hydroxyapatite (chitosan-mHA) and chitosan-nano hydroxyapatite (chitosan-nHA) scaffolds as bone graft substitutes. The biocompatibility and cell proliferation of the prepared scaffolds were checked with preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells. Total Volume (TV), bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were found to be higher in chitosan-nHA than chitosan-mHA scaffold. Hence, we suggest that chitosan-nHA scaffold could be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24705167

  14. Endothelial cell migration and morphogenesis on silk fibroin scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite electret.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Miho; Soya, Tomoko; Hiratai, Rumi; Nagai, Akiko; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Morita, Ikuo; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of composite wound dressing films made of silk fibroin (SF) containing hydroxyapatite (HA) or polarized HA (pHA) powders on endothelial cell (EC) behaviors that have important roles in the wound-healing process. XRD revealed the SF films to be semicrystalline, with a broad peak centered at about 20.7 which is characteristic of ?-sheets embedded within an amorphous matrix. The SF composite films with 0.6 (w/v)% in concentration of HA powder (HA/SF) or pHA powder (pHA/SF) contained HA crystals of amorphous and silk II crystalline structures. SEM observation showed that there were differences in SF morphology between HA/SF and pHA/SF. The pHA/SF exhibited a furry texture around the pHA crystals, most likely due to the stored charged and zeta potentials. The HA/SF and pHA/SF films enhanced EC migration compared with that on the SF film. The number of migrated cells on the HA/SF and pHA/SF was ~1.5 times larger than that on the SF. The quantitative analysis of the endothelial morphogenesis indicated that the pHA/SF film enhanced the formation of capillary-like structures compared with SF and HA/SF. Thus, pHA/SF may potentially stimulate and contribute to the enhancement of angiogenesis in the wound-healing process. PMID:22275235

  15. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  16. Immunofluorescence detection methods using microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurdoki, Ferenc; Michael, Karri L.; Agrawal, Divya; Taylor, Laura C.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Walt, David R.

    1999-01-01

    Microsphere-based immunoassays were devised for compounds of agricultural and biomedical interest (e.g., digoxin, theophylline, and zearalenone). Commercially available microspheres with surface functional groups for chemical derivatization were used as solid carriers. After immobilizing the target substances, the surface of the haptenized microspheres was blocked by a protein to reduce aspecific binding. Competitive immunoassays were performed using the functionalized microspheres and antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase. Immunofluorescence signal amplification was achieved by enzyme-catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD). An epifluorescence microscope, a CCD camera interfaced with a computer, and microscopy image analysis software were employed for quantitative detection of fluorescent light emitted from individual microspheres. Integration of several such immunoassays and application of an optical encoding method enabled multianalyte determination. These immunoassays can also be utilized in an immunosensor array format. This immunoarray format could facilitate miniaturization and automation of multianalyte immunoassays.

  17. Thermal Transpiration in Microsphere Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Marcus; Han, Yen Lin; Muntz, E. P.; Shiflett, G.; Ketsdever, Andrew; Green, Amanda

    2003-05-01

    Self-assembled glass microsphere membranes as an alternative transpiration membrane for application in a Knudsen Compressor are discussed. A performance model is constructed and used to compare the performance of glass microsphere membranes to silicon aerogel membranes for this application. An initial experimental Knudsen Compressor stage based on glass microsphere membranes has been designed and experimentally tested. Preliminary performance results show a discrepancy between the predicted and observed pressure differences produced by the single stage. Several possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. Two variations of a proposed design for a Knudsen Compressor employing a microsphere transpiration membrane are discussed. It is concluded that beds of glass microspheres may be attractive candidates for transpiration membrane materials over the entire pressure range of operation for a micro-scale vacuum pump, 10mTorr to 760 Torr.

  18. Adrenomedullin delivery in microsphere-scaffold composite for remodeling of the alveolar bone following tooth extraction: an experimental study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar ridge resorption, as a significant problem in implant and restorative dentistry, has long been considered as an inevitable outcome following tooth extraction. Recently, adrenomedullin (ADM) is reported to be able to stimulate the proliferation and migration of various cells including osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of local ADM application in the tooth extraction socket in vivo. Methods Chitosan micropheres were developed by an emulsion-ionic cross-linking method for ADM delivery. Poly (L -lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to prepare scaffolds to contain the micrspheres with ADM. In vivo experiment was evaluated by transplanting the composite into the rat socket right after the incisor extraction. After 4, 8, 12weeks implantation, radiographic and histological tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of released ADM on the alveolar bone. Results The microspheres had a spherical structure and a relative rough and uniform surface, and the particle size was under a normal distribution, with the average diameter of 38.59?m. The scaffolds had open and interconnected pores. In addition, the high porosity of the composite was 88.93%. Radiographic and histological examination revealed that the PLGA/nHA/CMs/ADM composite could accelerate the alveolar bone remodeling and reduce the residual ridge resorption compared with the PLGA/nHA/CMs scaffold. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that local application of ADM has the potential to preserve the residual alveolar ridge and accelerate the alveolar bone remodeling. PMID:24099554

  19. Bio resorbability of the modified hydroxyapatite in Tris-HCL buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Izmailov, R. R.; Ghyngazov, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The solubility of carbonated hydroxyapatite powders and granulated carbonated hydroxyapatite produced from the synovial biofluid model solution has been studied. The kinetic characteristics of dissolution were determined. It was found that the solubility of carbonated hydroxyapatite is higher as compared to that of hydroxyapatite. The impact of the organic matrix on the rate of sample dissolution was revealed. For HA-gelatin composites, as the gelatin concentration grows, the dissolution rate becomes greater, and a sample of 6.0 g / L concentration has higher resorbability. The results of the research can be used to study the kinetics of dissolution and the biocompatibility of ceramic materials for medicine, namely for reconstructive surgery, dentistry, and development of drug delivery systems.

  20. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel composites with different content of hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to show that Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite can be synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). Hydroxyapatite was introduced into stainless steel because it is intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels. Therefore it's combination with hydroxyapatite that has high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone could have improved properties, as well. To confirm nanocrystalline structure of obtained material and reveal topographical features of the surface, small-angle X-ray analysis (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used. Results are consistent and the mean grain size of the obtained materials do not exceed 100 nm.

  1. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boskey, Adele L.; Christensen, Brian; Taleb, Hayat; Sorensen, Esben S.

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1-147), a central fragment (aa 148-204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205-262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  2. Nano iron oxide-hydroxyapatite composite ceramics with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Ajeesh, M; Francis, B F; Annie, John; Harikrishna Varma, P R

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite has been widely used for a variety of bone filling and augmentation applications. But the poorly resolved X-ray image of certain hydroxyapatite (HA) based implants such as porous blocks and self setting HA cements is a radiological problem to surgeons for monitoring of the implant and early diagnosis complications. In the present work the practical difficulty related to the reduced X-ray opacity was overcome by exploiting the contrast enhancement property of iron oxide nano particles. Sintered nano iron oxide-HA composite ceramics were prepared from powders produced through a co-precipitation route. The phase purity and bioactivity of the composites were analyzed as a function of percentage iron oxide in the composite. The X-ray attenuation of dense and porous composites was compared with pure HA using a C-arm X-ray imaging system and micro computed tomography. In all the prepared composites, HA retains its phase identity and high X-ray opacity as obtained for a composition containing 40 wt% iron oxide. The increased cell viability and cell adhesion nature depicted by the prepared composite offers considerable interest for the material in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:20195889

  3. Hydroxyapatite-titanium bulk composites for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-01

    The research work on bulk hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composites are driven by the need to develop biomaterials with better mechanical properties without compromising its bioactivity and biocompatibility properties. Despite several years of research, the mechanical properties of the HA-based composites still need to be enhanced to match the properties of natural cortical bone. In this regard, the scope of this review on the HA-based bulk biomaterials is limited to the processing and the mechanical as well as biocompatibility properties for bone tissue engineering applications of a model system that is hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) bulk composites. It will be discussed in this review how HA-Ti based bulk composites can be processed to have better fracture toughness and strength without compromising biocompatibility. The advantages of the functionally gradient materials to integrate the mechanical and biocompatibility properties is a promising approach in hard tissue engineering and has been emphasized here in reference to the limited literature reports. On the biomaterials fabrication aspect, the recent results are discussed to demonstrate that advanced manufacturing techniques, like spark plasma sintering can be adopted as a processing route to restrict the sintering reactions, while enhancing the mechanical properties. Various toughening mechanisms related to careful tailoring of microstructure are discussed. The in vitro cytocompatibilty, cell fate processes as well as in vivo biocompatibility results are also reviewed and the use of flow cytometry to quantify in vitro cell fate processes is being emphasized. PMID:24737723

  4. Effect of trisodium citrate on electrolytic deposition of hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Xiang; Jiang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings were deposited on the titanium substrate by using various content Na₃Cit as an organic modifier in electrolytes. The influence of the Na₃Cit on the sizes of the HA crystals during electrolytic deposition was investigated under different molar ratio of Na₃Cit to calcium ions. The experimental results showed that the size of HA crystal was well controlled by the addition of Na₃Cit. When the molar ratio of Na₃Cit to calcium ions was equal or greater than five, the obtained HA coating consisted of nanosized crystals. The HA nanoparticles were precipitated without a precursor phase when the molar ratio of Na₃Cit to calcium ions was five; otherwise, the CaP coating experienced a phase conversion from octacalcium phosphate (OCP) to HA during the ELD. The effect of pH on saturation indexes with respect to hydroxyapatite, OCP, and dicalcium dihydrogen phosphate of these electrolytes was calculated by a computer program PHREEQC. The calculation showed the nucleation of OCP as the precursor during the deposition could be inhibited with increasing Na₃Cit content in the electrolytes. PMID:21086428

  5. Effect of hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials on human osteoblast phenotype.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Penolazzi, L; Torreggiani, E; Farina, R; Lambertini, E; Vecchiatini, R; Piva, R

    2010-03-01

    The present study evaluated human primary osteoblasts and two different osteoblast-like cell lines behaviour when cultured in presence of different hydroxyapatite-based (HA) biomaterials (SINTlife-FIN-CERAMICA S.p.a., Faenza, Italy; Bio-Oss, Geistlich Biomaterials, Woulhusen, Switzerland; Biostite-GABA Vebas, San Giuliano Milanese, MI, Italy), focusing attention on the effect of HA/Biostite in terms of modulation of osteoblastic differentiation. Analysis were about adhesion, proliferation and mineralization activity. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalfa) expression and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were measured as osteoblastic differentiation markers. Determination of viable cells was done with MTT colorimetric assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on biomaterial-treated cells. All hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials didn't affect cells morphology and viability, whereas only presence of HA/Biostite improved cells adhesion, growth and differentiation. Adhesion and spreading of the primary cells on HA/Biostite were the same showed by two different osteoblast-like cell lines. These results have important implications for both tissue-engineered bone grafts and enhancement of HA implants performance, to develop new teeth's supporting structure therapies and replacement. PMID:20357737

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an HA17HA70 (HA2HA3) complex from Clostridium botulinum type C progenitor toxin

    PubMed Central

    Iwasa, Chikako; Tonozuka, Takashi; Shinoda, Masaya; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Hiromi; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Takao, Toshifumi; Oguma, Keiji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The haemagglutinin (HA) complex of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin is composed of three types of subcomponents: HA33, HA17 and HA70 (also known as HA1, HA2 and HA3, respectively). Here, a 260?kDa HA17HA70 complex was crystallized. His-tagged HA17 and maltose-binding-protein-tagged HA70 were expressed in Escherichia coli and their complex was affinity-purified using a combination of amylose resin chromatography and nickelnitrilotriacetic acid agarose chromatography. Diffraction data were collected to 8.0? resolution and the crystal belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212. The molecular-replacement solution indicated that one molecule of HA17 was bound to each HA70 monomer. PMID:24419620

  7. Carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites fabricated by spark plasma sintering for bonegraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Watari, Fumio; Liao, Susan; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Omori, Mamoru; Ai, Hongjun; Cui, FuZhai

    2012-12-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (MWCNTs/HA) composites with 20%, 40% and 60% HA were successfully fabricated at 1200 °C and 120 MPa by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that MWCNTs/HA composites kept the nanostructure of MWCNTs after SPS treatment. The bulk density of the MWCNTs/HA composites was increased by the addition of HA. However, the Vickers hardness, porosity, Young's modulus, flexure strength and compression strength of the MWCNTs/HA composites were decreased with increasing content of HA. To test their biocompatibility, the MWCNTs/40% HA composites were inserted into rat femur. The in vivo reaction of four weeks showed that the composites possessed better osseointegration compared to pure MWCNTs. The results indicated that the MWCNTs/HA composites have potential for a wide variety of bonegraft applications in the future.

  8. Biological reactivity of zirconia-hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Silva, Viviane V; Lameiras, Fernando S; Lobato, Zlia I P

    2002-01-01

    Materials and devices intended for end-use applications as implants and medical devices must be evaluated to determine their biocompatibility potential in contact with physiological systems. The use of standard practices of biological testing provides a reasonable level of confidence concerning the response of a living organism to a given material or device, as well as guidance in selecting the proper procedures to be carried out for the screening of new or modified materials. This article presents results from cytotoxicity assays of cell culture, skin irritation, and acute toxicity by systemic and intracutaneous injections for powders, ceramic bodies, and extract liquids of hydroxyapatite (HA), calcia partially stabilized zirconia (ZO), and two types of zirconia-hydroxyapatite composites (Z4H6 and Z6H4) with potential for future use as orthopedic and dental implants. They indicate that these materials present potential for this type of application because they meet the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity of ATCC cell cultures (CCL1 NCTC clone 929 of mouse connective tissue and CCL 81 of monkey connective tissue) and animals (rabbit and mouse) with direct or indirect patient contact, or by the injection of specific extracts prepared from the material under test. In addition, studies involving short-term intramuscular and long-term implantation assays to estimate the reaction of living tissue to the composites studied, and investigations on long-term effects that these materials can cause on the cellular metabolism, are already in progress. PMID:12209904

  9. Photonic crystal microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokhov, A. A.; Masalov, V. M.; Sukhinina, N. S.; Matveev, D. V.; Dolganov, P. V.; Dolganov, V. K.; Emelchenko, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spherical samples of photonic crystals formed by colloidal SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. Synthesis of microspheres from 160 nm, 200 nm and 430 nm diameter colloidal nanoparticles was performed over a wide size range, from 5 ?m to 50 ?m. The mechanism of formation of void microparticles exceeding 50 ?m is discussed. The spectral measurements verified the association of the spectra with the peaks of selective reflection from the cubic lattice planes. The microparticle morphology is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite/polymer composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiufeng; Liu, Rongfang; Huang, Qiongyu

    2008-11-01

    Polycaprolactone/chitosan (PCL/CS) porous composite scaffolds were prepared by solution phase separation method, and the scaffolds were further enhanced by filling with nano-hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl alcohol (n-HA/PVA) composite slurry to prepare n-HA-PVA/PCL-CS composite porous scaffolds through slurry centrifugal filling technique. The morphology, microstructure, component, porosity and mechanical property of the scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, elemental analyzer and material test machine. The results show that PCL/CS scaffolds have mutual transfixion porous structure just like honeycombs. The porosity of the scaffolds can achieve 60-80%. As the content of CS increases, the porosity increases while the compressive strength decreases. After filled with HA/PVA composite slurry, the porosity of n-HA/PCL-CS composite scaffolds decreases, but still greater than 60%, while the compression modulus can increase to 25.7 MPa. PMID:18574674

  11. Anisotropic growth of hydroxyapatite on the silk fibroin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yucheng; Cai, Yurong; Kong, Xiangdong; Yao, Juming

    2008-12-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin is of practical interest for its excellent intrinsic properties utilizable in the biotechnological and biomedical fields. Here, the silk fibroin films were pretreated with different methods and then used as the template for the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal growth. To study the effect of silk films' surface structure on the protein biomineralization, the films were immersed into 1.5 times simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF) to induce the HA deposition at 37 C. The results showed that an anisotropic growth of HA crystals was observed on the different films as judging from XRD, TEM and HRTEM data. This was thought that the positions and density of carboxyl groups, C dbnd O and amino groups on the surface of SF films may be different, which play the key effect on HA crystal growth.

  12. Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite within chitosan matrix.

    PubMed

    Rogina, A; Ivankovi?, M; Ivankovi?, H

    2013-12-01

    Nano-composites that show some features of natural bone both in composition and in microstructure have been prepared by in situ precipitation method. Apatite phase has been prepared from cost-effective precursors (calcite and urea phosphate) within chitosan (CS) matrix dissolved in aqueous acetic acid solution. The compositional and morphological properties of composites were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Depending on the reaction conditions (temperature, reaction time, glucose addition and pH control) in addition to hydroxyapatite (HA) as a major phase, octacalcium hydrogen phosphate pentahydrate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (DCPD) were formed as shown by XRD and FTIR. Crystallite lengths of precipitated HA estimated by Scherrer's equation were between 20 and 30 nm. A fibrous morphology (~400 nm) of HA observed by TEM indicates that HA nucleates on chitosan chains. PMID:24094157

  13. Hepatotoxicity and liver injury induced by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingqing; Xue, Yang; Sun, Jiao

    2014-11-01

    As hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HA NPs) are increasingly used in biomedical and biotechnological fields, risk assessment of HA NPs has attracted extensive attention. Nevertheless, little is known about the potential adverse effects of HA NPs on normal hepatocytes and the liver. In the present study, we conducted an in vitro study in which 80-nm HA NPs were incubated with normal Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells. By analyzing the changes in cell viability, apoptosis/necrosis and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, we investigated the cytotoxicity and potential mechanism of HA NPs in hepatocytes. Furthermore, we used the serum hematology and histopathology examinations to explore the in vivo effects of HA NPs on the structure and function of the liver. Our results showed that exposure to HA NPs at a concentration above 200?g?ml(-1) decreased cell viability, increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, induced apoptosis and necrosis, and triggered the MAPK signaling pathway in BRL cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that HA NPs increased the white blood cell count (WBC) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum, caused inflammatory cell infiltration at the portal area in the liver, and induced hepatic oxidative stress with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These data demonstrate that at certain concentrations, 80-nm HA NPs cause hepatotoxicity and liver injury. PMID:25225040

  14. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity property of hydroxyapatite-mullite eluates.

    PubMed

    Kalmodia, Sushma; Sharma, Vyom; Pandey, Alok K; Dhawan, Alok; Basu, Bikramjit

    2011-02-01

    Long-term biomedical applications of implant materials may cause osteolysis, aseptic losing and toxicity. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA) mullite eluates in L929 mouse fibroblast cells. The spark plasma sintered HA-20% mullite biocomposite (HA20M) were ground using mortar and pestle as well as ball milling. The cells were exposed for 6 h to varying concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of the eluates of HA-20% mullite (87 nm), HA (171 nm) and mullite (154 nm). The scanning electron microscopy and MTT assay revealed the concentration dependent toxicity of H20M eluate at and above 50%. The analysis of the DNA damaging potential of HA, mullite and HA20M eluates using Comet assay demonstrated a significant DNA damage by HA20M which was largely related to the presence of mullite. The results collectively demonstrate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of HA20M eluate in L929 cells is dependent on particle size, concentration and composition. PMID:21485810

  15. New Coll-HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen-hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll-HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll-HA and Coll-HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll-HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. PMID:26952486

  16. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1?m fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1?m microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  17. Particle Tracking of Fluorescent Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Zofia; Mueller, Joachim; Berk, Serkan

    2010-10-01

    In this research, the diffusion coefficients of the fluorescent microspheres and the relation of those coefficients to particle radius were investigated. An additional focus was to see how well the measured radius of the microspheres compared to the radius as reported by the manufacturer and to measure the distribution of radii in a sample. This study further developed the critical process of ensuring particle movement within the sample volume and made preliminary sample measurements.The methods developed for tracking microspheres will later be used to determine the radii of virus like particles (VLPs), which are a non-infectious model system of the HIV virus. Results from our measurements will be reported.

  18. A citric acid-based hydroxyapatite composite for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongjin; Yang, Jian; Kodali, Pradeep; Koh, Jason; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2006-12-01

    We describe a novel approach to process bioceramic microparticles and poly(diol citrates) into bioceramic-elastomer composites for potential use in orthopedic surgery. The composite consists of the biodegradable elastomer poly(1,8-octanediol-citrate) (POC) and the bioceramic hydroxyapatite (HA). The objective of this work was to characterize POC-HA composites and assess the feasibility of fabricating tissue fixation devices using machining and molding techniques. The mechanical properties of POC-HA composites with HA (40, 50, 60, 65wt.%) were within the range of values reported for tissue fixation devices (for POC-HA 65wt.%, S(b)=41.4+/-3.1, E(b)=501.7+/-40.3, S(c)=74.6+/-9.0, E(c)=448.8+/-27.0, S(t)=9.7+/-2.3, E(t)=334.8+/-73.5, S(s)=27.7+/-2.4, T(s)=27.3+/-4.9, all values in MPa). At 20 weeks, the weight loss of POC-HA composites ranged between 8 and 12wt.%, with 65wt.% HA composites degrading the slowest. Exposure of POC-HA to simulated body fluid resulted in extensive mineralization in the form of calcium phosphate with Ca/P of 1.5-1.7 similar to bone. POC-HA supported osteoblast adhesion in vitro and histology results from POC-HA samples that were implanted in rabbit knees for 6 weeks suggest that the composite is biocompatible. Synthesis of POC-HA is easy and inexpensive, does not involve harsh solvents or initiators, and the mechanical properties of POC-HA with 65wt.% HA are suitable for the fabrication of potentially osteoconductive bone screws. PMID:16919720

  19. Electrospun PCL/PLA/HA based nanofibers as scaffold for osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Zhang, Enwei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng

    2010-11-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) are frequently used as materials for tissue engineering. In this study, PCL/PLA/HA nanofiber mats with different weight ratio were prepared using electrospinning. Their structure and morphology were studied by FTIR and FESEM. FTIR results demonstrated that the HA particles were successfully incorporated into the PCL/PLA nanofibers. The FESEM images showed that the surface of fibers became coarser with the introduction of HA nanoparticles into PCL/PLA system. Furthermore, the addition of HA led to the decreasing of fiber diameter. The average diameters of PCL/PLA/HA nanofiber were in the range of 300-600 nm, while that of PCL/PLA was 776 +/- 15.4 nm. The effect of nanofiber composition on the osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell adhesion and proliferation were investigated as the preliminary biological evaluation of the scaffold. The MC3T3-E1 cell could be attached actively on all the scaffolds. The MTT assay revealed that PCL/PLA/HA scaffold shows significantly higher cell proliferation than PCL/PLA scaffolds. After 15 days of culture, mineral particles on the surface of the cells was appeared on PCL/PLA/HA nanofibers while normal cell spreading morphology on PCL/PLA nanofibers. These results manifested that electrospun PCL/PLA/HA scaffolds could enhance bone regeneration, showing their marvelous prospect as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:21138024

  20. Synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite and its rapid mediated surface functionalization by silane coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Sarish; Khan, Kishwar; Mujahid, Mohammad; Nosheen, Shaneela

    2016-01-01

    In this work, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods were synthesized by simple one step wet precipitation method followed by their rapid surface functionalization via aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to give modified (HA-APTS) product. Functionalized hydroxyapatite (HA-APTS) holds amino groups on their surface that can be further functionalized with other bioactive molecules. The extent of functionalization of HA was studied under three different processing conditions; at room temperature, at 80 C and under microwave condition (600 W). Three different temperatures have been use for the purpose of comparison between the functionalized products so that we can judge that whether there is any effect of temperature on the final products. In the last we conclude that temperature has no effect. So microwave condition is best to carried out the functionalization in just 5 min. PMID:26478359

  1. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth. PMID:25842126

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium obtained by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xibo; Zeng, Yongxiang; He, Rui; Li, Zhongjie; Tian, Lingyang; Wang, Jian; Wan, Qianbing; Li, Xiaoyu; Bao, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (SWNTs/HA) composite coatings were successfully fabricated by electrochemical deposition technique. Different concentrations of SWNTs were incorporated into the apatite coating by adding functionalized SWNTs into the electrolyte. Homogeneous and crack-free SWNTs/HA composite coatings were achieved and the coatings had higher crystallinity compared to pure HA coating. In addition, the highest bonding strength of the SWNTs/HA coating reached 25.7 MPa, which was nearly 70% higher than that of pure HA coating. The in-vitro cellular biocompatibility tests revealed that SWNTs/HA composite coatings exhibited higher in-vitro bioactivity than that of pure HA coating and pure titanium (Ti). It suggests that SWNTs/HA composite coating may have enormous potential applications in the field of biomaterials, especially for the metal implants.

  3. Magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite formation on (Ti,Mg)N coatings produced by cathodic arc PVD technique.

    PubMed

    Onder, Sakip; Kok, Fatma Nese; Kazmanli, Kursat; Urgen, Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    In this study, formation of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca10-xMgx(PO4)6(OH)2) on (Ti,Mg)N and TiN coating surfaces were investigated. The (Ti1-x,Mgx)N (x=0.064) coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition technique. TiN coated grade 2 titanium substrates were used as reference to understand the role of magnesium on hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The HA formation experiments was carried out in simulated body fluids (SBF) with three different concentrations (1X SBF, 5X SBF and 5X SBF without magnesium ions) at 37 C. The coatings and hydroxyapatite films formed were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR Spectroscopy techniques. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses and XRD investigations of the coatings indicated that magnesium was incorporated in the TiN structure rather than forming a separate phase. The comparison between the TiN and (Ti, Mg)N coatings showed that the presence of magnesium in TiN structure facilitated magnesium substituted HA formation on the surface. The (Ti,Mg)N coatings can potentially be used to accelerate the HA formation in vivo conditions without any prior hydroxyapatite coating procedure. PMID:23910351

  4. Glass microsphere lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marliana, Ana; Fitriani, Eka; Ramadhan, Fauzan; Suhandono, Steven; Yuliani, Keti; Windarti, Tri

    2015-12-01

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated.

  6. Fabrication, chemical composition change and phase evolution of biomorphic hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junmin; Kang, Yahong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhe

    2008-11-01

    Biomorphous, highly porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been prepared by a combination of a novel biotemplating process and a sol-gel method, using natural plants like cane and pine as biotemplates. A HA sol was first synthesized from triethylphosphate and calcium nitrate used as the phosphorus and calcium precursors, respectively, and infiltrated into the biotemplates, and subsequently they were sintered at elevated temperatures to obtain porous HA ceramics. The microstructural changes, phase and chemical composition evolutions during the biotemplate-to-HA conversion were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD and FT-IR analysis revealed that the dominant phase of the product was HA, which contained a small amount of mixed A/B-type carbonated HA, closely resembling that of human bone apatite. Moreover, the appearance of a small amount of secondary phase CaCO(3) seemed unavoidable. The HA was not transformed to the other calcium phosphate phases up to 1400 degrees C, but it contained a trace amount of CaO when sintered at above 1100 degrees C. The possible transformation mechanism was proposed. The SEM observation and mechanical property test showed that as-produced HA ceramics retained the macro-/micro-porous structures of the biotemplates with high precision, and possessed acceptable mechanical strength, which is suggested to be potential scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. PMID:18545942

  7. Effect of different sintering methods on bioactivity and release of proteins from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Dormer, Nathan H; Gupta, Vineet; Scurto, Aaron M; Berkland, Cory J; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Macromolecule release from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres has been well-characterized, and is a popular approach for delivering bioactive signals from tissue-engineered scaffolds. However, the effect of some processing solvents, sterilization, and mineral incorporation (when used in concert) on long-term release and bioactivity has seldom been addressed. Understanding these effects is of significant importance for microsphere-based scaffolds, given that these scaffolds are becoming increasingly more popular, yet growth factor activity following sintering and/or sterilization is heretofore unknown. The current study evaluated the 6-week release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from PLGA and PLGA/hydroxyapatite (HAp) microspheres following exposure to ethanol (EtOH), dense phase carbon dioxide (CO2), or ethylene oxide (EtO). EtO was chosen based on its common use in scaffold sterilization, whereas EtOH and CO2 were chosen given their importance in sintering microspheres together to create scaffolds. Release supernatants were then used in an accelerated cell stimulation study with human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) with monitoring of gene expression for major chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. Results indicated that in microspheres without HAp, EtOH exposure led to the greatest amount of delivery, while those treated with CO2 delivered the least growth factor. In contrast, formulations with HAp released almost half as much protein, regardless of EtOH or CO2 exposure. Notably, EtO exposure was not found to significantly affect the amount of protein released. Cell stimulation studies demonstrated that eluted protein samples performed similarly to positive controls in PLGA-only formulations, and ambiguously in PLGA/HAp composites. In conclusion, the use of EtOH, subcritical CO2, and EtO in microsphere-based scaffolds may have only slight adverse effects, and possibly even desirable effects in some cases, on protein availability and bioactivity. PMID:23910352

  8. Thin hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy fabricated via RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T. M.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Mueller, M.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this study the morphology, composition, structure and wettability of radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) coating deposited on the surface of AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated. The results revealed that the fabricated coating is uniform, homogeneous with the structure of the stoichiometric HA. The deposition of the HA coating did not change significantly the surface wettability of the bare alloy, however water contact angle dynamics in the case of the HA coated substrates revealed a lower rate of a droplet spreading over the surface.

  9. Deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films by Nd:YAG laser ablation: a microstructural study

    SciTech Connect

    Nistor, L.C.; Ghica, C.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Nistor, S.V. . E-mail: snistor@alpha1.infim.ro; Dinescu, M.; Matei, D.; Frangis, N.; Vouroutzis, N.; Liutas, C.

    2004-11-02

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films has been successfully deposited by Nd:YAG laser ablation at {lambda} = 532 nm. The morphology and microstructure of the deposited layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Polycrystalline HA films were directly obtained with the substrate at 300 deg. C and without introducing water vapors in the deposition chamber. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements show that the oxygen stoichiometry in the HA films is also maintained. Depositions performed at {lambda} = 335 nm laser wavelength and 300 deg. C substrate temperature resulted in polycrystalline layers of mixed composition of HA and tricalciumphosphate (TCP)

  10. Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

  11. Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Thomson, R C; Yaszemski, M J; Powers, J M; Mikos, A G

    1998-11-01

    A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength. PMID:9863527

  12. Characterization of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite thin film by sputtering technique from mixture targets of hydroxyapatite and strontium apatite.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Goto, T; Aoki, H; Masuzawa, T

    2014-01-01

    Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite thin films were prepared by sputtering technique from mixture targets of hydroxyapatite (HA) and strontium apatite (SrAp). The HA and SrAp powders were mixed at 0-100% Sr/(Sr+Ca) target ratios. The coated films were recrystallized by a hydrothermal treatment to reduce film dissolution. The films were then characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP). The osteocompatiblity of the films was also evaluated by the size of the bone formation area in osteoblast cells.In the XRD patterns, peaks shifted to lower 2θ values with increasing Sr/(Sr+Ca) target ratios, which indicated Sr incorporation into the HA lattice. In the SEM observation of the hydrothermally treated films, the surface was covered with globular particles, and the size of the globular particles increased from Sr0 to Sr40, and then the size decreased from Sr60 to Sr100. The ICP analysis showed that the Sr/(Sr+Ca) film ratios were almost the same as the target ratios. In the cell culture, the bone formation area on the Sr-substituted HA films increased with increasing Sr concentration, and saturated at Sr60. PMID:24642972

  13. Mimix hydroxyapatite cement use in the reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Mann, Robert J; Blount, Andrew L; Neaman, Keith C; Korepta, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton has undergone a significant evolution during the past century. Initially, the use of autogenous bone grafts from various sites was the criterion standard. However, owing to donor site morbidity and lack of sufficient bone for large defects, surgeons have relied on various bone substitutes. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has served as an alternative to autogenous grafts, but questions regarding biocompatibility, risk of infection, and slow set times have hampered its acceptance. This article serves as a review of a single surgeon's experience using HA in the craniofacial skeleton. Eighteen patients receiving HA between March 2000 and November 2006 were observed. Sixteen underwent recontouring of skull-based bone defects, and 2 underwent recontouring for nasal and alveolar defects. The mean amount of HA used in each patient was 30.2 g. For large contour irregularities, the maximum thickness of HA used was 8 mm. The size of bone defects ameliorated averaged 4.8 cm(2). Complications occurred in 3 (16.7%) of 18 patients and included scalp hematoma and superficial cellulitis. In addition, 1 patient developed a facial abscess after placement along the alveolar floor, which necessitated removal. Hydroxyapatite represents a viable alternative to autogenous bone grafts when used in the correct manner. Hydroxyapatite should be used only for smaller defects or used in conjunction with absorbable plates when attempting to fill larger defects. Use of HA for nasal piriform augmentation or alveolar bone grafting should not be considered owing to problems with late infections. PMID:22067865

  14. Nano-hydroxyapatite and its applications in preventive, restorative and regenerative dentistry: a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Pepla, Erlind; Besharat, Lait Kostantinos; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Migliau, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study aims to critically summarize the literature about nano-hydroxyapatite. The purpose of this work is to analyze the benefits of using nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, especially for its preventive, restorative and regenerative applications. We also provide an overview of new dental materials, still experimental, which contain the nano-hydroxyapatite in its nano-crystalline form. Hydroxyapatite is one of the most studied biomaterials in the medical field for its proven biocompatibility and for being the main constituent of the mineral part of bone and teeth. In terms of restorative and preventive dentistry, nano-hydroxyapatite has significant remineralizing effects on initial enamel lesions, certainly superior to conventional fluoride, and good results on the sensitivity of the teeth. The nano-HA has also been used as an additive material, in order to improve already existing and widely used dental materials, in the restorative field (experimental addition to conventional glass ionomer cements, that has led to significant improvements in their mechanical properties). Because of its unique properties, such as the ability to chemically bond to bone, to not induce toxicity or inflammation and to stimulate bone growth through a direct action on osteoblasts, nano-HA has been widely used in periodontology and in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Its use in oral implantology, however, is a widely used practice established for years, as this substance has excellent osteoinductive capacity and improves bone-to-implant integration. PMID:25506416

  15. Fabrication of Ti/HA composite and functionally graded implant by three-dimensional printing.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao; Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of fabricating titanium(Ti)/hydroxyapatite(HA) composite and functionally graded implant by three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology. Nano-scale Ti and HA powders were mixed at the ratio of 8:2 and prepared with water-soluble binder. The Ti/HA composite CAD model was designed to be in cylinder shape (25 mm in diameter, 20 mm in height) with the 100% bond area in each layer. The functionally graded implant was 25 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height with two segments. The upper segment was composed of 100% Ti in each layer, whereas the lower was composed of 80%Ti/20%HA. The composite and functionally graded implant were fabricated by 3DP and sintered at 1200C under protective argon atmosphere. There occurred a chemical reaction between Ti and HA, in which new resultants of Ca3(PO4)2, CaTiO3, TiO2 and CaO were created. The sintered Ti/HA composite had the aperture size from 50 to 150 ?m and the compressive strength of 184.327.1 MPa. The result of this study demonstrated that it was feasible to fabricate Ti/HA composite and functionally graded implant by 3DP technology. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/HA composite and functionally graded implant were conductive to bone cell ingrowth, resulting in the wide application of this biocomposite. PMID:25813951

  16. Formation and bioactivity of HA nanorods on micro-arc oxidized zirconium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Shaoyu; Han, Yong; Xiao, Chengzhang; Tang, Wu

    2014-10-01

    A microporous and CaO partially stabilized zirconia (Ca-PSZ) coating covered with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods is fabricated on Zr substrate by a hybrid approach of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and hydrothermal treatment (HT). The effect of P ions in HT solution on the density and morphology of HA was investigated; the hydrophilicity and apatite-forming ability of the Ca-PSZ coating with HA nanorods were also examined. High-density HA nanorods (with a mean diameter of 50 nm and length of 450 nm) grow on the Ca-PSZ coating after HT in a solution containing 0.002 M ?-glycerophosphate disodium (?-GP). However, only a few of coarse-grained HA crystallites grow in the MAOed pores after HT in distilled water or in an ammonia aqueous solution with an initial pH value equal to the solution containing 0.002 M ?-GP. P ions in the HT solution are thought to significantly promote the formation of HA nanorods. The Ca-PSZ coating covered with HA nanorods displays good hydrophilicity and excellent apatite-inducing ability, and the induced apatite prefers to nucleate on the basal-faceted surfaces of HA nanorods. PMID:25175191

  17. Nano hydroxyapatite-coated implants improve bone nanomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, R; Coelho, P G; Bryington, M; Baldassarri, M; Tovar, N; Currie, F; Hayashi, M; Janal, M N; Andersson, M; Ono, D; Vandeweghe, S; Wennerberg, A

    2012-12-01

    Nanostructure modification of dental implants has long been sought as a means to improve osseointegration through enhanced biomimicry of host structures. Several methods have been proposed and demonstrated for creating nanotopographic features; here we describe a nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated implant surface and hypothesize that it will hasten osseointegration and improve its quality relative to that of non-coated implants. Twenty threaded titanium alloy implants, half prepared with a stable HA nanoparticle surface and half grit-blasted, acid-etched, and heat-treated (HT), were inserted into rabbit femurs. Pre-operatively, the implants were morphologically and topographically characterized. After 3 weeks of healing, the samples were retrieved for histomorphometry. The nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone were evaluated by nanoindentation. While both implants revealed similar bone-to-implant contact, the nanoindentation demonstrated that the tissue quality was significantly enhanced around the HA-coated implants, validating the postulated hypothesis. PMID:23045363

  18. Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanoparticulate crystalline hydroxyapatite functionalized with KRSR

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michael; Balasundaram, Ganesan; Webster, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The present in vitro study created nanometer crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) and amorphous calcium phosphate for novel orthopedic applications. Specifically, nano-crystalline HA and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical process followed by hydrothermal treatment for 2 hours at 200C and 70C, respectively. Resulting particles were then pressed into compacts. For the preparation of control conventional HA particles (or those currently used in orthopedics with micron diameters), the aforementioned calcium phosphate particles were pressed into compacts and sintered at 1100C for 2 hours. All calcium phosphate-based particles were fully characterized. Results showed that although there was an initial weight gain for all the compacts studied in this experiment, higher eventual degradation rates up to 3 weeks were observed for nano-amorphous calcium phosphate compared with nano-crystalline HA which was higher than conventional HA. Peptide functionalization (with the cell adhesive peptide lysine-arginine-serine-arginine [KRSR] and the non-cell-adhesive peptide lysine-serine-arginine-arginine [KSRR]) was accomplished by means of a three-step reaction procedure: silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), cross-linking with N-succinimidyl-3-maleimido propionate (SMP), and finally peptide immobilization. The peptide functionalization was fully characterized. Results demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on non-functionalized and functionalized nano-crystalline HA compacts compared with nano amorphous calcium phosphate compacts; both increased osteoblast adhesion compared with conventional HA. To further exemplify the novel properties of nano crystalline HA, results also showed similar osteoblast adhesion between non-functionalized nano crystalline HA and KRSR functionalized conventional HA. Thus, results provided evidence that nanocrystalline HA should be further studied for orthopedic applications. PMID:17717974

  19. Hydroxyapatite-nanotube composites and coatings for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Debrupa

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has received wide attention in orthopedics, due to its biocompatibility and osseointegration ability. Despite these advantages, the brittle nature and low fracture toughness of HA often results in rapid wear and premature fracture of implant. Hence, there is a need to improve the fracture toughness and wear resistance of HA without compromising its biocompatibility. The aim of the current research is to explore the potential of nanotubes as reinforcement to HA for orthopedic implants. HA- 4 wt.% carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and coatings are synthesized by spark plasma sintering and plasma spraying respectively, and investigated for their mechanical, tribological and biological behavior. CNT reinforcement improves the fracture toughness (>90%) and wear resistance (>66%) of HA for coating and free standing composites. CNTs have demonstrated a positive influence on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization activities of osteoblasts, during in-vitro biocompatibility studies. In-vivo exposure of HA-CNT coated titanium implant in animal model (rat) shows excellent histocompatibility and neobone integration on the implant surface. The improved osseointegration due to presence of CNTs in HA is quantified by the adhesion strength measurement of single osteoblast using nano-scratch technique. Considering the ongoing debate about cytotoxicity of CNTs in the literature, the present study also suggests boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) as an alternative reinforcement. BNNT with the similar elastic modulus and strength as CNT, were added to HA. The resulting composite having 4 wt.% BNNTs improved the fracture toughness (85%) and wear resistance (75%) of HA in the similar range as HA-CNT composites. BNNTs were found to be non-cytotoxic for osteoblasts and macrophages. In-vitro evaluation shows positive role of BNNT in osteoblast proliferation and viability. Apatite formability of BNNT surface in 4 days establishes its osseointegration ability.

  20. Osteogenic responses to zirconia with hydroxyapatite coating by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y; Hong, J; Ryoo, H; Kim, D; Park, J; Han, J

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  1. Lysozyme loading and release from Se doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Hao, Hang; Zhang, Shengmin

    2016-04-01

    Element-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) based nanocomposites have become a promising therapeutic material for improving bone defect repair. Selenium substituted HA nanoparticles can both induce apoptosis of bone tumor cells and enhance osteointegration. However, the effect of selenite ions on the proteins in combination with the HA nanoparticles remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of selenium doping concentration on the loading and release of lysozyme (LSM) as a model protein drug. The selenium substituted HA-LSM composites with different doping concentrations were synthesized and characterized. The subsequent delivery of lysozyme was studied in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). We found that selenium substituted HA-LSM composites with Se:P=10% showed the highest amount of lysozyme loading (41.7%), whereas the amount of lysozyme loaded in undoped HA nanoparticles was the lowest (34.1%). The doped selenium interacts with lysozyme molecules, which leads to the increase of β-sheet and unordered, and the decrease of self-association, α-helix and β-turns in protein structures. Moreover, selenium addition significantly slows the protein release from HA-LSM composites. The composites with Se:P=10% release lysozyme at the slightly slower rate among the samples with different Se doping concentrations. It also shows that the released lysozyme retains most of its enzymatic activity. PMID:26838882

  2. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, William E. (Acampo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  3. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Titanium Implant with Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kang, Seong Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Taek; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Son, Jun Sik

    2015-08-01

    Plasma treatments are becoming a popular method for modifying the characteristics of a range of substrate surfaces. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is cost-efficient, safe and simple compared to high-pressure plasma. This study examined the effects of a low-temperature APP treatment of a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated Ti (HA-Ti) surface. The APP treatment made the HA-Ti surfaces more hydrophilic without changing surface morphologies. The APP-treated HA-Ti (APP-HA-Ti) surface showed enhanced cell spreading, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels with more developed cellular networks, and the formed extracellular matrix (ECM) was fused perfectly with the HA substrate than that on the HA-Ti surface. In conclusion, an APP treatment is a potential surface-modifying method that can enhance the cell affinity at the early stages in vitro. PMID:26369123

  5. Microspheres and their methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Anima B; Yang, Junbing

    2015-03-24

    Carbon microspheres are doped with boron to enhance the electrical and physical properties of the microspheres. The boron-doped carbon microspheres are formed by a CVD process in which a catalyst, carbon source and boron source are evaporated, heated and deposited onto an inert substrate.

  6. Hydroxyapatite synthesis on solid surfaces using a biological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Mei, J.; Tse, Y. Y.; Jones, I. P.; Sammons, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many naturally occurring mineralisation processes yield hydroxyapatite (HA) or related salts, but biological routes to calcification have not generally been exploited for production of hydroxyapatite for clinical and industrial applications. Serratia sp. NCIMB 40259 is a non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of growing as a biofilm on many surfaces and can be used to form HA coatings on a variety of polymeric and metallic materials, including titanium. Here we review previous work and report the results of more recent studies on the influence of titanium compositional and surface properties on Serratia adherence and proliferation and biomineralisation on commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) discs and a Ti mesh. Bacterial adherence was equivalent on cpTi and Ti6Al4V, and biofilms formed on both rough and mirror-polished cpTi surfaces. Embedded alumina particles and alkali treatment did not noticeably alter the precipitation of Serratia HA, nor the structure of the coating in comparison with non-treated substrates. Coatings were retained after sintering at 800C in argon, although the original curved plate-like crystals changed to nano-scale ?-tricalcium phosphate particles. A phosphorous-rich diffusion zone formed at the coating-titanium interface. Bacterial mineralisation may have applications as a method for producing coatings on implants in non load-bearing sites, and non-clinical applications where a high surface area is the major concern.

  7. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  8. Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

  9. Thin-Layer Hydroxyapatite Deposition on a Nanofiber Surface Stimulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Their Differentiation into Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Proseck, Eva; Buzgo, Matej; Rampichov, Michala; Kocourek, Tom; Kochov, Petra; Vyslouilov, Lucie; Tvrdk, Daniel; Jelnek, Miroslav; Luk, David; Amler, Even

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition was proved as a suitable method for hydroxyapatite (HA) coating of coaxial poly-?-caprolactone/polyvinylalcohol (PCL/PVA) nanofibers. The fibrous morphology of PCL/PVA nanofibers was preserved, if the nanofiber scaffold was coated with thin layers of HA (200?nm and 400?nm). Increasing thickness of HA, however, resulted in a gradual loss of fibrous character. In addition, biomechanical properties were improved after HA deposition on PCL/PVA nanofibers as the value of Young's moduli of elasticity significantly increased. Clearly, thin-layer hydroxyapatite deposition on a nanofiber surface stimulated mesenchymal stem cell viability and their differentiation into osteoblasts. The optimal depth of HA was 800?nm. PMID:22319242

  10. Fabrication and characterization of plasma-sprayed HA/SiO(2) coatings for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Morks, M F

    2008-01-01

    Fused silica powder has been mixed with hydroxyapatite (HA) powder and plasma sprayed by using gas tunnel-type plasma jet. The influence of silica content (10 wt% and 20 wt%) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA-silica coatings was investigated. For investigating the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA-silica coatings, SUS 304 stainless steel was used as substrate material. The spraying was carried out on roughened substrate in an atmospheric chamber. Scanning electron microscope micrographs of cross-sectioned HA/SiO(2) coatings showed that the sprayed HA coatings with 10 and 20 wt% SiO(2) have dense structure with low porosity compared to the pure HA coatings. On the other hand, as the amount of silica was increased the coatings became denser, harder and exhibited high abrasive wear resistance. The presence of silica significantly improved the adhesive strength of HA/SiO(2) coatings mainly due to the increase in bonding strength of the coating at the interface. PMID:19627776

  11. Effects of the Reinforcement Morphology on the Fatigue Properties of Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert J.; Converse, Gabriel L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforcement morphology and content on the fatigue behavior of HA reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE). To this end, HDPE was reinforced with 20 and 40 vol% of either HA whiskers or an equiaxed HA powder, and tested in four-point bending fatigue under simulated physiological conditions. The fatigue life, mechanical property degradation and failure surfaces were compared between experimental groups. HDPE reinforced with HA whiskers exhibited a four- to five-fold increase (p < 0.001, T-test) in fatigue life compared to an equiaxed powder for either the 20 and 40 vol% reinforcement level. Composites containing 40 vol% HA exhibited decreased fatigue life compared to those with 20 vol% HA for either reinforcement morphology (p < 0.0001, ANOVA). HA whisker reinforced HDPE exhibited less stiffness loss, permanent deformation (creep) and energy dissipation at a given number of cycles compared to HA powder. Thus, HA whisker reinforced HDPE was more tolerant of fatigue damage due to either microcracking or polymer plasticity. Scanning electron microscopy of failure surfaces and surface microcracks showed evidence of toughening by uncracked ligaments, crack tip plasticity, polymer fibril bridging and HA whisker pullout. The results of this study suggest that the use of HA whiskers, in place of HA powder, is a straightforward means to improve the fatigue life and damage tolerance of HA reinforced polymers for synthetic bone substitutes. PMID:19578474

  12. Influence of hydroxyapatite on the corrosion resistance of the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Las T; Biaggio, Sonia R; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Bocchi, Nerilso

    2009-05-01

    Electrochemical analyses on the biocompatible alloy Ti-13Nb-13Zr wt% in an electrolyte simulating physiological medium (PBS solution) are reported. Hydroxyapatite (HA) films were obtained on the alloy by electrodeposition at constant cathodic current. Samples of the alloy covered with an anodic-oxide film or an anodic-oxide/HA film were analyzed by open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements during 180 days in the PBS electrolyte. Analyses of the open-circuit potential (E (oc)) values indicated that the oxide/HA film presents better protection characteristics than the oxide only. This behavior was corroborated by the higher film resistances obtained from impedance data, indicating that, besides improving the alloy osteointegration, the hydroxyapatite film may also increase the corrosion protection of the biomaterial. PMID:19083081

  13. Hydroxyapatite-magnetite-MWCNT nanocomposite as a biocompatible multifunctional drug delivery system for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistone, Alessandro; Iannazzo, Daniela; Panseri, Silvia; Montesi, Monica; Tampieri, Anna; Galvagno, Signorino

    2014-10-01

    New magnetic hydroxyapatite-based nanomaterials as bone-specific systems for controlled drug delivery have been synthesized. The synthesized hydroxyapatite, HA, decorated with magnetite nanoparticles by a deposition method (HA/Fe3O4) and the nanocomposite system obtained using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA/MWCNT/Fe3O4) as a filler for HA have been characterized by chemical and morphological analyses, and their biological behavior was investigated. The systems have also been doped with clodronate in order to combine the effect of bone biomineralization induced by hydroxyapatite-based composites with the decrease of osteoclast formation induced by the drug. An analysis of the preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cell proliferation by MTT assay confirmed the high biocompatibility of the three systems. TRAP staining of RAW 264.7 conditioned with sRAKL to induce osteoclastogenesis, cultured in the presence of the systems doped and undoped with clodronate, showed the inhibitory effect of clodronate after we counted the MNC TRAP+cells but only in the osteoclast formation; in particular, the system HA/Fe3O4-Clo exerted a high inhibitory effect compared to the drug alone. These results demonstrate that the synthesized nanocomposites are a biocompatible magnetic drug delivery system and can represent a useful multimodal platform for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  14. A comparative study of zinc, magnesium, strontium-incorporated hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants for osseointegration of osteopenic rats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhou-Shan; Zhou, Wan-Shu; He, Xing-Wen; Liu, Wei; Bai, Bing-Li; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Zheng-Liang; Tu, Kai-Kai; Li, Hang; Sun, Tao; Lv, Yang-Xun; Cui, Wei; Yang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Surface modification techniques have been applied to generate titanium implant surfaces that promote osseointegration for the implants in cementless arthroplasty. However, its effect is not sufficient for osteoporotic bone. Zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), and strontium (Sr) present a beneficial effect on bone growth, and positively affect bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to confirm the different effects of the fixation strength of Zn, Mg, Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite-coated (Zn-HA-coated, Mg-HA-coated, Sr-HA-coated) titanium implants via electrochemical deposition in the osteoporotic condition. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Twelve weeks after bilateral ovariectomy, all animals were randomly divided into four groups: group HA; group Zn-HA; group Mg-HA and group Sr-HA. Afterwards, all rats from groups HA, Zn-HA, Mg-HA and Sr-HA received implants with hydroxyapatite containing 0%, 10% Zn ions, 10% Mg ions, and 10% Sr ions. Implants were inserted bilaterally in all animals until death at 12weeks. The bilateral femurs of rats were harvested for evaluation. All treatment groups increased new bone formation around the surface of titanium rods and push-out force; group Sr-HA showed the strongest effects on new bone formation and biomechanical strength. Additionally, there are significant differences in bone formation and push-out force was observed between groups Zn-HA and Mg-HA. This finding suggests that Zn, Mg, Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings can improve implant osseointegration, and the 10% Sr coating exhibited the best properties for implant osseointegration among the tested coatings in osteoporosis rats. PMID:26952418

  15. Hydroxyapatite-alumina composites and bone-bonding.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Fartash, B; Hermansson, L

    1995-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite-alumina (HA/Al2O3) composites, with HA contents of 15, 25, 30 and 70, and pure HA as well as pure Al2O3, were densified at 1275 degrees C at a top pressure of 200 MPa for 2 h, using glass-encapsulated hot isostatic pressing. From the sintered ceramics, cylinders 2.8 x 6 mm2 were prepared by ultrasonic machining and implanted into the femoral cortical bones of 12 New Zealand White rabbits for 3 months. After killing the animals, the femur was dissected out and cut into three sections, each containing one cylinder. The specimens were mounted in a push-out device and force was applied along the long axis of the cylinder. The maximum force required to loosen the implant was recorded and the fracture surface of the bone implant was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate the important role of HA in new bone apposition to the implants, reflected by increasing bonding strength with increasing HA content in the composites. However, the relationship between HA content and the bonding strength was not linear. The composite with 70% HA and the pure HA ceramic had the same level of bonding strength and similar fracture interfaces in SEM, which supports the high bonding strength detected (about 15 MPa). Fractures occurred both in the bone and in the implant, indicating the stress transfer ability of the contact zone. This study presents qualitatively and quantitatively HA-dependent characteristics in bone-bonding. The mechanical strength of the composites was measured by a three-point bending test. The bending strength of the materials decreases with increasing HA content. PMID:7662828

  16. A new approach for the one-step synthesis of bioactive PS vs. PMMA silica hybrid microspheres as potential drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, A; Efthimiadou, E K; Boukos, N; Kordas, G

    2014-05-01

    In this work, hybrid microspheres were prepared in a two-step process combining the emulsifier free-emulsion polymerization and the sol-gel coating method. In the first step, polystyrene (St) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres were prepared as sacrificial template and in the second step a silanol shell was fabricated. The functionalized surface of the hybrid microspheres by silane analogs (APTES, TEOS) resulted in enhanced effects. The hollow microspheres were resulted either in an additional step by template dissolution and/or during the coating process. The microspheres' surface interactions and the size distribution were optimized by treatment in simulated body fluids, which resulted in the in vitro prediction of bioactivity. The bioassay test indicated that the induced hydroxyapatite resembled in structure to naturally occurring bone apatite. The drug doxorubicin (DOX) was used as a model entity for the evaluation of drug loading and release. The drug release study was performed in two different pH conditions, at acidic (pH=4.5) close to cancer cell environment and at slightly basic pH (pH=7.4) resembling the orthopedic environment. The results of the present study indicated promising hybrid microspheres for the potential application as drug delivery vehicles, for dual orthopedic functionalities in bone defects, bone inflammation, bone cancer and bone repair. PMID:24670261

  17. Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite for Medical Application Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioku, Koji; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ikeda, Tohru

    2010-11-01

    Hydrothermal processing plays a key role in the synthesis of biomaterials with excellent biocompatibility in the physiological environment. Especially, calcium phosphates are paid to much attention for the regenerative medicine. Two kinds of porous materials of hydroxyapatite with 70% porosity were prepared. One of them is a newly developed calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite composed of rod-shaped particles of about 20 ?m in length synthesized hydrothermally (HHA) and the other one is the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (SHA) prepared by the conventional sintering method. These materials were used for animal implantation tests to compare these biological responses. In the rabbit femur, implanted HHA was slowly resorbed and then most of the implanted HHA was resorbed after 72 weeks. The implanted SHA was unresorbed throughout the experimental period. The volume of newly formed bone and the number of osteoclasts in the implanted region were significantly larger in HHA than in SHA after 24 weeks. Results in the present research suggested that the activity of osteoclasts correlated to the bone forming activity of osteoblasts. The method to synthesize biodegradable pure calcium-deficient HA is expected to provide adequate biodegradability and bone replaceability.

  18. Synthesis of fluorapatite-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and toxicity investigations.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, N; Jahandideh, R; Biazar, Esmaeil

    2011-01-01

    In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles with two phases, fluorapatite (FA; Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)F(2)) and hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)), were prepared using the solgel method. Ethyl phosphate, hydrated calcium nitrate, and ammonium fluoride were used, respectively, as P, Ca, and F precursors with a Ca:P ratio of 1:72. Powders obtained from the sol-gel process were studied after they were dried at 80°C and heat treated at 550°C. The degree of crystallinity, particle and crystallite size, powder morphology, chemical structure, and phase analysis were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Zetasizer experiments. The results of XRD analysis and FTIR showed the presence of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite phases. The sizes of the crystallites estimated from XRD patterns using the Scherrer equation and the crystallinity of the hydroxyapatite phase were about 20 nm and 70%, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and SEM images and Zetasizer experiments showed an average size of 100 nm. The in vitro behavior of powder was investigated with mouse fibroblast cells. The results of these experiments indicated that the powders were biocompatible and would not cause toxic reactions. These compounds could be applied for hard-tissue engineering. PMID:21499417

  19. Synthesis of fluorapatite–hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and toxicity investigations

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, N; Jahandideh, R; Biazar, Esmaeil

    2011-01-01

    In this study, calcium phosphate nanoparticles with two phases, fluorapatite (FA; Ca10(PO4)6F2) and hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), were prepared using the solgel method. Ethyl phosphate, hydrated calcium nitrate, and ammonium fluoride were used, respectively, as P, Ca, and F precursors with a Ca:P ratio of 1:72. Powders obtained from the sol-gel process were studied after they were dried at 80°C and heat treated at 550°C. The degree of crystallinity, particle and crystallite size, powder morphology, chemical structure, and phase analysis were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Zetasizer experiments. The results of XRD analysis and FTIR showed the presence of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite phases. The sizes of the crystallites estimated from XRD patterns using the Scherrer equation and the crystallinity of the hydroxyapatite phase were about 20 nm and 70%, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and SEM images and Zetasizer experiments showed an average size of 100 nm. The in vitro behavior of powder was investigated with mouse fibroblast cells. The results of these experiments indicated that the powders were biocompatibile and would not cause toxic reactions. These compounds could be applied for hard-tissue engineering. PMID:21499417

  20. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite formation by osteopontin phosphopeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Pampena, David A; Robertson, Karen A; Litvinova, Olga; Lajoie, Gilles; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K

    2004-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an acidic phosphoglycoprotein that is believed to function in the prevention of soft tissue calcification. In vitro studies have shown that OPN can inhibit the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) and other biologically relevant crystal phases, and that this inhibitory activity requires phosphorylation of the protein; however, it is not known which phosphorylated residues are involved. We have synthesized peptides corresponding to four phosphoserine-containing sequences in rat OPN: OPN7-17, containing phosphoserines 10 and 11; OPN41-52, containing phosphoserines 46 and 47; OPN248-264, containing phosphoserines 250, 257 and 262; and OPN290-301, containing phosphoserines 295-297. The abilities of these peptides to inhibit de novo HA formation were determined using a constant-composition autotitration assay. All four OPN phosphopeptides caused a dose-dependent increase in nucleation lag time, but did not significantly affect subsequent formation of the crystals. However, OPN41-52 (inhibitory constant 73.5 min/microM) and OPN290-301 (72.2 min/microM) were approx. 4 times more potent inhibitors than OPN7-17 (19.7 min/microM) and OPN247-264 (16.3 min/microM). 'Scrambling' the amino acid sequence of OPN290-301 resulted in decreased potency (45.6 min/microM), whereas omission of the phosphate groups from this peptide caused a greater decrease (5.20 min/microM). These findings have identified phosphorylated sequences that are important for the ability of rat bone OPN to inhibit HA crystal formation, and suggest that negative-charge density is an important factor in this activity. PMID:14678013

  1. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by poly( L-phenylalanine) via ROP of L-phenylalanine N-carboxyanhydride (Pha-NCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yanfeng; Xu, Min; Wei, Junchao; Zhang, Haobin; Chen, Yiwang

    2012-01-01

    The surface of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles was modified by poly(L-phenylalanine) via the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of L-phenylalanine N-carboxyanhydride. The preparation procedure was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the modified hydroxyapatite was characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the surface grafting amounts of poly(L-phenylalanine) on HA ranging from 20.26% to 38.92% can be achieved by tuning the reaction condition. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the crystalline structure of the modified hydroxyapatite was nearly the same with that of HA, implying that the ROP was an efficient surface modification method. The MTT assay proved that the biocompatibility of modified HA was very good, which showed the potential application of modified HA in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  3. Differential effects of different forms of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate particulates on human monocyte/macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Y; Wang, J T; Doppalapudi, V A; Willis, A A; Jasty, M; Harris, W H; Nagase, M; Goldring, S R

    1996-05-01

    A possible complication associated with the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) or HA/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) coating on the surfaces of prosthetic devices used for dental and orthopedic implants is their potential to fragment and thus exist as wear debris. In contrast to the so-called osteoconductive properties of HA or HA/TCP coatings, in particulate form these materials may lead to an adverse pattern of cellular and tissue responses at the bone-implant interface. We have established an in vitro cell culture system to characterize the biologic and biochemical effects of various particulate materials. The present study demonstrates that the HA/TCP particles derived from different sintering temperatures exhibit differential effects on cultured human monocyte/macrophages (M/M). The HA/TCP particles dried at 110 degrees C were the most biologically active, stimulating significant release of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), products implicated as important mediators of inflammation in diverse pathologic conditions. Other particles, sintered at either 900 or 1200 degrees C, did not stimulate production of cytokines or PGE2. HA/TCP particles from plasma-spray coatings also failed to release proinflammatory products. These results suggest that the biochemical and crystalline structural properties of particles markedly affects their capacity to modulate M/M function. This in vitro culture system should be useful in characterizing the specific physical and chemical properties of HA or HA/TCP particulates that are responsible for stimulating proinflammatory cell responses. PMID:8731145

  4. Chitosan based hydrogel microspheres as drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Vodn, Lucia; Bubenkov, Silvia; Lack, Igor; Chorvt, Dusan; Bakos, Dusan

    2007-05-10

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CHIT/TPP) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate/chondroitin sulfate (CHIT/TPP/CHS) core-shell type microspheres were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation in order to develop a biocompatible matrix for drug delivery. The continual method using a multi-loop reactor under sterile conditions was applied for microsphere preparation. All the types of microspheres produced were spherical in shape and had a porous structure. The mechanical resistance of the microspheres increased in the presence of CHS as the second polyanion, which toughened the microsphere shell structure. For a drug release application, the process of microsphere preparation was modified by dissolving ofloxacin (OFL), the fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in CHIT solution before complex formation. This study shows the difference in OFL release comparing the microspheres CHIT/TPP and CHIT/TPP/CHS and implies the potential to control this process. PMID:17477445

  5. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

    2013-10-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saska, S.; Barud, H. S.; Gaspar, A. M. M.; Marchetto, R.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the biological properties of bacterial cellulose-hydroxyapatite (BC-HA) nanocomposite membranes for bone regeneration. Nanocomposites were prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes sequentially incubated in solutions of CaCl2 followed by Na2HPO4. BC-HA membranes were evaluated in noncritical bone defects in rat tibiae at 1, 4, and 16 weeks. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of the mineral phase was 40%–50% of the total weight. Spectroscopy, electronic microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and X-ray diffraction showed formation of HA crystals on BC nanofibres. Low crystallinity HA crystals presented Ca/P a molar ratio of 1.5 (calcium-deficient HA), similar to physiological bone. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis showed bands assigned to phosphate and carbonate ions. In vivo tests showed no inflammatory reaction after 1 week. After 4 weeks, defects were observed to be completely filled in by new bone tissue. The BC-HA membranes were effective for bone regeneration. PMID:21961004

  7. Addressing processing problems associated with plasma spraying of hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheang, P; Khor, K A

    1996-03-01

    Biomedical coatings generally have to satisfy specific requirements such as a high degree of crystallinity (for positive biological responses), good coating adhesion and optimal porosity. These are necessary to enhance biocompatibility, accelerate post-operative healing and improved fixation. Thermal spray processes have been frequently used to deposit functionally active biomedical coatings, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), onto prosthetic implants. The benefits of HA materials in coated implants have been widely acknowledged, but the occurrence of several poor performances has generated concerns over the consistency and reliability of thermally sprayed HA coatings. Recent investigations using HA coatings have shown that process related variability has significant influence on coating characteristics such as phase composition, structure and chemical composition and performance such as bioresorption, degradation and bone apposition. Variation in process parameters such as powder morphology can induce microstructural and mechanical inconsistencies that have an effect on the service performance of the coating. In order to reach some acceptable level of reliability, it may be necessary to control existing variability in commercially available HA feedstock. In addition, certain opposing factors severely constrain the means to achieve the necessary coating conditions via thermal spraying alone; therefore, creating the need to introduce other innovative or secondary treatment stages to attain the desired results. This paper highlights some of the problems associated with plasma spray coating of HA and suggests that tailoring the powder feedstock morphology and properties through suitable conditioning processes can aid the deposition efficiency and produce an acceptable coating structure. PMID:8991486

  8. Development of electrochemical folic acid sensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C.

    2015-02-01

    We report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application as sensing element for the precise determination of folic acid (FA) by electrochemical method. The structure and composition of the HA NPs characterized using XRD, FTIR, Raman and XPS. SEM and EDX studies confirmed the formation of elongated spherical shaped HA NPs with an average particle size of about 34 nm. The HA NPs thin film on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were deposited by drop casting method. Electrocatalytic behavior of FA in the physiological pH 7.0 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry. The fabricated HA/GCE exhibited a linear calibration plot over a wide FA concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 3.5 × 10-4 M with the detection limit of 75 nM. In addition, the HA NPs modified GCE showed good selectivity toward the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100-fold excess of ascorbic acid (AA) and 1000-fold excess of other common interferents. The fabricated biosensor exhibits good sensitivity and stability, and was successfully applied for the determination of FA in pharmaceutical samples.

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  10. Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite on the PEG-grafted surface of wood from Chinese Glossy Privet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Cai, Chuanjie; Cai, Dongqing; Cheng, Junjie; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhengyan

    2012-10-01

    Wood-hydroxyapatite composite material was developed by depositing hydrated calcium hydrogen phosphate (HCHP) on the surface of wood from Chinese Glossy Privet (CGP) with polyethylene glycol (PEG, HO(CH2CH2O)nH) as the grafting agent and subsequent hydrothermal vapor treatment. The results illustrated that HCHP could adhere quickly and strongly on the PEG-grafted wood surface. Moreover, this HCHP could be efficiently transformed to hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) by hydrothermal vapor treatment. IR, XRD analysis and SEM observation indicated that the fabricated hydroxyapatite was pure and its morphology was uniform and microporous. This work provides a new fabricating approach of biocompatible material which may have some potential applications as bone-repairing material.

  11. Elaboration of the hydroxyapatite with different precursors and application for the retention of the lead.

    PubMed

    Meski, S; Ziani, S; Khireddine, H; Yataghane, F; Ferguene, N

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAP) was synthesized from different precursors; synthetic (CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2) and natural (egg shell before and after calcinations at 900 degrees C) under different conditions and characterized by using TG/DTG analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) method and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The results of these analyses indicate that the four powders present the same structure of hydroxyapatite. Furthermore the four powders obtained were used for the retention of lead. The results obtained indicated that all powders present high adsorption capacity for lead, but from environmental and economic views, the hydroxyapatite synthesized from eggshell no calcined (HA2) is most advantageous. The influence of different sorption parameters, such as: initial metal concentration, equilibration time, solution pH and sorbent dosage was studied and discussed. PMID:21977625

  12. [Atrophy of the tympanic membrane in contact with hydroxyapatite prosthesis: physiopathologic approach].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ramírez Camacho R; Pinilla Urraca M; García Berrocal JR; Vallet-Regí M

    2001-01-01

    The implantation of ossicular replacement prothesis made of dense hydroxyapatite (HA) appears to be a wider method of reconstruction of ossicular chain damaged by suppurative processes or surgery. A review of 19 patients who underwent implantation of HA prosthesis disclosed 4 cases of extrusion and 3 cases of atrophy. When X-ray diffraction analysis of explanted commercially available prosthesis made of dense HA was compared with the results with porous implants and with HS powder employed in the manufacture of both, is suggested that tympanic membrane atrophy could be caused by mechanical and/or chemical factors.

  13. Formation and Characterization of Crystalline Hydroxyapatite Coating with the (002) Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubova, I.; Priamushko, T.; Chudinova, E.; Surmeneva, M.; Korneva, O.; Epple, M.; Prymak, O.; Shulepov, I.; Surmenev, R.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the effect of titanium (Ti) microstructure on the mechanical properties and surface wettability of thin (<800 nm) hydroxyapatite (HA) coating deposited via radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. It was revealed that the sand-blasting (SB) and acid etching (AE) of Ti prior deposition led to a wide range of surface roughness in nano/micro scale. After nanostructured HA coating deposition such physico-mechanical characteristics as nanohardness H, Young's modulus E, H/E ratio and H3/E2 were significantly improved. Moreover, HA coatings exhibited improved wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and ability of the coating to wetting.

  14. Growth of osteoblast-like cells on porous hydroxyapatite ceramics: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cerroni, L; Filocamo, R; Fabbri, M; Piconi, C; Caropreso, S; Cond, S G

    2002-08-01

    Blocks of two porous synthetic hydroxyapatites (HA) with porosity fraction of 30-40 and 50-60 vol%, respectively and a coralline derived porous HA were evaluated in vitro in presence of the osteogenic line MC3T3-E1 and of L929 fibroblasts. The two tested biomaterials did not affect cellular proliferation (MTT test), but the contact inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. Porous aggregates resulted perfectly biocompatible in the tests performed, since observations performed by light microscopy did not show any cell morphological change, osteoblast presented a stellar shape and typical pseudopodes. SEM observations showed intercellular matrix containing fibers on HA-based porous aggregates. PMID:12202171

  15. Synthesis and photoluminescence study of flower-like hydroxyapatite nanostructure for bioprobe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. Suresh; Girija, E. K.; Thamizhavel, A.

    2013-02-01

    Biocompatible luminescent materials have received much attention for the development of novel bioprobes. In the present work, we have synthesized the flower-like hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructure from eggshell biowaste via a simple and rapid microwave conversion process. The synthesized product is identified as Mg containing B-type carbonated HA. It showed an intense blue emission between 360 nm to 550 nm with maximum around 430 nm under UV light excitation (?ex= 344 nm). This blue emission might result from the carbonate related impurities present in the structure of HA and it can be a potential luminescent material for the development biocompatible probes.

  16. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties of spark plasma sintered HA-Ti composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Dhara, Sharmistha; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-02-01

    The present study reports the results of the detailed in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties of the hydroxyapatite (HA) and the HA-titanium (HA-Ti) composite with varying amount of Ti (5, 10, and 20 wt %), densified using spark plasma sintering process (SPS). Using this technique and tailoring suitable processing parameters, it has been possible to retain both HA and Ti in the sintered ceramics. Importantly, the uniquely designed SPS processing with suitably chosen parameters enables in achieving better mechanical properties, such as higher indentation fracture toughness (~1.5 MPa m(1/2) ) in HA-Ti composites compared with HA. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations reveal good bioactivity of the HA-Ti composites with the formation of thick, flaky, and porous apatite layer when immersed in simulated body fluid at 37C and pH of 7.4. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis of the simulated body fluid solution reveals dynamic changes in Ca(+2) ion concentration with more dissolution of Ca(+2) ion from the HA-20Ti composite. However, the measurements with inductively coupled plasma spectrometer do not record dissolution of Ti(+4) ions. Transmission electron microscopic analysis indicates weak crystalline nature of the apatite and confirms the formation of fine-scale apatite crystals. MTT assay, fluorescence, and SEM study demonstrate good cell viability and cell adhesion/proliferation of the Saos -2 cells, cultured on the developed composites under standard culture condition, and the difference in cell viability has been discussed in reference to substrate composition and roughness. Overall, HA-Ti composites exhibit comparable and even better in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility properties than HA. PMID:23281190

  17. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-?-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 ?m), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  18. Hydroxyapatite ceramics from hydrothermally prepared powders

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Huang, C.W.; Chang, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH)) is an effective material for artificial human bone production. Hydroxyapatite powders were hydrothermally produced in this work by reacting Ca(OH){sub 2} with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O in an autoclave at various temperature and for various times. The particle size of hydroxyapatite was observed to be very fine, uniform, around 50 nm, as well as independent of reaction time. The hydroxyapatite powders were compacted and sintered at various temperatures for 2 hrs. The density, grain size, and hardness of the hydroxyapatite ceramics were measured and compared with those of the hydroxyapatite ceramics produced by the powders from the commercial source. The hydroxyapatite ceramics from the hydrothermal powders were found to have a higher density, smaller grain size, and higher hardness. After the hydroxyapatite ceramics were dipped in a simulated biological body liquid for 10 days, the density and hardness of the hydroxyapatite ceramics from the hydrothermal powders were less deteriorated than those of the hydroxyapatite ceramics from the commercial powder.

  19. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites

    PubMed Central

    Filová, Elena; Suchý, Tomáš; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Šupová, Monika; Žaloudková, Margit; Balík, Karel; Lisá, Věra; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N) or micro-sized (M) HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v) (referred to as N0–N25 or M0–M25), and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%–15%), MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%–15% (v/v) nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum. PMID:25125978

  20. Nanostructural Characteristics of Vacuum Cold-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite/Graphene-Nanosheet Coatings for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Jing; Li, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Development of novel biocompatible nanomaterials has provided insights into their potential biomedical applications. Bulk fabrication of the nanomaterials in the form of coatings remains challenging. Here, we report hydroxyapatite (HA)/graphene-nanosheet (GN) composite coatings deposited by vacuum cold spray (VCS). Significant shape changes of HA nanograins during the coating deposition were revealed. The nanostructural features of HA together with curvature alternation of GN gave rise to dense structures. Based on the microstructural characterization, a structure model was proposed to elucidate the nanostructural characteristics of the HA-GN nanocomposites. Results also showed that addition of GN significantly enhanced fracture toughness and elastic modulus of the HA-based coatings, which is presumably accounted for by crack bridging offered by GN in the composites. The VCS HA-GN coatings show potential for biomedical applications for the repair or replacement of hard tissues.

  1. Synthesis of silver-incorporated hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for antimicrobial implant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Mou, Yanan; Wu, Shuilin; Man, H. C.

    2013-05-01

    Because of excellent osteoconductivity and resorbability, hydroxyapatite (HA) is commonly used as a bone substitute material or implant coating. Both ionic and metallic silver are considered to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties especially associated with biomaterial-related infections. The present work proposes a facile chemical reduction method to synthesize an Ag incorporated HA nanocomposite. Ammoniacal silver solution was firstly prepared and then added into the HA solution, followed by hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O) being used to reduce the silver ions to metallic silver. The formed Ag nanoparticles had diameters of 20-30 nm and were firmly attached on the HA particle surfaces. This approach can also keep the integrity of the HA chemical structure and the morphology. The strain Escherichia coli was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the nanocomposite. An In vitro bacterial adhesion study indicated a significant enhancement in the antibacterial property of silver containing HA.

  2. Processing of hydroxyapatite reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liming; Leng, Yang; Gao, Ping

    2005-06-01

    A new method for processing hydroxyapatite/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (HA/UHMWPE) composite has been developed by combining wet ball milling and swelling. Sintered HA particles were ground in ethanol to approximately 50 nm in diameter. The nano-sized HA particles were mechanically mixed with UHMWPE in the ball mill and then compression molded into solid slabs. The slabs were then swollen in a pharmaceutical grade paraffin oil to enhance the UHMWPE chain mobility and HA/UHMWPE interface adhesion before final hot press. The resultant composite exhibits a two-zone network structure formed by a homogeneous HA-rich phase and a UHMWPE-rich phase. This process resulted in a 90% increase in Young's modulus and a 50% increase in the yield strength of HA/UHMWPE composite, comparing with those of unfilled UHMWPE. PMID:15621236

  3. Development of dental composites with reactive fillers that promote precipitation of antibacterial-hydroxyapatite layers.

    PubMed

    Aljabo, Anas; Abou Neel, Ensanya A; Knowles, Jonathan C; Young, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    The study aim was to develop light-curable, high strength dental composites that would release calcium phosphate and chlorhexidine (CHX) but additionally promote surface hydroxyapatite/CHX co-precipitation in simulated body fluid (SBF). 80wt.% urethane dimethacrylate based liquid was mixed with glass fillers containing 10wt.% CHX and 0, 10, 20 or 40wt.% reactive mono- and tricalcium phosphate (CaP). Surface hydroxyapatite layer thickness/coverage from SEM images, Ca/Si ratio from EDX and hydroxyapatite Raman peak intensities were all proportional to both time in SBF and CaP wt.% in the filler. Hydroxyapatite was, however, difficult to detect by XRD until 4weeks. XRD peak width and SEM images suggested this was due to the very small size (~10nm) of the hydroxyapatite crystallites. Precipitate mass at 12weeks was 22wt.% of the sample CaP total mass irrespective of CaP wt.% and up to 7wt.% of the specimen. Early diffusion controlled CHX release, assessed by UV spectrometry, was proportional to CaP and twice as fast in water compared with SBF. After 1week, CHX continued to diffuse into water but in SBF, became entrapped within the precipitating hydroxyapatite layer. At 12weeks CHX formed 5 to 15% of the HA layer with 10 to 40wt.% CaP respectively. Despite linear decline of strength and modulus in 4weeks from 160 to 101MPa and 4 to 2.4GPa, respectively, upon raising CaP content, all values were still within the range expected for commercial composites. The high strength, hydroxyapatite precipitation and surface antibacterial accumulation should reduce tooth restoration failure due to fracture, aid demineralised dentine repair and prevent subsurface carious disease respectively. PMID:26706532

  4. The influence of silanisation on the mechanical and degradation behaviour of PLGA/HA composites.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ashutosh; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of silanisation on the mechanical and degradation behaviour of PLGA/HA composites. Three different silanes (mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane (MPTMS), aminopropyl trimethoxy silane (APTMS) and aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES)) were applied to HA substrates in order to study the effect of head group (which binds to the polymer) and tail group (which binds to the surface hydroxyl groups in HA). A composite of hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(d,l lactide-co-glycolide (50:50)) (PLGA) was investigated. The influence of concentration, the reaction time, drying temperature and substrate surface on silanisation was examined. TGA was used to detect the degree of silanisation. HA with MPTMS (1wt.% MPTMS with reaction time of 1h) was used as filler in PLGA-30wt.% HA composites for an in-vitro degradation study carried out in PBS. In addition, the mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Silanisation affects the properties of the composite by improving the bonding at the interface and hence it was found to influence the plastic mechanical properties rather than the elastic mechanical properties or the degradation profile of the composite. PMID:25579967

  5. Synthesis, characterization and cell behavior of fluoridated hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haibo

    Fluorine-containing hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4) 3(OH)1-xFx FHA), where F- partially replaces OH- in hydroxyapatite (HA), is recognized as a possible biomaterial for bone and tooth implants and gaining attention in the last several years as a possible alternative to HA. In this study, FHA powders were synthesized through a pH-cycling method. It was discovered that fluorine incorporation increased with the fluorine content in the initial solution and the number of pH cycles employed. A relatively low fluorine incorporation efficiency, 60%, was attained for most of the FHA samples. The short time of stay at each pH cycle and the limited number of cycles used are believed to be the main reasons of the low fluorine incorporation into the apatite structure. It was also revealed that the FHA particles produced by the pH-cycling method were inhomogeneous. They were a mixture of hydroxyapatite and F-rich apatite (or FA) particles. The mechanisms of incorporation of fluorine ions into hydroxyapatite by a pH cyclicing method were studied using TEM, XRD and fluorine measurement. Instead of forming laminated structures as reported by other research groups, a mixture of nano-sized F-rich apatite (FHA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were obtained using the pH-cyclicing method. After calcination, these FHA particles were homogenized and became single phased FHA. The effect of fluorine content, preparing method, and sintering temperature on both the bulk density and biaxial flexural strength of sintered FHA was studied. Both uniaxially pressed un-milled (UPU) and cold isostatically pressed milled (IPM) FHA discs were sintered at temperatures between 1200400C at an interval of 100C. It was found that the fluorine content had a significant impact on the sintering behavior, densification, and mechanical properties of FHA discs. A close correlation between the sintered density and biaxial flexural strength of the specimens was revealed, where the biaxial flexural strength increased exponentially with the sintered density. FHA discs with various fluorine contents have been used to investigate the effect of fluorine content on osteoblastic cell behaviors. Rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/28) cells were cultured on FHA discs for appropriate times. The osteoblastic cell behaviors were examined in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, morphology and differentiation. The fluorine content in FHA strongly affected the cell activities. More cell attachment and proliferation were observed on the fluorine-containing FHA than pure HA. Fluorine content also affected the differentiation behaviors of osteoblastic cells. Cells on fluorine-containing FHA had higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than pure HA in 2 weeks. The morphology of the cells showed that it took less time for cells to cover the surface of fluorine-containing samples than that of pure HA. These results suggested that fluorine ions had a significant impact on osteoblastic cell behaviors.

  6. Fullerenol entrapment in calcite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe; Bonacchi, Sara; Genovese, Damiano; Fermani, Simona; Montalti, Marco; Prodi, Luca; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2011-10-14

    Hybrid microspheres of calcium carbonate/fullerenol were synthesized and characterized. Their morphology depends on the concentration of the fullerenol solutions. XRD and FT-IR measurements proved that the mineral phase is consistently calcite, while fluorescence confocal microscopy indicated that fullerenol is homogenously included in the crystalline matrix. PMID:21881667

  7. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A.; Giovagnoli, Stefano; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50 : 50 and 75 : 25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40 mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50 : 50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75 : 25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

  8. Microspheres and nanoparticles from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Won Hyuk

    Improved preparations of various examples of monodispersed, porous, hollow, and core-shell metal and semiconductor nanoparticles or nanowires have been developed. Now titania microspheres and nanoparticles and silica microspheres can be synthesized using an inexpensive high frequency (1.7 MHz) ultrasonic generator (household humidifier; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis; USP). Morphology and pore size of titania microspheres were controlled by the silica to Ti(IV) ratio and silica particle size. Fine tuning the precursor ratio affords sub-50 nm titania nanoparticles as well. In terms of silica microspheres, morphology was controlled by the silica to organic monomer ratio. In liquids irradiated with high intensity ultrasound (20 kHz; HIUS), acoustic cavitation produces high energy chemistry through intense local heating inside the gas phase of collapsing bubbles in the liquid. HIUS and USP confine the chemical reactions to isolated sub-micron reaction zones, but sonochemistry does so in a heated gas phase within a liquid, while USP uses a hot liquid droplet carried by a gas flow. Thus, USP can be viewed as a method of phase-separated synthesis using submicron-sized droplets as isolated chemical reactors for nanomaterial synthesis. While USP has been used to create both titania and silica spheres separately, there are no prior reports of titania-silica composites. Such nanocomposites of metal oxides have been produced, and by further manipulation, various porous structures with fascinating morphologies were generated. Briefly, a precursor solution was nebulized using a commercially available household ultrasonic humidifier (1.7 MHz ultrasound generator), and the resulting mist was carried in a gas stream of air through a quartz glass tube in a hot furnace. After exiting the hot zone, these microspheres are porous or hollow and in certain cases magnetically responsive. In the case of titania microspheres, they are rapidly taken up into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and nearly noncytoxic. Small molecules like Rhodamine and DHED (dehydroevodiamine HCl; Alzheimer's disease therapeutic) can be delivered along with them. Furthermore, synthesis of carbon nanoparticles and titanate nanotube species are possible utilizing these microspheres. Characterizations were done by SEM, (S)TEM, optical/confocal microscopy, XRD, XPS, EDS, SAED, zeta potential, and BET.

  9. Materials processing and in-vivo animal studies of nitrided hydroxyapatite bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nancy Elizabeth

    2000-10-01

    Calcium phosphate bioceramics are currently being used in medicine and dentistry, for reconstruction or repair of diseased or injured bone, but with limited success. Incorporating nitrogen into phosphate glasses has resulted in improved properties, and it is proposed that similar benefits may be gained from nitriding calcium phosphate bioceramics for bone implants as well. This work focuses on processing of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate bioceramics nitrided by using solid, liquid, gas and ion sources. These materials were characterized by chemical, structural, mechanical, and biological methods to determine both the material structure and their suitability as implant materials. Calcium nitride and NaPON glass were unsatisfactory sources of nitrogen for hydroxyapatite (HA) and/or tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics. Calcium nitride, Ca3N2, is reacts with water vapor in the air, releasing ammonia, and leaving behind crystals of calcium oxide, CaO. The calcium oxide byproduct decreases the chemical stability of hydroxyapatite and HA/TCP composites in simulated body fluid. Sodium phosphorus oxynitride (NaPON) glass, in the form of a liquid sintering aid for HA, produces an inhomogeneous, composite as well. Hydroxyapatite heated at 800C in an ammonia atmosphere produces a homogeneous material with up to 2 wt% N. Infrared spectroscopy indicates cyanamide ions, CN22-, are formed by the incorporated nitrogen and impurity carbon. The use of 15N-doped ammonia results in an 15N NMR peak at 83.2 ppm, indicating P--N bonding. Raman spectroscopy may also indicate P--N bonding, but it is inconclusive. In a limited study, nitrogen may decrease the hardness and fracture toughness of the phosphate ceramic, hydroxyapatite, contrary to results expected for nitrogen in phosphate glasses. Nitrogen ions are incorporated in hydroxyapatite by ion implantation, with lower energies producing higher nitrogen contents. The highest concentration achieved was 3.55 wt% N, as determined by electron microprobe analysis. Both ammonia-nitrided samples and ion-implanted samples were used as substrates for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in biological studies. Nitrided hydroxyapatite samples with BMPs showed an increase in bone formation when surgically implanted in rats. Furthermore, the bone formation increased with increasing nitrogen. On the other hand, bone formation decreased with increasing nitrogen for nitrided HA samples without BMPs.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanofiber by chemical precipitation method using surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Shan; Sun, Kangning; Li, Aimin; Wang, Hongyou

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We succeeded in synthesizing hydroxyapatite nano fibers by a chemical method. ► The reaction temperature is only 90 °C. ► The synthetic hydroxyapatite nano fiber is single crystal. - Abstract: We report a novel chemical precipitation route for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HA) fibers using surfactants as templates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) reveal the characteristic peaks of HA. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high-resolution TEM revealed the nano structure, crystallinity and morphology of the HA fibers. The morphology of the HA fibers after calcinations were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Br{sup −} ions were quickly replaced by the excess PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions in the solution after the addition of cetyltrime-thylammonium bromide (CTAB). Meanwhile, CTAB formed a rod-like micelles. Precursors reacted with PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} at the surface of CTAB micelles and finally formed the nanofiber structure.

  11. Quantification of carbon nanotube induced adhesion of osteoblast on hydroxyapatite using nano-scratch technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Debrupa; Benaduce, Ana Paula; Kos, Lidia; Agarwal, Arvind

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores the nano-scratch technique for measuring the adhesion strength of a single osteoblast cell on a hydroxyapatite (HA) surface reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This technique efficiently separates out the contribution of the environment (culture medium and substrate) from the measured adhesion force of the cell, which is a major limitation of the existing techniques. Nano-scratches were performed on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-CNT coatings to quantify the adhesion of the osteoblast. The presence of CNTs in HA coating promotes an increase in the adhesion of osteoblasts. The adhesion force and energy of an osteoblast on a HA-CNT surface are 17 2 N/cell and 78 14 pJ/cell respectively, as compared to 11 2 N/cell and 45 10 pJ/cell on a HA surface after 1 day of incubation. The adhesion force and energy of the osteoblasts increase on both the surfaces with culture periods of up to 5 days. This increase is more pronounced for osteoblasts cultured on HA-CNT. Staining of actin filaments revealed a higher spreading and attachment of osteoblasts on a surface containing CNTs. The affinity of CNTs to conjugate with integrin and other proteins is responsible for the enhanced attachment of osteoblasts. Our results suggest that the addition of CNTs to surfaces used in medical applications may be beneficial when stronger adhesion of osteoblasts is desired.

  12. Sulfobetaine as a zwitterionic mediator for 3D hydroxyapatite mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingsheng; Song, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Both positively and negatively charged residues play pivotal roles in recruiting precursor ions or ion clusters, and lowering interfacial energy in natural biomineralization process. Synergistic utilization of opposite charges, however, has rarely been implemented in the design of cytocompatible synthetic scaffolds promoting hydroxyapatite (HA)-mineralization and osteointegration. We report the use of cytocompatible zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands to enable 3-dimensional in vitro mineralization of HA across covalently crosslinked hydrogels. The overall charge-neutral zwitterionic hydrogel effectively recruited oppositely charged precursor ions while overcame excessive swelling exhibited by anionic and cationic hydrogels under physiological conditions, resulting in denser and structurally well-integrated mineralized composites. Further controls over the size, content, and spatial distribution of the mineral domains within the zwitterionic hydrogel are accomplished by facile adjustments of hydrogel crosslinking densities and the supersaturation rate governing heterogeneous mineral nucleation and growth. These findings should inspire many creative uses of zwitterionic polymers and polymer coatings for skeletal tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23332320

  13. Zn and Mg Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Controlled Release of Protein

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sudip; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by in situ precipitation process. 2 mol% Zn2+ and Mg2+ were used as dopants to synthesize Zn2+/Mg2+ doped HA-BSA NPs by in situ synthesis route. In our study we used BSA as a model protein. The amount of BSA uptake by doped and undoped HA NPs and subsequent release of BSA from NPs were investigated. Zn doped HA NPs showed the highest amount of BSA uptake, whereas the amount of BSA loaded in undoped HA NPs was the lowest. A two-stage BSA release profile from doped and undoped HA NPs was observed in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2 0.2. Initial burst release was due to the desorption of BSA from the HA surface. The later stage of slow release was controlled by the dissolution of BSA incorporated HA NPs. BSA release rate from Zn doped HA NPs was found to be the highest, whereas undoped HA NPs released BSA at the slowest rate. Our study showed that the protein release rate from HA NPs can be controlled by the addition of suitable dopants and doped HA based NP systems can be used in bone growth factor and drug release study. PMID:20131882

  14. Characterization of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cements prepared using a novel hydroxyapatite-based formulation.

    PubMed

    Alge, Daniel L; Santa Cruz, Grace; Goebel, W Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2009-04-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are typically prepared using beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) as the base component. However, hydroxyapatite (HA) is an interesting alternative because of its potential for reducing cement acidity, as well as modulating cement properties via ionic substitutions. In the present study, we have characterized DCPD cements prepared with a novel formulation based on monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and HA. Cements were prepared using a 4:1 MCPM:HA molar ratio. The reactivity of HA in this system was verified by showing DCPD formation using poorly crystalline HA, as well as highly crystalline HA. Evaluation of cements prepared with poorly crystalline HA revealed that setting occurs rapidly in the MCPM/HA system, and that the use of a setting regulator is necessary to maintain workability of the cement paste. Compressive testing showed that MCPM/HA cements have strengths comparable to what has previously been published for DCPD cements. However, preliminary in vitro analysis of cement degradation revealed that conversion of DCPD to HA may occur much more rapidly in the MCPM/HA system compared to cements prepared with beta-TCP. Future studies should investigate this property further, as it could have important implications for the use of HA-based DCPD cement formulations. PMID:19349655

  15. Synthesis of antimicrobial silver/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, A.; Sheikh, N.; Khoylou, F.; Naimian, F.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized through ?-irradiation reduction of silver ions into hydroxyapatite as a solid support. The formation of AgNPs incorporated in the hydroxyapatite composite was studied as a function of ?-irradiation doses. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements showed the fabrication of face-centered cubic AgNPs with a mean diameter of about 39 nm at 20 kGy absorbed dose. When the absorbed dose increases from 20 to 40 kGy the size of AgNPs particles partially increases, while with increasing absorbed dose from 40 to 60 kGy the particle diameters decreases. In addition, the results of XRD analysis indicated that increasing of ?-irradiation doses from 20 to 40 kGy enhances the concentration of AgNPs, without inducing significant changes in degree of HA crystallinity. The antibacterial test study of samples against Escherichia coli indicated a significant enhancement in the antibacterial property of Ag/HA nanocomposites.

  16. Mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite for targeted drug delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite was synthesized by a simple, efficient and environmental friendly method. • The prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability. • DOX-loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite exhibited surprising slow drug release behavior and pH-dependent behavior. - Abstract: In this contribution, we introduced a simple, efficient, and green method of preparing a mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite. The as-prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability, which made it suitable for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug release behavior of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA composite. The drug release profiles displayed a little burst effect and pH-dependent behavior. The release rate of DOX at pH 5.8 was larger than that at pH 7.4, which could be attributed to DOX protonation in acid medium. In addition, the released DOX concentrations remained at 0.83 and 1.39 μg/ml at pH 7.4 and 5.8, respectively, which indicated slow, steady, and safe release rates. Therefore, the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite could be an efficient platform for targeted anticancer drug delivery.

  17. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, A.; Baştan, F. E.; Erdoǧan, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  18. Increased risk of revision of acetabular cups coated with hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Lazarinis, Stergios; Kärrholm, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of bone, and HA coating is widely used on acetabular cups in hip arthroplasty. It has been suggested that this surface finish improves cup survival. Methods All patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2007 with an uncemented acetabular implant that was available either with or without HA coating were identified. 8,043 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with the most common cup types (Harris-Galante, Romanus, and Trilogy) were investigated. A Cox regression model including type of coating, age, sex, primary diagnosis, cup type, and type of stem fixation was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for the risk of revision. Results HA coating was a risk factor for cup revision due to aseptic loosening (adjusted RR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2). Age at primary arthroplasty of < 50 years, a diagnosis of pediatric hip disease, the use of a cemented stem, and the Romanus and Harris-Galante cup types were also associated with statistically significantly increased risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening. Interpretation Our findings question the routine use of HA-coated cups in primary total hip arthroplasty. With some designs, this practice may even increase the risk of loosening—resulting in revision surgery. PMID:19968603

  19. Mechanisms of uranium interactions with hydroxyapatite: Implications for groundwater remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, C.C.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.; Piana, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The speciation of U(VI) sorbed to synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a combination of U LIII-edge XAS, synchrotron XRD, batch uptake measurements, and SEM-EDS. The mechanisms of U(VI) removal by apatite were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of apatitebased in-situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). In batch U(VI) uptake experiments with synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), near complete removal of dissolved uranium (>99.5%) to <0.05 ??M was observed over a range of total U(VI) concentrations up to equimolar of the total P in the suspension. XRD and XAS analyses of U(VI)-reacted HA at sorbed concentrations ???4700 ppm U(VI) suggested that uranium(VI) phosphate, hydroxide, and carbonate solids were not present at these concentrations. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate the presence of Ca neighbors at 3.81 A??. U-Ca separation, suggesting that U(VI) adsorbs to the HA surfaces as an inner-sphere complex. Uranium(VI) phosphate solid phases were not detected in HA with 4700 ppm sorbed U(VI) by backscatter SEM or EDS, in agreement with the surface complexation process. In contrast, U(VI) speciation in samples that exceeded 7000 ppm sorbed U(VI) included a crystalline uranium(VI) phosphate solid phase, identified as chernikovite by XRD. At these higher concentrations, a secondary, uranium(VI) phosphate solid was detected by SEM-EDS, consistent with chernikovite precipitation. Autunite formation occurred at total U:P molar ratios ???0.2. Our findings provide a basis for evaluating U(VI) sorption mechanisms by commercially available natural apatites for use in development of PRBs for groundwater U(VI) remediation.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of porous hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T G; Choi, B W; Jankowski, A F

    2000-10-25

    A technique is developed to construct bulk hydroxyapatite (HAp) with different cellular structures. The technique involves the initial synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powder from an aqueous solution using water-soluble compounds and then followed by spray drying into agglomerated granules. The granules were further cold pressed and sintered into bulks at elevated temperatures. The sintering behavior of the HAp granules was characterized and compared with those previously reported. Resulting from the fact that the starting HAp powders were extremely fine, a relatively low activation energy for sintering was obtained. In the present study, both porous and dense structures were produced by varying powder morphology and sintering parameters. Porous structures consisting of open cells were constructed. Sintered structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography. In the present paper, hydroxyapatite coatings produced by magnetron sputtering on silicon and titanium substrates will also be presented. The mechanical properties of the coatings were measured using nanoindentation techniques and microstructures examined using transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Hydroxyapatite-poly(L-lactide) nanohybrids via surface-initiated ATRP for improving bone-like apatite-formation abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiqing; Yang, Xiaoping; Mao, Jiaofu; Xu, Fujian; Cai, Qing

    2012-07-01

    It is important to improve the compatibility of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles in biodegradable polyesters to obtain desirable nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications. Polymer grafting has been proven an efficient way to get nanohybrids with good dispersibility in polymeric matrixes. In this paper, a new strategy to prepare HA-poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) nanohybrids was developed, where PLLA oligomers were grafted from HA nanoparticle surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methylacrylate group terminated PLLA macromonomers (PLLA-MA). HA with the derived ATRP initiators was obtained by (1) preparation of HA from precursors in the presence of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTS) to produce the HA surface with terminal sbnd NH2 groups (HA-NH2) and (2) reaction of the sbnd NH2 groups of the HA-NH2 nanoparticles with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB) to produce the 2-bromoisobutyryl-immobilized nanoparticles (HA-Br). The obtained HA-PLLA nanohybrids demonstrated good dispersibility in chloroform. With the good dispersion of HA-PLLA nanohybrids in PLLA matrix, the resultant PLLA/HA-PLLA nanocomposites could much faster induce bone-like apatite-formation in simulated body fluids (SBF) than the PLLA/HA counterparts where the HA nanoparticles aggregated heavily. With the versatility of ATRP, properly, grafting oligomeric PLLA chains from HA nanoparticle surfaces is an effective means for the design of novel HA-polymer biohybrids for future bone tissue engineering applications.

  2. Degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanocomposite in simulated body fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Liuyun, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lixin, Jiang; Lijuan, Xu

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, we initiated a systematic study to investigate the effect of HA on thermal properties, inner structure, reduction of mechanical strength, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite with respect to the soaking time. The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite, which can accelerate the degradation of n-HA/PLGA composite and endow it with bioactivity, after n-HA was detached from PLGA during the degradation, so that n-HA/PLGA composite may have a more promising prospect of the clinical application than pure PLGA as bone fracture internal fixation materials, and the results would be of reference significance to predict the in vivo degradation and biological properties. - Highlights: Effect of n-HA on degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite was investigated. Degradation behaviors of n-HA/PLGA and PLGA were carried out in SBF for 6 months. Viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure and bending strength were tested. n-HA can accelerate the degradation and endows it with bioactivity. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (HA/PLGA) nanocomposite, the degradation experiment of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA were carried out by soaking in simulated body fluid(SBF) at 37 C for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The change of intrinsic viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure, bending strength reduction, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA with respect to the soaking time were investigated by means of UbbeloHde Viscometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope(SEM), electromechanical universal tester, a conventional camera and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite, which can accelerate the degradation PLGA and endow it with bioactivity, after n-HA was detached from PLGA during the degradation, so that n-HA/PLGA composite may have a more promising prospect of the clinical application than pure PLGA as bone fracture internal fixation materials.

  3. Improve the Strength of PLA/HA Composite Through the Use of Surface Initiated Polymerization and Phosphonic Acid Coupling Agent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongxin; Chow, Laurence C.; Frukhtbeyn, Stanislav A.; Ting, Andy Hai; Dong, Quanxiao; Yang, Mingshu; Mitchell, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Bioresorbable composite made from degradable polymers, e.g., polylactide (PLA), and bioactive calcium phosphates, e.g., hydroxyapatite (HA), are clinically desirable for bone fixation, repair and tissue engineering because they do not need to be removed by surgery after the bone heals. However, preparation of PLA/HA composite from non-modified HA usually results in mechanical strength reductions due to a weak interface between PLA and HA. In this study, a calcium-phosphate/phosphonate hybrid shell was developed to introduce a greater amount of reactive hydroxyl groups onto the HA particles. Then, PLA was successfully grafted on HA by surface-initiated polymerization through the non-ionic surface hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis indiated that the amount of grafted PLA on HA can be up to 7 %, which is about 50 % greater than that from the literature. PLA grafted HA shows significantly different pH dependent ?-potential and particle size profiles from those of uncoated HA. By combining the phosphonic acid coupling agent and surface initiated polymerization, PLA could directly link to HA through covalent bond so that the interfacial interaction in the PLA/HA composite can be significantly improved. The diametral tensile strength of PLA/HA composite prepared from PLA-grafted HA was found to be over twice that of the composite prepared from the non-modified HA. Moreover, the tensile strength of the improved composite was 23 % higher than that of PLA alone. By varying additional variables, this approach has the potential to produce bioresorbable composites with improved mechanical properties that are in the range of natural bones, and can have wide applications for bone fixation and repair in load-bearing areas. PMID:22399838

  4. Mechanical and biological properties of photocurable oligolactide-HA composites investigated under accelerated degradation.

    PubMed

    Channasanon, Somruethai; Kaewkong, Pakkanun; Uppanan, Paweena; Tanodekaew, Siriporn

    2016-05-01

    The major concern related to biodegradable bone substitute materials is the loss of mechanical strength which can be undesirable when occurring too quickly before new bone formation. In this study, the multifunctional lactide oligomers having 2, 3, and 4 arms end capped with methacrylate groups were synthesized with the aim of improving the degradation properties. Their composites with hydroxyapatite (HA) were photopolymerized and subjected to accelerated degradation at 60 °C. The results showed that increasing number of arms significantly improved thermal and mechanical properties as well as biocompatibility of the composites. All composites although varying in number of arms had similar levels of bone-specific gene expression and calcification indicating their equal bioactivity in supporting bone formation. The high HA content in the composites was proposed to be responsible for enhanced osteoblast response, and this tended to suppress the effects of polymeric structure. PMID:26838814

  5. Filling Porous Microspheres With Magnetic Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium; Colvin, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    New process produces magnetic microspheres with controllable sizes, compositions, and properties for use in medical diagnostic tests, biological research, and chemical processes. Paramagnetic microspheres also made with process. Porous plastic microspheres prepared by polymerization of monomer in diluent by cross-linking agent. When diluent removed, it leaves tiny pores throughout polymerized spheres. Size and distribution of pores determined by amount and type of diluent and cross-linking agent.

  6. Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

  7. Glass microspheres for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzone, Samuel David

    Radioactive dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres have been developed as biodegradable radiation delivery vehicles for the radiation synovectomy treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once injected into a diseased joint, the microspheres deliver a potent dose of radiation to the diseased tissue, while a non-uniform chemical reaction converts the glass into an amorphous, porous, hydrated dysprosium phosphate reaction product. The non-radioactive, lithium-borate component is dissolved from the glass (up to 94% weight loss), while the radioactive 165Dy reacts with phosphate anions in the body fluids, and becomes "chemically" trapped in a solid, dysprosium phosphate reaction product that has the same size as the un-reacted glass microsphere. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) chelation therapy can be used to dissolve the dysprosium phosphate reaction product after the radiation delivery has subsided. The dysprosium phosphate reaction product, which formed in vivo in the joint of a Sprague-Dawley rat, was dissolved by EDTA chelation therapy in <1 week, without causing any detectable joint damage. The combination of dysprosium lithium borate glass microspheres and EDTA chelation therapy provides an unique "tool" for the medical community, which can deliver a large dose (>100 Gy) of localized beta radiation to a treatment site within the body, followed by complete biodegradability. The non-uniform reaction process is a desirable characteristic for a biodegradable radiation delivery vehicle, but it is also a novel material synthesis technique that can convert a glass to a highly porous materials with widely varying chemical composition by simple, low-temperature, glass/solution reaction. The reaction product formed by nonuniform reaction occupies the same volume as the un-reacted glass, and after drying for 1 h at 300°C, has a specific surface area of ≈200 m2/g, a pore size of ≈30 nm, and a nominal crushing strength of ≈10 MPa. Finally, rhenium glass microspheres, composed of micron-sized, metallic rhenium particles dispersed within a magnesium alumino borate glass matrix were produced by sintering ReO2 powder and glass frit at 1050°C. A 50 mg injection of radioactive rhenium glass microspheres containing 3.7 GBq of 186Re and 8.5 GBq of 188Re could be used to deliver a 100 Gy dose to a cancerous tumor, while limiting the total body dose caused by rhenium dissolution to approximately 1 mGy.

  8. PCL/chitosan/Zn-doped nHA electrospun nanocomposite scaffold promotes adipose derived stem cells adhesion and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Fereshteh Mohammad; Kaffashi, Babak; Shokrollahi, Parvin; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza

    2015-03-15

    Chitosan (Ch), and poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL), widely used as biomaterials with desirable properties for tissue engineering applications, were both blended with zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles(nZnHA) and electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds using formic acid/acetic acid. The rationale behind this study was to demonstrate that presence of small quantities of Zn(2+) ions doped in HA nanoparticles can improve biocompatibility of PCL/Ch blends. SEM observation revealed that average fiber diameter was increased from about 136 nm for a PCL/Ch blend, to around 210 nm for PCL/Ch/nZnHA nanocomposite. PCL/Ch/nZnHA scaffolds offered higher elastic modulus (about 3-fold) and tensile strength (nearly 1.5-fold) than the corresponding PCL/Ch scaffolds. In-vitro biocompatibility studies using human adipose derived stem cells (hAD-MSCs), demonstrated that the presence of only 5 wt% nZnHA in PCL/Ch/nZnHA nanocomposites enhanced hAD-MSCs' attachment compared to PCL/Ch and PCL/Ch/nHA. Finally, hAD-MSCs proliferation occurred at significantly higher rates of 1.5, 1.3 and 1.2 times on PCL/Ch/nZnHA scaffold compared to PCL, PCL/Ch and PCL/Ch/nHA, respectively. PMID:25542118

  9. Affinity of the interface between hydroxyapatite (0001) and titanium (0001) surfaces: a first-principles investigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin P; Dai, Jianhong; Song, Yan; Wang, You; Yang, Rui

    2014-12-10

    A basic understanding of the affinity between the hydroxyapatite (HA) and ?-Ti surfaces is obtained through electronic structure calculations by first-principles method. The surface energies of HA(0001), HA (011?0), HA (101?1), and Ti(0001) surfaces have been calculated. The HA(0001) presents the most thermodynamically stable of HA. The HA/Ti interfaces were constructed by two kinds of interface models, the single interface (denoted as SI) and the double-interface (denoted as DI). Two methods, the full relaxation and the UBER, were applied to determine the interfacial separation and the atomic arrangement in the interfacial zone. The works of adhesion of interfaces with various stoichiometric HA surfaces were evaluated. For the HA(0001)/Ti(0001) interfaces, the work of adhesion is strongly dependent on the chemical environment of the HA surface. The values are -2.33, -1.52, and -0.80 J/m(2) for the none-, single-, and double-Ca terminated HA/Ti interfaces, respectively. The influence of atomic relaxation on the work of adhesion and interface separation is discussed. Full relaxation results include -1.99 J/m(2) work of adhesion and 0.220 nm separation between HA and Ti for the DI of 1-Ca-HA/Ti interface, while they are -1.14 J/m(2) and 0.235 nm by partial relaxation. Analysis of electronic structure reveals that charge transfer between HA and Ti slabs occurs during the formation of the HA/Ti interface. The transfer generates the Ti-O or Ti-Ca bonds across the interface and drives the HA/Ti interface system to metallic characteristic. The energetically favorable interfaces are formed when the outmost layer of HA comprises more O atoms at the interface. PMID:25390283

  10. Evaluation of a setting reaction pathway in the novel composite TiHA-CSD bone cement by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czes?awa; Czechowska, Joanna; ?lsarczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a setting reaction pathway in a novel, surgically handy implant material, based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) and titanium doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA). The previous studies confirmed superior biological properties of TiHA in comparison to the undoped hydroxyapatite (HA) what makes it highly attractive for future medical applications. In this study the three types of titanium modified HA powders: untreated, calcined at 800 C, sintered at 1250 C and CSH were used to produce bone cements. The Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were applied to evaluate processes taking place during the setting of the studied materials. Our results undoubtedly confirmed that the reaction pathways and the phase compositions differed significantly for set cements and were dependent on the initial heat treatment of TiHA powder. Final materials were multiphase composites consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate, bassanite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate (perovskite). The FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements performed after the incubation of the cement samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF), indicate on high bioactive potential of the obtained bone cements.

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of double-layer HA/Al composite coating on NiTi.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Esmaeil; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Khalili, Vida

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity of NiTi alloys, which are being known as the suitable materials for biomedical applications, numerous NiTi disks were electrophoretically coated by hetero-coagulated hydroxyapatite/aluminum composite coatings in three main voltages from suspensions with different Al concentrations. In this paper, the amount of Ni ions release and bioactivity of prepared samples as well as bonding strength of the coating to substrate were investigated. The surface characterization of the coating by XRD, EDX, SEM, and FTIR showed that HA particles bonded by Al particles. It caused the formation of a free crack coating on NiTi disks. Moreover, the bonding strength of HA/Al coatings to NiTi substrate were improved by two times as compared to that of the pure HA coatings. Immersing of coated samples in SBF for 1 week showed that apatite formation ability was improved on HA/Al composite coating and Ni ions release from the surface of composite coating decreased. These results induce the appropriate bioactivity and biocompatibility of the deposited HA/Al composite coatings on NiTi disks. PMID:26478383

  12. The application of synthetic hydroxyapatite in children and adolescents in various clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Mielnik-B?aszczak, M; Krawczyk, D; Pels, E

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of application of HA-BIOCER synthetic hydroxyapatite in the treatment of enamel hypoplasia in children and adolescents manifested by mineralisation disorders, enamel underdevelopment, enamel deficiency and oversensitivity to mechanical, thermal and chemical stimuli was evaluated. The possibility of applying the same preparation in case of enamel fractures and teeth injuries type I according to Ellis was also examined. It was found that the application of hydroxyapatite stimulates processes of remineralization in decalcified places. It also causes removal of tooth oversensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli by closing open dentinal tubules or decrease in their size. HA-BIOCER preparation brings about smoothing and lighting of hypoplastic foci, improves aesthetic appearance and is not toxic to patients. PMID:11977372

  13. Characterization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Hydroxyapatite Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Duk-Yeon; Han, Young-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Inn-Kyu; Jang, Byung-Koog; Kim, Sukyoung

    2014-01-01

    Pure HA and 1, 3, 5, and 10?vol% multiwalled carbon nanotube- (MWNT-) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) were consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. The relative density of pure HA increased with increasing sintering temperature, but that of the MWNT/HA composite reached almost full density at 900C, and then decreased with further increases in sintering temperature. The relative density of the MWNT/HA composites increased with increasing MWNT content due to the excellent thermal conductivity of MWNTs. The grain size of MWNT/HA composites decreased with increasing MWNT content and increased with increasing sintering temperature. Pull-out toughening of the MWNTs of the MWNT/HA composites was observed in the fractured surface, which can be used to predict the improvement of the mechanical properties. On the other hand, the existence of undispersed or agglomerate MWNTs in the MWNT/HA composites accompanied large pores. The formation of large pores increased with increasing sintering temperature and MWNT content. The addition of MWNT in HA increased the hardness and fracture toughness by approximately 3~4 times, despite the presence of large pores produced by un-dispersed MWNTs. This provides strong evidence as to why the MWNTs are good candidates as reinforcements for strengthening the ceramic matrix. The MWNT/HA composites did not decompose during SPS sintering. The MWNT-reinforced HA composites were non-toxic and showed a good cell affinity and morphology in vitro for 1 day. PMID:24724100

  14. Blood modeling using polystyrene microspheres.

    PubMed

    Fukada, E; Seaman, G V; Liepsch, D; Lee, M; Friis-Baastad, L

    1989-01-01

    The steady flow viscosity at shear rates 0 to 120 sec-1 and dynamic viscoelasticity at frequencies 0.02 to 0.8 Hz were determined for aqueous suspensions of uniform polystyrene microspheres of 1.0 micron diameter. Rheological properties of the microsphere suspensions were Newtonian for particle concentrations up to 32%. By introducing dextran and calcium chloride into the particle suspensions, non-Newtonian behavior was produced similar to that observed for human blood. The cooperative effects of dextran and calcium ions promoted aggregation of particles at a concentration as low as 12%. Thus, a suspension of uniform sized spherical polystyrene particles in aqueous solution of dextran may be made to mimic blood by controlling the surface charge on the polystyrene spheres using addition of calcium ions to the medium. PMID:2481519

  15. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  16. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  17. A new approach to enhancement of bone formation by electrically polarized hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Teng, N C; Nakamura, S; Takagi, Y; Yamashita, Y; Ohgaki, M; Yamashita, K

    2001-10-01

    An electrical field may affect osteogenesis. Since we found that hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics may be polarizable, we hypothesized that electrically polarized HA may foster production of new bone in vivo. Both polarized and non-polarized HA ceramics were inserted into the subperiosteum spaces at the parietal bone area of rats. After 2, 4, and 8 weeks, the implant sites were examined histologically. Morphometric analysis revealed that new bone formation was accelerated on the negatively charged surface of the polarized HA (N-surface) at 2 weeks. The newly formed bone approached maturation at 4 weeks and was thicker on the N-surface than in the controls. By 8 weeks, newly formed bone in the controls was almost the same as that on the N-surface. These findings suggest that polarized HA is biocompatible and that bone formation on the N-surface is enhanced in the early stage of bone healing. PMID:11706953

  18. Preparation of hydroxyapatite-granule- implanted titanium alloy composites with a cylindrical shape.

    PubMed

    Watazu, A; Kamiya, A; Zhu, J; Shi, W; Naganuma, K; Sonoda, T; Ushiki, K; Nonami, T

    2002-02-01

    For uniformly implanting hydroxyapatite (HA) granules into curved surfaces of titanium alloy implants such as dental roots, a new superplastic forming system was developed. By fixing PVA films with HA granules on a die's curved inner surface, HA granules are uniformly scattered and hold on the surface. The pressing system has a couple of wedges that enable press load to act on the both sides of a cylindrical titanium alloy sample arranged with its long axis perpendicular to the direction of the load in the die, and thereby the sample to expand in its radius direction. This technique could uniformly press HA granules into all the curved surface of titanium alloy. As a result, HA-granule-implanted titanium alloy composites with a cylindrical shape were formed under the conditions of 1023 K, 1 h, 1960 N in vacuo. PMID:15348648

  19. The effect of pressure during sintering on the strength and the fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawai, Wataru; Wakayama, Shuichi

    2006-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to be biocompatible and osteoconductive, and can be synthesized chemically. The objective of the present study is to clarify the effect of pressure during sintering on the mechanical properties of HA. HA was sintered using a hot press system at a uniaxial pressure ranging from 7.81 to 62.5 MPa at a maximum temperature of 1200 degrees C with a heating rate of 10 degrees C/min. The density of the HA increased with increasing pressure and peaked at the sintering pressure of 31.2 MPa. Four-points bending tests and fracture toughness measurements with indentation method were conducted to clarify the effect of sintering pressure. Bending strength decreased at the pressure > 31.2 MPa. This result indicates that residual stress generated during sintering process became larger with increasing pressure. Fracture toughness were also lower with high density HA. PMID:17122923

  20. Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.

    PubMed

    Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A ?; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

    2014-06-01

    An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.60.1 to 4.31.1?m. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. PMID:24802965

  1. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Markel, David C.; Wang, Sunxi; Shi, Tong; Mao, Guangzhao; Ren, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is due to the lack of early implant osseointegration. In this study polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite (PVA-Col-HA) electrospun nanofibrous meshes were fabricated as a biomimetic bone-like extracellular matrix for the modification of orthopedic prosthetic surfaces. In order to reinforce the PVA nanofibers, HA nanorods and Type I collagen were incorporated into the nanofibers. We investigated the morphology, biodegradability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the prepared nanofibers. Our results showed these inorganic-organic blended nanofibers to be degradable in vitro. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen interacted with the PVA content, reinforcing the hydrolytic resistance and mechanical properties of nanofibers that provided longer lasting stability. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen also enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of murine bone cells (MC3T3) in vitro. We propose the PVA-Col-HA nanofibers might be promising modifying materials on implant surfaces for orthopedic applications.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis of porous chitosan-modified montmorillonite-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sumanta; Kaur, Tejinder; Thirugnanam, A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a porous chitosan-organically modified montmorillonite-hydroxyapatite (CS-OM-HA) composite scaffold was developed by combining microwave irradiation and gas foaming method. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles of size ?65nm were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared composite scaffolds were characterized using ATR-FTIR, XRD, mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The synergistic effect of HA and OM on the mechanical and in vitro biological properties (swelling, degradation, protein adsorption and bioactivity) of the composite scaffolds were evaluated. Swelling, degradation, mechanical property, bioactivity and protein adsorption studies of CS-OM-HA composite scaffolds have shown desirable results in comparison with the pure CS and CS-OM composite scaffolds. CS-OM-HA composite scaffolds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to MG 63 osteoblast cell lines. From the study, it can be concluded that the novel CS-OM-HA composite scaffold with improved mechanical and in vitro biological properties has wide potential in non-load bearing bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26505953

  3. Production of hydroxyapatite layers on the plasma electrolytically oxidized surface of titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lugovskoy, Alex; Lugovskoy, Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material that is widely used for improving the osseointegration of titanium dental implants. Titanium can be coated with HA by various methods, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), thermal spray, or plasma spray. HA coatings can also be grown on titanium surfaces by hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical methods. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), or microarc oxidation (MAO), is an electrochemical method that enables the production of a thick porous oxide layer on the surface of a titanium implant. If the electrolyte in which PEO is performed contains calcium and phosphate ions, the oxide layer produced may contain hydroxyapatite. The HA content can then be increased by subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The HA thus produced on titanium surfaces has attractive properties, such as a high porosity, a controllable thickness, and a considerable density, which favor its use in dental and bone surgery. This review summarizes the state of the art and possible further development of PEO for the production of HA on Ti implants. PMID:25175246

  4. Comparison of Physical-chemical and Mechanical Properties of Chlorapatite and Hydroxyapatite Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Demnati, Imane; Grossin, David; Marsan, Olivier; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Collonges, Gérard; Combes, Christèle; Parco, Maria; Braceras, Inigo; Alexis, Joel; Balcaen, Yannick; Rey, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Chlorapatite can be considered a potential biomaterial for orthopaedic applications. Its use as plasma-sprayed coating could be of interest considering its thermal properties and particularly its ability to melt without decomposition unlike hydroxyapatite. Chlorapatite (ClA) was synthesized by a high-temperature ion exchange reaction starting from commercial stoichiometric hydroxyapatites (HA). The ClA powder showed similar characteristics as the original industrial HA powder, and was obtained in the monoclinic form. The HA and ClA powders were plasma-sprayed using a low-energy plasma spraying system with identical processing parameters. The coatings were characterized by physical-chemical methods, i.e. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, including distribution mapping of the main phases detected such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), oxyapatite (OA), and HA or ClA. The unexpected formation of oxyapatite in ClA coatings was assigned to a side reaction with contaminating oxygenated species (O2, H2O). ClA coatings exhibited characteristics different from HA, showing a lower content of oxyapatite and amorphous phase. Although their adhesion strength was found to be lower than that of HA coatings, their application could be an interesting alternative, offering, in particular, a larger range of spraying conditions without formation of massive impurities. PMID:25893015

  5. Physicochemical properties and mineralization assessment of porous polymethylmethacrylate cement loaded with hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Sa, Yue; Yang, Fang; de Wijn, Joost R; Wang, Yining; Wolke, Joop G C; Jansen, John A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a pore generator and hydroxyapatite (HA) as an osteoconductive agent on the physicochemical properties and in-vitro mineralization ability of porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. To this end, various compositions of PMMA cements, which differed in amount of millimeter-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and CMC hydrogel, were prepared and immersed into simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of CMC hydrogel decreased the maximum temperature of cement to the normal body temperature and prolonged the handling time during polymerization. Further, the amount of CMC was responsible for the creation of porosity and interconnectivity, which in turn determined the final mechanical properties of cements. The loaded HA particles enhanced the potential bioactivity of cement for bone ingrowth. Albeit different amount of HA particles influenced their final exposures on the surface of cured cement, all of the three amounts of HA did not weaken the final mechanical properties of cements. The data here suggests that the HA particle loaded porous PMMA cement can serve as the promising candidate for bone reconstruction. PMID:26838840

  6. Making Latex Microspheres in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, D. M.; Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment yields larger, more uniform particles. Two NASA reports describe first commercial product to be manufactured in space. Product monodisperse latex, suspension of spherical particles of essentially same diameter. Carried aboard Space Shuttle on its orbital missions, monodisperse latex reactor (MLR) produces spheres of much larger size than possible on Earth. Mircospheres 30 micrometers in diameter produced, whereas 5 micrometers is limit for Earthbound reactors. Microspheres as large as 100 micrometers scheduled for production in MLR.

  7. Biodegradable microspheres for parenteral delivery.

    PubMed

    Sinha, V R; Trehan, A

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, emphasis is being laid to development of controlled release dosage forms. Interest in this technology has increased steadily over the past few years. Although oral administration of drugs is a widely accepted route of drug delivery, bioavailability of drug often varies as a result of gastrointestinal absorption, degradation by first-pass effect, and hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Transdermal administration for percutaneous absorption of drug is limited by the impermeable nature of the stratum corneum. Ocular and nasal delivery is also unfavorable because of degradation by enzymes present in eye tissues and nasal mucosa. Hence, the parenteral route is the most viable approach in such cases. Of the various ways of achieving long-term parenteral drug delivery, biodegradable microspheres are one of the better means of controlling the release of drug over a long time. Because of the lipidic nature of liposomes, problems such as limited physical stability and difficulty of freeze-drying are encountered. Similarly, for emulsions, stability on long-term basis and in suspensions, rheological changes during filling, injecting, and storage poses limitation. Also, in all these systems, the release rate cannot be tailored to the needs of the patient. Parenteral controlled-release formulations based on biodegradable microspheres can overcome these problems and can control the release of drug over a predetermined time span, usually in the order of days to weeks to months. Various FDA-approved controlled-release parenteral formulations based on these biodegradable microspheres are available on the market, including Lupron Depot Nutropin Depot and Zoladex. This review covers various molecules encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres for parenteral delivery. PMID:16566705

  8. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  9. Nonaggregating Microspheres Containing Aldehyde Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Cobalt gamma irradiation of hydrophilic monomers in presence of acrolein yields exceptionally-stable, nonaggregating microspheres. Mixtures of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrolein form homogeneous solutions in distilled water containing 0.4 percent polyethylene oxide (PEO). After deaeration with nitrogen, mixtures irradiated at room temperature with gamma rays from cobalt source; total exposure time 4 hours, at rate of 0.2 milliroentgen per hour. Reaction product centrifuged three times for purification and kept in distilled water.

  10. Strontium-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuccini, C.; Sima, F.; Axente, E.; Boanini, E.; Gazzano, M.; Bigi, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    Strontium substitution for calcium in the hydroxyapatite structure has lately attracted growing interest due to its beneficial effects on both bone formation and prevention of bone resorption. Coating Ti implants with Sr2+ substituted hydroxyapatite is expected to enhance the bioactivity of the surface and stimulate bone apposition. To this end, we deposited thin films of hydroxyapatite with different substitutions of Sr2+ for Ca2+ on Ti substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Solid solutions of Sr-Ca hydroxyapatites [Ca10-xSrxHA(x = 0-1)] were prepared by direct synthesis in aqueous medium at 90C. Sr2+ insertion led to a decrease of crystallinity degree, which accounted for the simultaneous reduction of the crystal dimensions. For PLD experiments, we used an UV excimer (KrF*) laser source (248 nm, 7.4 ns) operating at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. The fluence during target irradiation was set at 2.4 J/cm2, and substrate temperature kept at 400C. The depositions were performed from HA at different degrees of Sr2+ substitution for Ca2+ (x = 0; 0.1; 0.5; 1). All structures were post-treated in a H2O enriched atmosphere for 6 h. The results of structural and morphological characterizations carried out on the obtained structures indicated that the coatings, which adhered well to the substrates, were made of crystalline HA and contained strontium with a (Ca + Sr)/P molar ratio close to the stoichiometric value of HA.

  11. No medium-term advantage of electrochemical deposition of hydroxyapatite in cementless femoral stems.

    PubMed

    Flatøy, Bernhard; Röhrl, Stephan M; Bøe, Berte; Nordsletten, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Background and purpose - Hydroxyapatite has been used for a long time as an adjunct to enhance cementless fixation. The benefit of this is still debated, but new methods of hydroxyapatite deposition have emerged, offering possible gains. In order to investigate this further, we compared the migration pattern and periprosthetic bone remodeling in a cementless femoral stem with either electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite-called Bonemaster (BM)-or a conventional plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Patients and methods - 55 hips were randomized to either BM or HA cementless femoral stems. Patients were followed with radiostereometry (RSA), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), radiographic measurements, and hip questionnaires for 5 years. Results - For both stems, migration occurred mainly as subsidence and retroversion during the first 3 months. The BM group had a higher retroversion rate of 0.17° per month during this period, as compared to 0.06° per month for the HA group (p = 0.006). Thereafter, there was almost no movement in any direction for both stem types. Bone resorption occurred mainly during the first year, and subsequently decreased to a rate close to what is seen in normal ageing. The greatest total decrease occurred in Gruen zones 1 and 7, similar in the groups at 5 years. There was a slightly higher resorption rate in Gruen zone 7 from 2 to 5 years in the BM group (1.3% per year; p = 0.04), but in a magnitude that would scarcely affect stem stability or survival. Interpretation - There were no clinically relevant differences between the 2 stems regarding stability or periprosthetic bone loss at 5 years. Electrochemically deposited HA does not appear to affect fixation or bone remodeling when compared to conventional plasma spraying at 5 years. Thus, at this point, Bonemaster appears to be safe. PMID:26364953

  12. [Inhibitory Effect of Hydroxyapatite Particles with Different Size on Malignant Melanoma A375 Cells: A Preliminary Study].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bo; Li, Bo; wang, Yan; Hong, Youliang; Zhang, Lingli; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    To explore the inhibitory effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles with different sizes on malignant melanoma A375 cells in vitro, we synthesized 4 short rod-like HA particles using TIPS. Their mean diameters were 998.0 nm (HA1), 511.0 nm (HA2), 244.0 nm (HA3), and 71.6 nm (HA4), respectively. Malignant melanoma A375 cells were co-cultured with HA particles in vitro. Results showed that HA particles smaller than 511.0 nm in mean diameter could always inhibit proliferation of A375 cells, and nanometer-HA particles (HA4) had the strongest inhibitory effect on A375 cell proliferation and the strongest inducing effect on apoptosis. HA particles were distributed in plasma of A375 cells. The ultrastructure changes of A375 cells were found most significant in nanometer-HA particles (HA4) group. We conclude that particle size is a very important influencing factor on anti-tumor effects of HA and that nanometer-HA particle has the strongest inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation. PMID:26710456

  13. The drainage of the Lake Ha!Ha! reservoir and downstream geomorphic impacts along Ha!Ha! River, Saguenay area, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, G. R.; Lawrence, D. E.

    1999-05-01

    On July 18-21, 1996, a severe rainstorm caused widespread flooding along the north shore of the St. Lawrence River, southern Quebec, Canada, particularly along rivers that drain the area just south of the Saguenay-Lake St. Jean region. At the Lake Ha!Ha! reservoir, inadequate available capacity to spill during the storm at the outlet dam resulted in the overtopping and erosion of a nearby earthfill saddle dyke. A new outlet formed at the site of the dyke and drained the reservoir over a period of many hours decreasing its area from 8.1 to 4.7 km 2. Estimates of discharge range from 910 to 1380 m 3 s -1 at the site of the eroded dyke to 1080 to 1260 m 3 s -1 at a location 27 km downstream (about 8 km above the mouth of the river). The uncontrolled drainage of the Lake Ha!Ha! reservoir increased flooding along the lower 35 km of Ha!Ha! River where flooding was already in progress because of the rainstorm runoff. The flooding caused extensive geomorphic impacts along the river. Long sections of the river (totalling 25 km) experienced significant widening (locally up to 280 m) and channel incision (locally up to 20 m) while two reaches (6 and 4.5 km long) experienced up to several metres of aggradation. In general, the slope of the valley was the most important variable affecting whether or not the energy of the flow was above or below the erosive threshold of the valley bottom. Locally, a permanent channel diversion now exists where the drainage divide between the main river course and a small ravine was overtopped and extensively eroded. Communities, infrastructure, and industry located along the river were extensively damaged by the flood waters. The effects of flooding along Ha!Ha! River demonstrate that rivers on the Canadian Shield can undergo severe geomorphic changes caused by very high-magnitude flooding.

  14. The deposition of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Adrian R; Rutledge, L; Randolph, L D; Mutreja, I; Meenan, B J

    2015-02-01

    Strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) coatings have received a lot of interest recently as strontium (Sr) has been shown to have the dual benefit of promoting bone formation and reducing bone resorption, in vivo. In this work, SrHA coatings were deposited onto polycrystalline titanium surfaces using radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering and compared to those deposited from HA alone. In particular, the influence of different levels of Sr-substitution of the sputtering targets (5 and 13% Sr-substituted HA targets) on the properties of the deposited coatings produced at a low discharge power level (150 W) were investigated using FTIR, XPS, XRD, ToFSIMS and AFM techniques (both before and after annealing at 500 °C). The results show that Sr could be successfully incorporated into the HA lattice to form SrHA coatings and that they contained no other impurities. However, the coating produced from the 13% Sr-substituted target had a higher Ca+Sr/P ratio (1.95±0.14) and Sr content when compared to the coating produced from the 5% Sr-substituted target (1.58±0.20). The deposition rate also decreased with increasing Sr content of the sputtering targets. Furthermore, as the Sr content of the coatings increased, so did the preferred 002 orientation of the coating along with increased surface roughness and heterogeneity of the surface features. Therefore, this study has shown that RF magnetron sputtering offers a means to control attendant properties of Sr-substituted HA, such as the crystallinity, stoichiometry, phase purity and surface topography. PMID:25631262

  15. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4−}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  16. The enamel protein amelotin is a promoter of hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Abbarin, Nastaran; San Miguel, Symone; Holcroft, James; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ganss, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure, indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P)S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. PMID:25407797

  17. In vitro osteoclast formation and resorption of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Robert J; Brooks, Roger A; Ueda, Masato; Best, Serena M

    2015-10-01

    Materials that participate in bone remodeling at the implant/tissue interface represent a modern tissue engineering approach with the aim of balancing implant resorption and nascent tissue formation. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) ceramics are capable of stimulating new bone formation, but little is known about their interaction with osteoclasts (OC). The effects of soluble silicate and SiHA on OCs were investigated in this study. Soluble silicate below 500 μM did not stimulate cell metabolism at 4 days or alter resorption area at 7 days on calcium phosphate discs. On sintered ceramics, OC numbers were similar on HA, Si0.3 HA (0.5 wt % Si) and Si0.5 HA (1.2 wt % Si) after 21 days in vitro, but actin ring sealing zone morphology on SiHA resembled that commonly found on bone or on carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA). Smaller and thicker actin rings on SiHA as compared to HA were probably the result of altered surface chemistry and solubility differences. The more stable sealing zones and increased lattice solubility likely contributed to increased individual pit volumes observed on Si0.5 HA. The delayed formation of OCs on Si0.5 HA (lower numbers at day 14) excludes earlier differentiation as a possible mechanism of increased individual OC pit volumes at later times (day 21). Materials characterization of Si containing biomaterials remains paramount as the Si type and amounts can subsequently impact downstream OC behaviour in a complex manner. PMID:25847383

  18. Processing and mechanical behavior of lamellar structured degradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite implants.

    PubMed

    Ratna Sunil, B; Ganapathy, C; Sampath Kumar, T S; Chakkingal, Uday

    2014-12-01

    Multilayered (laminated) composites exhibit tunable mechanical behavior compared to bulk materials due to the presence of more interfaces and therefore magnesium based composites are gaining wide popularity as biodegradable materials targeted for temporary implant applications. The objective of the present work is to fabricate magnesium based lamellar metal matrix composites (MMCs) for degradable implant applications. Nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was selected as the secondary phase and lamellar structured magnesium-nano-hydroxyapatite (Mg-HA) composites of 8, 10 and 15wt% HA were fabricated by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. It was found that HA particles were coated on the Mg flakes after 20h of ball milling carried out using tungsten carbide (WC) as the milling media. Spark plasma sintering of the milled powders resulted in the formation of lamellar structure of Mg with the presence of HA and magnesium oxide (MgO) at the inter-lamellar sites of the composites. Phase analysis of the milled powder by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) method confirms the presence of HA and MgO along with Mg after sintering. Corrosion behavior of the composites investigated by potentiodynamic polarization tests shows a reduction in the inter-lamellar corrosion with increase in HA content and the best corrosion resistance is found for the Mg-10% HA composite. This composite also exhibits maximum Vickers hardness. Young?s modulus and fracture toughness measured by nano-indentation method were higher for the Mg-8% HA composite. The results thus suggest that lamellar structured Mg composites with 8% and 10% HA show promise for temporary degradable orthopedic implant applications because of their improved corrosion resistance and superior mechanical properties. PMID:25241282

  19. Electron microscopy of biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, E. I. Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Komarov, V. F.; Severin, A. V.; Melikhov, I. V.; Buffat, P. A.

    2006-10-15

    Three types of biomaterials based on hydroxyapatite are synthesized and investigated. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals or microcrystals precipitated from low-temperature aqueous solutions serve as the initial material used for preparing spherical porous granules approximately 300-500 {mu}m in diameter. Sintering of hydroxyapatite crystals at a temperature of 870 deg. C for 2 h or at 1000 deg. C (for 3 h) + 1200 deg. C (for 2 h) brings about the formation of solid ceramics with different internal structures. According to the electron microscopic data, the ceramic material prepared at 870 deg. C is formed by agglomerated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, whereas the ceramics sintered at 1200 deg. C (with a bending strength of the order of 100 MPa) are composed of crystal blocks as large as 2 {mu}m. It is established that all the biomaterials have a single-phase composition and consist of the hydroxyapatite with a structure retained up to a temperature of 1200 deg. C.

  20. Boron nitride nanotube reinforced hydroxyapatite composite: mechanical and tribological performance and in-vitro biocompatibility to osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Debrupa; Singh, Virendra; Benaduce, Ana Paula; Seal, Sudipta; Kos, Lidia; Agarwal, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) as a novel composite material for orthopedic implant applications. The spark plasma sintered (SPS) composite structure shows higher density compared to HA. Minimal lattice mismatch between HA and BNNT leads to coherent bonding and strong interface. HA-4 wt% BNNT composite offers excellent mechanical properties-120% increment in elastic modulus, 129% higher hardness and 86% more fracture toughness, as compared to HA. Improvements in the hardness and fracture toughness are related to grain refinement and crack bridging by BNNTs. HA-BNNT composite also shows 75% improvement in the wear resistance. The wear morphology suggests localized plastic deformation supported by the sliding of outer walls of BNNT. Osteoblast proliferation and cell viability show no adverse effect of BNNT addition. HA-BNNT composite is, thus, envisioned as a potential material for stronger orthopedic implants. PMID:21094479

  1. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast attachment and proliferation on porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds fabricated with nanophase powder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ian O; McCabe, Laura R; Baumann, Melissa J

    2006-01-01

    Porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds were fabricated using both nano hydroxyapatite (nano HA) powder (20 nm average particle size) and micro HA powder (10 ?m average particle size), resulting in sintered scaffolds of 59 vol% porosity and 8.61.9 ?m average grain size and 72 vol% porosity and 58855 nm average grain size, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to measure both the grain size and pore size. MC3T3-E1 osteoblast (OB) attachment and proliferation on both nano HA and micro HA porous scaffolds were quantified. As expected, OB cell number was greater on nano HA scaffolds compared with similarly processed micro HA scaffolds 5 days after seeding, while OB attachment did not appear greater on the nano HA scaffolds (p<0.05). PMID:17722535

  2. Nano-Particle Formation of Mn/HA on the Ti-35Ta-xNb Alloy by Electrochemical Methods.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chae-Ik; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    In this study, nano-particle formation of Mn/HA on the Ti-35Ta-xNb alloy by electrochemical methods has researched using various experiments. These alloys were performed by arc-melting furnace and then heat treated for 1000 C at 12 h in Ar gas atmosphere and quenched at 0 C water. Hydroxyapatite precipitation has been synthesized from 5 mM Ca(NO3)2 4 H2O+3 mM NH4H2PO4 at 801 C. Manganese doped Hydroxyapatite precipitation has been synthesized from 4.95 mM Ca(NO3)2 4 H2O+3 mM NH4H2PO4+0.05 mM MnCl2 4 H2O at 801 C. Morphology and structure were examined by FE-SEM, EDS and XRD. The microstructure of Ti-35Ta-xNb alloys was transformed from a phase to ? phase as Nb content increased. The nano-scale HA shapes were plate-like precipitates and Mn doped HA shapes were net-like precipitates on Ti-35Ta-xNb alloys, and Ca, P and Mn peaks were detected on the Mn/HA deposited surface. PMID:26369210

  3. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/β-TCP Cements

    PubMed Central

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/β-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting α-TCP/β-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, α-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas β-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting β-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once β-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media. PMID:25866411

  4. Laser surface modification of hydroxyapatite coated Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Sukyoung; Lee, Jun Hee

    1996-12-31

    Plasma spray hydroxyapatite(HA) coated titanium alloy specimens were laser treated with a CW CO{sub 2} laser and a pulsatile Nd-Yag laser. Surface morphology was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. The Ca/P ratio and distributions were semiquantitatively analyzed with x-ray energy dispersive microanalyzer (EDX). X-ray diffraction pattern of laser treated specimen was obtained using a x-ray diffractometer (XRD) with CuK{alpha} radiation. Cytotoxicity was examined in a CO{sub 2} incubator. The interfacial shear modulus and shear strength was measured with a mechanical tester. Laser treatment on the HA plasma spray coated titanium alloy could change surface structure into glassy melted pool, dendritic structure and flake like structure. The distribution of Ca and P in laser melted zone (LMZ) became uniform. The Ca/P ratio decreased from 1.67 to 1.4 for CO{sub 2} laser treatment and to 1.0 for Nd-Yag laser treatment. There was no cytotoxicological difference between laser treated specimen and plasma spray coated one. Laser treated specimen showed higher interfacial shear modulus compare to the HA coated specimen. These results show that the newly formed LMZ can improve interfacial bond strength between HA and matrix without cytotoxicological deficit.

  5. Hydroxyapatite Formation on a Novel Dental Cement in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Engstrand, Johanna; Unosson, Erik; Engqvist, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Dental materials have to meet high standards regarding mechanical strength and handling properties. There is however only a limited amount of research that has been devoted to natural formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in contact with the materials. The objective of the current investigation was to study the surface reactions occurring in human salvia on a novel dental cement. Ceramir Crown & Bridge, a bioceramic luting agent intended for permanent cementation of conventional oral prosthetics, was evaluated by immersing discs made from the cement in human saliva and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for seven days, after which they were dried and analyzed. The analytical methods used in order to verify HA formation on the surface were grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All results showed that HA was formed on the surfaces of samples stored in saliva as well as on samples stored in PBS. The possibility of a dental luting cement to promote natural formation of HA at the tooth interface increases the stability and durability of the system and could help prevent secondary caries. PMID:23056955

  6. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Pei; Wei, Pingpin; Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-11-15

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m{sup 1/2}) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability.

  7. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  8. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  9. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:25024679

  10. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere....

  11. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere....

  12. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere....

  13. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere....

  14. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trace microsphere. 870.1360 Section 870.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1360 Trace microsphere....

  15. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport Universitaire Vaudois )

    1988-02-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  16. Preparation and characterization of NiW-nHA composite catalyst for hydrocracking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Hou, Yongzhao; Liu, Lei; Liu, Hongru; Liu, Can; Liu, Jing; Qiao, Huiting; Liu, Wenyong; Fan, Yubo; Shen, Shituan; Rong, Long

    2012-12-21

    The synthesis, characterization and catalytic capability of the NiW-nano-hydroxyapatite (NiW-nHA) composite were investigated in this paper. The NiW-nHA catalyst was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Then Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to analyze this material. In addition, the catalytic capacity of the NiW-nHA composite was also examined by FT-IR and gas chromatography (GC). The results of FT-IR analysis indicated that Ni, W and nHA combined closely. TEM observation revealed that this catalyst was needle shaped and the crystal retained a nanometer size. XRD data also suggested that a new phase of CaWO(4) appeared and the lattice parameters of nHA changed in this system. nHA was the carrier of metals. The rates of Ni/W-loading were 73.24% and 65.99% according to the EDX data, respectively. Furthermore, the conversion of 91.88% Jatropha oil was achieved at 360 C and 3 MPa h(-1) over NiW-nHA catalyst. The straight chain alkanes ranging from C(15) to C(18) were the main components in the production. The yield of C(15)-C(18) alkanes was up to 83.56 wt%. The reaction pathway involved hydrocracking of the C?C bonds of these triglycerides from Jatropha oil. This paper developed a novel non-sulfided catalyst to obtain a "green biofuel" from vegetable oil. PMID:23128670

  17. Preparation and characterization of NiW-nHA composite catalyst for hydrocracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gang; Hou, Yongzhao; Liu, Lei; Liu, Hongru; Liu, Can; Liu, Jing; Qiao, Huiting; Liu, Wenyong; Fan, Yubo; Shen, Shituan; Rong, Long

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis, characterization and catalytic capability of the NiW-nano-hydroxyapatite (NiW-nHA) composite were investigated in this paper. The NiW-nHA catalyst was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Then Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to analyze this material. In addition, the catalytic capacity of the NiW-nHA composite was also examined by FT-IR and gas chromatography (GC). The results of FT-IR analysis indicated that Ni, W and nHA combined closely. TEM observation revealed that this catalyst was needle shaped and the crystal retained a nanometer size. XRD data also suggested that a new phase of CaWO4 appeared and the lattice parameters of nHA changed in this system. nHA was the carrier of metals. The rates of Ni/W-loading were 73.24% and 65.99% according to the EDX data, respectively. Furthermore, the conversion of 91.88% Jatropha oil was achieved at 360 °C and 3 MPa h-1 over NiW-nHA catalyst. The straight chain alkanes ranging from C15 to C18 were the main components in the production. The yield of C15-C18 alkanes was up to 83.56 wt%. The reaction pathway involved hydrocracking of the C&z.dbd;C bonds of these triglycerides from Jatropha oil. This paper developed a novel non-sulfided catalyst to obtain a ``green biofuel'' from vegetable oil.

  18. Processing of UHMWPE and HA/UHMWPE nanocomposite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liming

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is an implant material for orthopedic implants because of its excellent mechanical properties. However, its applications were limited by the poor processability, particularly its use as matrix materials for bone-analogue. The objective of this work is to process UHMWPE and hydroxyapatite/UHMWPE (HA/UHMWPE) nanocomposites for biomedical applications. UHMWPE was processed by extrusion in a temperature window, in which a metastable polyethylene phase transformation was induced by the elongational flow. Compared with conventional methods, the flow resistance was reduced by the mobile mesophase and the fusion of powder became faster by the improved inter-particle chain diffusion. Pin-on-disc wear tests showed that the as-extruded UHMWPE exhibited less wear loss, smaller wear debris and smoother worn surface, suggesting it has higher wear resistance than conventional sample. HA/UHMWPE nanocomposite was processed by twin-screw extrusion of HA and UHMWPE powder mixture and swelling UHMWPE in a solvent to control the shear viscosity. Microstructure showed that aggregated HA powder was broken down to nano-sized primary particles and dispersed homogeneously by the intensive shear mixing in the extruder. The HA particles and UHMWPE fibrils were intimately contacted because swelling improved the chain mobility of UHMWPE. The composite stiffness was significantly enhanced attributed to the reinforcement effect of HA nano particles to UHMWPE fibrils, Since the toughness of UHMWPE was maintained in the composite, the composite was hot drawn to further increase the strength to that of cortical bone by aligning UHMWPE fibrils along the drawing direction. Biological evaluation indicated that the composite was biocompatible and very bioactive in simulated body fluid immersion. It was shown that the composite with 30% of HA by volume had optimal mechanical and biological properties.

  19. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of bone osseointegration of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite implants.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dan-li; Jiang, Qiao-hong; He, Fu-ming; Yang, Guo-li; Liu, Li

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) on bone osseointegration of the implants using fluorescence microscopy. We allocated 20 implants to two groups: Sr-HA group and HA group. Electrochemically deposited HA and Sr-HA coatings were applied onto the implants separately. All the implants were inserted into femur bone of rabbits. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, alizarin-complexon, and calcein green were respectively administered 7, 28, and 46 d after the implantation. After eight weeks, femurs were retrieved and prepared for the fluorescence microscopy observation. We analyzed the bone mineral apposition rates (MARs), bone area ratios (BARs), and bone to implant contact (BIC) of the two groups. Fluorescence microscopic observation showed that all groups exhibited extensive early peri-implant bone formation. The MAR of the Sr-HA group was greater than that for pure HA from 7 to 28 d after implantation, but no significant difference was found at later stage. And the BIC showed difference at 7 and 28 d compared with pure HA. We concluded that Sr-HA coating can improve the bone osseointegration of the implant in the early stage compared with the HA coating. PMID:22556174

  20. In vitro apatite formation and its growth kinetics on hydroxyapatite/polyetheretherketone biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shucong; Hariram, Kithva Prakash; Kumar, Rajendra; Cheang, Philip; Aik, Khor Khiam

    2005-05-01

    The formation of biologically equivalent carbonate-containing apatite on the surface of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) is an important step leading to good bone healing. In this study, HA-reinforced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites were prepared by homogeneous mixing of HA and PEEK powders, compaction, and pressureless sintering. The bioactivity of HA/PEEK composite with 10, 20, 30 and 40 vol% HA was evaluated by immersing the composite disks in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 4 weeks. The surface of composite with 40 vol% HA was covered by a layer of bone-like apatite just after 3 days of immersion, while 10 vol% HA was covered only after 28 days. This apatite layer was characterized by SEM, thin film X-ray diffractometer, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR)/FTIR. Introducing a concept called apatite-forming capacity of SBF, growth kinetics of the apatite layer on the surface of the composite disks was carried out. The growth rate constant increased with HA volume fraction of the composite, suggesting that the bioactivity of the HA/PEEK composite increases with increasing HA volume fraction in the composite. PMID:15585237

  1. Electrodeposition of porous hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate composite coating on titanium for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Han, Shuguang; Pang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Qionqion; Yan, Yajing

    2013-04-01

    A novel method of electrolytic porous hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate (HA/CaSiO3) composite coating was conducted on pure titanium in a mixed solution of nano-SiO2, Ca(NO3)2 and NH4H2PO4. SEM observation showed that the composite layer was porous, thereby providing abundant sites for the osteoblast adhesion. XRD results showed that the composite coating was mainly composed of HA and CaSiO3. Bond strength testing exhibited that HA-CaSiO3/Ti had higher bond strength than HA/Ti. The HA/CaSiO3 coating was more corrosion resistant than the HA coating based on the polarization tests. In vitro cell experiments demonstrated that both the HA and HA/CaSiO3 coatings showed better cell response than the bared titanium. In addition, the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells grown on the HA/CaSiO3 coating were remarkably higher than those on the bared Ti and pure HA coating.

  2. Micro-spherical probes machining by EDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Dong-Yea

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid micro-machining method, which combines wire electro discharge grinding technology with one pulse electro discharge, to fabricate micro-spherical probes and micro-spherical cavities. The results show that a burnished micro-spherical probe with about 40 m diameter could be formed instantaneously with the hybrid machining process, which is not available in the conventional micro-machining method. The deviation in diameter and roundness tolerances of micro-spherical probes is about 1 m and 3 m, respectively. Compared with conventional electro discharge machining, the surface roughness of the spherical probe is much smaller than a discharge crater. It will be possible to achieve more accurate three-dimensional measurements with the micro-spherical probe attached to the coordinate measuring machine in the future.

  3. Integrated Cryogenic Experiment (ICE) microsphere investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, I.; Read, D.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the performance of microsphere insulation in a 0-g environment and compare its performance to reference insulations such as multilayer insulation. The Lockheed Helium Extended-Life Dewar (HELD) is used to provide superfluid-helium cold sink for the experiment. The use of HELD allows the low-g dynamic properties of Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) to be characterized and provides a flight demonstration of the PODS system. The thermal performance of microspheres in 1 and 0 g was predicted, a flight experiment was designed to determine microsphere thermal performance, and the interface was also designed between the experimental package and the shuttle through HELD and the Hitchhiker-M carrier. A single test cell was designed and fabricated. The cell was filled with uncoated glass microspheres and tested with a liquid-nitrogen cold sink. The data were found to agree with predictions of microsphere performance in 1 g.

  4. Integrated Cryogenic Experiment (ICE) microsphere investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradley, I.; Read, D.

    1989-09-01

    The main objective is to determine the performance of microsphere insulation in a 0-g environment and compare its performance to reference insulations such as multilayer insulation. The Lockheed Helium Extended-Life Dewar (HELD) is used to provide superfluid-helium cold sink for the experiment. The use of HELD allows the low-g dynamic properties of Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) to be characterized and provides a flight demonstration of the PODS system. The thermal performance of microspheres in 1 and 0 g was predicted, a flight experiment was designed to determine microsphere thermal performance, and the interface was also designed between the experimental package and the shuttle through HELD and the Hitchhiker-M carrier. A single test cell was designed and fabricated. The cell was filled with uncoated glass microspheres and tested with a liquid-nitrogen cold sink. The data were found to agree with predictions of microsphere performance in 1 g.

  5. An amphiphilic degradable polymer/hydroxyapatite composite with enhanced handling characteristics promotes osteogenic gene expression in bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Song, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrospun polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites combining biodegradability with osteoconductivity are attractive for skeletal tissue engineering applications. However, most biodegradable polymers such as PLA are hydrophobic and do not blend with adequate interfacial adhesion with HA, compromising the structural homogeneity, mechanical integrity, and biological performance of the composite. To overcome this challenge, we incorporated a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) block to poly(D,L-lactic acid) to improve the adhesion of the degradable polymer with HA. The amphiphilic triblock copolymer PLA-PEG-PLA (PELA) improved the stability of HA-PELA suspension at 25 wt% HA content, which was readily electrospun into HA-PELA composite scaffolds with uniform fiber dimensions. HA-PELA was highly extensible (failure strain >200% vs. <40% for HA-PLA), superhydrophilic (~0 water contact angle vs. >100 for HA-PLA), and exhibited an 8-fold storage modulus increase (unlike deterioration for HA-PLA) upon hydration, owing to the favorable interaction between HA and PEG. HA-PELA also better promoted osteochondral lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal cells in unstimulated culture and supported far more potent osteogenesis upon induction than HA-PLA. We demonstrate that the chemical incorporation of PEG is an effective strategy to improve the performance of degradable polymer/HA composites for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23791675

  6. Phase stability and biological property evaluation of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopedic and dental applications.

    PubMed

    Vahabzadeh, Sahar; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the effects of strontium (Sr) dopant on in vitro protein release kinetics and in vivo osteogenic properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings, along with their dissolution behavior. Plasma sprayed HA coatings are widely used in load-bearing implants. Apart from osseointegration, the new generation of HA coating is expected to deliver biomolecules and/or drugs that can induce osteoinduction. This paper reports the preparation of crystalline and amorphous HA coatings on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray, and their stability at different solution pH. Coatings prepared at 110 mm working distance from the nozzle showed an average Ca ion release of 18 and 90 ppm in neutral and acidic environments, respectively. Decreasing the working distance to 90 mm resulted in the formation of a coating with less crystalline HA and phases with higher solubility products, and consequently higher dissolution over 32 days. A 92% release of a model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer with pH of 7.4 was measured for Sr-doped HA (Sr-HA) coating, while only a 72% release could be measured for pure HA coating. Distortion of BSA during adsorption on coatings revealed a strong interaction between the protein and the coating, with an increase in α-helix content. Osteoid formation was found on Sr-HA implants as early as 7 weeks post implantation compared to HA coated and uncoated Ti implants. After 12 weeks post implantation, osteoid new bone was formed on HA implants; whereas, bone mineralization started on Sr-HA samples. While no osteoid was formed on bare Ti surfaces, bone was completely mineralized on HA and Sr-HA coatings after 16 weeks post implantation. Our results show that both phase stability and chemistry can have a significant influence toward in vitro and in vivo response of HA coatings on Ti implants. PMID:25638672

  7. Effect of cell-seeded hydroxyapatite scaffolds on rabbit radius bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, C R; Guda, T; Singleton, B M; Oh, D S; Appleford, M R; Ong, J L; Wenke, J C

    2014-05-01

    Highly porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were developed as bone graft substitutes using a template coating process, characterized, and seeded with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To test the hypothesis that cell-seeded HA scaffolds improve bone regeneration, HA scaffolds without cell seeding (HA-empty), HA scaffolds with 1.5 10(4) BMSCs (HA-low), and HA scaffolds with 1.5 10(6) BMSCs (HA-high) were implanted in a 10-mm rabbit radius segmental defect model for 4 and 8 weeks. Three different fluorochromes were administered at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after implantation to identify differences in temporal bone growth patterns. It was observed from fluorescence histomorphometry analyses that an increased rate of bone infiltration occurred from 0 to 2 weeks (p < 0.05) of implantation for the HA-high group (2.9 0.5 mm) as compared with HA-empty (1.8 0.8 mm) and HA-low (1.3 0.2 mm) groups. No significant differences in bone formation within the scaffold or callus formation was observed between all groups after 4 weeks, with a significant increase in bone regenerated for all groups from 4 to 8 weeks (28.4% across groups). Although there was no difference in bone formation within scaffolds, callus formation was significantly higher in HA-empty scaffolds (100.9 14.1 mm(3) ) when compared with HA-low (57.8 7.3 mm(3) ; p ? 0.003) and HA-high (69.2 10.4 mm(3) ; p ? 0.02) after 8 weeks. These data highlight the need for a better understanding of the parameters critical to the success of cell-seeded HA scaffolds for bone regeneration. PMID:23776110

  8. Cancellous bone healing around strontium-doped hydroxyapatite in osteoporotic rats previously treated with zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Shui, Xueping; Zhang, Li; Hu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent anti-osteoporotic agents. Strontium-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) (SrHA) has been reported to increase bone density and improve trabecular microarchitecture in osteoporotic animals. But information about the effect of SrHA on the surrounding bone tissue in osteoporotic animals previously on BPs treatment is limited. We hypothesize that SrHA will induce increased bone density in the vicinity of the material when compared to HA, even in osteoporotic animals previously treated with BPs. HA and 10%SrHA (HA with 10 mol % calcium substituted by strontium) implants were prepared and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Osteoporotic animal model was established by bilateral ovariectomy. Twelve weeks later, all OVX rats accepted subcutaneous injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the dose of 1.5 μg/kg weekly for another twelve weeks. Subsequently, rod-shaped HA and SrHA implants were inserted in the distal femur of the OVX animals previously treated with ZOL. Eight weeks after implantation, specimens were harvested for histological and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Compared to HA, 10%SrHA raised the percent bone volume by 32.7%, the mean trabecular thickness by 36.5%, the mean trabecular number by 34.3%, the mean connectivity density by 38.4%, while the mean trabecular separation showed no significant difference. 10%SrHA also increased the bone area density by 36.3% in histological analysis. Results from this study indicated that 10%SrHA increased bone density and improved trabecular microarchitecture around implants in osteoporotic animals previously treated with ZOL when compared to HA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 476-481, 2016. PMID:25891947

  9. High-strength nanograined and translucent hydroxyapatite monoliths via continuous hydrothermal synthesis and optimized spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Aqif A; Yan, Haixue; Gong, Kenan; Inam, Fawad; Viola, Giuseppe; Reece, Mike J; Goodall, Josephine B M; ur Rehman, Ihtesham; McNeil-Watson, Fraser K; Corbett, Jason C W; Knowles, Jonathan C; Darr, Jawwad A

    2011-02-01

    The synthesis of high-strength, completely dense nanograined hydroxyapatite (bioceramic) monoliths is a challenge as high temperatures or long sintering times are often required. In this study, nanorods of hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium-deficient HA (made using a novel continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis method) were consolidated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) up to full theoretical density in ∼5 min at temperatures up to 1000°C. After significant optimization of the SPS heating and loading cycles, fully dense HA discs were obtained which were translucent, suggesting very high densities. Significantly high three-point flexural strength values for such materials (up to 158 MPa) were measured. Freeze-fracturing of disks followed by scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed selected samples possessed sub-200 nm sized grains and no visible pores, suggesting they were fully dense. PMID:20883835

  10. Influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) Stem Region Mutations That Stabilize or Destabilize the Structure of Multiple HA Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Byrd-Leotis, Lauren; Galloway, Summer E.; Agbogu, Evangeline

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses enter host cells through endosomes, where acidification induces irreversible conformational changes of the viral hemagglutinin (HA) that drive the membrane fusion process. The prefusion conformation of the HA is metastable, and the pH of fusion can vary significantly among HA strains and subtypes. Furthermore, an accumulating body of evidence implicates HA stability properties as partial determinants of influenza host range, transmission phenotype, and pathogenic potential. Although previous studies have identified HA mutations that can affect HA stability, these have been limited to a small selection of HA strains and subtypes. Here we report a mutational analysis of HA stability utilizing a panel of expressed HAs representing a broad range of HA subtypes and strains, including avian representatives across the phylogenetic spectrum and several human strains. We focused on two highly conserved residues in the HA stem region: HA2 position 58, located at the membrane distal tip of the short helix of the hairpin loop structure, and HA2 position 112, located in the long helix in proximity to the fusion peptide. We demonstrate that a K58I mutation confers an acid-stable phenotype for nearly all HAs examined, whereas a D112G mutation consistently leads to elevated fusion pH. The results enhance our understanding of HA stability across multiple subtypes and provide an additional tool for risk assessment for circulating strains that may have other hallmarks of human adaptation. Furthermore, the K58I mutants, in particular, may be of interest for potential use in the development of vaccines with improved stability profiles. IMPORTANCE The influenza A hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) mediates the receptor binding and membrane fusion functions that are essential for virus entry into host cells. While receptor binding has long been recognized for its role in host species specificity and transmission, membrane fusion and associated properties of HA stability have only recently been appreciated as potential determinants. We show here that mutations can be introduced at highly conserved positions to stabilize or destabilize the HA structure of multiple HA subtypes, expanding our knowledge base for this important phenotype. The practical implications of these findings extend to the field of vaccine design, since the HA mutations characterized here could potentially be utilized across a broad spectrum of influenza virus subtypes to improve the stability of vaccine strains or components. PMID:25653452

  11. Bioactivated collagen-based scaffolds embedding protein-releasing biodegradable microspheres: tuning of protein release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Marco; Indolfi, Laura; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Netti, Paolo A

    2009-10-01

    In tissue engineering, the recapitulation of natural sequences of signaling molecules, such as growth factors, as occurring in the native extracellular matrix (ECM), is fundamental to support the stepwise process of tissue regeneration. Among the manifold of tissue engineering strategies, a promising one is based on the creation of the chrono-programmed presentation of different signaling proteins. This approach is based upon the integration of biodegradable microspheres, loaded with suitable protein molecules, within scaffolds made of collagen and, in case, hyaluronic acid, which are two of the fundamental ECM constituents. However, for the design of bioactivated gel-like scaffolds the determination of release kinetics must be performed directly within the tissue engineering template. In this work, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) microspheres were produced by the multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and loaded with rhodamine-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA-Rhod), a fluorescent model protein. The microdevices were dispersed in collagen gels and collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA) semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs). BSA-Rhod release kinetics were studied directly on single microspheres through confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). To thoroughly investigate the mechanisms governing protein release from PLGA microspheres in gels, BSA-Rhod diffusion in gels was determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and water transport through the microsphere bulk was determined by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Moreover, the decrease of PLGA molecular weight and glass transition temperature (T(g)) were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Results indicate that protein release kinetics and delivery onset strongly depend on the complex interplay between protein transport through the PLGA matrix and in the collagen-based release media, and water sequestration within the scaffolds, related to the scaffold hydrophilicity, which is dictated by HA content. The proper manipulation of all these features may thus allow the obtainment of a fine control over protein sequential delivery and release kinetics within tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:19449203

  12. BMP-2 Grafted nHA/PLGA Hybrid Nanofiber Scaffold Stimulates Osteoblastic Cells Growth

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Adnan; Kim, Sukyoung; Huh, Man-Woo; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, which aims to regenerate and replace lost/degenerated tissues or organs. Natural bone is a hierarchical structure, comprised of various cells having specific functions that are regulated by sophisticated mechanisms. However, the regulation of the normal functions in damaged or injured cells is disrupted. In order to address this problem, we attempted to artificially generate a scaffold for mimicking the characteristics of the extracellular matrix at the nanoscale level to trigger osteoblastic cell growth. For this purpose, we have chemically grafted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) onto the surface of L-glutamic acid modified hydroxyapatite incorporated into the PLGA nanofiber matrix. After extensive characterization using various spectroscopic techniques, the BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to various in vitro cytocompatibility tests. The results indicated that BMP-2 on BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffolds greatly stimulated osteoblastic cells growth, contrary to the nHA/PLGA and pristine PLGA nanofiber scaffold, which are used as control. These results suggest that BMP-g-nHA/PLGA hybrid nanofiber scaffold can be used as a nanodrug carrier for the controlled and targeted delivery of BMP-2, which will open new possibilities for enhancing bone tissue regeneration and will help in the treatment of various bone-related diseases in the future. PMID:26539477

  13. Preparation and characterization of porous PDLLA/HA composite foams by supercritical carbon dioxide technology.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xinrong; Ren, Jie; Gu, Shuying

    2007-04-01

    A composite poly(D,L)lactic acid (PDLLA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) biomaterial was prepared by in situ polymerization of D,L-lactide monomer and HA. Supercritical CO2 (SC CO2) technology was developed to prepare the biodegradable composite foams for use in tissue regeneration. In this technology, NaCl particles were used as porogen to produce an open-pore structure. Organic solvents were not used and high temperature was not necessary. The problem with pore interconnectivity was resolved. High-porosity composite foams (up to 90% +/- 2% porosity) were obtained with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 microm suitable for cell seeding. The microstructure and morphology of the composite foams could be controlled by saturation pressure, saturation time, and temperature as well as amount of NaCl particles. The compressive strength and water absorbability of the composite foams were also determined. With an increase in HA amount, the molecular weight of PDLLA/HA composite foams decreased, but the mechanical strength and hydrophilicity increased slightly. PMID:16924605

  14. Morphological Effects of HA on the Cell Compatibility of Electrospun HA/PLGA Composite Nanofiber Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering is faced with an uphill challenge to design a platform with appropriate topography and suitable surface chemistry, which could encourage desired cellular activities and guide bone tissue regeneration. To develop such scaffolds, composite nanofiber scaffolds of nHA and sHA with PLGA were fabricated using electrospinning technique. nHA was synthesized using precipitation method, whereas sHA was purchased. The nHA and sHA were suspended in PLGA solution separately and electrospun at optimized electrospinning parameters. The composite nanofiber scaffolds were characterized by FE-SEM, EDX analysis, TEM, XRD analysis, FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron. The potential of the HA/PLGA composite nanofiber as bone scaffolds in terms of their bioactivity and biocompatibility was assessed by culturing the osteoblastic cells onto the composite nanofiber scaffolds. The results from in vitro studies revealed that the nHA/PLGA composite nanofiber scaffolds showed higher cellular adhesion, proliferation, and enhanced osteogenesis performance, along with increased Ca+2 ions release compared to the sHA/PLGA composite nanofiber scaffolds and pristine PLGA nanofiber scaffold. The results show that the structural dependent property of HA might affect its potential as bone scaffold and implantable materials in regenerative medicine and clinical tissue engineering. PMID:24719853

  15. Bone tissue engineering with a collagen–hydroxyapatite scaffold and culture expanded bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Max M.; Wang, Liping; Huang, Jianping; Rowe, David W.; Wei, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Osteoprogenitor cells combined with supportive biomaterials represent a promising approach to advance the standard of care for bone grafting procedures. However, this approach faces challenges, including inconsistent bone formation, cell survival in the implant, and appropriate biomaterial degradation. We have developed a collagen–hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold that supports consistent osteogenesis by donor derived osteoprogenitors, and is more easily degraded than a pure ceramic scaffold. Herein, the material properties are characterized as well as cell attachment, viability, and progenitor distribution in vitro. Furthermore, we examined the biological performance in vivo in a critical-size mouse calvarial defect. To aid in the evaluation of the in-house collagen–HA scaffold, the in vivo performance was compared with a commercial collagen–HA scaffold (Healos®, Depuy). The in-house collagen–HA scaffold supported consistent bone formation by predominantly donor-derived osteoblasts, nearly completely filling a 3.5 mm calvarial defect with bone in all samples (n=5) after 3 weeks of implantation. In terms of bone formation and donor cell retention at 3 weeks postimplantation, no statistical difference was found between the in-house and commercial scaffold following quantitative histomorphometry. The collagen–HA scaffold presented here is an open and well-defined platform that supports robust bone formation and should facilitate the further development of collagen–hydroxyapatite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24909953

  16. Strontium and zoledronate hydroxyapatites graded composite coatings for bone prostheses.

    PubMed

    Boanini, Elisa; Torricelli, Paola; Sima, Felix; Axente, Emanuel; Fini, Milena; Mihailescu, Ion N; Bigi, Adriana

    2015-06-15

    Both strontium and zoledronate (ZOL) are known to be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated to the loss of bone substance. In this work, we applied an innovative technique, Combinatorial Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (C-MAPLE), to deposit gradient thin films with variable compositions of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA) and ZOL modified hydroxyapatite (ZOLHA) on Titanium substrates. Compositional gradients were obtained by simultaneous laser vaporization of the two distinct material targets. The coatings display good crystallinity and granular morphology, which do not vary with composition. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells and human osteoclasts were co-cultured on the thin films up to 21 days. The results show that Sr counteracts the negative effect of relatively high concentration of ZOL on osteoblast viability, whereas both Sr and ZOL enhance extracellular matrix deposition. In particular, ZOL promotes type I collagen production, whereas Sr increases the production of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, ZOL exerts a greater effect than Sr on osteoprotegerin/RANKL ratio and, as a consequence, on the reduction of osteoclast proliferation and activity. The deposition method allows to modulate the composition of the thin films and hence the promotion of bone growth and the inhibition of bone resorption. PMID:25706198

  17. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  18. Injectable calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres (Radiesse).

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Brock; Kontis, Theda C

    2009-05-01

    Injectable calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) received FDA approval in 2006 for the correction of facial lipoatrophy and moderate to severe facial wrinkles. This product consists of microspheres of a synthetic bone suspended in a methylcellulose gel matrix. Because the product is thicker than the hyaluronic acids, it is used for the correction of moderate to severe wrinkles, such as deep nasolabial folds. It is also used "off-label" to treat multiple areas of the face, nose, and hands. Radiesse is injected into the subdermal plane, and correction lasts approximately 1 year after injection. PMID:19415577

  19. Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M.; Chudinova, E.; Syrtanov, M.; Koptioug, A.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces.

  20. Porous hydroxyapatite and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics promote ectopic osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingli; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Maeda, Megumi; Minowa, Takashi; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-04-01

    Because calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been used as bone substitutes, it is necessary to investigate what effects the ceramics have on osteoblast maturation. We prepared three types of Ca-P ceramics with different Ca-P ratios, i.e. hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics with dense-smooth and porous structures. Comprehensive gene expression microarray analysis of mouse osteoblast-like cells cultured on these ceramics revealed that porous Ca-P ceramics considerably affected the gene expression profiles, having a higher potential for osteoblast maturation. In the in vivo study that followed, porous Ca-P ceramics were implanted into rat skeletal muscle. Sixteen weeks after the implantation, more alkaline-phosphatase-positive cells were observed in the pores of hydroxyapatite and BCP, and the expression of the osteocalcin gene (an osteoblast-specific marker) in tissue grown in pores was also higher in hydroxyapatite and BCP than in ?-TCP. In the pores of any Ca-P ceramics, 16 weeks after the implantation, we detected the expressions of marker genes of the early differentiation stage of chondrocytes and the complete differentiation stage of adipocytes, which originate from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as osteoblasts. These marker gene expressions were not observed in the muscle tissue surrounding the implanted Ca-P ceramics. These observations indicate that porous hydroxyapatite and BCP had a greater potential for promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts than ?-TCP.

  1. Hierarchically nanostructured hydroxyapatite: hydrothermal synthesis, morphology control, growth mechanism, and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchically nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks was successfully synthesized by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate via a hydrothermal method at 200C for 24 hours. The effects of heating time and heating temperature on the products were investigated. As a chelating ligand and template molecule, the potassium sodium tartrate plays a key role in the formation of hierarchically nanostructured HA. On the basis of experimental results, a possible mechanism based on soft-template and self-assembly was proposed for the formation and growth of the hierarchically nanostructured HA. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the hierarchically nanostructured HA had good biocompatibility. It was shown by in-vitro experiments that mesenchymal stem cells could attach to the hierarchically nanostructured HA after being cultured for 48 hours. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop facile and effective methods for the synthesis of novel hydroxyapatite (HA) with hierarchical nanostructures assembled from independent and discrete nanobuilding blocks. Methods A simple hydrothermal approach was applied to synthesize HA by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate at 200C for 24 hours. The cell cytotoxicity of the hierarchically nanostructured HA was tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Results HA displayed the flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The potassium sodium tartrate was used as a chelating ligand, inducing the formation and self-assembly of HA nanorods. The heating time and heating temperature influenced the aggregation and morphology of HA. The cell viability did not decrease with the increasing concentration of hierarchically nanostructured HA added. Conclusion A novel, simple and reliable hydrothermal route had been developed for the synthesis of hierarchically nanosized HA with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The HA with the hierarchical nanostructure was formed via a soft-template assisted self-assembly mechanism. The hierarchically nanostructured HA has a good biocompatibility and essentially no in-vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:22619527

  2. Adsorption of chlorhexidine on synthetic hydroxyapatite and in vitro biological activity.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Carlos A Soriano; Colombo, Ana Paula V; Souto, Renata M; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M; Granjeiro, Jose M; Alves, Gutemberg G; Rossi, Alexandre M; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena M

    2011-10-15

    The kinetic of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHXDG) uptake from aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite (HA) was investigated by ultraviolet (UV) analysis performed in HA powder (UV-solid) after the CHX adsorption. Adsorption isotherm of chlorhexidine (CHX) uptake was modeled by a combination of Languimir and Langmuir-Freundlich mechanisms. Strong molecule-molecule interactions and positive cooperativity predominated in the surface when CHX concentration was above 8.6 μg(CHX)/mg(HA). UV-solid spectra (shape, intensity and band position) of CHX bound to HA revealed that long-range molecular structures, such as aggregates or micelles, started to be formed at low CHX concentrations (1.52 μg(CHX)/mg(HA)) and predominated at high concentrations. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis from synchrotron radiation discarded the formation of crystalline structures on HA surface or precipitation of CHX crystalline salts, as suggested in previous works. The effect of the HA/CHX association on HA in vitro bioactivity, cytotoxicity and CHX antimicrobial activity was evaluated. It was shown that CHX did not inhibit the precipitation of a poorly crystalline apatite at HA/CHX surface after soaking in simulating body fluid (SBF). Cell viability studies after exposure to extracts of HA and HA/CHX showed that both biomaterials did not present significant in vitro toxicity. Moreover, HA/CHX inhibited Enterococcus faecalis growth for up to 6 days, revealing that binding to HA did not affect antimicrobial activity of CHX and reduced bacterial adhesion. These results suggested that HA/CHX association could result in a potential adjuvant antimicrobial system for clinical use. PMID:21676601

  3. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  4. [Fracture of macroporous hydroxyapatite prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Adetchessi, A T; Pech-Gourg, G; Metellus, P; Fuentes, S

    2012-12-01

    Different prosthesis implants are offered to perform a cranioplasty after a decompressive craniectomy when autologous bone graft cannot be used. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man who benefited a unilateral decompressive craniectomy after a severe head trauma. Seven months later, a cranioplasty using custom macroporous hydroxyapatite prosthesis was performed. The postoperative course was marked by a generalized seizure leading to a traumatic head injury. The CT-scan showed a comminutive fracture of the prosthesis and an extradural hematoma. The patient underwent a removal of the fractured prosthesis and an evacuation of the extradural clot. The postoperative course was uneventful with a Glasgow outcome scale score at 5. A second cranioplasty using a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implant was performed. Among cranioplasty prosthesis solutions, hydroxyapatite implants seem to have similar property to the bone. However, its weak mechanic resistance is an actual problem in patients susceptible to present generalized seizures with consecutive head impact. Hence, in patients with decompressive craniectomy who are exposed to potential brain injury, we favor the use of more resistant implant as PEEK prosthesis. PMID:22898300

  5. Metalated nucleotide chemisorption on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Michele; Antonucci, Daniela; De Castro, Federica; Girelli, Chiara R; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2015-12-01

    The experiments here reported evidence on the importance of the residual charge of a nucleotide derivative, for the adsorption on nHAP (hydroxyapatite nanocrystals), in water solution. We found that the simple presence of phosphates on the nucleotide derivative does not guarantee adsorption on nHAP. On the other hand, we demonstrated that a cationic or neutral charge on a nucleotide derivative produces a strongly reduced chemical adsorption (chemisorption) whereas, in the presence of a net negative charge, relevant adsorption on nHAP is observed. The number of phosphates can only modulate the adsorption efficiency of a molecule provided that this latter bears an overall negative charge. The neutral zwitterionic nucleotide Pt(II) complexes, bearing negatively charged phosphates, are unable to give stable chemisorption. Previous considerations are important to model the binding ability of phosphate bearing nucleotide derivatives or molecules on hydroxyapatite. The findings reported in the present paper could be relevant in bone tissue targeting or nHAP mediated drug delivery. PMID:26050880

  6. Stability of hydroxyapatite while processing short-fibre reinforced hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Knepper, M; Moricca, S; Milthorpe, B K

    1997-12-01

    Reinforcement by short fibres has been adapted from modern ceramic processing technologies to achieve an improvement of structural properties of hydroxyapatite. However, the influence of the reinforcement fibres on the thermochemical behaviour of the hydroxyapatite has yet to be clarified comprehensively. Titanium, alumina and 316L-stainless steel, all materials with a proven record as implant materials, were chosen as reinforcement materials. Short fibres of these materials were incorporated in a matrix of hydroxyapatite to toughen the hydroxyapatite. Composites were processed by sintering in air, hot isostatic pressing and a method combining sintering in inert gas atmosphere and hot isostatic pressing. PMID:9430334

  7. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility Properties of Nano-Whisker Hydroxyapatite Coating on Magnesium Alloy for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huawei; Yan, Xueyu; Ling, Min; Xiong, Zuquan; Ou, Caiwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA) coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries. PMID:25789500

  8. Plasma-sprayed coating of hydroxyapatite on metal implants--a review.

    PubMed

    Talib, R J; Toff, M R M

    2004-05-01

    Metal implants such as titanium, stainless steel and Co-Cr-Mo are used for load bearing purposes such as hip joint prostheses, fixing plates and dental root implants. For practical application, plasma-sprayed coatings of hydroxyapatite (HA) on metal implants are applied to promote early formation of strong bonds between metal implant and living bone. Plasma spray coating involves heating of HA material to a semi-molten or molten state and then propels its to a metal substrate. The plasma flame temperature is in the range of 6,000 degrees C to 16,000 degrees C but the surface temperature of the substrate rarely exceeds 150 degrees C. The HA materials are feed into the spray gun in the form of powders. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the processes of plasma-sprayed coating of HA on various types of metal implants. PMID:15468864

  9. Effect of silver additive on physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite applied to reconstructive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuk, I. V.; Rasskazova, L. A.; Korotchenko, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of silver adding to hydroxyapatite (HA) in its solubility in physiological solution and biological activity was investigated. Samples of HA containing silver (AgHA) obtained by liquid-phase method in the conditions of microwave exposure. Solubility (CCa2+.103, mol/l) of the powders AgHA was determined by chemical methods according trilonometric titration of the calcium ions in physiological solution at 25 and 37 °C. To investigate the biological activity of the samples, a series of experiments on the formation of the calcium-phosphate layer on the surface of the SBF-solution at 37 °C for 28 days. Electronic micrographs of samples taken at the end of each 7 days of the experiment, indicate the formation of calcium-phosphate layer (CPL) in the samples, the kinetics of which is shown as a function of cumulative concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions from time.

  10. Preparation and characterisation of nanophase Sr, Mg, and Zn substituted hydroxyapatite by aqueous precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sophie C; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Grover, Liam M; Mallick, Kajal K

    2014-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) substituted with 2 mol% Sr, 10 mol% Mg, and 2 mol% Zn were precipitated under identical alkaline conditions (pH 11) at 20C from an aqueous solution. As-synthesised materials were confirmed to be phase pure by XRD and samples prepared in air contained surface adsorbed CO2 as observed by FTIR. SEM studies revealed a globular morphology and agglomeration behaviour, typical of precipitated nHA. EDS spectra confirmed nominal compositions and substitution of Sr, Mg and Zn. At the levels investigated cationic doping was not found to radically influence particle morphology. An indication of the potential in-vivo bioactivity of samples was achieved by analysing samples immersed in SBF for up to 28 days by interferometry and complementary SEM micrographs. Furthermore, a live/dead assay was used and confirmed the viability of seeded MC3T3 osteoblast precursor cells on HA and substituted HA substrates up to 7 days of culture. PMID:24411358

  11. Effect of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite bone cement on bone remodeling following hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guo X; Lin, Jian H; Chiu, Peter K Y; Li, Zhao Y; Lu, William W

    2010-01-01

    It is uncertain whether the use of bioactive bone cement has any beneficial effect on local bone adaptation following hip replacement. In this study, twelve goats underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty unilaterally, with either PMMA bone cement or strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) bioactive bone cement. Nine months later, the femoral cortical bones at different levels were analyzed by microhardness testing and micro-CT scanning. Extensive bone remodeling was found at proximal and mid-levels in both PMMA and Sr-HA groups. However, with regard to the differences of bone mineral density, cortical bone area and bone hardness between implanted and non-implanted femur, less decreases were found in Sr-HA group than PMMA group at proximal and mid-levels, and significant differences were shown for bone area and hardness at proximal level. The results suggested that the use of Sr-HA cement might alleviate femoral bone remodeling after hip replacement. PMID:19728042

  12. Effects of DCPD cement chemistry on degradation properties and cytocompatibility: comparison of MCPM/?-TCP and MCPM/HA formulations.

    PubMed

    Alge, Daniel L; Goebel, W Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are attractive biomaterials for bone repair, and a number of different DCPD cement formulations have been proposed in the literature. In this study, we have specifically compared monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and MCPM/?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) formulations to test the hypothesis that DCPD cement chemistry affects the degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the cement. Using simple in vitro models we found that MCPM/?-TCP formulations degraded primarily by DCPD dissolution, which was associated with a slight pH drop and relatively low mass loss. Cytocompatibility testing of cement conditioned culture media revealed no significant change in cell viability relative to the negative control for all of the MCPM/?-TCP formulations. In contrast, the MCPM/HA formulations were prone to undergo rapid conversion of DCPD to HA, resulting in a sharp pH drop and extensive mass loss. A stoichiometric excess of HA in the cement was found to accelerate the conversion process, and significant cytotoxicity was observed for the MCPM/HA formulations containing excess HA. Collectively, these results show that, although the product of the setting reaction is the same, DCPD cements produced with MCPM/HA and MCPM/?-TCP formulations differ significantly in their degradation properties and cytocompatibility. These differences may have important implications for the selection of a DCPD cement formulation for clinical application. PMID:23428798

  13. Effects of DCPD Cement Chemistry on Degradation Properties and Cytocompatibility: Comparison of MCPM/?-TCP and MCPM/HA Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Alge, Daniel L.; Goebel, W. Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are attractive biomaterials for bone repair, and a number of different DCPD cement formulations have been proposed in the literature. In this study we have specifically compared monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and MCPM/?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) formulations to test the hypothesis that DCPD cement chemistry affects the degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the cement. Using simple in vitro models we found that MCPM/?-TCP formulations degraded primarily by DCPD dissolution, which was associated with a slight pH drop and relatively low mass loss. Cytocompatibility testing of cement conditioned culture media revealed no significant change in cell viability relative to the negative control for all of the MCPM/?-TCP formulations. In contrast, the MCPM/HA formulations were prone to undergo rapid conversion of DCPD to HA, resulting in a sharp pH drop and extensive mass loss. A stoichiometric excess of HA in the cement was found to accelerate the conversion process, and significant cytotoxicity was observed for the MCPM/HA formulations containing excess HA. Collectively, these results show that, although the product of the setting reaction is the same, DCPD cements produced with MCPM/HA and MCPM/?-TCP formulations differ significantly in their degradation properties and cytocompatibility. These differences may have important implications for the selection of a DCPD cement formulation for clinical application. PMID:23428798

  14. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

    PubMed

    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. PMID:25808232

  15. The physical and chemical properties of the polyvinylalcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydroxyapatite composite hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yahui; Bai, Tongchun; Wang, Fei

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogel of polyvinylalcohol (PVA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by a repeated freezing and thawing technique. The effect of HA on the hydrogel was evaluated by comparing the physical and chemical properties of PVA/PVP/HA and PVA/PVP hydrogels. By using theoretical models, the information about the swelling kinetics and the dehydration kinetics have been obtained. From the analysis of structure, mechanical properties, and molecular interaction, the application of PVA/PVP/HA hydrogel as a biomaterial has been evaluated. Relative to PVA/PVP, the PVA/PVP/HA hydrogel is of denser network structure, lower water content, larger storage modulus, and higher dehydration activation energy. These results reveal that, as HA fills in the hydrogel, the molecular interaction is enhanced, the free space of network is compressed, and the diffusion activation energy of water is increased. In spite of its water content being decreased, it is still in the range of meeting the requirement of bio-application. When the hydrogel is subjected to external forces, the matrix will transfer the load to the HA powder, thus enhance the strength of the hydrogel. For application in bio-materials, HA will still have osteoinductivity because its crystalline structure is not interrupted in PVA/PVP/HA hydrogel environment. PMID:26652452

  16. The role of phosphorylation in dentin phosphoprotein peptide absorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Garduo-Juarez, Ramon; Gericke, Arne; Boskey, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is a protein expressed mainly in dentin and to a lesser extent in bone. DPP has a disordered structure, rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phosphorylated serine/threonine residues. It has a high capacity for binding to calcium ions and to hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal surfaces. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a method for virtually screening interactions between DPP motifs and HA. The goal was to determine which motifs are absorbed to HA surfaces. For these simulations, we considered five peptides from the human DPP sequence. All-atom MD simulations were performed using GROMACS, the peptides were oriented parallel to the {100} HA crystal surface, the distance between the HA and the peptide was 3 nm. The system was simulated for 20 ns. Preliminary results show that for the unphosphorylated peptides, the acidic amino acids present an electrostatic attraction where their side chains are oriented towards HA. This attraction, however, is slow to facilitate bulk transport to the crystal surface. On the other hand, the phosphorylated (PP) peptides are rapidly absorbed on the surface of the HA with their centers of mass closer to the HA surface. More importantly, the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) indicates that the average structures of the phosphorylated peptides are very inflexible and elongate, while that of the unphosphorylated peptides are flexible. Radius of gyration (Rg) analysis showed the compactness of un-phosphorylated peptides is lower than phosphorylated peptides. Phosphorylation of the DPP peptides is necessary for binding to HA surfaces. PMID:25158198

  17. Compositionally graded hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate coating on Ti by laser and induction plasma.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-02-01

    In this study we report the fabrication of compositionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on Ti by combining laser engineering net shaping (LENS) and radio frequency induction plasma spraying processes. Initially, HA powder was embedded in the Ti substrates using LENS, forming a Ti-HA composite layer. Later, RF induction plasma spraying was used to deposit HA on these Ti substrates with a Ti-HA composite layer on top. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated phase transformation of HA to ?-tricalcium phosphate in the laser processed coating. Laser processed coatings showed the formation of a metallurgically sound and diffused substrate-coating interface, which significantly increased the coating hardness to 922 183 Hv from that of the base metal hardness of 189 22 Hv. In the laser processed multilayer coating a compositionally graded nature was successfully achieved, however, with severe cracking and a consequent decrease in the flexural strength of the coating. To obtain a structurally stable coating with a composition gradient across the coating thickness a phase pure HA layer was sprayed on top of the laser processed single layer coatings using induction plasma spray. The plasma sprayed HA coatings were strongly adherent to the LENS-TCP coatings, with adhesive bond strength of 21 MPa. In vitro biocompatibility of these coatings, using human fetal osteoblast cells, showed a clear improvement in cellular activity from uncoated Ti compared with LENS-TCP-coated Ti and reached a maximum in the plasma sprayed HA coating. PMID:20854939

  18. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-assisted hydroxyapatite nanoparticle coating on polymer scaffolds for efficient osteoconduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Seok; Park, Jooyeon; La, Wan Geun; Jang, Hyeon-ki; Lee, Minhyung; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2012-04-01

    For bone regeneration applications, scaffolds made from a composite of a biodegradable polymer and ceramic have advantages over scaffolds made from only one component (biodegradable polymer or ceramic alone). In this study, a simple and rapid method was developed to induce hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticle adsorption on polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffold surfaces. PGA meshes were coated with HA nanoparticles by immersing the scaffolds in a buffer solution containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), a critical, functional element in mussel adhesive protein known to strongly bind to various materials. Substantial HA coating on PGA scaffolds was achieved within 24 hours of immersion, as determined according to selective staining of ceramic particles, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. To evaluate the osteoconduction efficacy of the scaffolds in vivo, PGA scaffolds, DOPA-coated PGA scaffolds, PGA scaffolds immersed in HA solution, and HA- and DOPA-coated PGA (HA-DOPA-PGA) scaffolds were implanted in critical-sized defects in mouse skulls for 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography and histological analyses showed that bone regeneration in vivo was far more extensive on HA-DOPA-PGA scaffolds than on the other scaffolds. DOPA offers an efficient and simple method of HA coating on polymer scaffolds. HA-polymer composite scaffolds fabricated using this method could be useful as bone graft. PMID:22047103

  19. Preparation and Properties of Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Gelatin/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Composite Membrane.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haotian; Shi, Kun; Peng, Jinrong; Qu, Ying; Liao, Jinfeng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the bone-like composite membrane based on blends of gelatin (Gel), nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was fabricated by solvent casting and evaporation methods. The effect of n-HA content and the ratio of Gel/PVA on the properties of the composite was investigated. The Gel/PVA and n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), water contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composites were determined by tensile tests. The as prepared composite membranes exhibited hydrophobility, the water contact angle of composite membrane was 126.6 when its mass ratio of n-HA/Gel/PVA was 10/50/40. The tensile strength of composite membranes was greatly increased due to the introduction of n-HA, and the tensile strength was increased to 74.92 MPa when the mass ratio of n-HA/Gel/PVA was 10/50/40. SEM observation indicated that n-HA was dispersed in the membranes and a sea-island structure was formed in the n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes, resulting in a significant increase in tensile strength. The as-prepared n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes may be applied in the field of bone tissue engineering. PMID:26369028

  20. Influence of Magnesium Ion Substitution on Structural and Thermal Behavior of Nanodimensional Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, Sonia

    2013-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), incorporating small amount of magnesium, shows attractive biological performance in terms of improved bone metabolism, osteoblast and osteoclast activity, and bone in-growth. This article reports a systematic investigation on the influence of magnesium (Mg) substitution on structural and thermal behavior of nanodimensional HA. HA and Mg-substituted HA nanopowders were synthesized through sol-gel route. The morphology and size of nanopowders were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The BET surface area was evaluated from N2 adsorption isotherms. Structural analysis and thermal behavior were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. As-synthesized powders consisted of flake-like agglomerates of HA and calcium-deficient HA. The incorporation of magnesium in HA resulted in decrease of crystallite size, crystallinity, and lattice parameters a and c and increase in BET surface area. β-tricalcium phosphate formation occured at lower calcination temperature in Mg-substituted HA than HA.

  1. The effect of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coating on implant fixation in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Qing; Zhu, Songsong; Luo, En; Li, Jihua; Feng, Ge; Liao, Yunmao; Hu, Jing

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings with 10 mol% Ca(2+) replaced by Sr(2+) (10% SrHA) on implant fixation in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Coatings of HA and 10% SrHA were prepared on the surface of titanium implant using sol-gel dip methods, and then characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Atomic Force Microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy, and an automatic scratch tester. Twelve weeks after bilateral ovariectomy, twenty OVX rats accepted implant insertion in the proximal tibiae, half with HA-coated implants and the other half with 10% SrHA coated implants. After 12-week healing period, 10% SrHA coated implants revealed improved osseointegration compared to HA, with the bone area ratio and bone-to-implant contact increased by 70.9% and 49.9% in histomorphometry, the bone volume ratio and percent osseointegration by 73.7% and 45.2% in micro-CT evaluation, and the maximal push-out force and ultimate shear strength by 107.2% and 132.9% in push out test. These results demonstrated that 10% SrHA coatings could enhance implant osseointegration in OVX rats, and suggested the feasibility of using SrHA coatings to improve implant fixation in osteoporotic bone. PMID:20800275

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of three-dimensional microspherical bismuth oxychloride self-assembled by microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tengfei; Lin, Liyang; Wei, Hongmei; Liang, Guoqiang; Kuang, Xinliang; Liu, Tianmo

    2016-02-01

    Uniform BiOCl microspheres have been synthesized via a facile solvothermal route. The structural features of the as-prepared BiOCl samples were systematically characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The SEM characterization results indicated that BiOCl microspheres possessed a superstructure composed of several hierarchical microspheres, which were assembled by numerous two dimensional nanosheets. This kind of special BiOCl 3D microstructure exhibited a large BET surface area of about 14.24 m2 g-1. Besides, the photocatalytic properties of BiOCl hollow microsphere sample and sheet-like sample were investigated in detail. Significantly, BiOCl hollow microsphere sample presented faster degradation rate toward RhB even under visible light, which should be attributed to the unique BiOCl nanosheets self-assembled hollow microspheres.

  3. Precision Extruding Deposition for Freeform Fabrication of PCL and PCL-HA Tissue Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, L.; Yildirim, E. D.; Geri, S.; Sun, W.

    Computer-aided tissue engineering approach was used to develop a novel Precision Extrusion Deposition (PED) process to directly fabricate Polycaprolactone (PCL) and composite PCL/Hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) tissue scaffolds. The process optimization was carried out to fabricate both PCL and PCL-HA (25% concentration by weight of HA) with a controlled pore size and internal pore structure of the 0/90 pattern. Two groups of scaffolds having 60 and 70% porosity and with pore sizes of 450 and 750 microns, respectively, were evaluated for their morphology and compressive properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing. The surface modification with plasma was conducted on PCL scaffold to increase the cellular attachment and proliferation. Our results suggested that inclusion of HA significantly increased the compressive modulus from 59 to 84 MPa for 60% porous scaffolds and from 30 to 76 MPa for 70% porous scaffolds. In vitro cell-scaffolds interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts to assess the feasibility of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. In addition, the results in surface hydrophilicity and roughness show that plasma surface modification can increase the hydrophilicity while introducing the nano-scale surface roughness on PCL surface. The cell proliferation and differentiation were calculated by Alamar Blue assay and by determining alkaline phosphatase activity. The osteoblasts were able to migrate and proliferate over the cultured time for both PCL as well as PCL-HA scaffolds. Our study demonstrated the viability of the PED process to the fabricate PCL and PCL-HA composite scaffolds having necessary mechanical property, structural integrity, controlled pore size and pore interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

  4. Biofunctionalization of silica microspheres for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Binjie; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei; Li, Shulian

    2013-07-01

    Mercapto-silica (SiO2-SH) microspheres were prepared via direct hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) in a basic aqueous solution. The content of surface thiol group (SH) of SiO2-SH microspheres was measured by Ellman's reagent method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the content of surface thiol group of SiO2-SH microspheres is strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. The thermal stability of SiO2-SH microspheres was evaluated by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, which tended to reduce with the increase of content of surface thiol groups. SiO2-SH microspheres can be easily modified with reduced glutathione (GSH) to generate SiO2-GSH microspheres for the affinity separation of Glutathione S-transferase (GST). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to examine the validity of the separation procedure. The results showed that SiO2-GSH microspheres were efficient in GST affinity separation from mixed proteins. PMID:23623073

  5. Bisphosphonate release profiles from magnetite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Inoue, Tatsuya; Shirosaki, Yuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Matsubara, Takao; Matsumine, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthermia has been suggested as a novel, minimally invasive cancer treatment method. After implantation of magnetic nano- or microparticles around a tumour through blood vessels, irradiation with alternating magnetic fields facilitates the efficient in situ hyperthermia even for deep-seated tumours. On the basis of this idea, if the microspheres are capable of delivering drugs, they could be promising multifunctional biomaterials effective for chemotherapy as well as hyperthermia. In the present study, magnetite microspheres were prepared by aggregation of the iron oxide colloid in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. The release behaviour of alendronate, a typical bisphosphonate, from the microspheres was examined invitro as a model of the bone tumour prevention and treatment system. The alendronate was successfully incorporated onto the porous magnetite microspheres in vacuum conditions. The drug-loaded microspheres maintained their original spherical shapes even after shaking in ultrapure water for 3 days, suggesting that they have sufficient mechanical integrity for clinical use. It was attributed to high aggregation capability of the magnetite nanoparticles through van der Waals and weak magnetic attractions. The microspheres showed slow release of the alendronate invitro, resulting from tight covalent or ionic interaction between the magnetite and the alendronate. The release rate was diffusion-controlled type and well controlled by the alendronate concentration in drug incorporation to the microspheres. PMID:24854985

  6. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  7. Chemical composition of plasma treated polyimide microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawdzik, Barbara; Sobiesiak, Magdalena

    2003-05-01

    Synthetic carbon microspheres for chromatography were obtained from porous copolymer of 4,4'-bis(maleimidodiphenyl)methane (BM) and divinylbenzene (DVB) using arc discharge argon plasma treatment. Chemical structure of the obtained material was determined by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray detector, acid and base titrations, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the carbon microspheres contain copper coming from the plasma reactor electrodes. To remove it two complexion agents were used: EDTA and 20% HNO 3. Copper can be removed from the surface using these methods. The other amount was permanently built into internal structure of the microspheres.

  8. Fiber taper coupling to chalcogenide microsphere modes

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Christian; Bian Shuning; Magi, Eric C.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2008-04-28

    We report the fabrication and optical characterization of microsphere in chalcogenide (As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}). We show that high Q modes of a 9.2 {mu}m diameter chalcogenide glass can be efficiently excited via evanescent coupling using a silica tapered fiber. Loaded Q factors of more than 20 000 have been measured. Fine analysis of the coupling spectrum around 1619 nm led to an estimation of the microsphere eccentricity of less than 1%. Owing to the unique combination properties of chalcogenide glass and the microspheres geometry, we expect this architecture to offer an ideal environment for versatile applications on both the telecommunication and midinfrared wavelength windows.

  9. Interfacial stress transfer in a graphene nanosheet toughened hydroxyapatite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. G.; Chen, Y.; Su, J. N.; Liu, W. W.; Zhang, T. H.; Qi, F.; Wang, Y. G.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, graphene has emerged as potential reinforcing nanofiller in the composites for structural engineering due to its extraordinary high elastic modulus and mechanical strength. As recognized, the transfer of stress from a low modulus matrix to a high-modulus reinforcing graphene and the interfacial behavior at a graphene-matrix interface is the fundamental issue in these composites. In the case of graphene nanosheet (GNS) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composite, this research presented analytical models and simulated that the number of graphene layers of GNSs has little effect on the maximum axial stress (0.35 GPa) and the maximum shear stress (0.14 GPa) at a GNS-HA interface, and the energy dissipation by GNS pull-out decreases with increasing the number of graphene layers due to weak bonding between them. Also, GNS-HA interfacial delamination and/or GNS rupture were also indentified to be the two key failure mechanisms. The computed results are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the interfacial behavior at a GNS-ceramic interface and to achieve tough ceramics reinforced with GNSs.

  10. Cell response to hydroxyapatite surface topography modulated by sintering temperature.

    PubMed

    Mealy, Jacob; O'Kelly, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Increased mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) activity on hydroxyapatite (HA) bone tissue engineering scaffolds will improve their viability in diffusion-based in vivo environments and is therefore highly desirable. This work focused on modulating the sintered HA surface topography with a view to increasing cell activity; this was achieved by varying the sintering temperature of the HA substrates. Cells were cultured on the substrates for periods of up to 19 days and displayed a huge variation in viability. MSC metabolic activity was measured using a resazurin sodium salt assay and revealed that surfaces sintered from 1250 to 1350C significantly outperformed their lower temperature counterparts from day one (p???0.05). Surfaces sintered at 1300C induced 57% more cell activity than the control at day 16. No significant activity was observed on surfaces sintered below 1200C. It is suggested that this is due to the granular morphology produced at these temperatures providing insufficient contact area for cell attachment. In addition, we propose the average surface wavelength as a more quantitative surface descriptor than those readily found in the literature. The wavelengths of the substrates presented here were highly correlated with cell activity (R(2) ?=?0.9019); with a wavelength of 2.675 m on the 1300C surface inducing the highest cell response. PMID:25903792

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  12. Synthesis of chitosan/hydroxyapatite membranes coated with hydroxycarbonate apatite for guided tissue regeneration purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Alexandre Flix; Filho, Edson de Almeida; Rigo, Eliana Cristina da Silva; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega

    2011-02-01

    Chitosan, which is a non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible biopolymer, has been widely researched for several applications in the field of biomaterials. Calcium phosphate ceramics stand out among the so-called bioceramics for their absence of local or systemic toxicity, their non-response to foreign bodies or inflammations, and their apparent ability to bond to the host tissue. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most important bioceramics because it is the main component of the mineral phase of bone. The aim of this work was to produce chitosan membranes coated with hydroxyapatite using the modified biomimetic method. Membranes were synthesized from a solution containing 2% of chitosan in acetic acid (weight/volume) via the solvent evaporation method. Specimens were immersed in a sodium silicate solution and then in a 1.5 SBF (simulated body fluid) solution. The crystallinity of the HA formed over the membranes was correlated to the use of the nucleation agent (the sodium silicate solution itself). Coated membranes were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy - SEM, X-ray diffraction - XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - FTIR. The results indicate a homogeneous coating covering the entire surface of the membrane and the production of a semi-crystalline hydroxyapatite layer similar to the mineral phase of human bone.

  13. Effect of loading time on marginal bone loss around hydroxyapatite-coated implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Ahn, Kyo-Jin; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Minkyoung; Yang, Hong-So; Yi, Yang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is compare the rate of marginal bone resorption around hydroxyapatite-coated implants given different loading times in order to evaluate their stability. Materials and Methods The study was conducted retrospectively for one year, targeting 41 patients whose treatment areas were the posterior maxilla and the mandible. Osstem TS III HA (Osstem Implant Co., Busan, Korea) and Zimmer TSV-HA (Zimmer Dental, Carlsbad, CA, USA), which employ the new hydroxyapatite coating technique, were used. The patients were divided into two groups - immediate and delayed loading - and the bone level at the time of loading commencement and after one year of loading was measured using periapical radiography. Differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann-Whitney (?=0.05). Results For all patients as a single group, the survival rate of the implants was 100%, and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.260.59 mm. In comparison of the differences by loading, mean marginal bone loss of 0.320.69 mm was recorded for the immediate loading group whereas the delayed loading group had mean marginal bone loss of 0.160.42 mm. However, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Within the limited observation period of one year, predictable survival rates can be expected when using immediately loaded hydroxyapatite-coated implants. PMID:24471037

  14. Physicochemical properties of the novel biphasic hydroxyapatite-magnesium phosphate biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Pijocha, Dawid; Zima, Aneta; Paszkiewicz, Zofia; Ślósarczyk, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Besides high-temperature calcium phosphates (CaPs), low-temperature calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs), due to excellent biological properties: bioactivity, biocompability and osteoconductivity, are successfully used as bone substitutes. However, some disadvantages, related mainly to their low resorption rate and poor mechanical properties result in limited range of applications of these implant materials to non-loaded places in the skeletal system. To overcome this problem, magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) with high strength have been considered as biomaterials. The main disadvantage of MPCs is that the acid-base setting reaction is an exothermic process that must be strictly controlled to avoid tissue necrosis. In this work, a new composite bone substitute (Hydroxyapatite Magnesium Phosphate Material - HMPM) based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) with sodium pyrophosphate applied as a retardant of setting reaction was obtained. Its setting time was adequate for clinical applications. Combining properties of HA and MPC has made it possible to obtain microporous (showing bimodal pore size distribution in the range of 0.005-1.700 micrometers) potential implant material showing good surgical handiness and sufficient mechanical strength. Effectiveness of sodium pyrophosphate as a retardant of exothermic setting reaction of the new cement formulation was confirmed. After setting and hardening, the material consisted of hydroxyapatite and struvite as crystalline phases. Unreacted magnesium oxide was not detected. PMID:24215450

  15. Synthesis, bioactivity and zeta potential investigations of chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fahami, Abbas; Beall, Gary W; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-02-01

    Chlorine and fluorine substituted hydroxyapatites (HA-Cl-F) with different degrees of ion replacement were successfully prepared by the one step mechanochemical activation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR spectra indicated that substitution of these anions in milled powders resulted in the formation of pure hydroxyapatite phase except for the small observed change in the lattice parameters and unit cell volumes of the resultant hydroxyapatite. Microscopic observations showed that the milled product had a cluster-like structure made up of polygonal and spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately ranged from 205 to 705nm. The zeta potential of milled samples was performed at three different pH (5, 7.4, and 9). The obtained zeta potential values were negative for all three pH values. Negative zeta potential was described to favor osseointegration, apatite nucleation, and bone regeneration. The bioactivity of samples was investigated on sintered pellets soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution and apatite crystals formed on the surface of the pellets after being incubated for 14days. Zeta potential analysis and bioactivity experiment suggested that HA-Cl-F will lead to the formation of new apatite particles and therefore be a potential implant material. PMID:26652351

  16. Diffusion Flame Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles using Urea Assisted Precursor Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyastuti; Setiawan, Adhi; Setyawan, Heru; Kusdianto; Nurtono, Tantular; Nia, Suci Madha; Winardi, Sugeng

    2011-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) or (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in orthopedics and dental applications for human bone implant and teeth filler due to their biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. Fine to nanoparticles of HA with appropriate stoichiometry and purity are preferred because they enhance densification and bioactive properties. Here, we reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles in a diffusion flame reactor. LPG mainly consisting of butane and propane was used as fuel and compressed air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. The effects of urea adding into precursor on morphology and crystallinity of the generated particles were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to observe particles morphology and crystallinity, respectively. Purity of the generated particles was analyzed quantitatively from XRD pattern using Rietveld method. Spherical shape of particles morphology was obtained for particles synthesized without urea added into precursor. Increasing fuel flow rate and urea concentration led to further disintegration of the generated particles. Nano sized particles were generated using fuel flow rate of 1 L/min and 30 w% concentration of urea added into precursor. However, increasing urea concentration led to the increase of tricalcium phosphate as a further reaction of hydroxyapatite for flame generated by using LPG as fuel of 1 L/min.

  17. Characterization of a polyamine microsphere and its adsorption for protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Pei; Nie, Tingting; Wei, Huixian; Cui, Zhenggang

    2012-01-01

    A novel polyamine microsphere, prepared from the water-in-oil emulsion of polyethylenimine, was characterized. The investigation of scanning electron microscopy showed that the polyamine microsphere is a regular ball with a smooth surface. The diameter distribution of the microsphere is 0.37-4.29 ?m. The isoelectric point of the microsphere is 10.6. The microsphere can adsorb proteins through the co-effect of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Among the proteins tested, the highest value of adsorption of microsphere, 127.8 mgg-1 microsphere, was obtained with lipase. In comparison with other proteins, the hydrophobic force is more important in promoting the adsorption of lipase. The microsphere can preferentially adsorb lipase from an even mixture of proteins. The optimum temperature and pH for the selective adsorption of lipase by the microsphere was 35 C and pH 7.0. PMID:23344018

  18. Bone integration capability of nanopolymorphic crystalline hydroxyapatite coated on titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiro; Ueno, Takeshi; Tsukimura, Naoki; Ikeda, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Kaori; Hori, Norio; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium promotes bone–implant integration is largely unknown. Furthermore, refining the fabrication of nano-structured HA to the level applicable to the mass production process for titanium implants is challenging. This study reports successful creation of nanopolymorphic crystalline HA on microroughened titanium surfaces using a combination of flame spray and low-temperature calcination and tests its biological capability to enhance bone–implant integration. Sandblasted microroughened titanium implants and sandblasted + HA-coated titanium implants were subjected to biomechanical and histomorphometric analyses in a rat model. The HA was 55% crystallized and consisted of nanoscale needle-like architectures developed in various diameters, lengths, and orientations, which resulted in a 70% increase in surface area compared to noncoated microroughened surfaces. The HA was free from impurity contaminants, with a calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.66 being equivalent to that of stoichiometric HA. As compared to microroughened implants, HA-coated implants increased the strength of bone–implant integration consistently at both early and late stages of healing. HA-coated implants showed an increased percentage of bone–implant contact and bone volume within 50 μm proximity of the implant surface, as well as a remarkably reduced percentage of soft tissue intervention between bone and the implant surface. In contrast, bone volume outside the 50 μm border was lower around HA-coated implants. Thus, this study demonstrated that the addition of pure nanopolymorphic crystalline HA to microroughened titanium not only accelerates but also enhances the level of bone–implant integration and identified the specific tissue morphogenesis parameters modulated by HA coating. In particular, the nanocrystalline HA was proven to be drastic in increasing osteoconductivity and inhibiting soft tissue infiltration, but the effect was limited to the immediate microenvironment surrounding the implant. PMID:22359461

  19. On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.

  20. Electrospun polyurethane/hydroxyapatite bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the role of solvent and hydroxyapatite particles.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, G; Khan, A S; Delaine-Smith, R M; Reilly, G C; Rehman, I U

    2014-11-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a promising polymer to support bone-matrix producing cells due to its durability and mechanical resistance. In this study two types of medical grade poly-ether urethanes Z3A1 and Z9A1 and PU-Hydroxyapatite (PU-HA) composites were investigated for their ability to act as a scaffold for tissue engineered bone. PU dissolved in varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvents were electrospun to attain scaffolds with randomly orientated non-woven fibres. Bioactive polymeric composite scaffolds were created using 15 wt% Z3A1 in a 70/30 DMF/THF PU solution and incorporating micro- or nano-sized HA particles in a ratio of 3:1 respectively, whilst a 25 wt% Z9A1 PU solution was doped in ratio of 5:1. Chemical properties of the resulting composites were evaluated by FTIR and physical properties by SEM. Tensile mechanical testing was carried out on all electrospun scaffolds. MLO-A5 osteoblastic mouse cells and human embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cells, hES-MPs were seeded on the scaffolds to test their biocompatibility and ability to support mineralised matrix production over a 28 day culture period. Cell viability was assayed by MTT and calcium and collagen deposition by Sirius red and alizarin red respectively. SEM images of both electrospun PU scaffolds and PU-HA composite scaffolds showed differences in fibre morphology with changes in solvent combinations and size of HA particles. Inclusion of THF eliminated the presence of beads in fibres that were present in scaffolds fabricated with 100% DMF solvent, and resulted in fibres with a more uniform morphology and thicker diameters. Mechanical testing demonstrated that the Young?s Modulus and yield strength was lower at higher THF concentrations. Inclusion of both sizes of HA particles in PU-HA solutions reinforced the scaffolds leading to higher mechanical properties, whilst FTIR characterisation confirmed the presence of HA in all composite scaffolds. Although all scaffolds supported proliferation of both cell types and deposition of calcified matrix, PU-HA composite fibres containing nano-HA enabled the highest cell viability and collagen deposition. These scaffolds have the potential to support bone matrix formation for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25117379

  1. Solubility product of OH-carbonated hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ito, A; Maekawa, K; Tsutsumi, S; Ikazaki, F; Tateishi, T

    1997-09-15

    Information on the solubility of OH-carbonated hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(CO3)x(OH)2-2x, previously has not been available. In the present study the solubility product (Ksp) of OH-carbonated hydroxyapatite was measured in a 0.1 M acetic acid and sodium acetate buffer solution in a pH range of 4.0-5.8 at a CO2 partial pressure of 10(-3.52) atm. The equilibrium solubility increased with the increase of carbonate content. The Ksp values decreased with the decrease of pH. For example, Ksps were 10(-119), 10(-123), and 10(-130) for pure hydroxyapatite at pH 4.9, 4.5, and 4.1, respectively. The decrease of Ksp was not accounted for by calcium-carbonate complexation. Ksp measured at isoelectric points (L) was expressed as pL = 118.65 - 0.47316 x (CO2 wt%)2.4176. From this formula, the L values were calculated for pure and fully carbonated hydroxyapatite as 10(-118.7) and 10(102.8), respectively. The L value for pure hydroxyapatite agreed with values measured under carbonate-free conditions. Therefore, the L values were regarded as the Ksp for OH-carbonated hydroxyapatite excluding errors arising from carbonate contamination in the solution. PMID:9294768

  2. In vitro study of biocompatibility of a graphene composite with gold nanoparticles and hydroxyapatite on human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Crisan, Liana; Crisan, Bogdan; Soritau, Olga; Baciut, Mihaela; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Baciut, Grigore; Lucaciu, Ondine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of some composites consisting of different proportions of graphene in combination with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) on osteoblast viability, proliferation and differentiation. Au/HA@graphene composites synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition induction heating method with acetylene as the carbon source and over an Au/HA catalyst, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy and showed that the few-layer graphene was grown over the Au/HA catalyst. The cytocompatibility study was performed using the fluorescein diacetate assay for assessment of the viability and proliferation of osteoblasts cultivated in the presence of HA, Au/HA and Au/HA@graphene composites as colloidal suspensions or as substrates. The most favorable composites for cell adhesion and proliferation were HA, Au/HA and Au/HA composites with 1.6% and 3.15% concentration of graphenes. Immunocytochemical staining performed after 19 days of osteoblasts cultivation on substrates showed that the graphene composites induced low expression of alkaline phosphatase compared to the control group and HA and Au/HA substrates. The presence of graphene in the substrate composition also induced an increased level of intracellular osteopontin and cytoskeleton reorganization (actin-F) depending on graphene concentration, suggesting cell activation, increased cellular adhesion and acquisition of a mechanosensorial osteocyte phenotype. PMID:25900356

  3. Study the bonding mechanism of binders on hydroxyapatite surface and mechanical properties for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Li, Xinpei; Yang, Mingming; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yingfeng

    2016-04-01

    In 3DP fabricating artificial bone scaffolds process, the interaction mechanism between binder and bioceramics power determines the microstructure and macro mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold. In this study, we applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to investigating the bonding mechanism and essence of binders on the HA crystallographic planes for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. The cohesive energy densities of binders and the binding energies, PCFs g(r), mechanical properties of binder/HA interaction models were analyzed through the MD simulation. Additionally, we prepared the HA bone scaffold specimens with different glues by 3DP additive manufacturing, and tested their mechanical properties by the electronic universal testing machine. The simulation results revealed that the relationship of the binding energies between binders and HA surface is consistent with the cohesive energy densities of binders, which is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA. The PCFs g(r) indicated that their interfacial interactions mainly attribute to the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds which formed between the polar atoms, functional groups in binder polymer and the Ca, -OH in HA. The results of mechanical experiments verified the relationship of Young׳s modulus for three interaction models in simulation, which is PVA/HA>PAM/HA>PVP/HA. But the trend of compressive strength is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA, this is consistent with the binding energies of simulation. Therefore, the Young׳s modulus of bone scaffolds are limited by the Young׳s modulus of binders, and the compressive strength is mainly decided by the viscosity of binder. Finally, the major reasons for differences in mechanical properties between simulation and experiment were found, the space among HA pellets and the incomplete infiltration of glue were the main reasons influencing the mechanical properties of 3DP fabrication HA bone scaffolds. These results provide useful information in choosing binder for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds and understanding the interaction mechanism between binder and HA bioceramics power. PMID:26724560

  4. Osteopontin, osteocalcin and OB-cadherin expression in Synthetic nanohydroxyapatite vs bovine hydroxyapatite cultured Osteoblastic-like cells.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, A; Mascitti, M; Orsini, G; Mem, L; Rocchetti, R; Tiriduzzi, P; Sampalmieri, F; Putignano, A; Procaccini, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have been applied in bone replacement for several decades due to their excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteo-conductivity and mechanical strength. Several studies have demonstrated that porous hydroxyapatite (HA) is an excellent scaffold for osteogenic proliferation and differentiation of the osteoprogenitor cells. However, different methods of synthesis and production of HA ceramic-based materials may have considerable effect on the physical and biological properties. In the present work, two hydroxyapatite-based materials, a natural hydroxyapatite ceramic of bovine origin and a synthetic nano-cristalline hydroxyapatite were tested in vitro with MG63 cell line. The results displayed that both the materials demonstrated a good biocompatibility. The immunocytochemical stain revealed a different positivity of the osteogenic markers between the cultures with the biomaterials, and the control culture. Western blot data confirmed the immunocytochemical stain. Both the materials tested in the present study demonstrated a good biocompatibility with the osteoblastic cells allowing, at the same time, the osteogenic differentiation, and they may be useful in clinical use. PMID:25316140

  5. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kong, Fung-Ming; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  6. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-04-16

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  7. Effect of aging temperature on formation of sol-gel derived fluor-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Joughehdoust, S; Behnamghader, A; Jahandideh, R; Manafi, S

    2010-04-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) has been recognized as one of the most important bone substitute materials in orthopaedics and dentistry over past few decades because of its chemical and biological similarity to the mineral phase of human bone. One solution for reduction the solubility of HA in biological environments is replacing F- by OH in HA structure and forming fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) solid solution. In this paper, FHA nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel method. Also, the influence of aging temperature on formation of FHA powder was studied. Equimolar solutions of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, triethyl phosphite and ammonium fluoride in ethanol were used as Ca, P and F precursors. After aging at different temperatures, the synthesized powders were heat treated at 550 degrees C. The powders were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and zetasizer measurement. The results of XRD proved the presence of fluorapatite (FA) and HA in all samples. In addition, the formation of FHA was confirmed by FT-IR results. XRD studies also showed that the crystallites were in nanometric scale. At the same time, this result was in good agreement with the result of zetasizer analysis. PMID:20355519

  8. Radio frequency (rf) plasma spheroidized HA powders: powder characterization and spark plasma sintering behavior.

    PubMed

    Xu, J L; Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Kumar, R; Cheang, P

    2005-05-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of spheroidized hydroxyapatite (HA) powders using a radio frequency (rf) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. The spheroidized powders were consolidated through a spark plasma sintering (SPS) system. The microstructure and crystallographic phases in the synthesized powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. Results showed that the HA feedstock decomposed after rf plasma processing. Crystalline HA, alpha-tri-calcium phosphate (alpha-TCP), tetra-calcium phosphate (TTCP) and calcium oxide (CaO) were detected in the plasma-spheroidized powders. Raman spectra results indicated strong presence of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in the spheroidized powders. The particle size distribution and specific surface area were influenced through the rf plasma working plate power levels. The sintering behavior of the rf plasma synthesized powders was analyzed through the SPS process and the results indicated that the spheroidized powders commence sintering at approximately 900 degrees C and through to 1150 degrees C. After sintering above 1100 degrees C for 3min, the relative densities of the SPS compacts reached 96% of the theoretical value. The SPS compacts were immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF) for different durations and the results confirmed their bioactivities. PMID:15585221

  9. X-ray photo-emission and energy dispersive spectroscopy of HA coated titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.L.; Steinberg, A.D.; Krauss, A.R.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition changes of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated titanium using surface analysis (x-ray photo-emission) and bulk analysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy). The specimens examined were controls, 30 minutes and 3 hours aged specimens in distilled water or 0.2M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) at room temperature. Each x-ray photo-emission cycle consisted of 3 scans followed by argon sputtering for 10 minutes for a total of usually 20 cycles, corresponding to a sampling depth of {approximately} 1500 {angstrom}. The energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was on a 110 by 90 {mu}m area for 500 sec. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crystal formation (3P{sub 2}O{sub 5}*2CAO*?H{sub 2}O by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis) on the HA coating for the specimens aged in sodium phosphate buffer. The x-ray photo-emission results indicated the oxidation effect of water on the titanium (as TiO{sub 2}) and the effect of the buffer to increase the surface concentration of phosphorous. No differences in the chemical composition were observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The crystal growth was only observed for the sodium phosphate buffer specimens and only on the HA surface.

  10. Functionalization of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds with Usnea lethariiformis extract by using supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Fanovich, M A; Ivanovic, J; Zizovic, I; Misic, D; Jaeger, P

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of an integrated supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical solvent impregnation process for fabrication of microporous polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) scaffolds with antibacterial activity is presented. The HA content and particle size as well as the operating conditions of the integrated process is optimized regarding the amount of impregnated antibacterial agent (Usnea lethariiformis extract) in the PCL-HA matrix, scaffold morphology and antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. High pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC) assay reveals that an increasing amount of HA results in decreasing melting temperature as well as crystallinity at an operating pressure of 17 MPa. The PCL-HA composites with micrometric sizes of the HA particles are convenient for being processed by the integrated process due to the simple preparation, a good interaction between the PCL matrix and filler and the advantageous impact on sorption. The scaffold obtained from PCL-HA with 20% of the HA shows the highest impregnation yield at 17 MPa and 35 °C (5.9%) and subsequently also the best bactericidal effect on the tested MRSA strains at an initial bacterial inoculum of 2 × 10(-4)CFU/mL. PMID:26478304

  11. Hydroxyapatite crystallinity does not affect the repair of critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    CONZ, Marcio Baltazar; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; SOARES, Gloria de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objective The physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) granules were observed to affect the biological behavior of graft materials. The aim of this work was to analyze the tissue response of two HA granules with different crystallinity and Ca/P ratio in vivo. Material and Methods The HA granules were produced in the Biomaterials Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ). The testing materials were HA granules presenting a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.60 and 28% crystallinity (HA-1), and a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.67 and 70% crystallinity (HA-2). Both HAs were implanted into a critical-size calvaria rat defects. Results To note, in the control group, the bone defects were filled with blood clot only. Descriptive and histomorphometric analyses after 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively showed mild inflammatory infiltrate, mainly comprising macrophage-like and multinucleated giant cells, and an increase in the volume density of the fibrous tissues (p<0.05), which was in contrast to the similar volume density of the newly formed bone and biomaterials in relation to the control group. Conclusion Thus, we concluded that HA-1 and HA-2 are biocompatible and non-degradable, and that crystallinity does not affect bone repair of critical size defects. PMID:21655775

  12. Synthesis, characterization and modelling of zinc and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Robert J; Chappell, Helen F; Shepherd, David V; Best, Serena M

    2015-07-01

    Experimental chemistry and atomic modelling studies were performed here to investigate a novel ionic co-substitution in hydroxyapatite (HA). Zinc, silicate co-substituted HA (ZnSiHA) remained phase pure after heating to 1100 °C with Zn and Si amounts of 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively. Unique lattice expansions in ZnSiHA, silicate Fourier transform infrared peaks and changes to the hydroxyl IR stretching region suggested Zn and silicate co-substitution in ZnSiHA. Zn and silicate insertion into HA was modelled using density functional theory (DFT). Different scenarios were considered where Zn substituted for different calcium sites or at a 2b site along the c-axis, which was suspected in singly substituted ZnHA. The most energetically favourable site in ZnSiHA was Zn positioned at a previously unreported interstitial site just off the c-axis near a silicate tetrahedron sitting on a phosphate site. A combination of experimental chemistry and DFT modelling provided insight into these complex co-substituted calcium phosphates that could find biomedical application as a synthetic bone mineral substitute. PMID:26040597

  13. Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using nano-sized hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S. T.; Rameshbabu, N.; Gandhimathi, R.; Srikanth Kumar, M.; Nidheesh, P. V.

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the sorption of Pb(II) in aqueous solution onto hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. Batch experiments were carried out using synthetic HA. The effect of contact time, HA dosage, and initial pH on removal efficiency were also investigated. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II) on this adsorbent were then examined at 25 C. Kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo first, second, and intra-particle diffusion models. The sorption data were then correlated with the Langmuir, Freundlich, Halsey, and Harkins-Jura adsorption isotherm models. The optimum dose of HA for Pb(II) removal is found to be 0.12 g/l with the removal efficiency of 97.3 % at an equilibrium contact time of 1 h. It is found that the adsorption kinetics of the Pb(II) on HA follow the pseudo second-order reaction. All the isotherms fitted well for experimental data. Capacity of HA is found as 357.14 mg Pb(II)/g of HA. The Pb(II) immobilization mechanism was studied. The results indicated that HA can be used as an effective adsorbent for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

  14. Characterization of functionally graded hydroxyapatite/titanium composite coatings plasma-sprayed on Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Cheng; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2006-07-01

    Bioceramic coatings like hydroxyapatite (HA) have shown promising bioactive properties in load-bearing implant applications. The aim of this work is to deposit functionally graded HA/Ti layers consisting of an underlying Ti bond coat, the alternating layer, and an HA top-layer on Ti6Al4V substrates using plasma spray to improve the coating-substrate interface properties. The alternating layers were created by means of changing the feeding rate and input power of Ti and HA powders, which gradually decrease Ti content with increasing depth from the Ti bond-coat. The major consideration is to examine the stability of the graded coatings. Experimental results indicated that surface chemistry and morphology of the graded coatings were similar to those of monolithic HA coatings. The bond strength values of the as-sprayed graded coatings were much superior to those of monolithic HA coatings. The cyclic fatigue did have a statistically significant effect on bond strength of monolithic HA coatings, with a decrease of 23%. However, the graded coatings were able to survive 1 million cycles of loading in air without significantly reduced bond strength. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the graded coatings had a more beneficial and desired behavior than monolithic HA coatings after fatigue. PMID:16292766

  15. Preparation and mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced hydroxyapatite/polylactide biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lie; Yang, Hui; Ying, Jia; Qiao, Fei; Peng, Mao

    2009-11-01

    A novel biocomposite of carbon fiber (CF) reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA)/polylactide (PLA) was prepared by hot pressing a prepreg which consisting of PLA, HA and CF. The prepreg was manufactured by solvent impregnation process. Polymer resin PLA dissolved with chloroform was mixed with HA. After reinforcement CF bundle was impregnated in the mixture, the solvent was dried completely and subsequently hot-pressed uniaxially under a pressure of 40 MPa at 170 degrees C for 20 min. A study was carried out to investigate change in mechanical properties of CF/HA/PLA composites before and after degradation in vitro. The composites have excellent mechanical properties. A peak showed in flexural strength, flexural modulus and shear strength aspects, reaching up 430 MPa, 22 GPa, 212 MPa, respectively, as the HA content increased. Degraded in vitro for 3 months, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of the CF/HA/PLA fell 13.2% and 5.4%, respectively, while the shear strength of the CF/HA/PLA composites remains at the 190 MPa level. The SEM photos showed that there were gaps between the PLA matrix and CF after degradation. Water uptake increased to 5%, but the mass loss rate was only 1.6%. The pH values of the PBS dropped less than 0.1. That's because the alkaline of HA neutralize the acid degrades from PLA, which can prevent the body from the acidity harm. PMID:19488680

  16. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Parente, P; Savoini, B; Ferrari, B; Monge, M A; Pareja, R; Sanchez-Herencia, A J

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y(2)O(3)) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y(2)O(3) has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y(2)O(3) addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y(2)O(3) addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y(2)O(3) as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca(2+) with Y(3+) ions appears to promote the formation of OH(-) vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. PMID:25427499

  17. Synthesis, characterization and modelling of zinc and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Friederichs, Robert J.; Chappell, Helen F.; Shepherd, David V.; Best, Serena M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental chemistry and atomic modelling studies were performed here to investigate a novel ionic co-substitution in hydroxyapatite (HA). Zinc, silicate co-substituted HA (ZnSiHA) remained phase pure after heating to 1100°C with Zn and Si amounts of 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively. Unique lattice expansions in ZnSiHA, silicate Fourier transform infrared peaks and changes to the hydroxyl IR stretching region suggested Zn and silicate co-substitution in ZnSiHA. Zn and silicate insertion into HA was modelled using density functional theory (DFT). Different scenarios were considered where Zn substituted for different calcium sites or at a 2b site along the c-axis, which was suspected in singly substituted ZnHA. The most energetically favourable site in ZnSiHA was Zn positioned at a previously unreported interstitial site just off the c-axis near a silicate tetrahedron sitting on a phosphate site. A combination of experimental chemistry and DFT modelling provided insight into these complex co-substituted calcium phosphates that could find biomedical application as a synthetic bone mineral substitute. PMID:26040597

  18. Stereomorphologic observation of bone tissue response to hydroxyapatite using SEM with the EDTA-KOH method.

    PubMed

    Lin, T C; Su, C Y; Chang, C S

    1997-07-01

    To obtain further information on the interaction of hydroxyapatite (HA) and the bony implantation bed, 20- to 40- mesh dense HA particles were implanted into the tibiae of dogs. Following healing periods of 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months, the specimens were retrieved and prepared by either conventional preparatory procedures for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the EDTA-KOH method. Under SEM observation, the interparticular osteogenesis among HA particles progressed in a programmed sequence. Ample blood supply and osteoblasts initially presented in the interparticular space. The secretion of bone matrix resulted in the formation of immature bone. This scaffold was then transformed into mature lamellar bone during the following bone remodeling process. The serial changes closely resembled the pattern viewed in controls that did not implant HA. A spatial relationship between bone cells and HA was clearly demonstrated. In particular, the osteoblasts displayed an extremely flat appearance with many microappendages. The microappendages anchored cells to the HA surface and fused with granular material covering the HA crystals. The more characteristic cellular morphology was revealed by the EDTA-KOH method. Microscopic pictures clearly identified the three-dimensional images of ruffled borders of osteoclasts and the slender cytoplasmic processes of osteocytes. This study provided further evidence for the favorable biological response of HA to bone cells as well as the value of the EDTA-KOH method in examining the stereomorphology of bone cells. PMID:9212393

  19. Characterization of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite-nanostructure titania composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugeswaran, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Ucisik, A. Hikmet; Subramanian, B.

    2015-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated onto metal implants as a ceramic biocompatible coating to bridge the growth between implants and human tissue. Meanwhile many efforts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of the HA coatings without affecting its bioactivity. In the present study, nanostructure titania (TiO2) was mixed with HA powder and HA-nanostructure TiO2 composite coatings were produced by gas tunnel type plasma spraying torch under optimized spraying conditions. For this purpose, composition of 10 wt% TiO2 + 90 wt% HA, 20 wt% TiO2 + 80 wt% HA and 30 wt% TiO2 + 70 wt% HA were selected as the feedstock materials. The phase, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized. The obtained results validated that the increase in weight percentage of nanostructure TiO2 in HA coating significantly increased the microhardness, adhesive strength and wear resistance of the coatings. Analysis of the in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were done using conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) solution and cultured green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow stromal cells (MSCs) respectively. The bioactivity results revealed that the composite coating has bio-active surface with good cytocompatibility.

  20. Shear and tensile strength of hydroxyapatite coating under loading conditions. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mller, R T; Patsalis, T

    1997-01-01

    The shear and tensile strength of a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a femoral component was studied after physiological loading conditions in 8 German Shepherds. A proximal macrostructure on the stem was used to protect this region from shear stresses. Another four implantations with uncoated components were used as controls. In vitro testing of the HA layer demonstrated excellent tensile strength and stability to surface deformation. The loaded implants were tested at 6, 12, and 24 weeks. At 6 weeks the HA-coated components could easily be removed by axial loading, whereas the HA layer remained undamaged on the metal. However, pull out tests of implants older than 12 weeks showed complete debonding of the HA layer from the non-macrostructured surface due to shear forces in all cases. Debonding of the HA layer was also observed with microradiography. The macrostructured surface prevented dislodging of the component from this area at pull out test by distributing shear forces. Unlike in uncoated implants, considerable amounts of bone remained attached onto the HA macrostructure when the surrounding femur was pulled out. Shear forces cause debonding of the HA layer, while tensile stress affects failure within the bone. Physiological loading partially produces gaps at the interface so direct transmission of tensile forces onto the bone is lost, and the coating-metal interface becomes the weak point in the system. PMID:9266035

  1. Physical Properties and Cellular Responses to Crosslinkable Poly(Propylene Fumarate)/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Shanfeng; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Lu, Lichun

    2008-01-01

    A series of crosslinkable nanocomposites has been developed using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). PPF/HA nanocomposites with four different weight fractions of HA nanoparticles have been characterized in terms of thermal and mechanical properties. To assess surface chemistry of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites, their hydrophilicity and capability of adsorbing proteins have been determined using static contact angle measurement and MicroBCA protein assay kit after incubation with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), respectively. In vitro cell studies have been performed using MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblast cells to investigate the ability of PPF/HA nanocomposites to support cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 1, 4, and 7 days. By adding HA nanoparticles to PPF, the mechanical properties of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites have not been increased due to the initially high modulus of crosslinked PPF. However, hydrophilicity and serum protein adsorption on the surface of nanocomposites have been significantly increased, resulting in enhanced cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 4 days of cell seeding. These results indicate that crosslinkable PPF/HA nanocomposites are useful for hard tissue replacement because of excellent mechanical strength and osteoconductivity. PMID:18403013

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum-Incorporated Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Weiwei; Dong, Yiwen; Zhang, Hualin; Jin, Yifan; Hu, Xiaohui; Ma, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinsong; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been widely used in clinical applications for its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. However, the bioinertness of the surface of Ti has motivated researchers to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the implants through various surface modifications, such as coatings. For this purpose, we prepared a novel bioactive material, a lanthanum-incorporated hydroxyapatite (La-HA) coating, using a dip-coating technique with a La-HA sol along with post-heat treatment. The XRD, FTIR and EDX results presented in this paper confirmed that lanthanum was successfully incorporated into the structure of HA. The La-HA coating was composed of rod-like particles which densely compacted together without microcracks. The results of the interfacial shear strength test indicated that the incorporation of lanthanum increased the bonding strength of the HA coating. The mass loss ratios under acidic conditions (pH = 5.5) suggested that the La-HA coatings have better acid resistance. The cytocompatibility of the La-HA coating was also revealed by the relative activity of alkaline phosphatase, cellular morphology and cell proliferation assay in vitro. The present study suggested that La-HA coated on Ti has promising potential for applications in the development of a new type of bioactive coating for metal implants. PMID:26404255

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum-Incorporated Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Substrates.

    PubMed

    Lou, Weiwei; Dong, Yiwen; Zhang, Hualin; Jin, Yifan; Hu, Xiaohui; Ma, Jianfeng; Liu, Jinsong; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been widely used in clinical applications for its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties. However, the bioinertness of the surface of Ti has motivated researchers to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the implants through various surface modifications, such as coatings. For this purpose, we prepared a novel bioactive material, a lanthanum-incorporated hydroxyapatite (La-HA) coating, using a dip-coating technique with a La-HA sol along with post-heat treatment. The XRD, FTIR and EDX results presented in this paper confirmed that lanthanum was successfully incorporated into the structure of HA. The La-HA coating was composed of rod-like particles which densely compacted together without microcracks. The results of the interfacial shear strength test indicated that the incorporation of lanthanum increased the bonding strength of the HA coating. The mass loss ratios under acidic conditions (pH=5.5) suggested that the La-HA coatings have better acid resistance. The cytocompatibility of the La-HA coating was also revealed by the relative activity of alkaline phosphatase, cellular morphology and cell proliferation assay in vitro. The present study suggested that La-HA coated on Ti has promising potential for applications in the development of a new type of bioactive coating for metal implants. PMID:26404255

  4. Nasal delivery of insulin using chitosan microspheres.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, J; Sadrai, H; Alinagari, R

    2004-11-01

    Nasal delivery of insulin is an alternative route for administration of this drug. The objective of this study was preparation of chitosan microspheres for insulin nasal delivery. After preparation of insulin chitosan microspheres by emulsification-cross linking process, the effect of chitosan quantity (200-400mg), cross-linker type (ascorbic acid or ascorbyl palmitate) and amount (70-140 mg) were studied on the morphology, particle size, loading efficiency, flow and release of insulin from the microspheres by a factorial design. Optimized formulation was administered nasally in four groups of diabetic rats and their serum insulin levels were analysed by the insulin enzyme immunoassay kit and the serum glucose by the glucose oxidase kits. Insulin loading in microspheres was between 4.7-6.4% w/w, preparation efficiency more than 65% and mean particle size was 20-45 microm. In most cases, drug released followed a Higuchi model. Ascorbic acid caused an increase in stability, particle size and T50%, while decreased the loading efficiency and production efficiency. Increasing the chitosan content, increased particle size, flow and insulin release rate form the microspheres. The increase of cross-linking percentage decreased the flow and size of the microspheres while increase of cross-linking percentage promoted the stability and decreased DE8% of insulin. Microspheres containing 400mg of chitosan and 70mg ascorbyl palmitate caused a 67% reduction of blood glucose compared to i.v. route and absolute bioavaliability of insulin was 44%. The results showed that chitosan microspheres of insulin are absorbable from nasal route. PMID:15799226

  5. Carbon microsphere-filled Pyrrone foams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Syntactic foam formulations were prepared from mixtures of Pyrrone prepolymers and hollow carbon microspheres. Very low curing shrinkages were obtained for high volume loadings of microspheres. The resulting syntactic foams were found to be remarkably stable over a wide range in temperature. A technique was developed for the emplacement of these foam formulations in polyimide-fiberglass, titanium alloy and stainless steel honeycomb without sacrificing low curing shrinkage or thermal stability.

  6. Structure, mechanical property and corrosion behaviors of (HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn composite with interpenetrating networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Li, J T; Xie, M Y; Qu, L J; Zhang, P; Li, X L

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel (Hydroxyapatite+β-tricalcium phosphate)/Mg-5Sn ((HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn) composite with interpenetrating networks was fabricated by infiltrating Mg-5Sn alloy into porous HA+β-TCP using suction casting technique. The structure, mechanical property and corrosion behaviors of the composite have been evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical testing, electrochemical and immersion test. It is shown that the molten Mg-5Sn alloy has infiltrated not only into the pores but also into the struts of the HA+β-TCP scaffold to forming a compact composite. The microstructure observation also shows that the Mg alloy contacts to the HA+β-TCP closely, and no reaction layer can be found between Mg-5Sn alloy and scaffold. The ultimate compressive strength of the composite is as high as 176MPa, which is about four fifths of the strength of the Mg-5Sn bulk alloy. The electrochemical and immersion tests indicate that the corrosion resistance of the composite is better than that of the Mg-5Sn bulk alloy. The corrosion products on the composite surface are mainly Mg(OH)2, Ca3(PO4)2 and HA. Appropriate mechanical and corrosion properties of the (HA+β-TCP)/Mg-5Sn composite indicate its possibility for new bone tissue implant materials. PMID:26249605

  7. Transformation of 3DP gypsum model to HA by treating in ammonium phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Lowmunkong, Rungnapa; Sohmura, Taiji; Takahashi, Junzo; Suzuki, Yumiko; Matsuya, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is a CAD/CAM built-up using ink-jet printing technique. Commercially available 3DP system can form only gypsum model and not for bioceramics. On the other hand, transformation of hardened gypsum into hydroxyapatite (HA) by treatment in ammonium phosphate solution was found lately. In the present study, transformation of the 3DP gypsum block to HA was attempted. However, the fabricated 3DP block was soluble in water. To insolubilize, it was heated at 300 degrees C for 10 min, and then, gypsum was transformed to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, CaSO(4) x 0.5H(2)O. The 3D block was immersed in 1M (NH(4))(3)PO(4) x 3H(2)O solution at 80 degrees C for 1-24 h, and the transformation into HA within 4 h was ascertained. A heat-treated plaster of Paris (POP) block was also investigated for comparison. The unheated POP block consisting of gypsum dihydrate took 24 h to complete the transformation, while the heat-treated POP consisting calcium sulfate hemihydrate promoted the transformation into HA; but the transformed thickness in the block was less than the 3DP block. This is probably due to higher solubility of the hemihydrate than gypsum dihydrate. Accelerated transformation of the 3DP block was also caused by its porous structure, which enabled an easy penetration of the phosphate solution. With the present method, it is possible to transform the fabricated gypsum by 3D printing that is adaptive to the osseous defect into HA prostheses or scaffold. PMID:16838351

  8. Demonstration of Microsphere Insulation in Cryogenic Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, R. G.; Myers, E. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Morris, D. L.; Sokalski, E. R.

    2006-04-01

    While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual use in full-scale cryogenic storage tanks has not been demonstrated until now. The performance and life-cycle-cost advantages previously predicted have now been proven. Most bulk cryogenic storage tanks are insulated with either multilayer insulation (MLI) or perlite. Microsphere insulation, consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. These properties were proven during recent field testing of two 22,700-L (6,000-gallon) liquid nitrogen tanks, one insulated with microsphere insulation and the other with perlite. Normal evaporation rates (NER) for both tanks were monitored with precision test equipment and insulation levels within the tanks were observed through view ports as an indication of insulation compaction. Specific industrial applications were evaluated based on the test results and beneficial properties of microsphere insulation. Over-the-road trailers previously insulated with perlite will benefit not only from the reduced heat leak, but also the reduced mass of microsphere insulation. Economic assessments for microsphere-insulated cryogenic vessels including life-cycle cost are also presented.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive glipizide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayvadan K; Patel, Rakesh P; Amin, Avani F; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to formulate and systematically evaluate in vitro and in vivo performances of mucoadhesive microspheres of glipizide. Glipizide microspheres containing chitosan were prepared by simple emulsification phase separation technique using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Results of preliminary trials indicate that volume of cross-linking agent, time for cross-linking, polymer-to-drug ratio, and speed of rotation affected characteristics of microspheres. Microspheres were discrete, spherical, and free flowing. The microspheres exhibited good mucoadhesive property in the in vitro wash-off test and also showed a high percentage drug entrapment efficiency. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer-to-drug ratio (X(1) ), and stirring speed (X(2) ) on dependent variables percentage mucoadhesion, t(80), drug entrapment efficiency, and swelling index. The best batch exhibited a high drug entrapment efficiency of 75% and a swelling index of 1.42; percentage mucoadhesion after 1 hour was 78%. The drug release was also sustained for more than 12 hours. The polymer-to-drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. In vivo testing of the mucoadhesive microspheres to albino Wistar rats demonstrated significant hypoglycemic effect of glipizide. PMID:16353963

  10. The adsorptive behavior of albumin and lysozyme proteins on rod-shaped and plate-shaped hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Hoshino, T; Aoki, H; Masuzawa, T

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LSZ) on rod-shaped and plate-shaped hydroxyapatite (HA) was investigated to evaluate the influence of crystal orientation and morphology on the selective protein adsorption of HA. The rod-shaped HA was prepared by hydrothermal treatment from ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in H3PO4 solution (pH 2.0 and 4.0 for HA-pH 2.0 and HA-pH 4.0). The plate-shaped HA was synthesized by hydrolysis of CaHPO4-2H2O (DCPD) in NaOH solution at 40C and 80C (HA-40C and HA-80C). The synthesized HA was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). HA-pH 2.0 and HA-pH 4.0 produced rod-shaped crystals that were highly oriented to the a-face plane, whereas HA-40C and HA-80C showed a plate-like shape and a c-face preferred orientation. The peak intensity ratio I(300)/I(002) (a/c intensity ratio) from the XRD patterns increased in the following order: HA-80C, HA-40C, HA-pH 2.0 and HA-pH 4.0. It also increased as the Ca/P ratio decreased. The amount of adsorbed BSA increased in the following order: HA-pH 4.0, HA-pH 2.0, HA-40C and HA-80C. The amount of adsorbed LSZ on HA increased in the following order--HA-pH 2.0, HA-pH 4.0, HA-40C and HA-80C--with a corresponding decrease in the a/c intensity ratio. The BSA/LSA adsorption ratio increased with the a/c intensity ratio in the range of 3.3-8.9, and the BSA and LSZ were selectively adsorbed on HA, depending on the crystal shape. PMID:23629536

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Fullerenol Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Seke, Mariana; Jovic, Danica; Uskokovic, Dragan; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2015-02-01

    Fullerenols are polyhydroxylated, water soluble derivatives of fullerene C60, with potential application in medicine as diagnostic agents, antioxidants or nano drug carriers. This paper describes synthesis and physical characterization of a new nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol. Surface of the nanocomposite hydroxyapatite/fullerenol is inhomogeneous with the diameter of the particles in the range from 100 nm to 350 nm. The ? potential of this nanocomposite is ten times lower when compared to hydroxyapatite. Surface phosphate groups of hydroxyapatite are prone to forming hydrogen bonds, when in close contact with hydroxyl groups, which could lead to formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyapatite and hydroxyl groups of fullerenol. The surface of hydroxyapatite particles (-2.5 mV) was modified by fullerenol particles, as confirmed by the obtained ? potential value of the nanocomposite biomaterial hydroxyapatite/fullerenol (-25.0 mV). Keywords: Hydroxyapatite, Fullerenol, Nanocomposite, Surface Analysis. PMID:26353688

  12. The influence hydroxyapatite nanoparticle shape and size on the properties of biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds coated with hydroxyapatite-PCL composites.

    PubMed

    Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Nouri-Khorasani, Saied; Lu, Zufu; Appleyard, Richard; Zreiqat, Hala

    2010-07-01

    We developed a composite biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffold by coating a nanocomposite layer, consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL), over the surface of BCP. The effects of HA particle size and shape in the coating layer on the mechanical and biological properties of the BCP scaffold were examined. Micro-computerized tomography studies showed that the prepared scaffolds were highly porous (approximately 91%) with large pore size (400-700 microm) and an interconnected porous network of approximately 100%. The HA nanoparticle (needle shape)-composite coated scaffolds displayed the highest compressive strength (2.1 +/- 0.17 MPa), compared to pure HA/beta-TCP (0.1 +/- 0.05 MPa) and to the micron HA - composite coated scaffolds (0.29 +/- 0.07 MPa). These needle shaped scaffolds also showed enhanced elasticity and similar stress-strain profile to natural bone. Needle shaped coated HA/PCL particles induced the differentiation of primary human bone derived cells, with significant upregulation of osteogenic gene expression (Runx2, collagen type I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein) and alkaline phosphatase activity compared to other groups. These properties are essential for enhancing bone ingrowth in load-bearing applications. The developed composite scaffolds possessed superior physical, mechanical, elastic and biological properties rendering them potentially useful for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:20398935

  13. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. PMID:25910818

  14. Morphology and crystallinity of the nanosized hydroxyapatite synthesized by hydrolysis using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Wang, Moo-Chin; Hon, Min-Hsiung

    2005-02-01

    The biodegradable hydroxyapatite (HA) was synthesized by hydrolysis and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED). The HA synthesized from CaHPO 42H 2O(DCPD) in 2.5 M NaOH (aq) at 75 C for 1 h had a size of 50 nm in width and 100 nm in length. However, the HA aggregates synthesized from DCPD in 2.5 M NaOH (aq) with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a surfactant were elongated. When the CTAB concentration was increased from 110 -4 to 110 -2 M, the synthesized HA became thinner to a size of 5-20 nm in width and 50 nm in length. For thinner HA aggregates, longer agglomerates were aligned in the synthesis without the CTAB surfactant.

  15. Hydroxyapatite does not improve the outcome of a bipolar hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Meijerink, Huub J; Gardeniers, Jean W M; Buma, Pieter; Lemmens, J Albert M; Schreurs, B Willem

    2004-04-01

    In a one-surgeon study the clinical and radiographic results of 30 cementless bipolar hip prostheses in 24 patients younger than 55 years were evaluated. Eleven noncoated prostheses (Noncoated Group) and 19 hydroxyapatite-coated prostheses (Hydroxyapatite Group) were compared after a mean followup of 10.4 years. The Harris hip score increased from a preoperative average of 41 points to 76 points at final followup (Noncoated Group, 70 points; Hydroxyapatite Group, 80 points). Thigh or groin pain was present in 15 patients (16 hips) (Noncoated Group, 55%; Hydroxyapatite Group, 53%). Radiographically, subsidence was the major problem at the noncoated prostheses (Noncoated Group, 91%; Hydroxyapatite Group, 5%), whereas osteolysis mainly was seen at the hydroxyapatite-coated prostheses (Noncoated Group, 18%; Hydroxyapatite Group, 89%). The obtained aseptic revision rate of 27% (Noncoated Group, 27%; Hydroxyapatite Group, 26%) is too high to use this implant in young patients. The large amounts of polyethylene wear debris generated by the bipolar system play an important role in this limited success. In the initially well-fixed hydroxyapatite-coated prostheses the sealing effect of a hydroxyapatite coating creates high concentrations of polyethylene in the limited joint space, resulting in massive proximal femoral osteolysis. Consequently, a hydroxyapatite coating introduces a new failure mechanism. Therefore, hydroxyapatite does not improve the outcome of a cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty in the long-term. PMID:15123939

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide reinforced chitosan-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings on Ti substrate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y Y; Li, M; Liu, Q; Jia, Z J; Xu, X C; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2016-03-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a facile and feasible technique to prepare functional nanocomposite coatings for application in orthopedic-related implants. In this work, a ternary graphene oxide-chitosan-hydroxyapatite (GO-CS-HA) composite coating on Ti substrate was successfully fabricated by EPD. Coating microstructure and morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle test, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found GO-CS surface were uniformly decorated by HA nanoparticles. The potentiodynamic polarization test in simulated body fluid indicated that the GO-CS-HA coatings could provide effective protection of Ti substrate from corrosion. This ternary composite coating also exhibited good biocompatibility during incubation with MG63 cells. In addition, the nanocomposite coatings could decrease the attachment of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26758895

  17. A novel jet-based nano-hydroxyapatite patterning technique for osteoblast guidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Koller, Garrit; Huang, Jie; Di Silvio, Lucy; Renton, Tara; Esat, Minoo; Bonfield, William; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Surface topography is well known to play a crucial role in influencing cellular responses to an implant material and is therefore important in bone tissue regeneration. A novel jet-based patterning technique, template-assisted electrohydrodynamic atomization spraying, was recently devised to control precisely the surface structure as well as its dimensions. In the present study, a detailed investigation of this patterning process was carried out. A range of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) line-shaped patterns <20 m in width were successfully deposited on a commercially pure Ti surface by controlling the flow of an nHA suspension in an electric field. In vitro studies showed that the nHA patterns generated are capable of regulating the human osteoblast cell attachment and orientation. PMID:19493897

  18. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-11-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate.

  19. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanoporous hydroxyapatite using cationic surfactants as templates

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yanbao; Tjandra, Wiliana; Tam, Kam C.

    2008-08-04

    Nanoporous hydroxyapatite was synthesized utilizing cationic surfactants as templates. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and reaction temperatures on the phase and morphology of HA were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal stability of nanoporous structures was studied by XRD and thermal analyzers (TGA/DTA), while the pore structure of HA was observed using high resolution TEM. It was found that the pore size was about 1 nm, and the pore structure of HA was thermally stable up to 700 deg. C and the pore size did not change with reaction temperature and CTAB:PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ratio. The possible formation mechanism of nanoporous structure was proposed.

  1. Novel phosphorus-containing cyclodextrin polymers and their affinity for calcium cations and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wintgens, Vronique; Dalmas, Florent; Sbille, Bernard; Amiel, Catherine

    2013-10-15

    Novel phosphorous-containing ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) polymers (CDP) were synthesized easily under "green chemistry" conditions. A simple polycondensation between the hydroxyl groups of ?CD and non-toxic sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) under basic conditions led to soluble, non-reticulated CDPs with molecular weights (Mw) higher than 10(4) g mol(-1), the actual value depending on the NaOH:?CD and STMP:?CD weight ratios. The presence of both ?CD and phosphate groups in the polymer allows for strong interactions with amphiphilic probes, such as 1-adamantyl acetic acid, or with divalent cations, such as Ca(2+), whose strengths were characterized by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. The obtained phosphated compounds also display high affinity towards hydroxyapatite (HA), leading to HA nanoparticles that could easily be recovered by CDPs, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative determination of the total amount of phosphated molecules fixed on HA. PMID:23987426

  2. Development and characterization of porous silver-incorporated hydroxyapatite ceramic for separation and elimination of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Ning, Xiaoshan; Xiao, Qunfang; Chen, Kexin; Zhou, Heping

    2007-04-01

    A novel filter material for separating and eliminating microorganisms in water and gas was fabricated by incorporating silver ions into porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics prepared by a starch additive technique. The porous ceramics reveal a microstructure of both large and small pores. Microorganism separating and eliminating properties of the porous silver-incorporated HA ceramics (PHA-Ag) were investigated by bacterial and viral filtration tests. The PHA-Ag demonstrated excellent separating and antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli and the mechanisms were studied. Adsorption of bacterial cells to the HA and the barricading effect of small pores contribute to the separating property of PHA-Ag, while the Ag+ ions equip the ceramics with antibacterial property. Furthermore, the PHA-Ag exhibited an observable virus-eliminating property and its probable mechanism was also discussed. PMID:16941584

  3. Postoperative lumbar spinal stenosis after intertransverse fusion with granules of hydroxyapatite: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of postoperative lumbar spinal stenosis after non-instrumented intertransverse fusion with granules of hydroxyapatite (HA), bone union was not completed and the patient felt the recurrence of his symptoms within two years. We performed re-decompression with fusion, and in hematoxylin and eosin staining of HA granulation harvested during revision surgery, fibrous tissue with hyaline degeneration surrounded the cavity where the HA had existed. Multinuclear giant cells and lymphocytes infiltrated some parts of the marginal layer of the cavity, and no obvious bony bridge had regenerated from autologous bone. No tartrate-resistant acid phosphate (TRAP) -positive osteoclasts could be seen in the new bone, suggesting that the activity of osteoclasts in the new bone decreased during the seven years after the primary surgery. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3483360258050263 PMID:23134668

  4. Stimulatory effect of hydrothermally synthesized biodegradable hydroxyapatite granules on osteogenesis and direct association with osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Yoshinori; Ioku, Koji; Shibata, Yasuaki; Okuda, Takatoshi; Kawachi, Giichiro; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Murayama, Hisashi; Hideshima, Katsumi; Kamihira, Shimeru; Yonezawa, Ikuho; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Ikeda, Tohru

    2009-09-01

    Calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) granules with a unique spherical shape were prepared using an applied hydrothermal method. Spherical stoichiometric HA granules were also prepared by normal sintering and both granules were used for implantation into rat tibiae to compare the biological responses to each implant. Twelve and 24 weeks after implantation, the volume of calcium-deficient HA granules was significantly less than that of stoichiometric HA granules, and the biodegradability of calcium-deficient HA granules was confirmed. The larger number of osteoclasts, larger osteoblast surface and larger bone volume in the implanted area of calcium-deficient HA than those of stoichiometric HA suggested that osteoclastic resorption of calcium-deficient HA affected osteogenesis in that area. To analyze the direct contribution of osteoclasts to osteogenesis, C2C12 multipotent myoblastic cells, which have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 2, were cultured with supernatants of osteoclasts cultured on calcium-deficient HA, stoichiometric HA, beta-tricalcium phosphate disks or plastic dishes, or bone marrow macrophages cultured on plastic dishes. Supernatants of osteoclasts but not bone marrow macrophages stimulated the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin in C2C12 cells in concert with bone morphogenetic protein 2. The expression of alkaline phosphatase was stimulated with supernatants of osteoclasts cultured on ceramic disks. These results suggested that osteoclasts produced certain soluble factors which stimulated osteoblastic differentiation and they were thought to be associated with the induction of a larger osteoblast surface and bone volume in the animals implanted with calcium-deficient HA granules. PMID:19481798

  5. Measurement of extent of bone ongrowth and hydroxyapatite absorption in retrieved acetabular cups.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Chung YY; Kim J; Lim CH; Kim KS; Lee YS

    2008-05-01

    BACKGROUND: To understand why hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated acetabular cups did not produce satisfactory results, we measured the extent of bone ongrowth and HA absorption of the retrieved cups.METHODS: Between March 1992 and June 1998, a total of 289 patients underwent total hip arthroplasty with an HA-coated ABG (Anatomical Benoist Giraud) prosthesis in our hospital. We revised 71 cups in our hospital, 43 of which were included in this study. The cups were in situ for an average of 80.4 months. We revised 21 cups for polyethylene wear and osteolysis, 20 for loosening, and 2 for recurrent dislocation. The outer surfaces of the cups were subdivided by two circular grooves into three areas: central, middle, peripheral. Bone ongrowth and HA absorption was measured in terms of area and thickness. The areas were graphically calculated using a computer imaging analysis system. The thickness of the HA coating remaining on the retrieved cup was measured by an x-ray coating thickness measurement instrument.RESULTS: Of the 43 cups, 37 had bone ongrowth. Bone ongrowth was observed on the central surface in 23 cups, on the middle surface in 27 cups, and on the peripheral surface in 15 cups; 6 of the 37 cups had bone ongrowth only in the groove. Altogether, 37 cups showed bone ongrowth on 6.43% of the outer acetabular surface. HA absorption appeared in all 43 cups, and an average 63.21% of the HA coating area was absorbed. there was a proportional relation between the rate of HA absorption and implantation duration, but there was no consistent trend between the thickness of the HA coating and implantation duration.CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that progressive HA absorption and minimal bone ongrowth are related to the failure of HA-coated acetabular cups at long-term follow-up after total hip arthroplasty.

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite biomaterials prepared by microwave processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Rosmamuhamadani; Arawi, Ainaa Zafirah Omar; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Mahat, Mohd Muzamir; Jais, Umi Sarah

    2012-07-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite, (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), is an attractive and widely utilized bio-ceramic material for orthopedic and dental implants because of its close resemblance of native tooth and bone crystal structure. Synthetic HA exhibits excellent osteoconductive properties. Osteoconductivity means the ability to provide the appropriate scaffold or template for bone formation. Calcium phosphate biomaterials [(HA), tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate (HA/TCP)] with appropriate three-dimensional geometry are able to bind and concentrate endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins in circulation, and may become osteoinductive and can be effective carriers of bone cell seeds. This HA can be used in bio-implants as well as drug delivery application due to the unique properties of HA. Biomaterials synthesized from the natural species like mussel shells have additional benefits such as high purity, less expensive and high bio compatibility. In this project, HA-nanoparticles of different crystallite size were prepared by microwave synthesis of precursors. High purity CaO was extracted from the natural mussel shells for the synthesis of nano HA. Dried nano HA powders were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique for the determination of crystal structure and impurity content. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) investigation was employed for the morphological investigation of nano HA powders. From the results obtained, it was concluded that by altering the irradiation time, nano HA powders of different crystallite sizes and morphologies could be produced. Crystallite sizes calculated from the XRD patterns are found to be in the range of 10-55 nm depending on the irradiation time.

  7. Fabrication and physico-mechanical properties of thin magnetron sputter deposited silver-containing hydroxyapatite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Tyurin, A. I.; Pirozhkova, T. S.; Shuvarin, I. A.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.; Chaikina, M. V.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    As a measure of the prevention of implant associated infections, a number of strategies have been recently applied. Silver-containing materials possessing antibacterial activity as expected might have wide applications in orthopedics and dentistry. The present work focuses on the physico-chemical characterization of silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) coating obtained by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Mechanochemically synthesized Ag-HA powder (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2-x, x = 1.5) was used as a precursor for sputtering target preparation. Morphology, composition, crystallinity, physico-mechanical features (Young's modulus and nanohardness) of the deposited Ag-HA coatings were investigated. The sputtering of the nanostructured multicomponent target at the applied process conditions allowed to deposit crystalline Ag-HA coating which was confirmed by XRD and FTIR data. The SEM results revealed the formation of the coating with the grain morphology and columnar cross-section structure. The EDX analysis confirmed that Ag-HA coating contained Ca, P, O and Ag with the Ca/P ratio of 1.6 ± 0.1. The evolution of the mechanical properties allowed to conclude that addition of silver to HA film caused increase of the coating nanohardness and elastic modulus compared with those of pure HA thin films deposited under the same deposition conditions.

  8. Comparison of Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinse for Remineralization of Incipient Carious Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Salehi Zeinabadi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is an infectious disease that can be prevented in several ways. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium fluoride mouthrinse and nano- hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) for the remineralization of incipient caries. Materials and Methods: After obtaining different concentrations of nano-HA (0-2-5-10%), 60 sound premolars fixed in acrylic blocks were coated with nail polish except for one surface. Ten teeth (control group) were stored in distilled water and the remaining 50 samples were demineralized by immersion in 13 ml of 0.1 M lactic acid and 0.2% poly acrylic acid for 48 hours. Their microhardness was then measured and compared to that of the control group. Next, the 50 test teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of group1 (negative), group 2 (2% nano-HA), group 3 (5% nano-HA), group 4(10% nano-HA) and group 5 (0.2 NAF mouthrinse). The microhardness of the teeth was measured after 12 hours of immersion in the above-mentioned solutions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Microhardness of all samples decreased significantly after immersion in the demineralization solution and increased following immersion in nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses; however, this increase was not statistically significant (P=0.711). Conclusion: Nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses can greatly enhance remineralization and increase tooth microhardness. PMID:25584051

  9. Reinforced Pulsed Laser-Deposited Hydroxyapatite Coating on 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur; Pradhan, Siddhartha Kumar; Mandal, Tapendu; Balani, Kantesh

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used bioceramic known for its chemical similarity with that of bone and teeth (Ca/P ratio of 1.67). But, owing to its extreme brittleness, ?-Al2O3 is reinforced with HA and processed as a coating via pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Reinforcement of ?-Al2O3 (50 wt.%) in HA via PLD on 316L steel substrate has shown modulus increase by 4% and hardness increase by 78%, and an improved adhesion strength of 14.2 N (improvement by 118%). Micro-scratching has shown an increase in the coefficient-of-friction from 0.05 (pure HA) to 0.17 (with 50 wt.% Al2O3) with enhancement in the crack propagation resistance (CPR) up to 4.5 times. Strong adherence of PLD HA-Al2O3 coatings (~4.5 times than that of HA coating) is attributed to efficient release of stored tensile strain energy (~17 10-3 J/m2) in HA-Al2O3 composites, making it a potential damage-tolerant bone-replacement surface coating.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite-CaSiO3-chitosan composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xin; Casagrande, Travis; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2009-02-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HA)-CaSiO(3) (CS)-chitosan composite coatings for biomedical applications. The use of chitosan enabled the co-deposition of HA and CS particles and offered the advantage of room temperature processing of composite materials. The coating composition was varied by the variation of HA and CS concentrations in the chitosan solutions. Cathodic deposits were obtained as HA-CS-chitosan monolayers, HA-chitosan/chitosan multilayers or functionally graded materials (FGM) containing HA-chitosan and CS-chitosan layers of different composition. The thickness of the individual layers was varied in the range of 0.1-20 microm. The deposition yield was studied at different experimental conditions and compared with the results of modeling. It was shown that the moving boundary model for the two component system can explain the non-linear increase in the deposition yield with increasing HA concentration in chitosan solutions. The obtained coatings were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies showed that these coatings provided corrosion protection of stainless steel substrates in Ringer's physiological solution. The deposition mechanism and kinetics of deposition have been discussed. PMID:19012892

  11. Characterization of the chemically deposited hydroxyapatite coating on a titanium substrate.

    PubMed

    Zavgorodniy, Alexander V; Borrero-Lpez, Oscar; Hoffman, Mark; Legeros, Racquel Z; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium (Ti) implant can be used as a drug delivery device. A controlled release of drug around the implant requires the incorporation of drug into the coating material during the coating process. HA coating was prepared using a two-step procedure in conditions suitable for simultaneous incorporation of the protein-based drug into the coating material. Monetite coating was deposited on Ti substrate in acidic condition followed by the transformation of the monetite coating to HA. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of the monetite phase at the first step of the coating preparation, which was transformed into HA at the second step. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated typical bands of a crystallized carbonated HA with A- and B-type substitution, which was confirmed by the XRD refinement of the structural parameters. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the morphology of monetite and HA coatings. Adhesion of the coatings was measured using a scratch tester. The critical shearing stress was found to be 84.20 1.27 MPa for the monetite coating, and 44.40 2.39 MPa for the HA coating. PMID:21052792

  12. Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Long, Teng; Liu, Yu-Tai; Tang, Sha; Sun, Jin-Liang; Guo, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-An

    2014-11-01

    Porous carbon fiber felts (PCFFs) have great applications in orthopedic surgery because of the strong mechanical strength, low density, high stability, and porous structure, but they are biologically inert. To improve their biological properties, we developed, for the first time, the hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds (HCCPs). HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings have been fabricated on PCFFs according to the following stages: (i) deposition of chitosan/calcium phosphate precursors on PCFFs; and (ii) hydrothermal transformation of the calcium phosphate precursors in chitosan matrix into HA nanocrystals. The scanning electron microscopy images indicate that PCFFs are uniformly covered with elongated HA nanoplates and chitosan, and the macropores in PCFFs still remain. Interestingly, the calcium-deficient HA crystals exist as plate-like shapes with thickness of 10-18 nm, width of 30-40 nm, and length of 80-120 nm, which are similar to the biological apatite. The HA in HCCPs is similar to the mineral of natural bone in chemical composition, crystallinity, and morphology. As compared with PCFFs, HCCPs exhibit higher in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility because of the presence of the HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings. HCCPs not only promote the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, but also improve the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Hence, HCCPs have great potentials as scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and implantation. PMID:24687547

  13. Osteoinductive silk fibroin/titanium dioxide/hydroxyapatite hybrid scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jung Min; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the fabrication that incorporation of titanium isopropoxide (TiO2) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles into the silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds. In this process, we prepared TiO2 nanoparticles using sol-gel synthesis and the porous structure was developed by salt-leaching process. Homogeneous distribution of TiO2 and HA nanoparticles were confirmed by images of VP-FE-SEM and those equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Structural characteristics of the porous SF/TiO2/HA hybrid scaffold were also determined using FTIR analysis and X-ray diffractometer. In this study, the porous SF/TiO2/HA hybrid scaffold showed similar porosity, enhanced mechanical property, but decreased water binding abilities, compared with the porous SF scaffold. For evaluation of the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression were employed. Our results revealed that the porous SF/TiO2/HA hybrid scaffold had improved osteoinductivity compared with the porous SF scaffold. These results suggest that the osteogenic property as well as mechanical property of the porous SF/TiO2/HA hybrid scaffold could be better than the porous SF scaffold. Therefore, the porous SF/TiO2/HA hybrid scaffold may be a good promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering application. PMID:26257379

  14. Biomimetic Collagen–Hydroxyapatite Composite Fabricated via a Novel Perfusion-Flow Mineralization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Antebi, Ben; Cheng, Xingguo; Harris, Jeffrey N.; Gower, Laurie B.; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent three-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering are mineralized collagen–hydroxyapatite (Col/HA) composites. Conventional mineralization techniques are either to coat collagen scaffold surfaces with minerals or to simply mix collagen and mineral nanoparticles together. These conventional in vitro collagen mineralization methods are different from the in vivo bone formation process and often result in scaffolds that are not suitable for bone tissue engineering. In this study, a unique perfusion-flow (i.e., dynamic) in conjunction with a previously described polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) method was used to fabricate a porous Col/HA composite. The dynamic flow emulated the physiological extracellular fluid flow containing the mineralization ions, while the PILP method facilitated the deposition of the HA crystals within the collagen fibrils (i.e., intrafibrillar mineralization). By utilizing a dynamic PILP technique to mimic the in vivo bone formation process, the resultant Col/HA composite has a similar structure and compositions like human trabecular bone. A comparison of the dynamic and static mineralization methods revealed that the novel dynamic technique facilitates more efficient and homogenous mineral deposition throughout the Col/HA composite. The dynamic intrafibrillar mineralization method generated stiff Col/HA composites with excellent surface property for cell attachment and growth. The human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the Col/HA composites quickly remodeled the scaffolds and resulted in constructs with an extensive cell-derived extracellular matrix network. PMID:23157544

  15. Controlled RGD Peptide Adsorption on Aggregation-Free, Size-Selected Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Parimal; Culpepper, Bonnie; Bellis, Susan; Camata, Renato

    2012-10-01

    Numerous studies of cell attachment, differentiation, and proliferation have been carried out on nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces with cell adhesive peptides containing the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif. Although these studies have yielded useful insights into the role of RGD peptides in cell-HA biomaterial interactions, the heterogeneity of typical nanophase HA materials makes it difficult to decouple the effects of nanotopography and biochemical cues. In this work we have used aggregation-free, size-controlled HA nanoparticles with mean size in the 20-70 nm range, synthesized by gas-phase laser ablation and deposited on atomically flat bioinert substrates that may help overcome this challenge. Nanoparticle deposits with adjustable number concentration were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. RGD peptides modified by the addition of a polyglutamate sequence and a fluorescent conjugate, were coated onto the HA nanoparticle substrates. Intensity histograms of fluorescent microscopy images show that peptide adsorption on the substrates scales with the concentration of HA nanoparticles. High HA nanoparticle concentrations also lead to peptide clustering tunable in the 100-1200 cm-2.

  16. Controlled growth and kinetics of porous hydroxyapatite spheres by a template-directed method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qian Jun; Huang, Zhi Liang

    2007-03-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) spheres with high purity of phase and well-controlled pore size were grown by a template-directed method. We studied for the initial concentration of Ca-P how to control the chemical component of the products, and for the concentration of template how to control the aperture and the morphology of porous HA spheres. The experimental results indicated that the lower concentration of Ca-P was prone to pure HA phase and the aperture decreased gradually with the increase of the concentration of template. Correspondingly, the crystallization thermodynamics and template-directed growth kinetics were discussed in details. The solubility isotherms of HA and dicalcium phosphate (DCPD) were calculated based on classical crystallization theories of thermodynamics. The results suggested that there was a critical concentration of P=0.048 M in the case of Ca:P=5:3 and thus DCPD could be avoided only when P?0.048 M in this given reaction system. Kinetic analysis of HA crystal growth revealed that the template depressed the interfacial potential energy E, then enhanced the roughness on the surface of crystal nucleus and directed HA crystal to selectively grow along the [0 0 0 1] direction, and consequently governed the aperture of porous HA spheres. The experimental results were in agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  17. Carbon Nanotubes in Nanocomposites and Hybrids with Hydroxyapatite for Bone Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Yoon, Il-Kyu; Lee, Gil-Su; Jang, Won-Cheoul; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), as a bone mineral component, has been an attractive bioceramic for the reconstruction of hard tissues. However, its poor mechanical properties, including low fracture toughness and tensile strength, have been a significant challenge to the application of HA for the replacement of load-bearing and/or large bone defects. Among materials studied to reinforce HA, carbon nanotubes (CNTs: single-walled or multiwalled) have recently gained significant attention because of their unprecedented mechanical properties (high strength and toughness) and physicochemical properties (high surface area, electrical and thermal conductivity, and low weight). Here, we review recent studies of the organization of HA-CNTs at the nanoscale, with a particular emphasis on the functionalization of CNTs and their dispersion within an HA matrix and induction of HA mineralization. The organization of CNTs and HA implemented at the nanoscale can further be developed in the form of coatings, nanocomposites, and hybrid powders to enable potential applications in hard tissue reconstruction. PMID:21776341

  18. Behaviour of human mesenchymal stem cells on chemically synthesized HA-PCL scaffolds for hard tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    D'Ant, Vincenzo; Raucci, Maria Grazia; Guarino, Vincenzo; Martina, Stefano; Valletta, Rosa; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Our goal was to characterize the response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to a novel composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The hydroxyapatite-polycaprolactone (HA-PCL) composite scaffolds were prepared by a sol-gel method at room temperature and the scaffold morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to validate the synthesis process. The response of two different lines of hMSCs, bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation into the osteoblastic phenotype, was evaluated using Alamar blue assay, SEM, histology and alkaline phosphatase activity. Our results indicate that tissue engineering by means of composite HA-PCL scaffolds may represent a new therapeutic strategy to repair craniofacial bone defects. Copyright 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23723157

  19. Interaction of Polyelectrolytes with Salivary Pellicles on Hydroxyapatite Surfaces under Erosive Acidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Delvar, Alice; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Sotres, Javier

    2015-09-30

    The modification of acidic beverage formulations with food-approved, nonhazardous substances with antierosive properties has been identified as a key strategy for counteracting the prevalence of dental erosion, i.e., the acid-induced dissolution of hydroxyapatite (HA, the main mineral component of tooth surfaces). While many of such substances have been reported, very little is known on how they interact with teeth and inhibit their acid-induced dissolution. With the aim of filling this gap in knowledge, we have studied under acidic conditions the interaction between two polyelectrolytes of differing ionic character, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan, and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, i.e., a model for the outer surface of teeth. These studies were performed by means of ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and atomic force microscopy. We also studied, by means of pH variations, how dissolution of saliva-coated HA is affected by including these polyelectrolytes in the erosive solutions. Our results confirm that salivary films protect HA from acid-induced dissolution, but only for a limited time. If the acid is modified with CMC, this polyelectrolyte incorporates into the salivary films prolonging in time their protective function. Eventually, the CMC-modified salivary films are removed from the HA surfaces. From this moment, HA is continuously coated with CMC, but this offers only a weak protection against erosion. When the acid is modified with the cationic chitosan, the polyelectrolyte adsorbs on top of the salivary films. Chitosan-modified salivary films are also eventually replaced by bare chitosan films. In this case both coatings offer a similar protection against HA dissolution, which is nevertheless notably higher than that offered by CMC. PMID:26368580

  20. Mineralization Potential of Electrospun PDO-Hydroxyapatite-Fibrinogen Blended Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Madurantakam, Parthasarathy A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Sell, Scott A.; Yang, Hu; Moon, Peter C.; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The current bone autograft procedure for cleft palate repair presents several disadvantages such as limited availability, additional invasive surgery, and donor site morbidity. The present preliminary study evaluates the mineralization potential of electrospun polydioxanone:nano-hydroxyapatite?:?fibrinogen (PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg) blended scaffolds in different simulated body fluids (SBF). Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO?:?nHA?:?Fg in the following percent by weight ratios: 100?:?0?:?0, 50?:?25?:?25, 50?:?50?:?0, 50?:?0?:?50, 0?:?0?:?100, and 0?:?50?:?50. Samples were immersed in (conventional (c), revised (r), ionic (i), and modified (m)) SBF for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization. Scaffolds were characterized before and after mineralization via scanning electron microscopy, Alizarin Red-based assay, and modified burnout test. The addition of Fg resulted in scaffolds with smaller fiber diameters. Fg containing scaffolds also induced sheet-like mineralization while individual fiber mineralization was noticed in its absence. Mineralized electrospun Fg scaffolds without PDO were not mechanically stable after 5 days in SBF, but had superior mineralization capabilities which produced a thick bone-like mineral (BLM) layer throughout the scaffolds. 50?:?50?:?0 scaffolds incubated in either r-SBF for 5 days or c-SBF for 14 days produced scaffolds with high mineral content and individual-mineralized fibers. These mineralized scaffolds were still porous and will be further optimized as an effective bone substitute in future studies. PMID:22956956

  1. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  2. Amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and poly(d,l-lactic acid) composite nanofibers: Electrospinning preparation, mineralization and in vivo bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Fu, Qi-Wei; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Chen, Feng; Qi, Chao; Wu, Jin; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Qian, Qi-Rong; Zhu, Ying-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Due to the outstanding bioactivity and biocompatibility, calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been widely investigated for applications in the biomedical fields. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanospheres and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods have been prepared and hybridized with poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) to fabricate the composite nanofibers through electrospinning. The as-prepared ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers exhibit favorable mineralization behaviors in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the mineralization process, the ACP nanospheres and HA nanorods play an important role in the formation of HA nanosheets on the surface of composite nanofibers. The ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers show a high biocompatibility. The in vivo bone defect repair properties of the ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers are preliminarily investigated. The as-prepared ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers have promising applications in the biomedical fields. PMID:26350803

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an Mg-3Zn- o.5Zr-5HA nanocomposite processed by ECAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Huang, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Mg matrix composites reinforced by natural bone constituent hydroxyapatite (HA) particles have shown promising in-vitro corrosion resistance but are inconsistent in both electrochemical and mechanical performances because of severe particle segregations. The present work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of a novel technology that combines high shear solidification and equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) for fabricating Mg-HA nanocomposites. Experiments showed that the high shear solidification resulted in a fine and uniform grain structure with a globally uniform HA nanoparticles in fine clusters and the ECAE processing of the as-cast composites resulted in further grain refinement and more importantly the breakdown of nanoparticle aggregates, leading to the formation of a dispersion of true nanoparticles in the Mg alloy matrix with improved mechanical properties. This paper describes mainly the microstructural features and mechanical performance of Mg-3Zn-0.5Zr-xHA (x = 1, 3, 5, 10) nanocomposites, in which the HA was in spherical shape with an average diameter of ~20nm

  4. Hierarchical Structure and Mechanical Improvement of an n-HA/GCO-PU Composite Scaffold for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Limei; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Yang, Boyuan; Lin, Lili; Li, Jidong; Li, Yubao

    2015-10-14

    To improve the mechanical properties of bone tissue and achieve the desired bone tissue regeneration for orthopedic surgery, newly designed hydroxyapatite/polyurethane (HA/PU) porous scaffolds were developed via in situ polymerization. The results showed that the molecular modification of PU soft segments by glyceride of castor oil (GCO) can increase the scaffold compressive strength by 48% and the elastic modulus by 96%. When nano-HA (n-HA) particles were incorporated into the GCO-PU matrix, the compressive strength and elastic modulus further increased by 49 and 74%, from 2.91 to 4.34 MPa and from 95 to 165.36 MPa, respectively. The n-HA particles with fine dispersity not only improved the interface bonding with the GCO-PU matrix but also provided effective bioactivity for bonding with bone tissue. The hierarchical structure and mechanical quality of the n-HA/GCO-PU composite scaffold were determined to be appropriate for the growth of cells and the regeneration of bony tissues, demonstrating promising prospects for bone repair and regeneration. PMID:26406396

  5. Bioactive Surface Modification of Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yohei; Hiasa, Kyou; Yasuda, Keisuke; Nogami, Keisuke; Mizumachi, Wataru; Hirata, Isao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an acid-etching procedure for altering the Ca/P ratio of the nanostructured surface of hydroxyapatite (HAP) by using surface chemical and morphological analyses (XPS, XRD, SEM, surface roughness, and wettability) and to evaluate the in vitro response of osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cells) to the modified surfaces. This study utilized HAP and HAP treated with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, or 60% phosphoric acid solution for 10 minutes at 25C, followed by rinsing 3 times with ultrapure water. The 30% phosphoric acid etching process that provided a Ca/P ratio of 1.50, without destruction of the grain boundary of HAP, was selected as a surface-modification procedure. Additionally, HAP treated by the 30% phosphoric acid etching process was stored under dry conditions at 25C for 12 hours, and the Ca/P ratio approximated to 1.00 accidentally. The initial adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and relative mRNA level for ALP) of MC3T3-E1 cells on the modified surfaces were significantly promoted (P < 0.05 and 0.01). These findings show that the 30% phosphoric acid etching process for the nanostructured HAP surface can alter the Ca/P ratio effectively and may accelerate the initial adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:23862150

  6. Finite Element Simulation of Diametral Strength Test of Hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, Fahrettin; Toros, Serkan; Evis, Zafer

    2011-01-17

    In this study, the diametral strength test of sintered hydroxyapatite was simulated by the finite element software, ABAQUS/Standard. Stress distributions on diametral test sample were determined. The effect of sintering temperature on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite was studied. It was concluded that high sintering temperatures did not reduce the stress on hydroxyapatite. It had a negative effect on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite after 1300 deg. C. In addition to the porosity, other factors (sintering temperature, presence of phases and the degree of crystallinity) affect the diametral strength of the hydroxyapatite.

  7. An in vivo evaluation of PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weihai; Zheng, Wei; Shi, Kai; Wang, Wangshu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Internal fixation of bone fractures using biodegradable poly(L-lactic-acid) (PLLA)-based materials has attracted the attention of many researchers. In the present study, 36 male beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: PLLA/PLLA-gHA (PLLA-grafted hydroxyapatite) group and PLLA group. PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were embedded in the muscular bags of the erector spinae and also implanted to fix mandibular bone fractures in respective groups. At 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, the PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were evaluated by adsorption and degradation tests, and the mandibles were examined through radiographic analysis, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were non-transparent and showed a creamy white color, and the PLLA plates were transparent and faint yellow in color. At all time points following surgery, adsorption and degradation of the PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were significantly less than those of the PLLA plates, and the lateral and longitudinal bending strengths of the surgically treated mandibles of the beagle dogs in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group were significantly greater than those of the PLLA group and reached almost the value of intact mandibles at 12 months postoperatively. Additionally, relatively rapid bone healing was observed in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group with the formation of new lamellar bone tissues at 12 months after the surgery. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite can be employed as a biodegradable material for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures. PMID:26551378

  8. Nano-functionalization of protein microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungkwon; Nichols, William T.

    2014-08-01

    Protein microspheres are promising building blocks for the assembly of complex functional materials. Here we demonstrate a set of three techniques that add functionality to the surface of protein microspheres. In the first technique, a positive surface charge on the protein spheres is deposited by electrostatic adsorption. Negatively charged silica and gold nanoparticle colloids can then electrostatically bind reversibly to the microsphere surface. In the second technique, nanoparticles are covalently anchored to the protein shell using a simple one-pot process. The strong covalent bond between sulfur groups in cysteine in the protein shell irreversibly binds to the gold nanoparticles. In the third technique, surface morphology of the protein microsphere is tuned through hydrodynamic instability at the water-oil interface. This is accomplished through the degree of solubility of the oil phase in water. Taken together these three techniques form a platform to create nano-functionalized protein microspheres, which can then be used as building blocks for the assembly of more complex macroscopic materials.

  9. Microspheres leaching for scaffold porosity control.

    PubMed

    Draghi, L; Resta, S; Pirozzolo, M G; Tanzi, M C

    2005-12-01

    Scaffold morphology plays a key role in the development of tissue engineering constructs. The control of pore size, shape and interconnection is needed to achieve adequate nutrient transport and cell ingrowth. Several techniques are available for scaffold manufacturing, but none allows easy control of morphology and is, at the same time, applicable to a wide variety of materials. To investigate the possibility of processing a wide range polymers by solvent casting/particulate leaching with accurate control of scaffold morphology, three different porogens (gelatin microspheres, paraffin microspheres and sodium chloride crystals) were used to fabricate scaffolds from commonly employed biodegradable polymers. The outcome of processing was evaluated in terms of scaffold morphology and structure/properties relationships. Highly porous scaffolds were obtained with all porogens and well defined spherical pores resulted from microspheres leaching. Furthermore, scaffolds with spherical pores showed better mechanical performance and lower flow resistance. Cytocompatibility tests performed showed no evidence of processing residuals released from the scaffolds. Solvent casting/microspheres leaching, particularly gelatin microspheres leaching, can be used to process a large number of polymers and enables to tailor scaffold pore size, shape and interconnection, thus providing a powerful tool for material selection and optimization of scaffold morphology. PMID:16362206

  10. Computational dynamics of acoustically driven microsphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glosser, Connor; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Li, Jie; Dault, Dan; Shanker, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for the self-consistent dynamics of a microsphere system driven by a pulsed acoustic field in an ideal fluid. Our framework combines a molecular dynamics integrator describing the dynamics of the microsphere system with a time-dependent integral equation solver for the acoustic field that makes use of fields represented as surface expansions in spherical harmonic basis functions. The presented approach allows us to describe the interparticle interaction induced by the field as well as the dynamics of trapping in counter-propagating acoustic pulses. The integral equation formulation leads to equations of motion for the microspheres describing the effect of nondissipative drag forces. We show (1) that the field-induced interactions between the microspheres give rise to effective dipolar interactions, with effective dipoles defined by their velocities and (2) that the dominant effect of an ultrasound pulse through a cloud of microspheres gives rise mainly to a translation of the system, though we also observe both expansion and contraction of the cloud determined by the initial system geometry.

  11. Computational dynamics of acoustically driven microsphere systems.

    PubMed

    Glosser, Connor; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Li, Jie; Dault, Dan; Shanker, B

    2016-01-01

    We propose a computational framework for the self-consistent dynamics of a microsphere system driven by a pulsed acoustic field in an ideal fluid. Our framework combines a molecular dynamics integrator describing the dynamics of the microsphere system with a time-dependent integral equation solver for the acoustic field that makes use of fields represented as surface expansions in spherical harmonic basis functions. The presented approach allows us to describe the interparticle interaction induced by the field as well as the dynamics of trapping in counter-propagating acoustic pulses. The integral equation formulation leads to equations of motion for the microspheres describing the effect of nondissipative drag forces. We show (1) that the field-induced interactions between the microspheres give rise to effective dipolar interactions, with effective dipoles defined by their velocities and (2) that the dominant effect of an ultrasound pulse through a cloud of microspheres gives rise mainly to a translation of the system, though we also observe both expansion and contraction of the cloud determined by the initial system geometry. PMID:26871188

  12. Calcium modulates interactions between bacteria and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Venegas, S C; Palacios, J M; Apella, M C; Morando, P J; Blesa, M A

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto hydroxyapatite is known to depend on the surface properties of both the biomaterial and the bacterial strain, but less is known about the influence of the composition of the aqueous medium. Here, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and 3 different Lactobacilli on powdered hydroxyapatite was shown to change with Ca2+ concentration. The effect depends on the surface properties of each strain. Adhesion of Lactobacillus fermentum and salivarius (and of Streptococcus mutans at low Ca2+) was enhanced with increasing Ca2+ concentration. Lactobacillus casei was efficiently removed by adhesion on hydroxyapatite, even without Ca2+ addition, and the effect of this ion was only marginal. The results are interpreted in terms of Ca2+-mediated adhesion, and relative to the hydrophobic properties of each strain and the electrical properties of the bacterial and solid surfaces (electrophoretic mobility). PMID:17122166

  13. A combined chitosan/nano-size hydroxyapatite system for the controlled release of icariin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Junjun; Bi, Long; Wu, Tao; Cao, Liangguo; Wang, Dexin; Nan, Kaihui; Chen, Jingdi; Jin, Dan; Jiang, Shan; Pei, Guoxian

    2012-02-01

    Icariin, a plant-derived flavonol glycoside, has been proved as an osteoinductive agent for bone regeneration. For this reason, we developed an icariin-loaded chitosan/nano-sized hydroxyapatite (IC-CS/HA) system which controls the release kinetics of icariin to enhance bone repairing. First, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that icariin was stable in the system developed without undergoing any chemical changes. On the other hand, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical test revealed that the introduction of icariin did not remarkably change the phase, morphology, porosity and mechanical strength of the CS/HA composite. Then the hydrolytic degradation and drug release kinetics in vitro were investigated by incubation in phosphate buffered saline solution. The results indicated that the icariin was released in a temporally controlled manner and the release kinetics could be governed by degradation of both chitosan and hydroxyapatite matrix. Finally the in vitro bioactivity assay revealed that the loaded icariin was biologically active as evidenced by stimulation of bone marrow derived stroma cell alkaline phosphatase activity and formation of mineralized nodules. This successful IC-CS/HA system offers a new delivery method of osteoinductive agents and a useful scaffold design for bone regeneration. PMID:22083857

  14. Properties of carbon nanotube-dispersed Sr-hydroxyapatite injectable material for bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Raucci, M. G.; Alvarez-Perez, M.; Giugliano, D.; Zeppetelli, S.; Ambrosio, L.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the synthesis of gel materials based on carbon nanotubes dispersed strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) at different compositions obtained by sol–gel technology and their influence on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, an evaluation of the influence of nanotubes and Strontium on physico-chemical, morphological, rheological and biological properties of hydroxyapatite gel was also performed. Morphological analysis (scanning electron microscopy) shows a homogeneous distribution of modified nanotubes in the ceramic matrix improving the bioactive properties of materials. The biological investigations proved that Sr-HA/carbon nanotube gel containing 0–20 mol (%) of Sr showed no toxic effect and promote the expression of early and late markers of osteogenic differentiation in cell culture performed in basal medium without osteogenic factors. Finally, the SrHA/carbon nanotube gels could have a good potential application as filler in bone repair and regeneration and may be used in the osteoporotic disease treatment. PMID:26816652

  15. Sol-Gel Derived Hydroxyapatite Coating on Mg-3Zn Alloy for Orthopedic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Manoj Kumar, R.; Kuntal, Kishor Kumar; Gupta, Pallavi; Das, Snehashish; Jayaganthan, R.; Roy, Partha; Lahiri, Debrupa

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, magnesium and its alloys have gained a lot of interest as orthopedic implant constituents because their biodegradability and mechanical properties are closer to that of human bone. However, one major concern with Mg in orthopedics is its high corrosion rate that results in the reduction of mechanical integrity before healing the bone tissue. The current study evaluates the sol-gel-derived hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on a selected Mg alloy (Mg-3Zn) for decreasing the corrosion rate and increasing the bioactivity of the Mg surface. The mechanical integrity of the coating is established as a function of the surface roughness of the substrate and the sintering temperature of the coating. Coating on a substrate roughness of 15-20 nm and sintering at 400C shows the mechanical properties in similar range of bone, thus making it suitable to avoid the stress-shielding effect. The hydroxyapatite coating on the Mg alloy surface also increases corrosion resistance very significantly by 40 times. Bone cells are also found proliferating better in the HA-coated surface. All these benefits together establish the candidature of sol-gel HA-coated Mg-3Zn alloy in orthopedic application.

  16. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-05

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  17. Properties of carbon nanotube-dispersed Sr-hydroxyapatite injectable material for bone defects.

    PubMed

    Raucci, M G; Alvarez-Perez, M; Giugliano, D; Zeppetelli, S; Ambrosio, L

    2016-03-01

    This study concerns the synthesis of gel materials based on carbon nanotubes dispersed strontium-modified hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) at different compositions obtained by sol-gel technology and their influence on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Furthermore, an evaluation of the influence of nanotubes and Strontium on physico-chemical, morphological, rheological and biological properties of hydroxyapatite gel was also performed. Morphological analysis (scanning electron microscopy) shows a homogeneous distribution of modified nanotubes in the ceramic matrix improving the bioactive properties of materials. The biological investigations proved that Sr-HA/carbon nanotube gel containing 0-20?mol (%) of Sr showed no toxic effect and promote the expression of early and late markers of osteogenic differentiation in cell culture performed in basal medium without osteogenic factors. Finally, the SrHA/carbon nanotube gels could have a good potential application as filler in bone repair and regeneration and may be used in the osteoporotic disease treatment. PMID:26816652

  18. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  19. Registration of the oilseed sunflower genetic stocks HA 458, HA 459, and HA 460 possessing genes for resistance to downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, HA 458, HA 459, and HA 460 have been released which are resistant to downy mildew (caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. & De Toni) and possess a high-oleic fatty acid profile (oleic acid > 800 g kg-1) in the seed oil. These genet...

  20. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (24 days after treatment) and subacute phase (412 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation. PMID:24779019

  1. Osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite coated roughened titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua-Wei; Lin, Mao-Han; Xu, Yuan-Zhi; Shang, Guang-Wei; Wang, Rao-Rao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) coated roughened titanium surfaces. Methods: Sr-HA coating and HA coating were fabricated on roughened titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition technique and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESM). BMSCs were cultured on Sr-HA coating, HA coating and roughened titanium surfaces respectively. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodules formation and cell osteocalcin (OC) secretion were measured. Results: Electrochemically deposited Sr-HA coating and HA coating had no effect on the proliferation of BMSCs and demonstrated that the materials have a good biocompatibility. BMSCs cultured on Sr-HA coating showed increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralized nodules formation, and cell OC secretion compared with the other two groups. Cells cultured on HA coating also showed increased biological activity compared with the roughened group. Conclusion: Sr-HA coated titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition can promote osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro and have the potential to shorten bone healing period and enhance implant osseointegration. PMID:25784995

  2. Hydroxyapatite-coated external fixation pins.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Antonio; Pegreffi, Francesco; Cadossi, Matteo; Hoang-Kim, Amy; Lio, Valentino; Giannini, Sandro

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this review is to report on studies of hydroxyapatite-coated external fixation pins as a solution to enhance pin fixation. In a highly loaded animal study, three tapered pin types were compared: Type A uncoated, Type B coated with hydroxyapatite and Type C coated with titanium. There was a 13-fold increase in the extraction torque of Type B pins compared with Type A, and a twofold increase compared with Type C pins. Extraction torque was significantly lower compared with the corresponding insertion torque in both Types A (p < 0.001) and C (p = 0.003). Conversely, with the hydroxyapatite-coated pins there was no difference between extraction and insertion torque. In a clinical study of 76 external fixation pins in 19 patients treated with hemicallotasis for osteoarthritis on the medial side of the knee, pin insertion and extraction torque forces were measured. The patients were randomized to be treated with either standard tapered pins or tapered pins coated with hydroxyapatite. Extraction torque of the hydroxyapatite-coated pins was higher than the extraction torque of the standard pins in both cancellous and cortical bone (p < 0.005). In a prospective, randomized clinical study of osteoporotic wrist fractures, extraction torque of the coated pins was higher than with standard pins (p < 0.0001). These studies demonstrate that with the use of hydroxyapatite-coated pins, no deterioration of pin fixation occurs, and that there is no significant pin loosening and infection, regardless of bone type and loading conditions. PMID:16293085

  3. Imaging performance of microsphere plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, Jonathan S.; Worth, L. B.; Trow, Matthew W.

    1995-09-01

    The microsphere plate (MSP) is a new type of electron multiplier device operating along similar lines to the well known microchannel plate (MCP). The MSP is manufactured by El- Mul Technologies Ltd., using glass beads 20 to 60 micrometer diameter, sintered together to form a wafer less than 1 mm thick. Conductive coatings are applied to the upper and lower surfaces, and a high voltage is applied between these two electrodes, allowing secondary electron multiplication to take place. The device uses the surfaces of the randomly arranged interstices of the sintered glass beads as dynodes, whereas in the MCP, dynodes are constituted by the inner surfaces of the longitudinal pores. The homogeneous composition of the MSP causes charge to spread laterally during multiplication, resulting in a spatial resolution of about 2 line pairs/mm when proximity focused to a phosphor. Charge division readouts benefit from this charge spreading, such as the wedge and strip anode which requires a charge footprint of order 1 - 2 mm diameter. We present results of experiments on the imaging performance of detectors using MSPs with readouts such as the wedge and strip anode. We discuss and quantify the potential advantages to be gained from MSPs, such as the higher gain achievable per stage, reduced susceptibility to paralysis owing to their isotropic conductivity, etc. Potential MSP disadvantages, such as image nonlinearities, quantum efficiency variability, and pulse height saturation are analyzed.

  4. Osseointegrative properties of electrospun hydroxyapatite-containing nanofibrous chitosan scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Frohbergh, Michael E; Katsman, Anya; Mondrinos, Mark J; Stabler, Collin T; Hankenson, Kurt D; Oristaglio, Jeffrey T; Lelkes, Peter I

    2015-03-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop smart biomaterials that can facilitate regeneration of critical-size craniofacial lesions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that biomimetic scaffolds electrospun from chitosan (CTS) will promote tissue repair and regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect. To test this hypothesis, we first compared in vitro ability of electrospun CTS scaffolds crosslinked with genipin (CTS-GP) to those of mineralized CTS-GP scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (CTS-HA-GP), by assessing proliferation/metabolic activity and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). The cells' metabolic activity exhibited a biphasic behavior, indicative of initial proliferation followed by subsequent differentiation for all scaffolds. ALP activity of mMSCs, a surrogate measure of osteogenic differentiation, increased over time in culture. After 3 weeks in maintenance medium, ALP activity of mMSCs seeded onto CTS-HA-GP scaffolds was approximately two times higher than that of cells cultured on CTS-GP scaffolds. The mineralized CTS-HA-GP scaffolds were also osseointegrative in vivo, as inferred from the enhanced bone regeneration in a murine model of critical size calvarial defects. Tissue regeneration was evaluated over a 3 month period by microCT and histology (Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's Trichrome). Treatment of the lesions with CTS-HA-GP scaffolds induced a 38% increase in the area of de novo generated mineralized tissue area after 3 months, whereas CTS-GP scaffolds only led to a 10% increase. Preseeding with mMSCs significantly enhanced the regenerative capacity of CTS-GP scaffolds (by ?3-fold), to 35% increase in mineralized tissue area after 3 months. CTS-HA-GP scaffolds preseeded with mMSCs yielded 45% new mineralized tissue formation in the defects. We conclude that the presence of HA in the CTS-GP scaffolds significantly enhances their osseointegrative capacity and that mineralized chitosan-based scaffolds crosslinked with genipin may represent a unique biomaterial with possible clinical relevance for the repair of critical calvarial bone defects. PMID:25336062

  5. Osseointegrative Properties of Electrospun Hydroxyapatite-Containing Nanofibrous Chitosan Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Frohbergh, Michael E.; Katsman, Anya; Mondrinos, Mark J.; Stabler, Collin T.; Hankenson, Kurt D.; Oristaglio, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop smart biomaterials that can facilitate regeneration of critical-size craniofacial lesions. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that biomimetic scaffolds electrospun from chitosan (CTS) will promote tissue repair and regeneration in a critical size calvarial defect. To test this hypothesis, we first compared in vitro ability of electrospun CTS scaffolds crosslinked with genipin (CTS-GP) to those of mineralized CTS-GP scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (CTS-HA-GP), by assessing proliferation/metabolic activity and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). The cells' metabolic activity exhibited a biphasic behavior, indicative of initial proliferation followed by subsequent differentiation for all scaffolds. ALP activity of mMSCs, a surrogate measure of osteogenic differentiation, increased over time in culture. After 3 weeks in maintenance medium, ALP activity of mMSCs seeded onto CTS-HA-GP scaffolds was approximately two times higher than that of cells cultured on CTS-GP scaffolds. The mineralized CTS-HA-GP scaffolds were also osseointegrative in vivo, as inferred from the enhanced bone regeneration in a murine model of critical size calvarial defects. Tissue regeneration was evaluated over a 3 month period by microCT and histology (Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's Trichrome). Treatment of the lesions with CTS-HA-GP scaffolds induced a 38% increase in the area of de novo generated mineralized tissue area after 3 months, whereas CTS-GP scaffolds only led to a 10% increase. Preseeding with mMSCs significantly enhanced the regenerative capacity of CTS-GP scaffolds (by ∼3-fold), to 35% increase in mineralized tissue area after 3 months. CTS-HA-GP scaffolds preseeded with mMSCs yielded 45% new mineralized tissue formation in the defects. We conclude that the presence of HA in the CTS-GP scaffolds significantly enhances their osseointegrative capacity and that mineralized chitosan-based scaffolds crosslinked with genipin may represent a unique biomaterial with possible clinical relevance for the repair of critical calvarial bone defects. PMID:25336062

  6. Impact formation and microstructure characterization of thermal sprayed hydroxyapatite/titania composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Khor, K A; Cheang, P

    2003-03-01

    Formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite (HA)/titania (TiO(2)) composite coating deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process was studied, and its structural characterization was conducted and elaborated in this paper. The impact theory was employed to analyze the formation procedure of the HA/titania composite coatings. Results revealed that the crater caused by the impact of entirely unmelted TiO(2) particles on the HA matrix during coating formation was of smaller dimensions than the original size of the reinforcements. It was found that chemical reaction between the mechanically blended HA and TiO(2) powder took place exclusively during the impingement stage, and calcium titanate, CaTiO(3), was one notable by-product. The bonding between the HA matrix and TiO(2) reinforcement might have been achieved predominantly through a chemical bond that resulted from the mutual chemical reactions among the components. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed that the chemical reaction between HA and TiO(2) was at approximately 1410 degrees C. The TiO(2) addition was found to exert particular effects on the thermal behavior of HA at elevated temperatures, during both heating and cooling cycles. Transmission electron microscopy observation identified the chemical reaction zone between HA and TiO(2), which revealed an improved splats' interface. The reaction zone demonstrated some influence on the grain size of HA nearby during resolidification of the melted portion. A structural model was proposed to illustrate the location of the different phases in the HA/titania composite coating. PMID:12504516

  7. Biologically inspired rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite hydrogel nanocomposites as improved bone substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijie; Rodriguez, Jose; Raez, Jose; Myles, Andrew J.; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J.

    2009-04-01

    Today, bone diseases such as bone fractures, osteoporosis and bone cancer represent a common and significant public health problem. The design of biomimetic bone tissue engineering materials that could restore and improve damaged bone tissues provides exciting opportunities to solve the numerous problems associated with traditional orthopedic implants. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to create a biomimetic orthopedic hydrogel nanocomposite based on the self-assembly properties of helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs), the osteoconductive properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), and the biocompatible properties of hydrogels (specifically, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), pHEMA). HRNs are self-assembled nanomaterials that are formed from synthetic DNA base analogs in water to mimic the helical nanostructure of collagen in bone. In this study, different geometries of nanocrystalline HA were controlled by either hydrothermal or sintering methods. 2 and 10 wt% nanocrystalline HA particles were well dispersed into HRN hydrogels using ultrasonication. The nanocrystalline HA and nanocrystalline HA/HRN hydrogels were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical testing studies revealed that the well dispersed nanocrystalline HA in HRN hydrogels possessed improved mechanical properties compared to hydrogel controls. In addition, the results of this study provided the first evidence that the combination of either 2 or 10 wt% nanocrystalline HA and 0.01 mg ml-1 HRNs in hydrogels greatly increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion up to 236% compared to hydrogel controls. Moreover, this study showed that HRNs stimulated HA nucleation and mineralization along their main axis in a way that is very reminiscent of the HA/collagen assembly pattern in natural bone. In summary, the presently observed excellent properties of the biomimetic nanocrystalline HA/HRN hydrogel composites make them promising candidates for further study for bone tissue engineering applications.

  8. Hydroxyapatite-Based Biomaterials vs. Autologous Bone Graft in Spinal Fusion: An in Vivo Animal Study.

    PubMed

    Brdano, Giovanni Barbanti; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Lolli, Francesco; Salamanna, Francesca; Parrilli, Annapaola; Martini, Lucia; Griffoni, Cristiana; Greggi, Tiziana; Arcangeli, Elena; Pressato, Daniele; Boriani, Stefano; Fini, Milena

    2014-04-01

    Study Design. An in vivo study was designed to compare the efficacy of biomimetic Magnesium-Hydroxyapatite (MgHA) and of human demineralised bone matrix (HDBM), both dispersed in a mixture of biomimetic Mg-HA nanoparticles, with that of an autologous bone graft.Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate two new bone substitutes as alternatives to a bone autograft for spinal fusion, determining their osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, and their capacity of remodeling, using a large animal model.Summary of Background Data. Spinal fusion is a common surgical procedure and it is performed for different conditions. A successful fusion requires potentially osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive biomaterials.Methods. A posterolateral spinal fusion model involved 18 sheep, bilaterally implanting test materials between the vertebral transverse processes. The animals were divided into two groups: one fusion level was treated with MgHA (Group 1) or with HDBM-MgHA (Group 2). The other fusion level received bone autografts in both groups.Results. Radiographic, histological and microtomographic results indicated good osteointegration between the spinous process and the vertebral foramen for both materials. Histomorphometry revealed no significant differences between MgHA and autologous bone for all the parameters examined while significantly lower values of bone volume were observed between HDBM-MgHA and autologous bone. Moreover, the normalisation of the histomorphometrical data with autologous bone revealed that MgHA showed a significantly higher value of bone volume and a lower value of trabecular number, more similar to autologous bone, in comparison to HDBM-MgHA.Conclusion. The study showed that the use of MgHA in an ovine model of spinal fusion led to the deposition of new bone tissue without qualitative and quantitative differences with respect to new bone formed with autologous bone while the HDBM-MgHA led to a reduced deposition of newly-formed bone tissue. PMID:24718060

  9. Sonochemical proteinaceous microspheres for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel; Ferreira, Helena; Vasconcelos, Andreia; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report a novel approach using proteinaceous microspheres of bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and silk fibroin (SF) containing different organic solvents, namely n-dodecane, mineral oil and vegetable oil, to reduce the activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) found in high levels on chronic wounds. The ability of these devices to inhibit HNE was evaluated using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) solution as a model of wound exudates. The results obtained indicated that the level of PPE activity can be tuned by changing the organic solvent present on different protein microspheres, thus showing an innovative way of controlling the elastase-antielastase imbalance found in chronic wounds. Furthermore, these proteinaceous microspheres were shown to be important carriers of elastase inhibitors causing no cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblasts in vitro, making them suitable for biomedical applications, such as chronic wounds. PMID:22101721

  10. Chip-based silica microspheres for cavity optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kuzyk, Mark C; Oo, Thein; Long, Gui-Lu; Wang, Hailin

    2015-10-19

    We have experimentally realized on-chip silica microspheres that feature excellent thermal coupling to the silicon wafer. The chip-based microspheres significantly reduce laser-induced heating and correspondingly exhibit much lower threshold optical power for heating-induced optical bistability. We also show that the chip-based microspheres have optical and especially optomechanical properties that are similar to those of traditional fiber-stem-attached silica microspheres, making the chip-based microspheres suitable for optomechanical studies in a vacuum environment. PMID:26480386

  11. Proteinoid microspheres and the process of prebiological photophosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    A chemical model of prebiological photophosphorylation with participation of hemoproteinoid microspheres, mixed microspheres containing bonded riboflavin and microspheres obtained from glycine rich proteinoids was studied. The illumination of aqueous solutions containing microspheres, K2HPO4, ADP and electron acceptor leads to an increase of ATP concentration and to a decrease of concentration of inorganic phosphate. Initial photochemical reactions with participations of proteinoid microspheres could have evolved in the course of chemical evolution and led to the emergence of the photophosphorylation in its modern biochemical form.

  12. Acrolein Microspheres Are Bonded To Large-Area Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan; Yen, Richard C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Reactive cross-linked microspheres produced under influence of ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein, with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Diameters of spheres depend on concentrations of ingredients. If polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, or polypropylene object immersed in solution during irradiation, microspheres become attached to surface. Resulting modified surface has grainy coating with reactivity similar to free microspheres. Aldehyde-substituted-functional microspheres react under mild conditions with number of organic reagents and with most proteins. Microsphere-coated macrospheres or films used to immobilize high concentrations of proteins, enzymes, hormones, viruses, cells, and large number of organic compounds. Applications include separation techniques, clinical diagnostic tests, catalytic processes, and battery separators.

  13. Porous bodies of hydroxyapatite produced by a combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods

    PubMed Central

    González Ocampo, Jazmín I.; Escobar Sierra, Diana M.; Ossa Orozco, Claudia P.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of gel-casting and polymeric foam infiltration methods is used in this study to prepare porous bodies of hydroxyapatite (HA), to provide a better control over the microstructures of samples. These scaffolds were prepared by impregnating a body of porous polyurethane foam with slurry containing HA powder, and using a percentage of solids between 40% and 50% w/v, and three different types of monomers to provide a better performance. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed to evaluate both the powder hydroxyapatite and the scaffolds obtained. In addition, porosity and interconnectivity measurements were taken in accordance with the international norm. Bioactivity was checked using immersion tests in Simulated Body Fluids (SBF). After the sintering process of the porous bodies, the XRD results showed peaks characteristic of a pure and crystalline HA (JCPDS 9-432) as a single phase. SEM images indicate open and interconnected pores inside the material, with pore sizes between 50 and 600 μm. Also, SEM images demonstrate the relatively good bioactivity of the HA scaffolds after immersion in SBF. All results for the porous HA bodies suggest that these materials have great potential for use in tissue engineering. PMID:26966570

  14. Porous bodies of hydroxyapatite produced by a combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods.

    PubMed

    González Ocampo, Jazmín I; Escobar Sierra, Diana M; Ossa Orozco, Claudia P

    2016-03-01

    A combination of gel-casting and polymeric foam infiltration methods is used in this study to prepare porous bodies of hydroxyapatite (HA), to provide a better control over the microstructures of samples. These scaffolds were prepared by impregnating a body of porous polyurethane foam with slurry containing HA powder, and using a percentage of solids between 40% and 50% w/v, and three different types of monomers to provide a better performance. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed to evaluate both the powder hydroxyapatite and the scaffolds obtained. In addition, porosity and interconnectivity measurements were taken in accordance with the international norm. Bioactivity was checked using immersion tests in Simulated Body Fluids (SBF). After the sintering process of the porous bodies, the XRD results showed peaks characteristic of a pure and crystalline HA (JCPDS 9-432) as a single phase. SEM images indicate open and interconnected pores inside the material, with pore sizes between 50 and 600 μm. Also, SEM images demonstrate the relatively good bioactivity of the HA scaffolds after immersion in SBF. All results for the porous HA bodies suggest that these materials have great potential for use in tissue engineering. PMID:26966570

  15. Blood flow distributions by microsphere deposition methods

    PubMed Central

    Prinzen, Frits W.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2010-01-01

    The art and science of the use of deposition markers for the estimation of blood flow distributions throughout the body and within organs is reviewed. Development of diffusible tracer techniques started 50 years ago. Twenty years later, radioactive 15 micron microspheres became the standard marker. Early studies on small animals, fetal sheep in 1967 and rats in 1976, provoked much of the technical development. Needs for avoiding the use of radioactivity, for having long lasting labels, and for providing higher spatial resolution, are driving the continuing exploration of newer techniques using colored and fluorescent microspheres and molecular deposition markers. Strengths and weaknesses of the various methods are compared. PMID:10728307

  16. Electrophoretic cell separation by means of microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A. J. K.; Nerren, B. H.; Margel, S.; Rembaum, A.

    1979-01-01

    The electrophoretic mobility of fixed human erythrocytes immunologically labeled with poly(vinylpyridine) or poly(glutaraldehyde) microspheres was reduced by approximately 40%. This observation was utilized in preparative scale electrophoretic separations of fixed human and turkey erythrocytes, the mobilities of which under normal physiological conditions do not differ sufficiently to allow their separation by continuous flow electrophoresis. We suggest that resolution in the electrophoretic separation of cell subpopulations, currently limited by finite and often overlapping mobility distributions, may be significantly enhanced by immunospecific labeling of target populations using microspheres.

  17. Cell specific, variable density, polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric microspheres having an average diameter below about 3 microns and having density at least 15% greater or lesser than organic cells and having covalent binding sites are provided in accordance with this invention. The microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing a hydroxy or amine substituted acrylic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate with a light or dense comonomer such as a fluoromonomer. A lectin or antibody is bound to the hydroxy or amine site of the bead to provide cell specificity. When added to a cell suspension the marked bead will specifically label the cell membrane by binding to specific receptor sites thereon. The labelled membrane can then be separated by density gradient centrifugation.

  18. Quantum Magnetomechanics with Levitating Superconducting Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Isart, O.; Clemente, L.; Navau, C.; Sanchez, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2012-10-01

    We show that by magnetically trapping a superconducting microsphere close to a quantum circuit, it is possible to perform ground-state cooling and prepare quantum superpositions of the center-of-mass motion of the microsphere. Due to the absence of clamping losses and time-dependent electromagnetic fields, the mechanical motion of micrometer-sized metallic spheres in the Meissner state is predicted to be very well isolated from the environment. Hence, we propose to combine the technology of magnetic microtraps and superconducting qubits to bring relatively large objects to the quantum regime.

  19. Thickness of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal controls mechanical properties of the collagen-hydroxyapatite interface.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Gautieri, Alfonso; Nair, Arun K; Inbar, Hadass; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-01-31

    Collagen-hydroxyapatite interfaces compose an important building block of bone structures. While it is known that the nanoscale structure of this elementary building block can affect the mechanical properties of bone, a systematic understanding of the effect of the geometry on the mechanical properties of this interface between protein and mineral is lacking. Here we study the effect of geometry, different crystal surfaces, and hydration on the mechanical properties of collagen-hydroxyapatite interfaces from an atomistic perspective, and discuss underlying deformation mechanisms. We find that the presence of hydroxyapatite significantly enhances the tensile modulus and strength compared with a tropocollagen molecule alone. The stiffening effect is strongly dependent on the thickness of the mineral crystal until a plateau is reached at 2 nm crystal thickness. We observe no significant differences due to the mineral surface (Ca surface vs OH surface) or due to the presence of water. Our result shows that the hydroxyapatite crystal with its thickness confined to the nanometer size efficiently increases the tensile modulus and strength of the collagen-hydroxyapatite composite, agreeing well with experimental observations that consistently show the existence of extremely thin mineral flakes in various types of bones. We also show that the collagen-hydroxyapatite interface can be modeled with an elastic network model which, based on the results of atomistic simulations, provides a good estimate of the surface energy and other mechanical features. PMID:22208454

  20. Nano-Ag-loaded hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Bailin; Wang, Yingbo; Zhou, Xianli; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Feng, Bo; Watari, Fumio; Ding, Yonghui; Leng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium (Ti) substrates have attracted much attention owing to the combination of good mechanical properties of Ti and superior biocompatibility of HA. Incorporating silver (Ag) into HA coatings is an effective method to impart the coatings with antibacterial properties. However, the uniform distribution of Ag is still a challenge and Ag particles in the coatings are easy to agglomerate, which in turn affects the applications of the coatings. In this study, we employed pulsed electrochemical deposition to co-deposit HA and Ag simultaneously, which realized the uniform distribution of Ag particles in the coatings. This method was based on the use of a well-designed electrolyte containing Ag ions, calcium ions and l-cysteine, in which cysteine acted as the coordination agent to stabilize Ag ions. The antibacterial and cell culture tests were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of HA/Ag composite coatings, respectively. The results indicated the as-prepared coatings had good antibacterial properties and biocompatibility. However, an appropriate silver content should be chosen to balance the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Heat treatments promoted the adhesive strength and enhanced the biocompatibility without sacrificing the antibacterial properties of the HA/Ag coatings. In summary, this study provided an alternative method to prepare bioactive surfaces with bactericidal ability for biomedical devices. PMID:20880853

  1. Influence of physicochemical parameters on adsorption of Actinomyces viscosus to hydroxyapatite surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, T T; Clark, W B; Lane, M D; Grow, T E

    1983-01-01

    Adsorption of Actinomyces viscosus strains T14V and T14AV to saliva-treated and untreated hydroxyapatite (HA) under various environmental conditions was studied. Strain T14V adsorption to saliva-treated HA was not influenced by pH, whereas strain T14AV adsorbed in higher numbers under acidic conditions. The addition of cations inhibited adsorption of strains T14V and T14AV to saliva-treated HA. Strain T14V possessed a greater affinity for hydrophobic gels than did strain T14AV, but incorporation of non-ionic detergents, which inhibit hydrophobic interactions, did not influence adsorption of strain T14V to saliva-treated HA. Adsorption of strain T14V to saliva-treated HA increased in the presence of an anionic detergent; however, strain T14AV adsorption was not affected. Strain T14V adsorption decreased in the presence of a cationic detergent, whereas strain T14AV adsorption increased. Collectively, these data suggest that electrostatic interactions, but not hydrophobic interactions, are of major importance in the adsorption of strain T14V to saliva-treated HA. PMID:6840836

  2. Precipitation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: effects of precipitation method on electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Wei, M; Ruys, A J; Milthorpe, B K; Sorrell, C C

    2005-04-01

    Electrophoretic deposition is a low-cost, simple, and flexible coating method for producing hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal implants with a broad range of thicknesses, from < 1 microm to > 500 microm. As for many other HA coating techniques, densification of electrophoretically deposited coatings involves heating the coated metal to temperatures above 1000 degrees C. Metal substrates tend to react with HA coatings at such temperatures inducing decomposition at temperatures below 1050 degrees C (decomposition for pure HA normally occurs above 1300 degrees C). Therefore, densification of these coatings needs to be conducted at temperatures lower than 1050 degrees C, and this necessitates the use of high-surface-area HA nano-precipitates, rather than commercially available pre-calcined powders, which densify at temperatures typically higher than 1200 degrees C. HA nano-precipitates were prepared by three methods and deposited on metal substrates by electrophoresis: (1) the acid base method, which produced plate-like nano-particles with a 2.5:1 aspect ratio, and severely cracked coatings; (2) the calcium acetate method, which produced needle-like nano-particles with a 10:1 aspect ratio, and slightly cracked coatings; (3) the metathesis method, which produced rounded nano-particles with a 2:1 aspect ratio, and high-quality crack-free coatings. The results suggested that the less equiaxed the nano-particles, the more cracked the coatings obtained by the electrophoretic deposition technique. PMID:15803276

  3. Synthesis of magnesium- and manganese-doped hydroxyapatite structures assisted by the simultaneous incorporation of strontium.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Mirna Pereira; de Almeida Soares, Gloria Dulce; Dentzer, Joseph; Anselme, Karine; de Sena, Lídia Ágata; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Santos, Euler Araujo Dos

    2016-04-01

    Samples of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) with and without the addition of individual Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Sr(2+) ions and samples with the addition of all three ions simultaneously were prepared using the precipitation method in an aqueous medium. Chemical, structural, spectroscopic and thermophysical analyses of the synthesized samples were conducted. The obtained results indicate that Sr(2+) ions were easily incorporated into the HA crystal structure, whereas it was difficult to incorporate Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions into the HA lattice when these ions were individually introduced into the samples. The synthesis of HA with Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) ions is characterized by the formation of HA with a low concentration of doping elements that is outweighed by the amount of these atoms present in less biocompatible phases that formed simultaneously. However, the incorporation of Sr(2+) along with Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions into the samples allowed for the synthesis of HA with considerably higher concentrations of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) in the crystal lattice. PMID:26838904

  4. In Vitro Evaluation of Bioactivity of Chemically Deposited Hydroxyapatite on Polyether Ether Ketone

    PubMed Central

    Almasi, D.; Izman, S.; Sadeghi, M.; Iqbal, N.; Roozbahani, F.; Krishnamurithy, G.; Kamarul, T.; Abdul Kadir, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is considered the best alternative material for titanium for spinal fusion cage implants due to its low elasticity modulus and radiolucent property. The main problem of PEEK is its bioinert properties. Coating with hydroxyapatite (HA) showed very good improvement in bioactivity of the PEEK implants. However the existing methods for deposition of HA have some disadvantages and damage the PEEK substrate. In our previous study a new method for deposition of HA on PEEK was presented. In this study cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cell and apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted to probe the effect of this new method in improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK. The mesenchymal stem cell proliferation result showed better cells proliferation on the treated layer in comparison with untreated PEEK. The apatite formation results showed the growth of the HA on the treated PEEK but there was not any sight of the growth of HA on the untreated PEEK even after 2 weeks. The results showed the new method of the HA deposition improved the bioactivity of the treated PEEK in comparison with the bare PEEK. PMID:25838826

  5. In vitro evaluation of bioactivity of chemically deposited hydroxyapatite on polyether ether ketone.

    PubMed

    Almasi, D; Izman, S; Sadeghi, M; Iqbal, N; Roozbahani, F; Krishnamurithy, G; Kamarul, T; Abdul Kadir, M R

    2015-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is considered the best alternative material for titanium for spinal fusion cage implants due to its low elasticity modulus and radiolucent property. The main problem of PEEK is its bioinert properties. Coating with hydroxyapatite (HA) showed very good improvement in bioactivity of the PEEK implants. However the existing methods for deposition of HA have some disadvantages and damage the PEEK substrate. In our previous study a new method for deposition of HA on PEEK was presented. In this study cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cell and apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted to probe the effect of this new method in improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK. The mesenchymal stem cell proliferation result showed better cells proliferation on the treated layer in comparison with untreated PEEK. The apatite formation results showed the growth of the HA on the treated PEEK but there was not any sight of the growth of HA on the untreated PEEK even after 2 weeks. The results showed the new method of the HA deposition improved the bioactivity of the treated PEEK in comparison with the bare PEEK. PMID:25838826

  6. Coupling Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals with Lactoferrin as a Promising Strategy to Fine Regulate Bone Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Iafisco, Michele; Adamiano, Alessio; Tampieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an interesting glycoprotein in the field of bone biology for its regulatory effect on cells involved in bone remodeling, that results compromised in several pathological conditions, as osteoporosis. In a previous study we observed that the coupling of LF and biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA), a material well-known for its bioactivity and osteoconductive properties, leads to a combined effect in the induction of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. On the basis of this evidence, the present study is an extension of our previous work aiming to investigate the synergistic effect of the coupling of HA and LF on bone homeostasis. Biomimetic HA nanocrystals were synthesized and functionalized with LF (HA-LF) and then pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and monocyte/macrophage cells lines (RAW 264.7), using as osteoclastogenesis in vitro model, were cultured separately or in co-culture in presence of HA-LF. The results clearly revealed that HA and LF act in synergism in the regulation of the bone homeostasis, working as anabolic factor for osteoblasts differentiation and bone matrix deposition, and as inhibitor of the osteoclast formation and activity. PMID:26148296

  7. Fabrication of nanostructured hydroxyapatite and analysis of human osteoblastic cellular response.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingyuan; Gough, Julie E; Xiao, Ping; Liu, Jing; Shen, Zhijian

    2007-09-15

    Nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) powders were produced by a hydrothermal method and a precipitation method. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to fabricate nanostructured HA (NHA) using nano-sized HA powders as a precursor. Conventional sintering was employed to produce microstructured HA (MHA). Characteristics of HA powders and HA bulk ceramics after sintering were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, particle size distribution, and AFM. Dense compacts consisting of equiaxed grains with an average grain size of approximately 100 nm were obtained by SPS. Human osteoblasts were cultured on both NHA and MHA and cell attachment, proliferation, and mineralization were evaluated. After 90 min incubation, the cell density on NHA surface was significantly higher than that of MHA and glass control, whereas average cell area of a spread cell was significantly lower on NHA surface compared to MHA and glass control after 4 h incubation. Matrix mineralization was determined after 7 and 14 days incubation by using alizarin red assay combined with cetylpyridinium chloride extraction. NHA shows significant enhancement (p < 0.05) in mineralization compared to MHA. Results from this study suggest that NHA may be a much better candidate for clinical use in terms of bioactivity. PMID:17377965

  8. Polylactide nanofibers with hydroxyapatite as growth substrates for osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Katarina; Zajdlova, Martina; Suchy, Tomas; Hadraba, Daniel; Lopot, Frantisek; Zaloudkova, Margit; Douglas, Timothy E L; Munzarova, Marcela; Juklickova, Martina; Stranska, Denisa; Kubies, Dana; Schaubroeck, David; Wille, Sebastian; Balcaen, Lieve; Jarosova, Marketa; Kozak, Halyna; Kromka, Alexander; Svindrych, Zdenek; Lisa, Vera; Balik, Karel; Bacakova, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Various types of nanofibers are increasingly used in tissue engineering, mainly for their ability to mimic the architecture of tissue at the nanoscale. We evaluated the adhesion, growth, viability, and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells on polylactide (PLA) nanofibers prepared by needle-less electrospinning and loaded with 5 or 15 wt % of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. On day 7 after seeding, the cell number was the highest on samples with 15 wt % of HA. This result was confirmed by the XTT test, especially after dynamic cultivation, when the number of metabolically active cells on these samples was even higher than on control polystyrene. Staining with a live/dead kit showed that the viability of cells on all nanofibrous scaffolds was very high and comparable to that on control polystyrene dishes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the concentration of osteocalcin was also higher in cells on samples with 15 wt % of HA. There was no immune activation of cells (measured by production of TNF-alpha), associated with the incorporation of HA. Moreover, the addition of HA suppressed the creep behavior of the scaffolds in their dry state. Thus, nanofibrous PLA scaffolds have potential for bone tissue engineering, particularly those with 15 wt % of HA. PMID:24375970

  9. Coupling Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals with Lactoferrin as a Promising Strategy to Fine Regulate Bone Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Iafisco, Michele; Adamiano, Alessio; Tampieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an interesting glycoprotein in the field of bone biology for its regulatory effect on cells involved in bone remodeling, that results compromised in several pathological conditions, as osteoporosis. In a previous study we observed that the coupling of LF and biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA), a material well-known for its bioactivity and osteoconductive properties, leads to a combined effect in the induction of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. On the basis of this evidence, the present study is an extension of our previous work aiming to investigate the synergistic effect of the coupling of HA and LF on bone homeostasis. Biomimetic HA nanocrystals were synthesized and functionalized with LF (HA-LF) and then pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and monocyte/macrophage cells lines (RAW 264.7), using as osteoclastogenesis in vitro model, were cultured separately or in co-culture in presence of HA-LF. The results clearly revealed that HA and LF act in synergism in the regulation of the bone homeostasis, working as anabolic factor for osteoblasts differentiation and bone matrix deposition, and as inhibitor of the osteoclast formation and activity. PMID:26148296

  10. Hydroxyapatite formation on graphene oxide modified with amino acids: arginine versus glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Tavafoghi, M; Brodusch, N; Gauvin, R; Cerruti, M

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca5(PO4)3OH) is the main inorganic component of hard tissues, such as bone and dentine. HA nucleation involves a set of negatively charged phosphorylated proteins known as non-collagenous proteins (NCPs). These proteins attract Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) ions and increase the local supersaturation to a level required for HA precipitation. Polar and charged amino acids (AAs) are highly expressed in NCPs, and seem to be responsible for the mineralizing effect of NCPs; however, the individual effect of these AAs on HA mineralization is still unclear. In this work, we investigate the effect of a negatively charged (Glu) and positively charged (Arg) AA bound to carboxylated graphene oxide (CGO) on HA mineralization in simulated body fluids (SBF). Our results show that Arg induces HA precipitation faster and in larger amounts than Glu. We attribute this to the higher stability of the complexes formed between Arg and Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) ions, and also to the fact that Arg exposes both carboxyl and amino groups on the surface. These can electrostatically attract both Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) ions, thus increasing local supersaturation more than Glu, which exposes carboxyl groups only. PMID:26791001

  11. Decoupling the role of stiffness from other hydroxyapatite signalling cues in periosteal derived stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Giorgio; Ferretti, Concetta; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is a natural composite made of collagen and mineral hydroxyapatite (HA). Dynamic cell-ECM interactions play a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and function. Understanding the principal ECM cues promoting osteogenic differentiation would be pivotal for both bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Altering the mineral content generally modifies the stiffness as well as other physicochemical cues provided by composite materials, complicating the cause-effect analysis of resultant cell behaviour. To isolate the contribution of mechanical cues from other HA-derived signals, we developed and characterised composite HA/gelatin scaffolds with different mineral contents along with a set of stiffness-matched HA-free gelatin scaffolds. Samples were seeded with human periosteal derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and cultured over 7 days, analysing their resultant morphology and gene expression. Our results show that both stiffness and HA contribute to directing PDPC osteogenic differentiation, highlighting the role of stiffness in triggering the expression of osteogenic genes and of HA in accelerating the process, particularly at high concentrations. P