Sample records for hydroxyapatite ha microspheres

  1. Preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Deping; Darvell, Brian W; Day, Delbert E; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2006-07-01

    The preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres as potential drug-delivery vehicles was investigated. A lithium-calcium-borate (10Li(2)O-15CaO-75B(2)O(3)) (mol%) glass, made by fusing the components at 1100 degrees C for 1 h, was ground to a powder and passed through a flame at approximately 1400 degrees Celsius to spheroidize the particles. The resulting glass microspheres (106-125 microm in diameter) were reacted in 0.25 M K(2)HPO(4) solution for 5 days at 37 degrees Celsius and pH 10-12, resulting in the formation of porous, hollow microspheres of a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) material with external diameters similar to those of the original glass particles. Heat treatment at 600 degrees Celsius for 4 h partially converted the Ca-P material to HA, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and also increased the strength of the hollow microspheres. PMID:16770549

  2. Modified composite microspheres of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) as an injectable scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xixue; Shen, Hong; Yang, Fei; Liang, Xinjie; Wang, Shenguo; Wu, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    The compound of hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA-PLGA) was prepared by ionic bond between HA and PLGA. HA-PLGA was more stable than the simple physical blend of hydroxyapatite and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA/PLGA). The surface of HA-PLGA microsphere fabricated by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method was rougher than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. Moreover, surface HA content of HA-PLGA microspheres was more than that of HA/PLGA microspheres. In vitro mouse OCT-1 osteoblast-like cell culture results showed that the HA-PLGA microspheres clearly promoted osteoblast attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. It was considered that surface rich HA component and rough surface of HA-PLGA microsphere enhanced cell growth and differentiation. The good cell affinity of the HA-PLGA microspheres indicated that they could be used as an injectable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Localized drugs delivery hydroxyapatite microspheres for osteoporosis therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ko, I. H.; Jeon, S.-H.; Chae, J. H.; Lee, E. J.; Chang, J. H.

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the preparation of hydroxyapatite microspheres for local drugs delivery. The formation of the hydroxyapatite microspheres was initiated by enzymatic decomposition of urea and accomplished by emulsification process (water-in-oil). The microspheres obtained were sintered at 500°C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the microspheres have various porous with random size, which maximizes the surface area. Cytotoxicity was not observed after sintering. Osteoporosis drugs, alendronate and BMP-2, were loaded into HAp microspheres and the releases of both molecules showed sustained releasing profiles.

  4. Evaluation of BSA protein release from hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres into PEG hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Brown, Roger F.; Day, Delbert E.

    2013-01-01

    Implants that simultaneously function as an osteoconductive matrix and as a device for local drug or growth factor delivery could provide an attractive system for bone regeneration. In our previous work, we prepared hollow hydroxyapatite (abbreviated HA) microspheres with a high surface area, mesoporous shell wall and studied the release of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from the microspheres into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The present work is an extension of our previous work to study the release of BSA from similar HA microspheres into a biocompatible hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). BSA-loaded HA microspheres were placed in a PEG solution which was rapidly gelled using ultraviolet radiation. The BSA release rate into the PEG hydrogel, measured using a spectrophotometric method, was slower than into PBS, and it was dependent on the initial BSA loading and on the microstructure of the microsphere shell wall. A total of 35–40% of the BSA initially loaded into the microspheres was released into PEG over ~14 days. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres have promising potential as an osteoconductive device for local drug or growth factor delivery in bone regeneration and in the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:23498254

  5. Evaluation of BSA protein release from hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres into PEG hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Brown, Roger F; Day, Delbert E

    2013-05-01

    Implants that simultaneously function as an osteoconductive matrix and as a device for local drug or growth factor delivery could provide an attractive system for bone regeneration. In our previous work, we prepared hollow hydroxyapatite (abbreviated HA) microspheres with a high surface area and mesoporous shell wall and studied the release of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), from the microspheres into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The present work is an extension of our previous work to study the release of BSA from similar HA microspheres into a biocompatible hydrogel, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). BSA-loaded HA microspheres were placed in a PEG solution which was rapidly gelled using ultraviolet radiation. The BSA release rate into the PEG hydrogel, measured using a spectrophotometric method, was slower than into PBS, and it was dependent on the initial BSA loading and on the microstructure of the microsphere shell wall. A total of 35-40% of the BSA initially loaded into the microspheres was released into PEG over ~14 days. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres have promising potential as an osteoconductive device for local drug or growth factor delivery in bone regeneration and in the treatment of bone diseases. PMID:23498254

  6. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as a device for controlled delivery of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailuo; Day, Delbert E.; Brown, Roger F.

    2011-01-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres were prepared by reacting solid microspheres of Li2O–CaO–B2O3 glass (106–150 ?m) in K2HPO4 solution, and evaluated as a controlled delivery device for a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Reaction of the glass microspheres for 2 days in 0.02 M K2HPO4 solution (pH = 9) at 37°C resulted in the formation of biocompatible HA microspheres with a hollow core diameter equal to 0.6 the external diameter, high surface area (~100 m2/g), and a mesoporous shell wall (pore size ?13 nm). After loading with a solution of BSA in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (5 mg BSA/ml), the release kinetics of BSA from the HA microspheres into a PBS medium were measured using a micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. Release of BSA initially increased linearly with time, but almost ceased after 24–48 h. Modification of the BSA release kinetics was achieved by modifying the microstructure of the as-prepared HA microspheres using a controlled heat treatment (1–24 h at 600–900°C). Sustained release of BSA was achieved over 7–14 days from HA microspheres heated for 5 h at 600°C. The amount of BSA released at a given time was dependent on the concentration of BSA initially loaded into the HA microspheres. These hollow HA microspheres could provide a novel inorganic device for controlled local delivery of proteins and drugs. PMID:21290170

  7. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as a device for controlled delivery of proteins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Brown, Roger F

    2011-03-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres were prepared by reacting solid microspheres of Li(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) glass (106-150 ?m) in K(2)HPO(4) solution, and evaluated as a controlled delivery device for a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Reaction of the glass microspheres for 2 days in 0.02 M K(2)HPO(4) solution (pH = 9) at 37°C resulted in the formation of biocompatible HA microspheres with a hollow core diameter equal to 0.6 the external diameter, high surface area (~100 m(2)/g), and a mesoporous shell wall (pore size ? 13 nm). After loading with a solution of BSA in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (5 mg BSA/ml), the release kinetics of BSA from the HA microspheres into a PBS medium were measured using a micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. Release of BSA initially increased linearly with time, but almost ceased after 24-48 h. Modification of the BSA release kinetics was achieved by modifying the microstructure of the as-prepared HA microspheres using a controlled heat treatment (1-24 h at 600-900°C). Sustained release of BSA was achieved over 7-14 days from HA microspheres heated for 5 h at 600°C. The amount of BSA released at a given time was dependent on the concentration of BSA initially loaded into the HA microspheres. These hollow HA microspheres could provide a novel inorganic device for controlled local delivery of proteins and drugs. PMID:21290170

  8. Preparation of Hydroxyapatite Coating on the Surface of Hollow Glass Microspheres Using a Biomimetic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yan; Yang, Hai-Ying; Zhang, Ying-Long; Duan, Rong-Shuai; Lu, Yu-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Microcarrier culture technology has attached more attention, especially for scale-up cell culture in the filed of tissue engineering. The present work introduces a microcarrier with hydroxyapatite (HA) on hollow glass microsphere. Hollow glass microspheres with a main composition of SiO2 (55-65 wt.%), Al2O3 (26-35 wt.%), were pretreated by NaOH, on which hydroxyapatite coating was deposited by biomimetic process. The phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that after immersion for 15 days in 1.5 SBF, the uniform and dense HA coating was formed and it has porous surface and low crystallinity.

  9. Strength of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres prepared by a glass conversion process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Miller, Brad A

    2009-01-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres (diameter = 100-800 microm) were prepared by reacting solid Li(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) glass spheres in 0.25 M K(2)HPO(4) solution at 37 degrees C. The influence of subsequent heating on the microstructure, surface area, and compressive strength of the HA microspheres was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, the BET method, and nano-mechanical testing. The surface area and rupture strength of the as-prepared microspheres were 135 m(2)/g and 1.6 +/- 0.6 MPa, respectively. On heating for 8 h at 600 degrees C, the surface area decreased to 27 m(2)/g, but there was no increase in the compressive strength (1.7 +/- 0.4 MPa). Heating to 800 degrees C (8 h) resulted in a marked decrease in the surface area (to 2.6 m(2)/g) and a sharp increase in the compressive strength (to >35 +/- 8 MPa). These hollow HA microspheres may be useful as devices for drug or protein growth factor delivery or as scaffolds for engineered tissues. PMID:18704649

  10. Effect of Process Variables on the Microstructure of Hollow Hydroxyapatite Microspheres Prepared by a Glass Conversion Method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E

    2010-10-01

    Solid microspheres (diameter = 106-150 ?m) of a Li(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) glass were reacted in a K(2)HPO(4) solution to form hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres. The effect of the temperature (25°-60°C), K(2)HPO(4) concentration (0.01-0.25M), and pH (9-12) of the solution on the diameter (d) of the hollow core normalized to the diameter (D) of the HA microspheres, the surface area, and the pore size of the microsphere wall was studied. The statistically significant process variables that influenced these microstructural characteristics were evaluated using a factorial design approach. While the pH had little effect, the concentration of the solution had a marked effect on d/D, surface area, and pore size, whereas temperature markedly influenced d/D and pore size, but not the surface area. The largest hollow core size (d/D value ? 0.6) was obtained at the lowest temperature (25°C) or the lowest K(2)HPO(4) concentration (0.02M), while microspheres with the highest surface area (140 m(2)/g), with pores of size 10-12 nm were obtained at the highest concentration (0.25M). The consequences of these results for potential application of these hollow HA microspheres as devices for local delivery of proteins, such as drugs or growth factors, are discussed. PMID:21892226

  11. Effect of Process Variables on the Microstructure of Hollow Hydroxyapatite Microspheres Prepared by a Glass Conversion Method

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.

    2011-01-01

    Solid microspheres (diameter = 106–150 ?m) of a Li2O–CaO–B2O3 glass were reacted in a K2HPO4 solution to form hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres. The effect of the temperature (25°–60°C), K2HPO4 concentration (0.01–0.25M), and pH (9–12) of the solution on the diameter (d) of the hollow core normalized to the diameter (D) of the HA microspheres, the surface area, and the pore size of the microsphere wall was studied. The statistically significant process variables that influenced these microstructural characteristics were evaluated using a factorial design approach. While the pH had little effect, the concentration of the solution had a marked effect on d/D, surface area, and pore size, whereas temperature markedly influenced d/D and pore size, but not the surface area. The largest hollow core size (d/D value ? 0.6) was obtained at the lowest temperature (25°C) or the lowest K2HPO4 concentration (0.02M), while microspheres with the highest surface area (140 m2/g), with pores of size 10–12 nm were obtained at the highest concentration (0.25M). The consequences of these results for potential application of these hollow HA microspheres as devices for local delivery of proteins, such as drugs or growth factors, are discussed. PMID:21892226

  12. Preparation of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres by the conversion of borate glass at near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Aihua, E-mail: aihyao@126.com [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)] [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ai, Fanrong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Deping; Huang, Wenhai; Xu, Wei [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)] [Institute of Bioengineering and Information Technology Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres, consisting of a hollow core and a porous shell, were prepared by converting Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass microspheres in dilute phosphate solution at 37 {sup o}C. The results confirmed that Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass was transformed to hydroxyapatite without changing the external shape and dimension of the original glass object. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the shell wall of the microsphere was built from hydroxyapatite particles, and these particles spontaneously align with one another to form a porous sphere with an interior cavity. Increase in phosphate concentration resulted in an increase in the reaction rate, which in turn had an effect on shell wall structure of the hollow hydroxyapatite microsphere. For the Li{sub 2}O-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass microspheres reacted in low-concentration K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, lower reaction rate and a multilayered microstructure were observed. On the other hand, the glass microspheres reacted in higher phosphate solution converted more rapidly and produced a single hydroxyapatite layer. Furthermore, the mechanism of forming hydroxyapatite hollow microsphere was described.

  13. Factors influencing the deposition of hydroxyapatite coating onto hollow glass microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yan; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Xu, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Rui-Fu; Lu, Yu-Peng

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA coated microcarriers for cell culture and delivery have attracted more attention recently, owing to the rapid progress in the field of tissue engineering. In this research, a dense and uniform HA coating with the thickness of about 2 ?m was successfully deposited on hollow glass microspheres (HGM) by biomimetic process. The influences of SBF concentration, immersion time, solid/liquid ratio and activation of HGM on the deposition rate and coating characteristics were discussed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) analyses revealed that the deposited HA is poorly crystalline. The thickness of HA coating showed almost no increase after immersion in 1.5SBF for more than 15 days with the solid/liquid ratio of 1:150. At the same time, SBF concentration, solid/liquid ratio and activation treatment played vital roles in the formation of HA coating on HGM. This poorly crystallized HA coated HGM could have potential use as microcarrier for cell culture. PMID:23623091

  14. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres: a novel bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Liu, Yonxing; Bal, B Sonny

    2013-09-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is a common and significant clinical problem. Limitations associated with existing treatments such as autologous bone grafts and allografts have increased the need for synthetic bone graft substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of novel hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres to serve as a carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic-2 (BMP2) in bone regeneration. Hollow HA microspheres (106-150 ?m) with a high surface area (>100 m2 g(-1)) and a mesoporous shell wall (pore size 10-20 nm) were created using a glass conversion technique. The release of BMP2 from the microspheres into a medium composed of diluted fetal bovine serum in vitro was slow, but it occurred continuously for over 2 weeks. When implanted in rat calvarial defects for 3 or 6 weeks, the microspheres loaded with BMP2 (1 ?g per defect) showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone than those without BMP2. The amount of new bone in the defects implanted with the BMP2-loaded microspheres was 40% and 43%, respectively, at 3 and 6 weeks, compared to 13% and 17%, respectively, for the microspheres without BMP2. Coating the BMP2-loaded microspheres with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), reduced the amount of BMP2 released in vitro and, above a certain coating thickness, significantly reduced bone regeneration in vivo. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres could provide a bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for growth factors in bone regeneration. PMID:23747325

  15. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres: a novel bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Yonxing; Bal, B. Sonny

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is a common and significant clinical problem. Limitations associated with existing treatments such as autologous bone grafts and allografts have increased the need for synthetic bone graft substitutes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of novel hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres to serve as a carrier for controlled release of bone morphogenetic-2 (BMP2) in bone regeneration. Hollow HA microspheres (106–150 ?m) with a high surface area (>100 m2/g) and a mesoporous shell wall (pore size 10–20 nm) were created using a glass conversion technique. The release of BMP2 from the microspheres into a medium composed of diluted fetal bovine serum in vitro was slow, but it occurred continuously for over 2 weeks. When implanted in rat calvarial defects for 3 or 6 weeks, the microspheres loaded with BMP2 (1 ?g/defect) showed a significantly better capacity to regenerate bone than those without BMP2. The amount of new bone in the defects implanted with the BMP2-loaded microspheres was 40% and 43%, respectively, at 3 and 6 weeks, compared to 13% and 17%, respectively, for the microspheres without BMP2. Coating the BMP2-loaded microspheres with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), reduced the amount of BMP2 released in vitro and, above a certain coating thickness, significantly reduced bone regeneration in vivo. The results indicate that these hollow HA microspheres could provide a bioactive and osteoconductive carrier for growth factors in bone regeneration. PMID:23747325

  16. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 ?m) with a core (60±18 ?m) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 ?g/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration. PMID:25609957

  17. Evaluation of bone regeneration in implants composed of hollow HA microspheres loaded with transforming growth factor ?1 in a rat calvarial defect model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Brown, Roger F; Day, Delbert E

    2013-03-01

    Implants that serve simultaneously as an osteoconductive matrix and as a device for local growth factor delivery may be required for optimal bone regeneration in some applications. In the present study, hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres (106-150?m) in the form of three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds or individual (loose) microspheres were created using a glass conversion process. The capacity of the implants, with or without transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model was compared. The 3-D scaffolds supported the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro, showing their cytocompatibility. Release of TGF-?1 from the 3-D scaffolds into phosphate-buffered saline ceased after 2-3 days when ?30% of the growth factor was released. Bone regeneration in the 3-D scaffolds and the individual microspheres increased with time from 6 to 12 weeks, but it was significantly higher (23%) in the individual microspheres than in the 3-D scaffolds (15%) after 12 weeks. Loading with TGF-?1 (5?g per defect) enhanced bone regeneration in the 3-D scaffolds and individual microspheres after 6 weeks, but had little effect after 12 weeks. 3-D scaffolds and individual microspheres with larger HA diameter (150-250?m) showed better ability to regenerate bone. Based on these results, implants composed of hollow HA microspheres show promising potential as an osteoconductive matrix for local growth factor delivery in bone regeneration. PMID:23168225

  18. Evaluation of bone regeneration in implants composed of hollow HA microspheres loaded with TGF– 1 in a rat calvarial defect model

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Brown, Roger F.; Day, Delbert E.

    2012-01-01

    Implants that serve simultaneously as an osteoconductive matrix and as a device for local growth factor delivery may be required for optimal bone regeneration in some applications. In the present study, hollow hydroxyapatite (HA) microspheres (106–150 ?m) in the form of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or individual (loose) microspheres were created using a glass conversion process. The capacity of the implants, with or without transforming growth factor- 1 (TGF- 1), to regenerate bone in a rat calvarial defect model was compared. The 3D scaffolds supported the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteogenic MLO-A5 cells in vitro, showing their cytocompatibility. Release of TGF- 1 from the 3D scaffolds into phosphate-buffered saline ceased after 2–3 days when 30% of the growth factor was released. Bone regeneration in the 3D scaffolds and the individual microspheres increased with time from 6 to 12 weeks, but it was significantly higher (23%) in the individual microspheres than in the 3D scaffolds (15%) after 12 weeks. Loading with TGF-?1 (5 ?g/defect) enhanced bone regeneration in the 3D scaffolds and individual microspheres after 6 weeks, but had little effect after 12 weeks. 3D scaffolds and individual microspheres with larger HA diameter (150–250 ?m) showed better ability to regenerate bone. Based on these results, implants composed of hollow HA microspheres show promising potential as an osteoconductive matrix for local growth factor delivery in bone regeneration. PMID:23168225

  19. In situ fabrication of hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres by phosphate solution immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingchun; Yao, Aihua; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Deping; zhou, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Hollow hydroxyapatite (HAP) microspheres with pores on their surfaces were prepared by converting Li 2O-CaO-B 2O 3 (LCB) glass microspheres in phosphate solution. The structure, phase composition, surface morphology, and porosity of the hollow HAP microspheres were characterized by SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The formation and conversion mechanism of the hollow HAP microspheres during immersion process were discussed. The as-prepared microspheres consisted of calcium deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite, which is biomimetic. FTIR spectra indicated that the resulting apatite were B-type CO 3HAP, in which carbonate ions occupied the phosphate sites. After 600 °C heating treatment, hollow microspheres were completely composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite crystals including CO32-. The pore size distribution of the as-prepared hollow HAP microspheres were mainly the mesopores in the range of 2-40 nm with the pore volume 0.5614 cm 3/g, and the mean pore size 10.5 nm, respectively. The results confirmed that LCB glass were transformed to hydroxyapatite without changing the external shape and dimension of the original glass object and the resulting microspheres possessed good hollow structures. Once immersed in phosphate solution, Ca-P-OH hydrates were in situ formed on the surface of the glass and precipitated in the position occupied by Ca 2+, while the pores were formed in the position occupied by Li + and B 3+. These hollow HAP microspheres with such structures may be used as promising drug delivery devices.

  20. Fabrication of inorganic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and organic biomolecules-dual encapsulated alginate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Pu; Liao, Yu-Te; Liu, Chia-Hung; Yu, Jiashing; Chen, Jung-Chih; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) and two kinds of organic biomolecules (i.e., fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and protein lysozyme) were coencapsulated into alginate microspheres through an air dynamical atomization with optimized operation conditions. The synthesized microspheres have several advantages: HANP provides osteoconductivity and mechanical strength, rhodamine 6G (R6G) and lysozyme act as model drugs, and alginate provides excellent biocompatibility and carboxylate functionality. The results of fluorescent microscopic images indicated the successful dual encapsulation of HANPs and lysozyme inside the alginate microspheres. Furthermore, the results of 3- (4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay showed that the fabricated alginate microspheres could be uptaken by HepG2 without apparent cytotoxicity. The dual encapsulated alginate microspheres fabricated in this study show great potential in many biomedical applications. PMID:25939572

  1. Chlorhexidine-loaded hydroxyapatite microspheres as an antimicrobial delivery system and its effect on in vivo osteo-conductive properties.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Souza, Carlos Alberto; Rossi, Andre L; Mavropoulos, Elena; Hausen, Moema A; Tanaka, Marcelo N; Calasans-Maia, Mônica D; Granjeiro, Jose M; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena M; Rossi, Alexandre M

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as a delivery system for antimicrobial and antibacterial agents to simultaneously stimulate bone regeneration and prevent infection. Despite evidence supporting the bactericidal efficiency of these HA carriers, few studies have focused on the effect of this association on bone regeneration. In this work, we evaluated the physico-chemical properties of hydroxyapatite microspheres loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) at two different concentrations, 0.9 and 9.1 ?gCHX/cm2 HA, and characterized their effects on in vitro osteoblast viability and bone regeneration. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy associated with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize the association of CHX and HA nanoparticles. The high CHX loading dose induced formation of organic CHX plate-like aggregates on the HA surface, whereas a Langmuir film was formed at the low CHX surface concentration. Quantitative evaluation of murine osteoblast viability parameters, including adhesion, mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of cells exposed to HA/CHX extracts, revealed a cytotoxic effect for both loading concentrations. Histomorphological analysis upon implantation into the dorsal connective tissues and calvaria of rats for 7 and 42 days showed that the high CHX concentration induced the infiltration of inflammatory cells, resulting in retarded bone growth. Despite a strong decrease in in vitro cell viability, the low CHX loading dose did not impair the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of HA during bone repair. These results indicate that high antimicrobial doses may activate a strong local inflammatory response and disrupt the long-term osteoconductive properties of CHX-HA delivery systems. PMID:25791461

  2. In Vivo Osteogenic Potential of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Microspheres: Comparison with Injectable Cement Pastes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanares, Maria-Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Franch, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The osteogenic capacity of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite microspheres with and without collagen obtained by emulsification of a calcium phosphate cement paste has been evaluated in an in vivo model, and compared with an injectable calcium phosphate cement with the same composition. The materials were implanted into a 5 mm defect in the femur condyle of rabbits, and bone formation was assessed after 1 and 3 months. The histological analysis revealed that the cements presented cellular activity only in the margins of the material, whereas each one of the individual microspheres was covered with osteogenic cells. Consequently, bone ingrowth was enhanced by the microspheres, with a tenfold increase compared to the cement, which was associated to the higher accessibility for the cells provided by the macroporous network between the microspheres, and the larger surface area available for osteoconduction. No significant differences were found in terms of bone formation associated with the presence of collagen in the materials, although a more extensive erosion of the collagen-containing microspheres was observed. PMID:26132468

  3. In Vivo Osteogenic Potential of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Microspheres: Comparison with Injectable Cement Pastes.

    PubMed

    Cuzmar, Erika; Perez, Roman A; Manzanares, Maria-Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Franch, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The osteogenic capacity of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite microspheres with and without collagen obtained by emulsification of a calcium phosphate cement paste has been evaluated in an in vivo model, and compared with an injectable calcium phosphate cement with the same composition. The materials were implanted into a 5 mm defect in the femur condyle of rabbits, and bone formation was assessed after 1 and 3 months. The histological analysis revealed that the cements presented cellular activity only in the margins of the material, whereas each one of the individual microspheres was covered with osteogenic cells. Consequently, bone ingrowth was enhanced by the microspheres, with a tenfold increase compared to the cement, which was associated to the higher accessibility for the cells provided by the macroporous network between the microspheres, and the larger surface area available for osteoconduction. No significant differences were found in terms of bone formation associated with the presence of collagen in the materials, although a more extensive erosion of the collagen-containing microspheres was observed. PMID:26132468

  4. The effect of temozolomide/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on glioma U87 cells behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongyong; Tian, Ang; Xue, Xiangxin; Wang, Mei; Qiu, Bo; Wu, Anhua

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of temozolomide (TMZ)/Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA)/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres on the behavior of U87 glioma cells. The microspheres were fabricated by the "Solid/Water/Oil" method, and they were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion of glioma cells were evaluated by MTT, flow cytometry assay and Transwell assay. The presence of the key invasive gene, ?(V)?3 integrin, was detected by the RT-PCR and Western blot method. It was found that the temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres have a significantly diminished initial burst of drug release, compared to the TMZ laden PLGA microspheres. Our results suggest they can significantly inhibit the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, and induce their apoptosis. Additionally, ?(V)?3 integrin was also reduced by the microspheres. These data suggest that by inhibiting the biological behavior of glioma cells in vitro, the newly designed temozolomide/PLGA/nano-hydroxyapatite microspheres, as controlled drug release carriers, have promising potential in treating glioma. PMID:22312307

  5. Effect of hydroxyapatite-containing microspheres embedded into three-dimensional magnesium phosphate scaffolds on the controlled release of lysozyme and in vitro biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongman; Yun, Hui-Suk

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of porous three-dimensional (3D) magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold was investigated for the development of a novel protein delivery system and biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold. This enhancement can be achieved by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-containing polymeric microspheres (MSs) into a bulk MgP matrix, and a paste-extruding deposition (PED) system. In this work, the amount of MS and HA was precisely controlled when manufacturing MS-embedded MgP (MS/MgP) composite scaffolds. The main influence was researched in terms of in vitro lysozyme-release, in vitro biodegradation, mechanical properties, and in vitro calcification. The controlled release of lysozyme was indicated, while showing graded release patterns according to HA content. The composite scaffolds degraded gradually with MS content and degradation time. Due to the effect of HA inclusion, the higher HA-containing MS/MgP scaffolds could, not only delay the biodegradation process but also, compensate for the possible loss of mechanical properties. In this regard, it is reasonable to confirm the inverse relationship between biodegradation and corresponding compressive properties. In order to encourage bioactivity and osteoconductivity, the MS/MgP composite scaffolds were subjected to simulated body fluid treatment. Calcium deposition was, in turn, improved with increasing MS and HA content over time. This quantitative result was also proved using morphological and elemental analysis. In summary, a significant transformation of a monolithic MgP scaffold was directed toward a multifunctional bone tissue engineering scaffold equipped with controlled protein delivery, biodegradability, and bioactivity. PMID:25214782

  6. Effect of hydroxyapatite-containing microspheres embedded into three-dimensional magnesium phosphate scaffolds on the controlled release of lysozyme and in vitro biodegradation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongman; Yun, Hui-suk

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of porous three-dimensional (3D) magnesium phosphate (MgP) scaffold was investigated for the development of a novel protein delivery system and biomimetic bone tissue engineering scaffold. This enhancement can be achieved by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA)-containing polymeric microspheres (MSs) into a bulk MgP matrix, and a paste-extruding deposition (PED) system. In this work, the amount of MS and HA was precisely controlled when manufacturing MS-embedded MgP (MS/MgP) composite scaffolds. The main influence was researched in terms of in vitro lysozyme-release, in vitro biodegradation, mechanical properties, and in vitro calcification. The controlled release of lysozyme was indicated, while showing graded release patterns according to HA content. The composite scaffolds degraded gradually with MS content and degradation time. Due to the effect of HA inclusion, the higher HA-containing MS/MgP scaffolds could, not only delay the biodegradation process but also, compensate for the possible loss of mechanical properties. In this regard, it is reasonable to confirm the inverse relationship between biodegradation and corresponding compressive properties. In order to encourage bioactivity and osteoconductivity, the MS/MgP composite scaffolds were subjected to simulated body fluid treatment. Calcium deposition was, in turn, improved with increasing MS and HA content over time. This quantitative result was also proved using morphological and elemental analysis. In summary, a significant transformation of a monolithic MgP scaffold was directed toward a multifunctional bone tissue engineering scaffold equipped with controlled protein delivery, biodegradability, and bioactivity. PMID:25214782

  7. Novel silicon-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) for biomedical coatings: an in vitro study using acellular simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Thian, E S; Huang, J; Best, S M; Barber, Z H; Bonfield, W

    2006-02-01

    Magnetron co-sputtering was used to produce silicon-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) as coatings intended for potential applications such as orthopedic and dental implants. It was found that the crystallinity of the as-sputtered coatings increased after annealing, resulting in a nanocrystalline apatite structure. Subsequently, the bioactivity of the coatings was evaluated in an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF). Physicochemical evaluation demonstrated that a carbonate-containing apatite layer, which is essential for bonding at the bone/implant interface, was formed on the coating surfaces after immersion in SBF between 4 and 7 days. The annealed coatings exhibited enhanced bioactivity and chemical stability under physiological conditions, as compared with the as-sputtered coatings. It is proposed that the rate at which the carbonate-containing apatite layer forms is dependent on the scale factor of the structure. A nanocrystalline structure can provide a higher number of nucleation sites for the formation of apatite crystallites, leading to a more rapid precipitation of carbonate-containing apatite layer. This work shows that Si-HA coatings offer considerable potential for applications in hard tissue replacement, owing to their ability to form a carbonate-containing apatite layer rapidly. PMID:16080174

  8. Enhancement of Cell-Based Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using a Novel Type of Injectable Scaffolds of Hydroxyapatite-Polymer Nanocomposite Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Hidenori; Okada, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Shoji, Tetsuo; Emoto, Masanori; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trials demonstrate the effectiveness of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with severe ischemic diseases; however, their success remains limited. Maintaining transplanted cells in place are expected to augment the cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis. We have reported that nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on medical devices shows marked cell adhesiveness. Using this nanotechnology, HAp-coated poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microspheres, named nano-scaffold (NS), were generated as a non-biological, biodegradable and injectable cell scaffold. We investigate the effectiveness of NS on cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis. Methods and Results Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC) and NS or control PLLA microspheres (LA) were intramuscularly co-implanted into mice ischemic hindlimbs. When BMNC derived from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-transgenic mice were injected into ischemic muscle, the muscle GFP level in NS+BMNC group was approximate fivefold higher than that in BMNC or LA+BMNC groups seven days after operation. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that NS+BMNC markedly prevented hindlimb necrosis (P<0.05 vs. BMNC or LA+BMNC). NS+BMNC revealed much higher induction of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues and collateral blood flow confirmed by three-dimensional computed tomography angiography than those of BMNC or LA+BMNC groups. NS-enhanced therapeutic angiogenesis and arteriogenesis showed good correlations with increased intramuscular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2. NS co-implantation also prevented apoptotic cell death of transplanted cells, resulting in prolonged cell retention. Conclusion A novel and feasible injectable cell scaffold potentiates cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis, which could be extremely useful for the treatment of severe ischemic disorders. PMID:22529991

  9. An investigation of the chemical synthesis and high-temperature sintering behaviour of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Cüneyt Ta?, A; Korkusuz, F; Timuçin, M; Akka?, N

    1997-02-01

    The experimental conditions for the synthesis of sub-micrometre, spherical particles of calcium hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] (HA) and tricalcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2] (TCP) are investigated through chemical coprecipitation from the aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate salts. The precipitation process employed was also found to be suitable for the production of sub-micrometre HA/TCP composite powders in situ. The synthesized pure HA and TCP powders were found to be stable even at 1300 degrees C in air for prolonged heating times. Bioceramic sample characterization was achieved by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and density and surface area measurements. Crystallographic analyses of HA powders were performed by the Rietveld method on the powder XRD data. PMID:15348776

  10. Bioresorbable devices made of forged composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and poly l-lactide (PLLA). Part II: practical properties of miniscrews and miniplates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Shikinami; M. Okuno

    2001-01-01

    Miniscrews and miniplates made of forged composites composed of raw hydroxyapatite (u-HA) particles (particle size 0.2–20?m, averaging 3.0?m, Ca\\/p=1.69 and containing CO32?) and a poly l-lactide (PLLA, M?v: about 180kDa, containing residual 0.05wt% lactide) with osteological bioactivity such as direct bonding to bone and osteoconductivity, total resorbability and radiopacity were examined for various mechanical properties in order to evaluate their

  11. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite for healing of bone defects

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan; Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hongsheng; Lang, Yun; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Fuxing; Yan, Yonggang; Li, Hong; Mo, Anchun; Tu, Chongqi; Duan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T)16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%). Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society’s (MSTS) 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28–30 points) and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In conclusion, this study indicated that the porous n-HA/PA66 composite had biological safety, and good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Thus, the porous n-HA/PA66 composite is an ideal artificial bone substitute and worthy of promotion in the field. PMID:24531621

  12. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus-induced chronic osteomyelitis with bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid loaded with rifapentine microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ling; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Cao, Zhi-Dong; Wu, Jun; Wang, Xin; Wang, Zheng-Long; Li, Ya-Jun; Yi, Yong-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the curative effect of bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (BHA/PAA) as a carrier for poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated rifapentine microsphere (RPM) in the treatment of rabbit chronic osteomyelitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus. Methods RPM was prepared through an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method, and RPM was combined with BHA/PAA to obtain drug-loaded, slow-releasing materials. Twenty-six New Zealand white rabbits were induced to establish the animal model of chronic osteomyelitis. After debridement, the animals were randomly divided into three groups (n=8): the experimental group (with RPM-loaded BHA/PAA), the control group (with BHA/PAA), and the blank group. The RPM-loaded BHA/PAA was evaluated for antibacterial activity, dynamics of drug release, and osteogenic ability through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results In vitro, RPM-loaded BHA/PAA released the antibiotics slowly, inhibiting the bacterial growth of S. aureus for up to 5 weeks. In vivo, at week 4, the bacterial colony count was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control and blank groups (P<0.01). At week 12, the chronic osteomyelitis was cured and the bone defect was repaired in the experimental group, whereas the infection and bone defect persisted in the control and blank groups. Conclusion In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that RPM-loaded BHA/PAA effectively cured S. aureus-induced chronic osteomyelitis. Therefore, BHA/PAA has potential value as a slow-releasing material in clinical setting. Further investigation is needed to determine the optimal dosage for loading rifapentine.

  13. Reaction of sodium calcium borate glasses to form hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Han; Delbert E. Day

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the transformation of two sodium calcium borate glasses to hydroxyapatite (HA). The chemical reaction\\u000a was between either 1CaO · 2Na2O · 6B2O3 or 2CaO · 2Na2O · 6B2O3 glass and a 0.25 M phosphate (K2HPO4) solution at 37, 75 and 200 °C. Glass samples in the form of irregular particles (125–180 ?m) and microspheres (45–90 and\\u000a 125–180 ?m) were used in order to understand the reaction mechanism. The effect

  14. Facile and controllable synthesis of hydroxyapatite/graphene hybrid materials with enhanced sensing performance towards ammonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huixia; Tan, Yanni; Luo, Lanlan; Duan, Junhao; Li, Kaiyang; Banks, Craig E

    2015-07-13

    In this work, needle-like and micro-spherical agglomerates of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully assembled on the surface of graphene sheets with the aid of dopamine having two roles, as a template and a reductant for graphite oxide during the process of self-polymerization. The crystalline structure and micromorphology of HA can be conveniently regulated by controlling the mineralization route either with a precipitation (cHA/GR) or biomimetic methodology (bHA/GR). Both the composites exhibit improvements of ?150% and ?250% in sensitivity towards the sensing of ammonia at room temperature, compared with that of bare graphene. The combination of the multi-adsorption capability of HA and the electric conductivity of graphene is proposed to be the major reason for the observed enhancements. Gas sensing tests demonstrated that the HA/GR composites exhibit excellent selectivity, high sensitivity and repeatable stability towards the analytical sensing of ammonia. PMID:26066071

  15. Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Fathi; A. Hanifi; V. Mortazavi

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic such as hydroxyapatite (HA) is good candidate for bone substitutes due to their chemical and structural similarity to bone minerals. The bone mineral consists of tiny hydroxyapatite crystals in the nanoregime. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite is also expected to have better bioactivity than coarser crystals. This paper reports on the preparation and in vitro evaluation of bone-like hydroxyapatite nanopowder.

  16. Robotic deposition of model hydroxyapatite scaffolds with multiple architectures and multiscale porosity for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Jennifer G; Cesarano, Joseph; Jamison, Russell D

    2007-08-01

    Model hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with porosities spanning multiple length scales were fabricated by robocasting, a solid freeform fabrication technique based on the robotic deposition of colloidal pastes. Scaffolds of various architectures including periodic, radial, and superlattice structures were constructed. Macropores (100-600 microm) were designed by controlling the arrangement and spacing between rods of HA. Micropores (1-30 microm) and submicron pores (less than 1 microm) were produced within the rods by including polymer microsphere porogens in the HA pastes and by controlling the sintering of the scaffolds. These model scaffolds may be used to systematically study the effects of scaffold porosity on bone ingrowth processes both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17295231

  17. Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cuneyt Tas*,

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Molten Salt Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Whiskers A. Cu¨neyt Tas¸*, Department hydroxyapatite (HA) whiskers and crystals were produced by the route of molten salt synthesis. The effects. A tentative X-ray diffraction pattern was proposed for the HA whiskers. Molten salt synthesis with a K2SO4

  18. Production and characterization of HA and SiHA coatings.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qian; Brooks, Roger; Rushton, Neil; Best, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metallic prostheses have been used clinically in dentistry and orthopedics since the mid 1980s. The coating properties are dependent on the spraying parameters. Since silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) has been shown to offer improved bioactivity over phase pure HA, SiHA coatings have the potential for enhanced performance in clinical application. In this study, phase pure HA and 0.8 wt% SiHA powders were synthesized with similar particle size distribution and morphology. The powders were plasma sprayed onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates at 37 kW and 40 kW plasma gun input power respectively. Four kinds of samples were prepared, HAC 37, HAC 40, SiHAC 37 and SiHAC 40. Materials characterization showed that the coatings were of relatively high phase purity. In vitro cell culture demonstrated that human osteoblast cells grew well on all samples, with the highest cell growth observed on SiHA coatings produced under the lower plasma gun input power. PMID:19672562

  19. Surface nanocrystallization of hydroxyapatite coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Peng Lu; Yan-Mei Chen; Shi-Tong Li; Jian-Hua Wang

    2008-01-01

    Nanocharactered biomaterials, such as nanopowders, nanocrystalline compacts and nanostructured films, as well as materials with nanoscale roughness, have attracted much attention recently, due to their clear effects on cell response. Surface nanocrystallization of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating can be realized by conventional post-heat treatment. This study reveals that 20–30nm nanocrystals formed on HA coatings post-heat treated at 650°C, and the

  20. Reaction of sodium calcium borate glasses to form hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Day, Delbert E

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the transformation of two sodium calcium borate glasses to hydroxyapatite (HA). The chemical reaction was between either 1CaO . 2Na(2)O . 6B(2)O(3) or 2CaO . 2Na(2)O . 6B(2)O(3) glass and a 0.25 M phosphate (K(2)HPO(4)) solution at 37, 75 and 200 degrees C. Glass samples in the form of irregular particles (125-180 microm) and microspheres (45-90 and 125-180 microm) were used in order to understand the reaction mechanism. The effect of glass composition (calcium content) on the weight loss rate and reaction temperature on crystal size, crystallinity and grain shape of the reaction products were studied. Carbonated HA was made by dissolving an appropriate amount of carbonate (K(2)CO(3)) in the 0.25 M phosphate solution. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the reaction products. The results show that sodium calcium borate glasses can be transformed to HA by reacting with a phosphate solution. It is essentially a process of dissolution of glass and precipitation of HA. The transformation begins from an amorphous state to calcium-deficient HA without changing the size and shape of the original glass sample. Glass with a lower calcium content (1CaO . 2Na(2)O . 6B(2)O(3)), or reacted at an elevated temperature (75 degrees C), has a higher reaction rate. The HA crystal size increases and grain shape changes from spheroidal to cylindrical as temperature increases from 37 to 200 degrees C. Increase in carbonate concentration can also decrease the crystal size and yield a more needle-like grain shape. PMID:17486301

  1. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and copolymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  2. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and co-polymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  3. Polyacrolein microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Microspheres of acrolein homopolymers and copolymer with hydrophillic comonomers such as methacrylic acid and/or hydroxyethylmethacrylate are prepared by cobalt gamma irradiation of dilute aqueous solutions of the monomers in presence of suspending agents, especially alkyl sulfates such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. Amine or hydroxyl modification is achieved by forming adducts with diamines or alkanol amines. Carboxyl modification is effected by oxidation with peroxides. Pharmaceuticals or other aldehyde reactive materials can be coupled to the microspheres. The microspheres directly form antibody adducts without agglomeration.

  4. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  5. The degradation behaviour of nanoscale HA/PLGA and ?-TCP/PLGA composites

    E-print Network

    Ege, Duygu; Best, Serena; Cameron, Ruth

    2014-01-11

    The aim of this work was to prepare and analyze the degradation properties of pure PLGA, homogeneous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP)/PLGA and hydroxyapatite (HA)/PLGA composites for potential bone replacement applications. ?-TCP and HA powders were...

  6. Fabrication of a Large Hydroxyapatite Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusunoki, Masanobu; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Taiyo; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Hayami, Takashi; Hontsu, Shigeki

    2010-10-01

    A large hydroxyapatite (HA) sheet of 50 mm diameter was constructed using a new fabrication process. The HA sheet was prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and then separated from the substrate. An intermediate layer of spin-coated photoresist between the PLD film and the substrate was dissolved in acetone to enable the separation. Sufficient crystallinity was obtained after postannealing. The area of the HA sheet prepared by the proposed process was approximately 20 times larger than that of the HA sheet prepared by the previous process. The proposed process can also be used for larger sheets. The HA sheet has promise in medical and dental applications.

  7. Electrical characterization of hydroxyapatite-based bioceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Gittings; C. R. Bowen; A. C. E. Dent; I. G. Turner; F. R. Baxter; J. B. Chaudhuri

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the AC conductivity and permittivity of hydroxyapatite (HA)-based ceramics from 0.1Hz–1MHz at temperatures from room temperature to 1000°C. HA-based ceramics were prepared either as dense ceramics or in porous form with interconnected porosity and were sintered in either air or water vapour. Samples were thermally cycled to examine the influence of water desorption on AC conductivity and

  8. Hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman C. Blumenthal; Aaron S. Posner

    1973-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared by stirring amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which contained occluded Cl? as a tracer ion, in distilled water buffered to pH 7.4 by tris-HCl at 25, 37, 60, 80 and 100°. HA made in this manner contained from less than 1% (25°) to 11% (100°) of the amount originally occluded in the precursor ACP. These results suggest

  9. Hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, W R

    1988-01-01

    Four coating techniques were evaluated to determine which is most suitable for producing a dense, highly adherent coating onto metallic and ceramic implant materials. Two of the selected coating methods have serious limitations for use in this particular application, and did not meet the specified criteria for satisfactory coating as defined in the initial stages of the study. For example, the dip coating-sintering technique was judged to be unsatisfactory because of the adverse effect of the high-temperature sintering cycle on the mechanical properties of the metallic substrate materials. These materials could not be used in load-bearing applications because of the excessive grain growth and loss of the wrought structure of both the commercially pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V substrates, and the loss of ductility in the cast Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Another area of concern was that bond strength between the HA coating and the substrate was not high enough to insure that interfacial failure would not occur during the lifetime of the implant. The immersion-coating technique, in which the metal substrate is immersed into the molten ceramic, was shown in a previous study to be the best method of coating a bioreactive glass onto a Co-Cr-Mo implant. Heating HA above its melting temperature, however, caused undesired compositional and structural changes, and upon solidification very limited adherence between the modified ceramic and substrate material occurred under the conditions of this study. The HIP technique, in which the Ti powder substrate and the HA powder coating are sintered together in a high-pressure autoclave, shows great promise for the fabrication of high-quality composite implants. Initial studies have indicated that high-density Ti substrates with a small grain size that are well bonded to a dense HA coating can be produced under optimum conditions. Sintering and densification additives, such as SiO2 powder, do not appear to be necessary. The main drawback to this technique appears to be the reaction of the encapsulating material--whether soda glass, steel, or fused silica--to the HA coating. More extensive testing will necessary to determine the ideal conditions for the HIP technique, as efforts on this technique were discontinued in order to concentrate on the HIP technique, as efforts on this technique were discontinued in order to concentrate on the optimization of the sputter-coating technique so that coated implants for an animal study could be produced on schedule. Based on the results of this study, sputter coating appears to be the method of choice for forming a dense, adherent coating of HA onto a metal substrate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3382133

  10. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  11. Hybrid microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Substrates, particularly inert synthetic organic resin beads (10) or sheet (12) such as polystyrene are coated with a covalently bound layer (24) of polyacrolein by irradiation a solution (14) of acrolein or other aldehyde with high intensity radiation. Individual microspheres (22) are formed which attach to the surface to form the aldehyde containing layer (24). The aldehyde groups can be converted to other functional groups by reaction with materials such as hydroxylamine. Adducts of proteins such as antibodies or enzymes can be formed by direct reaction with the surface aldehyde groups.

  12. Surface sensitivity of ion implanted titanium to hydroxyapatite formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Pham; W. Matz; H. Reuther; E. Richter; G. Steiner; S. Oswald

    2000-01-01

    The interest in Ti based implants for orthopaedic and dental applications has stimulated extensive studies on their improved bone-bonding properties. The tissueimplant bonding ability has been shown to be mediated by a biologically active interfacial hydroxyapatite film (HA) [1, 2]. The mostly studied approach to make Ti sensitive to tissue bonding relies on the surface coating with HA [3]. The

  13. Surface nanocrystallization of hydroxyapatite coating.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Peng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Li, Shi-Tong; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2008-11-01

    Nanocharactered biomaterials, such as nanopowders, nanocrystalline compacts and nanostructured films, as well as materials with nanoscale roughness, have attracted much attention recently, due to their clear effects on cell response. Surface nanocrystallization of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating can be realized by conventional post-heat treatment. This study reveals that 20-30nm nanocrystals formed on HA coatings post-heat treated at 650 degrees C, and the increase in holding time increased the number of surface nanocrystals and intensified their aggregation. Hard aggregation occurred when HA coatings were repetitively post-heat treated. This indicates that the surface nanocrystallization is controllable. Cell experiments were carried out with rat calvarial osteoblasts. The post-heat treated HA coatings exhibit an obviously better osteoblast response than the as-sprayed coatings. Well-flattened cells attached themselves to the coating surfaces, with a good interaction between their filopodia and the nanocrystallized region. It is proposed that the surface nanocrystallization should be taken into account when the post-heat treatment process is introduced for the fabrication of HA coatings. PMID:18567551

  14. Cell culture approach to biocompatibility evaluation of unconventionally prepared hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Kundu, P K; Waghode, T S; Bahadur, D; Datta, D

    1998-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 was produced by microwave irradiation of calcium nitrate (CaNO3.4H2O) and di-ammonium phosphate in aqueous solution. The HA formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. HA prepared by this unconventional route was subjected to biocompatibility assay by a cell-culture method using the hybridoma cell line AE9D6 in both conventional Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) and simulated body fluid (SBF), both supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum. HA synthesised through this unconventional method showed the presence of tricalcium phosphate which can be reduced only after heat treatment at 1150 degrees C. The HA conformed to the X-ray data index file for hydroxyapatite. Biocompatibility assays showed reproducible growth and secretion patterns of cells both in DMEM as well as in SBF, thereby indicating the effectiveness of this method for the production of biocompatible HA. PMID:10367453

  15. Sol–gel synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite nanorods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanosh Kunjalukkal Padmanabhan; Avinash Balakrishnan; Min-Cheol Chu; Yong Jin Lee; Taik Nam Kim; Seong-Jai Cho

    2009-01-01

    In the present study hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-hexagonal rods with 70–90nm diameter and 400–500nm length are synthesized using a simple sol–gel route with calcium nitrate and potassium dihydrogenphosphate as calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. Deionized water was used as a diluting media for HA sol preparation and ammonia was used to adjust the pH=9. After aging, the HA gel was dried

  16. microsphere assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Flores, Jesús I.; Palomec-Garfias, Abraham F.; Márquez-Beltrán, César; Sánchez-Mora, Enrique; Gómez-Barojas, Estela; Pérez-Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-09-01

    The effect of Fe ion concentration on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of TiO2 films supported on silica (SiO2) opals has been studied. TiO2:Fe2O3 films were prepared by the sol-gel method in combination with a vertical dip coating procedure; precursor solutions of Ti and Fe were deposited on a monolayer of SiO2 opals previously deposited on a glass substrate by the same procedure. After the dip coating process has been carried out, the samples were thermally treated to obtain the TiO2:Fe2O3/SiO2 composites at the Fe ion concentrations of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show the formation of colloidal silica microspheres of about 50 nm diameter autoensembled in a hexagonal close-packed fashion. Although the X-ray diffractograms show no significant effect of Fe ion concentration on the crystal structure of TiO2, the ?-Raman and reflectance spectra do show that the intensity of a phonon vibration mode and the energy bandgap of TiO2 decrease as the Fe+3 ion concentration increases.

  17. Nanoscale influences on bioactivity : ultrastructure and nanomechanics of model bioactive hydroxyapatite based biomaterials

    E-print Network

    Vandiver, Jennifer M. (Jennifer McKeehan)

    2006-01-01

    There is a significant need for improved synthetic materials as orthopedic implants to replace human bone lost and damaged due to disease or injury. Certain ceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), have the special property ...

  18. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Nelea; C. Morosanu; M. Iliescu; I. N. Mihailescu

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films for applications in the biomedical field were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) techniques. The depositions were performed from pure hydroxyapatite targets on Ti–5Al–2.5Fe (TiAlFe) alloys substrates. In order to prevent the HA film penetration by Ti atoms or ions diffused from the Ti-based alloy during and after deposition, the substrates

  19. In Vivo Characterization of Titanium Implants Coated with Synthetic Hydroxyapatite by Electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Costa de Almeida; Lídia Ágata Sena; Marcelo Pinto; Carlos Alberto Muller; José Henrique Cavalcanti Lima; Glória de Almeida Soares

    2005-01-01

    This study compared in vivo the performances of commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) screw dental implants either uncoated or coated with synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrophoresis. The HA coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Well-adhered carbonated-hydroxyapatite layers (4- to-8-µm-thick) were obtained. In vivo tests were carried out by insertion of

  20. Optical and electrical properties of barium titanate-hydroxyapatite composite screen-printed thick films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. L. Almeida; P. B. A. Fechine; J. M. Sasaki; A. P. Ayala; J. C. Góes; D. L. Pontes; W. Margulis; A. S. B. Sombra

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will study the effect of the presence of hydroxyapatite (HA—Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) on the dielectric permittivity and losses of the barium titanate (BTO—BaTiO3) thick films. These films were prepared in two layers geometry using the screen printing technique on Al2O3 substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite (HA) used in the films.

  1. Electrosprayed Hydroxyapatite on Polymer Nanofibers to Differentiate Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Osteogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Venugopal; R. Rajeswari; M. Shayanti; Sharon Low; Ariff Bongso; V. R. Giri Dev; G. Deepika; Aw Tar Choon; S. Ramakrishna

    2012-01-01

    Electrospraying of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles onto the surface of polymer nanofibers provides a potentially novel substrate for the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into bone tissue regeneration. HA nanoparticles (4%) were electrosprayed on the surface of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers (420 ± 15 nm) for bone tissue engineering. PCL\\/HA nanofibers were comparatively characterized with PCL\\/Collagen (275

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-lactic acid)\\/Hydroxyapatite Composites: Synthesis and Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nita TudorachiAurica; Aurica P. Chiriac

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of applications where calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (HA) are used as biomaterials, e.g. as synthetic\\u000a bone grafts, coating on metal prostheses (like hip endoprostheses or dental implants) and drug carriers. In the study, the\\u000a design and synthesis of composites based on poly(vinyl alcohol-co-lactic acid)\\/hydroxyapatite (PVA-co-LA\\/HA) with potential\\u000a for biomedical applications, they are presented. The hydroxyapatite

  3. Hydrogen microsphere hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.

    1981-03-01

    Progress on a preliminary hazard evaluation of hollow glass microspheres for hydrogen transport and storage is reported. The flammability and explosibility of representative hydrogen filled microspheres was assessed. The tests include dust cloud explosion; flame propagation; impact sensitivity; spark ignition; and autoignition furnace. The microspheres can be ignited and propagate flame either in the quiescent bulk form or as a suspended cloud. A preliminary comparison with flammability data for gaseous hydrogen and iron titanium hydride powder indicate that the autoignition temperature of hydrogen filled microspheres is comparable to that or the other forms of hydrogen, but suspended clouds of microspheres produce lower explosion pressures than hydride dust or hydrogen gas. Safety codes and government regulations pertinent to hydrogen filled microspheres are also reviewed.

  4. Nanostructured nickel-free austenitic stainless steel/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Tulinski, Maciej; Jurczyk, Mieczyslaw

    2012-11-01

    In this work Ni-free austenitic stainless steels with nanostructure and their nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite are presented and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and optical profiling. The samples were synthesized by mechanical alloying, heat treatment and nitriding of elemental microcrystalline powders with addition of hydroxyapatite (HA). In our work we wanted to introduce into stainless steel hydroxyapatite ceramics that have been intensively studied for bone repair and replacement applications. Such applications were chosen because of their high biocompatibility and ability to bond to bone. Since nickel-free austenitic stainless steels seem to have better mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility compared to 316L stainless steels, it is possible that composite made of this steel and HA could improve properties, as well. Mechanical alloying and nitriding are very effective technologies to improve the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. Similar process in case of nanocomposites of stainless steel with hydroxyapatite helps achieve even better mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Hence nanocrystalline nickel-free stainless steels and nickel-free stainless steel/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites could be promising bionanomaterials for use as a hard tissue replacement implants, e.g., orthopedic implants. In such application, the surface roughness and more specifically the surface topography influences the proliferation of cells (e.g., osteoblasts). PMID:23421285

  5. Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibers on Hydroxyapatite by Flame Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Pramanik; Kamal K. Kar

    2011-01-01

    Flame deposition was used to grow high quality carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the hydroxyapatite (HA) using methanol as carbon source. The HA was activated with Fe-compound by a dip coating. These CNFs were purified by acid leaching. The as-produced and purified CNFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Growth of one-dimensional single-crystalline hydroxyapatite nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuzeng; Ding, Yonghui; Ge, Xiang; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Kefeng; Leng, Yang

    2012-06-01

    A facile, effective and template/surfactant-free hydrothermal route in the presence of sodium bicarbonate was developed to synthesize highly uniform single-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with the lengths of several hundred nanometers and aspect ratio up to ˜20. One dimensional (1-D) growth and aspect ratio could be controlled by hydrothermal reaction time and temperature. The longitudinal axis, also the growth direction of the nanorods, is parallel to the [001] direction of HA hexagonal crystal structure.

  7. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite whisker reinforced polyetherketoneketone composite scaffolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel L. Converse; Timothy L. Conrad; Ryan K. Roeder

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) whisker reinforced polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) scaffolds were evaluated in unconfined, uniaxial compression to investigate the effects of the porosity (75%, 82.5% and 90%), HA content (0, 20 and 40 vol%) and mold temperature (350, 365 and 375 ?C). Increased porosity resulted in a non-linear decrease in the elastic modulus and yield strength for both reinforced

  8. Fabrication and characterization of needle-like nano-HA and HA/MWNT composites.

    PubMed

    Meng, Y H; Tang, Chak Yin; Tsui, Chi Pong; Chen, Da Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic has been used in tissue engineering and orthopedics for its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, its clinical applications are usually limited by the low strength and brittleness. The objective of this research was to develop a new kind of HA composites in which multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were introduced to the HA ceramic matrix to improve the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. A simple chemical wet method was applied to synthesize the HA ceramic particles with the aid of surfactant and ultrasonication technique at normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and microstructure of the synthesized HA were characterized by XRD and TEM as a function of treatment time. The results showed that the synthesized HA particles are needle-like with a length of 80-160 nm along the (211) direction and an aspect ratio of 5-15. MWNTs were treated with a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. The HA/MWNT composites were prepared by solution blending. The composites were sintered using a hot-press method. The mechanical properties of the HA/MWNT composites with different volume percentages of MWNTs were examined. The fracture toughness and flexural strength were improved by 50% and 28% separately when the volume percentage of MWNTs reached 7%. PMID:17577639

  9. Novel nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating for dental and orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huinan; Jiang, Wenping; Malshe, Ajay

    2009-09-01

    A novel hybrid coating process, combining NanoSpray® (built on electrostatic spray coating) technology with microwave sintering process, was developed for synthesizing hydroxyapatite- (HA-) based nanostructured coating with favorable properties for dental and orthopedic implants. Specifically, HA nanoparticles were deposited on commercially pure titanium substrates using NanoSpray technique to produce the HA coating, which was then sintered in a microwave furnace under controlled conditions. The study showed that the use of NanoSpray followed by microwave sintering results in nanoscale HA coating for dental/orthopedic application.

  10. Controlled, sustained release of proteins via an injectable, mineral-coated microsphere delivery vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin-Ford, Travelle

    Hydroxyapatite interfaces have demonstrated strong protein binding and protein selection from a passing solution and can serve as a biocompatible carrier for controlled protein delivery. Hydroxyapatite is a major component of long bones and tooth enamel and is the most stable of all calcium phosphate isoforms in aqueous solutions at physiologic pH, providing a sensitive chromatographic mechanism for separating proteins. Here we describe an approach to create a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating through a biomimetic, heterogeneous nucleation from a modified simulated body fluid--supersaturated with calcium and phosphate ions on the surface of injectable polymer microspheres. We are able to bind and release bioactive growth factors into a variety of in vitro and in vivo conditions, demonstrating the functionality and advantage of the biomaterial. Creating a hydroxyapatite layer on the Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microsphere surface, avails the microsphere interior for another application that will not compete with protein binding and release. Encapsulating an imaging agent within the aqueous phase of the emulsion provides a visual reference for the injectable therapy upon microsphere fabrication. Another advantage of this system is that the mineral coating and subsequent protein binding is not compromised by the encapsulated imaging agent. This dual function delivery vehicle is not only advantageous for spatial tracking therapeutic applications, but also determining the longevity of the delivery vehicle once injected. In the broader sense, providing a mechanism to image and track our temporally controlled, sustained delivery system gives more evidence to support the effects of released protein on in vivo responses (bioactivity) and locate microspheres within different biological systems.

  11. Mechanical, thermal, rheological and morphological behaviour of irradiated PP\\/HA composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ramírez; C. Albano; A. Karam; N. Domínguez; Y. Sánchez; G. González

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites are being developed as bone graft materials. In this research, the effect of ? irradiation on mechanical, rheological, thermal and morphological behaviour of PP–HA composites was studied. The melt flow index of polymer increased markedly when it was exposed to radiation. This is indicative of chain scission reaction as the predominant process. During the

  12. Effect of HA coating on the dental implants: past, present and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Kido; B. Saha

    1997-01-01

    High success rates of dental implants have been documented in many long-term studies. However, in patients with poor bone quality, the failure rates of such implants also becomes significant. In such cases the use of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated dental implants has been shown to improve the rate of success. Several types of HA-coated implants are available commercially, and a number

  13. Hydroxyapatite synthesis using EDTA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nak Heon; Kim, Soon Je; Song, Seung Han; Choi, Sang mun; Choi, Sik Young; Kim, Youn Jung

    2013-01-01

    Bone comprises structure of body and is consisted of inorganic substances. It exists in an organic structure in the body. Even though it is firm and has self healing mechanism, it can be damaged by trauma, cancer, or bone diseases. Allograft can be an alternative solution for autologous bone graft. Hydroxyapatite(Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), an excellent candidate for allograft, can be applied to bone defect area. There are several methods to produce hydroxyapatite, however economical cost and time consuming make the production difficult. In this study we synthesized the hydroxyapatite with Ethyenediamine tetraacetic acid. Freeze Dried Bone Allograft(Hans Biomed) was used to be a control group. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was a rod shape, white powdery type substance with 2 ~ 5 ?m length and 0.5 ~ 1 ?m width. X-ray diffraction showed the highest sharp peak at 32° and high peaks at 25.8°, 39.8°, 46.8°, 49.5°, and 64.0° indicating a similar substance to the freeze Dried Bone Allograft. 3 days after the cell growth of synthesized hydroxyapatite showed 1.5 fold more than the Bone Allograft. Cellular and media alkaline phosphate activity increased similar to the bone alloagraft. In this study we came up with a new method to produce the hydroxyapatite. It is a convenient method that can be held in room temperature and low pressure. Also the the product can be manufactured in large quantity. It can be also transformed into scaffold structure which will perform a stronger configuration. The manufacturing method will help the bony defect patients and make future medical products. PMID:23714942

  14. Near net-shape fabrication of hydroxyapatite glass composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingshan; De With, Gijsbertus; Dortmans, Leonardus J M G; Feenstra, Frits

    2004-11-01

    Near net-shape fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HA) glass composites has been attempted by infiltrating a glass into porous HA performs. Main efforts were put to develop glasses that are chemically compatible with HA at elevated temperatures. After extensive investigations in the phosphate and borosilicate systems, glasses of (50-55)SiO2-(20-25)B203-(10-20)Li2O-(0-6)CaO (wt%) composition were successfully developed. The glass shows good chemical compatibility with HA at elevated temperatures. Dense HA/glass composites can be fabricated at 850-950 degress C by the melt infiltration process. Investigations demonstrated a good near net-shape capability of the process, where the linear shrinkage induced by the infiltration process is less than 0.1%. Preliminary mechanical tests showed that the fracture strength and toughness of the infiltrated HA/glass composite are comparable with dense HA. PMID:15880926

  15. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Nunzia; Fulgione, Andrea; Iannaccone, Marco; Tomasetta, Laura; Ianniello, Flora; Martora, Francesca; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Capuano, Federico; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA). We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. PMID:24623976

  16. Hydroxyapatite particles as drug carriers for proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Keishiro; Ariizumi, Hidehiko; Nakaji, Takatomo; Makino, Kimiko

    2010-03-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to hydroxyapatite (HA) particles as protein drug carriers. HA is biological substance like tooth and bone, and HA has biodegradable and biocompatible property. Also HA has high affinity for versatile substances, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to prepare HA particles and to evaluate the effects of various experimental conditions on particles properties (i.e. shape and amount of protein adsorption to HA). HA particles were prepared by three methods including solvent diffusion methods, the method using sintering porous HA microgranules, and homogeneous precipitation method. Complicated spiky crystals were prepared by solvent diffusion method, whereas spherical amorphous agglomerates were prepared by sintering of porous HA granules. Spherical particles were obtained by homogeneous precipitation method and were well dispersed. The spherical particles were composed of minute spiky crystals. The temperature and time duration of the producing process and the amount of additives, such as urea and EDTANa(2), strongly affected the particle shape and size. When the production process is kept under low temperature, tiny crystals were not mutually sintered and also their aggregation was not deposited. Also, inhomogeneous crystal growth occurred when the reaction time was long. Addition of enough amount of EDTANa(2) to reaction solution made the small and spherical HA particles. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or lysozyme hydrochloride (LSZ)-adsorbed HA particles were prepared. The affinity of HA particles and release profile of proteins from the particles were evaluated. X-ray powder diffraction measurements suggested that the surface area ratio of a plane against total surface area of HA crystal became smaller by decreasing EDTANa(2) concentration. The surface of plane a is positively charged but that of plane c is negatively charged. HA particle size decreased as EDTANa(2) concentration increased. The amounts of BSA and LSZ adsorbing onto HA particle surface were different, since BSA was negatively charged and LSZ was positively charged in the solution. Therefore BSA seems to adsorb onto plane c, whereas LSZ adsorb onto plane a. The differences of the ratio of surface a plane against the total surface area of HA particles and particles size influenced the amount of protein adsorption. The sustained release of BSA and LSZ from HA particles were observed for two weeks. PMID:19939646

  17. Fabrication of corrosion resistant, bioactive and antibacterial silver substituted hydroxyapatite\\/titania composite coating on Cp Ti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kotharu Venkateswarlu; Nagumothu Rameshbabu; Arumugam Chandra Bose; Veerappan Muthupandi; Sankaran Subramanian; Davoodbasha MubarakAli; Nooruddin Thajuddin

    The present work is aimed at developing a bioactive, corrosion resistant and anti bacterial nanostructured silver substituted hydroxyapatite\\/titania (AgHA\\/TiO2) composite coating in a single step on commercially pure titanium (Cp Ti) by plasma electrolytic processing (PEP) technique. For this purpose 2.5wt% silver substituted hydroxyapatite (AgHA) nanoparticles were prepared by microwave processing technique and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform

  18. Effects of hydroxyapatite in 3-D chitosan–gelatin polymer network on human mesenchymal stem cell construct development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Zhao; Warren L. Grayson; Teng Ma; Bruce Bunnell; William W. Lu

    2006-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential in bone tissue engineering, and hydroxyapatite (HA), a natural component of human hard tissues, is believed to support hMSC growth and osteogenic differentiation. In this study, two types of biomimetic composite materials, chitosan–gelatin (CG) and hydroxyapatite\\/chitosan–gelatin (HCG), were fabricated and compared to examine the effects of HA on hMSC adhesion and 3-D

  19. Microsphere Insulation Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, R.; Allen, M.; Baumgartner, R.

    2006-01-01

    Microsphere insulation panels (MIPs) have been developed as lightweight, longlasting replacements for the foam and vacuum-jacketed systems heretofore used for thermally insulating cryogenic vessels and transfer ducts. The microsphere core material of a typical MIP consists of hollow glass bubbles, which have a combination of advantageous mechanical, chemical, and thermal-insulation properties heretofore available only separately in different materials. In particular, a core filling of glass microspheres has high crush strength and low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum.

  20. Synthesis of Calcium HydroxyapatiteTricalcium Phosphate (HATCP) Composite Bioceramic Powders and Their Sintering Behavior

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite­Tricalcium Phosphate (HA­TCP) Composite Bioceramic Powders (HA)) and tri- calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2 (TCP))--were prepared as submicrometer-sized, chemically. Starting materials of calcium ni- trate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate salts that were

  1. Induced Microcracking Affects Osteoblast Attachment on Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian O. Smith; Melissa J. Baumann; Eldon D. Case

    2006-01-01

    Bone microdamage caused by routine activity plays an important role in triggering targeted and nontargeted bone remodeling. Targeted remodeling occurs near localized areas of microdamage(1- 4) . We hypothesize that bone remodeling may be directly and positively influenced by inducing microcracks in hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. A study by Case et al. showed microcracking in HA discs

  2. Dielectric permittivity and loss of hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Silva; A. F. L. Almeida; R. S. de Oliveira; A. G. Pinheiro; J. C. Góes; A. S. B. Sombra

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen printing technique on Al2O3substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite (HA) to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the

  3. Induction plasma sprayed nano hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for orthopaedic and dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mangal Roy; Amit Bandyopadhyay; Susmita Bose

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preparation of a highly crystalline nano hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray and their in vitro and in vivo biological response. HA coatings were prepared on Ti using normal and supersonic plasma nozzles at different plate powers and working distances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared

  4. Surface areas by gas adsorption on amorphous calcium phosphate and crystalline hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Holmes; Ralph A. Beebe

    1971-01-01

    Surface areas have been measured by the nitrogen gas adsorption method on a number of samples of precipitated calcium phosphates both in the amorphous form (ACP) and in the form of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). In all the sample studied the specific surface areas of the HA have from two to four times the values obtained for ACP, reflecting the smaller

  5. Chondrocyte-seeded hydroxyapatite for repair of large articular cartilage defects. A pilot study in the goat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Job L. C. van Susante; Pieter Buma; George N. Homminga; Wim B. van den Berg; Rene P. H. Veth

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for restoration of a large cartilage defect in the goat knee with hydroxyapatite (HA) loaded with chondrocytes. Isolated chondrocytes were suspended in fibrin glue, seeded on top of the HA, and then the composite graft was implanted in the defect. After transplantation, cell behaviour, newly synthesised matrix and the HA–glue

  6. Sol-Gel Preparation and Properties of Fluoride-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae-Won Kim; Long-Hao Li; Young-Hag Koh; Jonathan C. Knowles; Hyoun-Ee Kim

    2004-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluor-hydroxyapatite (FHA) pow- ders were synthesized by a sol-gel method for usage as bone filler and drug carrier. Calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphite were used as precursors under an ethanol-water-based solu- tion. Different amounts of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) were incorporated for the preparation of FHA powders. With heat treatment above 400°C, a characteristic apatite phase was observed

  7. Collagen hydrolysate based collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficai, Anton; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Birsan, Mihaela; Sonmez, Maria; Ficai, Denisa; Trandafir, Viorica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to study the influence of collagen hydrolysate (HAS) on the formation of ternary collagen-hydrolysate/hydroxyapatite composite materials (COLL-HAS/HA). During the precipitation process of HA, a large amount of brushite is resulted at pH = 7 but, practically pure HA is obtained at pH ? 8. The FTIR data reveal the duplication of the most important collagen absorption bands due to the presence of the collagen hydrolysate. The presence of collagen hydrolysate is beneficial for the management of bone and joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis.

  8. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA); Song, Jie (Shrewsbury, MA); Lee, Seung-Wuk (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  9. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite enriched in selenite and manganese ions: physicochemical and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Piotrowska, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we used the co-precipitation method to synthesize hydroxyapatite (Mn-SeO3-HA) containing both selenium IV (approximately 3.60 wt.%) and manganese II (approximately 0.29 wt.%). Pure hydroxyapatite (HA), hydroxyapatite-containing manganese (II) ions (Mn-HA), and hydroxyapatite-containing selenite ions alone (SeO3-HA), prepared with the same method, were used as reference materials. The structures and physicochemical properties of all the obtained samples were investigated. PXRD studies showed that the obtained materials were homogeneous and consisted of apatite phase. Introducing selenites into the hydroxyapatite crystals considerably affects the size and degree of ordering. Experiments with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that Mn-SeO3-HA crystals are very small, needle-like, and tend to form agglomerates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) were used to analyze the structure of the obtained material. Preliminary microbiological tests showed that the material demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, yet such properties were not confirmed regarding Escherichia coli. PACS codes: 61, 76, 81. PMID:26138453

  10. Surface modification for titanium implants by hydroxyapatite nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Family, Roxana; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Namjoy Nik, Shahram; Nemati, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Titanium (Ti) implants are commonly coated with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, HA has some disadvantages such as brittleness, low tensile strength and fracture toughness. It is desirable to combine the excellent mechanical properties of ZrO2 and the chemical inertness of Al2O3 with respect to the purpose of this project which was coating Ti implants with HA-ZrO2-Al2O3 to modify the surface of these implants by adding ZrO2 and Al2O3 to HA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyapatite coating nonocomposite. Methods: From September 2009 to January2011, functionally graded HA-Al2O3-ZrO2 and HA coatings were applied on Ti samples. HA-Al2O3-ZrO2 and HA sols were orderly dip coated on the substrates and calcined. Scanning electron microscopy and EDS were used to estimate the particle size of the surfaces and for morphological analysis. The morphology of non-coated HA-coated HA-Al2O3-ZrO2 (composite-coated) and double-layer composite coated samples were compared with one other. Mechanical test (heat & quench) was also done for comparing single-phase (HA), composite and double-layer composite samples. Results: The morphology of HA-Al2O3-ZrO2 coating is more homogenous than HA-coated and uncoated samples. Furthermore, single-layer coating is more homogenous than double-layer coating. EDS analysis was done on HA-coated sample and showed that the Ca/P ratio in the film was similar to the theoretical value 1.67 in HA. Conclusion: Surface modification of Ti implants can be done by coating them with single-layer of HA-Al2O3-ZrO2. Single-layer hydroxyapatite-alumina-zirconia coated sample has the most homogenous morphology on the surface. PMID:24009915

  11. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  12. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  13. Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T.; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

  14. A Solid-State NMR Study of Selenium Substitution into Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Kuras, Marzena; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of selenium oxyanions in the hydroxyapatite structure was examined using multinuclear solid-state resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR). The study was supported by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF). Samples of pure hydroxyapatite (HA300) and selenate (HA300-1.2SeO4) or selenite (HA300-1.2SeO3) substituted hydroxyapatites were synthesized using the standard wet method and heated at 300 °C to remove loosely bonded water. PXRD data showed that all samples are single-phase, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. The incorporation of selenite and selenate ions affected the lattice constants. In selenium-containing samples the concentration of Se was very similar and amounted to 9.55% and 9.64%, for HA300-1.2SeO4 and HA300-1.2SeO3, respectively. PXRD and ssNMR data showed that the selenite doping significantly decreases the crystallite size and crystallinity degree. 31P and 1H NMR experiments demonstrated the developed surface hydrated layer in all samples, especially in HA300-1.2SeO3. 1H NMR studies showed the dehydroxylation of HA during the selenium oxyanions substitution and the existence of hydrogen bonding in structural hydroxyl group channels. 1H?77Se cross polarization NMR experiments indicated that selenites and selenates are located in the crystal lattice and on the crystal surface. PMID:25997001

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA\\/YSZ\\/Ti–6Al–4V composite coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Khor; Y. W. Gu; D. Pan; P. Cheang

    2004-01-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA\\/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)\\/Ti–6Al–4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings

  16. Silicate-doped hydroxyapatite and its promotive effect on bone mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Noh, In-Sup; Zhang, Sheng-Min

    2013-03-01

    Bone defect is one of the most common diseases in clinic. Existing therapeutic approaches have encountered many problems, such as lack of autogenous allogeneic bone and immunological rejection to allogeneic implant. Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) provided solutions for bone repair, since the HA is the main inorganic component of animals' bone. However, HA has good biocompatibility, but does not possess osteogenic capability, which is of significance for modern bone repair materials. Si is an essential trace element in bone tissue, and it has been demonstrated to be able to promote bone formation. Therefore, silicate-doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) may serve as a promising material for bone repair, and promote bone regeneration in the repair. The current review discusses development of Si-HA, focusing on its preparation and characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the material, positive effect of Si-HA on promoting bone formation in clinical applications, and molecular mechanism investigation of such promotive effect.

  17. Hydroxyapatite coatings in implant dentistry.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, M H

    1992-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings have shown promise due to the enhanced integration of osseous tissues to coated implant surfaces. When compared with healing around commercially pure or titanium alloy implant surfaces, hydroxyapatite-coated implants appear to be superior in sites which are compromised in either quantity or quality of bone. In spite of these encouraging findings, the long-term stability of the hydroxyapatite/bone interface has been challenged. Microbiologically, the hydroxyapatite-coated implant surface may be at an increased risk to bacterial plaque. However, after 8 years of clinical utilization, the hydroxyapatite-coated implant surface has not been shown to be predisposed to increased long-term failure. Available research as it pertains to this controversial area of implant dentistry is reviewed. PMID:1298500

  18. Characterization, Corrosion Resistance, and Cell Response of High-Velocity Flame-Sprayed HA and HA/TiO2 Coatings on 316L SS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Hazoor

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate corrosion and biocompatibility behavior of thermal spray hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite/titania bond (HA/TiO2)-coated 316L stainless steel (316L SS). In HA/TiO2 coatings, TiO2 was used as a bond coat between HA top coat and 316L SS substrate. The coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, and corrosion resistance determined for the uncoated substrate and the two coatings. The biological behavior was investigated by the cell culture studies using osteosarcoma cell line KHOS-NP (R-970-5). The corrosion resistance of the steel was found to increase after the deposition of the HA and HA/TiO2 bond coatings. Both HA, as well as, HA/TiO2 coatings exhibit excellent bond strength of 49 and 47 MPa, respectively. The cell culture studies showed that HA-coated 316L SS specimens appeared more biocompatible than the uncoated and HA/TiO2-coated 316L SS specimens.

  19. Nanophase hydroxyapatite coatings for dental and orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Michiko

    In order to improve dental and orthopedic implant performance, the objective of this study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) powders to coat metals (specifically, titanium and tantalum). Precipitated HA powders were either sintered in order to produce UltraCaP HA (or microcrystalline size HA) or were treated hydrothermally to produce nanocrystalline HA. Some of the UltraCaP and nanocrystalline HA powders were doped with yttrium (Y) since previous in vitro studies demonstrated that Y-doped HA in bulk improved osteoblast (or bone-forming cell) function over undoped HA. The nanocrystalline HA powders were also mixed with nanophase titania powders because previous studies demonstrated that titania/HA composite coatings increased coating adhesive strength and HA nucleation. These powders were then deposited onto titanium by a novel room-temperature process, called IonTiteT(TM). The results demonstrated that the chemical properties and crystallite size of the original HA powders were maintained in the coatings. More importantly, in vitro studies showed increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on the single phase nanocrystalline HA and nano-titania/HA coatings compared to traditionally used plasma-sprayed HA coatings and uncoated metals. Results further demonstrated greater amounts of calcium deposition by osteoblasts cultured on nanocrystalline HA coatings compared to UltraCaP coatings and conventionally used plasma-sprayed HA coatings. To elucidate mechanisms that influenced osteoblast functions on the HA coatings, the amount of proteins (fibronectin and vitronectin) onto the HA powders and the adsorbed fibronectin conformation were investigated. Exposure of cell integrin binding domains (in fibronectin III10 segments) was greater in fibronectin adsorbed onto 1.2 mole% Y-doped UltraCaP HA coatings compared to nanocrystalline HA coatings tested. However, 1.2 mole% Y-doped UltraCaP HA coatings did not increase mineralization by osteoblasts compared to the nanocrystalline HA coatings. These results suggested that the availability of integrin binding domains in fibronectin did not correlate to enhanced mineralization by osteoblasts on nanocrystalline HA coatings. Lastly, undoped nanocrystalline HA coatings were studied using a well-established rat calvaria in vivo. Histological analysis showed that nanocrystalline HA coated on tantalum scaffolds increased bone and fibrous tissue infiltration into the scaffolds while uncoated and UltraCaP HA coated scaffolds did not after as early as 6 weeks. In summary, these results encourage further studies on nanocrystalline IonTiteTM HA coatings on various metals for orthopedic and dental applications.

  20. Thermal Transpiration in Microsphere Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Young; Yen Lin Han; E. P. Muntz; G. Shiflett; Andrew Ketsdever; Amanda Green

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled glass microsphere membranes as an alternative transpiration membrane for application in a Knudsen Compressor are discussed. A performance model is constructed and used to compare the performance of glass microsphere membranes to silicon aerogel membranes for this application. An initial experimental Knudsen Compressor stage based on glass microsphere membranes has been designed and experimentally tested. Preliminary performance results show

  1. Postdeposition treatment effects on hydroxyapatite vacuum plasma spray coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brossa; A. Cigada; R. Chiesa; L. Paracchini; C. Consonni

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effects of post-deposition heat treatments on high and low crystallinity hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy. HA layers were produced by the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technique, and the desired degrees of crystallinity were obtained by changing the deposition parameters. An analysis of the mechanical properties of the coatings and their adhesion

  2. Novel hydroxyapatite\\/tantalum surface coating for metallic dental implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Fathi; F. Azam

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and produce a novel surface composite coating on metallic substrate in order to improve the biocompatibility of metallic dental implant and the bone osteointegration simultaneously.Stainless steel 316L (SS) was used as a metallic substrate and a novel double-layer hydroxyapatite\\/tantalum (HA\\/Ta) coating was prepared on it. Tantalum coating was made using physical vapor

  3. Laminated and functionally graded hydroxyapatite\\/yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbo Guo; Khiam Aik Khor; Yin Chiang Boey; Xigeng Miao

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been conventionally strengthened and toughened in the form of composites and coatings. New microstructural designs and processing methodologies are still needed for the improvement of the mechanical properties of HA-based ceramics. This study was to prepare laminated and functionally graded HA\\/yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) composites by the relatively new process of spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  4. Osteoclastic resorption of calcium phosphate ceramics with different hydroxyapatite\\/?-tricalcium phosphate ratios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yamada; D. Heymann; J.-M. Bouler; G. Daculsi

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of calcium phosphate ceramic solubility on osteoclastic resorption, neonatal rabbit bone cells were cultured for 2 days on hydroxyapatite (HA), ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and two types of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with HA\\/?-TCP ratios of 2575 and 7525. Solubility was regulated by varying the ratio of less-soluble HA and more-soluble ?-TCP. After removal of stromal cells

  5. In vitro characterization of postheat-treated plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Pang Lee; Chih-Kuang Wang; Tsui-Hsien Huang; Chun-Cheng Chen; Chia-Tze Kao; Shinn-Jyh Ding

    2005-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated devices on metallic substrates have been widely used as dental and orthopedic implants. The in vitro stability of HA coatings has been concerned, serving as a long-term application. The purpose of this work was to use heat treatment to increase the crystallinity of HA coating and promote corrosion resistance, after which a comparative study in a simulated

  6. Hydroxyapatite powders and thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Lopatin; V. Pizziconi; T. L. Alford; T. Laursen

    1998-01-01

    The formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from a sol-gel precursor was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sol-gel was processed into both powders and thin films. The effect of drying and firing temperatures on the HA phase formation was studied. Thin HA films up to 1 ?m thick were deposited on silicon wafers coated either with borophosphate silicate glass (BPSG) or

  7. Evaluation and characterization of nanostructure hydroxyapatite powder prepared by simple sol–gel method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Fathi; A. Hanifi

    2007-01-01

    Many attempts have been focused on preparing of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), which closely resembles bone apatite and exhibits excellent osteoconductivity. Low temperature formation and fusion of the apatite crystals have been the main contributions of the sol–gel process in comparison with conventional methods for HA powder synthesis. This paper describes the synthesis of nano-HA particles via a sol–gel method. Nanocrystalline

  8. Performance improvement of injectable poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-based hydrogels with finely dispersed hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziyou Zhou; Yongjuan Ren; Dongzhi Yang; Jun Nie

    2009-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels are attractive materials for biomedical application. In this work, a chemical mixing technique was developed to promote the dispersion of hydroxyapatite (HA) in injectable poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA)-based hydrogels. Nano-sized HA particles were distributed homogenously within the organic network, whereby HA crystals were formed in the presence of PEGDMA macromers. In addition, hydrogels were also prepared by physical

  9. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vila; S. Sánchez-Salcedo; M. Cicuéndez; I. Izquierdo-Barba; María Vallet-Regí

    2011-01-01

    3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as

  10. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, David; Best, Serena M

    2013-04-01

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts and have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to its potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipitation routes used to synthesize zinc substituted hydroxyapatite and to explore the effects of ammonia used in the reactions on the levels of zinc substituted into the crystal lattice. It was found that considerable amounts of ammonia are required to maintain a pH sufficiently high for the production of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite using a reaction between calcium nitrate, zinc nitrate and ammonium phosphate. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that a significant proportion of the zinc added did not substitute into the hydroxyapatite lattice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of a zinc-ammonia complex that, it is proposed, inhibits zinc substitution for calcium. It was found that by reacting orthophosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the volume of ammonia required in the reaction was reduced and higher levels of zinc substitution were achieved, with up to 0.58 wt% incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The resulting products were found to be stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and did not appear to contain any extraneous calcium phosphate phases after heat treatment up to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis revealed that the effect of substituting zinc into the HA lattice was to decrease the a-lattice parameter whilst increasing the c-lattice. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the incorporation of zinc reduced both the length and width of the precipitated crystals. PMID:23343575

  11. Surface modification of zinc-containing hydroxyapatite by tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Thouraya; Othmani, Masseoud; Bac, Christophe Goze; Rachdi, Férid; Bouzouita, Khaled

    2013-11-01

    The surface of Zn-substituted hydroxyapatites (Ca(10-x)Znx(PO4)6(OH)2, with 0 ? x ? 2, CaxZnxHA) modified by tartaric acid was investigated by various techniques. XRD powder patterns revealed that synthesized samples were single phase of HA with broadened XRD re?ections. FTIR and (13C, 1H and 31P) MAS NMR measurements confirmed the grafting of the tartaric acid on the apatite surface. Chemical analysis showed that for ZnHA the grafted acid amount increases with the increase of the acid concentration in the starting solutions, while for HA, it remained constant, indicating more reactivity for ZnHA surface. A mechanism of surface modification is proposed based on the obtained results.

  12. Synthesis of sodium caseinate-calcium carbonate microspheres and their mineralization to bone-like apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhewu; Liang, Guobin; Jin, Lin; Wang, Zhenling; Xing, Chao; Jiange, Qing; Zhang, Zhiguang

    2014-06-01

    Phosphoproteins can induce and stabilize calcium carbonate (CaCO3) vaterite, which has desirable features for high reactivity. The purpose of this study was to synthesize bioactive CaCO3 microspheres for bone regeneration. Sodium caseinate (NaCas)-containing CaCO3 microspheres, with the crystal phase of vaterite, were synthesized by fast precipitation in an aqueous solution of CaCl2, Na2CO3, and 2 mg/mL of NaCas. The uniform microspheres exhibited rougher surfaces and lower negative charges than CaCO3 particles without NaCas addition. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the microspheres showed characteristic peaks or bands corresponding to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) curves exhibited approximately 5% weight loss below 600 °C due to the decomposition of NaCas. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed lath-like hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) revealed that the agglomerates were composed of Ca, C, O, P, Na, and Mg elements, and the Ca/P ratios ranged from 1.53 to 1.56. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibited peaks characteristic of hydroxyapatite. The results of this study demonstrated that the addition of NaCas induced the formation of vaterite microspheres which possesses an enhanced apatite formation after soaking in SBF at 37 °C for 5 and 10 days. These NaCas-CaCO3 microspheres may be a potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  13. First principles study of biomineral hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepko, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is one of the most abundant materials in mammal bone. It crystallizes within the spaces between the tropocollagen chains and strengthens the bone tissue. The mineral content of human bone increases with age reaching a maximum value from which it starts to decrease leading to diseases such as osteomalacia. Therefore, an emergent application of this study is bone repair and the production of synthetic bone. Despite its importance, little is known about the growth of HA crystallites in bones. Nor is it well understood how the HA attaches to protein chains and interacts with the surrounding aqueous solution. Using density functional theory (DFT) we calculate the theoretical ground state structure, electronic and vibration properties of hexagonal HA. We find several low energy structures and analyze the energy barriers for spontaneous phase transitions. We calculate the phonon density of states and study the surface energetics for different orientations. We identify the surfaces with highest reactivity using the frontier orbital approach and analyze interactions between these surfaces and water molecules/amino acids.

  14. Dual functional selenium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhua; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jin; Liu, Yonghui; Qiu, Zhiye; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) doped with trace elements has attracted much attention recently owing to its excellent biological functions. Herein, we use a facile co-precipitation method to incorporate selenium into HA by adding sodium selenite during synthesis. The obtained selenium-substituted HA products are needle-like nanoparticles which have  size and crystallinity that are similar to those of the pure HA nanoparticles (HANs) when the selenium content is low. HANs are found to have the ability to induce the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, and the anti-tumour effects are enhanced after incorporation of selenium. Meanwhile, the nanoparticles can also support the growth of bone marrow stem cells. Furthermore, the flow cytometric results indicate that the apoptosis induction of osteosarcoma cells is caused by the increased reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show that the selenium-substituted HANs are potentially promising bone graft materials in osteosarcoma treatment due to their dual functions of supporting normal cell growth and inducing tumour cell apoptosis. PMID:23741613

  15. Effect of Thickness of HA-Coating on Microporous Silk Scaffolds Using Alternate Soaking Technology

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Rui; Xue, Yingsen; Hao, Zhangying; Xie, Zhenghong; Fan, Xiangli; Fan, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) can be coated on various materials surface and has the function of osteogenicity. Microporous silk scaffold has excellent biocompatibility. In this study, alternate soaking technology was used to coat HA on microporous silk scaffolds. However, the cell proliferation was found to decrease with the increasing thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating. This study aims to determine the best thickness (cycles of soaking) of HA-coating on microporous silk scaffolds. The SEM observation showed that group with one cycle of alternate soaking (1C-HA) has the most optimal porosity like non-HA-modified microporous silk scaffolds. The proliferation of osteoblasts has no significant difference between noncoated HA (N-HA) and 1C-HA groups, which are both significantly higher than those in two cycles of soaking (2C-HA) and three cycles of soaking (3C-HA) groups. The transcription levels of specific genes (runx2 and osteonectin) in osteoblasts of 1C-HA group were significantly higher than those of N-HA group. Moreover, the levels showed no significant difference among 1C-HA, 2C-HA, and 3C-HA groups. In conclusion, microporous silk scaffold with 1 cycle of HA-coating can combine the biocompatibility of silk and osteogenicity of HA. PMID:25093176

  16. Hyaluronic acid as an internal phase additive to obtain ofloxacin/PLGA microsphere by double emulsion method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Chen, Long; Li, Hong; Wang, Ying-jun

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was used as an internal phase additive to improve the loading efficiency of ofloxacin, a hydrophilic drug encapsulated by hydrophobic polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) materials, through a double emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) solvent extraction/evaporation method. Results from laser distribution analysis show that polyelectrolyte additives have low impact on the average particle size and distribution of the microspheres. The negatively charged HA increases the drug loading efficiency as well as the amount of HA in microspheres. Burst release can be observed in the groups with the polyelectrolyte additives. The release rate decreases with the amount of HA inside the microspheres in all negatively charged polyelectrolyte-added microsphere groups. PMID:24211960

  17. The influence of silanisation on the mechanical and degradation behaviour of PLGA/HA composites

    E-print Network

    Naik, Ashutosh; Best, Serena M.; Cameron, Ruth E.

    2014-12-18

    mechanical properties. Abbreviations: HA, Hydroxyapatite; MPTMS, Mercaptopropyl trimethoxy silane; APTMS, Aminopropyl trimethoxy silane; APTES, Aminopropyl triethoxy silane; PBS, Phosphate buffered saline; ICP-AES, Inductively coupled plasma... using standard solutions. Mechanical Properties Dynamic mechanical thermal analyis (DMTA) (DMA Q800, TA Instruments, USA) was used to measure the viscoelastic properties of the injection- moulded samples. The tests were carried out in cantilever...

  18. In vivo study of chitosan-natural nano hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seo; Baek, Sang Dae; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Bhatnagar, Ira; Chang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Hui Taek; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Significant development has been achieved with bioceramics and biopolymer scaffolds in the construction of artificial bone. In the present study, we have developed and compared chitosan-micro hydroxyapatite (chitosan-mHA) and chitosan-nano hydroxyapatite (chitosan-nHA) scaffolds as bone graft substitutes. The biocompatibility and cell proliferation of the prepared scaffolds were checked with preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cells. Total Volume (TV), bone volume (BV), bone surface (BS), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were found to be higher in chitosan-nHA than chitosan-mHA scaffold. Hence, we suggest that chitosan-nHA scaffold could be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24705167

  19. Post-translational modification of osteopontin: Effects on in vitro hydroxyapatite formation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boskey, Adele L., E-mail: boskeya@hss.edu [Musculoskeletal Integrity Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Christensen, Brian, E-mail: bc@mb.au.dk [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University (Denmark)] [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University (Denmark); Taleb, Hayat, E-mail: Talebh@hss.edu [Musculoskeletal Integrity Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)] [Musculoskeletal Integrity Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Sorensen, Esben S., E-mail: ess@mb.au.dk [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thrombin-cleaved fragments of milk-osteopontin effect hydroxyapatite formation differently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N- and C-terminal fragments promoted hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A central fragment inhibited hydroxyapatite formation and growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding to collagen or hydroxyapatite seed crystals modified these effects. -- Abstract: The manuscript tests the hypothesis that posttranslational modification of the SIBLING family of proteins in general and osteopontin in particular modify the abilities of these proteins to regulate in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. Osteopontin has diverse effects on hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral crystallite formation and growth depending on the extent of phosphorylation. We hypothesized that different regions of full-length OPN would also have distinct effects on the mineralization process. Thrombin fragmentation of milk OPN (mOPN) was used to test this hypothesis. Three fragments were tested in a de novo HA formation assay; an N-terminal fragment (aa 1-147), a central fragment (aa 148-204) denoted SKK-fragment and a C-terminal fragment (aa 205-262). Compared to intact mOPN the C- and N-terminal fragments behaved comparably, promoting HA formation and growth, but the central SKK-fragment acted as a mineralization inhibitor. In a seeded growth experiment all fragments inhibited mineral proliferation, but the SKK-fragment was the most effective inhibitor. These effects, seen in HA-formation and seeded growth assays in a gelatin gel system and in a pH-stat experiment were lost when the protein or fragments were dephosphorylated. Effects of the fully phosphorylated protein and fragments were also altered in the presence of fibrillar collagen. The diverse effects can be explained in terms of the intrinsically disordered nature of OPN and its fragments which enable them to interact with their multiple partners.

  20. Hydroxyapatite-titanium bulk composites for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Alok; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2015-02-01

    The research work on bulk hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composites are driven by the need to develop biomaterials with better mechanical properties without compromising its bioactivity and biocompatibility properties. Despite several years of research, the mechanical properties of the HA-based composites still need to be enhanced to match the properties of natural cortical bone. In this regard, the scope of this review on the HA-based bulk biomaterials is limited to the processing and the mechanical as well as biocompatibility properties for bone tissue engineering applications of a model system that is hydroxyapatite-titanium (HA-Ti) bulk composites. It will be discussed in this review how HA-Ti based bulk composites can be processed to have better fracture toughness and strength without compromising biocompatibility. The advantages of the functionally gradient materials to integrate the mechanical and biocompatibility properties is a promising approach in hard tissue engineering and has been emphasized here in reference to the limited literature reports. On the biomaterials fabrication aspect, the recent results are discussed to demonstrate that advanced manufacturing techniques, like spark plasma sintering can be adopted as a processing route to restrict the sintering reactions, while enhancing the mechanical properties. Various toughening mechanisms related to careful tailoring of microstructure are discussed. The in vitro cytocompatibilty, cell fate processes as well as in vivo biocompatibility results are also reviewed and the use of flow cytometry to quantify in vitro cell fate processes is being emphasized. PMID:24737723

  1. Antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of plasma sprayed silver-containing HA coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yikai Chen; Xuebin Zheng; Youtao Xie; Chuanxian Ding; Hongjiang Ruan; Cunyi Fan

    2008-01-01

    Silver-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been prepared on titanium substrate by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) method\\u000a and anti-bacterial properties of the coatings were examined. Three types of bacteria stains, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in this test. The results showed that the silver-containing HA coatings exhibited significant anti-bacterial\\u000a effects against the three bacteria with anti-bacterial ratios higher than 95%.

  2. Preparation and characterization of interpenetrating phased TCP\\/HA\\/PLGA composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Miao; W.-K. Lim; X. Huang; Y. Chen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to fabricate composites consisting of three interpenetrating networks: tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), and poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The porous TCP network was first produced by coating a polyurethane (PU) foam with hydrolysable alpha-TCP slurry. The HA network was derived from a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) filled in the porous TCP network. The remaining open pore

  3. Nanosilicon carbide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites: structural, mechanical and in vitro cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, Saeed; Ebadzadeh, Touraj; Ahmadzadeh-Asl, Shaghayegh

    2010-07-01

    In this study, bioceramic nanocomposites were synthesized by sintering compacted bodies of hydroxyapatite (HA) mixed with 5 or 15 wt% nanosilicon carbide at 1,100 or 1,200 degrees C in a reducing atmosphere. Pure hydroxyapatite was also prepared for comparison. Phase compositions, structural and physical properties of the composites were studied using appropriate techniques. Some in vitro biological properties of the composites were also investigated by using newrat calvaria osteoblastic cells. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that tricalcium phosphate (TCP) comprising negligible alpha-TCP and considerable beta-TCP were formed in composites during sintering meanwhile hydroxyapatite and silicon carbide (SiC) were also existed in the composition. Based on the results, that composite made of 5 wt% nanosilicon carbide exhibited higher bending strength, fracture toughness and bulk density than pure HA and composite with 15 wt% silicon carbide. The scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed that the addition of nanosilicon carbide suppressed the grain growth and yielded a feature of island-type clusters consisting of blistered calcium phosphate (HA and TCP) and SiC grains. Also, in this study, better proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed for the osteoblastic cells seeded on top of the composites compared to pure HA. Overall, the results indicated that the composite of 95 wt% hydroxyapatite and 5 wt% SiC exhibited better mechanical and biological properties than pure HA and further addition of SiC failed strength and toughness. PMID:20376539

  4. Emulsion cross-linked chitosan/nanohydroxyapatite microspheres for controlled release of alendronate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Yan; Liu, Gengyan; Ling, Jianghong; Dash, Biraja C; Ruan, Jianming; Zhang, Chaoyue

    2014-12-01

    Sustained delivery of growth factors has emerged as an essential requirement for bone tissue engineering applications for the treatment of various kinds of bone defects. Chitosan (CH) has attracted particular attention for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering because of its favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this study, a composite microsphere system containing CH and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA)-alendronate (AL) particles was fabricated by employing both emulsification and cross-linking strategies. The microspheres were characterized for their surface morphology, composition, size distribution, drug loading efficiency and release properties. The results showed that loading efficiency and sustained release of hydrophilic AL were significantly improved, which is ideal for locally sustained release in the bone microenvironment. In vitro osteogenic studies showed that the microspheres could enhance the osteogenic activity of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells. In conclusion, the CH/nHA-AL composite microspheres exhibit promising properties as a candidate for local treatment for bone defects. PMID:25080396

  5. Polyvinyl pyridine microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Microspheres are produced by cobalt gamma radiation initiated polymerization of a dilute aqueous vinyl pyridine solution. Addition of cross-linking agent provides higher surface area beads. Addition of monomers such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate acrylamide or methacrylamide increases hydrophilic properties and surface area of the beads. High surface area catalytic supports are formed in the presence of controlled pore glass substrate.

  6. Polyvinyl pyridine microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Volksen, Willi (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Microspheres are produced by cobalt gamma radiation initiated polymerization of a dilute aqueous vinyl pyridine solution. Addition of cross-linking agent provides higher surface area beads. Addition of monomers such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate acrylamide or methacrylamide increases hydrophilic properties and surface area of the beads. High surface area catalytic supports are formed in the presence of controlled pore glass substrate.

  7. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  8. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  9. Doped zinc oxide microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1993-12-14

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  10. The effect of cadmium on the formation and properties of hydroxyapatite In vitro and its relation to cadmium toxicity in the skeletal system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Blumenthal; V. Cosma; D. Skyler; J. LeGeros; M. Walters

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand the biological action of cadmium (Cd) in inducing bone pathologies, the effect of Cd on the formation, structure, and properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro was investigated using three biologically relevant test systems: (1) direct precipitation of HA with no precursor phase; (2) transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to crystalline HA; and (3) growth of

  11. Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite within chitosan matrix.

    PubMed

    Rogina, A; Ivankovi?, M; Ivankovi?, H

    2013-12-01

    Nano-composites that show some features of natural bone both in composition and in microstructure have been prepared by in situ precipitation method. Apatite phase has been prepared from cost-effective precursors (calcite and urea phosphate) within chitosan (CS) matrix dissolved in aqueous acetic acid solution. The compositional and morphological properties of composites were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Depending on the reaction conditions (temperature, reaction time, glucose addition and pH control) in addition to hydroxyapatite (HA) as a major phase, octacalcium hydrogen phosphate pentahydrate (OCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (DCPD) were formed as shown by XRD and FTIR. Crystallite lengths of precipitated HA estimated by Scherrer's equation were between 20 and 30 nm. A fibrous morphology (~400 nm) of HA observed by TEM indicates that HA nucleates on chitosan chains. PMID:24094157

  12. Porous microsphere and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunpeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhenguo; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    Porous microspheres have drawn great attention in the last two decades for their potential applications in many fields, such as carriers for drugs, absorption and desorption of substances, pulmonary drug delivery, and tissue regeneration. The application of porous microspheres has become a feasible way to address existing problems. In this essay, we give a brief introduction of the porous microsphere, its characteristics, preparation methods, applications, and a brief summary of existing problems and research tendencies. PMID:23515359

  13. [Preparation of new lipid-hydroxyapatite-DNA complex and gene transfection reseach in eukaryotic cell].

    PubMed

    He, Bao-Ling; Sun, En-Jie; Yang, Dong

    2006-09-01

    This work was directed at obtaining a better gene carrier to improve the effects of gene delivery. Neutral liposomes made from cholesterol, lecithin and DOPE by reverse evaporation technique were used for encapsulating DNA-HAP complex which was made from DNA and optimized HAP. The sizes of complexes and the efficiency of encapsulation were detected. The efficiency of transfection into Hela cells was shown by observation of X-gal staining and measurement of transfection efficience. The average size of complexes was 643nm, the average encapsulating efficiency of DNA in microspheres reached 11.67%. These Lipid-Hydroxyapatite-DNA complex (LHD) could be transfected into mammalian cells. The Lipid-Hydroxyapatite-DNA complex prepared by reverse evaporation technique could be applied availably in DNA delivery system, and it gave another thinking to increase the gene transfection of non- viral genetic vector. PMID:17037204

  14. [Study on compound levonorgestrel microspheres].

    PubMed

    Guo, R; Lu, B

    1993-12-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNG) and estradiol (E2) were mixed in the ratio of 5:2 by weight. Compound LNG gelatin-microspheres were prepared by phase-separation method, natural biodegradable gelatin being used as the core material. The experimental conditions were optimized, the mean diameter of the microspheres obtained being 10-40 microns, and the rate of encapsulation 65-75%. Storage observations and acceleration tests of the compound LNG gelatin-microsphere injection prepared showed that the microspheres have good stability. The thermal degradation activation energy of the injection was determined to be 134.4 kJ/mol, based on differential scanning colorimetry (DSC). T1/2 values for dissolution in vitro of LNG and E2 from the compound LNG gelatin-microsphere injection and from the unencapsulated injection showed significant difference (P < 0.01), indicating that the microspheres have good sustained release action. Effects of the pure LNG microsphere injection and compound LNG microsphere injection on the mouse ovary were compared histologically. The results showed that the compound LNG microsphere injection reduced some of the side effects such as ovary congestion. This points out that the compound dosage form can clinically alleviate the irregular bleeding caused by the administration of LNG alone. PMID:8150435

  15. Preparation and in vitro characterization of aerosol-deposited hydroxyapatite coatings with different surface roughnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Dong Hahn; Dong-Soo Park; Jong-Jin Choi; Jungho Ryu; Woon-Ha Yoon; Joon-Hwan Choi; Jong-Woo Kim; Young-Lae Cho; Chan Park; Hyoun-Ee Kim; Seong-Gon Kim

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with different surface roughnesses were deposited on a Ti substrate via aerosol deposition (AD). The effect of the surface roughness on the cellular response to the coating was investigated. The surface roughness was controlled by manipulating the particle size distribution of the raw powder used for deposition and by varying the coating thickness. The coatings obtained from

  16. Magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite formation on (Ti,Mg)N coatings produced by cathodic arc PVD technique.

    PubMed

    Onder, Sakip; Kok, Fatma Nese; Kazmanli, Kursat; Urgen, Mustafa

    2013-10-01

    In this study, formation of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite (Ca10-xMgx(PO4)6(OH)2) on (Ti,Mg)N and TiN coating surfaces were investigated. The (Ti1-x,Mgx)N (x=0.064) coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition technique. TiN coated grade 2 titanium substrates were used as reference to understand the role of magnesium on hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The HA formation experiments was carried out in simulated body fluids (SBF) with three different concentrations (1X SBF, 5X SBF and 5X SBF without magnesium ions) at 37 °C. The coatings and hydroxyapatite films formed were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR Spectroscopy techniques. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses and XRD investigations of the coatings indicated that magnesium was incorporated in the TiN structure rather than forming a separate phase. The comparison between the TiN and (Ti, Mg)N coatings showed that the presence of magnesium in TiN structure facilitated magnesium substituted HA formation on the surface. The (Ti,Mg)N coatings can potentially be used to accelerate the HA formation in vivo conditions without any prior hydroxyapatite coating procedure. PMID:23910351

  17. Injectable Poly(ethylene glycol) Dimethacrylate-based Hydrogels with Hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziyou Zhou; Dongzhi Yang; Jun Nie; Yongjuan Ren; Fuzhai Cui

    2009-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels are attractive materials for tissue engineering as they provide fast reaction rates, low heat release, and biocompatibility for cell proliferation and permanent interface with surrounding tissue. A series of injectable poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) hydrogels with four different weight fractions of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were prepared and thermal and mechanical properties evaluated. The cytocompatibility was assessed by examining

  18. Residual stress in hydroxyapatite coating: nonlinear analysis and high-energy synchrotron measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Fogarassy; Bruno Cofino; Pierre Millet; Alain Lodini

    2005-01-01

    The thermal deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) on titanium alloy substrate (Ti-6Al-4V) leads to a structure that has very good osseointegration properties. However, clinical failures have been occasionally reported at the interface between substrate and coating. Lifetime is the main parameter in such prostheses; therefore, in order to improve their quality, it is necessary to evaluate the level of stresses near

  19. Hydroxyapatite fiber reinforced poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams for bone regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. C.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Powers, J. M.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A process has been developed to manufacture biodegradable composite foams of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxyapatite short fibers for use in bone regeneration. The processing technique allows the manufacture of three-dimensional foam scaffolds and involves the formation of a composite material consisting of a porogen material (either gelatin microspheres or salt particles) and hydroxyapatite short fibers embedded in a PLGA matrix. After the porogen is leached out, an open-cell composite foam remains which has a pore size and morphology defined by the porogen. By changing the weight fraction of the leachable component it was possible to produce composite foams with controlled porosities ranging from 0.47 +/- 0.02 to 0.85 +/- 0.01 (n = 3). Up to a polymer:fiber ratio of 7:6, short hydroxyapatite fibers served to reinforce low-porosity PLGA foams manufactured using gelatin microspheres as a porogen. Foams with a compressive yield strength up to 2.82 +/- 0.63 MPa (n = 3) and a porosity of 0.47 +/- 0.02 (n = 3) were manufactured using a polymer:fiber weight ratio of 7:6. In contrast, high-porosity composite foams (up to 0.81 +/- 0.02, n = 3) suitable for cell seeding were not reinforced by the introduction of increasing quantities of hydroxyapatite short fibers. We were therefore able to manufacture high-porosity foams which may be seeded with cells but which have minimal compressive yield strength, or low porosity foams with enhanced osteoconductivity and compressive yield strength.

  20. Functional magnetic microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Landel, Robert F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Functional magnetic particles are formed by dissolving a mucopolysaccharide such as chitosan in acidified aqueous solution containing a mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. As the pH of the solution is raised magnetite is formed in situ in the solution by raising the pH. The dissolved chitosan is a polyelectrolyte and forms micelles surrounding the granules at pH of 8-9. The chitosan precipitates on the granules to form microspheres containing the magnetic granules. On addition of the microspheres to waste aqueous streams containing dissolved ions, the hydroxyl and amine functionality of the chitosan forms chelates binding heavy metal cations such as lead, copper, and mercury and the chelates in turn bind anions such as nitrate, fluoride, phosphate and borate.

  1. Adrenomedullin delivery in microsphere-scaffold composite for remodeling of the alveolar bone following tooth extraction: an experimental study in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar ridge resorption, as a significant problem in implant and restorative dentistry, has long been considered as an inevitable outcome following tooth extraction. Recently, adrenomedullin (ADM) is reported to be able to stimulate the proliferation and migration of various cells including osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of local ADM application in the tooth extraction socket in vivo. Methods Chitosan micropheres were developed by an emulsion-ionic cross-linking method for ADM delivery. Poly (L -lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to prepare scaffolds to contain the micrspheres with ADM. In vivo experiment was evaluated by transplanting the composite into the rat socket right after the incisor extraction. After 4, 8, 12 weeks implantation, radiographic and histological tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of released ADM on the alveolar bone. Results The microspheres had a spherical structure and a relative rough and uniform surface, and the particle size was under a normal distribution, with the average diameter of 38.59 ?m. The scaffolds had open and interconnected pores. In addition, the high porosity of the composite was 88.93%. Radiographic and histological examination revealed that the PLGA/nHA/CMs/ADM composite could accelerate the alveolar bone remodeling and reduce the residual ridge resorption compared with the PLGA/nHA/CMs scaffold. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that local application of ADM has the potential to preserve the residual alveolar ridge and accelerate the alveolar bone remodeling. PMID:24099554

  2. Barium Vanadate Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yosinski, Shari; Tweeton, Landon; Feller, Steve; Affatigato, Mario

    2009-11-01

    It has been found that many glass powders can form micro- or nanospheres when heated in a flame or by a laser. Much of the research in this area of microspheres has concentrated on making hollow spheres, called microballoons, of silica and borosilicate glasses. Our aim was to create highly porous barium vanadate microspheres for possible future applications in material storage. The surface area of porous spheres would provide a greater amount of bonding surface area for dopants than hollow spheres. Barium vanadate glass with a molar fraction of 0.4 to 0.6 barium oxide was used because this glass is stable and has a low Tg. Size distributions of the spheres were quantified and the extent of sphere formation and porosity was examined using a scanning electron microscope. The size of spheres formed is affected by powder size, dropping method, and flame position. The porosity of the microspheres is affected by flame temperature, time spent in flame, and the material onto which the spheres fall. The greatest porosity was achieved by first heating the glass powder at a low temperature and then immediately sending it through the flames of two MAPP gas torches at approximately 2100^oC onto a metal sheet.

  3. The effects of hydroxyapatite coatings on stress distribution near the dental implant–bone interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jiang; W. D. Wang; X. H. Shi; H. Z. Chen; W. Zou; Z. Guo; J. M. Luo; Z. W. Gu; X. D. Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different thickness of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on bone stress distribution near the dental implant–bone interface are very important factors for the HA-coated dental implant design and clinical application. By means of finite element analysis (FEA), the bone stress distributions near the dental implant coated with different thicknesses from 0 to 200?m were calculated and analyzed under the

  4. Histomorphometric study of bone reactions with different hydroxyapatite coating thickness on dental implants in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Hoon Lee; Su-Gwan Kim; Sung-Chul Lim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different hydroxyapatite (HA) coating thicknesses on osseointegration after dental implantation in dogs. Six dogs, weighing 10–15kg, were used in this study. The fixtures, with HA coatings of different thicknesses and made by Dentis, were implanted for 12weeks in right iliac crestal bone sites and for 6weeks in left iliac

  5. Fast deposition of hydroxyapatite coating on titanium to modify cell affinity of corneal fibroblast in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoping Wang; Xiao Ma; Leyun Wang; Xuan Du; Yifei Huang; Fuzhai Cui

    2007-01-01

    By two step acid-alkali pretreatment and immersing into supersaturated calcification solution, hydroxyapatite (HA) coating\\u000a was deposited on titanium (Ti) discs. The composition, surface morphology and cross-section of the coating were analyzed by\\u000a X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fibroblasts of rabbit cornea were seeded on HA coated Ti disc,\\u000a pure Ti disc and glass. Cell adhesion, proliferation and

  6. In vivo behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium implants: a quantitative study in the rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Darimont; R. Cloots; E. Heinen; L. Seidel; R. Legrand

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the behaviour of in vivo hydroxyapatite coated implants (HA) in the rabbit over time, and to compare the results with observations made on titanium plasma spray implants (TPS). Results were analysed according to the percentage of bone contact. Eighteen HA cylindrical implants (3.25×8mm) and 6 TPS cylindrical implants from Steri-Oss were

  7. Characterization of the chemically deposited hydroxyapatite coating on a titanium substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander V. Zavgorodniy; Oscar Borrero-López; Mark Hoffman; Racquel Z. LeGeros; Ramin Rohanizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium (Ti) implant can be used as a drug delivery device. A controlled release\\u000a of drug around the implant requires the incorporation of drug into the coating material during the coating process. HA coating\\u000a was prepared using a two-step procedure in conditions suitable for simultaneous incorporation of the protein-based drug into\\u000a the coating material. Monetite

  8. Preparation and histological evaluation of biomimetic three-dimensional hydroxyapatite\\/chitosan-gelatin network composite scaffolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Zhao; Yuji Yin; William W. Lu; J. Chiyan Leong; Wenyi Zhang; Jingyu Zhang; Mingfang Zhang; Kangde Yao

    2002-01-01

    A novel biodegradable hydroxyapatite\\/chitosan-gelatin network (HA\\/CS-Gel) composite of similar composition to that of normal human bone was prepared as a three-dimensional biomimetic scaffold by phase separation method for bone tissue engineering. Changing the solid content and the compositional variables of the original mixtures allowed control of the porosities and densities of the scaffolds. The HA granules were dispersed uniformly in

  9. High-affinity integration of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with chemically modified silk fibroin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Wang; Chunzhong Li; Mamoru Senna

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-based nanocomposites were prepared by a co-precipitation method with silk fibroin (SF) serving as organic\\u000a matrix. Silk fibroin was chemically modified with an alkali solution or an enzyme attempting to improve the interface between\\u000a the mineral and the organic matrix. The influences of the alkali and enzyme pretreatments on microstructure and physicochemical\\u000a properties of HA–SF composite were examined and

  10. Inhibition of hydroxyapatite growth by casein, a potential salivary phosphoprotein homologue.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria J R H; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Ichinose, Shizuko; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2015-08-01

    Salivary phosphoproteins are essential in tooth mineral regulation but are often overlooked in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of casein, as a salivary phosphoprotein homologue, on the deposition and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on tooth surfaces. Hydroxyapatite growth was quantified using seeded crystal systems. Artificial saliva (AS) containing HA powder and 0, 10, 20, 50, or 100 ?g ml(-1) of casein, or 100 ?g ml(-1) of dephosphorylated casein (Dcasein), was incubated for 0-8 h at 37°C, pH 7.2. Calcium concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Surface precipitation of HA on bovine enamel and dentine blocks, incubated in similar conditions for 7 d, was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Casein adsorption was assessed using modified Lowry assays and zeta-potential measurements. The AAS results revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of calcium consumption. Hydroxyapatite precipitation occurred when no casein was present, whereas precipitation of HA was apparently completely inhibited in casein-containing groups. Adsorption data demonstrated increasingly negative zeta-potential with increased casein concentration and an affinity constant similar to proline-rich proteins with Langmuir modelling. Casein inhibited the deposition and growth of HA primarily through the binding of esterized phosphate to HA active sites, indicating its potential as a mineral-regulating salivary phosphoprotein homologue in vitro. PMID:26083784

  11. Characterization and In Vitro Corrosion Investigations of Thermal Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite-Titania Coatings on Ti Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarao, Tejinder Pal Singh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Singh, Harpreet

    2012-11-01

    In the current investigation, hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was mixed with titania (TiO2) in 50:50 wt pct for depositing composite coatings on a Ti-alloy substrate using a thermal-spray coating technique. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. HA and TiO2 (rutile) were the main phases observed in the developed coatings. Bulk HA coating was amorphous; however, the addition of TiO2 effectively improved the crystallinity of HA in HA-TiO2 coating. The SEM analysis confirmed the formation of a well-formed HA-TiO2 composite coating. HA coating exhibited higher bond strength (67.8 MPa) compared with HA-TiO2 composite coating (37.6 MPa). The electrochemical study showed a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of the Ti alloy after the deposition of the coatings.

  12. Posterolateral spinal fusion with ostegenesis induced BMSC seeded TCP/HA in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Shamsul, B S; Tan, K K; Chen, H C; Aminuddin, B S; Ruszymah, B H I

    2014-04-01

    Autogenous bone graft is the gold standard for fusion procedure. However, pain at donor site and inconsistent outcome have left a surgeon to venture into some other technique for spinal fusion. The objective of this study was to determine whether osteogenesis induced bone marrow stem cells with the combination of ceramics granules (HA or TCP/HA), and fibrin could serve as an alternative to generate spinal fusion. The sheep's bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were aspirated form iliac crest and cultured for several passages until confluence. BMSCs were trypsinized and seeded on hydroxyapatite scaffold (HA) and tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HA) for further osteogenic differentiation in the osteogenic medium one week before implantation. Six adult sheep underwent three-level, bilateral, posterolateral intertransverse process fusions at L1-L6. Three fusion sites in each animal were assigned to three treatments: (a) HA constructs group/L1-L2, (b) TCP/HA constructs group/L2-L3, and (c) autogenous bone graft group/L5-L6. The spinal fusion segments were evaluated using radiography, manual palpation, histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 12 weeks post implantation. The TCP/HA constructs achieved superior lumbar intertransverse fusion compared to HA construct but autogenous bone graft still produced the best fusion among all. PMID:24630213

  13. Physical Characteristics of Polymer Magnetic Microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasim A. Ali-Zade

    2004-01-01

    In this study the structure and the magnetic properties of polymer microspheres, filled with magnetite nanoparticles are investigated. Average particle size of magnetite nanoparticles before and after being introduced into polymer microspheres, and the distance between nanoparticles in the polymer microspheres, are measured. Magnetization curve of polymer magnetic microspheres (PMMS) is determined. The magnetic susceptibility of PMMS with various diameters,

  14. Osteogenic Properties of PBLG-g-HA/PLLA Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lan; Yang, Shuang; Miron, Richard J.; Wei, Junchao; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    New development of biomaterial scaffolds remains a prominent issue for the regeneration of lost or fractured bone. Of these scaffolds, a number of bioactive polymers have been synthesized and fabricated for diverse biological roles. Although recent evidence has demonstrated that composite scaffolds such as HA/PLLA have improved properties when compared to either HA or PLLA alone, recent investigations have demonstrated that the phase compatibility between HA and PLLA layers is weak preventing optimal enhancement of the mechanical properties and making the composites prone to breakdown. In the present study, poly (?-benzyl-L-glutamate) modified hydroxyapatite/(poly (L-lactic acid)) (PBLG-g-HA/PLLA) composite scaffolds were fabricated with improved phase compatibility and tested for their osteogenic properties in 18 Wistar female rats by analyzing new bone formation in 3 mm bilateral femur defects in vivo. At time points, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post surgery, bone formation was evaluated by µ-CT and histological analysis by comparing 4 treatment groups; 1) blank defect, 2) PLLA, 3) HA/PLLA and 4) PBLG-g-HA/PLLA scaffolds. The in vivo analysis demonstrated that new bone formation was much more prominent in HA/PLLA and PBLG-g-HA/PLLA groups as depicted by µ-CT, H&E staining and immunohistochemistry for collagen I. TRAP staining was also utilized to determine the influence of osteoclast cell number and staining intensity to the various scaffolds. No significant differences in either staining intensity or osteoclast numbers between all treatment modalities was observed, however blank defects did contain a higher number of osteoclast-like cells. The results from the present study illustrate the potential of PBLG-g-HA/PLLA scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by demonstrating favorable osteogenic properties. PMID:25184285

  15. Corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-silicon oxide coatings on AISI 304 for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and HAsbnd silicon oxide (SiO2) coated AISI 304 substrates. In HAsbnd SiO2 coatings, 10 wt% SiO2 and 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance was determined for the uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion resistance of the AISI 304 was found more after the deposition of the HAsbnd SiO2 coatings rather than HA coating and uncoated. All the coatings were crack free after 24 h dipping in Ringer's solution for electrochemical corrosion testing.

  16. Osteogenic responses to zirconia with hydroxyapatite coating by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y; Hong, J; Ryoo, H; Kim, D; Park, J; Han, J

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we found that osteogenic responses to zirconia co-doped with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) or tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) are comparable with responses to titanium, which is widely used as a dental implant material. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic potential of hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated zirconia by an aerosol deposition method for improved osseointegration. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction proved that a thin as-deposited HA film on zirconia showed a shallow, regular, crater-like surface. Deposition of dense and uniform HA films was measured by SEM, and the contact angle test demonstrated improved wettability of the HA-coated surface. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast attachment did not differ notably between the titanium and zirconia surfaces; however, cells on the HA-coated zirconia exhibited a lower proliferation than those on the uncoated zirconia late in the culture. Nevertheless, ALP, alizarin red S staining, and bone marker gene expression analysis indicated good osteogenic responses on HA-coated zirconia. Our results suggest that HA-coating by aerosol deposition improves the quality of surface modification and is favorable to osteogenesis. PMID:25586588

  17. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  18. Hydroxyapatite synthesis on solid surfaces using a biological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Mei, J.; Tse, Y. Y.; Jones, I. P.; Sammons, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many naturally occurring mineralisation processes yield hydroxyapatite (HA) or related salts, but biological routes to calcification have not generally been exploited for production of hydroxyapatite for clinical and industrial applications. Serratia sp. NCIMB 40259 is a non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of growing as a biofilm on many surfaces and can be used to form HA coatings on a variety of polymeric and metallic materials, including titanium. Here we review previous work and report the results of more recent studies on the influence of titanium compositional and surface properties on Serratia adherence and proliferation and biomineralisation on commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) discs and a Ti mesh. Bacterial adherence was equivalent on cpTi and Ti6Al4V, and biofilms formed on both rough and mirror-polished cpTi surfaces. Embedded alumina particles and alkali treatment did not noticeably alter the precipitation of Serratia HA, nor the structure of the coating in comparison with non-treated substrates. Coatings were retained after sintering at 800°C in argon, although the original curved plate-like crystals changed to nano-scale ?-tricalcium phosphate particles. A phosphorous-rich diffusion zone formed at the coating-titanium interface. Bacterial mineralisation may have applications as a method for producing coatings on implants in non load-bearing sites, and non-clinical applications where a high surface area is the major concern.

  19. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite from eggshells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M Rivera; Miguel Araiza; Witold Brostow; Victor M Castaño; J. R D??az-Estrada; R Hernández; J. Rogelio Rodr??guez

    1999-01-01

    A novel procedure to produce porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) from eggshells is reported. The process is carried out at an elevated temperature. HAp is the only apatite present in the reaction products, apart from minute fractions of certain other calcium compounds. The final product is characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition onto titanium mesh implants for cranioplasty applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu, A. C.; Socol, G.; Miroiu, F. M.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Ianculescu, A.; Poeata, I.; Chiriac, A.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the synthesis of advanced nanostructured hydroxyapatite thin films onto 3D titanium (Ti) mesh substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method. Morphological and structural investigations as well as pull-out tests proved the stoichiometric transfer of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) films along with their good adherence. In vivo tests were performed on 12 patients (six with simple Ti mesh, six with Ti mesh biofunctionalized with HA). The tomodensitometry analysis of the cranial control scans evidenced the process of osseogenesis. For four patients with implanted HA/Ti mesh structures, the modification of the value obtained on Hounsfield scale was observed at the level of implant, proving the progress of osseointegration. We conclude that the structures exhibit excellent bonding strength and functionality, and are suitable for neurosurgical applications.

  1. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1?m fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1?m microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  2. Does hydroxyapatite coating have no advantage over porous coating in primary total hip arthroplasty? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Lin; Lin, Tiao; Liu, An; Shi, Ming-Min; Hu, Bin; Shi, Zhong-Li; Yan, Shi-Gui

    2015-01-01

    There are some arguments between the use of hydroxyapatite and porous coating. Some studies have shown that there is no difference between these two coatings in total hip arthroplasty (THA), while several other studies have shown that hydroxyapatite has advantages over the porous one. We have collected the studies in Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library from the earliest possible years to present, with the search strategy of "(HA OR hydroxyapatite) AND ((total hip arthroplasty) OR (total hip replacement)) AND (RCT* OR randomiz* OR control* OR compar* OR trial*)". The randomized controlled trials and comparative observation trials that evaluated the clinical and radiographic effects between hydroxyapatite coating and porous coating were included. Our main outcome measurements were Harris hip score (HHS) and survival, while the secondary outcome measurements were osteolysis, radiolucent lines, and polyethylene wear. Twelve RCTs and 9 comparative observation trials were included. Hydroxyapatite coating could improve the HHS (p?hydroxyapatite coating had no advantages on survival (p?=?0.32), polyethylene wear (p?=?0.08), and radiolucent lines (p?=?0.78). Hydroxyapatite coating has shown to have an advantage over porous coating. The HHS and survival was duration-dependent-if given the sufficient duration of follow-up, hydroxyapatite coating would be better than porous coating for the survival. The properties of hydroxyapatite and the implant design had influence on thigh pain incidence, femoral osteolysis, and polyethylene wear. Thickness of 50 to 80 ?m and purity larger than 90% increased the thigh pain incidence. Anatomic design had less polyethylene wear. PMID:25626520

  3. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

    2013-10-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Grandfield, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada)], E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  5. The initial stability of cemented acetabular cups can be augmented by mixing morsellized bone grafts with tricalciumphosphate\\/hydroxyapatite particles in bone impaction grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. T Bolder; N Verdonschot; B. W Schreurs; P Buma

    2003-01-01

    Tricalciumphosphate (TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been suggested as bone graft substitutes in a wide range of applications. In this study, the initial stability of cemented acetabular cups was determined after reconstructing a combined cavitary and segmental defect in a realistic acetabular revision surgery model. The defects were reconstructed with mixes of TCP\\/HA particles and human bone grafts using the

  6. Formulating the effects of applied temperature and pressure of hot pressing process on the mechanical properties of polypropylene–hydroxyapatite bio-composites by response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Younesi; M. E. Bahrololoom

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of polypropylene–hydroxyapatite (PP–HA) bio-composites produced by hot press molding depend on different parameters, particularly the pressure and temperature of the hot pressing process. In this study, a mathematical models for the effects of the pressure and temperature of the hot pressing process on the mechanical properties of the polypropylene–hydroxyapatite composites is developed using a response surface methodology. Ultimate

  7. Synthesis and photoluminescence study of flower-like hydroxyapatite nanostructure for bioprobe applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. Suresh; Girija, E. K.; Thamizhavel, A.

    2013-02-01

    Biocompatible luminescent materials have received much attention for the development of novel bioprobes. In the present work, we have synthesized the flower-like hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructure from eggshell biowaste via a simple and rapid microwave conversion process. The synthesized product is identified as Mg containing B-type carbonated HA. It showed an intense blue emission between 360 nm to 550 nm with maximum around 430 nm under UV light excitation (?ex= 344 nm). This blue emission might result from the carbonate related impurities present in the structure of HA and it can be a potential luminescent material for the development biocompatible probes.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and cell behavior of fluoridated hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haibo

    Fluorine-containing hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4) 3(OH)1-xFx FHA), where F- partially replaces OH- in hydroxyapatite (HA), is recognized as a possible biomaterial for bone and tooth implants and gaining attention in the last several years as a possible alternative to HA. In this study, FHA powders were synthesized through a pH-cycling method. It was discovered that fluorine incorporation increased with the fluorine content in the initial solution and the number of pH cycles employed. A relatively low fluorine incorporation efficiency, ˜60%, was attained for most of the FHA samples. The short time of stay at each pH cycle and the limited number of cycles used are believed to be the main reasons of the low fluorine incorporation into the apatite structure. It was also revealed that the FHA particles produced by the pH-cycling method were inhomogeneous. They were a mixture of hydroxyapatite and F-rich apatite (or FA) particles. The mechanisms of incorporation of fluorine ions into hydroxyapatite by a pH cyclicing method were studied using TEM, XRD and fluorine measurement. Instead of forming laminated structures as reported by other research groups, a mixture of nano-sized F-rich apatite (FHA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were obtained using the pH-cyclicing method. After calcination, these FHA particles were homogenized and became single phased FHA. The effect of fluorine content, preparing method, and sintering temperature on both the bulk density and biaxial flexural strength of sintered FHA was studied. Both uniaxially pressed un-milled (UPU) and cold isostatically pressed milled (IPM) FHA discs were sintered at temperatures between 1200˜400°C at an interval of 100°C. It was found that the fluorine content had a significant impact on the sintering behavior, densification, and mechanical properties of FHA discs. A close correlation between the sintered density and biaxial flexural strength of the specimens was revealed, where the biaxial flexural strength increased exponentially with the sintered density. FHA discs with various fluorine contents have been used to investigate the effect of fluorine content on osteoblastic cell behaviors. Rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/28) cells were cultured on FHA discs for appropriate times. The osteoblastic cell behaviors were examined in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, morphology and differentiation. The fluorine content in FHA strongly affected the cell activities. More cell attachment and proliferation were observed on the fluorine-containing FHA than pure HA. Fluorine content also affected the differentiation behaviors of osteoblastic cells. Cells on fluorine-containing FHA had higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than pure HA in 2 weeks. The morphology of the cells showed that it took less time for cells to cover the surface of fluorine-containing samples than that of pure HA. These results suggested that fluorine ions had a significant impact on osteoblastic cell behaviors.

  9. Glass microsphere lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Michelle; Goode, Henry; Ohanlon, Sean; Pieloch, Stuart; Sorrells, Cindy; Willette, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The harsh lunar environment eliminated the consideration of most lubricants used on earth. Considering that the majority of the surface of the moon consists of sand, the elements that make up this mixture were analyzed. According to previous space missions, a large portion of the moon's surface is made up of fine grained crystalline rock, about 0.02 to 0.05 mm in size. These fine grained particles can be divided into four groups: lunar rock fragments, glasses, agglutinates (rock particles, crystals, or glasses), and fragments of meteorite material (rare). Analysis of the soil obtained from the missions has given chemical compositions of its materials. It is about 53 to 63 percent oxygen, 16 to 22 percent silicon, 10 to 16 percent sulfur, 5 to 9 percent aluminum, and has lesser amounts of magnesium, carbon, and sodium. To be self-supporting, the lubricant must utilize one or more of the above elements. Considering that the element must be easy to extract and readily manipulated, silicon or glass was the most logical choice. Being a ceramic, glass has a high strength and excellent resistance to temperature. The glass would also not contaminate the environment as it comes directly from it. If sand entered a bearing lubricated with grease, the lubricant would eventually fail and the shaft would bind, causing damage to the system. In a bearing lubricated with a solid glass lubricant, sand would be ground up and have little effect on the system. The next issue was what shape to form the glass in. Solid glass spheres was the only logical choice. The strength of the glass and its endurance would be optimal in this form. To behave as an effective lubricant, the diameter of the spheres would have to be very small, on the order of hundreds of microns or less. This would allow smaller clearances between the bearing and the shaft, and less material would be needed. The production of glass microspheres was divided into two parts, production and sorting. Production includes the manufacturing of the microspheres, while sorting entails deciphering the good microspheres from the bad ones. Each process is discussed in detail.

  10. pH-sensitive fluorescent hepatocyte-targeting multilayer polyelectrolyte hollow microspheres as a smart drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xubo; Liu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Novel multilayer polyelectrolyte hollow microspheres with pH-sensitive fluorescence and hepatocyte-targeting functions were successfully fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-modified chitosan (CSFITC) and sodium hyaluronate (HA) (as the polycation and polyanion, respectively) on polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) templates with galactosylated chitosan (GC) as the outermost layer; after etching the templates by dialysis, the aim was to use the microspheres to target hepatocytes specifically. TEM analysis revealed that they have a hollow structure with a particle size of about 260 nm, and DLS analysis demonstrated that they have pH and ionic strength dual-responsive characteristics. The hollow microspheres showed pH-sensitive fluorescence at a very low concentration by fluorescent emission spectra. MTT assays revealed that doxorubicin (a water-insoluble anticancer drug)-loaded (CSFITC/HA)4/GC hollow microspheres can specifically target hepatocytes and exhibit favorable cytocompatibility. Three typical model drugs were loaded into the (CSFITC/HA)4/GC hollow microspheres, and their drug-release kinetics in simulated body fluid (SBF) were estimated with different mathematical models. The results demonstrated that the drug-loading mechanism is chemosorption and the primary governing force for drug release is diffusion. Thus, the designed hollow microspheres are expected to be used for the diagnosis and therapy of hepatic cancer. PMID:24665978

  11. Processing of hydroxyapatite reinforced ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liming; Leng, Yang; Gao, Ping

    2005-06-01

    A new method for processing hydroxyapatite/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (HA/UHMWPE) composite has been developed by combining wet ball milling and swelling. Sintered HA particles were ground in ethanol to approximately 50 nm in diameter. The nano-sized HA particles were mechanically mixed with UHMWPE in the ball mill and then compression molded into solid slabs. The slabs were then swollen in a pharmaceutical grade paraffin oil to enhance the UHMWPE chain mobility and HA/UHMWPE interface adhesion before final hot press. The resultant composite exhibits a two-zone network structure formed by a homogeneous HA-rich phase and a UHMWPE-rich phase. This process resulted in a 90% increase in Young's modulus and a 50% increase in the yield strength of HA/UHMWPE composite, comparing with those of unfilled UHMWPE. PMID:15621236

  12. Synthesis of silver-incorporated hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for antimicrobial implant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Mou, Yanan; Wu, Shuilin; Man, H. C.

    2013-05-01

    Because of excellent osteoconductivity and resorbability, hydroxyapatite (HA) is commonly used as a bone substitute material or implant coating. Both ionic and metallic silver are considered to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial properties especially associated with biomaterial-related infections. The present work proposes a facile chemical reduction method to synthesize an Ag incorporated HA nanocomposite. Ammoniacal silver solution was firstly prepared and then added into the HA solution, followed by hydrazine hydrate (N2H4·H2O) being used to reduce the silver ions to metallic silver. The formed Ag nanoparticles had diameters of 20-30 nm and were firmly attached on the HA particle surfaces. This approach can also keep the integrity of the HA chemical structure and the morphology. The strain Escherichia coli was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the nanocomposite. An In vitro bacterial adhesion study indicated a significant enhancement in the antibacterial property of silver containing HA.

  13. Heat treatment's effects on hydroxyapatite powders in water vapor and air atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, A.; Ba?tan, F. E.; Erdo?an, G.; Üstel, F.

    2015-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA; Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is the main chemical constituent of bone tissue (~70%) as well as HA which is a calcium phosphate based ceramic material forms inorganic tissue of bone and tooth as hard tissues is used in production of prosthesis for synthetic bone, fractured and broken bone restoration, coating of metallic biomaterials and dental applications because of its bio compatibility. It is known that Hydroxyapatite decomposes with high heat energy after heat treatment. Therefore hydroxyapatite powders that heated in water vapor will less decomposed phases and lower amorphous phase content than in air atmosphere. In this study high purity hydroxyapatite powders were heat treated with open atmosphere furnace and water vapor atmosphere with 900, 1000, 1200 °C. Morphology of same powder size used in this process by SEM analyzed. Chemical structures of synthesized coatings have been examined by XRD. The determination of particle size and morphological structure of has been characterized by Particle Sizer, and SEM analysis, respectively. Weight change of sample was recorded by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) during heating and cooling.

  14. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-?-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 ?m), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  15. Sulfobetaine as a zwitterionic mediator for 3D hydroxyapatite mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingsheng; Song, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Both positively and negatively charged residues play pivotal roles in recruiting precursor ions or ion clusters, and lowering interfacial energy in natural biomineralization process. Synergistic utilization of opposite charges, however, has rarely been implemented in the design of cytocompatible synthetic scaffolds promoting hydroxyapatite (HA)-mineralization and osteointegration. We report the use of cytocompatible zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands to enable 3-dimensional in vitro mineralization of HA across covalently crosslinked hydrogels. The overall charge-neutral zwitterionic hydrogel effectively recruited oppositely charged precursor ions while overcame excessive swelling exhibited by anionic and cationic hydrogels under physiological conditions, resulting in denser and structurally well-integrated mineralized composites. Further controls over the size, content, and spatial distribution of the mineral domains within the zwitterionic hydrogel are accomplished by facile adjustments of hydrogel crosslinking densities and the supersaturation rate governing heterogeneous mineral nucleation and growth. These findings should inspire many creative uses of zwitterionic polymers and polymer coatings for skeletal tissue repair and regeneration. PMID:23332320

  16. A new synthesis of hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Weng; J. L. Baptista

    1997-01-01

    An ethylene glycol solution of Ca(OAC)2.xH2O and a butanol solution of P2O5 were used as precursors to produce hydroxyapatite. Acetic acid (HOAC) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) acted as a stabilizer and an oxidizer, respectively, during the process. A stable mixed solution of the two precursors could be obtained by adding acetic acid in the HOACCa ratio of 2. As-prepared powders

  17. Mechanisms of uranium interactions with hydroxyapatite: implications for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C C; Bargar, J R; Davis, J A; Piana, M J

    2002-01-15

    The speciation of U(VI) sorbed to synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a combination of U LIII-edge XAS, synchrotron XRD, batch uptake measurements, and SEM-EDS. The mechanisms of U(VI) removal by apatite were determined in order to evaluate the feasibility of apatite-based in-situ permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). In batch U(VI) uptake experiments with synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA), near complete removal of dissolved uranium (>99.5%) to <0.05 microM was observed over a range of total U(VI) concentrations up to equimolar of the total P in the suspension. XRD and XAS analyses of U(VI)-reacted HA at sorbed concentrations < or = 4,700 ppm U(VI) suggested that uranium(VI) phosphate, hydroxide, and carbonate solids were not present at these concentrations. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate the presence of Ca neighbors at 3.81 A. U-Ca separation, suggesting that U(VI) adsorbs to the HA surfaces as an inner-sphere complex. Uranium(VI) phosphate solid phases were not detected in HA with 4700 ppm sorbed U(VI) by backscatter SEM or EDS, in agreement with the surface complexation process. In contrast, U(VI) speciation in samples that exceeded 7000 ppm sorbed U(VI) included a crystalline uranium(VI) phosphate solid phase, identified as chernikovite by XRD. At these higher concentrations, a secondary, uranium(VI) phosphate solid was detected by SEM-EDS, consistent with chernikovite precipitation. Autunite formation occurred at total U:P molar ratios > or = 0.2. Our findings provide a basis for evaluating U(VI) sorption mechanisms by commercially available natural apatites for use in development of PRBs for groundwater U(VI) remediation. PMID:11827049

  18. Ion-beam-modified surfaces as substrates for hydroxyapatite growth induced by laser-liquid-solid interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Pramatarova; Emilia Pecheva; Todor S. Petrov; Nikolai I. Minkovski; Alexey Kondyurin; Radina Pramatarova

    2004-01-01

    In this study stainless steel, silicon and silica glass are used as representatives of metal, semiconductor and isolator with the purpose to create an experimental model for studying the formation of minerals like hydroxyapatite (HA, the bone and teeth mineral part) from aqueous solutions. The samples are Na+ implanted and consequently subjected to thermal treatment in air at 873 K.

  19. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Elsholz, William E. (Acampo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  20. A new approach for the one-step synthesis of bioactive PS vs. PMMA silica hybrid microspheres as potential drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, A; Efthimiadou, E K; Boukos, N; Kordas, G

    2014-05-01

    In this work, hybrid microspheres were prepared in a two-step process combining the emulsifier free-emulsion polymerization and the sol-gel coating method. In the first step, polystyrene (St) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres were prepared as sacrificial template and in the second step a silanol shell was fabricated. The functionalized surface of the hybrid microspheres by silane analogs (APTES, TEOS) resulted in enhanced effects. The hollow microspheres were resulted either in an additional step by template dissolution and/or during the coating process. The microspheres' surface interactions and the size distribution were optimized by treatment in simulated body fluids, which resulted in the in vitro prediction of bioactivity. The bioassay test indicated that the induced hydroxyapatite resembled in structure to naturally occurring bone apatite. The drug doxorubicin (DOX) was used as a model entity for the evaluation of drug loading and release. The drug release study was performed in two different pH conditions, at acidic (pH=4.5) close to cancer cell environment and at slightly basic pH (pH=7.4) resembling the orthopedic environment. The results of the present study indicated promising hybrid microspheres for the potential application as drug delivery vehicles, for dual orthopedic functionalities in bone defects, bone inflammation, bone cancer and bone repair. PMID:24670261

  1. Increased risk of revision of acetabular cups coated with hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Lazarinis, Stergios; Kärrholm, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main inorganic component of bone, and HA coating is widely used on acetabular cups in hip arthroplasty. It has been suggested that this surface finish improves cup survival. Methods All patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2007 with an uncemented acetabular implant that was available either with or without HA coating were identified. 8,043 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with the most common cup types (Harris-Galante, Romanus, and Trilogy) were investigated. A Cox regression model including type of coating, age, sex, primary diagnosis, cup type, and type of stem fixation was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (RRs) for the risk of revision. Results HA coating was a risk factor for cup revision due to aseptic loosening (adjusted RR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3–2). Age at primary arthroplasty of < 50 years, a diagnosis of pediatric hip disease, the use of a cemented stem, and the Romanus and Harris-Galante cup types were also associated with statistically significantly increased risk of cup revision due to aseptic loosening. Interpretation Our findings question the routine use of HA-coated cups in primary total hip arthroplasty. With some designs, this practice may even increase the risk of loosening—resulting in revision surgery. PMID:19968603

  2. Nanocomposite bone scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johannes; Lu, Lichun; Runge, M Brett; Zeng, Heng; Yaszemski, Michael J; Dadsetan, Mahrokh

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, development of an osteoconductive construct that integrates with host tissue remains a challenge. In this work, the effect of bone-like minerals on maturation of pre-osteoblast cells was investigated using polymer-mineral scaffolds composed of poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(caprolactone) (PPF-co-PCL) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA). The HA of varying concentrations was added to an injectable formulation of PPF-co-PCL and the change in thermal and mechanical properties of the scaffolds was evaluated. No change in onset of degradation temperature was observed due to the addition of HA, however compressive and tensile moduli of copolymer changed significantly when HA amounts were increased in composite formulation. The change in mechanical properties of copolymer was found to correlate well to HA concentration in the constructs. Electron microscopy revealed mineral nucleation and a change in surface morphology and the presence of calcium and phosphate on surfaces was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. To characterize the effect of mineral on attachment and maturation of pre-osteoblasts, W20-17 cells were seeded on HA/copolymer composites. We demonstrated that cells attached more to the surface of HA containing copolymers and their proliferation rate was significantly increased. Thus, these findings suggest that HA/PPF-co-PCL composite scaffolds are capable of inducing maturation of pre-osteoblasts and have the potential for use as scaffold in bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 2549-2557, 2015. PMID:25504776

  3. Thermodynamics of Statherin Adsorption onto Hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rivka Goobes; Gil Goobes; Charles T. Campbell; Patrick S. Stayton

    2006-01-01

    Statherin is a salivary protein that inhibits the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in the supersaturated environment of the oral cavity. The thermodynamics of adsorption of statherin onto hydroxyapatite crystals have been characterized here by isothermal titration calorimetry and equilibrium adsorption isotherm analysis. At 25 °C, statherin adsorption is characterized by an exothermic enthalpy of 3 kcal\\/mol that diminishes

  4. Plasma spraying of zirconia-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium: Part I Phase, microstructure and bonding strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E CHANG; W. J CHANG; B. C WANG; C. Y YANG

    1997-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings applied to metal substrates can induce a direct chemical bond with bone and hence achieve biological fixation of the implant. However, the poor bonding strength between HA and substrate has been of concern to orthopaedists. In this study, two submicrometre ZrO2 powders stabilized with both 3 and 8 mol% Y2O3 (TZ3Y and TZ8Y, respectively) were incorporated

  5. Reduced bone tunnel enlargement post hamstring ACL reconstruction with poly- l-lactic acid\\/hydroxyapatite bioabsorbable screws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Robinson; Chris Huber; Paul Jaraj; Philippe Colombet; Michel Allard; Philippe Meyer

    2006-01-01

    Bone tunnel enlargement following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can complicate revision surgery. This study compared postoperative tibial tunnel widening in patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted, single-incision, four-strand hamstring ACL reconstruction using a poly-l-lactic acid\\/hydroxyapatite blend (PLLA+HA) bioabsorbable interference screw for tibial fixation, with those in whom a plain poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) screw was used. Thirty-four patients (13 with PLLA+HA

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the growth kinetics of biomimetically grown hydroxyapatite thin-film coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. McLeod; S. Kumar; N. K. Dutta; R. St. C. Smart; N. H. Voelcker; G. I. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin-film coatings grown biomimetically using simulated body fluid (SBF) are desirable for a range of applications such as improved fixation of fine- and complex-shaped orthopedic and dental implants, tissue engineering scaffolds and localized and sustained drug delivery. There is a dearth of knowledge on two key aspects of SBF-grown HA coatings: (i) the growth kinetics over short deposition

  7. Lack of repair of rat skull critical size defect treated with bovine morphometric protein bound to microgranular bioabsorbable hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Ramalho Ferreira; Tania Mary Cestari; José Mauro Granjeiro; Rumio Taga

    2004-01-01

    The ability of a pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins bound to synthetic microgranular hydroxyapatite (BMPb-HA) to stimulate bone repair was determined in rat critical size defects. An 8-mm diameter defect was created in the calvaria of 25 rats. In 15 rats, the defects were filled with BMPb-HA homogenized with blood (experimental group), and in 10 rats the defects were

  8. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite\\/chitosan\\/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Liuyun; Li Yubao; Xiong Chengdong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA\\/CS\\/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA\\/CS\\/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR), transmission electron microscope(TEM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), universal material testing machine and

  9. Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

  10. Development and characterization of titanium-containing hydroxyapatite for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Best, S M; Bonfield, W; Buckland, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite containing levels of titanium (TiHA) of up to 1.6 wt.% has been produced via a chemical co-precipitation route. The distribution of Ti was seen by transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to be uniform throughout as-prepared nanosized TiHA particles (20 nm x 100 nm). The incorporation of Ti into the HA structure was found to influence the ceramic microstructure on sintering and the grain size was found to decrease from 0.89 microm with HA to 0.63 microm with 0.8 wt.% TiHA (0.8 TiHA) and 0.45 microm with 1.6 wt.% TiHA (1.6 TiHA). Rietveld refinement analysis showed that there was a proportional increase in both the a and c axis with incorporation of Ti into the HA lattice structure, leading to an increase in the cell volume with the addition of Ti. Fourier transform-Raman analysis showed a slight increase in the ratio of O-H/P-O peaks on TiHA, in comparison with HA. A bone-like apatite layer was formed on the surface of TiHA after immersion in simulated body fluid for 3 days, which demonstrated the high in vitro bioactivity of TiHA. In vitro culture with primary human osteoblast (HOB) cells revealed that TiHA was able to support the growth and proliferation of HOB cells in vitro, with a significantly higher cell activity being observed on 0.8 TiHA after 7 days of culture in comparison with that on HA. Well-organized actin cytoskeletal protein was developed after 1 day of culture, and an increase in cell filopodia (attachment) was observed on TiHA sample surfaces. The results indicate that TiHA has great potential for biomedical applications. PMID:19577668

  11. The impact of the RGD peptide on osteoblast adhesion and spreading on zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite surface.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Elena; Hausen, Moema; Costa, Andrea M; Alves, Gutemberg; Mello, Alexandre; Ospina, C A; Mir, M; Granjeiro, José M; Rossi, Alexandre M

    2013-05-01

    The incorporation of zinc into the hydroxyapatite structure (ZnHA) has been proposed to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Another approach to improve cell adhesion and hydroxyapatite (HA) performance is coating HA with adhesive proteins or peptides such as RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid). The present study investigated the adhesion of murine osteoblastic cells to non-sintered zinc-substituted HA disks before and after the adsorption of RGD. The incorporation of zinc into the HA structure simultaneously changed the topography of disk's surface on the nanoscale and the disk's surface chemistry. Fluorescence microscopy analyses using RGD conjugated to a fluorescein derivative demonstrated that ZnHA adsorbed higher amounts of RGD than non-substituted HA. Zinc incorporation into HA promoted cell adhesion and spreading, but no differences in the cell density, adhesion and spreading were detected when RGD was adsorbed onto ZnHA. The pre-treatment of disks with fetal bovine serum (FBS) greatly increased the cell density and cell surface area for all RGD-free groups, overcoming the positive contribution of zinc to cell adhesion. The presence of RGD on the ZnHA surface impaired the effects of FBS pre-treatment possibly due to competition between FBS proteins and RGD for surface binding sites. PMID:23494616

  12. A new bone repair scaffold combined with chitosan\\/hydroxyapatite and sustained releasing icariin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Wu; KaiHui Nan; JingDi Chen; Dan Jin; Shan Jiang; PeiRan Zhao; JunChang Xu; Hao Du; XiaoQiang Zhang; JianWei Li; GuoXian Pei

    2009-01-01

    Icariin, a plant-derived flavonol glycoside, has been proved as an osteoinductive agent for bone tissue engineering. A new\\u000a bone repair scaffold was generated by thorough mixing of icariin and chitosan\\/hydroxyapatite (icariin-CS\\/HA) using freeze-drying\\u000a technigue. Characteristics of morphology, mechanical properties, biocompatibility, drug release behavior and bone repair abilities\\u000a in vivo were evaluated. The results show that drug loading process of icariin

  13. Improvement of Hydroxyapatite Sol-Gel Coating on Titanium with Ammonium Hydroxide Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae-Won Kim; Hyoun-Ee Kim

    2005-01-01

    Small amounts (1-5 vol%) of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) were added to the ethanol-water-based hydroxyapatite (HA) sol-gel solution. After aging the sol, a Ti substrate was dip- coated and heat-treated at 5001C for 1 h in air. The sol prop- erties were monitored in terms of pH, viscosity, and structure changes with aging time; also, the coating phase and structure on

  14. Preparation and Properties of Biodegradable Composites Derived from Poly(lactide-co-glycolide), Poly (L-lactide) and Nano-hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Chen; Liwen Zhang; Xiao Liu; Yanjun Cui; Guanghui Zhao; Yanfeng Li

    2012-01-01

    Poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly (L-lactide) (PLLA), and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were used to prepare a biodegradable bone fixation composite PLGA\\/PLLA\\/HA via blending and melt-molding methods. The ratio of PLGA, PLLA and HA was set to 75.0, 20.0 and 5.0 wt.%, respectively, and the neat PLGA and PLGA \\/PLLA blend were used as controls. Thermal properties were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  15. Production of hydroxyapatite layers on the plasma electrolytically oxidized surface of titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lugovskoy, Alex; Lugovskoy, Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material that is widely used for improving the osseointegration of titanium dental implants. Titanium can be coated with HA by various methods, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), thermal spray, or plasma spray. HA coatings can also be grown on titanium surfaces by hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical methods. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), or microarc oxidation (MAO), is an electrochemical method that enables the production of a thick porous oxide layer on the surface of a titanium implant. If the electrolyte in which PEO is performed contains calcium and phosphate ions, the oxide layer produced may contain hydroxyapatite. The HA content can then be increased by subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The HA thus produced on titanium surfaces has attractive properties, such as a high porosity, a controllable thickness, and a considerable density, which favor its use in dental and bone surgery. This review summarizes the state of the art and possible further development of PEO for the production of HA on Ti implants. PMID:25175246

  16. The effect of pressure during sintering on the strength and the fracture toughness of hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawai, Wataru; Wakayama, Shuichi

    2006-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is known to be biocompatible and osteoconductive, and can be synthesized chemically. The objective of the present study is to clarify the effect of pressure during sintering on the mechanical properties of HA. HA was sintered using a hot press system at a uniaxial pressure ranging from 7.81 to 62.5 MPa at a maximum temperature of 1200 degrees C with a heating rate of 10 degrees C/min. The density of the HA increased with increasing pressure and peaked at the sintering pressure of 31.2 MPa. Four-points bending tests and fracture toughness measurements with indentation method were conducted to clarify the effect of sintering pressure. Bending strength decreased at the pressure > 31.2 MPa. This result indicates that residual stress generated during sintering process became larger with increasing pressure. Fracture toughness were also lower with high density HA. PMID:17122923

  17. Mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite thin films for applications in medical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunbin; Catledge, Shane A.; Camata, Renato P.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Lacefield, William R.

    2002-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) allows control over the structure and composition of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings used on orthopedic and dental implants. It enables the optimization of the coating mechanical properties that are critical for good implant performance. In this paper we have studied the mechanical properties of crystalline HA films deposited by PLD (Nd:YAG laser, 532 nm). HA films with thickness in the sub-micron range were deposited on Ti6Al4V and X-ray diffraction of the films reveals high HA crystallinity. Atomic force microscopy was performed to study film morphology. Nanoindentation measurements on the coatings have yielded hardness of (4.9 ± 1.1) GPa and elastic modulus of (105 ± 18) GPa, establishing the usefulness of the coatings for implant applications, as they meet current standards of clinically approved implant coatings. Scratch tests results and a new PLD strategy for nanostructured HA films under development in our group will be discussed.

  18. Size controlled hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate particles: synthesis and their application as templates for SERS platform.

    PubMed

    Parakhonskiy, B V; Svenskaya, Yu I; Yashchenok, A ?; Fattah, H A; Inozemtseva, O A; Tessarolo, F; Antolini, R; Gorin, D A

    2014-06-01

    An elegant route for hydroxyapatite (HA) particle synthesis via ionic exchange reaction is reported. Calcium carbonate particles (CaCO3) were recrystallized into HA beads in water solution with phosphate ions. The size of initial CaCO3 particles was controlled upon the synthesis by varying the amount of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous solution. The average size of HA beads ranged from 0.6±0.1 to 4.3±1.1?m. Silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of HA and CaCO3 particles via silver mirror reaction. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of silver functionalized beads was demonstrated by detecting Rhodamine B. CaCO3 and HA particles have a great potential for design of carrier which can provide diagnostic and therapeutic functions. PMID:24802965

  19. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Markel, David C.; Wang, Sunxi; Shi, Tong; Mao, Guangzhao; Ren, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is due to the lack of early implant osseointegration. In this study polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite (PVA-Col-HA) electrospun nanofibrous meshes were fabricated as a biomimetic bone-like extracellular matrix for the modification of orthopedic prosthetic surfaces. In order to reinforce the PVA nanofibers, HA nanorods and Type I collagen were incorporated into the nanofibers. We investigated the morphology, biodegradability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the prepared nanofibers. Our results showed these inorganic-organic blended nanofibers to be degradable in vitro. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen interacted with the PVA content, reinforcing the hydrolytic resistance and mechanical properties of nanofibers that provided longer lasting stability. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen also enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of murine bone cells (MC3T3) in vitro. We propose the PVA-Col-HA nanofibers might be promising modifying materials on implant surfaces for orthopedic applications.

  20. Osteolysis from a press-fit hydroxyapatite-coated implant. A case study.

    PubMed

    Bloebaum, R D; Dupont, J A

    1993-04-01

    The clinical and histological results of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating separation from a press-fit total hip arthroplasty 3.3 years after surgery are documented. Semiquantitative histological analysis showed grade 3+ mononuclear histiocytes and giant cells present in the retrieved capsule and periprosthetic tissues. Grade 3+ (titanium alloy, HA, and polyethylene) particles could be seen throughout the tissues. Backscattered electron and correlated elemental analysis confirmed that the HA coating had migrated to the articulating surface of the polyethylene insert causing third-body wear. The authors suggest that the orthopedic surgeon be cautioned in the routine use of HA-coated implants if osteolysis associated with HA separation and migration is to be avoided. PMID:8386748

  1. [Preparation and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite bio-film].

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhihong; Li, Yubao; Zhang, Li; Zou, Qin

    2009-06-01

    Through Hydroxyl (-OH) reacting with isocyanate group (-NCO), 13 Wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA)/polyurethane (PU) composite guided bone regeneration membrane was synthesized by use of solvent evaporation method. Its surface character was analyzed by XRD, IR, TG, contact angle, water absorption, elongation and combustion test and SEM. The results indicate that nano-HA/PU has good homogeneity,the interface between the inorganic mineral and organic polymer is optimized to create proper combination; that n-HA crystals are similar to the apatite crystals in natural bone, HA/PU composite membrane has good hydrophilicity mechanical behavior; and that many pores are observed on the membrane which help cells' metabolism. So the HA/PU composite membrane, thus prepared, has the potential for use in guided bone regeneration and tissue engineering. PMID:19634670

  2. Affinity of the interface between hydroxyapatite (0001) and titanium (0001) surfaces: a first-principles investigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin P; Dai, Jianhong; Song, Yan; Wang, You; Yang, Rui

    2014-12-10

    A basic understanding of the affinity between the hydroxyapatite (HA) and ?-Ti surfaces is obtained through electronic structure calculations by first-principles method. The surface energies of HA(0001), HA (011?0), HA (101?1), and Ti(0001) surfaces have been calculated. The HA(0001) presents the most thermodynamically stable of HA. The HA/Ti interfaces were constructed by two kinds of interface models, the single interface (denoted as SI) and the double-interface (denoted as DI). Two methods, the full relaxation and the UBER, were applied to determine the interfacial separation and the atomic arrangement in the interfacial zone. The works of adhesion of interfaces with various stoichiometric HA surfaces were evaluated. For the HA(0001)/Ti(0001) interfaces, the work of adhesion is strongly dependent on the chemical environment of the HA surface. The values are -2.33, -1.52, and -0.80 J/m(2) for the none-, single-, and double-Ca terminated HA/Ti interfaces, respectively. The influence of atomic relaxation on the work of adhesion and interface separation is discussed. Full relaxation results include -1.99 J/m(2) work of adhesion and 0.220 nm separation between HA and Ti for the DI of 1-Ca-HA/Ti interface, while they are -1.14 J/m(2) and 0.235 nm by partial relaxation. Analysis of electronic structure reveals that charge transfer between HA and Ti slabs occurs during the formation of the HA/Ti interface. The transfer generates the Ti-O or Ti-Ca bonds across the interface and drives the HA/Ti interface system to metallic characteristic. The energetically favorable interfaces are formed when the outmost layer of HA comprises more O atoms at the interface. PMID:25390283

  3. The enamel protein amelotin is a promoter of hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Abbarin, Nastaran; San Miguel, Symone; Holcroft, James; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ganss, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure, indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P)S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation stage of amelogenesis. PMID:25407797

  4. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  5. Development and Characterization of Biphasic Hydroxyapatite/?-TCP Cements

    PubMed Central

    Gallinetti, Sara; Canal, Cristina; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ferreira, J

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) have relevant properties as synthetic bone grafts, such as tunable resorption, bioactivity, and intrinsic osteoinduction. However, they have some limitations associated to their condition of high-temperature ceramics. In this work self-setting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cements (BCPCs) with different HA/?-TCP ratios were obtained from self-setting ?-TCP/?-TCP pastes. The strategy used allowed synthesizing BCPCs with modulated composition, compressive strength, and specific surface area. Due to its higher solubility, ?-TCP was fully hydrolyzed to a calcium-deficient HA (CDHA), whereas ?-TCP remained unreacted and completely embedded in the CDHA matrix. Increasing amounts of the non-reacting ?-TCP phase resulted in a linear decrease of the compressive strength, in association to the decreasing amount of precipitated HA crystals, which are responsible for the mechanical consolidation of apatitic cements. Ca2+ release and degradation in acidic medium was similar in all the BCPCs within the timeframe studied, although differences might be expected in longer term studies once ?-TCP, the more soluble phase was exposed to the surrounding media. PMID:25866411

  6. Analysis of human alveolar osteoblast behavior on a nano-hydroxyapatite substrate: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is a potential ideal biomaterial for bone regeneration. However, studies have yet to characterize the behavior of human osteoblasts derived from alveolar bone on nHA. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of nHA on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of these alveolar bone-derived cells. Methods Primary human alveolar osteoblasts were collected from the alveolar ridge of a male periodontal patient during osseous resective surgery and grown on culture plates coated with either polylysine or polylysine with nano-hydroxyapatite (POL/nHA) composite. The cells were grown and observed for 14 days, and then assessed for potential modifications to osteoblasts homeostasis as evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results Real time PCR revealed a significant increase in the expression of the selected markers of osteoblast differentiation (bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2,-5,-7, ALP, COLL-1A2, OC, ON) in cells grown on the POL/nHA substrate. In addition, as compared with the POL surface, cells grown on the POL/nHA substrate demonstrated better osteoconductive properties, as demonstrated by the increase in adhesion and spreading, likely as a result of the increased surface roughness of the composite. Conclusions The increased expression of BMPs and osteoinductive biomarkers suggest that nano-hydroxyapatite may stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of local alveolar osteoblasts and thus encourage bone regeneration at sites of alveolar bone regeneration. PMID:24650194

  7. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Deluca, Patrick P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50?:?50 and 75?:?25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40?mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50?:?50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75?:?25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

  8. Development of Risperidone PLGA Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Susan; Faraj, Jabar A.; Giovagnoli, Stefano; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and evaluate biodegradable PLGA microspheres for sustained delivery of Risperidone, with an eventual goal of avoiding combination therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Two PLGA copolymers (50?:?50 and 75?:?25) were used to prepare four microsphere formulations of Risperidone. The microspheres were characterized by several in vitro techniques. In vivo studies in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 and 40?mg/kg doses revealed that all formulations exhibited an initial burst followed by sustained release of the active moiety. Additionally, formulations prepared with 50?:?50 PLGA had a shorter duration of action and lower cumulative AUC levels than the 75?:?25 PLGA microspheres. A simulation of multiple dosing at weekly or 15-day regimen revealed pulsatile behavior for all formulations with steady state being achieved by the second dose. Overall, the clinical use of Formulations A, B, C, or D will eliminate the need for combination oral therapy and reduce time to achieve steady state, with a smaller washout period upon cessation of therapy. Results of this study prove the suitability of using PLGA copolymers of varying composition and molecular weight to develop sustained release formulations that can tailor in vivo behavior and enhance pharmacological effectiveness of the drug. PMID:24616812

  9. Microspheres and nanoparticles from ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Won Hyuk

    Improved preparations of various examples of monodispersed, porous, hollow, and core-shell metal and semiconductor nanoparticles or nanowires have been developed. Now titania microspheres and nanoparticles and silica microspheres can be synthesized using an inexpensive high frequency (1.7 MHz) ultrasonic generator (household humidifier; ultrasonic spray pyrolysis; USP). Morphology and pore size of titania microspheres were controlled by the silica to Ti(IV) ratio and silica particle size. Fine tuning the precursor ratio affords sub-50 nm titania nanoparticles as well. In terms of silica microspheres, morphology was controlled by the silica to organic monomer ratio. In liquids irradiated with high intensity ultrasound (20 kHz; HIUS), acoustic cavitation produces high energy chemistry through intense local heating inside the gas phase of collapsing bubbles in the liquid. HIUS and USP confine the chemical reactions to isolated sub-micron reaction zones, but sonochemistry does so in a heated gas phase within a liquid, while USP uses a hot liquid droplet carried by a gas flow. Thus, USP can be viewed as a method of phase-separated synthesis using submicron-sized droplets as isolated chemical reactors for nanomaterial synthesis. While USP has been used to create both titania and silica spheres separately, there are no prior reports of titania-silica composites. Such nanocomposites of metal oxides have been produced, and by further manipulation, various porous structures with fascinating morphologies were generated. Briefly, a precursor solution was nebulized using a commercially available household ultrasonic humidifier (1.7 MHz ultrasound generator), and the resulting mist was carried in a gas stream of air through a quartz glass tube in a hot furnace. After exiting the hot zone, these microspheres are porous or hollow and in certain cases magnetically responsive. In the case of titania microspheres, they are rapidly taken up into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and nearly noncytoxic. Small molecules like Rhodamine and DHED (dehydroevodiamine HCl; Alzheimer's disease therapeutic) can be delivered along with them. Furthermore, synthesis of carbon nanoparticles and titanate nanotube species are possible utilizing these microspheres. Characterizations were done by SEM, (S)TEM, optical/confocal microscopy, XRD, XPS, EDS, SAED, zeta potential, and BET.

  10. Modeling scattered intensity from microspheres in evanescent field 

    E-print Network

    Shah, Suhani Kiran

    2009-05-15

    of the microsphere/surface separation. Additionally, larger microspheres have the ability to resonantly confine light and produce spectrally narrow Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs). It is hypothesized that WGMs may be excited in microspheres with the DCPM system...

  11. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of bone osseointegration of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite implants*

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dan-li; Jiang, Qiao-hong; He, Fu-ming; Yang, Guo-li; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) on bone osseointegration of the implants using fluorescence microscopy. We allocated 20 implants to two groups: Sr-HA group and HA group. Electrochemically deposited HA and Sr-HA coatings were applied onto the implants separately. All the implants were inserted into femur bone of rabbits. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, alizarin-complexon, and calcein green were respectively administered 7, 28, and 46 d after the implantation. After eight weeks, femurs were retrieved and prepared for the fluorescence microscopy observation. We analyzed the bone mineral apposition rates (MARs), bone area ratios (BARs), and bone to implant contact (BIC) of the two groups. Fluorescence microscopic observation showed that all groups exhibited extensive early peri-implant bone formation. The MAR of the Sr-HA group was greater than that for pure HA from 7 to 28 d after implantation, but no significant difference was found at later stage. And the BIC showed difference at 7 and 28 d compared with pure HA. We concluded that Sr-HA coating can improve the bone osseointegration of the implant in the early stage compared with the HA coating. PMID:22556174

  12. Structural characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and adhesion of pre-osteoblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Eibl, Oliver; Berthold, Christoph; Scheideler, Lutz; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (Nano HA), a prototype of minerals of bones and teeth, attracts increasing interest in medicine and dentistry. Different parameters for synthesis and post-treatment were investigated to determine their effects on crystallinity of nano HA, and in vitro cell responses to nano HA were studied. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that the crystallinity of nano HA synthesized by a chemical method was within the range of 15-50 nm, which is adapted to natural minerals of hard tissues. Increasing the ageing temperature significantly increased the crystallinity of nano HA, while lengthening the ageing time or varying the post-ageing drying process did not have any influence on its crystallinity. Nano HA annealed between 300 and 900 °C showed a small increase in crystallinity with increasing annealing temperature due to the long-range ordering effect. Cell attachment and spreading on nano HA were lower than those on pure titanium, and decreased as the crystallinity of nano HA increased. However, cells on nano HA demonstrated well-developed filopodia and lamelliopodia, which facilitate migration of the cells on it. This may benefit osteogenesis at the interface between bone and nano HA in vivo.

  13. Biomimetic helical rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for improving orthopedic implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijie; Chen, Yupeng; Rodriguez, Jose; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Natural bone consists of hard nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in a nanostructured protein-based soft hydrogel template (ie, mostly collagen). For this reason, nanostructured HA has been an intriguing coating material on traditionally used titanium for improving orthopedic applications. In addition, helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs), newly developed materials which form through the self-assembly process of DNA base pair building blocks in body solutions, are soft nanotubes with a helical architecture that mimics natural collagen. Thus, the objective of this in vitro study was for the first time to combine the promising attributes of HRNs and nanocrystalline HA on titanium and assess osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions. Different sizes of nanocrystalline HA were synthesized in this study through a wet chemical precipitation process following either hydrothermal treatment or sintering. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that HRNs aligned with nanocrystalline HA, which indicates a high affinity between both components. Some of the nanocrystalline HA formed dense coatings with HRNs on titanium. More importantly, results demonstrated enhanced osteoblast adhesion on the HRN/nanocrystalline HA-coated titanium compared with conventional uncoated titanium. Among all the HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings tested, osteoblast adhesion was the greatest when HA nanometer particle size was the smallest. In this manner, this study demonstrated for the first time that biomimetic HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings on titanium were cytocompatible for osteoblasts and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic implants. PMID:18990941

  14. A chondromimetic microsphere for in situ spatially controlled chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ansboro, Sharon; Hayes, Jessica S; Barron, Valerie; Browne, Shane; Howard, Linda; Greiser, Udo; Lalor, Pierce; Shannon, Fintan; Barry, Frank P; Pandit, Abhay; Murphy, J Mary

    2014-04-10

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been identified as a viable cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. However, to undergo chondrogenic differentiation hMSCs require growth factors, in particular members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) family. While in vitro differentiation is feasible through continuous supplementation of TGF-?3, mechanisms to control and drive hMSCs down the chondrogenic lineage in their native microenvironment remain a significant challenge. The release of TGF-?3 from an injectable microsphere composed of the cartilage-associated extracellular matrix molecule hyaluronan represents a readily translatable approach for in situ differentiation of hMSCs for cartilage repair. In this study, chondromimetic hyaluronan microspheres were used as a growth factor delivery source for hMSC chondrogenesis. Cellular compatibility of the microspheres (1.2 and 14.1 ?m) with hMSCs was shown and release of TGF-?3 from the most promising 14.1 ?m microspheres to control differentiation of hMSCs was evaluated. Enhanced accumulation of cartilage-associated glycosaminoglycans by hMSCs incubated with TGF-?3-loaded microspheres was seen and positive staining for collagen type II and proteoglycan confirmed successful in vitro chondrogenesis. Gene expression analysis showed significantly increased expression of the chondrocyte-associated genes, collagen type II and aggrecan. This delivery platform resulted in significantly less collagen type X expression, suggesting the generation of a more stable cartilage phenotype. When evaluated in an ex vivo osteoarthritic cartilage model, implanted hMSCs with TGF-?3-loaded HA microspheres were detected within cartilage fibrillations and increased proteoglycan staining was seen in the tissue. In summary, data presented here demonstrate that TGF-?3-bound hyaluronan microspheres provide a suitable delivery system for induction of hMSC chondrogenesis and their use may represent a clinically feasible tissue engineering approach for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. PMID:24491910

  15. Fabrication of Ti/HA composite and functionally graded implant by three-dimensional printing.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chao; Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of fabricating titanium(Ti)/hydroxyapatite(HA) composite and functionally graded implant by three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology. Nano-scale Ti and HA powders were mixed at the ratio of 8:2 and prepared with water-soluble binder. The Ti/HA composite CAD model was designed to be in cylinder shape (25 mm in diameter, 20 mm in height) with the 100% bond area in each layer. The functionally graded implant was 25 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height with two segments. The upper segment was composed of 100% Ti in each layer, whereas the lower was composed of 80%Ti/20%HA. The composite and functionally graded implant were fabricated by 3DP and sintered at 1200°C under protective argon atmosphere. There occurred a chemical reaction between Ti and HA, in which new resultants of Ca3(PO4)2, CaTiO3, TiO2 and CaO were created. The sintered Ti/HA composite had the aperture size from 50 to 150 ?m and the compressive strength of 184.3±27.1 MPa. The result of this study demonstrated that it was feasible to fabricate Ti/HA composite and functionally graded implant by 3DP technology. The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/HA composite and functionally graded implant were conductive to bone cell ingrowth, resulting in the wide application of this biocomposite. PMID:25813951

  16. An amphiphilic degradable polymer/hydroxyapatite composite with enhanced handling characteristics promotes osteogenic gene expression in bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kutikov, Artem B.; Song, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrospun polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites combining biodegradability with osteoconductivity are attractive for skeletal tissue engineering applications. However, most biodegradable polymers such as PLA are hydrophobic and do not blend with adequate interfacial adhesion with HA, compromising the structural homogeneity, mechanical integrity, and biological performance of the composite. To overcome this challenge, we incorporated a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) block to poly(D,L-lactic acid) to improve the adhesion of the degradable polymer with HA. The amphiphilic triblock copolymer PLA-PEG-PLA (PELA) improved the stability of HA-PELA suspension at 25 wt% HA content, which was readily electrospun into HA-PELA composite scaffolds with uniform fiber dimensions. HA-PELA was highly extensible (failure strain >200% vs. <40% for HA-PLA), superhydrophilic (~0° water contact angle vs. >100° for HA-PLA), and exhibited an 8-fold storage modulus increase (unlike deterioration for HA-PLA) upon hydration, owing to the favorable interaction between HA and PEG. HA-PELA also better promoted osteochondral lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal cells in unstimulated culture and supported far more potent osteogenesis upon induction than HA-PLA. We demonstrate that the chemical incorporation of PEG is an effective strategy to improve the performance of degradable polymer/HA composites for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:23791675

  17. Selective adsorption of porcine-amelogenins onto hydroxyapatite and their inhibitory activity on hydroxyapatite growth in supersaturated solutions.

    PubMed

    Aoba, T; Fukae, M; Tanabe, T; Shimizu, M; Moreno, E C

    1987-11-01

    The selective adsorption of amelogenins onto synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) and their inhibitory activity on the seeded HA crystal growth were investigated using enamel proteins obtained from the outer layer of immature porcine-enamel (soft, cheeselike in consistency) of developing permanent incisors. Special interests were paid to the effect of a postsecretory degradation of the original amelogenin(s) on their adsorption and inhibitory activity. In the adsorption studies, it was apparent that the originally secreted amelogenin (25 K), proline, and histidine-rich protein (2a), as well as the higher molecular weight components (60-90 K), showed a strong adsorption affinity onto the HA. This adsorption of protein 2a was related to its inhibition of the crystal growth of seeded HA in a dilute supersaturated solution. On the other hand, the partially degraded product (20 K) of amelogenins, protein 2b, lost the high adsorption affinity onto the HA, and consequently showed no significant inhibitory activity. The observed selective adsorption of protein 2a onto HA was apparent at pH 6.0 and pH 7.4 even in the presence of dissociative solvents, such as 3 M urea or 2 and 4 M guanidine-HCl; however, this selective behavior was sensitive to changes in pH, and was not displayed at pH values of 7.8 or 10.8. The results suggest that the originally secreted amelogenin 2a may play an active role in amelogenesis, and that enamel mineralization could be regulated by the secretion of amelogenins and their inactivation through partial enzymic degradation, prior to their complete removal. PMID:2825935

  18. In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility Properties of Nano-Whisker Hydroxyapatite Coating on Magnesium Alloy for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huawei; Yan, Xueyu; Ling, Min; Xiong, Zuquan; Ou, Caiwen; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report here the successful fabrication of nano-whisker hydroxyapatite (nHA) coatings on Mg alloy by using a simple one-step hydrothermal process in aqueous solution. The nHA coating shows uniform structure and high crystallinity. Results indicate that nHA coating is promising for improving the in vitro corrosion and cytocompatibility properties of Mg-based implants and devices for bone tissue engineering. In addition, the simple hydrothermal deposition method used in the current study is also applicable to substrates with complex shapes or surface geometries. PMID:25789500

  19. Nano-hydroxyapatite composite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering--a review.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, significant development has been achieved in the construction of artificial bone with ceramics, polymers and metals. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is widely used bioceramic material for bone graft substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. nHA with chitin, chitosan, collagen, gelatin, fibrin, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, polyamide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane and polyhydroxybutyrate based composite scaffolds have been explored in the present review for bone graft substitute. This article further reviews the preparative methods, chemical interaction, biocompatibiity, biodegradation, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization effect, mechanical properties and delivery of nHA-based nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. The nHA based composite biomaterials proved to be promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25992432

  20. Microsphere coated substrate containing reactive aldehyde groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Richard C. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic organic resin is coated with a continuous layer of contiguous, tangential, individual microspheres having a uniform diameter preferably between 100 Angstroms and 2000 Angstroms. The microspheres are an addition polymerized polymer of an unsaturated aldehyde containing 4 to 20 carbon atoms and are covalently bonded to the substrate by means of high energy radiation grafting. The microspheres contain reactive aldehyde groups and can form conjugates with proteins such as enzymes or other aldehyde reactive materials.

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,81310 UTM Skudai, Johor Darul Ta’zim (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor DarulTa’zim (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ? TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ? Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ? Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ? Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6?x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2?x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  2. Evaluation of bone healing on sandblasted and Acid etched implants coated with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite: an in vivo study in rabbit femur.

    PubMed

    Melin Svanborg, Lory; Meirelles, Luiz; Franke Stenport, Victoria; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Andersson, Martin; Wennerberg, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating if a coating of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals would enhance bone healing over time in trabecular bone. Sandblasted and acid etched titanium implants with and without a submicron thick coat of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nano-HA) were implanted in rabbit femur with healing times of 2, 4, and 9 weeks. Removal torque analyses and histological evaluations were performed. The torque analysis did not show any significant differences between the implants at any healing time. The control implant showed a tendency of more newly formed bone after 4 weeks of healing and significantly higher bone area values after 9 weeks of healing. According to the results from this present study, both control and nano-HA surfaces were biocompatible and osteoconductive. A submicron thick coating of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals deposited onto blasted and acid etched screw shaped titanium implants did not enhance bone healing, as compared to blasted and etched control implants when placed in trabecular bone. PMID:24723952

  3. Interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamai, Noriyuki; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Myoui, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Several porous calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics have been used clinically as bone substitutes, but most of them possessed few interpore connections, resulting in pathological fracture probably due to poor bone formation within the substitute. We recently developed a fully interconnected porous HA ceramic (IP-CHA) by adopting the ‘foam-gel’ technique. The IP-CHA had a three-dimensional structure with spherical pores of uniform size (average 150??m, porosity 75%), which were interconnected by window-like holes (average diameter 40??m), and also demonstrated adequate compression strength (10–12?MPa). In animal experiments, the IP-CHA showed superior osteoconduction, with the majority of pores filled with newly formed bone. The interconnected porous structure facilitates bone tissue engineering by allowing the introduction of mesenchymal cells, osteotropic agents such as bone morphogenetic protein or vasculature into the pores. Clinically, we have applied the IP-CHA to treat various bony defects in orthopaedic surgery, and radiographic examinations demonstrated that grafted IP-CHA gained radiopacity more quickly than the synthetic HA in clinical use previously. We review the accumulated data on bone tissue engineering using the novel scaffold and on clinical application in the orthopaedic field. PMID:19106069

  4. Magnetic responsive hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds construction for bone defect reparation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiao Bo; Hu, Hao; Xie, Li Qin; Lan, Fang; Jiang, Wen; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhong Wei

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. A type of magnetic scaffold composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for bone repair has been developed by our research group. Aim and methods In this study, to investigate the influence of the MNP content (in the scaffolds) on the cell behaviors and the interactions between the magnetic scaffold and the exterior magnetic field, a series of MNP-HA magnetic scaffolds with different MNP contents (from 0.2% to 2%) were fabricated by immersing HA scaffold into MNP colloid. ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro, with and without an exterior magnetic field, respectively. The cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy; confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein activity tests. Results The results demonstrated the positive influence of the magnetic scaffolds on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, a higher amount of MNPs on the magnetic scaffolds led to more significant stimulation. Conclusion The magnetic scaffold can respond to the exterior magnetic field and engender some synergistic effect to intensify the stimulating effect of a magnetic field to the proliferation and differentiation of cells. PMID:22848165

  5. Effect of loading time on marginal bone loss around hydroxyapatite-coated implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Ahn, Kyo-Jin; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Minkyoung; Yang, Hong-So; Yi, Yang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is compare the rate of marginal bone resorption around hydroxyapatite-coated implants given different loading times in order to evaluate their stability. Materials and Methods The study was conducted retrospectively for one year, targeting 41 patients whose treatment areas were the posterior maxilla and the mandible. Osstem TS III HA (Osstem Implant Co., Busan, Korea) and Zimmer TSV-HA (Zimmer Dental, Carlsbad, CA, USA), which employ the new hydroxyapatite coating technique, were used. The patients were divided into two groups - immediate and delayed loading - and the bone level at the time of loading commencement and after one year of loading was measured using periapical radiography. Differences between the groups were evaluated using Mann-Whitney (?=0.05). Results For all patients as a single group, the survival rate of the implants was 100%, and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.26±0.59 mm. In comparison of the differences by loading, mean marginal bone loss of 0.32±0.69 mm was recorded for the immediate loading group whereas the delayed loading group had mean marginal bone loss of 0.16±0.42 mm. However, the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Within the limited observation period of one year, predictable survival rates can be expected when using immediately loaded hydroxyapatite-coated implants. PMID:24471037

  6. Strategies for microsphere-mediated cellular delivery 

    E-print Network

    Cardenas-Maestre, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-23

    Amino-functionalised polystyrene microspheres are promising candidates as delivery systems due to their unique features, tunable surface functionalities, and controllable release of the cargo. Herein several strategies ...

  7. Brain-Targeted Nasal Clonazepam Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Shaji, J.; Poddar, A.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Gelatin-chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres of clonazepam were prepared using the emulsion cross linking method. Mirospheres were evaluated using the in vitro and ex vivo drug release patterns. In vivo CNS drug distribution studies were carried out in rats by administering the clonazepam microspheres intra-nasally and clonazepam solution intravenously. From the drug levels in plasma and CSF, drug targeting index and drug targeting efficiency were calculated. Results obtained indicated that intranasally administered clonazepam microspheres resulted in higher brain levels with a drug targeting index of 2.12. Gelatin-chitosan cross linked mucoadhesive microspheres have the potential to be developed as a brain-targeted drug delivery system for clonazepam.

  8. Compositionally graded hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate coating on Ti by laser and induction plasma.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-02-01

    In this study we report the fabrication of compositionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on Ti by combining laser engineering net shaping (LENS) and radio frequency induction plasma spraying processes. Initially, HA powder was embedded in the Ti substrates using LENS, forming a Ti-HA composite layer. Later, RF induction plasma spraying was used to deposit HA on these Ti substrates with a Ti-HA composite layer on top. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated phase transformation of HA to ?-tricalcium phosphate in the laser processed coating. Laser processed coatings showed the formation of a metallurgically sound and diffused substrate-coating interface, which significantly increased the coating hardness to 922 ± 183 Hv from that of the base metal hardness of 189 ± 22 Hv. In the laser processed multilayer coating a compositionally graded nature was successfully achieved, however, with severe cracking and a consequent decrease in the flexural strength of the coating. To obtain a structurally stable coating with a composition gradient across the coating thickness a phase pure HA layer was sprayed on top of the laser processed single layer coatings using induction plasma spray. The plasma sprayed HA coatings were strongly adherent to the LENS-TCP coatings, with adhesive bond strength of 21 MPa. In vitro biocompatibility of these coatings, using human fetal osteoblast cells, showed a clear improvement in cellular activity from uncoated Ti compared with LENS-TCP-coated Ti and reached a maximum in the plasma sprayed HA coating. PMID:20854939

  9. Engineering nanocages with polyglutamate domains for coupling to hydroxyapatite biomaterials and allograft bone

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Morris, David S.; Prevelige, Peter E.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the principal constituent of bone mineral, and synthetic HA is widely used as a biomaterial for bone repair. Previous work has shown that polyglutamate domains bind selectively to HA and that these domains can be utilized to couple bioactive peptides onto many different HA-containing materials. In the current study we have adapted this technology to engineer polyglutamate domains into cargo-loaded nanocage structures derived from the P22 bacteriophage. P22 nanocages have demonstrated significant potential as a drug delivery system due to their stability, large capacity for loading with a diversity of proteins and other types of cargo, and ability to resist degradation by proteases. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify the primary coding sequence of the P22 coat protein to incorporate glutamate-rich regions. Relative to wild-type P22, the polyglutamate-modified nanocages (E2-P22) exhibited increased binding to ceramic HA disks, particulate HA and allograft bone. Furthermore, E2-P22 binding was HA selective, as evidenced by negligible binding of the nanocages to non-HA materials including polystyrene, agarose, and polycaprolactone (PCL). Taken together these results establish a new mechanism for the directed coupling of nanocage drug delivery systems to a variety of HA-containing materials commonly used in diverse bone therapies. PMID:23312905

  10. Chondroitin sulfate template-mediated biomimetic synthesis of nano-flake hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dan; Xiao, Xiufeng; Liu, Fang; Liu, Rongfang

    2008-11-01

    By Ca(NO 3) 2·4H 2O and (NH 4) 3PO 4·3H 2O as reagents and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) as a template, nano-flake hydroxyapatite (HA) is synthesized using a biomimetic method according to the biomineralization theory. HA crystals obtained are characterized in crystalline phase, microstructure, chemical composition and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and elemental analysis respectively. UV-vis spectrum is adopted to investigate interactions between functional groups ChS and HA. The results show that HA crystal nucleation and growth take place in chemical interactions between HA crystals and ChS as a template. And elemental analysis indicates that obtained HA contains a small amount of ChS. Furthermore, ChS concentration significantly affects the morphology of HA crystals. Staple-fiber-like HA crystals can be obtained at a low concentration in ChS, and flake-like HA crystals synthesized at a high concentration (?0.5 wt.%) of ChS as a template.

  11. Polymeric micelle-templated synthesis of hydroxyapatite hollow nanoparticles for a drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Guo, Haifeng; Zhang, Haijiao; He, Xiulan

    2010-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) hollow nanoparticles (HNPs) have great potential in nanoscaled delivery devices due to their small size, excellent biocompatibility and expected high capacity. However, the preparation of HA HNPs for their application in a drug delivery system has rarely been reported because HA has a complicated crystal structure and it is difficult to obtain stable HA HNPs with hollows that are only nanoscaled in size. In the present study, HA HNPs were successfully produced through a novel polymeric micelle-templating method. The micelles were structured with completely insoluble Pluronic P123 molecules at cloud point as the core and Tween-60 molecules as the shell by the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chains with the insoluble P123 core. The morphology of the HA HNPs could be transformed from nanospheres to nanotubes by adding citric acid as a cosurfactant. The prepared HA HNPs had a much higher drug payload than traditional nanoparticles, using vancomycin as the model drug. Most importantly, the HA nanotubes were coupled with a layer of citrate molecules on the HA surfaces, which could further improve the drug load efficiency and could form an excellent pH-controlled open/closed gate for drug release with the addition of cationic polyelectrolytes. PMID:20004747

  12. A Comparative Study on In Vitro Osteogenic Priming Potential of Electron Spun Scaffold PLLA/HA/Col, PLLA/HA, and PLLA/Col for Tissue Engineering Application

    PubMed Central

    Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantha Rao; Puvaneswary, Subramaniam; Talebian, Sepehr; Raman Murali, Malliga; Vasudevaraj Naveen, Sangeetha; Krishnamurithy, G.; McKean, Robert; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the in vitro osteogenic potential of electrospun poly-L-lactide/hydroxyapatite/collagen (PLLA/HA/Col, PLLA/HA, and PLLA/Col) scaffolds was conducted. The morphology, chemical composition, and surface roughness of the fibrous scaffolds were examined. Furthermore, cell attachment, distribution, morphology, mineralization, extracellular matrix protein localization, and gene expression of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) differentiated on the fibrous scaffolds PLLA/Col/HA, PLLA/Col, and PLLA/HA were also analyzed. The electrospun scaffolds with a diameter of 200–950 nm demonstrated well-formed interconnected fibrous network structure, which supported the growth of hMSCs. When compared with PLLA/H%A and PLLA/Col scaffolds, PLLA/Col/HA scaffolds presented a higher density of viable cells and significant upregulation of genes associated with osteogenic lineage, which were achieved without the use of specific medium or growth factors. These results were supported by the elevated levels of calcium, osteocalcin, and mineralization (P<0.05) observed at different time points (0, 7, 14, and 21 days). Furthermore, electron microscopic observations and fibronectin localization revealed that PLLA/Col/HA scaffolds exhibited superior osteoinductivity, when compared with PLLA/Col or PLLA/HA scaffolds. These findings indicated that the fibrous structure and synergistic action of Col and nano-HA with high-molecular-weight PLLA played a vital role in inducing osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The data obtained in this study demonstrated that the developed fibrous PLLA/Col/HA biocomposite scaffold may be supportive for stem cell based therapies for bone repair, when compared with the other two scaffolds. PMID:25140798

  13. Hydroxyapatite-coated sillicone rubber enhanced cell adhesion and it may be through the interaction of EF1? and ?-actin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-hua; Wang, Shao-liang; Zhang, Yi-ming; Wang, Yi-cheng; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Xin; Lei, Ze-yuan; Fan, Dong-li

    2014-01-01

    Silicone rubber (SR) is a common soft tissue filler material used in plastic surgery. However, it presents a poor surface for cellular adhesion and suffers from poor biocompatibility. In contrast, hydroxyapatite (HA), a prominent component of animal bone and teeth, can promote improved cell compatibility, but HA is an unsuitable filler material because of the brittleness in mechanism. In this study, using a simple and economical method, two sizes of HA was applied to coat on SR to counteract the poor biocompatibility of SR. Surface and mechanical properties of SR and HA/SRs confirmed that coating with HA changes the surface topology and material properties. Analysis of cell proliferation and adhesion as well as measurement of the expression levels of adhesion related molecules indicated that HA-coated SR significantly increased cell compatibility. Furthermore, mass spectrometry proved that the biocompatibility improvement may be related to elongation factor 1-beta (EF1?)/?-actin adjusted cytoskeletal rearrangement. PMID:25386892

  14. Hydroxyapatite-Coated Sillicone Rubber Enhanced Cell Adhesion and It May Be through the Interaction of EF1? and ?-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Wang, Yi-cheng; Yang, Zhi; Zhou, Xin; Lei, Ze-yuan; Fan, Dong-li

    2014-01-01

    Silicone rubber (SR) is a common soft tissue filler material used in plastic surgery. However, it presents a poor surface for cellular adhesion and suffers from poor biocompatibility. In contrast, hydroxyapatite (HA), a prominent component of animal bone and teeth, can promote improved cell compatibility, but HA is an unsuitable filler material because of the brittleness in mechanism. In this study, using a simple and economical method, two sizes of HA was applied to coat on SR to counteract the poor biocompatibility of SR. Surface and mechanical properties of SR and HA/SRs confirmed that coating with HA changes the surface topology and material properties. Analysis of cell proliferation and adhesion as well as measurement of the expression levels of adhesion related molecules indicated that HA-coated SR significantly increased cell compatibility. Furthermore, mass spectrometry proved that the biocompatibility improvement may be related to elongation factor 1-beta (EF1?)/?-actin adjusted cytoskeletal rearrangement. PMID:25386892

  15. Osteopontin, osteocalcin and OB-cadherin expression in Synthetic nanohydroxyapatite vs bovine hydroxyapatite cultured Osteoblastic-like cells.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, A; Mascitti, M; Orsini, G; Memè, L; Rocchetti, R; Tiriduzzi, P; Sampalmieri, F; Putignano, A; Procaccini, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have been applied in bone replacement for several decades due to their excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteo-conductivity and mechanical strength. Several studies have demonstrated that porous hydroxyapatite (HA) is an excellent scaffold for osteogenic proliferation and differentiation of the osteoprogenitor cells. However, different methods of synthesis and production of HA ceramic-based materials may have considerable effect on the physical and biological properties. In the present work, two hydroxyapatite-based materials, a natural hydroxyapatite ceramic of bovine origin and a synthetic nano-cristalline hydroxyapatite were tested in vitro with MG63 cell line. The results displayed that both the materials demonstrated a good biocompatibility. The immunocytochemical stain revealed a different positivity of the osteogenic markers between the cultures with the biomaterials, and the control culture. Western blot data confirmed the immunocytochemical stain. Both the materials tested in the present study demonstrated a good biocompatibility with the osteoblastic cells allowing, at the same time, the osteogenic differentiation, and they may be useful in clinical use. PMID:25316140

  16. Nanocrystalline spin coated sol-gel hydroxyapatite thin films on Ti substrate: Towards potential applications for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carradò, Adele; Viart, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Sol-gel spin coating is a promising process to obtain hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films. It is an alternative route to the hydroxyapatite deposition techniques usually employed to cover orthopaedic or dental titanium implant surfaces. The sol-gel (SG) parameters leading to a pure and crystalline HA coatings on Ti substrate were determined. They allow to reach a stoichiometric hydroxyapatite composition (ideal Ca/P atomic ratio 1.67) and a control of the growth of the crystalline phases. The samples, when observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), exhibit grains of ca. 200 nm, well adapted for cell proliferation. The crystallisation of the HA films was thoroughly studied by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The aim of this paper is to validate the sol-gel method as a processing method allowing the control of the mechanical state of the films and, in particular, of the residual stresses (RS) at metal-ceramic interfaces. These stresses were determined on titanium substrates. While the uncoated Ti substrates were in a compressive residual state, the coated ones were in a low tensile state. These results suggest that the sol-gel process is indeed a processing route to obtain HA coated Ti implants.

  17. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  18. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  19. Nonaggregating Microspheres Containing Aldehyde Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Cobalt gamma irradiation of hydrophilic monomers in presence of acrolein yields exceptionally-stable, nonaggregating microspheres. Mixtures of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and acrolein form homogeneous solutions in distilled water containing 0.4 percent polyethylene oxide (PEO). After deaeration with nitrogen, mixtures irradiated at room temperature with gamma rays from cobalt source; total exposure time 4 hours, at rate of 0.2 milliroentgen per hour. Reaction product centrifuged three times for purification and kept in distilled water.

  20. Electrospun polyurethane/hydroxyapatite bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the role of solvent and hydroxyapatite particles.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, G; Khan, A S; Delaine-Smith, R M; Reilly, G C; Rehman, I U

    2014-11-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a promising polymer to support bone-matrix producing cells due to its durability and mechanical resistance. In this study two types of medical grade poly-ether urethanes Z3A1 and Z9A1 and PU-Hydroxyapatite (PU-HA) composites were investigated for their ability to act as a scaffold for tissue engineered bone. PU dissolved in varying concentrations of dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvents were electrospun to attain scaffolds with randomly orientated non-woven fibres. Bioactive polymeric composite scaffolds were created using 15 wt% Z3A1 in a 70/30 DMF/THF PU solution and incorporating micro- or nano-sized HA particles in a ratio of 3:1 respectively, whilst a 25 wt% Z9A1 PU solution was doped in ratio of 5:1. Chemical properties of the resulting composites were evaluated by FTIR and physical properties by SEM. Tensile mechanical testing was carried out on all electrospun scaffolds. MLO-A5 osteoblastic mouse cells and human embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cells, hES-MPs were seeded on the scaffolds to test their biocompatibility and ability to support mineralised matrix production over a 28 day culture period. Cell viability was assayed by MTT and calcium and collagen deposition by Sirius red and alizarin red respectively. SEM images of both electrospun PU scaffolds and PU-HA composite scaffolds showed differences in fibre morphology with changes in solvent combinations and size of HA particles. Inclusion of THF eliminated the presence of beads in fibres that were present in scaffolds fabricated with 100% DMF solvent, and resulted in fibres with a more uniform morphology and thicker diameters. Mechanical testing demonstrated that the Young?s Modulus and yield strength was lower at higher THF concentrations. Inclusion of both sizes of HA particles in PU-HA solutions reinforced the scaffolds leading to higher mechanical properties, whilst FTIR characterisation confirmed the presence of HA in all composite scaffolds. Although all scaffolds supported proliferation of both cell types and deposition of calcified matrix, PU-HA composite fibres containing nano-HA enabled the highest cell viability and collagen deposition. These scaffolds have the potential to support bone matrix formation for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25117379

  1. Experimental and numerical measurements of adhesion energies between PHEMA and PGLYMA with hydroxyapatite crystal.

    PubMed

    Youssefian, Sina; Liu, Pingsheng; Askarinejad, Sina; Shalchy, Faezeh; Song, Jie; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic orthopaedic materials consisting of a single bioinert polymeric material do not meet the complex biological and physical requirements of scaffold-guided bone tissue repair and regeneration. Of particular interest is the design of biocompatible hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composite bone substitutes with outstanding interfacial adhesion that would warranty the ability for the composite to withstand functional loadings without exhibiting brittle fractures during the dynamic guided tissue regeneration. For this purpose, the hydroxylated side chain of chemically cross-linked poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) is substitute with a carboxylated side chain to make poly (glycerol methacrylate) (pGLYMA). Here, we carry out atomistic simulations and atomic force microscopy to predict and experimentally determine the interfacial adhesion energies of pHEMA and pGLYMA with the surface of single-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) whiskers. Both experimental and numerical results showed that pGLYMA has stronger adhesion forces with HA and may be used for preparing a high-affinity polymer-HA composite. The high adhesive interactions between pGLYMA and HA were found to be due to strong electrostatic energies. PMID:26179911

  2. Synthesis, extrusion and rheological behaviour of PU\\/HA composites for biomedical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. B. MachadoRui; Rui N. Correia; J. A. Covas

    2010-01-01

    Biostable polyurethane\\/hydroxyapatite (PU\\/HA) composites with potential application as bone replacement materials were synthesized\\u000a in bulk and processed in a screw extruder. The polyurethanes (PU) were prepared by reacting an aliphatic diisocyanate, 4-methylene-bis-diisocyanate\\u000a (MDI), with poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) diols and polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO) of different molecular weights, extended\\u000a with 1, 4-butanediol (BDO). Glass-transition temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The

  3. Induction plasma sprayed Sr and Mg doped nano hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for bone implant.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-11-01

    In this study, we report fabrication of strontium (Sr) and magnesium (Mg) doped hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) substrates using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray. HA powder was doped with 1 wt % Sr (Sr-HA) and 1 wt % Mg (Mg-HA), heat treated at 800°C for 6 h and then used for plasma spray coating. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis indicated that the coatings were primarily composed of phase pure crystalline HA. When compared to undoped HA coating, physical properties such as microstructure, grain size, and adhesive bond strength of the doped HA coatings did not change significantly. Microstructure of the coatings showed coherency in the structure with an average grain size of 200-280 ?m HA particles, where each of the HA grains consisted of 20-30 nm sized particles. An average adhesive bond strength of 17 MPa ensured sufficient mechanical strength of the coatings. A chemistry dependent improvement in bone cell-coating interaction was noticed for doped coatings although it had minimal effect on physical properties of the coatings. In vitro cell-materials interactions using human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) showed better cell attachment and proliferation on Sr-HA coatings compared to HA or Mg-HA coatings. Presence of Sr in the coating also stimulated hFOB cell differentiation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Improvement in bioactivity of Sr doped HA coatings on Ti without compromising its mechanical properties makes it an excellent material of choice for coated implant. PMID:21714088

  4. Bone integration capability of nanopolymorphic crystalline hydroxyapatite coated on titanium implants

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiro; Ueno, Takeshi; Tsukimura, Naoki; Ikeda, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Kaori; Hori, Norio; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism by which hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium promotes bone–implant integration is largely unknown. Furthermore, refining the fabrication of nano-structured HA to the level applicable to the mass production process for titanium implants is challenging. This study reports successful creation of nanopolymorphic crystalline HA on microroughened titanium surfaces using a combination of flame spray and low-temperature calcination and tests its biological capability to enhance bone–implant integration. Sandblasted microroughened titanium implants and sandblasted + HA-coated titanium implants were subjected to biomechanical and histomorphometric analyses in a rat model. The HA was 55% crystallized and consisted of nanoscale needle-like architectures developed in various diameters, lengths, and orientations, which resulted in a 70% increase in surface area compared to noncoated microroughened surfaces. The HA was free from impurity contaminants, with a calcium/phosphorus ratio of 1.66 being equivalent to that of stoichiometric HA. As compared to microroughened implants, HA-coated implants increased the strength of bone–implant integration consistently at both early and late stages of healing. HA-coated implants showed an increased percentage of bone–implant contact and bone volume within 50 ?m proximity of the implant surface, as well as a remarkably reduced percentage of soft tissue intervention between bone and the implant surface. In contrast, bone volume outside the 50 ?m border was lower around HA-coated implants. Thus, this study demonstrated that the addition of pure nanopolymorphic crystalline HA to microroughened titanium not only accelerates but also enhances the level of bone–implant integration and identified the specific tissue morphogenesis parameters modulated by HA coating. In particular, the nanocrystalline HA was proven to be drastic in increasing osteoconductivity and inhibiting soft tissue infiltration, but the effect was limited to the immediate microenvironment surrounding the implant. PMID:22359461

  5. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  6. Assembly of ordered magnetic microsphere arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wanling; Ketterson, John

    2008-08-01

    We have developed a straightforward technique to assemble ordered arrays of magnetic microspheres on patterned thin Permalloy (Py) films deposited on the surface of a silicon wafer. Droplets containing micrometer-sized carboxyl paramagnetic microspheres are placed on a horizontally oriented wafer. The field produced by a permanent magnet placed under the wafer is rendered inhomogeneous by the patterned Py features and the resulting field gradients attract and hold the paramagnetic microspheres to these features. While the magnetic microspheres are being attracted to and secured on the pattered Permalloy features, a horizontal flow is created by a pipette, which also removes loose (unsecured) microspheres. By applying this technique to a cocktail of individually functionalized microspheres, a sensor could be realized, which will screen, in parallel, for a large number of targets per unit area. The ability to resolve individual microspheres is close to 100%. A desirable feature is that the substrate is reusable; removing the magnet allows an existing batch of microspheres, which may have lost sensitivity due to environmental exposure, to be flushed from the substrate and replaced with a new batch. The technique complements existing approaches in the field of microarrays widely used in immunoassay, DNA fragment detection, pathogen detection, and other applications in functional genomics and diagnostics.

  7. Bioactive nanocrystalline sol-gel hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Chai, C S; Ben-Nissan, B

    1999-08-01

    Sol-gel technology offers an alternative technique for producing bioactive surfaces for improved bone attachment. Previous work indicated that monophasic hydroxyapatite coatings were difficult to produce. In the present work hydroxyapatite was synthesized using the sol-gel technique with alkoxide precursors and the solution was allowed to age up to seven days prior to coating. It was found that, similar to the wet-chemical method of hydroxyapatite powder synthesis, an aging time is required to produce a pure hydroxyapatite phase. A methodology that has been successfully used to produce nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin film coatings via the sol-gel route on various substrates including alumina, Vycor glass, partially stabilized zirconia, Ti-6Al-4V alloy and single crystal MgO is described. Coatings produced on MgO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, while the analogous gels were examined with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The coatings were crack free and the surface was covered with small grains, of approximately 200 nm in size for samples fired to 1000 degrees C. Coating thickness varied between 70 and 1000 nm depending on the number of applied layers. PMID:15348113

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films on Ti5Al2.5Fe substrates with and without buffer layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Nelea; C. Ristoscu; C. Chiritescu; C. Ghica; I. N. Mihailescu; H. Pelletier; P. Mille; A. Cornet

    2000-01-01

    We present a method for processing hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe substrates. The films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum at room temperature, using a KrF? excimer laser. The amorphous as-deposited HA films were recrystallized in ambient air by a thermal treatment at 550°C. The best results have been obtained when inserting a buffer layer of

  9. The Effect of Partial Coating with Hydroxyapatite on Bone Remodeling in Relation to Porous-coated Titanium-alloy Dental Implants in the Dog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Pilliar; D. A. Deporter; P. A. Watson; M. Pharoah; M. Chipman; N. Valiquette; S. Carter; K. De Groot

    1991-01-01

    For inhibition of crestal bone resorption due to stress shielding and disuse atrophy, an hydroxyapatite (HA) plasma coating was added to the coronal portion of partially porous-coated endosseous dental implants. These implants, as well as control non-HA-coated implants were placed in healed mandibular premolar extraction sites in dogs for a 72-week period of function. Histological examination showed that both implant

  10. Synthesis, characterization and modelling of zinc and silicate co-substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Robert J; Chappell, Helen F; Shepherd, David V; Best, Serena M

    2015-07-01

    Experimental chemistry and atomic modelling studies were performed here to investigate a novel ionic co-substitution in hydroxyapatite (HA). Zinc, silicate co-substituted HA (ZnSiHA) remained phase pure after heating to 1100°C with Zn and Si amounts of 0.6 wt% and 1.2 wt%, respectively. Unique lattice expansions in ZnSiHA, silicate Fourier transform infrared peaks and changes to the hydroxyl IR stretching region suggested Zn and silicate co-substitution in ZnSiHA. Zn and silicate insertion into HA was modelled using density functional theory (DFT). Different scenarios were considered where Zn substituted for different calcium sites or at a 2b site along the c-axis, which was suspected in singly substituted ZnHA. The most energetically favourable site in ZnSiHA was Zn positioned at a previously unreported interstitial site just off the c-axis near a silicate tetrahedron sitting on a phosphate site. A combination of experimental chemistry and DFT modelling provided insight into these complex co-substituted calcium phosphates that could find biomedical application as a synthetic bone mineral substitute. PMID:26040597

  11. Physical properties and cellular responses to crosslinkable poly(propylene fumarate)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Shanfeng; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2008-07-01

    A series of crosslinkable nanocomposites has been developed using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). PPF/HA nanocomposites with four different weight fractions of HA nanoparticles have been characterized in terms of thermal and mechanical properties. To assess surface chemistry of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites, their hydrophilicity and capability of adsorbing proteins have been determined using static contact angle measurement and MicroBCA protein assay kit after incubation with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), respectively. In vitro cell studies have been performed using MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblast cells to investigate the ability of PPF/HA nanocomposites to support cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 1, 4, and 7 days. By adding HA nanoparticles to PPF, the mechanical properties of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites have not been increased due to the initially high modulus of crosslinked PPF. However, hydrophilicity and serum protein adsorption on the surface of nanocomposites have been significantly increased, resulting in enhanced cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 4 days of cell seeding. These results indicate that crosslinkable PPF/HA nanocomposites are useful for hard tissue replacement because of excellent mechanical strength and osteoconductivity. PMID:18403013

  12. Hydroxyapatite crystallinity does not affect the repair of critical size bone defects

    PubMed Central

    CONZ, Marcio Baltazar; GRANJEIRO, José Mauro; SOARES, Gloria de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objective The physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) granules were observed to affect the biological behavior of graft materials. The aim of this work was to analyze the tissue response of two HA granules with different crystallinity and Ca/P ratio in vivo. Material and Methods The HA granules were produced in the Biomaterials Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ). The testing materials were HA granules presenting a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.60 and 28% crystallinity (HA-1), and a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.67 and 70% crystallinity (HA-2). Both HAs were implanted into a critical-size calvaria rat defects. Results To note, in the control group, the bone defects were filled with blood clot only. Descriptive and histomorphometric analyses after 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively showed mild inflammatory infiltrate, mainly comprising macrophage-like and multinucleated giant cells, and an increase in the volume density of the fibrous tissues (p<0.05), which was in contrast to the similar volume density of the newly formed bone and biomaterials in relation to the control group. Conclusion Thus, we concluded that HA-1 and HA-2 are biocompatible and non-degradable, and that crystallinity does not affect bone repair of critical size defects. PMID:21655775

  13. Structural, microstructural, and residual stress investigations of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite on Ti-6Al-4 V.

    PubMed

    Carradó, Adele

    2010-02-01

    Plasma-spray (PS) is a classical technique usually employed to cover orthopaedic titanium implant surfaces with hydroxyapatite (HA - Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)). The objective of the current study is to investigate the structure and microstructure of HA plasma-spray 50 mum thick coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4 V) and residual stress due to processing in the substrate and in HA coating. The structure of the coatings was determined by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction in energy dispersive (HESXRD), selected area electron diffraction (saed), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). No impurity phases in the HA were identified by HESXRD to keep away from the decomposition of HA at high temperature. hcp phase of HA substrate was detected with slight amorphous background. FTIR spectrum of a HA powder shows a typical spectrum for HA material with the characteristic phosphate peaks for HA at wavenumbers of 1090, 1052, 963, 602, and 573 cm(-1) are present. The morphology of HA powder observed by SEM exhibits grains of ca. 0.1 mum well-adapted for cell proliferation. HA/Ti-6Al-4 V interface observed by cross-section scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) presents microcracks. Residual stresses were analyzed by sin(2) Psi X-ray diffraction method on titanium substrates and HA coating. Although the Ti substrates are in a slightly tensile residual state, the coated ones show a compressive state. PMID:20356205

  14. Thermoplastic polyurethane/hydroxyapatite electrospun scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effects of polymer properties and particle size.

    PubMed

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Palumbo, SunMi; Jing, Xin; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Li, Wan-Ju; Peng, Xiang-Fang

    2014-10-01

    Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. The effects of TPU properties and HA particle size on scaffold physical properties and osteoblast-like cell performance were investigated. It was found that the addition of micro-HA (mHA), which was inlayed in the fiber, decreased the electrospun fiber diameter. On the contrary, nano-HA (nHA), which was either embedded or existed inside of the fiber, increased the fiber diameter for both soft and hard TPUs. The soft TPU had a much lower Young's modulus and higher strain-at-break than the hard TPU. The addition of both mHA and nHA decreased the tensile properties; this decrease was more significant with mHA. The cells on the hard scaffolds actively proliferated and migrated compared to those on the soft scaffolds. On the other hand, cells on the soft scaffolds more effectively induced osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) than those on the hard scaffolds. In addition, our data suggest that the soft scaffolds with supplementation of nHA further enhanced osteogenesis of hMSCs compared to those without nHA. The soft TPU scaffolds containing nano-HA have the potential to be used in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24574168

  15. Thermal response of chalcogenide microsphere resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H; Aryanfar, I; Lim, K S; Chong, W Y; Harun, S W

    2012-05-31

    A chalcogenide microsphere resonator (CMR) used for temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The CMR is fabricated using a simple technique of heating chalcogenide glass and allowing the molten glass to form a microsphere on the waist of a tapered silica fibre. The thermal responses of the CMR is investigated and compared to that of a single-mode-fibre (SMF) based microsphere resonator. It is observed that the CMR sensitivity to ambient temperature changes is 8 times higher than that of the SMF-based microsphere resonator. Heating the chalcogenide microsphere with a laser beam periodically turned on and off shows periodic shifts in the transmission spectrum of the resonator. By injecting an intensity-modulated cw signal through the resonator a thermal relaxation time of 55 ms is estimated.

  16. Integrated Cryogenic Experiment (ICE) microsphere investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Spradley, I.; Read, D.

    1989-09-01

    The main objective is to determine the performance of microsphere insulation in a 0-g environment and compare its performance to reference insulations such as multilayer insulation. The Lockheed Helium Extended-Life Dewar (HELD) is used to provide superfluid-helium cold sink for the experiment. The use of HELD allows the low-g dynamic properties of Passive Orbital Disconnect Struts (PODS) to be characterized and provides a flight demonstration of the PODS system. The thermal performance of microspheres in 1 and 0 g was predicted, a flight experiment was designed to determine microsphere thermal performance, and the interface was also designed between the experimental package and the shuttle through HELD and the Hitchhiker-M carrier. A single test cell was designed and fabricated. The cell was filled with uncoated glass microspheres and tested with a liquid-nitrogen cold sink. The data were found to agree with predictions of microsphere performance in 1 g.

  17. Polymer microspheres carrying fluorescent DNA probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Dai, Zhao; Zhang, Jimei; Xu, Shichao; Wu, Chunrong; Zheng, Guo

    2010-07-01

    A polymer microspheres carried DNA probe, which was based on resonance energy transfer, was presented in this paper when CdTe quantum dots(QDs) were as energy donors, Au nanoparticles were as energy accepters and poly(4- vinylpyrindine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) microspheres were as carriers. Polymer microspheres with functional group on surfaces were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization when ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was as crosslinker in acetonitrile. CdTe QDs were prepared when 3-mercaptopropionic acid(MPA) was as the stabilizer in aqueous solution. Because of the hydrogen-bonding between the carboxyl groups of MPA on QDs and the pyrindine groups on the microspheres, the QDs were self-assembled onto the surfaces of microspheres. Then, the other parts of DNA probe were finished according to the classic method. The DNA detection results indicated that this novel fluorescent DNA probe system could recognize the existence of complementary target DNA or not.

  18. Bioactivated collagen-based scaffolds embedding protein-releasing biodegradable microspheres: tuning of protein release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Marco; Indolfi, Laura; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Netti, Paolo A

    2009-10-01

    In tissue engineering, the recapitulation of natural sequences of signaling molecules, such as growth factors, as occurring in the native extracellular matrix (ECM), is fundamental to support the stepwise process of tissue regeneration. Among the manifold of tissue engineering strategies, a promising one is based on the creation of the chrono-programmed presentation of different signaling proteins. This approach is based upon the integration of biodegradable microspheres, loaded with suitable protein molecules, within scaffolds made of collagen and, in case, hyaluronic acid, which are two of the fundamental ECM constituents. However, for the design of bioactivated gel-like scaffolds the determination of release kinetics must be performed directly within the tissue engineering template. In this work, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) microspheres were produced by the multiple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and loaded with rhodamine-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA-Rhod), a fluorescent model protein. The microdevices were dispersed in collagen gels and collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA) semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs). BSA-Rhod release kinetics were studied directly on single microspheres through confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). To thoroughly investigate the mechanisms governing protein release from PLGA microspheres in gels, BSA-Rhod diffusion in gels was determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), and water transport through the microsphere bulk was determined by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Moreover, the decrease of PLGA molecular weight and glass transition temperature (T(g)) were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Results indicate that protein release kinetics and delivery onset strongly depend on the complex interplay between protein transport through the PLGA matrix and in the collagen-based release media, and water sequestration within the scaffolds, related to the scaffold hydrophilicity, which is dictated by HA content. The proper manipulation of all these features may thus allow the obtainment of a fine control over protein sequential delivery and release kinetics within tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:19449203

  19. Tunable Delivery of Bioactive Peptides from HA Biomaterials and Allograft Bone Using Variable Length Polyglutamate Domains

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Webb, William M.; Bonvallet, Paul P.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) biomaterials and allograft bone are common alternatives to autogenous grafts, however these materials lack the strong osteoinductive potential of autologous bone. Previous studies have established that polyglutamate domains, which bind selectively to HA, can be engineered onto bioactive peptides as a mechanism for coupling osteoinductive signals onto HA and allograft. In the current investigation, we adapted the polyglutamate approach to tailor delivery of a model collagen-derived peptide, DGEA, by manipulating the number of glutamates in the HA binding domain. Specifically, DGEA was modified with diglutamate (E2-DGEA), tetraglutamate (E4-DGEA) or heptaglutamate (E7-DGEA), and it was found that initial peptide binding to HA and allograft was significantly enhanced as the number of glutamates increased. We also determined that the rate of release of polyglutamate-DGEA from substrates over a 5-day interval increased proportionally as the number of glutamate residues was decreased. Additionally, we tuned the peptide release rate by creating mixtures of E2-DGEA, E4-DGEA and E7-DGEA, and observed that release kinetics of the mixtures were distinct from pure solutions of each respective peptide. These collective results suggest that variable length polyglutamate domains provide an effective mechanism for controlled delivery of osteoregenerative peptides on HA-containing bone graft materials. PMID:23625466

  20. Induction Plasma Sprayed Nano Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium for Orthopaedic and Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-01-25

    This paper reports preparation of a highly crystalline nano hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray and their in vitro and in vivo biological response. HA coatings were prepared on Ti using normal and supersonic plasma nozzles at different plate powers and working distances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis show that the normal plasma nozzle lead to increased phase decomposition, high amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase formation, and severe dehydroxylation of HA. In contrast, coatings prepared using supersonic nozzle retained the crystallinity and phase purity of HA due to relatively short exposure time of HA particles in the plasma. In addition, these coatings exhibited a microstructure that varied from porous and glassy structure at the coating-substrate interface to dense HA at the top surface. The microstructural analysis showed that the coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ~200 nm in size, which consisted of recrystallized HA grains in the size range of 15- 20 nm. Apart from the type of nozzle, working distance was also found to have a strong influence on the HA phase decomposition, while plate power had little influence. Depending on the plasma processing conditions, a coating thickness between 300 and 400 ?m was achieved where the adhesive bond strengths were found to be between 4.8 MPa to 24 MPa. The cytotoxicity of HA coatings was examined by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) on coated surfaces. In vivo studies, using the cortical defect model in rat femur, evaluated the histological response of the HA coatings prepared with supersonic nozzle. After 2 weeks of implantation, osteoid formation was evident on the HA coated implant surface, which could indicate early implant- tissue integration in vivo. PMID:21552358

  1. Induction Plasma Sprayed Nano Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium for Orthopaedic and Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preparation of a highly crystalline nano hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray and their in vitro and in vivo biological response. HA coatings were prepared on Ti using normal and supersonic plasma nozzles at different plate powers and working distances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis show that the normal plasma nozzle lead to increased phase decomposition, high amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase formation, and severe dehydroxylation of HA. In contrast, coatings prepared using supersonic nozzle retained the crystallinity and phase purity of HA due to relatively short exposure time of HA particles in the plasma. In addition, these coatings exhibited a microstructure that varied from porous and glassy structure at the coating-substrate interface to dense HA at the top surface. The microstructural analysis showed that the coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ~200 nm in size, which consisted of recrystallized HA grains in the size range of 15– 20 nm. Apart from the type of nozzle, working distance was also found to have a strong influence on the HA phase decomposition, while plate power had little influence. Depending on the plasma processing conditions, a coating thickness between 300 and 400 ?m was achieved where the adhesive bond strengths were found to be between 4.8 MPa to 24 MPa. The cytotoxicity of HA coatings was examined by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) on coated surfaces. In vivo studies, using the cortical defect model in rat femur, evaluated the histological response of the HA coatings prepared with supersonic nozzle. After 2 weeks of implantation, osteoid formation was evident on the HA coated implant surface, which could indicate early implant- tissue integration in vivo. PMID:21552358

  2. A 5-year comparison of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium plasma–sprayed and titanium plasma–sprayed cylinder dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Jones; John Lupori; Joseph E. Van Sickels; Wayne Gardner

    1999-01-01

    Objective. A preliminary report from this study showed that hydroxyapatite-coated (HA) titanium plasma–sprayed (TPS) cylinder implants had fewer failures than TPS cylinder implants before prosthetic loading. The purpose of this article is to report the long-term success associated with the 2 systems. In addition, local and systemic factors that may influence the success or failure of the implants were analyzed.

  3. In vitro anti-bacterial and biological properties of magnetron co-sputtered silver-containing hydroxyapatite coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Chen; Y. Liu; H. S Courtney; M. Bettenga; C. M. Agrawal; J. D. Bumgardner; J. L. Ong

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial infection after implant placement is a significant rising complication. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, several biomaterial surface treatments have been proposed. In this study, the effect of in vitro antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of co-sputtered silver (Ag)-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) coating was evaluated. Deposition was achieved by a concurrent supply of 10W to the

  4. Effect of pyrophosphate ions on the conversion of calcium–lithium–borate glass to hydroxyapatite in aqueous phosphate solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailuo Fu; Mohamed N. Rahaman; Delbert E. Day; Wenhai Huang

    2010-01-01

    The conversion of glass to a hydroxyapatite (HA) material in an aqueous phosphate solution is used as an indication of the\\u000a bioactive potential of the glass, as well as a low temperature route for preparing biologically useful materials. In this\\u000a work, the effect of varying concentrations of pyrophosphate ions in the phosphate solution on the conversion of a calcium–lithium–borate\\u000a glass

  5. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  6. Biomimetic and cell-mediated mineralization of hydroxyapatite by carrageenan functionalized graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyan; Cheng, Ju; Chen, Fengjuan; Hou, Fengping; Bai, Decheng; Xi, Pinxian; Zeng, Zhengzhi

    2014-03-12

    In bone tissue engineering, it is imperative to design multifunctional biomaterials that can induce and assemble bonelike apatite that is close to natural bone. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) was functionalized by carrageenan. The resulting GO-carrageenan (GO-Car) composite was further used as a substrate for biomimetic and cell-mediated mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA). It was confirmed that carrageenan on the GO surface facilitated the nucleation of HA. The observation of the effect of the GO-Car on the adhesion, morphology, and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated. In vitro studies clearly show the effectiveness of GO-Car in promoting HA mineralization and cell differentiation. The results of this study suggested that the GO-Car hybrid will be a promising material for bone regeneration and implantation. PMID:24527702

  7. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N. [Advanced Material Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Bhd, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/4, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  8. Biofilm formation on nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated titanium.

    PubMed

    Westas, Emma; Gillstedt, Martin; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Bruzell, Ellen; Andersson, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Biofilm formation on medical devices is a common cause of implant failure, especially regarding implants that breach the epithelial tissue, so-called transcutaneous implants. Nanotechnology and the development of new nanomaterials have given the opportunity to design nanotextured implant surfaces. Such surfaces have been studied using various in vitro methods showing that nanosized features strongly benefit bone cell growth. However, little is known on how nanostructured features affect biofilm formation. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the shape- and chemical-dependent effect of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the degree of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, respectively. No difference in biofilm biomass was detected for the various surfaces after 6 h incubation with S. epidermidis. Additionally, image analysis of CLSM Z-stacks confirmed the biofilm assay and showed similar results. In conclusion, the difference in nanomorphology and chemical composition of the surface coatings did not influence the adhesion and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. PMID:23589449

  9. Gene expression profile study on osteoinductive effect of natural hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiaoying; Wang, Jiandan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhao, Lifeng

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the osteoinductive effect of natural hydroxyapatite (NHA). NHA was extracted from pig bones and prepared into disk-like samples. Then, proliferation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on NHA was assessed by the methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) assay. Furthermore, microarray technology was applied to obtain the gene expression profiles of MSCs cultured on NHA at 24, 48, and 72 h. The gene expression profile was then comprehensively analyzed by clustering, Gene Ontology (GO), Gene Microarray Pathway Profiler (GenMAPP) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). According to the results of microarray experiment, 8992 differentially expressed genes were obtained. 90 differential expressed genes related to HA osteogenic differentiation were determined by GO analysis. These genes included not only 6 genes related to HA osteogenic differentiation as mentioned in the literatures but also newly discovered 84 genes. Some important signaling pathways (TGF-?, MAPK, Wnt, etc.) were influenced by these genes. Gene interaction networks were obtained by IPA software, in which the scoring values of two networks were highest, and their main functions were related to cell development. The comprehensive analysis of these results indicate that NHA regulate some crucial genes (e.g., Bmp2, Spp1) and then activate some pathways such as TGF-? signaling pathway, and ultimately osteogenic differentiation was induced. PMID:24115491

  10. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  11. REGISTRATION OF THREE MAINTAINER (HA 456, HA 457, AND HA 412 HO) HIGH-OLEIC OILSEED SUNFLOWER GERMPLASMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three maintainer (HA 456, HA 457, and HA 412 HO) high-oleic oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms were developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND, and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Fargo, ND. These germplasms have been selected for their high oleic acid conte...

  12. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite on the axonal guidance growth of rat cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meili; Zhou, Gang; Song, Wei; Li, Ping; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-05-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) can improve axonal connecting in a target direction during regeneration, however, it is limited by the neurotoxicity of CNT. Here we investigate the possible protective effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) against nerve injury, as well as CNT in cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study the nanomaterials were characterized by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Our results showed that axonal migration and extension were increased significantly after n-HA treatment by immunocytochemistry assay. The patch clamp assay results showed that n-HA acts protectively after nerve injury, which inhibited the average amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). n-HA is not neurotoxic for the electrophysiology activity of cells. To find the effect of n-HA on axonal guidance growth in the cultured cortical neurons, Netrin 1, one of the axonal guidance cues, was determined by RT-PCR and western blot assay. Compared to the control group, n-HA down-regulated the mRNA level of netrin 1, and moreover, the expression of netrin 1 decreased significantly in the cells. n-HA caused the axonal guidance growth to be mediated by netrin 1 during nerve regeneration. Therefore, the data from the present study provided a new approach for the therapy or prevention of nerve injury.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes in Nanocomposites and Hybrids with Hydroxyapatite for Bone Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Yoon, Il-Kyu; Lee, Gil-Su; Jang, Won-Cheoul; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA), as a bone mineral component, has been an attractive bioceramic for the reconstruction of hard tissues. However, its poor mechanical properties, including low fracture toughness and tensile strength, have been a significant challenge to the application of HA for the replacement of load-bearing and/or large bone defects. Among materials studied to reinforce HA, carbon nanotubes (CNTs: single-walled or multiwalled) have recently gained significant attention because of their unprecedented mechanical properties (high strength and toughness) and physicochemical properties (high surface area, electrical and thermal conductivity, and low weight). Here, we review recent studies of the organization of HA-CNTs at the nanoscale, with a particular emphasis on the functionalization of CNTs and their dispersion within an HA matrix and induction of HA mineralization. The organization of CNTs and HA implemented at the nanoscale can further be developed in the form of coatings, nanocomposites, and hybrid powders to enable potential applications in hard tissue reconstruction. PMID:21776341

  14. Comparison of Nano-Hydroxyapatite and Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinse for Remineralization of Incipient Carious Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Rezvani, Mohammad Bagher; Salehi Zeinabadi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries is an infectious disease that can be prevented in several ways. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium fluoride mouthrinse and nano- hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) for the remineralization of incipient caries. Materials and Methods: After obtaining different concentrations of nano-HA (0-2-5-10%), 60 sound premolars fixed in acrylic blocks were coated with nail polish except for one surface. Ten teeth (control group) were stored in distilled water and the remaining 50 samples were demineralized by immersion in 13 ml of 0.1 M lactic acid and 0.2% poly acrylic acid for 48 hours. Their microhardness was then measured and compared to that of the control group. Next, the 50 test teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of group1 (negative), group 2 (2% nano-HA), group 3 (5% nano-HA), group 4(10% nano-HA) and group 5 (0.2 NAF mouthrinse). The microhardness of the teeth was measured after 12 hours of immersion in the above-mentioned solutions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Microhardness of all samples decreased significantly after immersion in the demineralization solution and increased following immersion in nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses; however, this increase was not statistically significant (P=0.711). Conclusion: Nano-HA and NAF mouthrinses can greatly enhance remineralization and increase tooth microhardness. PMID:25584051

  15. The effects of hydroxyapatite coatings on stress distribution near the dental implant bone interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Wang, W. D.; Shi, X. H.; Chen, H. Z.; Zou, W.; Guo, Z.; Luo, J. M.; Gu, Z. W.; Zhang, X. D.

    2008-11-01

    The effects of different thickness of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on bone stress distribution near the dental implant-bone interface are very important factors for the HA-coated dental implant design and clinical application. By means of finite element analysis (FEA), the bone stress distributions near the dental implant coated with different thicknesses from 0 to 200 ?m were calculated and analyzed under the 200 N chewing load. In all cases, the maximal von Mises stresses in the bone are at the positions near the neck of dental implant on the lingual side, and decrease with the increase of the HA coatings thickness. The HA coatings weaken the stress concentration and improve the biomechanical property in the bone, however, in HA coatings thickness range of 60-120 ?m, the distinctions of that benefit are not obvious. In addition, considering the technical reason of HA coatings, we conclude that thickness of HA coatings range from 60 to 120 ?m would be the better choice for clinical application.

  16. Preparation and characterization of bionic bone structure chitosan/hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiazhen; Nie, Jingyi; Zhang, Qirong; Li, Youliang; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional oriented chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were prepared via in situ precipitation method in this research. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the scaffolds with acicular nano-HA had the spoke-like, multilayer and porous structure. The SEM of osteoblasts which were polygonal or spindle-shaped on the composite scaffolds after seven-day cell culture showed that the cells grew, adhered, and spread well. The results of X-ray powder diffractometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer showed that the mineral particles deposited in the scaffold had phase structure similar to natural bone and confirmed that particles were exactly HA. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation indicated the composite scaffolds showed a higher degree of proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell compared with the pure CS scaffolds and the CS/HA10 scaffold was the highest one. The CS/HA scaffold also had a higher ratio of adhesion and alkaline phosphate activity value of osteoblasts compared with the pure CS scaffold, and the ratio increased with the increase of HA content. The ALP activity value of composite scaffolds was at least six times of the pure CS scaffolds. The results suggested that the composite scaffolds possessed good biocompatibility. The compressive strength of CS/HA15 increased by 33.07% compared with the pure CS scaffold. This novel porous scaffold with three-dimensional oriented structure might have a potential application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24053536

  17. Controlled RGD Peptide Adsorption on Aggregation-Free, Size-Selected Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapat, Parimal; Culpepper, Bonnie; Bellis, Susan; Camata, Renato

    2012-10-01

    Numerous studies of cell attachment, differentiation, and proliferation have been carried out on nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces with cell adhesive peptides containing the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif. Although these studies have yielded useful insights into the role of RGD peptides in cell-HA biomaterial interactions, the heterogeneity of typical nanophase HA materials makes it difficult to decouple the effects of nanotopography and biochemical cues. In this work we have used aggregation-free, size-controlled HA nanoparticles with mean size in the 20-70 nm range, synthesized by gas-phase laser ablation and deposited on atomically flat bioinert substrates that may help overcome this challenge. Nanoparticle deposits with adjustable number concentration were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. RGD peptides modified by the addition of a polyglutamate sequence and a fluorescent conjugate, were coated onto the HA nanoparticle substrates. Intensity histograms of fluorescent microscopy images show that peptide adsorption on the substrates scales with the concentration of HA nanoparticles. High HA nanoparticle concentrations also lead to peptide clustering tunable in the 100-1200 cm-2.

  18. Microstructure, microhardness, and biocompatibility characteristics of yttrium hydroxyapatite doped with fluoride.

    PubMed

    Toker, S M; Tezcaner, A; Evis, Z

    2011-02-01

    The current study focused on doping of hydroxyapatite (HA) with constant yttrium (Y(3+) ) and varying fluoride (F(-) ) compositions to investigate its microstructure, microhardness, and biocompatibility. HA was synthesized by precipitation method and sintered at 1100°C for 1 h. Y(3+) and F(-) ion dopings resulted in changes in densities. In x-ray diffraction analysis, no secondary phase formation was observed. Lattice parameters decreased upon ion substitutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that ion addition resulted in smaller grains. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, F(-) ion substitution was confirmed. HA doped with 2.5% Y(3+) and 1% F(-) exhibited the highest microhardness. Y(3+) and F(-) ions improved Saos-2 cell proliferation on discs in Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In SEM analysis, cells attached and proliferated on all disc surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay showed that cell differentiation on the discs was improved by doping HA with an optimum F(-) amount. Dissolution tests revealed that structural stability of HA was improved with F(-) ion incorporation. The dissolution behavior of fluoridated samples exhibited a parallel pattern with the cell proliferation and differentiation behavior on these samples. Overall, this work shows that fluoride and yttrium cosubstitution into HA HA2.5Y1F was the most promising material for biomedical applications. PMID:21210499

  19. Reinforced Pulsed Laser-Deposited Hydroxyapatite Coating on 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur; Pradhan, Siddhartha Kumar; Mandal, Tapendu; Balani, Kantesh

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used bioceramic known for its chemical similarity with that of bone and teeth (Ca/P ratio of 1.67). But, owing to its extreme brittleness, ?-Al2O3 is reinforced with HA and processed as a coating via pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Reinforcement of ?-Al2O3 (50 wt.%) in HA via PLD on 316L steel substrate has shown modulus increase by 4% and hardness increase by 78%, and an improved adhesion strength of 14.2 N (improvement by 118%). Micro-scratching has shown an increase in the coefficient-of-friction from 0.05 (pure HA) to 0.17 (with 50 wt.% Al2O3) with enhancement in the crack propagation resistance (CPR) up to 4.5 times. Strong adherence of PLD HA-Al2O3 coatings (~4.5 times than that of HA coating) is attributed to efficient release of stored tensile strain energy (~17 × 10-3 J/m2) in HA-Al2O3 composites, making it a potential damage-tolerant bone-replacement surface coating.

  20. The differential regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity by surface topography of hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel O; Prowse, Paul D H; Chrones, Tom; Sims, Stephen M; Hamilton, Douglas W; Rizkalla, Amin S; Dixon, S Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of bone cells is influenced by the surface chemistry and topography of implants and scaffolds. Our purpose was to investigate how the topography of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings influences the attachment and differentiation of osteoblasts, and the resorptive activity of osteoclasts. Using strategies reported previously, we directly controlled the surface topography of HA coatings on polycaprolactone discs. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were incubated on HA coatings having distinct isotropic topographies with submicrometer and micro-scale features. Osteoblast attachment and differentiation were greater on more complex, micro-rough HA surfaces (Ra ~2 ?m) than on smoother topographies (Ra ~1 ?m). In contrast, activity of the osteoclast marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase was greater on smoother than on micro-rough surfaces. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of resorption lacunae exclusively on smoother HA coatings. Inhibition of resorption on micro-rough surfaces was associated with disruption of filamentous actin sealing zones. In conclusion, HA coatings can be prepared with distinct topographies, which differentially regulate responses of osteoblasts, as well as osteoclastic activity and hence susceptibility to resorption. Thus, it may be possible to design HA coatings that induce optimal rates of bone formation and degradation specifically tailored for different applications in orthopedics and dentistry. PMID:23830579

  1. Hydrothermal fabrication of hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Long, Teng; Liu, Yu-Tai; Tang, Sha; Sun, Jin-Liang; Guo, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Zhen-An

    2014-11-01

    Porous carbon fiber felts (PCFFs) have great applications in orthopedic surgery because of the strong mechanical strength, low density, high stability, and porous structure, but they are biologically inert. To improve their biological properties, we developed, for the first time, the hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan/carbon porous scaffolds (HCCPs). HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings have been fabricated on PCFFs according to the following stages: (i) deposition of chitosan/calcium phosphate precursors on PCFFs; and (ii) hydrothermal transformation of the calcium phosphate precursors in chitosan matrix into HA nanocrystals. The scanning electron microscopy images indicate that PCFFs are uniformly covered with elongated HA nanoplates and chitosan, and the macropores in PCFFs still remain. Interestingly, the calcium-deficient HA crystals exist as plate-like shapes with thickness of 10-18 nm, width of 30-40 nm, and length of 80-120 nm, which are similar to the biological apatite. The HA in HCCPs is similar to the mineral of natural bone in chemical composition, crystallinity, and morphology. As compared with PCFFs, HCCPs exhibit higher in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility because of the presence of the HA/chitosan nanohybrid coatings. HCCPs not only promote the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid, but also improve the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Hence, HCCPs have great potentials as scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering and implantation. PMID:24687547

  2. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  3. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  4. Polymer and microsphere blending to alter the release of a peptide from PLGA microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harish B Ravivarapu; Kevin Burton; Patrick P DeLuca

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of polymer and microsphere blending in achieving both a sufficient initial release and a desired continuous release of a peptide from poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres. Leuprolide acetate loaded hydrophilic 50:50 PLGA microspheres were prepared by a solvent-extraction\\/evaporation process and were characterized for their drug load, bulk density, size distribution, surface area, surface

  5. Electrospinning growth factor releasing microspheres into fibrous scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Tonya J; Sundararaghavan, Harini G

    2014-01-01

    This procedure describes a method to fabricate a multifaceted substrate to direct nerve cell growth. This system incorporates mechanical, topographical, adhesive and chemical signals. Mechanical properties are controlled by the type of material used to fabricate the electrospun fibers. In this protocol we use 30% methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid (HA), which has a tensile modulus of ~500 Pa, to produce a soft fibrous scaffold. Electrospinning on to a rotating mandrel produces aligned fibers to create a topographical cue. Adhesion is achieved by coating the scaffold with fibronectin. The primary challenge addressed herein is providing a chemical signal throughout the depth of the scaffold for extended periods. This procedure describes fabricating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres that contain Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and directly impregnating the scaffold with these microspheres during the electrospinning process. Due to the harsh production environment, including high sheer forces and electrical charges, protein viability is measured after production. The system provides protein release for over 60 days and has been shown to promote primary nerve cell growth. PMID:25178038

  6. Osteopontin functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in a PDLLA matrix promotes bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, T.; Baas, J.; Dolathshahi-Pirouz, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Singh, G.; Nygaard, J. V.; Foss, M.; Bechtold, J.; Bünger, C.; Besenbacher, F.; Søballe, K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the osteoconductive tissue response of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles functionalized with osteopontin (OPN) in a matrix of poly-d,l-lactic-acid (PDLLA). In a canine endosseus 0.75-mm gap implant model, we tested the osteointegrative impact of the OPN functionalized composite as an implant coating, and a non-functionalized composite was used as reference control. During the four weeks of observation, the OPN functionalized composite coating significantly increased the formation of new bone in the porosities of the implant, but no differences were observed in the gap. The study provides evidence of its potential use either alone or in combination with other osteoconductive compounds. PMID:21800419

  7. In vitro osteoclast formation and resorption of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    E-print Network

    Friederichs, Robert J.; Brooks, Roger A.; Ueda, Masato; Best, Serena M.

    2015-04-22

    -substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA) have suggested that OC resorption may stimulate subsequent OB activity or even bone forming ability. 1–3 However, remodelling is known to occur in vivo at plasma-sprayed HA surfaces that leads to a gradual loss of the ceramic coating. 4... and 21 were gently cleaned and placed in an ultrasonic bath to remove cellular material. Dried discs were sputter coated with gold (Emitech 550) and imaged using a JEOL 820 scanning electron microscope (SEM) at an accelerating voltage of 10 k...

  8. Hydroxyapatite canal wall reconstruction\\/mastoid obliteration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT ALLEN ESTREM; GARY HIGHFILL

    1999-01-01

    The controversy regarding removal of the posterior external canal wall during mastoid surgery spans many decades. There are inherent advantages and disadvantages to either removing or not removing the canal wall. The operation must be tailored to the patient and his or her unique situation. We describe our experience with external canal wall reconstruction and mastoid obliteration with hydroxyapatite in

  9. Characterization of a Polyamine Microsphere and Its Adsorption for Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Pei; Nie, Tingting; Wei, Huixian; Cui, Zhenggang

    2013-01-01

    A novel polyamine microsphere, prepared from the water-in-oil emulsion of polyethylenimine, was characterized. The investigation of scanning electron microscopy showed that the polyamine microsphere is a regular ball with a smooth surface. The diameter distribution of the microsphere is 0.37–4.29 ?m. The isoelectric point of the microsphere is 10.6. The microsphere can adsorb proteins through the co-effect of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Among the proteins tested, the highest value of adsorption of microsphere, 127.8 mg·g?1 microsphere, was obtained with lipase. In comparison with other proteins, the hydrophobic force is more important in promoting the adsorption of lipase. The microsphere can preferentially adsorb lipase from an even mixture of proteins. The optimum temperature and pH for the selective adsorption of lipase by the microsphere was 35 °C and pH 7.0. PMID:23344018

  10. STEM and EDXS characterisation of physico-chemical reactions at the periphery of sol-gel derived Zn-substituted hydroxyapatites during interactions with biological fluids

    PubMed Central

    Jallot, Edouard; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grimault, Anne S.; Chassot, Emmanuelle; Grandjean-Laquerriere, Alexia; Laquerriere, Patrice; Laurent-Maquin, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    With its good properties of biocompatibility and bioactivity hydroxyapatite (HA) is highly used as bone substitutes and as coatings on metallic prostheses. In order to improve bioactive properties of HA we have elaborated Zn2+ doped hydroxyapatite. Zn2+ ions substitute for Ca2+ cations in the HA structure and four Zn concentrations (Zn/Zn+Ca) were prepared 0.5, 1, 2, 5 % at. To study physico-chemical reactions at the materials periphery, we immersed the bioceramics into biological fluids for delays from 1 day to 20 days. The surface changes were studied at the nanometer scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy associated to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. After 20 days of immersion we observed the formation of a calcium-phosphate layer at the periphery of the HA doped with 5% of zinc. This layer contains magnesium and its thickness was around 200 nm. Formation of this Ca-P-Mg layer represents bioactivity properties of the 5% Zn-substituted hydroxyapatite. This biologically active layer improves properties of HA and will permit a chemical bond between the ceramic and bone. PMID:15893220

  11. On the structural, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of HA/?-TCP robocast scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Houmard, Manuel; Fu, Qiang; Genet, Martin; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2013-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) composite scaffolds have shown great potential for bone-tissue engineering applications. In this work, ceramic scaffold with different HA/?-TCP compositions (pure HA, 60HA/40?-TCP, and 20HA/80?-TCP) were fabricated by a robotic-assisted deposition (robocasting) technique using water-based hydrogel inks. A systematic study was conducted to investigate the porosity, mechanical property, and degradation of the scaffolds. Our results indicate that, at a similar volume porosity, the mechanical strength of the sintered scaffolds increased with the decreasing rod diameter. The compressive strength of the fabricated scaffolds (porosity ? 25-80 vol %) varied between ?3 and ?50 MPa, a value equal or higher than that of human cancellous bone (2-12 MPa). Although there was a slight increase of Ca and P ions in water after 5 month, no noticeable degradation of the scaffolds in SBF or water was observed. Our findings from this work indicate that composite calcium phosphate scaffolds with customer-designed chemistry and architecture may be fabricated by a robotic-assisted deposition method. PMID:23650043

  12. HORRIO DE AULAS -DIURNO / 2013-2 1 PERODO-HA -2HA

    E-print Network

    Direito I 2HA Prof. Marcelo Ciotola 602F HIS 1605 Hist. Econ. Soc.e Pol. do Brasil 2HA Prof. Daniel Pinha 602F JUR l03l Int. ao Direito I 2HA Prof. Marcelo Ciotola 602F JUR 1003 Hist. Do Direito 2HA Profa Direito Privado 2HA Profa. Maria Celina 606F SOC l205 Política I 2HA Prof. Alessandra Maia 602F SOC ll0l

  13. Osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite coated roughened titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua-Wei; Lin, Mao-Han; Xu, Yuan-Zhi; Shang, Guang-Wei; Wang, Rao-Rao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) coated roughened titanium surfaces. Methods: Sr-HA coating and HA coating were fabricated on roughened titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition technique and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESM). BMSCs were cultured on Sr-HA coating, HA coating and roughened titanium surfaces respectively. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodules formation and cell osteocalcin (OC) secretion were measured. Results: Electrochemically deposited Sr-HA coating and HA coating had no effect on the proliferation of BMSCs and demonstrated that the materials have a good biocompatibility. BMSCs cultured on Sr-HA coating showed increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralized nodules formation, and cell OC secretion compared with the other two groups. Cells cultured on HA coating also showed increased biological activity compared with the roughened group. Conclusion: Sr-HA coated titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition can promote osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro and have the potential to shorten bone healing period and enhance implant osseointegration. PMID:25784995

  14. The nanocomposite scaffold of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and hydroxyapatite surface-grafted with L-lactic acid oligomer for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Liu, Yi; Cui, Yi; Jing, Xiabin; Zhang, Peibiao; Chen, Xuesi

    2009-09-01

    Nanohydroxyapatite (op-HA) surface-modified with l-lactic acid oligomer (LAc oligomer) was prepared by LAc oligomer grafted onto the hydroxyapatite (HA) surface. The nanocomposite of op-HA/PLGA with different op-HA contents of 5, 10, 20 and 40wt.% in the composite was fabricated into three-dimensional scaffolds by the melt-molding and particulate leaching methods. PLGA and the nanocomposite of HA/PLGA with 10wt.% of ungrafted hydroxyapatite were used as the controls. The scaffolds were highly porous with evenly distributed and interconnected pore structures, and the porosity wasaround 90%. Besides the macropores of 100-300microm created by the leaching of NaCl particles, the micropores (1-50microm) in the pore walls increased with increasing content of op-HA in the composites of op-HA/PLGA. The op-HA particles could disperse more uniformly than those of pure HA in PLGA matrix. The 20wt.% op-HA/PLGA sample exhibited the maximum mechanical strength, including bending strength (4.14MPa) and compressive strength (2.31MPa). The cell viability and the areas of the attached osteoblasts on the films of 10wt.% op-HA/PLGA and 20wt.% op-HA/PLGA were evidently higher than those on the other composites. For the animal test, there was rapid healing in the defects treated with 10 and 20wt.% op-HA/PLGA, where bridging by a large bony callus was observed at 24weeks post-surgery. There was non-union of radius defects implanted with PLGA and in the untreated group. This was verified by the Masson's trichrome staining photomicrographs of histological analysis. All the data extrapolated that the composite with 10 and 20wt.% op-HA exhibited better comprehensive properties and were the optimal composites for bone repairing. PMID:19376759

  15. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  16. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-04-16

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  17. Stability of proteins within biodegradable microspheres

    E-print Network

    Fu, Karen, 1967-

    2000-01-01

    In the past decade, biodegradable polymers have become the materials of choice for a variety of biomaterials applications. In particular, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres have been extensively studied for ...

  18. Adsorption of Salmon Calcitonin to PLGA Microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sema Calis; Ramasubbu Jeyanthi; Tsuimin Tsai; Rahul C. Mehta; Patrick P. DeLuca

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. The interaction of salmon calcitonin (sCT) and poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) was detected during preparation and evaluation of microspheres. The purpose of this study was to quantitate the extent and nature of the interaction.

  19. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Identification. A trace microsphere is a radioactively tagged nonbiodegradable particle that is intended to be injected into an artery or vein and trapped in the capillary bed for the purpose of studying blood flow within or to an organ. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. A trace microsphere is a radioactively tagged nonbiodegradable particle that is intended to be injected into an artery or vein and trapped in the capillary bed for the purpose of studying blood flow within or to an organ. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. A trace microsphere is a radioactively tagged nonbiodegradable particle that is intended to be injected into an artery or vein and trapped in the capillary bed for the purpose of studying blood flow within or to an organ. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification. A trace microsphere is a radioactively tagged nonbiodegradable particle that is intended to be injected into an artery or vein and trapped in the capillary bed for the purpose of studying blood flow within or to an organ. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1360 - Trace microsphere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. A trace microsphere is a radioactively tagged nonbiodegradable particle that is intended to be injected into an artery or vein and trapped in the capillary bed for the purpose of studying blood flow within or to an organ. (b)...

  4. Biologically inspired rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite hydrogel nanocomposites as improved bone substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijie; Rodriguez, Jose; Raez, Jose; Myles, Andrew J.; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J.

    2009-04-01

    Today, bone diseases such as bone fractures, osteoporosis and bone cancer represent a common and significant public health problem. The design of biomimetic bone tissue engineering materials that could restore and improve damaged bone tissues provides exciting opportunities to solve the numerous problems associated with traditional orthopedic implants. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to create a biomimetic orthopedic hydrogel nanocomposite based on the self-assembly properties of helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs), the osteoconductive properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA), and the biocompatible properties of hydrogels (specifically, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), pHEMA). HRNs are self-assembled nanomaterials that are formed from synthetic DNA base analogs in water to mimic the helical nanostructure of collagen in bone. In this study, different geometries of nanocrystalline HA were controlled by either hydrothermal or sintering methods. 2 and 10 wt% nanocrystalline HA particles were well dispersed into HRN hydrogels using ultrasonication. The nanocrystalline HA and nanocrystalline HA/HRN hydrogels were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical testing studies revealed that the well dispersed nanocrystalline HA in HRN hydrogels possessed improved mechanical properties compared to hydrogel controls. In addition, the results of this study provided the first evidence that the combination of either 2 or 10 wt% nanocrystalline HA and 0.01 mg ml-1 HRNs in hydrogels greatly increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion up to 236% compared to hydrogel controls. Moreover, this study showed that HRNs stimulated HA nucleation and mineralization along their main axis in a way that is very reminiscent of the HA/collagen assembly pattern in natural bone. In summary, the presently observed excellent properties of the biomimetic nanocrystalline HA/HRN hydrogel composites make them promising candidates for further study for bone tissue engineering applications.

  5. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel coatings with tunable surface exposure of hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Villain, Arthur; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient bone anchoring is a major limitation of artificial substitutes for connective osteoarticular tissues. The use of coatings containing osseoconductive ceramic particles is one of the actively explored strategies to improve osseointegration and strengthen the bone-implant interface for general tissue engineering. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyapatite (HA) particles can be coated robustly on specific assemblies of PVA hydrogel fibers for the potential anchoring of ligament replacements. A simple dip-coating method is described to produce composite coatings made of microscopic hydroxyapatite (HA) particles dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The materials are compatible with the requirements for implant Good Manufacturing Practices. They are applied to coat bundles of PVA hydrogel fibers used for the development of ligament implants. By means of optical and electronic microscopy, we show that the coating thickness and surface state can be adjusted by varying the composition of the dipping solution. Quantitative analysis based on backscattered electron microscopy show that the exposure of HA at the coating surface can be tuned from 0 to over 55% by decreasing the weight ratio of PVA over HA from 0.4 to 0.1. Abrasion experiments simulating bone-implant contact illustrate how the coating cohesion and wear resistance increase by increasing the content of PVA relative to HA. Using pullout experiments, we find that these coatings adhere well to the fiber bundles and detach by propagation of a crack inside the coating. These results provide a guide to select coated implants for anchoring artificial ligaments. PMID:25482413

  6. Carbon microsphere-filled Pyrrone foams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    Syntactic foam formulations were prepared from mixtures of Pyrrone prepolymers and hollow carbon microspheres. Very low curing shrinkages were obtained for high volume loadings of microspheres. The resulting syntactic foams were found to be remarkably stable over a wide range in temperature. A technique was developed for the emplacement of these foam formulations in polyimide-fiberglass, titanium alloy and stainless steel honeycomb without sacrificing low curing shrinkage or thermal stability.

  7. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  8. New functional microspheres with active succinimide groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Morital; M. Yoshida; M. Asano; I. Kaetsu

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of monomers, for example N-methacryl-oxysuccinimide (MASu) and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (2G), in ethyl propionate, was performed from +25°C to -78°C. The copoly (MASu\\/2G) microspheres were obtained in MASu monomer compositions of 30 wt % or below. The average particle diameter of copoly(MASu\\/2G, 20\\/80 wt %) microspheres obtained at irradiation temperatures of 25°, 0°, and -43 °C were 0.81±0.29,

  9. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:25024679

  10. PLGA/nHA hybrid nanofiber scaffold as a nanocargo carrier of insulin for accelerating bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Adnan; Gupta, Kailash Chandra; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    The development of tissue engineering in the field of orthopedic surgery is booming. Two fields of research in particular have emerged: approaches for tailoring the surface properties of implantable materials with osteoinductive factors as well as evaluation of the response of osteogenic cells to these fabricated implanted materials (hybrid material). In the present study, we chemically grafted insulin onto the surface of hydroxyapatite nanorods (nHA). The insulin-grafted nHAs (nHA-I) were dispersed into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution, which was electrospun to prepare PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffolds. The morphology of the electrospun nanofiber scaffolds was assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). After extensive characterization of the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA composite nanofiber scaffolds by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the PLGA/nHA-I and PLGA/nHA (used as control) composite nanofiber scaffolds were subjected to cell studies. The results obtained from cell adhesion, alizarin red staining, and Von Kossa assay suggested that the PLGA/nHA-I composite nanofiber scaffold has enhanced osteoblastic cell growth, as more cells were proliferated and differentiated. The fact that insulin enhanced osteoblastic cell proliferation will open new possibilities for the development of artificial scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  11. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojta?, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  12. Ferroelectric polarization in nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin films on silicon.

    PubMed

    Lang, S B; Tofail, S A M; Kholkin, A L; Wojta?, M; Gregor, M; Gandhi, A A; Wang, Y; Bauer, S; Krause, M; Plecenik, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone--a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  13. Electrodeposition of nanostructured bioactive hydroxyapatite-heparin composite coatings on titanium for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Barca, Amilcare; Bogani, Francesco; Boniardi, Marco; Carlino, Paolo; Mele, Claudio; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we describe the one-pot fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HA)-heparin composites by electrodeposition onto Ti substrates and their characterisation in terms of structure, morphology, heparin content and bioactivity. HA coatings are well known and widely applied osteointegration enhancers, but post-implant healing rate in dental applications is still suboptimal: e.g. coagulation control plays a key role and the incorporation of an anticoagulant is considered a highly desirable option. In this study, we have developed an improved, simple and robust growth procedure for single-phase, pure HA-heparin films of thickness 1/3 ?m. HA-heparin, forming nanowires, has the ideal morphology for bone mineralisation. Staining assays revealed homogeneous incorporation of sizable amounts of heparin in the composite films. The bioactivities of the HA and HA-heparin coatings on Ti were compared by HeLa cell proliferation/viability tests and found to be enhanced by the presence of the anticoagulant. PMID:24619574

  14. Mechanisms of enhanced osteoblast gene expression in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Hall, Douglas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been shown to enhance osteoblast (bone forming cells) proliferation and osteoblast differentiation into calcium depositing cells (through increased secretion of alkaline phosphatase, collagen and calcium deposition) compared to control samples without nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles are, thus, very promising for numerous orthopedic applications including magnetically directed osteoporosis treatment. The objective of the current study was to elucidate the mechanisms of the aforementioned improved osteoblast responses in the presence of HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Results demonstrated large amounts of fibronectin (a protein known to increase osteoblast functions) adsorption on HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Specifically, fibronectin adsorption almost doubled when HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticle concentrations increased from 12.5 to 100 ?g ml-1, and from 12.5 to 200 ?g ml-1, a four fold increase was observed. Results also showed greater osteoblast gene regulation (specifically, osteocalcin, type I collagen and cbfa-1) in the presence of HA coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Collectively, these results provide a mechanism for the observed enhanced osteoblast functions in the presence of HA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, allowing their further investigation for a number of orthopedic applications.

  15. Nano-Ag-loaded hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surfaces by electrochemical deposition

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiong; Zhang, Bailin; Wang, Yingbo; Zhou, Xianli; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Feng, Bo; Watari, Fumio; Ding, Yonghui; Leng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium (Ti) substrates have attracted much attention owing to the combination of good mechanical properties of Ti and superior biocompatibility of HA. Incorporating silver (Ag) into HA coatings is an effective method to impart the coatings with antibacterial properties. However, the uniform distribution of Ag is still a challenge and Ag particles in the coatings are easy to agglomerate, which in turn affects the applications of the coatings. In this study, we employed pulsed electrochemical deposition to co-deposit HA and Ag simultaneously, which realized the uniform distribution of Ag particles in the coatings. This method was based on the use of a well-designed electrolyte containing Ag ions, calcium ions and l-cysteine, in which cysteine acted as the coordination agent to stabilize Ag ions. The antibacterial and cell culture tests were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of HA/Ag composite coatings, respectively. The results indicated the as-prepared coatings had good antibacterial properties and biocompatibility. However, an appropriate silver content should be chosen to balance the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Heat treatments promoted the adhesive strength and enhanced the biocompatibility without sacrificing the antibacterial properties of the HA/Ag coatings. In summary, this study provided an alternative method to prepare bioactive surfaces with bactericidal ability for biomedical devices. PMID:20880853

  16. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/collagen/hydroxyapatite hydrogel: properties and in vitro cellular response.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Markel, David C; Jin, Xin; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop "bone-like" poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/hydroxyapatite (HA)/type I collagen (Col) hydrogel composites that stimulate adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. The hydrogel composites were prepared by mixing PVA with nanoscale HA and Col using a physical mixing method. The concentration of the components was optimized during formulation development. PVA/Col/HA hydrogels were characterized for viscoelasticity, degree of swelling, mechanical strength, embedded erythromycin drug release, and cellular response of both osteoblastic MC3T3 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Compressive strength tests confirmed that the PVA coating possessed greater elasticity and was mechanically enhanced by the freeze-thaw treatment. PVA/Col/HA gel is biocompatible and nontoxic to MC3T3 preosteoblasts, and the reinforcement from HA and Col reduced the inflammatory response from macrophages. Our findings demonstrate that PVA composites are biocompatible, and enhance cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro. We propose that PVA/Col/HA hydrogels represent one of the promising implant surface coating matrices for the improvement of implant osseointegration. PMID:22733675

  17. In vitro evaluation of editempa on hydroxyapatite formation and its effects on dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Moreno, E; Varughese, K; Kresak, M

    1982-01-01

    N,N,N',N' ethylene diamine tetra (methylene phosphonic acid)-Editempa inhibited the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro at 4 ppm. In the seeded crystal growth of HA at 37 degrees C, it completely inhibited the crystal growth at 0.5 ppm. C14-Editempa adsorbed to HA crystal at 37 degrees C. The maximum adsorption was 1.29 mumol/m2 of HA and the adsorption was monolayer. Compared to the natural inhibitors of HA in saliva (Statherin and Proline-rich proteins), Editempa was more effective in vitro on weight basis. At 0.3 ppm, it inhibited growth rate of the crystals by 80% while 4 to 5 ppm of the natural inhibitors were needed to get the same effect. The inhibition of rates with Editempa was not directly proportional to the area covered by it on the HA seeds (occupied less than 10% of the surface). The natural inhibitors, on the other hand, seemed to cover all the available surface. These data indicate that the inhibition with Editempa was due to binding to specific sites on the surface of the seeds. The solutions up to 5% of Editempa did not damage or etch the surface of human dental enamel in vitro at pHs 5.0 and 7.5, as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and calcium released in the exposed solutions. PMID:6293678

  18. Polylactide nanofibers with hydroxyapatite as growth substrates for osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Novotna, Katarina; Zajdlova, Martina; Suchy, Tomas; Hadraba, Daniel; Lopot, Frantisek; Zaloudkova, Margit; Douglas, Timothy E L; Munzarova, Marcela; Juklickova, Martina; Stranska, Denisa; Kubies, Dana; Schaubroeck, David; Wille, Sebastian; Balcaen, Lieve; Jarosova, Marketa; Kozak, Halyna; Kromka, Alexander; Svindrych, Zdenek; Lisa, Vera; Balik, Karel; Bacakova, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Various types of nanofibers are increasingly used in tissue engineering, mainly for their ability to mimic the architecture of tissue at the nanoscale. We evaluated the adhesion, growth, viability, and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells on polylactide (PLA) nanofibers prepared by needle-less electrospinning and loaded with 5 or 15 wt % of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. On day 7 after seeding, the cell number was the highest on samples with 15 wt % of HA. This result was confirmed by the XTT test, especially after dynamic cultivation, when the number of metabolically active cells on these samples was even higher than on control polystyrene. Staining with a live/dead kit showed that the viability of cells on all nanofibrous scaffolds was very high and comparable to that on control polystyrene dishes. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that the concentration of osteocalcin was also higher in cells on samples with 15 wt % of HA. There was no immune activation of cells (measured by production of TNF-alpha), associated with the incorporation of HA. Moreover, the addition of HA suppressed the creep behavior of the scaffolds in their dry state. Thus, nanofibrous PLA scaffolds have potential for bone tissue engineering, particularly those with 15 wt % of HA. PMID:24375970

  19. Fabrication of DNA/Hydroxyapatite nanocomposites by simulated body fluid for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Takayuki; Okamoto, Masami

    2015-05-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of DNA molecules in simulated body fluid (SBF) was examined. The osteoconductivity is estimated using SBF having ion concentrations approximately equal to those of human blood plasma. After immersion for 4 weeks in SBF at 36.5 °C, the HA crystallites possessing 1-14 micrometer in diameter grew on the surface of DNA molecules. The leaf flake-like and spherical shapes morphologies were observed through scanning electron microscopy analysis. Original peaks of both of DNA and HA were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The Ca/P ratio (1.1-1.5) in HA was estimated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. After biomineralization, the calculated weight ratio of DNA/HA was 18/82 by thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. The molecular orbital computer simulation has been used to probe the interaction of DNA with two charge-balancing ions, CaOH+ and C a H2P O4+ . The adsorption enthalpy of the two ions on DNA having negative value was the evidence for the interface in mineralization of HA in SBF.

  20. Coupling Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals with Lactoferrin as a Promising Strategy to Fine Regulate Bone Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Monica; Panseri, Silvia; Iafisco, Michele; Adamiano, Alessio; Tampieri, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an interesting glycoprotein in the field of bone biology for its regulatory effect on cells involved in bone remodeling, that results compromised in several pathological conditions, as osteoporosis. In a previous study we observed that the coupling of LF and biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA), a material well-known for its bioactivity and osteoconductive properties, leads to a combined effect in the induction of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. On the basis of this evidence, the present study is an extension of our previous work aiming to investigate the synergistic effect of the coupling of HA and LF on bone homeostasis. Biomimetic HA nanocrystals were synthesized and functionalized with LF (HA-LF) and then pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) and monocyte/macrophage cells lines (RAW 264.7), using as osteoclastogenesis in vitro model, were cultured separately or in co-culture in presence of HA-LF. The results clearly revealed that HA and LF act in synergism in the regulation of the bone homeostasis, working as anabolic factor for osteoblasts differentiation and bone matrix deposition, and as inhibitor of the osteoclast formation and activity. PMID:26148296

  1. Influence of physicochemical parameters on adsorption of Actinomyces viscosus to hydroxyapatite surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, T T; Clark, W B; Lane, M D; Grow, T E

    1983-01-01

    Adsorption of Actinomyces viscosus strains T14V and T14AV to saliva-treated and untreated hydroxyapatite (HA) under various environmental conditions was studied. Strain T14V adsorption to saliva-treated HA was not influenced by pH, whereas strain T14AV adsorbed in higher numbers under acidic conditions. The addition of cations inhibited adsorption of strains T14V and T14AV to saliva-treated HA. Strain T14V possessed a greater affinity for hydrophobic gels than did strain T14AV, but incorporation of non-ionic detergents, which inhibit hydrophobic interactions, did not influence adsorption of strain T14V to saliva-treated HA. Adsorption of strain T14V to saliva-treated HA increased in the presence of an anionic detergent; however, strain T14AV adsorption was not affected. Strain T14V adsorption decreased in the presence of a cationic detergent, whereas strain T14AV adsorption increased. Collectively, these data suggest that electrostatic interactions, but not hydrophobic interactions, are of major importance in the adsorption of strain T14V to saliva-treated HA. PMID:6840836

  2. Experimental studies on hydroxyapatite powder-carboxymethyl chitin composite: injectable material for bone augmentation.

    PubMed

    Uda, Hirokazu; Sugawara, Yasushi; Nakasu, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    We developed a hydroxyapatite (HA) powder-carboxymethyl chitin composite (HA-CMC composite) that can be injected with a 14G needle by adding distilled water. We prepared Materials I (HA = 57.0 wt%) and II (HA = 40.2 wt%) and examined their biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. With a 2-mm skin stab, the material was injected on the calvarial bone of rats. The periosteum was denuded blindly in half of the cases and preserved in the other half of the cases. Simultaneously, the material was injected subdermally into the abdominal skin to examine diachronic volume alteration of the material. Our results indicated that the new materials had biocompatibility as high as that achieved with previously developed HA materials. The difference in HA concentration did not influence the osteoconductivity, but the periosteum and the soft tissue on the cranium seemed to be an obstacle to bone ingrowth. On the other hand, the volume alteration was significantly smaller in Material I than in Material II. This composite may be especially useful in facial bone augmentation because it can be injected with only a small skin stab. When used for that purpose, the periosteum of the host bone should be denuded to facilitate bone ingrowth, and Material I will be preferable to Material II in terms of the maintenance of the initial volume. PMID:16703865

  3. Decoupling the role of stiffness from other hydroxyapatite signalling cues in periosteal derived stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Giorgio; Ferretti, Concetta; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is a natural composite made of collagen and mineral hydroxyapatite (HA). Dynamic cell-ECM interactions play a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and function. Understanding the principal ECM cues promoting osteogenic differentiation would be pivotal for both bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Altering the mineral content generally modifies the stiffness as well as other physicochemical cues provided by composite materials, complicating the "cause-effect" analysis of resultant cell behaviour. To isolate the contribution of mechanical cues from other HA-derived signals, we developed and characterised composite HA/gelatin scaffolds with different mineral contents along with a set of stiffness-matched HA-free gelatin scaffolds. Samples were seeded with human periosteal derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and cultured over 7 days, analysing their resultant morphology and gene expression. Our results show that both stiffness and HA contribute to directing PDPC osteogenic differentiation, highlighting the role of stiffness in triggering the expression of osteogenic genes and of HA in accelerating the process, particularly at high concentrations. PMID:26035412

  4. Decoupling the role of stiffness from other hydroxyapatite signalling cues in periosteal derived stem cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Giorgio; Ferretti, Concetta; Tirella, Annalisa; Ahluwalia, Arti; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Bone extracellular matrix (ECM) is a natural composite made of collagen and mineral hydroxyapatite (HA). Dynamic cell-ECM interactions play a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and function. Understanding the principal ECM cues promoting osteogenic differentiation would be pivotal for both bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Altering the mineral content generally modifies the stiffness as well as other physicochemical cues provided by composite materials, complicating the “cause-effect” analysis of resultant cell behaviour. To isolate the contribution of mechanical cues from other HA-derived signals, we developed and characterised composite HA/gelatin scaffolds with different mineral contents along with a set of stiffness-matched HA-free gelatin scaffolds. Samples were seeded with human periosteal derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and cultured over 7 days, analysing their resultant morphology and gene expression. Our results show that both stiffness and HA contribute to directing PDPC osteogenic differentiation, highlighting the role of stiffness in triggering the expression of osteogenic genes and of HA in accelerating the process, particularly at high concentrations. PMID:26035412

  5. Demonstration of Microsphere Insulation in Cryogenic Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, R. G.; Myers, E. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Morris, D. L.; Sokalski, E. R.

    2006-04-01

    While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual use in full-scale cryogenic storage tanks has not been demonstrated until now. The performance and life-cycle-cost advantages previously predicted have now been proven. Most bulk cryogenic storage tanks are insulated with either multilayer insulation (MLI) or perlite. Microsphere insulation, consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. These properties were proven during recent field testing of two 22,700-L (6,000-gallon) liquid nitrogen tanks, one insulated with microsphere insulation and the other with perlite. Normal evaporation rates (NER) for both tanks were monitored with precision test equipment and insulation levels within the tanks were observed through view ports as an indication of insulation compaction. Specific industrial applications were evaluated based on the test results and beneficial properties of microsphere insulation. Over-the-road trailers previously insulated with perlite will benefit not only from the reduced heat leak, but also the reduced mass of microsphere insulation. Economic assessments for microsphere-insulated cryogenic vessels including life-cycle cost are also presented.

  6. Nonlinear elasticity of microsphere heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Carlos P.; Daniels, Karen E.; Riehn, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Thermal fluctuations, geometric exclusion, and external driving all govern the mechanical response of dense particulate suspensions. Here, we measure the stress-strain response of quasi-two-dimensional flow-stabilized microsphere heaps in a regime in which all three effects are present using a microfluidic device. We observe that the elastic modulus and the mean interparticle separation of the heaps are tunable via the confining stress provided by the fluid flow. Furthermore, the measured stress-strain curves exhibit a universal nonlinear shape, which can be predicted from a thermal van der Waals equation of state with excluded volume. This analysis indicates that many-body interactions contribute a significant fraction of the stress supported by the heap.

  7. Curvature Capillary Migration of Microspheres

    E-print Network

    Nima Sharifi-Mood; Iris B. Liu; Kathleen J. Stebe

    2015-05-11

    We address the question: How does capillarity propel microspheres along curvature gradients? For a particle on a fluid interface, there are two conditions that can apply at the three phase contact line: Either the contact line adopts an equilibrium contact angle, or it can be pinned by kinetic trapping, e.g. at chemical heterogeneities, asperities or other pinning sites on the particle surface. We formulate the curvature capillary energy for both scenarios for particles smaller than the capillary length and far from any pinning boundaries. The scale and range of the distortion made by the particle are set by the particle radius; we use singular perturbation methods to find the distortions and to rigorously evaluate the associated capillary energies. For particles with equilibrium contact angles, contrary to the literature, we find that the capillary energy is negligible, with the first contribution bounded to fourth order in the product of the particle radius and the deviatoric curvature. For pinned contact lines, we find curvature capillary energies that are finite, with a functional form investigated previously by us for disks and microcylinders on curved interfaces. In experiments, we show microsphere migrate along deterministic trajectories toward regions of maximum deviatoric curvature with curvature capillary energies ranging from $6 \\times10^3 - 5 \\times 10^4~k_BT$. These data agree with the curvature capillary energy for the case of pinned contact lines. The underlying physics of this migration is a coupling of the interface deviatoric curvature with the quadrupolar mode of nanometric disturbances in the interface owing to the particle's contact line undulations. This work is an example of the major implications of nanometric roughness and contact line pinning for colloidal dynamics.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations for the examination of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite/ poly ?-n-butyl cyanoacrylate under additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanen; Wei, Qinghua; Pan, Feilong; Yang, Mingming; Wei, Shengmin

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations emerged to be a helpful tool in the field of material science. In rapid prototyping artificial bone scaffolds process, the binder spraying volume and mechanism are very important for bone scaffolds mechanical properties. In this study, we applied MD simulations to investigating the binding energy of ?-n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) on Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallographic planes (001, 100 and 110), and to calculating and analyzing the mechanical properties and radial distribution function of the HA(110)/NBCA mixed system. The simulation results suggested that HA (110) has the highest binding energy with NBCA owing to the high planar atom density, and the mechanical properties of HA(110)/NBCA mixed system is stronger than pure HA system. Therefore, the multi-grade strength bone scaffold could be fabricated through spraying various volume NBCA binders during 3D printing process. By calculating the radial distribution function of HA(110)/NBCA, the essence of the interface interaction were successfully elucidated. The forming situation parameters can be referred to calculation results. There exists a strong interaction between HA crystallographic plane (110) and NBCA, it is mainly derived from the hydrogen bonds between O atoms which connect with C atoms of NBCA and H atoms in HA crystal. Furthermore, a strong adsorption effect can be demonstrated between HA and NBCA. PMID:24211969

  9. Effect of negatively charged cellulose nanofibers on the dispersion of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for scaffolds in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsung; Lee, Dajung; Shin, Sungchul; Hyun, Jinho

    2015-06-01

    Nanofibrous 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl(TEMPO)-oxidized bacterial cellulose (TOBC) was used as a dispersant of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The surfaces of TOBC nanofibers were negatively charged after the reaction with the TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO system at pH 10 and room temperature. HA nanoparticles were simply adsorbed on the TOBC nanofibers (HA-TOBC) and dispersed well in DI water. The well-dispersed HA-TOBC colloidal solution formed a hydrogel after the addition of gelatin, followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (HA-TOBC-Gel). The chemical modification of the fiber surfaces and the colloidal stability of the dispersion solution confirmed TOBC as a promising HA dispersant. Both the Young's modulus and maximum tensile stress increased as the amount of gelatin increased due to the increased crosslinking of gelatin. In addition, the well-dispersed HA produced a denser scaffold structure resulting in the increase of the Young's modulus and maximum tensile stress. The well-developed porous structures of the HA-TOBC-Gel composites were incubated with Calvarial osteoblasts. The HA-TOBC-Gel significantly improved cell proliferation as well as cell differentiation confirming the material as a potential candidate for use in bone tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:25910635

  10. Preparation and characterization of NiW-nHA composite catalyst for hydrocracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gang; Hou, Yongzhao; Liu, Lei; Liu, Hongru; Liu, Can; Liu, Jing; Qiao, Huiting; Liu, Wenyong; Fan, Yubo; Shen, Shituan; Rong, Long

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis, characterization and catalytic capability of the NiW-nano-hydroxyapatite (NiW-nHA) composite were investigated in this paper. The NiW-nHA catalyst was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Then Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) were used to analyze this material. In addition, the catalytic capacity of the NiW-nHA composite was also examined by FT-IR and gas chromatography (GC). The results of FT-IR analysis indicated that Ni, W and nHA combined closely. TEM observation revealed that this catalyst was needle shaped and the crystal retained a nanometer size. XRD data also suggested that a new phase of CaWO4 appeared and the lattice parameters of nHA changed in this system. nHA was the carrier of metals. The rates of Ni/W-loading were 73.24% and 65.99% according to the EDX data, respectively. Furthermore, the conversion of 91.88% Jatropha oil was achieved at 360 °C and 3 MPa h-1 over NiW-nHA catalyst. The straight chain alkanes ranging from C15 to C18 were the main components in the production. The yield of C15-C18 alkanes was up to 83.56 wt%. The reaction pathway involved hydrocracking of the C&z.dbd;C bonds of these triglycerides from Jatropha oil. This paper developed a novel non-sulfided catalyst to obtain a ``green biofuel'' from vegetable oil.

  11. Selective laser sintering fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite/poly-?-caprolactone scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Zhou, Panyu; Cheng, Xiaosong; Xie, Yang; Liang, Chong; Li, Chao; Xu, Shuogui

    2013-01-01

    The regeneration of functional tissue in osseous defects is a formidable challenge in orthopedic surgery. In the present study, a novel biomimetic composite scaffold, here called nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) was fabricated using a selective laser sintering technique. The macrostructure, morphology, and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds exhibited predesigned, well-ordered macropores and interconnected micropores. The scaffolds have a range of porosity from 78.54% to 70.31%, and a corresponding compressive strength of 1.38 MPa to 3.17 MPa. Human bone marrow stromal cells were seeded onto the nano-HA/PCL or PCL scaffolds and cultured for 28 days in vitro. As indicated by the level of cell attachment and proliferation, the nano-HA/PCL showed excellent biocompatibility, comparable to that of PCL scaffolds. The hydrophilicity, mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin Red S staining indicated that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds are more bioactive than the PCL scaffolds in vitro. Measurements of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) release kinetics showed that after nano-HA was added, the material increased the rate of rhBMP-2 release. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds, both nano-HA/PCL scaffolds and PCL scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femur defects for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The wounds were studied radiographically and histologically. The in vivo results showed that both nano-HA/PCL composite scaffolds and PCL scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility. However, the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation more than PCL scaffolds and fulfilled all the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Thus, they show large potential for use in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:24204147

  12. Three-dimensional polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite scaffolds combined with bone marrow cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Yao, Qingqiang; Guo, Yang; Mao, Fengyong; Liu, Shuai; Xu, Yan; Wang, Liming

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the chondrogenic potential of three-dimensional polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite (PCL-HA) scaffolds loaded with bone marrow cells in vitro and the effect of PCL-HA scaffolds on osteochondral repair in vivo. Here, bone marrow was added to the prepared PCL-HA scaffolds and cultured in chondrogenic medium for 10 weeks. Osteochondral defects were created in the trochlear groove of 29 knees in 17 New Zealand white rabbits, which were then divided into four groups that underwent: implantation of PCL-HA scaffolds (left knee, n?=?17; Group 1), microfracture (right knee, n?=?6; Group 2), autologous osteochondral transplantation (right knee, n?=?6; Group 3), and no treatment (right knee, n?=?5; Control). Extracellular matrix produced by bone marrow cells covered the surface and filled the pores of PCL-HA scaffolds after 10 weeks in culture. Moreover, many cell-laden cartilage lacunae were observed, and cartilage matrix was concentrated in the PCL-HA scaffolds. After a 12-week repair period, Group 1 showed excellent vertical and lateral integration with host bone, but incomplete cartilage regeneration and matrix accumulation. An uneven surface of regenerated cartilage and reduced distribution of cartilage matrix were observed in Group 2. In addition, abnormal bone growth and unstable integration between repaired and host tissues were detected. For Group 3, the integration between transplanted and host cartilage was interrupted. Our findings indicate that the PCL-HA scaffolds loaded with bone marrow cells improved chondrogenesis in vitro and implantation of PCL-HA scaffolds for osteochondral repairenhanced integration with host bone. However, cartilage regeneration remained unsatisfactory. The addition of trophic factors or the use of precultured cell-PCL-HA constructs for accelerated osteochondral repair requires further investigation. PMID:25766036

  13. HORRIO DE AULAS -DIURNO / 2014-1 1 PERODO-HA -2HA

    E-print Network

    . ao Direito I 2HA Prof. Marcelo Ciotola 602F HIS 1605 Hist. Econ. Soc.e Pol. do Brasil 2HA Prof.ª Maria da Graça 602F JUR l03l Int. ao Direito I 2HA Prof. Marcelo Ciotola 602F JUR 1003 Hist. Do Direito JUR 1830 Teoria do Direito Privado 2HA Prof.ª Maria Celina 606F SOC l205 Política I 2HA Prof

  14. Incus interposition and ossiculoplasty with hydroxyapatite prostheses.

    PubMed

    Wehrs, R E

    1994-08-01

    This article traces the evolution of transplant material in ossicular reconstruction of the middle ear. The first transplant consisted of the body and short process of the homograft incus. It was repositioned or wedged between the stapes head and the manubrium of the malleus. Further modification consisted of the sculpture of prostheses from homograft incudes; these were known as the notched incus with short or long process. By means of a notch in the short process, they were locked in place. The final phase is the use of hydroxyapatite as a biocompatible material from which similar prostheses may be precisely manufactured. These hydroxyapatite prostheses, known as the incus and incus-stapes replacement prosthesis, appear to be well tolerated and to produce excellent hearing results. PMID:7984369

  15. Ti-Nb-Sn-hydroxyapatite composites synthesized by mechanical alloying and high frequency induction heated sintering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Yuyong; Xu, LiJuan; Xiao, Shulong; Kong, Fantao; Woo, Kee Do

    2011-11-01

    A ?-type Ti-based composite, Ti-35Nb-2.5Sn-15-hydroxyapatite (HA), has been synthesized by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy. The effects of milling time on microstructure, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sintered composites were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, compression tests and cells culture. The results revealed when milling time increased, the homogeneity and relative density of the sintered composite increased, but the finished sintering temperature decreased. The compression Young's modulus of sintered composite from 12 h milled powders was about 22 GPa and its compression strength was 877 MPa. The cell culture results indicated cell viability for these sintered composites was very good. These results revealed the Ti-35Nb-2.5Sn-15HA composite could be useful for medical implants. PMID:22098907

  16. Composite biomaterials with chemical bonding between hydroxyapatite filler particles and PEG/PBT copolymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    1998-06-01

    In an effort to make composites from hydroxyapatite and a PEG/PBT copolymer (Polyactive 70/30), chemical linkages were introduced between the filler particles and polymer matrix using hexamethylene diisocyanate as a coupling agent. Infrared spectra (IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the presence of Polyactive 70/30 on the surface of HA filler particles. The amount of chemically bound polymer was 4.7 wt.%, as determined by TGA. The mechanical properties of the composites, that is, tensile strength and Young's modulus, were improved significantly by the introduction of a chemical linkage between the filler particles and polymer matrix compared to control composites. This method provides an effective way to introduce chemical linkage between HA filler particles and a polymer matrix. By optimizing the grafting process, a further improvement of the mechanical properties in the composites can be expected. PMID:9570082

  17. Adding MgO nanoparticles to hydroxyapatite-PLLA nanocomposites for improved bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Daniel J; Ercan, Batur; Sun, Linlin; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium plays an important role in the body, mediating cell-extracellular matrix interactions and bone apatite structure and density. This study investigated, for the first time, the effects of adding magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles to poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and to hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticle-PLLA composites for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. Results showed that MgO nanoparticles significantly enhanced osteoblast adhesion and proliferation on HA-PLLA nanocomposites while maintaining mechanical properties (Young's modulus ?1,000 MPa) suitable for cancellous bone applications. Additionally, osteoblasts (or bone-forming cells) cultured in the supernatant of degrading nanocomposites showed improved proliferation in the presence of magnesium, indicating that the increased alkalinity of solutions containing MgO nanocomposites had no toxic effects towards cells. These results together indicated the promise of further studying MgO nanoparticles as additive materials to polymers to enhance the integration of implanted biomaterials with bone. PMID:25523875

  18. Modeling of hydroxyapatite-peptide interaction based on fragment molecular orbital method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Koichiro; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Mochizuki, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    We have applied the four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital (FMO4) calculations to analyze the interaction between a designed peptide motif (Glu1-Ser2-Gln3-Glu4-Ser5) and the hydroxyapatite (HA) solid mimicked by a cluster model consisting of 1408 atoms. To incorporate statistical fluctuations, a total of 30 configurations were generated through classical molecular dynamics simulation with water molecules and were subjected to FMO4 calculations at the MP2 level. It was found that Ser5 plays a leading role in interacting with the phosphate moieties of HA via charge transfer and also that negatively charged Glu1 and Glu4 provide electrostatic stabilizations with the calcium ions.

  19. Preparation and characterization of porous PDLLA/HA composite foams by supercritical carbon dioxide technology.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xinrong; Ren, Jie; Gu, Shuying

    2007-04-01

    A composite poly(D,L)lactic acid (PDLLA)/hydroxyapatite (HA) biomaterial was prepared by in situ polymerization of D,L-lactide monomer and HA. Supercritical CO2 (SC CO2) technology was developed to prepare the biodegradable composite foams for use in tissue regeneration. In this technology, NaCl particles were used as porogen to produce an open-pore structure. Organic solvents were not used and high temperature was not necessary. The problem with pore interconnectivity was resolved. High-porosity composite foams (up to 90% +/- 2% porosity) were obtained with pore sizes ranging from 100 to 300 microm suitable for cell seeding. The microstructure and morphology of the composite foams could be controlled by saturation pressure, saturation time, and temperature as well as amount of NaCl particles. The compressive strength and water absorbability of the composite foams were also determined. With an increase in HA amount, the molecular weight of PDLLA/HA composite foams decreased, but the mechanical strength and hydrophilicity increased slightly. PMID:16924605

  20. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Liang; Lei Zhan; Longhua Piao; Christian R?ssel

    2011-01-01

    A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1M K2HPO4 solution by the ratio of 50gL?1 for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value

  1. Coralline hydroxyapatite reinforced with polylactide fibres in lumbar interbody implantation.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, P; Raekallio, M; Taurio, R; Vihtonen, K; Vainionpää, S; Partio, E K; Törmälä, P; Rokkanen, P

    2005-04-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite HA blocks reinforced with poly-l/dl-lactide fibres were used to maintain the lumbar disc space and to start to create intercorporeal fusion in 23 growing pigs. In four pigs two emptied non adjacent disc spaces were left open. After 3, 6, 12 and 16 weeks the implanted disc blocks were studied radiologically, histologically, histomorphometrically, microradiographically, and with oxytetracycline fluorescence. In plain films slight to moderate ossification of the implanted disc spaces was detected at 12 and 16 weeks. Resorption of the implants was seen radiologically from 3 weeks and fragmentation from 12 weeks onwards. In microradiographs disintegration of the coralline inner structure started at 3 weeks. Histologically, connective tissue ingrowth was seen inside the porous structure from three weeks onwards. Small amounts of new bone were visible and connective tissue inside the implant increased from a mean of 65.6% at 3 weeks to a mean of 79.4% at 16 weeks histomorphometrically. The bone ingrowth varied from 0.7 to 1.7%. A loss of height in the implanted disc spaces was seen (p < 0.05, linear regression analysis). In control pigs the emptied disc spaces lost their height similarly. The implants used were not strong enough to maintain the lumbar disc height. PMID:15803277

  2. Identification of the hydroxyapatite-binding domain of salivary agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Bikker, Floris J; Cukkemane, Nivedita; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I

    2013-02-01

    The salivary agglutinin glycoprotein (SAG) is present in saliva but is also part of the salivary pellicle, playing a seemingly paradoxical role with regard to bacterial homeostasis. On the one hand, SAG aggregates bacteria in solution, thereby preventing bacterial colonization. On the other hand, when bound to the tooth surface, SAG facilitates bacterial colonization and microbial growth. The protein part of SAG is predominantly composed of conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains. Previously it was found that bacterial binding and aggregation is mediated via a single peptide loop, designated SRCRP2 (P2), within the SRCR domains of SAG. The current data suggest that the SRCR domains also harbour a hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding moiety, SRCRP3 (P3). The observation that P2 and P3 individually play unique roles in the function of SAGs contributes to our understanding of the dual role of SAGs in bacterial binding. Inspired by the bacterial-modulating capacity of SAGs, we created a P3-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate. It was found that a P3 coating resulted in an increased antifouling activity of 20% compared with the uncoated surface in vitro. An additional PEG moiety resulted in an antifouling activity of up to 40% and 30% for Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. PMID:23331418

  3. Rheological Behavior of an Epoxy Resin with Hollow Glass Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cleber C.; Calado, Verônica; Tavares, Frederico W.

    2008-07-01

    An investigation was carried out on the rheological behavior of a TET/DGEBA epoxy formulations with hollow glass microspheres using different types and different volume fractions of microspheres to manufacture composites. It was proposed an equation to describe viscosity as a function of microsphere volume fracion. The fit to the experimental data was excellent.

  4. Patterning of silica microsphere monolayers with focused femtosecond laser pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjian Cai; Rafael Piestun

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the patterning of monolayer silica microsphere lattices with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. We selectively removed microspheres from a lattice and characterized the effect on the lattice and the substrate. The proposed physical mechanism for the patterning process is laser-induced breakdown followed by ablation of material. We show that a microsphere focuses radiation in its interior and in

  5. Preparation of monodisperse, reactive hydrogel microspheres and their amphoterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kashiwabara; K. Fujimoto; H. Kawaguchi

    1995-01-01

    Monodisperse, reactive hydrogel microspheres were prepared by precipitation polymerization ofp-nitrophenyl acrylate (NPA) with acrylamide, methacrylic acid, and methylenebisacrylamide in ethanol. The size of microspheres was controlled by the monomer ratio. Some fraction of reactive ester decomposed during the polymerization. The reactive hydrogel microspheres were converted to amphoteric ones by the reaction of NPA units with diamine. The isoelectric point of

  6. Prevention of local tumor growth with paclitaxel-loaded microspheres

    E-print Network

    resection margin. Methods: Poly-(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded unloaded (carrier alone) PLGA microspheres, and Lewis lung carcinoma cells com- bined with 50 3 106 or 100 3 106 paclitaxel-loaded PLGA microspheres. After the coinjection of Lewis lung carcinoma cells

  7. Evaluation of biomimetic scaffold of gelatin–hydroxyapatite crosslink as a novel scaffold for tissue engineering: Biocompatibility evaluation with human PDL fibroblasts, human mesenchymal stromal cells, and primary bone cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sorasun Rungsiyanont; Nirada Dhanesuan; Somporn Swasdison; Shohei Kasugai

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetic gelatin (gel)–hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have been prepared for studying hard tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the biocompatibility test of this form of material using these three cell types, which are periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblast cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (HMSc) and primary cells from human hip bone (HBc) has never been evaluated. The objective of this article is to prepare

  8. The pathway to intelligent implants: osteoblast response to nano silicon-doped hydroxyapatite patterning

    PubMed Central

    Munir, G.; Koller, G.; Di Silvio, L.; Edirisinghe, M. J.; Bonfield, W.; Huang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) with addition of silicon (Si) in the crystal structure (silicon-doped hydroxyapatite (SiHA)) has become a highly attractive alternative to conventional HA in bone replacement owing to the significant improvement in the in vivo bioactivity and osteoconductivity. Nanometre-scaled SiHA (nanoSiHA), which closely resembles the size of bone mineral, has been synthesized in this study. Thus, the silicon addition provides an extra chemical cue to stimulate and enhance bone formation for new generation coatings, and the next stage in metallic implantation design is to further improve cellular adhesion and proliferation by control of cell alignment. Topography has been found to provide a powerful set of signals for cells and form contact guidance. Using the recently developed novel technique of template-assisted electrohydrodynamic atomization (TAEA), patterns of pillars and tracks of various dimensions of nanoSiHA were achieved. Modifying the parameters of TAEA, the resolution of pattern structures was controlled, enabling the topography of a substrate to be modified accordingly. Spray time, flow rate and distance between the needle and substrate were varied to improve the pattern formation of pillars and tracks. The 15 min deposition time provided the most consistent patterned topography with a distance of 50 mm and flow rate of 4 µl min?1. A titanium substrate was patterned with pillars and tracks of varying widths, line lengths and distances under the optimized TAEA processing condition. A fast bone-like apatite formation rate was found on nanoSiHA after immersion in simulated body fluid, thus demonstrating its high in vitro bioactivity. Primary human osteoblast (HOB) cells responded to SiHA patterns by stretching of the filopodia between track and pillar, attaching to the apex of the pillar pattern and stretching between two. HOB cells responded to the track pattern by elongating along and between the track, and the length of HOB cells was proportional to the gaps between track patterns, but this relationship was not observed on the pillar patterns. The study has therefore provided an insight for future design of next generation implant surfaces to control and guide cellular responses, while TAEA patterning provides a controllable technique to provide topography to medical implants. PMID:21208969

  9. Morphology effect of bioglass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (Bonelike(®) ) on osteoregeneration.

    PubMed

    Atayde, L M; Cortez, P P; Afonso, A; Santos, M; Maurício, A C; Santos, J D

    2015-02-01

    In the last decades, the well-known disadvantages of autografts and allografts have driven to the development of synthetic bone grafts for bone regeneration. Bonelike(®) , a glass-reinforced hydroxyapatite (HA) composite was developed and registered for bone grafting. This biomaterial is composed by a modified HA matrix, with ?- and ?-tricalcium phosphate secondary phases. Aiming to improve the biological characteristics of Bonelike(®) , new spherical pelleted granules, of different shape and size, were developed with controlled micro and macrostructure. In the present study, it was compared the physicochemical properties and in vivo performance of different Bonelike(®) granule presentations-Bonelike(®) polygonal (500-1000 µm size) and Bonelike spherical (250-500 µm; 500-1000 µm size). For the in vivo study, Bonelike(®) was implanted on sheep femurs, with various implantation times (30 days, 60 days, 120 days, and 180 days). X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the phase composition of different granules presentations was similar. Bonelike(®) spherical 500-1000 µm was the most porous material (global porosity and intraporosity) and Bonelike(®) polygonal 500-1000 µm the less porous. Considering the in vivo study, both polygonal and spherical granules presented osteoconductive proprieties. The spherical granules showed several advantages, including easier medical application through syringe and improved osteointegration, osteoconduction, and degradation, by the presence of larger pores, controlled micro- and macrosctructure and suitable particle format that adapts to bone growth. Bonelike(®) spherical 500-1000 µm showed improved new bone invasion throughout the material's structure and Bonelike(®) spherical 250-500 µm appeared to induce faster bone regeneration, presenting less unfilled areas and less lacunae in the histological analysis. PMID:24819340

  10. Mechanical, in vitro antimicrobial, and biological properties of plasma-sprayed silver-doped hydroxyapatite coating.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-03-01

    Implant-related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. To reduce bacterial adhesion, we used silver (Ag)/silver oxide (Ag(2)O) doping in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 wt % Ag, heat-treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Our results suggest that the plasma-sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag-doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

  11. Silver-doped hydroxyapatite coatings formed on Ti-6Al-4V substrates and their characterization.

    PubMed

    Yanovska, A A; Stanislavov, A S; Sukhodub, L B; Kuznetsov, V N; Illiashenko, V Yu; Danilchenko, S N; Sukhodub, L F

    2014-03-01

    Coatings with antibacterial components for medical implants are recommended to reduce the risk of bacterial infections. Therefore hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with addition of chitosan (CS) and silver (Ag) are proposed in this work in an attempt to resolve this problem. Ti-6Al-4V substrates were modified by a chitosan film to study the influence of surface modification on the formation of the HA-Ag and HA-CS-Ag coatings. Using a thermal substrate method, HA and HA-CS coatings doped with Ag(+) were prepared at low substrate temperatures (90°C). Coated surfaces were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The amount of silver in the deposited coatings was analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. From this study it is concluded that the substrate surface modified by a chitosan film promotes the coating formation and increases the antibacterial activity of produced coatings against a strain of Escherichia coli. The adhesion of E. coli (ATCC 25922) to sheep erythrocytes was decreased by 14% as compared with the reference samples without Ag. It could be explained by the inhibition of bacterial adhesins by Ag(+) ions released. The combined action of silver ions and chitosan resulted in a 21% decrease in adhesive index. PMID:24433906

  12. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite nanofibers: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Markel, David C; Wang, Sunxi; Shi, Tong; Mao, Guangzhao; Ren, Weiping

    2012-03-23

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is due to the lack of early implant osseointegration. In this study polyvinyl alcohol-collagen-hydroxyapatite (PVA-Col-HA) electrospun nanofibrous meshes were fabricated as a biomimetic bone-like extracellular matrix for the modification of orthopedic prosthetic surfaces. In order to reinforce the PVA nanofibers, HA nanorods and Type I collagen were incorporated into the nanofibers. We investigated the morphology, biodegradability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the prepared nanofibers. Our results showed these inorganic-organic blended nanofibers to be degradable in vitro. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen interacted with the PVA content, reinforcing the hydrolytic resistance and mechanical properties of nanofibers that provided longer lasting stability. The encapsulated nano-HA and collagen also enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of murine bone cells (MC3T3) in vitro. We propose the PVA-Col-HA nanofibers might be promising modifying materials on implant surfaces for orthopedic applications. PMID:22370251

  13. Material fundamentals and clinical performance of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: a review.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Berndt, C C; Gross, K A; Kucuk, A

    2001-01-01

    The clinical use of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on metal implants has aroused as many controversies as interests over the last decade. Although faster and stronger fixation and more bone growth have been revealed, the performance of HA-coated implants has been doubted. This article will initially address the fundamentals of the material selection, design, and processing of the HA coating and show how the coating microstructure and properties can be a good predictor of the expected behavior in the body. Further discussion will clarify the major concerns with the clinical use of HA coatings and introduce a comprehensive review concerning the outcomes experienced with respect to clinical practice over the past 5 years. A reflection on the results indicates that HA coatings can promote earlier and stronger fixation but exhibit a durability that can be related to the coating quality. Specific relationships between coating quality and clinical performance are being established as characterization methods disclose more information about the coating. PMID:11505433

  14. Mechanical properties of polyvinylalcohol/hydroxyapatite cryogel as potential artificial cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jimena S; Alvarez, Vera A

    2014-06-01

    The technological advances in material science are not enough to overcome the challenge of construct a material be able to replace the cartilage. The designed material has to meet the mechanical properties of cartilage and has to be also capable to be integrated with the articulation. Articular cartilage damage is a persistent and increasing problem which affects millions of people worldwide. Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels are promising implants, due to their similar properties as soft tissue; however their low mechanical resistance and durability together with its lack to integrate with the surrounding tissue restrict their application in this area. The poor adhesion can be solved by the development a composite hydrogel with bioactive and biocompatible filler, as hydroxyapatite (HA). The aim of this work was to obtain and characterize (physically, chemically and mechanically) PVA/HA composite hydrogels for potential application as articular replacement. Hence, composite hydrogels were prepared by adding of different amounts of HA in an aqueous solution of PVA and subsequent freezing-thawing cycles. It was observed that the addition of HA modified the physical and chemical features of the hydrogel and promoted the material crosslinking and stability. Moreover, it was found that the mechanical properties (compression, tension and nanoindentation) of the hydrogels were improved by the addition of HA. All these result indicate that these materials could be used as a potential cartilage replacement. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are mandatory for future possible clinical applications and are actually being carried out. PMID:24556324

  15. Bisphosphonate-derivatized liposomes to control drug release from collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guilin; Babada?li, Mustafa Ege; Uluda?, Hasan

    2011-08-01

    A drug delivery system was developed by combining composite scaffolds made up of collagen and hydroxyapatite (Col/HA) with bisphosphonate (BP)-derivatized liposomes. The Col/HA scaffold was prepared by a freeze-drying method to yield a porous scaffold. The liposomes were composed of distearoylphosphocholine, cholesterol, distearoylphosphoethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol) (DSPE-PEG), and a bone-binding bisphosphonate (BP) attached to the DSPE-PEG (DSPE-PEG-BP). By taking advantage of the specific interaction between the liposomal BP and the HA incorporated into the scaffold, the BP-decorated liposomes (BP-liposomes) were shown to display a strong affinity to Col/HA scaffolds. Three different model drugs, carboxyfluorescein (CF), doxorubicin (DOX), and lysozyme (LYZ) were entrapped in liposomes; there were no differences in drug release from the liposomes whether the liposomes were BP decorated or not. Whereas unencapsulated drugs and drugs encapsulated in PEG-liposomes displayed rapid release from the scaffolds, the drugs entrapped in BP-liposomes showed a slower release from the Col/HA scaffolds. We conclude that the proposed system can prolong the in situ residence of model drugs and has the potential to provide a sustained drug release platform in bone regeneration and repair. PMID:21557579

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of collagen-chitosan-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites for bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaomin; Tan, Yanfei; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Zhongwei; Li, Xudong

    2009-06-15

    Incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the matrix of collagen (Col) and chitosan (Chi) by in situ synthesis was introduced to prepare nanocomposites. Structural investigations of the pure Col-Chi mixture validated the influence of Chi on Col assembly, but the molecular interactions between Col and Chi was partially depressed during the intervention of in situ HA synthesis, as revealed by FTIR and DSC analyses. A series of Col-Chi-HA (CCHA) nanocomposites with varying HA content were thereby prepared by a sequential method, involving in situ synthesis in the Col-Chi system, then gelling at 25 degrees C and subsequently washing the resultant elastic gel followed by dehydration consolidation. The structural characteristics and biological properties of the dehydrated CCHA nanocomposites were further evaluated by using XRD, FTIR, TG, and SEM analyses and the osteoblast culture experiment. Formation of a well integrated microstructure of organic fibers (ca. 90 nm in size) and dense matrix including inorganic aggregates (less than 30 nm in size) was found in these nanocomposites. Rat Ros 17/2.8 Osteoblasts proliferated and attached well on the surface of both CCHA nanocomposite and Col-Chi mixture. These results indicated that in situ HA synthesis in the Col-Chi system provided a feasible route for bone grafting nanocomposites. PMID:18478560

  17. Fostering hydroxyapatite bioactivity and mechanical strength by Si-doping and reinforcing with multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Belmamouni, Younes; Bricha, Meriame; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Ferreira, José M F; El Mabrouk, Khalil

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare resorbable hydroxyapatite (HA) based bone graft materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes as a way to cope with the inability of pure HA to resorb and its intrinsic brittleness and poor strength that restrict its clinical applications under load-bearing conditions. With this purpose, a Si-doped HA nanopowder (n-Si0.8HA) was prepared by chemical synthesis and used as composite matrix reinforced with different amounts of functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The effect of the added amounts of MWCNTs on the mechanical properties of nanocomposites and their in vitro biomineralization was assessed by bending strength measurements, immersing tests in simulated body fluid solution (SBF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis (ICP-AES). The bioactivity and bending strength were enhanced, reaching maximum balanced values for an optimum addition of 3 wt.% f-MWCNTs. These results might contribute to broaden the potential applications of HA-based bone grafts. PMID:24738405

  18. Structural design and experimental analysis of a selective laser sintering system with nano-hydroxyapatite powder.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanglong; Qu, Hongyi; Peng, Shuping

    2010-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a ceramic transposition material which has been widely used for artificial bone. However, its applications are limited to a small implantation for non-bearing bone repair due to its high brittleness, low strength and poor mechanical properties. Thus, nanotechnology has been employed to improve the mechanical properties (torsion modulus, tensile strength and fatigue resistance, etc.) of HA for bone implantation. In this study, we developed a selective laser sintering system for fabrication of artificial bone with nano-HA powder. The key characteristics of this novel system is the laser with fast heating and fast cooling properties, which efficiently prevents the nanosize particles from forming micron size ones in the process of the sintering. The microstructure of the sintered nano-HA scaffolds produced in this system was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). We showed that the size of nano particles were increased with the prolonged sintering time. Moreover, they are more in shape of granules instead of the original shape of needle. We suggest that the nano HA scaffolds which meet the requirements for the mechanical and biological properties of bone can be obtained by optimizing the sintering time. PMID:21323110

  19. Preparation and characterization of n-hydroxyapatite/PCL-pluronic-PCL nanocomposites for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shaozhi; Guo, Gang; Wang, Xinlong; Zhou, Liangxue; Liu, Tingting; Dong, Pengwei; Luo, Feng; Gu, Yingchun; Shi, Xingyu; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yuquan; Qian, Zhiyong

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a new kind of polymeric nanocomposite materials based on nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and PCL-Pluronic-PCL (PCFC) copolymer were prepared by in situ combination method. Firstly, the PCFC copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone initiated by Pluronic (PEG-PPG-PEG); Secondly, n-HA powder were combined with PCFC to form polymeric composites in the presence of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). The obtained composites were characterized by 1H-NMR, FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM, DTA/TGA, and tensile testing. The results revealed that n-HA could be dispersed into polymer matrix uniformly, and the n-HA/PCFC composite showed great mechanical properties when the content of n-HA was 10 wt%. The microstructure and thermal properties of the composites were discussed in the paper too. The experimental results suggested that this polymeric nanocomposite might have great potential application in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:20352708

  20. Preliminary biocompatible evaluation of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 composite porous membrane

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yili; Wang, Ping; Man, Yi; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Li, Jidong

    2010-01-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66) composite with good bioactivity and osteoconductivity was employed to develop a novel porous membrane with asymmetric structure for guided bone regeneration (GBR). In order to test material cytotoxicity and to investigate surface-dependent responses of bone-forming cells, the morphology, proliferation, and cell cycle of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of rats cultured on the prepared membrane were determined. The polygonal and fusiform shape of BMSCs was observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The proliferation of BMSCs cultured on nHA/PA66 membrane tested by the MTT method (MTT: [3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl}-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazoliumbromide]) was higher than that of negative control groups for 1 and 4 days’ incubation and had no significant difference for 7 and 11 days’ culture. The results of cell cycle also suggested that the membrane has no negative influence on cell division. The nHA/PA66 membranes were then implanted into subcutaneous sites of nine Sprague Dawley rats. The wounds and implant sites were free from suppuration and necrosis in all periods. All nHA/PA66 membranes were surrounded by a fibrous capsule with decreasing thickness 1 to 8 weeks postoperatively. In conclusion, the results of the in vitro and in vivo studies reveal that nHA/PA66 membrane has excellent biocompatibility and indicate its use in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or GBR. PMID:20957164

  1. Nano-functionalization of protein microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungkwon; Nichols, William T.

    2014-08-01

    Protein microspheres are promising building blocks for the assembly of complex functional materials. Here we demonstrate a set of three techniques that add functionality to the surface of protein microspheres. In the first technique, a positive surface charge on the protein spheres is deposited by electrostatic adsorption. Negatively charged silica and gold nanoparticle colloids can then electrostatically bind reversibly to the microsphere surface. In the second technique, nanoparticles are covalently anchored to the protein shell using a simple one-pot process. The strong covalent bond between sulfur groups in cysteine in the protein shell irreversibly binds to the gold nanoparticles. In the third technique, surface morphology of the protein microsphere is tuned through hydrodynamic instability at the water-oil interface. This is accomplished through the degree of solubility of the oil phase in water. Taken together these three techniques form a platform to create nano-functionalized protein microspheres, which can then be used as building blocks for the assembly of more complex macroscopic materials.

  2. A biodegradable gentamicin-hydroxyapatite-coating for infection prophylaxis in cementless hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Neut, D; Dijkstra, R J; Thompson, J I; Kavanagh, C; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    2015-01-01

    A degradable, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), gentamicin-loaded prophylactic coating for hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated cementless hip prostheses is developed with similar antibacterial efficacy as offered by gentamicin-loaded cements for fixing traditional, cemented prostheses in bone. We describe the development pathway, from in vitro investigation of antibiotic release and antibacterial properties of this PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating in different in vitro models to an evaluation of its efficacy in preventing implant-related infection in rabbits. Bone in-growth in the absence and presence of the coating was investigated in a canine model. The PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating showed high-burst release, with antibacterial efficacy in agar-assays completely disappearing after 4 days, minimising risk of inducing antibiotic resistance. Gentamicin-sensitive and gentamicin-resistant staphylococci were killed by the antibiotic-loaded coating, in a simulated prosthesis-related interfacial gap. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coatings prevented growth of bioluminescent staphylococci around a miniature-stem mounted in bacterially contaminated agar, as observed using bio-optical imaging. PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins inserted in bacterially contaminated medullary canals in rabbits caused a statistically significant reduction in infection rates compared to HA-coated pins without gentamicin. Bone ingrowth to PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coated pins, in condylar defects of Beagle dogs was not impaired by the presence of the degradable, gentamicin-loaded coating. In conclusion, the PLGA-gentamicin-HA-coating constitutes an effective strategy for infection prophylaxis in cementless prostheses. PMID:25552428

  3. Effects of hydroxyapatite coating on survival of an uncemented femoral stem

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely used as a coating for uncemented total hip arthroplasty components. This has been suggested to improve implant ingrowth and long-term stability. However, the evidence behind the use of HA coating on femoral stems is ambiguous. We investigated survival of an uncemented, tapered titanium femoral stem that was available either with or without HA coating (Bi-Metric). Patients and methods The stem had been used in 4,772 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) in 4,169 patients registered in the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register between 1992 and 2009. 59% of the stems investigated were coated with HA and 41% were uncoated. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a Cox regression model with adjustment for age, sex, primary diagnosis, and the type of cup fixation were used to calculate survival rates and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of the risk of revision for various reasons. Results The 10-year survival rates of the HA-coated version and the uncoated version were about equal when we used revision for any reason as the endpoint: 98% (95% CI: 98–99) and 98% (CI: 97–99), respectively. A Cox regression model adjusting for the covariates mentioned above showed that the presence of HA coating did not have any influence on the risk of stem revision for any reason (RR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6) or due to aseptic loosening (RR = 0.5, CI: 0.2–1.5). There was no effect of HA coating on the risk of stem revision due to infection, dislocation, or fracture. Interpretation The uncemented Bi-Metric stem showed excellent 10-year survival. Our findings do not support the use of HA coating on this stem to enhance implant survival. PMID:21751858

  4. Residual stress measurement in thermal sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Brown; I. G. Turner; H. Reiter

    1994-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings have been used for many years on dental and prosthetic implants to provide a biocompatible surface for long-term fixation of the implant to bone. In this study two thermal spraying processes, air plasma spraying (APS) and a high velocity oxy fuel process (CDS) have been employed to produce hydroxyapatite coatings. An X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) has been applied

  5. Hydroxyapatite formation from a hydrated calcium monohydrogen phosphate precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion D. Francis; Ned C. Webb

    1970-01-01

    Hydrated calcium monohydrogen phosphate is proposed as the logical precursor in the formation of hydroxyapatite and a unifying theory for the formation of low calcium, or defect apatites, is presented. Structural relationships between calcium monohydrogen phosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite indicate that either material can provide the atomic arrangment for the epitaxial growth of one on the other. The formation of

  6. Bone Remodeling and Hydroxyapatite Resorption in Coated Primary Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tonino, Alphons J.; Heyligers, Ide C.; Grimm, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings for THA promote bone ongrowth, but bone and coating are exposed to stress shielding-driven osteoclastic resorption. We asked: (1) if the resorption of hydroxyapatite coating and bone ongrowth correlated with demographics; (2) if the resorption related to the stem level; and (3) what happens to the implant-bone interface when all hydroxyapatite coating is resorbed? We recovered 13 femoral components from cadaveric specimens 3.3 to 11.2 years after uneventful primary THA. Three cross sections (proximal, medial, distal) of the hydroxyapatite-coated proximal implant sleeve were analyzed by measuring the percentage of residual hydroxyapatite and bone ongrowth on the implant perimeter. Hydroxyapatite resorption was independent of patient age but increased with time in vivo and mostly was gone after 8 years. Bone ongrowth was independent of time in vivo but decreased with aging patients. Only in the most proximal section did less residual hydroxyapatite correlate with less bone ongrowth. Hydroxyapatite resorption, which was more proximal than distal, showed no adverse effects on the implant-bone interface. PMID:18855086

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pang Xin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, Igor [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada)]. E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca

    2007-04-15

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition has been utilized for the fabrication of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates. The addition of chitosan to the hydroxyapatite suspensions promoted the electrophoretic deposition of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and resulted in the formation of composite coatings. The obtained coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the deposit composition can be changed by a variation of the chitosan or hydroxyapatite concentration in the solutions. Experimental conditions were developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposites containing 40.9-89.8 wt.% hydroxyapatite. The method enabled the formation of adherent and uniform coatings of thicknesses up to 60 {mu}m. X-ray studies revealed that the preferred orientation of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix increases with decreasing hydroxyapatite content in the composite coatings. The obtained coatings provided the corrosion protection for the 316L stainless steel substrates00.

  8. Development of hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate composites addressed to the design of load-bearing bone scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sprio, Simone; Tampieri, Anna; Celotti, Giancarlo; Landi, Elena

    2009-04-01

    This work deals with the preparation of bioactive ceramic composites to be employed for the development of load-bearing bone substitutes, made of hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2), HA) and bioactive dicalcium silicate (Ca(2)SiO(4), C(2)S) as a reinforcing phase. The composite materials were prepared by Fast Hot-Pressing (FHP), which allowed the rapid sintering of monolithic ceramics at temperatures up to 1500 degrees C, well above the commonly adopted temperatures for the consolidation of hydroxyapatite (1200-1300 degrees C). The purpose was to achieve the grain coalescence of both HA and the strengthening phase, so that to obtain a homogeneous ceramic material characterized by controlled phase composition and improved mechanical strength; the dwell time was reduced as much as possible to prevent HA decomposition and excessive grain growth. The most remarkable result, in terms of phase composition, was the absence of any secondary phases in the final ceramics other than HA and C(2)S, even after sintering at 1500 degrees C. The flexure strength of the composite materials was found to be much higher than that of HA alone. Further mechanical characterization was also carried out on HA and composites, sintered in different conditions, to evaluate the elastic properties and fracture toughness, and properties close to those of mineral bone were found. These preliminary results confirmed that composites of HA and Ca(2)SiO(4) are promising for the development of bioactive load-bearing ceramic bone substitutes with controlled phase composition. PMID:19627818

  9. Bone Regeneration of Hydroxyapatite/Alumina Bilayered Scaffold with 3?mm Passage-Like Medullary Canal in Canine Tibia Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Min; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Gonhyung; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA)/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3?mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10?mm in outer diameter, 20?mm in length, and with either a 3?mm passage or no passage. A 20?mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3?mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT), micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3?mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3?mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation. PMID:25688353

  10. Template-directed hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite as a drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble drug carvedilol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinfu; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Tongying; Cheng, Gang; Wang, Siling

    2011-09-01

    In order to improve the dissolution rate and increase the bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, intended to be administered orally, the biocompatible and bioactive mesoporous hydroxyapatite (HA) was successfully synthesized. In the present study, mesoporous HA nanoparticles were produced using Pluronic block co-polymer F127 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as templates by the hydrothermal method. The obtained mesoporous HA was employed as a drug delivery carrier to investigate the drug storage/release properties using carvedilol (CAR) as a model drug. Characterizations of the raw CAR powder, mesoporous HA and CAR-loaded HA were carried out by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that CAR was successfully incorporated into the mesoporous HA host. In vitro drug release studies showed that mesoporous HA had a high drug load efficiency and provided immediate release of CAR compared with micronized raw drug in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). Consequently, mesoporous HA is a good candidate as a drug carrier for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  11. Bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3?mm passage-like medullary canal in canine tibia model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Min; Son, Jun Sik; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Gonhyung; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA)/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3?mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10?mm in outer diameter, 20?mm in length, and with either a 3?mm passage or no passage. A 20?mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3?mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT), micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3?mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3?mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation. PMID:25688353

  12. Accelerated bone growth in vitro by the conjugation of BMP2 peptide with hydroxyapatite on titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanli; Wang, Xiaoyan; Poh, Chye Khoon; Tan, Hark Chuan; Soe, Min Tun; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Titanium alloys have been widely used in orthopedic practice due to their inherent bioactivity, however it is still insufficient to truly and reliably incorporate into living bone. In this work, polydopamine film was employed to induce the growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on titanium alloy to enhance its osteoconductivity. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) peptide was absorbed into the HA particles for osteoinductivity. The precipitation of HA and the existence of BMP2 peptide were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The dissolution of HA and the release of BMP2 peptide were monitored by measuring the concentrations of calcium ions and BMP2 peptide in phosphate buffered saline solution, respectively. The effect of BMP2 peptide incorporated into HA coating on bone growth was evaluated in vitro by cell culture tests, including cell attachment, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene expression. The results show that the HA particles grown on the substrate are mediated by the polydopamine film. The BMP2 peptide is distributed uniformly on HA-coated substrate and released in a sustained manner. Moreover, the conjunction of HA and BMP2 peptide increases cell adhesion, ALP activity and gene expression of osteogenic markers, which are potentially useful in the development of enhanced orthopedic medical devices. PMID:24304498

  13. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Ping (2843A Forest Ave., Berkeley, CA 94705)

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 .mu.m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogenous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided.

  14. Methods of synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders and bulk materials

    DOEpatents

    Luo, P.

    1999-01-12

    Methods are provided for producing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules of less than 8 {micro}m by a spray-drying process. Solid or hollow spheres or doughnuts can be formed by controlling the volume fraction and viscosity of the slurry as well as the spray-drying conditions. Methods of providing for homogeneous cellular structure hydroxyapatite granules are also provided. Pores or channels or varying size and number can be formed by varying the temperature at which a hydroxyapatite slurry formed in basic, saturated ammonium hydroxide is spray-dried. Methods of providing non-porous controlled morphology hydroxyapatite granules in ammonium hydroxide are also provided. The hydroxyapatite granules and bulk materials formed by these methods are also provided. 26 figs.

  15. Effect of zeta potentials on bovine serum albumin adsorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Nahoko; Sato, Toru; Maki, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to hydroxyapatite surfaces by means of zeta potential. The electrophoretic mobility of both hydroxyapatite and BSA were negative, with BSA itself less negative than hydroxyapatite. The zeta potential of the surface of BSA-adsorbed hydroxyapatite was significantly more negative than that of hydroxyapatite alone (p<0.0001). The BSA histogram indicated two negative peaks, and the zeta potential of BSA-adsorbed hydroxyapatite also showed two similar negative peaks. These results suggest that BSA adsorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces is related to electrostatic interaction. PMID:23903580

  16. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with nanoscale hydroxyapatite induce osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Miao, Leiying; Yao, Yingfang; Wu, Wenlei; Liu, Yu; Chen, Xiaofeng; Sun, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal repair is a complex process in which regeneration of alveolar bone is a vital component. The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability. Two types of composite fibrous scaffolds were produced by electrospinning, ie, type I collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) (COL/PCL) and type I collagen/poly(?-caprolactone)/nanoscale hydroxyapatite (COL/PCL/nHA) with an average fiber diameter of about 377 nm. After a simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test, the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold developed a rough surface because of the calcium phosphate deposited on the fibers, suggesting that the presence of nHA promoted the mineralization potential of the scaffold. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly showed the calcium and phosphorus content in the COL/PCL/nHA and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffolds, confirming the findings of nHA and calcium phosphate precipitation on scanning electron micrographs. Water contact analysis revealed that nHA could improve the hydrophilic nature of the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold. The morphology of periodontal ligament cells cultured on COL/PCL-SBF and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cells adhered to either type of scaffold and were slightly spindle-shaped in the beginning, then extended gradually with stretched filopodia, indicating an ability to fill the fiber pores. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that both scaffolds supported cell proliferation. However, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that expression of the bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, was upregulated only on the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold, indicating that this scaffold had the ability to induce osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells. In this study, COL/PCL/nHA-SBF produced by electrospinning followed by biomimetic mineralization had combined electrospun fibers with nHA in it. This scaffold has good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability as a result of the characteristics of nHA, so could be innovatively applied to periodontal tissue engineering as a potential scaffold. PMID:25206304

  17. Microspheres for controlled release drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Varde, Neelesh K; Pack, Daniel W

    2004-01-01

    Controlled release drug delivery employs drug-encapsulating devices from which therapeutic agents may be released at controlled rates for long periods of time, ranging from days to months. Such systems offer numerous advantages over traditional methods of drug delivery, including tailoring of drug release rates, protection of fragile drugs and increased patient comfort and compliance. Polymeric microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled delivery applications due to their ability to encapsulate a variety of drugs, biocompatibility, high bioavailability and sustained drug release characteristics. Research discussed in this review is focused on improving large-scale manufacturing, maintaining drug stability and enhancing control of drug release rates. This paper describes methods of microparticle fabrication and the major factors controlling the release rates of encapsulated drugs. Furthermore, recent advances in the use of polymer microsphere-based systems for delivery of single-shot vaccines, plasmid DNA and therapeutic proteins are discussed, as well as some future directions of microsphere research. PMID:14680467

  18. Polymeric Microspheres as Protein Transduction Reagents*

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, David; Behrendt, Jonathan M.; Chimonides, Gwen F.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Devitt, Andrew; Sutherland, Andrew J.; Hine, Anna V.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering the function of an unknown protein, particularly one with neither structural nor functional correlates, is a daunting task. Interaction analyses determine binding partners, whereas DNA transfection, either transient or stable, leads to intracellular expression, though not necessarily at physiologically relevant levels. In theory, direct intracellular protein delivery (protein transduction) provides a conceptually simpler alternative, but in practice the approach is problematic. Domains such as HIV TAT protein are valuable, but their effectiveness is protein specific. Similarly, the delivery of intact proteins via endocytic pathways (e.g. using liposomes) is problematic for functional analysis because of the potential for protein degradation in the endosomes/lysosomes. Consequently, recent reports that microspheres can deliver bio-cargoes into cells via a non-endocytic, energy-independent pathway offer an exciting and promising alternative for in vitro delivery of functional protein. In order for such promise to be fully exploited, microspheres are required that (i) are stably linked to proteins, (ii) can deliver those proteins with good efficiency, (iii) release functional protein once inside the cells, and (iv) permit concomitant tracking. Herein, we report the application of microspheres to successfully address all of these criteria simultaneously, for the first time. After cellular uptake, protein release was autocatalyzed by the reducing cytoplasmic environment. Outside of cells, the covalent microsphere–protein linkage was stable for ?90 h at 37 °C. Using conservative methods of estimation, 74.3% ± 5.6% of cells were shown to take up these microspheres after 24 h of incubation, with the whole process of delivery and intracellular protein release occurring within 36 h. Intended for in vitro functional protein research, this approach will enable study of the consequences of protein delivery at physiologically relevant levels, without recourse to nucleic acids, and offers a useful alternative to commercial protein transfection reagents such as Chariot™. We also provide clear immunostaining evidence to resolve residual controversy surrounding FACS-based assessment of microsphere uptake. PMID:24692642

  19. Formulation and evaluation of nasal mucoadhesive microspheres of sumatriptan succinate.

    PubMed

    Jain, Snehal A; Chauk, Dheeraj S; Mahajan, Hitendra S; Tekade, Avinash R; Gattani, Surendra G

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of present research work was to develop mucoadhesive microspheres for nasal delivery with the aim to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism, improve therapeutic efficacy and enhance residence time. For the treatment of migraine, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M and K15M based microspheres containing sumatriptan succinate (SS) were prepared by spray-drying technique. The microspheres were evaluated with respect to the yield, particle size, incorporation efficiency, swelling property, in vitro mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, histological study and stability. Microspheres were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study. It was found that the particle size, swelling ability and incorporation efficiency of microspheres increases with increasing drug-to-polymer ratio. HPMC-based microspheres show adequate mucoadhesion and do not have any destructive effect on nasal mucosa. On the basis of these results, SS microspheres based on HPMC may be considered as a promising nasal delivery system. PMID:19888880

  20. In vitro testing of calcium phosphate (HA, TCP, and biphasic HA-TCP) whiskers

    E-print Network

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    In vitro testing of calcium phosphate (HA, TCP, and biphasic HA-TCP) whiskers Sahil Jalota, Sarit B: Calcium phosphate [single-phase hydroxyapa- tite (HA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), single-phase tricalcium phos for 1 h to obtain the whiskers of the desired calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics. These whis- kers were

  1. Cell specific, variable density, polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric microspheres having an average diameter below about 3 microns and having density at least 15% greater or lesser than organic cells and having covalent binding sites are provided in accordance with this invention. The microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing a hydroxy or amine substituted acrylic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate with a light or dense comonomer such as a fluoromonomer. A lectin or antibody is bound to the hydroxy or amine site of the bead to provide cell specificity. When added to a cell suspension the marked bead will specifically label the cell membrane by binding to specific receptor sites thereon. The labelled membrane can then be separated by density gradient centrifugation.

  2. Quantum Magnetomechanics with Levitating Superconducting Microspheres

    E-print Network

    O. Romero-Isart; L. Clemente; C. Navau; A. Sanchez; J. I. Cirac

    2012-03-07

    We show that by magnetically trapping a superconducting microsphere close to a quantum circuit, it is experimentally feasible to perform ground-state cooling and to prepare quantum superpositions of the center-of-mass motion of the microsphere. Due to the absence of clamping losses and time dependent electromagnetic fields, the mechanical motion of micrometer-sized metallic spheres in the Meissner state is predicted to be very well isolated from the environment. Hence, we propose to combine the technology of magnetic microtraps and superconducting qubits to bring relatively large objects to the quantum regime.

  3. Quantum Magnetomechanics with Levitating Superconducting Microspheres

    E-print Network

    Romero-Isart, O; Navau, C; Sanchez, A; Cirac, J I

    2011-01-01

    We show that by magnetically trapping a superconducting microsphere close to a quantum circuit, it is experimentally feasible to perform ground state cooling and to prepare quantum superpositions of the center-of-mass motion of the microsphere. Due to the absence of clamping losses and time dependent electromagnetic fields, the mechanical motion of micrometer-sized metallic spheres in the Meissner state is predicted to be extremely well isolated from the environment. Hence, we propose to combine the technology of magnetic mictrotraps and superconducting qubits to bring relatively large objects to the quantum regime.

  4. Quantum Magnetomechanics with Levitating Superconducting Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Isart, O.; Clemente, L.; Navau, C.; Sanchez, A.; Cirac, J. I.

    2012-10-01

    We show that by magnetically trapping a superconducting microsphere close to a quantum circuit, it is possible to perform ground-state cooling and prepare quantum superpositions of the center-of-mass motion of the microsphere. Due to the absence of clamping losses and time-dependent electromagnetic fields, the mechanical motion of micrometer-sized metallic spheres in the Meissner state is predicted to be very well isolated from the environment. Hence, we propose to combine the technology of magnetic microtraps and superconducting qubits to bring relatively large objects to the quantum regime.

  5. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteointegration of hydroxyapatite implants in cancellous bone: a morphologic and microstructural in vivo study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milena Fini; Ruggero Cadossi; Valerio Canè; Francesco Cavani; Gianluca Giavaresi; Adriano Krajewski; Lucia Martini; Nicolò Nicoli Aldini; Antonio Ravaglioli; Lia Rimondini; Paola Torricelli; Roberto Giardino

    2002-01-01

    Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs, 75 Hz, 1.6 mT) were investigated in 12 rabbits after placing hydroxyapatite (HA) implants in their femoral condyles. Six animals were stimulated with PEMFs for three consecutive weeks, 6 h\\/day, while the remaining animals were sham-treated (Control Group). Rabbits were sacrificed at 3 and 6 weeks (after a 3-week non-stimulation period) for histomorphometric analysis

  6. Effect of different surface finishing and of hydroxyapatite coatings on passive and corrosion current of Ti6Al4V alloy in simulated physiological solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cabrini; A. Cigada; G. Rondell; B. Vicentini

    1997-01-01

    Direct and alternating current electrochemical tests were carried out on Ti6Al4V with different surface finishing and with hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Sand-blasting and rough titanium deposits obtained by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) bring about an increase of passive and corrosion current density (c.d.) with respect to smooth Ti6Al4V, as a consequence of the augmentation of the real surface. The presence of

  7. Grit blasting of Ti–6Al–4V alloy: Optimization and its effect on adhesion strength of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Mohammadi; A. A. Ziaei-Moayyed; A. Sheikh-Mehdi Mesgar

    2007-01-01

    The effect of grit blasting parameters on the surface roughness of Ti–6Al–4V alloy as the substrate for plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings was examined using the factorial and Taguchi designs of experiments. In this study, two grit materials (Al2O3 and SiO2) each at two sizes, and two types of blasting systems (pressure and suction) were used. An equivalent surface roughness of

  8. Induction of osteoconductivity by BMP-2 gene modification of mesenchymal stem cells combined with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiang; Guo, Ying-qiang; Yin, Guang-fu; Chen, Huai-qing; Kang, Yunqing

    2008-11-01

    Success in bone implant depends greatly on the composition and surface features of the implant. The surface-modification measures not only favor the implant's osteoconductivity, but also promote both bone anchoring and biomechanical stability. This paper reports an approach to combine a hydroxyapatite (HA) coated substrate with a cellular vehicle for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) synergistically enhancing the osteoconductivity of implant surfaces. We examined the attachment, growth and osteoinductive activity of transfected BMP-producing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on a plasma-sprayed HA coated substrate. It was found that the HA coated substrate could allow the attachment and growth of BMP-2 gene modified BMSCs, and this combined application synergistically enhanced osteconductivity of the substrate surface. This synergistic method may be of osseointegration value in orthopedic and dental implant surgery.

  9. The effect of nanobioceramic reinforcement on mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, M; Fathi, M H; Ahmadian, M

    2015-03-01

    The goal of the present research was to fabricate, characterize, and evaluate mechanical and biological properties of Co-base alloy composites with different amounts of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder reinforcement. The powder of Co-Cr-Mo alloy was mixed with different amounts of HA by ball milling and it was then cold pressed and sintered. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. Microhardness measurement and compressive tests were also carried out. Bioactivity behavior was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). A significant decrease in modulus elasticity and an increase in microhardness of the sintered composites were observed. Apatite formation on the surface of the composites showed that it could successfully convert bioinert Co-Cr-Mo alloy to bioactive type by adding 10, 15, and 20wt.% HA which have lower modulus elasticity and higher microhardness. PMID:25579959

  10. Use of quartz crystal nanobalance to study the binding and stabilization of albumin and doxycycline on a thin layer of hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Sunita Prem; Sharma, Chandra P.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the use of quartz crystal nanobalance (QCN) to study the adsorption of two model molecules namely albumin and doxycycline by hydroxyapatite (HA). The work focuses on the deposition of a stable coating of HA on the quartz crystal, modification of the coating using doxycycline and its subsequent effects on albumin adsorption. The uniformity and thickness of the HA coating has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functional groups to ascertain the presence of the selected moieties have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the mass of albumin deposited on the surface of the HA coated quartz crystal functionalized with doxycycline shows a substantial increase when compared to the standard HA coated quartz crystal. The adsorbed albumin has also been found to be retained for an enhanced period of time. This surface immobilization of doxycycline and subsequent albumin adsorption seem to be a promising approach to confer biomaterials with antithrombogenic and antibacterial surfaces.

  11. Lanthanum-containing hydroxyapatite coating on ultrafine-grained titanium by micro-arc oxidation: a promising strategy to enhance overall performance of titanium.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhennan; Wang, LiLi; Zhang, Dafeng; Liu, Jinsong; Liu, Chuantong; Ma, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Titanium is widely used in biomedical materials, particularly in dental implants, because of its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical characteristics. However, titanium implant failures still remain in some cases, varying with implantation sites and patients. Improving its overall performance is a major focus of dental implant research. Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) can result in ultrafine-grained titanium with superior mechanical properties and better biocompatibility, which significantly benefits dental implants, and without any harmful alloying elements. Lanthanum (La) can inhibit the acidogenicity of dental plaque and La-containing hydroxyapatite (La-HA) possesses a series of attractive properties, in contrast to La-free HA. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is a promising technology that can produce porous and firmly adherent hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium substrates. Therefore, we hypothesize that porous La-containing hydroxyapatite coatings with different La content (0.89%, 1.3% and 1.79%) can be prepared on ultrafine-grained (~200-400 nm) titanium by ECAP and MAO in electrolytic solution containing 0.2 mol/L calcium acetate, 0.02 mol/L beta-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (beta-GP), and lanthanum nitrate with different concentrations to further improve the overall performance of titanium, which are expected to have great potential in medical applications as a dental implant. PMID:24487779

  12. Lanthanum-containing hydroxyapatite coating on ultrafine-grained titanium by micro-arc oxidation: A promising strategy to enhance overall performance of titanium

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhennan; Wang, LiLi; Zhang, Dafeng; Liu, Jinsong; Liu, Chuantong; Ma, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Titanium is widely used in biomedical materials, particularly in dental implants, because of its excellent biocompatibility and mechanical characteristics. However, titanium implant failures still remain in some cases, varying with implantation sites and patients. Improving its overall performance is a major focus of dental implant research. Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) can result in ultrafine-grained titanium with superior mechanical properties and better biocompatibility, which significantly benefits dental implants, and without any harmful alloying elements. Lanthanum (La) can inhibit the acidogenicity of dental plaque and La-containing hydroxyapatite (La-HA) possesses a series of attractive properties, in contrast to La-free HA. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is a promising technology that can produce porous and firmly adherent hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium substrates. Therefore, we hypothesize that porous La-containing hydroxyapatite coatings with different La content (0.89%, 1.3% and 1.79%) can be prepared on ultrafine-grained (~200–400 nm) titanium by ECAP and MAO in electrolytic solution containing 0.2 mol/L calcium acetate, 0.02 mol/L ?-glycerol phosphate disodium salt pentahydrate (?-GP), and lanthanum nitrate with different concentrations to further improve the overall performance of titanium, which are expected to have great potential in medical applications as a dental implant. PMID:24487779

  13. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid/Nanohydroxyapatite Scaffold Containing Chitosan Microspheres with Adrenomedullin Delivery for Modulation Activity of Osteoblasts and Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yingxin; Dong, Shujun; Chen, Xuesi; Zhou, Yanmin

    2013-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a bioactive regulatory peptide that affects migration and proliferation of diverse cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and osteoblast-like cells. This study investigated the effects of sustained release of ADM on the modulation activity of osteoblasts and vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Chitosan microspheres (CMs) were developed for ADM delivery. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid and nano-hydroxyapatite were used to prepare scaffolds containing microspheres with ADM. The CMs showed rough surface morphology and high porosity, and they were well-distributed. The scaffolds exhibited relatively uniform pore sizes with interconnected pores. The addition of CMs improved the mechanical properties of the scaffolds without affecting their high porosity. In vitro degradation tests indicated that the addition of CMs increased the water absorption of the scaffolds and inhibited pH decline of phosphate-buffered saline medium. The expression levels of osteogenic-related and angiogenic-related genes were determined in MG63 cells and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on the scaffolds, respectively. The expression levels of osteogenic-related and angiogenic-related proteins were also detected by western blot analysis. Their expression levels in cells were improved on the ADM delivery scaffolds at a certain time point. The in vitro evaluation suggests that the microsphere-scaffold system is suitable as a model for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23841075

  14. Electric field-assisted sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Tien Bich

    As the main inorganic component of bone, hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca 10(PO4)6(OH)2) should be an ideal candidate in biomaterials selection. When grain sizes are in the nanometric regime, protein adsorption and cell adhesion are enhanced, while strength, hardness, and wear resistance are improved. Unfortunately, low phase stability, poor sinterability, and a tendency towards exaggerated grain coarsening challenge full densification of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by conventional sintering methods. The field-assisted sintering technique (FAST) has successfully consolidated a variety of nanocrystalline metals and ceramics in dramatically reduced times. The sintering enhancements observed during FAST can be attributed to thermal and athermal effects. The rapid heating rates (up to ˜1000ºC/min) afforded by FAST contribute a significant thermal effect. Since fast heating rates reduce powder exposure to sub-sintering temperatures, non-densifying surface diffusion is limited. The athermal effects of FAST are less well understood and can include plasma generation, dielectric breakdown, particle surface cleaning, grain boundary pinning, and space charge effects. Applying the field-assisted sintering technique to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite yielded surprising results. Deviations from conventional densification behavior were observed, with dehydroxylation identified as the most deleterious process to densification as well as mechanical and biological performance. Since hydroxyapatite is not a stable phase at high temperatures and low water partial pressure atmospheres, desintering due to dehydroxylation-related pore formation became apparent during Stage III sintering. In fact, the degree of desintering and pore formation increased with the extent of Stage III sintering and grain growth. The atomic rearrangements taking place during grain boundary migration are believed to favor the formation of more-stable oxyapatite through hydroxyapatite dehydroxylation. This behavior was consistent during varied heating rate (50--400ºC/min) and varied pressure application (25--90 MPa) studies. While in vitro cytocompatibility studies using MG63 osteoblast-like cells demonstrated the biocompatibility of the FAST-processed specimens, bioactivity was sensitive to processing parameters. Since extensive dehydroxylation reduces the surface charge of the sintered materials, apatite deposition during simulated body fluid immersion only occurred when dehydroxylation was mild---i.e., on specimens sintered at low temperatures (800--900ºC) or for short periods. Microstructural investigations revealed that HA sintered at temperatures above 900ºC under an applied electric field contained nanometric residual pores in grain interiors, as well as micron-sized dehydroxylation-related pores at grain boundaries and grain boundary junctions. These larger pores were responsible for the increasing embrittlement of specimens sintered at higher temperatures. Although grain size dependence could not be found in the 60--100 nm grain size range, fracture toughness (KIC = 1.92 MPa?m, maximum) increased with decreasing sintering temperature. Results from the suite of investigations conducted demonstrate that biocompatible and bioactive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with enhanced mechanical properties can be efficiently manufactured by field-assisted sintering under controlled processing conditions.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of HA/MWNTs composite coating for biomaterial applications.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changjian; Han, Huijuan; Zhang, Fang; Li, Aimin

    2008-07-01

    A composite coating of hydroxyapatite (HA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) has been fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The nano powders of HA and MWNTs were dispersed in ethanol with total concentration of 0.005 g/mL and MWNTs 20% and 30% contents (wt). And the pH value of suspension was adjusted in a range from 4 to 5. After stabilization the mixture was ultrasonically treated for 3 h to form a stable suspension. Prior to the electrophoretic deposition, the titanium substrate was hydrothermally treated at 140 in NaOH (10 mol/L) solution for 6 h. A titanium sheet and circinal net of stainless steel were used as a cathode and an anode respectively, and a constant deposition voltage of 30 V was applied for 50-60 s in the EPD process. The thickness of the coatings was controlled from 10 microm to 20 microm. The samples of composite coating were then sintered in a resistance tube furnace in flowing argon at 700 for 2 h. The structure of the as prepared coating was characterized by SEM and XRD, and the bonding force of the coating/substrate was measured by an interfacial shear strength test. It is shown that the bonding strengths between the coating and the titanium substrate is as high as 35 MPa. The cell culture experiments indicate that the prepared composite coating of HA/MWNTs possesses good biocompatibility. PMID:17619960

  16. Histological reaction to titanium alloy and hydroxyapatite particles in the rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S B; Davidson, J A; Fornasier, V L

    1993-08-01

    The interfacial membrane harvested from failed joint replacements contains particulate debris from the materials used for the implant. To define the tissue response to particulate titanium alloy and hydroxyapatite (HA) alone, 16 mature New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 2 groups of 8 rabbits. Using sterile technique, a drill hole was placed anteromedially in the tibia, 1 cm distal to the knee joint bilaterally. The marrow was scooped out and 0.25 mg of either titanium alloy particles or HA particles were inserted in the right tibia. The titanium alloy particles had a diameter averaging 4.0 +/- 4.4 microns (mean +/- standard deviation) and an aspect ratio (the ratio of the maximum length divided by the maximum width) of 1.84. The HA particles had a diameter of 4.4 +/- 3.3 microns and an aspect ratio of 1.76. The left leg was prepared in a similar fashion, but no biomaterial was implanted. The animals were killed after 16 wk. The harvested tibiae were processed with decalcification and the plastic-embedded sections were subjected to histomorphological analysis. Black titanium alloy particles were present within the bone marrow fat between haematopoietic cells, and within scattered macrophages. The surrounding bone appeared to be unaffected. Within the spongiosa, the HA particles were surrounded by small numbers of mononuclear histiocytes or encased within a shell of new appositional bone. Where HA deposits were exposed to the endosteal aspect of bone, there was scalloping of the surface of the HA in a pattern suggestive of resorption or dissolution of the HA particles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8218720

  17. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters. PMID:9870753

  18. Sustained release properties of alginate microspheres and tabletted microspheres of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, A; Cevik, S

    2000-01-01

    This study focused on the properties of diclofenac sodium (DNa) alginate (alg) microspheres and tabletted DNa alg microspheres using different polymers as additives. DNa alginate microspheres were prepared by the emulsification method and different polymers such as Eudragit (Eud) NE 30 D, Eudragit (Eud) RS 30 D and Aquacoat, which were incorporated into alg gel to control the release rate of drug. The release properties of DNa alg microspheres (1:1) were affected by the size, drug load of microspheres and also by the incorporated polymers, pH and ionic strength of dissolution medium. Tabletting of alg microspheres using carrageenan (carr), alg, pectin, NaCMC, tragacanth (trgh) and HPMC as additives in a (50:50) ratio produced tablets with good physical properties and also better controlled release of DNa. Dissolution studies were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer and phosphate buffers whose pH values were gradually changed from pH 3 to 7.4. The rank order of DNa release from tablets was carr < alg < pectin < NaCMC < trgh < HPMC which relates to the viscosity and swelling properties of polymers. The drug release was very slow from trgh and HPMC based tablets, but addition of carr or alg in different ratios could adjust the release rate of drug. PMID:11038116

  19. Hydroxyapatite-coated tooth implants by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Miroslav; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1996-09-01

    Thin films of biocompatible ceramic were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on cylindrical implants. Diamond- like carbon films were deposited in vacuum on titanium alloy prostheses, heated to 90 degrees C. Coated prostheses were implanted into legs of rats and osseointegration higher than 60 percent was determined. Thin films of hydroxyapatite were created on real dental implants at 500 degrees C in Ar-water vapor atmosphere. Coated implants were implanted into mandibula of minipigs to study load free osseointegration. Results and experiences are presented and discussed.

  20. Electronic states spectroscopy of hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Daniel; Chaikina, Marina; Haddad, Jehuda; Karlov, Anatoly; Mezinskis, Gundars; Oster, Leonid; Pavlovska, Ilona; Rosenman, Gil

    2007-05-01

    Photoluminescence, surface photovoltage spectroscopy and high-resolution characterization methods (Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and DC conductivity) are applied to nanostructured Hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramics and allowed to study electron (hole) energy states spectra of the HAp and distinguish bulk and surface localized levels. The measured trap spectra show strong sensitivity to preliminary heat treatment of the ceramics. It is assumed that found deep electron (hole) charged states are responsible for high bioactivity of the HAp nanoceramics. PMID:17211721

  1. The effects of hydroxyapatite coating and bone allograft on fixation of loaded experimental primary and revision implants

    PubMed Central

    Søballe, Kjeld; Mouzin, Olivier R G; Kidder, Louis A; Overgaard, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    We used our established experimental model of revision joint replacement to examine the roles of hydroxyapatite coating and bone graft in improving the fixation of revision implants. The revision protocol uses the Søballe micromotion device in a preliminary 8-week period of implant instability for the presence of particulate polyethylene. During this procedure, a sclerotic endosteal bone rim forms, and a dense fibrous membrane is engendered, having macrophages with ingested polyethylene and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. At the time of revision after 8 weeks, the cavity is revised with either a titanium alloy (Ti) or a hydroxyapatite (HA) 6.0 mm plasma-sprayed implant, in the presence or absence of allograft packed into the initial 0.75 mm peri-implant gap. The contralateral limb is subjected to primary surgery with the same implant configuration, and serves as control. 8 implants were included in each of the 8 treatment groups (total 64 implants in 32 dogs). The observation period was 4 weeks after revision. Outcome measures are based on histomorphometry and mechanical pushout properties. The revision setting was always inferior to its primary counterpart. Bone graft improved the revision fixation in all treatment groups, as also did the HA coating. The sole exception was revision-grafted HA implants, which reached the same fixation as primary Ti and HA grafted implants. The revision, which was less active in general, seems to need the dual stimulation of bone graft and HA implant surface, to obtain the same level of fixation associated with primary implants. Our findings suggest that the combination of HA implant and bone graft may be of benefit in the clinical revision implant setting. PMID:12899541

  2. Crack Propagation Resistance of ?-Al2O3 Reinforced Pulsed Laser-Deposited Hydroxyapatite Coating on 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Shubhra; Gupta, Ankur; Pradhan, Siddhartha Kumar; Mandal, Tapendu; Balani, Kantesh

    2014-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used bioceramic known for its chemical similarity with that of bone and teeth (Ca/P ratio of 1.67). But, owing to its extreme brittleness, ?-Al2O3 is reinforced with HA and processed as a coating via pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Reinforcement of ?-Al2O3 (50 wt.%) in HA via PLD on 316L steel substrate has shown modulus increase by 4% and hardness increase by 78%, and an improved adhesion strength of 14.2 N (improvement by 118%). Micro-scratching has shown an increase in the coefficient-of-friction from 0.05 (pure HA) to 0.17 (with 50 wt.% Al2O3) with enhancement in the crack propagation resistance (CPR) up to 4.5 times. Strong adherence of PLD HA-Al2O3 coatings (~4.5 times than that of HA coating) is attributed to efficient release of stored tensile strain energy (~17 × 10-3 J/m2) in HA-Al2O3 composites, making it a potential damage-tolerant bone-replacement surface coating.

  3. Deposition, Characterization, and Enhanced Adherence of Escherichia coli Bacteria on Flame-Sprayed Photocatalytic Titania-Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Jing; Ding, Siyue; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Jianhui; Li, Hua

    2013-08-01

    Nanostructured titania has been extensively investigated as photocatalytic material and is capable of killing bacteria attached on its surface. The persistent challenge yet is how to effectively promote adhesion of bacteria on its surface for consequent extermination. The study presented here deals with liquid flame-sprayed nanostructured titania-hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Addition of HA alleviated phase transformation of titania from anatase to rutile during the coating deposition, reducing rutile to anatase ratio from 9.58 to 1.99%, and precluded effectively aggregation of the nano titania particles in the as-sprayed coatings. Adherence of Escherichia coli bacteria on the coatings showed significant dependence on content of HA, and the increased HA content resulted in enhanced attachment of the bacteria. Examination of the photocatalytic activity of the coatings through decomposition of methylene blue dye in water revealed that addition of HA did not markedly deteriorate the photocatalytic performances of the coatings. The coatings consisting of 10 wt.% HA showed the best photocatalytic activity, which is comparable to that exhibited by immobilized Degussa P25 coatings. The unambiguous evidence provided in this study suggests that the coatings made from combination of biocompatible HA and photocatalytic nano titania have great potential for antibacterium applications.

  4. C-terminal Amidation of an Osteocalcin-derived Peptide Promotes Hydroxyapatite Crystallization*

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Samaneh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Mountassif, Driss; Cerruti, Marta; Vali, Hojatollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-01-01

    Genesis of natural biocomposite-based materials, such as bone, cartilage, and teeth, involves interactions between organic and inorganic systems. Natural biopolymers, such as peptide motif sequences, can be used as a template to direct the nucleation and crystallization of hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, a natural motif sequence consisting of 13 amino acids present in the first helix of osteocalcin was selected based on its calcium binding ability and used as substrate for nucleation of HA crystals. The acidic (acidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSC)) and amidic (amidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSN)) forms of this sequence were synthesized to investigate the effects of different C termini on the process of biomineralization. Electron microscopy analyses show the formation of plate-like HA crystals with random size and shape in the presence of OSN. In contrast, spherical amorphous calcium phosphate is formed in the presence of OSC. Circular dichroism experiments indicate conformational changes of amidic peptide to an open and regular structure as a consequence of interaction with calcium and phosphate. There is no conformational change detectable in OSC. It is concluded that HA crystal formation, which only occurred in OSN, is attributable to C-terminal amidation of a natural peptide derived from osteocalcin. It is also proposed that natural peptides with the ability to promote biomineralization have the potential to be utilized in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:23362258

  5. Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion Using Hydroxyapatite Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Chul; Kang, Sung Won; Kim, Se Hyuk; Cho, Ki Hong

    2009-01-01

    Objective This is retrospective study of clinical and radiological outcomes of anterior cervical fusion using Bongros-HA™ (BioAlpha, Seongnam, Korea) which is a type of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) spacer to evaluate the efficacy in its clinical application and usefulness as a reliable alternative to autograft bone. Methods Twenty-nine patients were enrolled in this study and 40 segments were involved. All patients were performed anterior cervical interbody fusion using HA spacer and plating system. Indications for surgery were radiculopathy caused by soft-disc herniation or spondylosis in 18 patients, spondylotic myelopathy in 1 patient, and spinal trauma in 10 patients. Cervical spine radiographs were obtained on postoperative 1day, 1week, and then at 1, 2, 6, and 12 months in all patients to evaluate intervertebral disc height, and the degrees of lordosis. Cervical computed tomography was done at postoperative 12 month in all patients to confirm the fusion status. The mean period of clinical follow-up was 17 months. Results Complete interbody fusion was achieved in 100% of patients. Preoperative kyphotic deformities were corrected in all cases after surgery. Intervertebral disc height was well maintained during follow up period. There were no cases of graft extrusion, graft deterioration and graft fracture. Conclusion HA spacer is very efficient in achieving cervical fusion, maintaining intervertebral disc height, and restoring lordosis. When combined with the placement of a cervical plate, immediate stability can be achieved and graft related complication can be prevented. PMID:19893716

  6. Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhihong; Li, Yubao; Zou, Qin

    2009-04-01

    Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 ?m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

  7. Bone-bonding ability of a hydroxyapatite coated zirconia-alumina nanocomposite with a microporous surface.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Neo, M; Suzuki, J; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-09-15

    Using a combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and microporous surface treatment, bone-bonding ability was given to composites of ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia and alumina (CZA), which possesses excellent mechanical and wear properties and phase stability. Four types of CZA plates (2 x 10 x 15 mm3) were prepared for this study, which were CZA with a polished surface (group 1), a microporous surface prepared by hydrofluoric acid and heat treatment (group 2), a microporous surface with a submicron HA coating prepared by alternately soaking the plate from group 2 in aqueous CaCl2/HCl and Na2HPO4 solutions (group 3), and a microporous surface with a 4-microm HA coating prepared by the biomimetic method, where the plates from group 3 were soaked in simulated body fluid (group 4). Plates were implanted into rabbit tibia, and after 4, 8, and 16 weeks, tensile testing and histological examination of the bone-implant interface were conducted. At 4 weeks, group 4 had superior bone-bonding ability compared with other implants, which was maintained at the later postimplantation times. This HA-coated CZA with a microporous surface has the possibility of clinical use as a bearing material in cementless joint prostheses or as a load-bearing bone substitute. PMID:16739176

  8. Effect of chondroitin sulfate and biglycan on the crystallization of hydroxyapatite under physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, G.; Septier, D.; Goldberg, M.

    1999-09-01

    Crystallization of hydroxyapatite (HA) in collagen gels has been studied in vitro in order to mimic biomineralization under physiological conditions. In particular, the effect of chondroitine sulfate (CS) and biglycan (BG) additions to the gel on the growth kinetics and morphology of HA crystals has been investigated. Large molecules of CS disrupt the gel and lower its viscosity, thus increasing the nucleation and growth rates as well as the overall mass of crystallized HA clusters, while the individual crystallite shape and size (˜1 ?m long) remain unchanged. In contrast, the presence of about 100 ?g/ml gel of BG limits the crystal size to less than 100 nm, since the protein cores of BG bind to collagen fibers forming a three-dimensional fiber network with a "lattice" constant of about 50 nm. This network provides preferential sites for ordered heterogeneous nucleation and also prevents clustering of HA crystals. Besides the general importance of these results for studying the biomineralization processes, they may explain the apparition of osteoporosis in BG-gene deficient mice.

  9. Porous hydroxyapatite/gelatine scaffolds with ice-designed channel-like porosity for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Landi, Elena; Valentini, Federica; Tampieri, Anna

    2008-11-01

    A cryogenic process, including freeze-casting and drying has been performed to obtain hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds (approx. diameter 10 mm, height 20 mm) with completely lamellar morphology due to preferentially aligned channel-like pores. Changing the process parameters that influence the cold transmission efficiency from the bottom to the top of the poured HA slurry, lamellar ice crystals with different thickness grew throughout the samples. After sintering, scaffolds with porosity features nearly resembling the ice ones were obtained. The interconnection of pores and the ability of the scaffolds to be rapidly penetrated by synthetic body fluid has been proven. Biohybrid HA/gel composites were prepared, infiltrating HA lamellar scaffolds (45-55 vol.% of porosity) with a 10wt.% solution of gelatine. Colouring genipine was used to cross-link gelatine and clearly show the distribution of the protein in the composite. The compressive mechanical properties of lamellar scaffolds improved with the addition of gelatine: the strength increased up to 5-6 times, while the elastic modulus and strain approximately doubled. The effectiveness of the cross-linkage has been preliminarily verified following scaffold degradation in synthetic body fluid. PMID:18579459

  10. Mapping glycosaminoglycan-hydroxyapatite colloidal gels as potential tissue defect fillers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, S Connor; Detamore, Michael S; Kieweg, Sarah L; Berkland, Cory J

    2014-04-01

    Malleable biomaterials such as Herschel-Bulkley (H-B) fluids possess shear responsive rheological properties and are capable of self-assembly and viscoelastic recovery following mechanical disruption (e.g., surgical placement via injection or spreading). This study demonstrated that the addition of moderate molecular weight glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) (Mw = 15-30 kDa) and hyaluronic acid (HA) (Mw = 20-41 kDa) can be used to modify several rheological properties including consistency index (K), flow-behavior index (n), and yield stress (?y) of submicrometer hydroxyapatite (HAP) (Davg ? 200 nm) colloidal gels. GAG-HAP colloidal mixtures exhibited substantial polymer-particle synergism, likely due to "bridging" flocculation, which led to a synergistic increase in consistency index (KGAG-HAP ? KGAG + KHAP) without compromising shear-thinning behavior (n < 1) of the gel. In addition, GAG-HAP colloids containing high concentrations of HAP (60-80% w/v) exhibited substantial yield stress (?y ? 100 Pa) and viscoelastic recovery properties (G'recovery ? 64%). While rheological differences were observed between CS-HAP and HA-HAP colloidal gels, both CS and HA represent feasible options for future studies involving bone defect filling. Overall, this study identified mixture regions where rheological properties in CS-HAP and HA-HAP colloidal gels aligned with desired properties to facilitate surgical placement in non-load-bearing tissue-filling applications such as calvarial defects. PMID:24606047

  11. Removal of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides from Soils and Waters Using Nanosize Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Park, S.; Day, D. E.

    2007-05-01

    Many inorganic and organic ion filters or media have been investigated as potential candidates for removing the hazardous ions from contaminated water solutions but the processing costs, including manufacture of the filters, are high. Furthermore, the problem of permanently disposing of the "spent (used)" ion filters (which contain the radionuclides) remains an unsolved problem. One material that could satisfy this need is hydroxyapatite (HA), the mineral component in human bone. High surface area (> 150 m2/g) HA particles were prepared by a unique and innovative method that consists of reacting (24 hours at 37°C) particles (45-75 ?m) of a calcium borate glass with an aqueous solution containing phosphate ions. The effectiveness of this HA in removing the radionuclides and the hazardous metals from contaminated water was determined by chemically analyzing the feed and effluent solutions using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The ion removal effectiveness was not affected by the filtration methods, batch or column, and very high (e.g., Kd = 2×106 mL/g for U) ion removal was achieved for the ions tested. Calcium phosphate powder generated from industrial by-products was also tested for the ion removal as an attractive source of HA.

  12. Interactions of Hydroxyapatite with Proteins and Its Toxicological Effect to Zebrafish Embryos Development

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Song, Cao; Wu, Ling-Ling; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The increased application of nanomaterials has raised the level of public concern regarding possible toxicities caused by exposure to nanostructures. The interactions of nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) with cytochrome c and hemoglobin were investigated by zeta-potential, UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism. The experimental results indicated that the interactions were formed via charge attraction and hydrogen bond and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The two functional proteins bridged between HA particles to aggregate into the coralloid form, where change of the secondary structure of proteins occurred. From effects of nanosized HA, SiO2 and TiO2 particles on the zebrafish embryos development, they were adsorbed on the membrane surface confirmed by the electronic scanning microscopy. Nano-HA aggregated into the biggest particles around the membrane protein and then caused a little toxicity to development of zebrafish embryos. The SiO2 particles were distributed throughout the outer surface and caused jam of membrane passage, delay of the hatching time and axial malformation. Maybe owing to the oxygen free radical activity, TiO2 caused some serious deformity characters in the cardiovascular system. PMID:22509249

  13. Optimization of the sintering atmosphere for high-density hydroxyapatite–carbon nanotube composites

    PubMed Central

    White, Ashley A.; Kinloch, Ian A.; Windle, Alan H.; Best, Serena M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite–carbon nanotube (HA–CNT) composites have the potential for improved mechanical properties over HA for use in bone graft applications. Finding an appropriate sintering atmosphere for this composite presents a dilemma, as HA requires water in the sintering atmosphere to remain phase pure and well hydroxylated, yet CNTs oxidize at the high temperatures required for sintering. The purpose of this study was to optimize the atmosphere for sintering these composites. While the reaction between carbon and water to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high temperatures (known as the ‘water–gas reaction’) would seem to present a problem for sintering these composites, Le Chatelier's principle suggests this reaction can be suppressed by increasing the concentration of carbon monoxide and hydrogen relative to the concentration of carbon and water, so as to retain the CNTs and keep the HA's structure intact. Eight sintering atmospheres were investigated, including standard atmospheres (such as air and wet Ar), as well as atmospheres based on the water–gas reaction. It was found that sintering in an atmosphere of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with a small amount of water added, resulted in an optimal combination of phase purity, hydroxylation, CNT retention and density. PMID:20573629

  14. Experimental evidence and structural modeling of nonstoichiometric (010) surfaces coexisting in hydroxyapatite nano-crystals.

    PubMed

    Ospina, C A; Terra, J; Ramirez, A J; Farina, M; Ellis, D E; Rossi, A M

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations of electronic structure were combined to investigate the structure of the hydroxyapatite (HA) (010) surface, which plays an important role in HA interactions with biological media. HA was synthesized by in vitro precipitation at 37°C. HRTEM images revealed thin elongated rod nanoparticles with preferential growth along the [001] direction and terminations parallel to the (010) plane. The focal series reconstruction (FSR) technique was applied to develop an atomic-scale structural model of the high-resolution images. The HRTEM simulations identified the coexistence of two structurally distinct terminations for (010) surfaces: a rather flat Ca(II)-terminated surface and a zig-zag structure with open OH channels. Density functional theory (DFT) was applied in a periodic slab plane-wave pseudopotential approach to refine details of atomic coordination and bond lengths of Ca(I) and Ca(II) sites in hydrated HA (010) surfaces, starting from the HRTEM model. PMID:21955506

  15. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy coated with HA and antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinhuan; Shen, Si; Zhou, Changren; Dang, Xiangli; Jiao, Yanpeng; Li, Lihua; Ding, Shan; Li, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Implant-associated infection is one of the biggest problems in orthopedic surgery. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are well-known components of the innate immunity and less susceptible to the development of pathogen resistance compared to conventional antibiotics. Magnesium alloys as potential biodegradable bone implants have been received much attention in biomaterials field. This study investigated the deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings and loading of AMPs on the magnesium alloy surface by a biomimetic method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results presented that a microporous and plate-like CaP coating was processed on the magnesium alloy surface. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed the main component of coating was hydroxyapatite (HA). Degradation assay in vitro showed that the HA coating deposited onto the magnesium alloy was corroded more slowly than the bare one. The amount of AMP loaded in the HA coating was 11.16±1.99 ?g/cm2. The AMP loaded onto HA coatings had slow release for 7 days. The AMP-loaded coating showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Its bacterial inhibition rate exceeded 50% after 4 days and the antibacterial effect was sustained for 7 days. The coated magnesium alloys loaded with AMP could improve rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) proliferation. Furthermore, it could also promote alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of rBMMSCs. Both radiographic evaluation and histopathology analysis demonstrated that implantation of the coated magnesium alloy into the rabbit femoral condyle had promoted bone repair and showed anti-inflammatory effect. The results showed that the AMP loaded onto HA coatings on the magnesium alloy surface could be considered an ideal orthopedic implant against S. aureus infection. PMID:25631264

  16. Enhanced bone formation in large segmental radial defects by combining adipose-derived stem cells expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 with nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hao; Jinlei Dong; Ming Jiang; Junwei Wu; Fuzhai Cui; Dongsheng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    In this study, rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) were isolated, cultured in vitro, and transfected with recombinant\\u000a adenovirus vector containing human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Ad-hBMP2). These cells were combined with a nano-hydroxyapatite\\/recombinant\\u000a human-like collagen\\/poly(lactic acid) scaffold (nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA) to fabricate a new biocomposite (hBMP2\\/rASCs-nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA, group\\u000a 1) and cultured in osteogenic medium. Non-transfected rASCs mixed with nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA (rASCs-nHA\\/RHLC\\/PLA, group 2) and

  17. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  18. Preparation of small bio-compatible microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such a hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  19. Graphene and hydroxyapatite self-assemble into homogeneous, free standing nanocomposite hydrogels for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xingyi; Hu, Kaiwen; Fang, Dongdong; Shang, Lihong; Tran, Simon D.; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Graphene-nanoparticle (NP) composites have shown potential in applications ranging from batteries to, more recently, tissue engineering. Graphene and NPs should be integrated into uniform free-standing structures for best results. However, to date, this has been achieved only in few examples; in most cases, graphene/NP powders lacking three-dimensional (3D) structure were produced. Here we report a facile and universal method that can be used to synthesize such structures based on colloidal chemistry. We start from aqueous suspensions of both graphene oxide nanosheets and citrate-stabilized hydroxyapatite (HA) NPs. Hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of both suspensions reduces graphene oxide to graphene, and entraps colloidal HA NPs into the 3D graphene network thanks to a self-assembled graphite-like shell formed around it. Dialysis through this shell causes uniform NP deposition onto the graphene walls. The resulting graphene-HA gels are highly porous, strong, electrically conductive and biocompatible, making them promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. This method can be applied to produce a variety of free-standing 3D graphene-based nanocomposites with unprecedented homogeneity.Graphene-nanoparticle (NP) composites have shown potential in applications ranging from batteries to, more recently, tissue engineering. Graphene and NPs should be integrated into uniform free-standing structures for best results. However, to date, this has been achieved only in few examples; in most cases, graphene/NP powders lacking three-dimensional (3D) structure were produced. Here we report a facile and universal method that can be used to synthesize such structures based on colloidal chemistry. We start from aqueous suspensions of both graphene oxide nanosheets and citrate-stabilized hydroxyapatite (HA) NPs. Hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of both suspensions reduces graphene oxide to graphene, and entraps colloidal HA NPs into the 3D graphene network thanks to a self-assembled graphite-like shell formed around it. Dialysis through this shell causes uniform NP deposition onto the graphene walls. The resulting graphene-HA gels are highly porous, strong, electrically conductive and biocompatible, making them promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. This method can be applied to produce a variety of free-standing 3D graphene-based nanocomposites with unprecedented homogeneity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of characterizations, cell cultures, and additional figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01107h

  20. Custom made cranioplasty prostheses in porous hydroxy-apatite using 3D design techniques: 7 years experience in 25 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Staffa; A. Nataloni; C. Compagnone; F. Servadei

    2007-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Background. None of the materials currently used to reconstruct skull defects is fully satisfactory. Their biological and physical properties\\u000a are very different to those of natural bone. Solid state, high porosity hydroxy-apatite (HA) seems to be a good support for\\u000a bone regeneration within the prostheses, enabling integration of the heterologous material with low post-implant infective\\u000a risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods.

  1. PLGA microspheres encapsulating siRNA.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; Salzano, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a new and powerful approach to suppress the expression of pathologically genes. However, biopharmaceutical drawbacks, such as short half-life, poor cellular uptake, and unspecific distribution into the body, hamper the development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (PLGA) microspheres can be a useful tool to overcome these issues. siRNA can be encapsulated into the PLGA microspheres, which protects the loaded nucleic acid against the enzymatic degradation. Moreover, PLGA microspheres can be injected directly into the action site, where the siRNA can be released in controlled manner, thus avoiding the need of frequent invasive administrations. The complete biodegradability of PLGA to monomers easily metabolized by the body, and its approval by FDA and EMA for parenteral administration, assure the safety of this copolymer and do not require the removal of the device after the complete drug release. In chapter, a basic protocol for the preparation of PLGA microspheres encapsulating siRNA is described. This protocol is based on a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, a well known and easy to reproduce method. This specific protocol has been developed to encapsulate a siRNA anti-TNF? in PLGA microspheres, and it has been designed and optimized to achieve high siRNA encapsulation efficiency and slow siRNA release in vitro. However, it can be extended also to other siRNA as well as other RNA or DNA-based oligonucleotides (miRNA, antisense, decoy, etc.). Depending on the applications, chemical modifications of the backbone and site-specific modification within the siRNA sequences could be required. PMID:25319645

  2. Hydroxyapatite nanoarray-based cyanide biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiping; Lei, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Jian; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-03-15

    Here we report a simple, biomolecular-friendly protocol for the fabrication of a hydroxyapatite nanowires array (HANWA) biosensor of spatial positioning, large surface area, and abundant adsorbing sites and its application to cyanide sensing. The fabrication of HANWA is performed by template-assisted electrodeposition. The well-aligned hydroxyapatite nanoarray is composed of vertical nanowires with a diameter of approximately 200 nm and an average length of 1 microm. The electrochemical biosensor for the determination of cyanide through its inhibitory effect on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) encapsulated by chitosan (CHIT) on the platform of HANWA is demonstrated. The current organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure provides excellent enzyme-substrate contact with enzyme activity well maintained. The densely distributed HANWA with large surface area and abundant adsorbing sites can provide a favorable electrochemical interface for the construction of electrochemical biosensor. A sensitive detection limit of 0.6 ng ml(-1) was obtained for cyanide. The proposed CHIT-HRP/HANWA biosensor has the advantages of spatial resolution, high sensitivity, rapid regeneration, and fast response associated with individual nanowires. It broadens the possible applications of chemosensors and biosensors, and it offers an alternative method for toxic substance determination. The new device holds great promise for environmental and food industrial monitoring of toxins. PMID:19944059

  3. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-01-01

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications. PMID:24198477

  4. Effect of different surface finishing and of hydroxyapatite coatings on passive and corrosion current of Ti6Al4V alloy in simulated physiological solution.

    PubMed

    Cabrini, M; Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

    1997-06-01

    Direct and alternating current electrochemical tests were carried out on Ti6Al4V with different surface finishing and with hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Sand-blasting and rough titanium deposits obtained by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) bring about an increase of passive and corrosion current density (c.d.) with respect to smooth Ti6Al4V, as a consequence of the augmentation of the real surface. The presence of HA deposits obtained by VPS causes an increase of passive and corrosion c.d. of the metallic substrate of about one order of magnitude and this should be taken into account in view of human body applications. PMID:9177856

  5. Two dimensional alveolar ridge augmentation using particulate hydroxyapatite and collagen membrane: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparna; Daing, Anika; Anand, Vishal; Dixit, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Background Ridge augmentation procedures require bone regeneration outside of the existing bony walls or housing and are therefore often considered to be the most challenging surgical procedures. The bony deficiencies can be managed with GBR techniques involving bone grafting material and membrane while vertical augmentation may require the use of space-creating support mechanisms. Non-degradable membranes have been used for ridge augmentation with encouraging results however; requirement of second surgery for its removal and associated infection on exposure may compromise the desired results. These problems can be overcome by employing resorbable collagen membranes. Different bone graft materials are also used in combination with resorbable membranes, for prevention of membrane collapse and maintenance of space, as they lack sufficient rigidity. Particulate hydroxyapatite bone graft may be better alternative, because it treats the underlying bone defect to restore the natural support of the tissue architecture. Moreover, its use avoids potential donor site complications associated with autogenous block grafts. Method Patient described in this report presented with missing right maxillary incisor with ridge deficiency. A treatment approach involving localised ridge augmentation with particulate hydroxyapatite and collagen membrane was used. Result Six month post-operative periapical radiograph demonstrated a significant vertical bone fill. Conclusion The clinical and radiographic findings of the present case suggests that HA in conjunction with a resorbable collagen membrane may be an acceptable alternative to the autogenous block graft and non-resorbable membrane in the treatment of compromised alveolar ridge deficiencies. PMID:25737935

  6. Interaction of Hyaluronic Acid (HA) with Organosilicon (Si?QAC) Modified Magnetite for HA Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is commonly used to precipitate hyaluronic acid (HA) from crude extract in a HA purification process. 3?(Trimethoxysilyl)?propyldimethyl octadecyl ammonium chloride (Si?QAC) has a structure very similar to CPC when it is bonded to surfaces through its silane base. By taking advantage of its easy surface bonding property, Si?QAC was bonded to the silica?coated magnetite to facilitate HA

  7. Quantitative analyses of the effect of silk fibroin/nano-hydroxyapatite composites on osteogenic differentiation of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linxue; Hao, Runsong; Xiong, Wei; Zhong, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Silk fibroin (SF)/nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) composites are potential biomaterials for bone defect repair. Up to now, the biological evaluation studies of SF/n-HA composites have primarily concentrated on their biocompatibility at cell level such as cell viability and proliferation and tissue level such as material absorption and new bone formation. In this work, SF/n-HA composites were fabricated using a simplified coprecipitation methods and were deposited onto Ti alloy substrates. Then the cell adhesion ability of SF/n-HA composites was observed by SEM and cell proliferation ability of SF/n-HA composites was determined by MTT assay. The ALP activity, BGP contents, and Col I contents of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells on SF/n-HA composites were quantitatively analyzed. HA nanocrystals were used as controls. These experiments showed that SF/n-HA composites had better cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation abilities than n-HA materials. This work provides quantitative data to analyze the effect of SF/n-HA composites on cell osteogenic differentiation. PMID:25454062

  8. Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite coatings on dental screws: effects of blast coating process and biological response.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Conor F; Twomey, Barry; Kelly, Ciara; Simpson, Jeremy C; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorapatite (FA) onto titanium dental screws using a novel ambient temperature coating technique named CoBlast. The process utilises a coating medium and a blast medium sprayed simultaneously at the substrate surface. The blast medium was a sintered apatite (sHA) and two particles sizes (<106 and <180 µm) were used to assess their influence on the coating process. The influence of the coating process on the coating composition, coating adhesion, screw morphology and screw microstructure was examined. XRD analysis revealed the coating crystallinity was the same as the original HA and FA feedstock powders. Examining the screw's morphology, the threads of the CoBlasted screws exhibited rounding compared to the unmodified screw. This is due to the abrasive nature of the CoBlast process. The degree of rounding was more significant for the screws blasted with the 180 µm sHA than the 106 µm sHA. The blast media particle size significantly influences the surface roughness of both the substrate and coating and the microstructure of the substrate. The screws did not exhibit any loss of coating after insertion into a model bone material, indicating that the coating was strongly adhered to the substrate. There was no statistically significant difference in cell attachment and cell morphology on the unmodified substrates compared to the coated substrates. In conclusion, the CoBlast process can be used to deposit HA and FA onto complex geometries such as dental screws. The choice of blast medium particle size influences the screws morphology. The coating process does not negatively impact on the cell attachment and morphology in vitro. PMID:25578701

  9. VO(2+)-hydroxyapatite complexes as models for vanadyl coordination to phosphate in bone.

    PubMed

    Dikanov, Sergei A; Liboiron, Barry D; Orvig, Chris

    2013-09-01

    We describe a 1D and 2D ESEEM investigation of VO(2+) adsorbed on hydroxyapatite (HA) at different concentrations and compare with VO(2+)-triphosphate (TPH) complexes studied previously in detail, in an effort to provide more insight into the structure of VO(2+)coordination in bone. Structures of this interaction are important because of the role of bone in the long-term storage of administered vanadium, and the likely role of bone in the steady-state release of vanadium leading to the chronic insulin-enhancing anti-diabetic effects of vanadyl complexes. Three similar sets of cross-peaks from phosphorus nuclei observed in the (31)P HYSCORE spectra of VO(2+)-HA, VO(2+)-TPH, and VO(2+)-bone suggest a common tridentate binding motif for triphosphate moieties to the vanadyl ion. The similarities between the systems present the possibility that in vivo vanadyl coordination in bone is relatively uniform. Experiments with HA samples containing different amounts of adsorbed VO(2+) demonstrate additional peculiarities of the ion-adsorbent interaction which can be expected in vivo. HYSCORE spectra of HA samples show varying relative intensities of (31)P lines from phosphate ligands and (1)H lines, especially lines from protons of coordinated water molecules. This result suggests that the number of equatorial phosphate ligands in HA could be different depending on the water content of the sample and the VO(2+) concentration; complexes of different structure probably contribute to the spectra of VO(2+)-HA. Similar behavior can be also expected in vivo during VO(2+) accumulation in bones. PMID:24829511

  10. Biphasic peptide amphiphile nanomatrix embedded with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for stimulated osteoinductive response.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel M; Patterson, Jessica L; Vines, Jeremy B; Javed, Amjad; Gilbert, Shawn R; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2011-12-27

    Formation of the native bone extracellular matrix (ECM) provides an attractive template for bone tissue engineering. The structural support and biological complexity of bone ECM are provided within a composite microenvironment that consists of an organic fibrous network reinforced by inorganic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Recreating this biphasic assembly, a bone ECM analogous scaffold comprising self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers and interspersed HA nanoparticles was investigated. PAs were endowed with biomolecular ligand signaling using a synthetically inscribed peptide sequence (i.e., RGDS) and integrated with HA nanoparticles to form a biphasic nanomatrix hydrogel. It was hypothesized the biphasic hydrogel would induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and improve bone healing as mediated by RGDS ligand signaling within PA nanofibers and embedded HA mineralization source. Viscoelastic stability of the biphasic PA hydrogels was evaluated with different weight concentrations of HA for improved gelation. After demonstrating initial viability, long-term cellularity and osteoinduction of encapsulated hMSCs in different PA hydrogels were studied in vitro. Temporal progression of osteogenic maturation was assessed by gene expression of key markers. A preliminary animal study demonstrated bone healing capacity of the biphasic PA nanomatrix under physiological conditions using a critical size femoral defect rat model. The combination of RGDS ligand signaling and HA nanoparticles within the biphasic PA nanomatrix hydrogel demonstrated the most effective osteoinduction and comparative bone healing response. Therefore, the biphasic PA nanomatrix establishes a well-organized scaffold with increased similarity to natural bone ECM with the prospect for improved bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22077993

  11. Molecular beam levitator for sputter coating of microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varon, J.; Goldstein, I. S.

    1981-07-01

    A molecular beam levitation system is described which is presently being used to sputter deposit coatings on hollow glass microspheres for use as laser fusion targets. Stable levitation of the microspheres has been achieved down to 1×10-4 Torr and levitated microspheres have been coated successfully using both dc and rf magnetron sputter guns in a pressure range from 1 to 10 ?m. The system has proven to be highly dependable in both levitation and recovery of the coated microspheres. The levitating gas flow does not appear to interfere with the deposition process, and the rotation of the microsphere, which is produced by the gas flow, ensures that uniform coatings are obtained. Microradiography has shown the coatings to have a high degree of uniformity and the SEM reveals local surface finishes, under specific deposition conditions, of better than 250 Å. Due to the excellent stability of the levitated microspheres, simultaneous deposition using multiple heads may be possible.

  12. Effects Of Polylactic Acid Coating and Compression Load on the Delivery of Protein and Steroid from HA Ceramic Devices.

    PubMed

    Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michelle A; Ibrahim, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Density variations, due to particle size and time and temperature of sintering, affect the delivery profile of substances from ceramic delivery devices. This investigation was conducted to study the effect of polylactic acid (PLA) impregnation on the porosity of hydroxyapatite (HA) capsules by studying the delivery rate of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and testosterone (TE). HA capsules were fabricated by cold compressing calcined particles at 1000, 3000, and 5000 lbs. Each group was subdivided into PLA-impregnated and non-PLA impregnated capsules. Each capsule was loaded with either 40 mg of TE (impregnated or nonimpregnated with PLA polymer) or BSA. Data obtained in this study suggest that: (1) PLA impregnation of HA ceramic capsules decreases the rate of release of drugs from the ceramic reservoir, (2) Physiochemical characteristics of the drugs to be delivered is an instrumental key in the sustained release profiles, (3) Compression load of HA reservoirs is a key factor in predicting the duration and level of sustained delivery, and (4) Polymer coating of HA ceramic capsules reduces the pore size, as well as, blocking some of the pores on the surface. PMID:25996708

  13. DoktoranDervill ha mer struktur

    E-print Network

    Flener, Pierre

    DoktoranDervill ha mer struktur Tydligare krav för handled- ning och tryggare anställ- ningsformer medicinerna kunde bli så otroligt populära, är vi verkligen så mycket mer deprimerade än förr En del av

  14. Novel apatite-based sorbent for defluoridation: synthesis and sorption characteristics of nano-micro-crystalline hydroxyapatite-coated-limestone.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Cynthia M; Sanders, Rebecca L; Flynn, Steven M; Lessard, Genevieve; Myneni, Satish C B

    2014-05-20

    Elevated levels of fluoride (F(-)) in groundwaters of granitic and basaltic terrains pose a major environmental problem and are affecting millions of people all over the world. Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been shown to be a strong sorbent for F(-); however, low permeability of synthetic HA results in poor sorption efficiency. Here we provide a novel method of synthesizing nano- to micrometer sized HA on the surfaces of granular limestone to improve the sorption efficiency of the HA-based filter. Our experiments with granular limestone (38-63, 125-500 ?m) and dissolved PO4(3-) (0.5-5.3 mM) as a function of pH (6-8) and temperature (25-80 °C) indicated rapid formation of nano- to micrometer sized HA crystals on granular limestone with the maximum surface coverage at lower pH and in the presence of multiple additions of aqueous PO4(3-). The HA crystal morphology varied with the above variables. The sorption kinetics and magnitude of F(-) sorption by HA-coated-fine limestone are comparable to those of pure HA, and the F(-) levels dropped to below the World Health Organization's drinking water limit of 79 ?M for F(-) concentrations commonly encountered in contaminated potable waters, suggesting that these materials could be used as effective filters. Fluorine XANES spectra of synthetic HA reacted with F(-) suggest that the mode of sorption is through the formation of fluoridated-HA or fluorapatite at low F(-) levels and fluorite at high F(-) loadings. PMID:24766407

  15. Carbonate Hydroxyapatite and Silicon-Substituted Carbonate Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, and Solubility Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Bang, L. T.; Long, B. D.; Othman, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap) and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap) which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques were used to characterize the formation of CO3Ap and Si-CO3Ap. The results revealed that the silicate (SiO44?) and carbonate (CO32?) ions competed to occupy the phosphate (PO43?) site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap. At 750°C heat-treatment temperature, the diametral tensile strengths (DTS) of Si-CO3Ap and CO3Ap were about 10.8 ± 0.3 and 11.8 ± 0.4 MPa, respectively. PMID:24723840

  16. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  17. Beat frequency ultrasonic microsphere contrast agent detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pretlow, III, Robert A. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A system for and method of detecting and measuring concentrations of an ultrasonically-reflective microsphere contrast agent involving detecting non-linear sum and difference beat frequencies produced by the microspheres when two impinging signals with non-identical frequencies are combined by mixing. These beat frequencies can be used for a variety of applications such as detecting the presence of and measuring the flow rates of biological fluids and industrial liquids, including determining the concentration level of microspheres in the myocardium.

  18. Preparation of uniform magnetic recoverable catalyst microspheres with hierarchically mesoporous structure by using porous polymer microsphere template.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lianbing; Teng, Chao; Zhu, Lili; He, Jie; Wang, You; Zuo, Xinbing; Hong, Mei; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Biwang; Zhao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Merging nanoparticles with different functions into a single microsphere can exhibit profound impact on various applications. However, retaining the unique properties of each component after integration has proven to be a significant challenge. Our previous research demonstrated a facile method to incorporate magnetic nanoparticles into porous silica microspheres. Here, we report the fabrication of porous silica microspheres embedded with magnetic and gold nanoparticles as magnetic recoverable catalysts. The as-prepared multifunctional composite microspheres exhibit excellent magnetic and catalytic properties and a well-defined structure such as uniform size, high surface area, and large pore volume. As a result, the very little composite microspheres show high performance in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol, special convenient magnetic separability, long life, and good reusability. The unique nanostructure makes the microspheres a novel stable and highly efficient catalyst system for various catalytic industry processes. PMID:24708885

  19. Micro-/Nano- sized hydroxyapatite directs differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblast lineage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Zhou, Gang; Zheng, Lisha; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-03-01

    Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials provides a new way for the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. Nano-biomaterials are highlighted due to their advantageous features compared with conventional micro-materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of micro-/nano- sized hydroxyapatite (?/n-HA) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). ?/n-HA were prepared by a microwave synthesizer and precipitation method, respectively. Different sizes of ?/n-HA were characterized by IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and co-cultured with rBMSCs. It was shown that rBMSCs expressed higher levels of osteoblast-related markers by n-HA than ?-HA stimulation. The size of HA is an important factor for affecting the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. This provides a new avenue for mechanistic studies of stem cell differentiation and a new approach to obtain more committed differentiated cells.

  20. Osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity of porous hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by liquid precursor plasma spraying: in vivo biological response study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; He, Jing; Gan, Lu; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yao; Wu, Fang; Gu, Zhong-wei

    2014-12-01

    The beneficial effect of a porous structure on the biological functions of calcium phosphate bulk ceramic or scaffold has been well documented. Nevertheless, the effect of a porous structure on the in vivo performance of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings has been rarely reported, partly due to the difficulty in synthesizing porous HA coatings suitable for commercial applications. In this study, we have carried out a systematic in vivo study of porous HA-coated Ti implants (with and without surface modification) prepared by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process, in terms of its osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. The results suggest the clear advantage of the porous structure over the dense structure, despite the pore structure (about 48% porosity and less than 100 ?m average pore size) being far from the ideal pore structure reported for bulk ceramic. The porous HA-coated implant significantly promotes early bone ingrowth at the pre-generated defective region, and early fixation at the bone-implant interface, especially at early implantation time (one month), showing about 120% and 40% increases respectively over those of the dense HA-coated implants prepared by the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying process. Moreover, the porous structure can be readily used to incorporate collagen/rh-BMP2, which demonstrates clear ectopic bone formation. Overall, the results suggest the augmentation of bone ingrowth is significant for HA coatings with a porous structure, which is critical for the early fixation and long-term stability of medical implants. PMID:25384201

  1. Effects of Dentifrice Containing Hydroxyapatite on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion and Aqueous Hexavalent Chromium Cations Sorption: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hou, Yarong; Zhu, Manqun; Huang, Jiansheng; Xu, Pingping

    2012-01-01

    In order to endow environmental protection features to dentifrice, hydroxyapatite (HA) was added to ordinary dentifrice. The effects on dentinal tubule occlusion and surface mineralization were compared after brushing dentine discs with dentifrice with or without HA. The two types of dentifrice were then added to 100 µg/ml of hexavalent chromium cation (Cr6+) solution in order to evaluate their capacities of adsorbing Cr6+ from water. Our results showed that the dentifrice containing HA was significantly better than the ordinary dentifrice in occluding the dentinal tubules with a plugging rate greater than 90%. Moreover, the effect of the HA dentifrice was persistent and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that the atomic percentages of calcium and phosphorus on the surface of dentine discs increased significantly. Adding HA to ordinary dentifrice significantly enhanced the ability of dentifrice to adsorb Cr6+ from water with the removal rate up to 52.36%. In addition, the sorption was stable. Our study suggests that HA can be added to ordinary dentifrice to obtain dentifrice that has both relieving dentin hypersensitivity benefits and also helps to control environmental pollution. PMID:23300511

  2. The effect on bone growth enhancement of implant coatings with hydroxyapatite and collagen deposited electrochemically and by plasma spray

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Bechtold, Joan E.; Jensen, Thomas; Soballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal bone consists of hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and collagen type I, both of which are osseoconductive. The goal of osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants is the rapid achievement of a mechanically stable long-lasting fixation between bone and an implant surface. In this study, we evaluated the mechanical fixation and tissue distribution surrounding implants coated with three surfaces: plasma-sprayed HA coating, thinner coating of electrochemical-assisted deposition of HA, and an identical thin coating with a top layer of mineralized collagen. Uncoated plasma-sprayed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) served as negative control. The electrochemical-assisted deposition was performed near physiological conditions. We used a canine experimental joint replacement model with four cylindrical implants (one of each treatment group) inserted in the humeri cancellous metaphyseal bone in a 1 mm gap. Observation time was 4 weeks. The mechanical fixation was quantified by push-out test to failure, and the peri-implant tissue formation by histomorphometric evaluation. HA coatings deposited by plasma spray technique or electrochemically, increased the mechanical fixation and bone ongrowth, but there was no statistical difference between the individual HA applications. Addition of collagen to the mineralized phase of the coating to create a more bone natural surface did not improve the osseoconductive effect of HA. PMID:19291683

  3. Bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber composite: biomechanical properties and biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Bo; Li, Jidong; Zhu, Qingmao; Guo, Shuquan; Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Weichao; Wu, Jun; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Dianming

    2014-01-01

    An ideal bone plate for internal fixation of bone fractures should have good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared a new nondegradable bone plate composed of a ternary nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66/glass fiber (n-HA/PA66/GF) composite. A breakage area on the n-HA/PA66/GF plate surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Its mechanical properties were investigated using bone-plate constructs and biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The results confirmed that adhesion between the n-HA/PA66 matrix and the glass fibers was strong, with only a few fibers pulled out at the site of breakage. Fractures fixed by the n-HA/PA66/GF plate showed lower stiffness and had satisfactory strength compared with rigid fixation using a titanium plate. Moreover, the results with regard to mesenchymal stem cell morphology, MTT assay, Alizarin Red S staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed that the n-HA/PA66/GF composite was suitable for attachment and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells, and did not have a negative influence on matrix mineralization or osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. These observations indicate that the n-HA/PA66/GF plate has good biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may be considered a new option for internal fixation in orthopedic surgery. PMID:24669191

  4. Preparation of porous zirconia microspheres by internal gelation method

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Sachin S. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pius, I.C. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: icpius@lycos.com; Bhanushali, R.D.; Rao, T.V. Vittal; Mukerjee, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-11-03

    A modified internal gelation process for the preparation of porous zirconia microspheres has been developed. The conventional method has been modified by adding a surfactant in the feed broth. The effects of variation of surfactant concentration, washing techniques and temperature of calcination on the pore volume and the surface area of the microspheres have been studied. The conditions were optimized to obtain porous stable microspheres suitable for various applications. The microspheres were characterized by surface area analysis, pore volume analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The ion exchange behavior was studied using pH titration.

  5. Patterning of silica microsphere monolayers with focused femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Wenjian; Piestun, Rafael [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0425 (United States)

    2006-03-13

    We demonstrate the patterning of monolayer silica microsphere lattices with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. We selectively removed microspheres from a lattice and characterized the effect on the lattice and the substrate. The proposed physical mechanism for the patterning process is laser-induced breakdown followed by ablation of material. We show that a microsphere focuses radiation in its interior and in the near field. This effect plays an important role in the patterning process by enhancing resolution and accuracy and by reducing the pulse energy threshold for damage. Microsphere patterning could create controlled defects within self-assembled opal photonic crystals.

  6. Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Fabio; Molina, Mauro; Riva, Giacomo; Zatti, Giovanni; Cherubino, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Materials and Methods Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics® in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. Results At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8–12 years), 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%). The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50,15 to a postoperative value of 92,69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1,25 mm (min. 0,08, max. 3,9 mm), with a mean annual wear of 0,17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1,6 mm and 1,8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases). The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint) at the time was 88,9%. Conclusion Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the patient refuses the possibility of a revision. PMID:18687141

  7. Preparation and characterization of hydrophilic composites AA/EPMA loaded with hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Campos, Yaima; Fuentes, Gastón; Delgado, José A; Almirall, Amisel

    2013-12-01

    Copolymeric composites of acrylamide (AA) and 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA) with hydroxyapatite (HA) load were studied. Swelling studies reports an anomalous or non-Fickian behavior following a good fitting to a pseudo second order mathematical treatment (? = 0.05, p < 0.0001). The composites showed a strong dependence on pH, related with the variations in the swelling behavior. The addition of load induces a diminution of swelling capacity and an increase of diametric tensile strength (DTS) ranging between 20 and 90 kPa. The calorimetric experiments showed two steps at 78°C and 255°C assigned to water loss and samples Tg. The drug control released was adjusted to a two-term equation obtaining a diffusion coefficient around 10(-5) cm(2) /s. The samples showed a significant bioactivity in vitro and it was certified by SEM, EDS and surface area calculus. PMID:23982885

  8. Targeted Retroviral Vectors Displaying a Cleavage Site-engineered Hemagglutinin (HA) through HA–protease Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judit Szécsi; Rosybel Drury; Véronique Josserand; Marie-Pierre Grange; Bertrand Boson; Irene Hartl; Richard Schneider; Christian J. Buchholz; Jean-Luc Coll; Stephen J. Russell; François-Loïc Cosset; Els Verhoeyen

    2006-01-01

    We report here a targeting method that exploits the expression pattern of cell surface proteases to induce gene delivery to specific tissues. We describe retroviral vectors harboring modified surface glycoproteins derived from an avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) for which the cell entry properties, dependent on HA cleavage by producer cells, were conditionally blocked at a postbinding step by insertion

  9. Salivary amylase promotes adhesion of oral streptococci to hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, F A; Torres, G I; Levine, M J

    1995-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that several species of oral streptococci, such as Streptococcus gordonii, bind soluble salivary alpha-amylase. The goal of the present study was to determine if amylase immobilized onto a surface such as hydroxyapatite can serve as an adhesion receptor for S. gordonii. Initially, human parotid saliva was fractionated on Bio-Gel P60, and fractions were screened for their ability to promote adhesion of S. gordonii to hydroxyapatite. Fractions containing alpha-amylase and proline-rich proteins promoted the adhesion of [3H]-labeled S. gordonii to hydroxyapatite. Similar findings were obtained with purified amylase and acidic proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1). Incubation of S. gordonii G9B in the presence of starch and maltotriose increased the binding of this strain to amylase-coated hydroxyapatite, while the adhesion of S. sanguis 10556 to amylase-coated hydroxyapatite was not affected by these saccharides. These results suggest that amylase may serve as a hydroxyapatite pellicle receptor for amylase-binding streptococci. Furthermore, starch and starch metabolites may enhance the adhesion of amylase-binding streptococci to amylase in dental pellicles to augment the formation of dental plaque. PMID:7560386

  10. Composite coating of 58S bioglass and hydroxyapatite on a poly (ethylene terepthalate) artificial ligament graft for the graft osseointegration in a bone tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Wu, Yang; Ge, Yunsheng; Jiang, Jia; Gao, Kai; Zhang, Pengyun; Wu, Lingxiang; Chen, Shiyi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass (BG) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) artificial ligament graft osseointegration within the bone tunnel. The results of in vitro culturing of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells proved that this HA/BG composite coating can promote the cell compatibility of grafts. A rabbit extraarticular tendon-to-bone healing model was used to evaluate the effect of this composite coating on PET artificial ligaments in vivo. The final results demonstrated that HA/BG coating improved new bone formation at the graft-bone interface and increased the load-to-failure property of graft in bone tunnel compared to the control group at early time. The study has shown that HA/BG composite coating on the PET artificial ligament surface has a positive effect in the induction of artificial ligament osseointegration within the bone tunnel.

  11. Characterization and antibacterial properties of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized through surfactant assisted microwave process

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Nida [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nazim [Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering (FBME), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin [Medical Implant Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia); Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, T. [Tissue Engineering Group, NOCERAL, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano sized silver substitute hydroxyapatite is prepared under surfactant assisted microwave process at 600 W power for 7 min. • The nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. • Increase in silver concentration resulted in better dielectric properties. • Good antibacterial activity and silver release. - Abstract: The present study reports a relatively simple method for the synthesis of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and particle size. In order to achieve this, CTAB is included as a surfactant in the microwave refluxing process (600 W for 7 min). The nanoparticles produced with different silver ion concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses reveal that the Ag-HA nanoparticles were phase pure at 1000 °C. FESEM images showed that the produced nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. The dielectric properties suggest that the increase in dielectric constant (??) and dissipation factor (D) values with increasing Ag concentrations. Antibacterial performance of the Ag-HA samples elucidated using disk diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive organisms.

  12. Novel hydroxyapatite biomaterial covalently linked to raloxifene.

    PubMed

    Meme, L; Santarelli, A; Marzo, G; Emanuelli, M; Nocini, P F; Bertossi, D; Putignano, A; Dioguardi, M; Lo Muzio, L; Bambini, F

    2014-01-01

    Since raloxifene, a drug used in osteoporosis therapy, inhibits osteoclast, but not osteoblast functions, it has been suggested to improve recovery during implant surgery. The present paper describes an effective method to link raloxifene, through a covalent bond, to a nano-Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial by interfacing with (3-aminopropyl)-Triethoxysilane as assessed by Infra Red-Fourier Transformed (IR-FT) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). To evaluate the safety of this modified new material, the vitality of osteoblast-like cells cultured with the new biomaterial was then investigated. Raloxifene-conjugated HAbiomaterial has been shown to be a safe material easy to obtain which could be an interesting starting point for the use of a new functional biomaterial suitable in bone regeneration procedures. PMID:25280036

  13. Hydroxyapatite deposition disease of the joint.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Eamonn S; McCarthy, Geraldine M

    2003-06-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals include partially carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate. They may form deposits, which are frequently asymptomatic but may give rise to a number of clinical syndromes including calcific periarthritis, Milwaukee shoulder syndrome, and osteoarthritis, in and around joints. Recent data suggest that magnesium whitlockite, another form of BCP, may play a pathologic role in arthritis. Data from the past year have provided further understanding of the mechanisms by which BCP crystals induce inflammation and degeneration. There remains no specific treatment to modify the effects of BCP crystals. Although potential drugs are being identified as the complex pathophysiology of BCP crystals is unraveled, much work remains to be done in order to translate research advances to date into tangible clinical benefits. PMID:12744814

  14. Neutron transmission measurements on hydrogen filled microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrnjaja, Eva; Hummel, Stefan; Keding, Marcus; Smolle, Marie-Theres; Gerger, Joachim; Zawisky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hollow microspheres are promising candidates for future hydrogen storage technologies. Although the physical process for hydrogen diffusion through glass is well understood, measurements of static quantities (e.q. hydrogen pressure inside the spheres) as well as dynamic properties (e.g. diffusion rate of hydrogen through glass) are still difficult to handle due to the small size of the spheres (d?15?m). For diffusion rate measurements, the long-term stability of the experiment is also mandatory due to the relatively slow diffusion rate. In this work, we present an accurate and long-term stable measurement technique for static and dynamic properties, using neutron radiography. Furthermore, possible applications for hydrogen filled microspheres within the scope of radiation issues are discussed.

  15. Cell specific, variable density, polymer microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Biocompatible polymeric microspheres having an average diameter below about 3 microns and having a density at least 15% greater or lesser than organic cells and having covalent binding sites are provided in accordance with this invention. The microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing a hydroxy or amine substituted acrylic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate with a light or dense comonomer such as a fluoromonomer. A lectin or antibody is bound to the hydroxy or amine site of the bead to provide cell specificity. When added to a cell suspension the marked bead will specifically label the cell membrane by binding to specific receptor sites thereon. The labelled membrane can then be separated by density gradient centrifugation.

  16. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Soria, Silvia; Berneschi, Simone; Brenci, Massimo; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field. PMID:22346603

  17. Fluorescence dynamics of microsphere-adsorbed sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.

    2005-03-01

    Sunscreens are generally oily substances which are prepared in organic solvents, emulsions or dispersions with micro- or nanoparticles. These molecules adsorb to and integrate into skin cells. In order to understand the photophysical properties of the sunscreen, we compare steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence in organic solvent of varying dielectric constant ? and adsorbed to polystyrene microspheres and dispersed in water. Steady-state fluorescence is highest and average fluorescence lifetime longest in toluene, the solvent of lowest ?. However, there is no uniform dependence on ?. Sunscreens PABA and padimate-O show complex emission spectra. Microsphere-adsorbed sunscreens exhibit highly non-exponential decay, illustrative of multiple environments of the adsorbed molecule. The heterogeneous fluorescence dynamics likely characterizes sunscreen adsorbed to cells.

  18. The analysis of biomedical hydroxyapatite powders and hydroxyapatite coatings on metallic medical implants by near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, A. M.; Melia, C. D.; Davies, M. C.; Anderson, D.; Hastings, G.; Morrey, S.; Domingos-Sandos, J.; Barbosa, M.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Fourier transform Raman (FTR) spectroscopy to the in situ analysis of the inorganic bioceramic hydroxyapatite in both powder form and as a thermally sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on metals currently employed in medical implants for orthopaedic surgery. The derivation of the FTR spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. The FTR spectra of hydroxyapatite powders sintered up to 1300°C suggest significant structural changes in the region of 1250°C. The FTR spectra of coated metal systems clearly distinguish between samples of differing crystallinity and provide some information on the effect of the coating process on the hydroxyapatite material. The preliminary examination of hydroxyapatite coated dental screws shows a change in the nature of the hydroxyapatite coating on recovery after clinical use.

  19. Fluoride removal performance of glass derived hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wen, E-mail: wliang@ecust.edu.cn [Research Institute of Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (China)] [Research Institute of Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (China); Zhan, Lei; Piao, Longhua [Research Institute of Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (China)] [Research Institute of Biomaterials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (China); Russel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Universitaet Jena, Jena (Germany)] [Otto-Schott-Institut, Universitaet Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) is prepared. {yields} Micro-G-HAP adsorbs F{sup -} ions in solutions more effectively than commercial nano-HAP. {yields} The adsorption kinetics and isotherms are well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. -- Abstract: A novel sodium calcium borate glass derived hydroxyapatite (G-HAP) with different ranges of particle size was prepared by immersion sodium calcium borate glass in 0.1 M K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution by the ratio of 50 g L{sup -1} for 7 days. The unique advantage of G-HAP for the adsorption of fluoride ions in solutions was studied. The effects of size and quantity of particles, pH value and adsorption time on adsorption performance were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity was 17.34 mg g{sup -1} if 5 g L{sup -1}, <100 {mu}m G-HAP was added to a solution with an initial pH value of 6.72 and the adsorption time was 12 h. The results showed that the micro-G-HAP could immobilize F{sup -} in solution more effectively than commercial nano-HAP, which makes potential application of the G-HAP in removing the fluoride ions from wastewater. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms for F{sup -} could be well fitted by a second order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model respectively, which could be used to describe the adsorption behavior. The mechanism of G-HAP in immobilizing F{sup -} from aqueous solutions was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Ha Emission extraction using Narrowband Photometric Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gary E.

    2011-05-01

    Maria Mitchell Observatory has explored using Narrowband Photometric (<100A) filters to substitute for spectroscopic observations. The method is thought to have significant signal to noise advantages over spectroscopic observations for small telescopes. These small telescopes offer advantages for projects requiring intensive monitoring where telescope time is limited on larger telescopes. RR Tau, a suspected UXOR, was intensively observed by the MMO 0.6 M RC in Nantucket, Mass and the .29M W28 AAVSOnet telescope from Cloudcroft, New Mexico during the 2010 Winter & Spring season. Observations were made in Ha with 45A and 100A narrowband filters as well as the continuum at 6450 A with 50A and 100A filters. Ha emission was extracted with an error of 8% and compared to the change in the continuum. RR Tau exhibited a 30% change in emission while the continuum change by over a factor of 5.

  1. Functionalizing Ti-surfaces through the EPD of hydroxyapatite/nanoY2O3.

    PubMed

    Parente, P; Sanchez-Herencia, A J; Mesa-Galan, M J; Ferrari, B

    2013-02-14

    Ceramic materials for skeletal repair and reconstruction are expanding to a number of different applications. Present research is addressing new compositions and performances to promote osseo-integration through metal coatings. Nanotechnology plays a key role in this research because nanostructures can be introduced into implants to functionalize them and/or to enhance their properties, such as the thermal or mechanical response. In this work, the insertion of Y(2)O(3) nanoparticles into a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating of Ti using colloidal processing technology was developed. The suspensions of HA and Y(2)O(3) nanoparticles were formulated with a focus on zeta potential, particle size distribution, and viscosity for the codeposition of both phases by electrophoresis. The microstructure of the nanocomposite coating was optimized by adjusting the main parameters of the electrophoretic deposition process. A threshold value of the applied electric field for the composite shaping was identified. The results demonstrate that the Y(2)O(3) nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the coating and decrease in concentration as the distance from the substrate increases. As a consequence of the presence of the Y(2)O(3), delays in the HA thermal decomposition and the improvement of metal-ceramic joining were observed. PMID:23140173

  2. Fluoridated hydroxyapatite/titanium dioxide nanocomposite coating fabricated by a modified electrochemical deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Chao, Yonglie; Wan, Qianbing; Yan, Kangping; Meng, Yukun

    2009-05-01

    Fluoridated hydroxyapatite/titanium dioxide nanocomposite coating was successfully fabricated by a modified electrochemical deposition technique. F(-) ions, nanoscaled TiO(2) particles and 6% H(2)O(2) was added into the electrolyte, and ultrasonication was also performed to prepare this nanocomposite coating. The microstructure, phase composition, dissolution rate, bonding strength and in vitro cellular responses of the composite coating were investigated. The results show that the composite coating was uniform and dense owing to the effects of H(2)O(2) and ultrasonication. The thickness of the composite coating was ~5 mum and scanning electron microscopy revealed that nanoscaled TiO(2) particles were imbedded uniformly between FHA crystals. The addition of F(-) and TiO(2) reduced the crystallite size and increased the crystallinity of HA in FHA/TiO(2) composite coating. In addition, the composite coating shows higher bonding strength and lower dissolution rate than pure HA coating, and the in vitro bioactivity of FHA/TiO(2) composite coating was not affected as compared with pure HA coating. PMID:19115090

  3. Local Bisphosphonate Treatment Increases Fixation of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Implants Inserted with Bone Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Thomas; Baas, Jørgen; Kold, Søren; Bechtold, Joan E.; Elmengaard, Brian; Søballe, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that fixation of primary cementless joint replacement can independently be enhanced by either: (1) use of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implants, (2) compaction of the peri-implant bone, or (3) local application of bisphosphonate. We investigated whether the combined effect ofHAcoating and bone compaction can be further enhanced with the use of local bisphosphonate treatment .HA-coated implants were bilaterally inserted into the proximal tibiae of 10 dogs. On one side local bisphosphonate was applied prior to bone compaction. Saline was used as control on the contralateral side. Implants were evaluated with histomorphometry and biomechanical pushout test. We found that bisphosphonate increased the peri-implant bone volume fraction (1.3-fold), maximum shear strength (2.1-fold), and maximum shear stiffness (2.7-fold). No significant difference was found in bone-to-implant contact or total energy absorption. This study indicates that local alendronate treatment can further improve the fixation of porous-coated implants that have also undergone HA-surface coating and peri-implant bone compaction. PMID:18752278

  4. X-ray diffraction characterization of crystallinity and phase composition in plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevéy, Paul S.

    2000-09-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants consisting of a metallic substrate plasma spray coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) are currently used in reconstructive surgery. The crystalline phases present in the calcium phosphate ceramic and the degree of crystallinity must be controlled for medical applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is routinely employed to characterize the phase composition and percent crystallinity in both biological and sintered HA. However, application of the same XRD methods to plasma-sprayed coatings is complicated by the potential presence of several crystalline contaminant phases and an amorphous component. To overcome the complexities of characterizing plasma-sprayed HA coatings, an external standard method of XRD quantitative analysis has been developed that can be applied nondestructively. Data collection and reduction strategies allowing separation of intensity diffracted from commonly occurring phases and the amorphous fraction are presented. The method is applied to coating samples, and detection limits and sources of error are discussed. Repeability and accuracy are demonstrated with powder mixtures of known composition.

  5. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shavandi, Amin; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam; Gould, Maree

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/?-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(?CT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200?m. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/?-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. PMID:26117768

  6. Influence of Dispersant and Heat Treatment on the Morphology of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yusong; Xiong, Dangsheng

    2010-10-01

    Natural biological hard tissues are biocomposites of proteins and hydroxyapatite (HA) with superior strength. Nanometer scale HAp is the key material to manufacture bone substitute. In this work, nano-sized HA particles were synthesized by a wet method using orthophosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide as raw materials. The prepared nanocrystalline HAp was characterized for its phase purity and nano-scale morphological structure by XRD, TEM, and FTIR. The influences of heat treatment temperature and dispersant on the properties of HAp were also investigated. The results indicated that nano-particles were pure single-phase HAp with a diameter of 25-70 nm and length of 50-180 nm depending on heat treatment temperature. The morphology and crystallite size of HAp change with heat treatment temperature. After heat treating, the crystallinity of these nano-particles increased and its morphology transformed from needle-like to sphere-like structure. The dispersant is beneficial to prevent the growth of HA particles and provide a uniform particle size distribution. Moreover, the HAp tends to form small agglomerates in the absence of dispersant.

  7. A Modular Approach To Study Protein Adsorption on Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ozhukil Kollath, Vinayaraj; Van den Broeck, Freya; Fehér, Krisztina; Martins, José C; Luyten, Jan; Traina, Karl; Mullens, Steven; Cloots, Rudi

    2015-07-13

    Biocompatible inorganic nano- and microcarriers can be suitable candidates for protein delivery. This study demonstrates facile methods of functionalization by using nanoscale linker molecules to change the protein adsorption capacity of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder. The adsorption capacity of bovine serum albumin as a model protein has been studied with respect to the surface modifications. The selected linker molecules (lysine, arginine, and phosphoserine) can influence the adsorption capacity by changing the electrostatic nature of the HA surface. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of linker-molecule interactions with the HA surface have been performed by using NMR spectroscopy, zeta-potential measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. Additionally, correlations to theoretical isotherm models have been calculated with respect to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lysine and arginine increased the protein adsorption, whereas phosphoserine reduced the protein adsorption. The results show that the adsorption capacity can be controlled with different functionalization, depending on the protein-carrier selections under consideration. The scientific knowledge acquired from this study can be applied in various biotechnological applications that involve biomolecule-inorganic material interfaces. PMID:26096378

  8. Magnetic microsphere-based mixers for microdroplets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamal Roy; Ashok Sinha; Sayan Chakraborty; Ranjan Ganguly; Ishwar K. Puri

    2009-01-01

    While droplet-based microfluidic systems have several advantages over traditional flow-through devices, achieving adequate mixing between reagents inside droplet-based reactors remains challenging. We describe an active mixing approach based on the magnetic stirring of self-assembled chains of magnetic microspheres within the droplet as these stirrers experience a rotating magnetic field. We measure the mixing of a water-soluble dye in the droplet

  9. Functional microspheres of graphene quantum dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Ding; Huhu Cheng; Ce Zhou; Yueqiong Fan; Jia Zhu; Huibo Shao; Liangti Qu

    2012-01-01

    Graphene-quantum-dot microspheres (GQDSs) have been prepared by assembly of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) via a water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion technique without the addition of any surfactants. Although made of quantum-sized graphene dots, the as-formed GQDSs are solid and remain intact after slight ultrasonication. The versatile W\\/O emulsion method allows the in situ intercalation of functional nanocomponents into the GQDSs for specific

  10. Detection of single molecules in microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ng, K.C. [California State Univ., Fresno, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Arnold, S. [Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn, NY (United States). Microparticle Photophysics Lab.

    1993-07-01

    We have investigated the use of micron-sized liquid droplets as sample medium to detect single fluorescent molecules in solution. The use of microdroplets (5--15 {mu}m diameter) offers several powerful advantages over single-molecule detection schemes involving measurements on bulk liquids where the probe volume is defined by the laser beam. In addition, cavity-quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects have been observed which influence both spontaneous emission rates and fluorescence yields of dye molecules in these microspheres.

  11. Ha Shengcheng Hajia kun Hawandija yiusanni

    E-print Network

    Ha, Mingzong

    2009-09-23

    then enough food and was developing promisingly when a small businessman from a neighboring village of Chagantai???introduced opium to Ha Nangsuo and from then on he remained addicted to opium and that cost him not only his health but also of being... on an                                                                                                                          1  It  is  worth  to  note  that  at  that  time  in  China  adoption  of  sons  between  brothers  have  been  commom,  e.g.,  a  brother  who  didn’t  have  any  sons  adopted  a  son...

  12. Bone regeneration by periosteal elevation using conventional orthodontic wire and uHA/PLLA mesh.

    PubMed

    Sotobori, Megumi; Ueki, Koichiro; Ishihara, Yuri; Moroi, Akinori; Marukawa, Kohei; Nakazawa, Ryuichi; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Ran; Ikawa, Hiroumi; Kosaka, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated bone regeneration by periosteal elevation using conventional orthodontic wire and an unsintered hydroxyapatite (u-HA)/poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) mesh in rabbit frontal bone. Thirty two rabbits (12-16 weeks: 2.5-3.0 kg) were used in this study. In the experimental group, 1 week after the mesh was inserted under the periosteal membrane, it was elevated by traction using the mesh connected with wire and two anchor screws. In the control group, the mesh was kept inserted under the periosteal membrane. Four animals were killed in each period in both groups, at 2, 3, 5 and 9 weeks postoperatively. Operated parts in the frontal bone were removed and prepared for radiological and histological assessment. The distance between the mesh and pristine bone (elevation length), the bone area and the expression of BMP-2 were evaluated. The value in the experimental group was significantly higher when compared to the control group (length P < 0.0001, bone area P < 0.0010, BMP-2 P = 0.0015). The BMP-2 labelling index after 3 weeks tended to be the largest in both groups. This study suggests that bone regeneration can be induced by periosteal elevation using a conventional orthodontic wire and an uHA/PLLA mesh. PMID:25009107

  13. Structural changes in precipitates and cell model for the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite during the initial stage of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyman, Z.; Rokhmistrov, D.; Glushko, V.

    2012-08-01

    A new insight on the conversion of an amorphous calcium phosphate, ACP, to hydroxyapatite, HA, has been proposed. The ACP has been precipitated under appropriate conditions of the nitrous method (low concentrations of reactants, pH>10, 25 °?, fast mixing). The ACP to HA conversion has been found to commence immediately after the ACP precipitation. The conversion reveals itself in the first detected shift of the diffuse maximum from 29.5° 2? (ACP) to about 32° 2? (the position of principal peaks of HA) in the XRD patterns for the precipitates of 2 min-6 h lifetimes. The precipitates are biphasic mixtures of ACP and nanocrystalline HA, nHA, with increasing nHA/ACP ratio for longer lifetimes. Characteristics of the simulated XRD profiles calculated proceeding on such a picture are excellently confirmed by experimental results. At the end of the conversion, HA nanocrystals start growing. This follows from the appearance of broadened diffraction maxima, which gradually sharpen, along with the appearance and gradual increase of splitting of the initially featureless ?3 and ?4PO43- bands in the IR spectra of precipitates with their aging (after 6 h of the precipitation). Based on the detected structural and compositional peculiarities of ACP in the early stage of precipitation, a cell model for the HA crystallization has been proposed. Proceeding on the model, the principal data in this and earlier studies, considering the ACP to HA conversion as an internal rearrangement process in the ACP particles, has been reasonably explained.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Responses to Bone-Mimetic Electrospun Matrices Composed of Polycaprolactone, Collagen I and Nanoparticulate Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Catledge, Shane A.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Hennessy, Kristin M.; Thomas, Vinoy; Jablonsky, Michael J.; Chowdhury, Shafiul; Stanishevsky, Andrei V.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of biomaterials designed for bone repair depends, in part, on the ability of the material to support the adhesion and survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, a nanofibrous bone-mimicking scaffold was electrospun from a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), collagen I, and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles with a dry weight ratio of 50/30/20 respectively (PCL/col/HA). The cytocompatibility of this tri-component scaffold was compared with three other scaffold formulations: 100% PCL (PCL), 100% collagen I (col), and a bi-component scaffold containing 80% PCL/20% HA (PCL/HA). Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent live cell imaging, and MTS assays showed that MSCs adhered to the PCL, PCL/HA and PCL/col/HA scaffolds, however more rapid cell spreading and significantly greater cell proliferation was observed for MSCs on the tri-component bone-mimetic scaffolds. In contrast, the col scaffolds did not support cell spreading or survival, possibly due to the low tensile modulus of this material. PCL/col/HA scaffolds adsorbed a substantially greater quantity of the adhesive proteins, fibronectin and vitronectin, than PCL or PCL/HA following in vitro exposure to serum, or placement into rat tibiae, which may have contributed to the favorable cell responses to the tri-component substrates. In addition, cells seeded onto PCL/col/HA scaffolds showed markedly increased levels of phosphorylated FAK, a marker of integrin activation and a signaling molecule known to be important for directing cell survival and osteoblastic differentiation. Collectively these results suggest that electrospun bone-mimetic matrices serve as promising degradable substrates for bone regenerative applications. PMID:21346817

  15. Coating nanothickness degradable films on nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles to improve the bonding strength between nanohydroxyapatite and degradable polymer matrix.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Heather L; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Donglu; Bhaduri, Sarit; Wen, Xuejun

    2007-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles are similar to bone apatite in size, phase composition, and crystal structure. When compared with micron-size HA particles, nano-HA possesses improved mechanical properties and superior bioactivity for promoting bone growth and regeneration. However, scaffolds fabricated from nano-HA alone cannot meet the mechanical requirements for direct-loading applications. A number of studies suggest that nanostructured composites may offer surface and/or chemical properties of native bone, and therefore represent ideal substrates to support bone regeneration. However, a common problem with nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA)-polymer composites is the weak binding strength between the nano-HA filler and the polymer matrix since they are two different categories of materials and cannot form covalent bonds between them during the mixing process. Often, the mechanical strength of the composite is compromised due to the phase separation of the HA filler from the polymer matrix during the tissue repair process. To overcome this problem, an ultrathin degradable polymer film was grafted onto the surface of nano-HA using a radio-frequency plasma polymerization technology from acrylic acid monomers. The treated nano-HA powders are expected to bind to the polymer matrix via covalent bonds, thus enhancing the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) experiments showed that an extremely thin polymer film (2 nm) was uniformly deposited on the surfaces of the nanoparticles. The HRTEM results were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS). Tensile tests performed on the specimens revealed that the degradable coating had improved elastic and strength properties when compared with the nondegradable and uncoated controls. XPS and TOSIMS data revealed that more functional carboxyl groups were formed on degradable coatings than cross-linked nondegradable coatings. Cytocompatibility assay demonstrated that both the degradable and nondegradable coatings are cytocompatible. PMID:17295227

  16. Antibacterial and biological characteristics of silver containing and strontium doped plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Gary A; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2012-08-01

    Infection in primary total joint prostheses is estimated to occur in up to 3% of all surgery. As a measure to improve the antimicrobial properties of implant materials silver (Ag) was incorporated into plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. To offset potential cytotoxic effects of Ag in the coatings strontium (Sr) was also added as a binary dopant. HA powder was doped with 2.0 wt.% Ag(2)O, 1.0 wt.% SrO and was then heat treated at 800 °C. Titanium substrates were coated using a 30 kW plasma spray system equipped with a supersonic nozzle. X-ray diffraction confirmed the phase purity and high crystallinity of the coatings. Samples were evaluated for mechanical stability by adhesive bond strength testing. The results show that the addition of dopants did not affect the overall bond strength of the coatings. The antibacterial efficacies of the coatings were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples that contained the Ag(2)O dopant were found to be highly effective against bacterial colonization. In vitro cell-material interactions using human fetal osteoblast cells were characterized by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for cell viability, field emission scanning electron microscopy for cell morphology and confocal imaging for the important differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our results showed evidence of cytotoxic effects of the Ag-HA coatings, characterized by poor cellular morphology and cell death and nearly complete loss of functional ALP activity. The addition of SrO to the Ag-HA coatings was able to effectively offset these negative effects and improve performance compared with pure HA-coated samples. PMID:22487928

  17. Treatment of a Simple Bone Cyst Using a Cannulated Hydroxyapatite Pin.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Toshiharu; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Terauchi, Ryu; Tsuchida, Shinji; Mizoshiri, Naoki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Miwa, Shinji; Kimura, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-06-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBCs) are benign bone tumors. However, the treatment of SBCs remains controversial because of their healing rate and the invasiveness of surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment of SBCs using a cannulated hydroxyapatite (HA) pin.A total of 43 patients (35 males, 8 females; mean age 12.1 years; age range, 5-22 years) with SBCs were treated with continuous decompression by inserting ceramic HA pins between 1989 and 2014. The SBCs were located in the calcaneus in 23, the humerus in 15, the femur in 3, and the pelvis in 2 cases. In all patients, minimal fenestration of the cyst wall and curettage and multiple drilling in the cyst wall were performed, followed by insertion of the HA pin. The mean follow-up period was 26.6 months. Operating time, healing period, risk factors for recurrence, and the cure rate were evaluated.Healing was achieved without intervention in 38 patients after a mean of 6.4 months. Two patients had persistent small residual cysts, which had no changes after 1 year at the latest follow-up. There were 5 patients with recurrences (humerus 4, femur 1), who were cured by curettage and artificial bone grafting. The final healing rate by cannulation only using an HA pin was 88.2%. On Fisher exact test, age, site of SBCs, and distance from the physis were found to be significantly associated with SBC recurrence (P?HA pin for SBCs was found to be a useful technique, particularly for calcaneal cysts, because it is a minimally invasive procedure with a high cure rate. In patients <10 years, involvement of the humerus and contact with the growth plate were significant risk factors for SBC recurrence. PMID:26107670

  18. Gelatin functionalized graphene oxide for mineralization of hydroxyapatite: biomimetic and in vitro evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Cheng, Ju; Chen, Fengjuan; Bai, Decheng; Shao, Changwei; Wang, Jun; Xi, Pinxian; Zeng, Zhengzhi

    2014-04-01

    We report a facile modification of graphene oxide (GO) by gelatin to mimic charged proteins present in the extracellular matrix during bone formation. The bioinspired surface of GO-gelatin (GO-Gel) composite was used for biomimetic mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA). A detailed structural and morphological characterization of the mineralized composite was performed. Additionally, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the GO-Gel surfaces to observe various cellular activities and HA mineralization. Higher cellular activities such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the GO-Gel surface compared with the GO or glass surface. The increase of ALP confirms that the proposed GO-Gel promotes the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, the evidence of mineralization evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alizarin red staining (ARS) corroborate the idea that a native osteoid matrix is ultimately deposited. All these data suggest that the GO-Gel hybrids will have great potential as osteogenesis promoting scaffolds for successful application in bone surgery.We report a facile modification of graphene oxide (GO) by gelatin to mimic charged proteins present in the extracellular matrix during bone formation. The bioinspired surface of GO-gelatin (GO-Gel) composite was used for biomimetic mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA). A detailed structural and morphological characterization of the mineralized composite was performed. Additionally, MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the GO-Gel surfaces to observe various cellular activities and HA mineralization. Higher cellular activities such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the GO-Gel surface compared with the GO or glass surface. The increase of ALP confirms that the proposed GO-Gel promotes the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, the evidence of mineralization evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alizarin red staining (ARS) corroborate the idea that a native osteoid matrix is ultimately deposited. All these data suggest that the GO-Gel hybrids will have great potential as osteogenesis promoting scaffolds for successful application in bone surgery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optical images of substrates modified with GO and GO-Gel nanomaterials, and alizarin red S staining. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00355a

  19. Injectable and thermo-sensitive PEG-PCL-PEG copolymer/collagen/n-HA hydrogel composite for guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fu, ShaoZhi; Ni, PeiYan; Wang, BeiYu; Chu, BingYang; Zheng, Lan; Luo, Feng; Luo, JingCong; Qian, ZhiYong

    2012-06-01

    A novel three-component biomimetic hydrogel composite was successfully prepared in this study, which was composed of triblock PEG-PCL-PEG copolymer (PECE), collagen and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA). The microstructure and thermo-responsibility of the obtained PECE/Collagen/n-HA hydrogel composite were characterized. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the composite exhibited an interconnected porous structure. The rheological analysis revealed that the composite existed good thermo-sensitivity. In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability was investigated by implanting the hydrogel composite in muscle pouches of rats for 3, 7, and 14 days. Moreover, the osteogenic capacity was evaluated by means of implanting the composite material in cranial defects of New Zealand White rabbits for 4, 12 and 20 weeks. In vivo performances confirmed that the biodegradable PECE/Collagen/n-HA hydrogel composite had good biocompatibility and better performance in guided bone regeneration than the self-healing process. Thus the thermal-response PECE/Collagen/n-HA hydrogel composite had the great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:22463934

  20. Composite Tectocapsules Containing Porous Polymer Microspheres as Release Gates

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    of amphiphilic porous microspheres, with the release rates scaling with microsphere loading. Scanning micro- spheres that could assemble at the oil-water interface and become embedded in the forming at high temperature to form a capsule wall. Microcap- sules prepared by the assembly of particles

  1. Optically switchable molecular device using microsphere based junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, V.; Raimondo, C.; Reinders, F.; Mayor, M.; Samor?, P.; Doudin, B.

    2011-12-01

    Metallic planar electrodes are bridged using microspheres coated with chemisorbed azobenzene self-assembled monolayers. The circuit exhibits light-induced switching, with reproducibility over 90%, as statistically determined and compared to junctions incorporating photo-insensitive alkanethiol layers. Microsphere interconnects provide direct access to molecular transport properties, with reliability and stability, making multifunctional molecular electronics devices possible.

  2. Coupled Electrorotation of Polymer Microspheres for Microfluidic Sensing and Mixing

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Coupled Electrorotation of Polymer Microspheres for Microfluidic Sensing and Mixing Clyde F. Wilson that is free to rotate. The latter occurs when a microsphere is adjacent to a glass or polymer microstructure for the manipulation of particles in microelec- tromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. For example, electro- phoresis

  3. Toward quantum-limited position measurements using optically levitated microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Libbrecht; Eric D. Black

    2004-01-01

    We propose the use of optically levitated microspheres as test masses in experiments aimed at reaching and potentially exceeding the standard quantum limit for position measurements. Optically levitated microspheres have low mass and are essentially free of suspension thermal noise, making them well suited for experimentally testing our understanding of quantum-limited measurements.

  4. Surface molecularly imprinted magnetic microspheres for the recognition of albumin.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Fatma; Denizli, Adil

    2014-08-01

    A new approach, combining metal coordination with the molecular imprinting technique, was developed to prepare affinity materials. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres in monosize form were used for specific recognition toward the target protein. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nanopowder. Surface imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres based on metal coordination were prepared and used for the selective recognition of human serum albumin. Iminodiacetic acid was used as the metal coordinating agent and human serum albumin was anchored by Cu(2+) ions on the surface of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres by metal coordination. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were coated with a polymer formed by condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres was 37.7 mg/g polymer at pH 6.0. The selectivity experiments of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres prepared with different concentrations in the presence of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin and cytochrome C were performed in order to determine the relative selectivity coefficients. PMID:24825245

  5. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of paclitaxel-loaded microspheres.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Tang, S; Fu, Q

    2012-04-01

    Paclitaxel(PTX)-loaded microspheres composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) were prepared by an O/W emulsion solvent evaporation method. This study was designed to investigate the preparation, in vitro release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of a PTX-loaded microspheres system. Microspheres are characterized according to drug loading, size and shape. With a dynamic light scattering sizer and a transmission electron microscopy, it is shown that the PTX-loaded microspheres had a mean size of approximately 10.24 µm with narrow size distribution and a spherical shape. The in vitro release profiles indicate that the release of PTX from the microspheres exhibit a sustained release behavior. A similar phenomenon is observed in a pharmacokinetic study in rats, in which AUC of the microspheres formulation were 3.7-fold higher than that of PTX injection. The biodistribution study in mice showed that the PTX-loaded microspheres not only decreased drug uptake by liver, but also increased distribution of drug in lung. These results suggest that PTX-loaded microspheres may efficiently load, protect and retain PTX in both in vitro and in vivo environments, and could be a useful drug carrier for i. v. administration of PTX. PMID:22270845

  6. Biodegradation and biocompatibility of PLA and PLGA microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M Anderson; Matthew S Shive

    1997-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the in vivo biodegradation phenomenon as well as an appreciation of cellular and tissue responses which determine the biocompatibility of biodegradable PLA and PLGA microspheres are important components in the design and development of biodegradable microspheres containing bioactive agents for therapeutic application. This chapter is a critical review of biodegradation, biocompatibility and tissue\\/material interactions, and selected

  7. Pegylation enhances protein stability during encapsulation in PLGA microspheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manish Diwan; Tae Gwan Park

    2001-01-01

    During encapsulation of proteins in biodegradable microspheres, a significant amount of the protein reportedly undergoes denaturation to form irreversible insoluble aggregates. Incomplete in vitro release of proteins from the microspheres is a common observation. An attempt was made to overcome this problem by pegylation of the protein to be encapsulated. Lysozyme, a model protein, was conjugated with methoxy polyethylene glycol

  8. Chitosan microspheres of aceclofenac: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nagda, Chirag; Chotai, Narendra; Patel, Sandip; Nagda, Dhruti; Patel, Upendra; Soni, Tejal

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to achieve controlled drug release of Aceclofenac (ACE) microspheres and to minimize local side-effects in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Sustained release chitosan microspheres containing ACE were prepared using double-emulsion solvent evaporation method (O/W/O). Chitosan microspheres were prepared by varying drug to polymer ratio (1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6). Microspheres were characterized for morphology, swelling behavior, mucoadhesive properties, FTIR and DSC study, drug loading efficiency, in vitro release, release kinetics, and in vivo study was performed on rat model. ACE-loaded microspheres were successfully prepared having production yield, 57-70% w/w. Drug encapsulation efficiency was ranging from 53-72% w/w, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed particle size of microspheres was between 39 and 55 mum. FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms demonstrated no interaction between drug and polymer. The in vitro release profiles of drug from chitosan microspheres showed sustained-release pattern of the drug in phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. In vitro release data showed correlation (r2 > 0.98), good fit with Higuchi/Korsmeyer-Peppas models, and exhibited Fickian diffusion. ACE microspheres demonstrated controlled delivery of aceclofenac and apparently, no G.I.T. erosion was noticed. PMID:20735299

  9. Superoxide generation in v-Ha-ras-transduced human keratinocyte HaCaT cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shijun Li; Frederick E. Domann; Garry R. Buettner; Larry W. Oberley

    1999-01-01

    The oncogenic ras protein controls signal-transduction pathways that are critical for cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that v-Ha-ras-transduced human keratinocyte HaCaT cells produced significantly larger amounts of superoxide than did control cell lines. The superoxide generation was mediated by the transduced ras protein, because superoxide generation was modified by an inhibitor, lovastatin, that inhibits ras farnesylation during ras

  10. Synthesis, characterisation and modelling of zinc and silicate co?substituted hydroxyapatite

    E-print Network

    Friederichs, Robert J.; Chappell, Helen F.; Shepherd, David V.; Best, Serena M.

    2015-06-19

                                                                                                                       *  Corresponding  author-­?  Robert  J.  Friederichs  robert.friederichs@gmail.com   Short  title  Zn  and  Si  co-­?substituted  hydroxyapatite    Keywords  hydroxyapatite,  calcium  phosphate,  zinc,  silicon,  silicate... -­?substituted  calcium  phosphates  that  could  find  biomedical  application  as  a  synthetic  bone  mineral  substitute.      1.  Introduction    The  chemical  similarity  of  synthetic  hydroxyapatite  Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2...

  11. Feasibility of using natural fishbone apatite as a substitute for hydroxyapatite in remediating aqueous heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wudneh Admassu; Tom Breese

    1999-01-01

    Fishbone, a natural, apatite rich substance, was examined for suitability as a substitute for hydroxyapatite in the sequestering of aqueous divalent heavy metal ions. The fishbone exhibited lower metal removal capacity than pure hydroxyapatite, due primarily to its purity (?70% apatite equivalent). In other ways the fishbone behaves in a similar manner as pure hydroxyapatite in the sequestration process. It

  12. Growth of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films at room temperature by tuning the energy of the RF-magnetron sputtering plasma.

    PubMed

    López, Elvis O; Mello, Alexandre; Sendão, Henrique; Costa, Lilian T; Rossi, André L; Ospina, Rogelio O; Borghi, Fabrício F; Silva Filho, José G; Rossi, Alexandre M

    2013-10-01

    Right angle radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique (RAMS) was redesigned to favor the production of high-quality hydroxyapatite (HA) thin coatings for biomedical applications. Stoichiometric HA films with controlled crystallinity, thickness varying from 254 to 540 nm, crystallite mean size of 73 nm, and RMS roughness of 1.7 ± 0.9 nm, were obtained at room temperature by tuning the thermodynamic properties of the plasma sheath energy. The plasma energies were adjusted by using a suitable high magnetic field confinement of 143 mT (1430 G) and a substrate floating potential of 2 V at the substrate-to-magnetron distance of Z = 10 mm and by varying the sputtering geometry, substrate-to-magnetron distance from Z = 5 mm to Z = 18 mm, forwarded RF power and reactive gas pressure. Measurements that were taken with a Langmuir probe showed that the adjusted RAMS geometry generated a plasma with an adequate effective temperature of Teff ? 11.8 eV and electron density of 2.0 × 10(15) m(-3) to nucleate nanoclusters and to further crystallize the nanodomains of stoichiometric HA. The deposition mechanism in the RAMS geometry was described by the formation of building units of amorphous calcium phosphate clusters (ACP), the conversion into HA nanodomains and the crystallization of the grain domains with a preferential orientation along the HA [002] direction. PMID:24059686

  13. Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, N; HogenEsch, H; Guo, P; North, A; Suckow, M; Mittal, S K

    1999-01-01

    Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo. Images Figure 3. PMID:10369574

  14. Surface phenomena of HA/TiN coatings on the nanotubular-structured beta Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy for biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface phenomena of HA/TiN coatings on the nanotubular-structured beta Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy for biomaterials have been investigated by several experimental methods. The nanotubular structure was formed by anodizing the Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy in 1 M H3PO4 electrolytes with 1.0 wt.% NaF at room temperature. Hydroxyapatite (HA)/titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited on Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy specimens using a magnetron sputtering system. The HA target was made of human tooth-ash by sintering at 1300 °C for 1 h, and the HA target had an average Ca/P ratio of 1.9. The HA/TiN depositions were performed, using the pure HA target, on Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy following the initial deposition of a TiN buffer layer coating. Microstructures and nanotubular morphology of the coated alloy specimens were examined by FE-SEM, EDX, XRD, and XPS. The Ti-29Nb-5Zr alloy substrate had small grain size and preferred orientation along the drawing direction. The HA/TiN coating was stable with a uniform morphology at the tips of the nanotubes.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Gu, Y W; Pan, D; Cheang, P

    2004-08-01

    Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on titanium alloy substrate have been used extensively due to their excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, the erratic bond strength between HA and Ti alloy has raised concern over the long-term reliability of the implant. In this paper, HA/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings that possess superior mechanical properties to conventional plasma sprayed HA coatings were developed. Ti-6Al-4V powders coated with fine YSZ and HA particles were prepared through a unique ceramic slurry mixing method. The so-formed composite powder was employed as feedstock for plasma spraying of the HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V coatings. The influence of net plasma energy, plasma spray standoff distance, and post-spray heat treatment on microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties were investigated. Results showed that coatings prepared with the optimum plasma sprayed condition showed a well-defined splat structure. HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V solid solution was formed during plasma spraying which was beneficial for the improvement of mechanical properties. There was no evidence of Ti oxidation from the successful processing of YSZ and HA coated Ti-6Al-4V composite powders. Small amount of CaO apart from HA, ZrO(2) and Ti was present in the composite coatings. The microhardness, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and bond strength increased significantly with the addition of YSZ. Post-spray heat treatment at 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C for up to 12h was found to further improve the mechanical properties of coatings. After the post-spray heat treatment, 17.6% increment in Young's modulus (E) and 16.3% increment in Vicker's hardness were achieved. The strengthening mechanisms of HA/YSZ/Ti-6Al-4V composite coatings were related to the dispersion strengthening by homogeneous distribution of YSZ particles in the matrix, the good mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and the formation of solid solution among HA, Ti alloy and YSZ components. PMID:15046891

  16. Adsorption mechanism of BMP-7 on hydroxyapatite (001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hailong [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu, Tao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Dong, Xiuli [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Qi [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: qiwang@zju.edu.cn; Shen, Jiawei [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-09-14

    Many properties and functions of bone-related proteins perform through the interface with the hydroxyapatite. However, the mechanism of difference of proteins adsorbing behaviors caused by the variation of calcium and phosphate ions on hydroxyapatite is still unclear at atomic level. In this work, we investigated the site-selective adhesion and the adsorption mechanism of protein BMP-7 to the hydroxyapatite surfaces in aqueous media during adsorption and desorption processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations combined with trajectory analysis were employed to give insight into the underlying behaviors of BMP-7 binding. The results suggest that the adsorption sites could be divided into two categories: COO{sup -} and NH{sub 2}/NH3+. For COO{sup -}, the adsorption phenomenon is driven by the electrostatic interaction formed between the negative charged carboxylate groups and the Ca1 cations on the hydroxyapatite surface. While for NH{sub 2}/NH3+, the interaction is through the intermolecular H-bonds between the N-containing groups and the phosphate on the hydroxyapatite surface.

  17. New Bismuth-Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Bargan, Ana Maria; Luca, Constantin

    2015-06-01

    New bismuth-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca10-x Bi x (PO4)6(OH)2 where x = 0-2.5] nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method from aqueous solutions. The structural properties of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with x-ray analysis, x-ray powder diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. The results confirm that bismuth ions have been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The prepared nanocrystalline powders consisted of hydroxyapatite as single phase with hexagonal structure, crystal sizes smaller than 60 nm and (Bi + Ca)/P atomic ratio of around 1.67. The hydroxyapatite samples doped with Bi have mesoporous textures with pores size of around 2 nm and specific surface area in the range of 12-25 m2/g. The Bi-substituted hydroxyapatite powders are more effective against Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria than Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  18. Sodium ion storage properties of WS?-decorated three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide microspheres.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-03-01

    Layered WS2 nanosheet-decorated three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3D-RGO) microspheres are prepared as anode materials for sodium ion batteries. WO3 nanocluster-decorated 3D RGO microspheres are transformed into multi-layered WS2-3D RGO microspheres by a simple sulfidation process. The WS2-3D RGO microspheres show Na(+) storage properties superior to those of the WO3-3D RGO microspheres. PMID:25670476

  19. Polymer-Ceramic Spiral Structured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Effect of Hydroxyapatite Composition on Human Fetal Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chang, Wei; Lee, Paul; Wang, Yuhao; Yang, Min; Li, Jun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    For successful bone tissue engineering, a scaffold needs to be osteoconductive, porous, and biodegradable, thus able to support attachment and proliferation of bone cells and guide bone formation. Recently, hydroxyapatites (HA), a major inorganic component of natural bone, and biodegrade polymers have drawn much attention as bone scaffolds. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bone regenerative properties of nano-HA/polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral scaffolds are augmented in an HA dose dependent manner, thereby establishing a suitable composition as a bone formation material. Nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds were prepared with different weight ratios of HA and PCL, while porosity was introduced by a modified salt leaching technique. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOBs) were cultured on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds up to 14 days. Cellular responses in terms of cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of bone-related genes were investigated. These scaffolds supported hFOBs adhesion, viability and proliferation. Cell proliferation trend was quite similar on polymer-ceramic and neat polymer spiral scaffolds on days 1, 7, and 14. However, the significantly increased amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized matrix synthesis was evident on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds. The HA composition in the scaffolds showed a significant effect on ALP and mineralization. Bone phenotypic markers such as bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and type I collagen (Col-1) were semi-quantitatively estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. All of these results suggested the osteoconductive characteristics of HA/PCL nanocomposite and cell maturation were HA dose dependent. For instance, HA?PCL?=?1?4 group showed significantly higher ALP mineralization and elevated levels of BSP, ON, OC and Col-I expression as compared other lower or higher ceramic ratios. Amongst the different nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds, the 1?4 weight ratio of HA and PCL is shown to be the most optimal composition for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:24475056

  20. Polymer-ceramic spiral structured scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: effect of hydroxyapatite composition on human fetal osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chang, Wei; Lee, Paul; Wang, Yuhao; Yang, Min; Li, Jun; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    For successful bone tissue engineering, a scaffold needs to be osteoconductive, porous, and biodegradable, thus able to support attachment and proliferation of bone cells and guide bone formation. Recently, hydroxyapatites (HA), a major inorganic component of natural bone, and biodegrade polymers have drawn much attention as bone scaffolds. The present study was designed to investigate whether the bone regenerative properties of nano-HA/polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral scaffolds are augmented in an HA dose dependent manner, thereby establishing a suitable composition as a bone formation material. Nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds were prepared with different weight ratios of HA and PCL, while porosity was introduced by a modified salt leaching technique. Human fetal osteoblasts (hFOBs) were cultured on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds up to 14 days. Cellular responses in terms of cell adhesion, viability, proliferation, differentiation, and the expression of bone-related genes were investigated. These scaffolds supported hFOBs adhesion, viability and proliferation. Cell proliferation trend was quite similar on polymer-ceramic and neat polymer spiral scaffolds on days 1, 7, and 14. However, the significantly increased amount of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized matrix synthesis was evident on the nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds. The HA composition in the scaffolds showed a significant effect on ALP and mineralization. Bone phenotypic markers such as bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), and type I collagen (Col-1) were semi-quantitatively estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. All of these results suggested the osteoconductive characteristics of HA/PCL nanocomposite and cell maturation were HA dose dependent. For instance, HA?PCL?=?1?4 group showed significantly higher ALP mineralization and elevated levels of BSP, ON, OC and Col-I expression as compared other lower or higher ceramic ratios. Amongst the different nano-HA/PCL spiral scaffolds, the 1?4 weight ratio of HA and PCL is shown to be the most optimal composition for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:24475056